Science.gov

Sample records for 0-4 years living

  1. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better. PMID:22448609

  2. Factors Influencing Childcare Workers' Promotion of Physical Activity in Children Aged 0-4 Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Sarah; Opdenakker, Claudia; Kremers, Stef P. J; Gubbels, Jessica S

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factors influencing childcare workers' promotion of physical activity (PA) among children aged 0-4?years, a particularly interesting context because of the increasing number of children attending childcare. Twenty Dutch childcare workers were interviewed. The interviews revealed some important barriers to the…

  3. Air pollution and acute respiratory infections among children 0-4 years of age: an 18-year time-series study.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Lyndsey A; Klein, Mitchel; Flanders, W Dana; Mulholland, James A; Tolbert, Paige E; Strickland, Matthew J

    2014-11-15

    Upper and lower respiratory infections are common in early childhood and may be exacerbated by air pollution. We investigated short-term changes in ambient air pollutant concentrations, including speciated particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), in relation to emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory infections in young children. Daily counts of ED visits for bronchitis and bronchiolitis (n = 80,399), pneumonia (n = 63,359), and upper respiratory infection (URI) (n = 359,246) among children 0-4 years of age were collected from hospitals in the Atlanta, Georgia, area for the period 1993-2010. Daily pollutant measurements were combined across monitoring stations using population weighting. In Poisson generalized linear models, 3-day moving average concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and the organic carbon fraction of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were associated with ED visits for pneumonia and URI. Ozone associations were strongest and were observed at low (cold-season) concentrations; a 1-interquartile range increase predicted a 4% increase (95% confidence interval: 2%, 6%) in visits for URI and an 8% increase (95% confidence interval: 4%, 13%) in visits for pneumonia. Rate ratios tended to be higher in the 1- to 4-year age group compared with infants. Results suggest that primary traffic pollutants, ozone, and the organic carbon fraction of PM2.5 exacerbate upper and lower respiratory infections in early life, and that the carbon fraction of PM2.5 is a particularly harmful component of the ambient particulate matter mixture. PMID:25324558

  4. Reinvestigation of the Direct Two-proton Decay of the Long-lived Isomer 94Agm [0.4 s, 6.7 MeV, (21+)

    SciTech Connect

    Cerny, J.; Moltz, D. M.; Lee, D. W.; Perajarvi, K.; Barquest, B. R.; Grossman, L. E.; Jeong, W.; Jewett, C.

    2009-03-05

    An attempt to confirm the reported direct one-proton and two-proton decays of the (21+) isomer at 6.7(5) MeV in 94Ag has been made. The 0.39(4) s half-life of the isomer permitted use of a helium-jet system to transport reaction products from the 40Ca + natNi reaction at 197 MeV to a low-background area; 24 gas Delta E-(Si) E detector telescopes were used to identify emitted protons down to 0.4 MeV. No evidence was obtained for two-proton radioactivity with a summed energy of 1.9(1) MeV and a branching ratio of 0.5(3)percent. Two groups of one-proton radioactivity from this isomer had also been reported; our data confirm the lower energy group at 0.79(3) MeV with its branching ratio of 1.9(5)percent.

  5. 2009: the year of living dangerously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Puerto, C.

    2011-11-01

    Tenerife is not Jakarta. Neither is 2009 the year 1965, nor the Museo de la Ciencia y el Cosmos (Museum of Science and the Cosmos) the hotel "Indonesia", meeting point of reporters from around the world. Nor am I the journalist Jill Bryant (Sigourney Weaver) in the Australian Peter Weir film. But 2009, a year of international commitment to Astronomy (and wild economic crisis budget cuts), will be a time in space that many people will remember for how we live, what problems we face and what tools we used to discover together the Universe. Stimulating interest in the stars was our goal in the museum. Playing with all the colours of a filter wheel, our strategy. Energy and creativity were our available resources. We had to innovate and not die trying. Finally, mainstreaming was the concept, the philosophy, in exchange for bold value and ineffable endeavor. The Museo de la Ciencia y el Cosmos accepted the challenge, explored new resources for science communication and made risky bets, many of them hand in hand with the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC). A year later, we value the role of this museum in the film.

  6. 16 CFR 0.4 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laws administered. 0.4 Section 0.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.4 Laws administered. The Commission exercises enforcement and administrative authority under the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C....

  7. 16 CFR 0.4 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laws administered. 0.4 Section 0.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.4 Laws administered. The Commission exercises enforcement and administrative authority under the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C....

  8. 43 CFR 2400.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility. 2400.0-4 Section 2400.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 2400.0-4 Responsibility. (a) Except where specified to the contrary in this group, the authority of...

  9. 43 CFR 2361.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibility. 2361.0-4 Section 2361.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... and Protection of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska § 2361.0-4 Responsibility. (a) The...

  10. 43 CFR 2610.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2610.0-4 Section 2610.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT....0-4 Responsibilities. (a) The authority of the Secretary of the Interior to approve the...

  11. 43 CFR 2400.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibility. 2400.0-4 Section 2400.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 2400.0-4 Responsibility. (a) Except where specified to the contrary in this group, the authority of...

  12. 43 CFR 2361.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility. 2361.0-4 Section 2361.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... and Protection of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska § 2361.0-4 Responsibility. (a) The...

  13. 43 CFR 2200.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2200.0-4 Section 2200.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 2200.0-4 Responsibilities. The Director of the Bureau of Land Management has the responsibility...

  14. 43 CFR 2200.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2200.0-4 Section 2200.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 2200.0-4 Responsibilities. The Director of the Bureau of Land Management has the responsibility...

  15. 43 CFR 2610.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2610.0-4 Section 2610.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT....0-4 Responsibilities. (a) The authority of the Secretary of the Interior to approve the...

  16. 43 CFR 1784.0-4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 1784.0-4 Section 1784.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees § 1784.0-4...

  17. 43 CFR 1601.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1601.0-4 Section 1601.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  18. 43 CFR 2564.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibility. 2564.0-4 Section 2564.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-4 Responsibility. (a) Administration of Indian possessions in trustee towns. As to...

  19. 43 CFR 1601.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1601.0-4 Section 1601.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Responsibilities. (a) National level policy and procedure guidance for planning shall be provided by the...

  20. 43 CFR 1601.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1601.0-4 Section 1601.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Responsibilities. (a) National level policy and procedure guidance for planning shall be provided by the...

  1. 43 CFR 2564.0-4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility. 2564.0-4 Section 2564.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-4 Responsibility. (a) Administration of Indian possessions in trustee towns. As to...

  2. 43 CFR 1601.0-4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1601.0-4 Section 1601.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  3. 43 CFR 1784.0-4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 1784.0-4 Section 1784.0-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees §...

  4. 77 FR 3788 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Assisted Living Conversion Program; Fiscal Year 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Assisted Living Conversion Program; Fiscal Year... the Assisted Living Conversion Program (ALCP). This announcement contains the names of the grantees... Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance number for this program is 14.314. The Assisted Living...

  5. Daily living skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder from 2 to 21 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Hus Bal, Vanessa; Kim, So-Hyun; Cheong, Daniel; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Daily living skills (DLS), such as personal hygiene, meal preparation, and money management, are important to independent living. Research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder exhibit impairments in daily living skills relative to their cognitive skills. This study examined predictors of daily living skills attainment and trajectories of daily living skills in a longitudinal sample referred for possible autism spectrum disorder and followed from 2 to 21 years of age. Consistent with previous studies, participants with autism spectrum disorder and nonspectrum diagnoses showed continual development of daily living skills throughout childhood and adolescence. Early childhood nonverbal mental age was the strongest predictor of daily living skills attainment for both diagnostic groups. Group-based modeling suggested two distinct trajectories of daily living skills development for participants with autism spectrum disorder. Skill levels for both groups of young adults with autism spectrum disorder remained considerably below age level expectations. Whereas the “High-DLS” group gained approximately 12 years in daily living skills from T2 to T21, the “Low-DLS” group’s daily living skills improved 3–4 years over the 16- to 19-year study period. Nonverbal mental age, receptive language, and social-communication impairment at 2 years predicted High- versus Low-DLS group membership. Receiving greater than 20 h of parent-implemented intervention before age 3 was also associated with daily living skills trajectory. Results suggest that daily living skills should be a focus of treatment plans for individuals with autism spectrum disorder, particularly adolescents transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:25922445

  6. Living Arrangements during Childrearing Years and Later Health of African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Robertson, Judy; Kasper, Judith D.; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Woodlawn Project (N = 680), this study examined how patterns of living arrangements among a community cohort of African American mothers were associated with later physical and emotional health. We identified eight patterns of stability and transition in living arrangements during the childrearing years. Health…

  7. Increased 1-year survival and discharge to independent living in overweight hip fracture patients

    PubMed Central

    Flodin, Lena; Laurin, Agnes; Lökk, Johan; Cederholm, Tommy; Hedström, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Hip fracture patients usually have low body mass index (BMI), and suffer further postoperative catabolism. How BMI relates to outcome in relatively healthy hip fracture patients is not well investigated. We investigated the association between BMI, survival, and independent living 1 year postoperatively. Patients and methods — This prospective multicenter study involved 843 patients with a hip fracture (mean age 82 (SD 7) years, 73% women), without severe cognitive impairment and living independently before admission. We investigated the relationship between BMI and both 1-year mortality and ability to return to independent living. Results — Patients with BMI > 26 had a lower mortality rate than those with BMI < 22 and those with BMI 22–26 (6%, 16%, and 18% respectively; p = 0.006). The odds ratio (OR) for 1-year survival in the group with BMI > 26 was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2–5.5) after adjustment for age, sex, and physical status. Patients with BMI > 26 were also more likely to return to independent living after the hip fracture (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.4–5.0). Patients with BMI < 22 had similar mortality and a similar likelihood of independent living to those with BMI 22–26. Interpretation — In this selected group of patients with hip fracture, the overweight and obese patients (BMI > 26) had a higher survival rate at 1 year, and returned to independent living to a higher degree than those of normal (healthy) weight. The obesity paradox and the recommendations for optimal BMI need further consideration in patients with hip fracture. PMID:26986549

  8. Increased 1-year survival and discharge to independent living in overweight hip fracture patients.

    PubMed

    Flodin, Lena; Laurin, Agnes; Lökk, Johan; Cederholm, Tommy; Hedström, Margareta

    2016-04-01

    Background and purpose - Hip fracture patients usually have low body mass index (BMI), and suffer further postoperative catabolism. How BMI relates to outcome in relatively healthy hip fracture patients is not well investigated. We investigated the association between BMI, survival, and independent living 1 year postoperatively. Patients and methods - This prospective multicenter study involved 843 patients with a hip fracture (mean age 82 (SD 7) years, 73% women), without severe cognitive impairment and living independently before admission. We investigated the relationship between BMI and both 1-year mortality and ability to return to independent living. Results - Patients with BMI > 26 had a lower mortality rate than those with BMI < 22 and those with BMI 22-26 (6%, 16%, and 18% respectively; p = 0.006). The odds ratio (OR) for 1-year survival in the group with BMI > 26 was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2-5.5) after adjustment for age, sex, and physical status. Patients with BMI > 26 were also more likely to return to independent living after the hip fracture (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.4-5.0). Patients with BMI < 22 had similar mortality and a similar likelihood of independent living to those with BMI 22-26. Interpretation - In this selected group of patients with hip fracture, the overweight and obese patients (BMI > 26) had a higher survival rate at 1 year, and returned to independent living to a higher degree than those of normal (healthy) weight. The obesity paradox and the recommendations for optimal BMI need further consideration in patients with hip fracture. PMID:26986549

  9. Living with diabetes—Development of learning patterns over a 3-year period

    PubMed Central

    Kneck, Åsa; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Eriksson, Lars E.; Lundman, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Background Learning involves acquiring new knowledge and skills, and changing our ways of thinking, acting, and feeling. Learning in relation to living with diabetes is a lifelong process where there is limited knowledge of how it is experienced and established over time. It was considered important to explore how learning was developed over time for persons living with diabetes. Aim The aim of the study was to identify patterns in learning when living with diabetes, from recently being diagnosed, and over a 3-year period. Materials and methods A longitudinal qualitative descriptive design was used. Thirteen participants, with both type I and type II diabetes, were interviewed at three different occasions during a 3-year period. Qualitative content analysis was used in different steps in order to distinguish patterns. Findings Five main patterns of learning were identified. Two of the patterns (I and II) were characterized by gradually becoming comfortable living with diabetes, whereas for one pattern (IV) living with diabetes became gradually more difficult. For pattern V living with diabetes was making only a limited impact on life, whereas for Pattern III there was a constant management of obstacles related to illness. The different patterns in the present study showed common and different ways of learning and using different learning strategies at different timespans. Conclusion The present study showed that duration of illness is not of importance for how far a person has come in his own learning process. A person-centered care is needed to meet the different and changing needs of persons living with diabetes in relation to learning to live with a lifelong illness. PMID:25030359

  10. The Impact of a Living Learning Community on First-Year Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Margaret A.; Everett, Jess W.; Whittinghill, Dex

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of an engineering living and learning community (ELC) on first-year engineering students. A control group of non-ELC students was used to compare the experiences of the ELC participants. Analysis of survey data showed that there was significant differences between the ELC students and the…

  11. Perceptions of Skill Development in a Living-Learning First-Year Experience Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kerri Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of students and faculty involved in a living-learning first-year experience program at a small, liberal arts institution about developing skills for life-long learning including critical thinking, written communication, and reflection and engagement across disciplines. The researcher…

  12. Turkish Early Childhood Teachers' Emotional Problems in Early Years of Their Professional Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotaman, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elaborate on the emotional problems faced by Turkish early childhood teachers in their interaction with students, parents, administrators and colleagues in the first three years of their professional lives. Data for this research consists of in-depth interviews with Turkish kindergarten teachers, where these…

  13. The Relationship between Living Arrangement, Academic Performance, and Engagement among First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfour, Denise Shata

    2013-01-01

    One way students become engaged in their undergraduate experience is through place of residence. Factors associated with high academic performance suggest high levels of engagement in campus life. This study investigated the relationship between living arrangement and the academic performance of first-year, full-time undergraduate students. The…

  14. 43 CFR 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Section 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... §§ 9260.0-4—9260.0-6...

  15. 43 CFR 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Section 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... §§ 9260.0-4—9260.0-6...

  16. 43 CFR 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Section 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... §§ 9260.0-4—9260.0-6...

  17. 43 CFR 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Section 9260.0-4-9260.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... §§ 9260.0-4—9260.0-6...

  18. Impact of Living Environment on 2-Year Mortality in Elderly Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies on risk factors of mortality in elderly patients with hemodialysis usually focus on comorbidities, nutrition, and inflammation. Discussion on the correlation between living environment and mortality of these patients is limited. Methods A total of 256 elderly hemodialysis patients participated in this 2-year prospective observational study. The subjects were divided into 2 subgroups based on whether they were living in Taipei Basin (n = 63) or not (n = 193). Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained for cross-sectional analysis. Causes of death and mortality rates were also analyzed for each subgroup. Results Patients in the basin group had a higher incidence of combined protein-energy wasting and inflammation than those in the around basin group. At the end of the 2-year follow-up, 68 patients had died. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis revealed that a very advanced age, basin group, serum albumin levels, serum creatinine levels, non-anuria, and the complications of stroke and CAD were associated with 2-year mortality. Meanwhile, log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were not associated with 2-year mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that basin group, serum albumin levels, and the complications of stroke and CAD were significant risk factors for 2-year mortality in these patients. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that factors such as living in the Taipei Basin with higher air pollutant levels in elderly hemodialysis patients is associated with protein-energy wasting and inflammation, as well as 2-year mortality. These findings suggest that among this population, living environment is as important as comorbidities and nutrition. Furthermore, air pollution should be getting more attention especially in the overcrowding Basin topography. PMID:24058552

  19. Live Pups from Evaporatively Dried Mouse Sperm Stored at Ambient Temperature for up to 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Lee, Gloria Y.; Lawitts, Joel A.; Toner, Mehmet; Biggers, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a mouse sperm preservation method based on evaporative drying. Mouse sperm were evaporatively dried and stored at 4°C and ambient temperature for 3 months to 2 years. Upon rehydration, a single sperm was injected into a mature oocyte to develop into a blastocyst after culture or a live birth after embryo transfer to a recipient female. For the samples stored at 4°C for 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, the blastocyst formation rate was 61.5%, 49.1%, 31.5%, 32.2%, and 41.4%, respectively. The blastocyst rate for those stored at ambient temperature (∼22°C) for 3, 6, 12, and 18 months was 57.8%, 36.2%, 33.6%, and 34.4%, respectively. Fifteen, eight and three live pups were produced from sperm stored at room temperature for 12, 18, and 24 months, respectively. This is the first report of live offspring produced from dried mouse sperm stored at ambient temperature for up to 2 years. Based on these results, we suggest that evaporative drying is a potentially useful method for the routine preservation of mouse sperm. PMID:24924588

  20. Summary results from the NASA Tech House one year live-in

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlet, I. L.

    1979-01-01

    The NASA Tech House was designed and constructed at the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., to demonstrate and evaluate new technology potentially applicable for conservation of energy and resources and for improvements in safety and security in a single-family residence. All technology items, including solar energy systems and a waste water reuse system, were evaluated under actual living conditions for a one-year period with a family of four living in the house in their normal life style. Results are presented which show overall savings in energy and resources compared to requirements for a defined similar conventional house under the same conditions. Also included are general operational experience and performance data for all the various items and systems of technology incorporated into the house design.

  1. Daily living skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder from 2 to 21 years of age.

    PubMed

    Bal, Vanessa Hus; Kim, So-Hyun; Cheong, Daniel; Lord, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    Daily living skills (DLS), such as personal hygiene, meal preparation, and money management, are important to independent living. Research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder exhibit impairments in daily living skills relative to their cognitive skills. This study examined predictors of daily living skills attainment and trajectories of daily living skills in a longitudinal sample referred for possible autism spectrum disorder and followed from 2 to 21 years of age. Consistent with previous studies, participants with autism spectrum disorder and nonspectrum diagnoses showed continual development of daily living skills throughout childhood and adolescence. Early childhood nonverbal mental age was the strongest predictor of daily living skills attainment for both diagnostic groups. Group-based modeling suggested two distinct trajectories of daily living skills development for participants with autism spectrum disorder. Skill levels for both groups of young adults with autism spectrum disorder remained considerably below age level expectations. Whereas the "High-DLS" group gained approximately 12 years in daily living skills from T2 to T21, the "Low-DLS" group's daily living skills improved 3-4 years over the 16- to 19-year study period. Nonverbal mental age, receptive language, and social-communication impairment at 2 years predicted High- versus Low-DLS group membership. Receiving greater than 20 h of parent-implemented intervention before age 3 was also associated with daily living skills trajectory. Results suggest that daily living skills should be a focus of treatment plans for individuals with autism spectrum disorder, particularly adolescents transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:25922445

  2. Determinants of feeling hindered by health problems in daily living at 60 years and above.

    PubMed

    Fagerström, Cecilia; Persson, Helen; Holst, Göran; Hallberg, Ingalill R

    2008-09-01

    Although the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) is frequently used to identify the impact on daily living caused by health problems such as diseases, impaired eyesight or hearing, it is still not well known what makes people feel hindered in daily living with more or less inability to perform ADL. The aim of this study was to investigate feeling hindered by health problems in daily living among people (n = 958, 60-96 years) in relation to ADL capacity, health problems as well as social and financial resources, sense of coherence and life satisfaction. The data are taken from a baseline survey in one of the four included centres (Blekinge) of the longitudinal multicentre cohort study, The Swedish National Study on Aging and Care. The result showed that people felt hindered by their health problems despite no impairment in ADL capacity. Feeling greatly hindered by health problems was associated with factors linked to mobility but also to fatigue, no help when needed, and avoiding being outdoors due to fear of falling. Factors associated with feeling greatly hindered differed depending on whether people were impaired in ADL capacity or not. In people with excellent ADL capacity feeling hindered was associated with picking up things from the floor and rising from a chair and fatigue, whereas avoiding being outdoors, no help when needed and rising from a chair were found to be associated with feeling hindered by health problems among people with impaired ADL capacity. Combining people's ADL capacity with questions about feeling hindered may provide knowledge of determinant factors of feeling hindered in relation to ADL capacity, impaired or not, to identify people in need of rehabilitation or other interventions. PMID:18840225

  3. Pediatric live-donor kidney transplantation in Mansoura Urology & Nephrology Center: a 28-year perspective.

    PubMed

    El-Husseini, Amr A; Foda, Mohamed A; Bakr, Mohamed A; Shokeir, Ahmed A; Sobh, Mohamed A; Ghoneim, Mohamed A

    2006-10-01

    Our objective was to evaluate our overall experience in pediatric renal transplantation. Between March 1976 and March 2004, 1,600 live-donor kidney transplantations were carried out in our center; 216 of the patients were 18 years old or younger (mean age 12.9 years). There were 136 male patients and 80 female patients. The commonest causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were renal dysplasia (22%), nephrotic syndrome (20%), hereditary nephritis (16%), and obstructive uropathy (16%). Of the donors, 94% were one-haplotype matched and the rest were identical. Pre-emptive transplantation was performed in 51 (23%) patients. Triple-therapy immunosuppression (prednisone + cyclosporine + azathioprine) was used in 78.2% of transplants. Rejection-free recipients constituted 47.7%. Hypertension (62%) was the commonest complication. A substantial proportion of patients (48%) were short, with height standard deviation score (SDS) less than -1.88. The overall infection rate was high, and the majority (53%) of infections were bacterial. The graft survival at 1 year, 5 years and 10 years were 93.4%, 73.3% and 48.2%, respectively, while the patients' survival at 1, 5 and 10 years were 97.6%, 87.8% and 75.3%, respectively. Despite long-term success results of pediatric renal transplantation in a developing country, there is a risk of significant morbidity. PMID:16791608

  4. Daily Living Skills in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder from 2 to 21?Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Vanessa Hus; Kim, So-Hyun; Cheong, Daniel; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Daily living skills (DLS), such as personal hygiene, meal preparation, and money management, are important to independent living. Research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder exhibit impairments in daily living skills relative to their cognitive skills. This study examined predictors of daily living skills attainment and…

  5. The Living Filter: Monitoring Nitrate Accumulation after 50 Years of Wastewater Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, J.

    2015-12-01

    As global freshwater sources decline due to environmental contamination and a growing population, more sustainable wastewater renovation techniques will need to be applied to ensure freshwater for future generations. One such example of a sustainable solution is called the Living Filter, located on the campus of Pennsylvania State University. For fifty years, Pennsylvania State University has sprayed treated wastewater onto agricultural fields and forest ecosystems, leaving natural processes to further filter the wastewater. This cyclical process is deemed sustainable because the freshwater is recycled, providing drinking water to an increasing university population and nutrients to agricultural crops, without causing major environmental catastrophes such as fish kills, eutrophication or groundwater contamination. At first glance this project seems sustainable and effective, but for how long can this setup continue without nutrient overloading and environmental contamination? To be truly declared sustainable, the hopeful answer to this question is indefinitely. Using a combination of soil core and monitoring tools, ecosystem indicators such as soil nutrient capacities, moisture levels, and soil characteristics were measured. Comparing data from the initial system installation to present data collected from soil cores showed how ecosystems changed over time. Results revealed that nitrate concentrations were elevated through the profile in all land use types, but the concentrations were below EPA threshold. Soil characteristic analysis including particle size distribution, soil elemental composition, and texture yielded inconclusive results regarding which factors control the nitrate accumulation most significantly. The nitrate depth profile findings suggest that spray irrigation at the Living Filter under the current rates of application has not caused the ultimate stage of nitrogen saturation in the spray irrigation site. Variations in land use present interesting

  6. The impact of a living learning community on first-year engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Margaret A.; Everett, Jess W.; Whittinghill, Dex

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of an engineering living and learning community (ELC) on first-year engineering students. A control group of non-ELC students was used to compare the experiences of the ELC participants. Analysis of survey data showed that there was significant differences between the ELC students and the non-ELC students in how they responded to questions regarding social support, academic support, connectedness to campus, and satisfaction with the College of Engineering and the institution as a whole. Particularly, there were significant differences between ELC and non-ELC students for questions related to feeling like part of an engineering community, having strong relationships with peers, belonging to a supportive peer network, studying with engineering peers, and spending time with classmates outside of class.

  7. Becoming Adults: One-Year Impact Findings from the Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Erin Jacobs; Skemer, Melanie; Courtney, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The "Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation" is testing whether the "Transitional Living" program, operated by the social service organization Youth Villages, makes a difference in the lives of young people with histories of foster care or juvenile justice custody. The program, which was renamed "YVLifeSet" in…

  8. Improved and standardized method for assessing years lived with disability after injury

    PubMed Central

    Polinder, S; Lyons, RA; Lund, J; Ditsuwan, V; Prinsloo, M; Veerman, JL; van Beeck, EF

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop a standardized method for calculating years lived with disability (YLD) after injury. Methods The method developed consists of obtaining data on injury cases seen in emergency departments as well as injury-related hospital admissions, using the EUROCOST system to link the injury cases to disability information and employing empirical data to describe functional outcomes in injured patients. Findings Overall, 87 weights and proportions for 27 injury diagnoses involving lifelong consequences were included in the method. Almost all of the injuries investigated (96–100%) could be assigned to EUROCOST categories. The mean number of YLD per case of injury varied with the country studied. Use of the novel method resulted in estimated burdens of injury that were 3 to 8 times higher, in terms of YLD, than the corresponding estimates produced using the conventional methods employed in global burden of disease studies, which employ disability-adjusted life years. Conclusion The novel method for calculating YLD after injury can be applied in different settings, overcomes some limitations of the method used to calculate the global burden of disease, and allows more accurate estimates of the population burden of injury. PMID:22807597

  9. Examining the Academic Performance and Retention of First-Year Students in Living-Learning Communities and First-Year Experience Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, John R., II; Rosser, Vicki J.

    2011-01-01

    Institutional data were used to examine the grades and retention of first-year students in 2 types of living learning communities--Academic Theme Floors (ATFs) and Freshman Interest Groups (FIGs)--and a First-Year Experience (FYE) course. Multiple regression revealed students in FIGs earned nominally higher GPAs (standardized [beta] = 0.02, p less…

  10. Life-Course Transitions, Social Class, and Gender: A 15-Year Perspective of the Lived Lives of Canadian Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andres, Lesley; Adamuti-Trache, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, through the theoretical lens of life-course research and reproduction theory, we employ 15 years of longitudinal data from the British Columbia, Canada "Paths on Life's Way" project to examine the extent to which educational and career pathways of this cohort of 1988 high school graduates are gendered, individualized, prolonged,…

  11. Factors influencing Internet usage in older adults (65 years and above) living in rural and urban Sweden.

    PubMed

    Berner, Jessica; Rennemark, Mikael; Jogréus, Claes; Anderberg, Peter; Sköldunger, Anders; Wahlberg, Maria; Elmståhl, Sölve; Berglund, Johan

    2015-09-01

    Older adults living in rural and urban areas have shown to distinguish themselves in technology adoption; a clearer profile of their Internet use is important in order to provide better technological and health-care solutions. Older adults' Internet use was investigated across large to midsize cities and rural Sweden. The sample consisted of 7181 older adults ranging from 59 to 100 years old. Internet use was investigated with age, education, gender, household economy, cognition, living alone/or with someone and rural/urban living. Logistic regression was used. Those living in rural areas used the Internet less than their urban counterparts. Being younger and higher educated influenced Internet use; for older urban adults, these factors as well as living with someone and having good cognitive functioning were influential. Solutions are needed to avoid the exclusion of some older adults by a society that is today being shaped by the Internet. PMID:24567416

  12. Learning and Living Technologies: A Longitudinal Study of First-Year Students' Frequency and Competence in the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosein, Anesa; Ramanau, Ruslan; Jones, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This article presents results from a longitudinal survey of first-year students' time spent on living and learning technologies at university, their frequency of using specific learning technologies and their competence with these tools. Data were analysed from two similar surveys at the start and at the end of the academic year for students…

  13. 76 FR 52006 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Assisted Living Conversion Program; Fiscal Year 2009

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... and Urban Development Reform Act of 1989, this announcement notifies the public of funding decisions... facilities. Grant funds are used to convert the units and related space for the assisted living facility. A... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Assisted Living Conversion Program; Fiscal...

  14. A year long study of the presence of free living amoeba in Spain.

    PubMed

    Magnet, A; Fenoy, S; Galván, A L; Izquierdo, F; Rueda, C; Fernandez Vadillo, C; Del Aguila, C

    2013-12-01

    Free-living amoeba such as Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia mandrillaris can act as opportunistic parasites on a wide range of vertebrates and they are becoming a serious threat to human health due to the resistance of their cysts to harsh environmental conditions, disinfectants, some water treatment practices and their ubiquitous distribution. This work was carried out in order to study the presence of these free-living amoebae (FLA) and their possible seasonality in a continental-Mediterranean climate in different types of water. For this purpose, a total of 223 water samples were collected during one year from four drinking water treatment plants (DWTP), seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and six locations of influence (LI) on four river basins from Spain. Water samples were concentrated using the IDEXX Filta-Max(®) system and analyzed by a triplex real time PCR that detects Acanthamoeba, B. mandrillaris and Naegleria fowleri. Agar plates were also seeded for Acanthamoeba culture. From the three FLA studied, N. fowleri was not detected in any sample while B. mandrillaris was found at the entrance of a DWTP; this being, to our knowledge, the first report of these protozoa in water worldwide. On the other hand, the presence of Acanthamoeba observed was higher, 94.6% of the studied points were positive by real time PCR and 85.2% by culture, resulting in 99.1% positive for Acanthamoeba with both methods. All genetically analyzed Acanthamoeba were genotype T4 but nine different T4/DF3 sequences were observed, three of them being described for the first time, assigning new codes. No seasonal distribution of Acanthamoeba was found. These facts should serve as a warning to contact lens wearers of the risk of a poor hygiene when handling their contact lenses. It should also serve as a signal to physicians to consider FLA as a possible causative agent of nervous system infections as well as Acanthamoeba keratitis due to their high environmental presence shown in this

  15. Living the Volcano: A First-Year Study Abroad Experience to Santorini, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, L. A.; Miller, M.; Scarnati, B.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, enrollment in Northern Arizona University's (NAU) Geologic Disasters (GLG112) class has grown to its current 840 students in 7 sections per semester (4% of NAU enrollment). Given this large audience composed of >50% freshmen, the course curriculum was re-designed in 2012 using standards set by NAU's First Year Learning Initiative (FYLI), which seeks to increase academic success early in college. FYLI pedagogical principles include active-learning, frequent feedback, low-stakes assessments, and increased guidance from professors & peer teaching assistants (PTAs). As a result of the successes measured in FYLI courses, we launched a FYLI study abroad experience in 2014. We posed the question, "How can an early-career study abroad experience further develop the attitudes, skills, & behaviors necessary for success?" The pioneering program was NAU in Greece: The Cataclysmic Eruption of Santorini Volcano. Enrollment was limited to freshman & sophomore students who have taken GLG112 (or equivalent). The 3-week program took 9 students, 1 PTA, & 1 faculty member to Santorini (via Athens, 2 days). A detailed itinerary addressed a set of disciplinary & non-disciplinary learning outcomes. Student learning about Santorini volcano and the tectonic setting & hazards of the Aegean Sea occurred on the go - on ferries & private boat trips and during hiking, snorkeling, and swimming. Classroom time was limited to 1 hr/day and frequent assessments were employed. Student products included a geologic field notebook, travel journal, and 3 blog posts pertaining to geologic hazards & life on Santorini. Geologic disasters are ideal topics for early career study abroad experiences because the curriculum is place-based. Student learning benefits immensely from interacting with the land & local populations, whose lives are affected daily by the dangers of living in such geologically hazardous environments. The needs of early career students are unique, however, and must be

  16. Consequences of maternal complications in women's lives in the first postpartum year: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Kirti; Yadav, Ranjana; Sen, Swapnaleen

    2012-06-01

    Maternal complications are common during and following childbirth. However, little information is available on the psychological, social and economic consequences of maternal complications on women's lives, especially in a rural setting. A prospective cohort study was conducted in southern Rajasthan, India, among rural women who had a severe or less-severe, or no complication at the time of delivery or in the immediate postpartum period. In total, 1,542 women, representing 93% of all women who delivered in the field area over a 15-month period and were examined in the first week postpartum by nurse-midwives, were followed up to 12 months to record maternal and child survival. Of them, a subset of 430 women was followed up at 6-8 weeks and 12 months to capture data on the physical, psychological, social, or economic consequences. Women with severe maternal complications around the time of delivery and in the immediate postpartum period experienced an increased risk of mortality and morbidity in the first postpartum year: 2.8% of the women with severe complications died within one year compared to none with uncomplicated delivery. Women with severe complications also had higher rates of perinatal mortality [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=3.98, confidence interval (CI) 1.96-8.1, p=0.000] and mortality of babies aged eight days to 12 months (AOR=3.14, CI 1.4-7.06, p=0.004). Compared to women in the uncomplicated group, women with severe complications were at a higher risk of depression at eight weeks and 12 months with perceived physical symptoms, had a greater difficulty in completing daily household work, and had important financial repercussions. The results suggest that women with severe complications at the time of delivery need to be provided regular follow-up services for their physical and psychological problems till about 12 months after childbirth. They also might benefit from financial support during several months in the postpartum period to prevent severe

  17. Growth and thermal properties of GeSePb0.4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, G. K.; Patel, K. D.; Gosai, N. N.; Patel, Ruchita R.

    2012-06-01

    Single crystals of GeSePb0.4 were grown by Direct Vapor Transport (DVT) technique, in a two zone horizontal furnace with temperature difference of 50 K between growth and source zones. The material crystallizes in the form of shining gray and platelets like crystals at the end of growth cycles. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been used for many years to evaluate thermal stability of material as it will determine the range of stable operation for a device made up out of these materials under investigation. Thermal characteristics of GeSePb0.4 crystals were studied employing thermoanalytical techniques, viz. TGA and DTA. Thermal analysis experiments were carried out with constant heating rate of 10°C/ min in air. The DTA pattern of GeSePb0.4 crystals shows a strong endothermic peak at 472°C. The objective of this study is to determine activation energy and other kinetic parameters of GeSePb0.4 crystals. Broido and Coats-Redfern models are used to evaluate different kinetic parameters of GeSePb0.4 crystals viz. activation energy, entropy, enthalpy, Gibbs mean free energy etc.

  18. Luminous Red Galaxies at Z=0.4-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sally; Lindler, Don

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study of approx.20,000 luminous red galaxies (LRG's) at z=0.4-0.5 observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In order to differentiate among them, we measured restframe magnitudes, u (3000-3500 A), b (4200-4800 A), and y (5700-6300 A) from the spectra themselves. The galaxies show a significant range in restframe colors and absolute magnitudes. We binned the spectra according to the restframe u-b color and y-band absolute magnitude in order to increase the S/N. We used 3 approaches to estimate the ages and metal content of these binned spectra: via their spectral energy distributions, from spectral-line indices, and by full spectral fitting. The three methods usually produce discordant results

  19. Twenty-Five Years of Research on the Lived Experience of Being Gifted in School: Capturing the Students' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Laurence J.; Micko, Karen J.; Cross, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Through a synthesis of 25 years worth of studies concerning the lived experience of children who are gifted and talented within the context of school, a more comprehensive picture can be presented. The intent is to provide information for teachers, parents, administrators, and psychologists to better understand and support advanced development.…

  20. [Longevity in tetralogy of Fallot. The natural history of a 63-year-old man living without surgery].

    PubMed

    Pentimone, F; Mechelli, S; Riccioni, S; Del Corso, L

    1992-01-01

    We report the natural history, the clinical, radiological, echocardiographic and hemodynamic pattern of a living sixty-three year old man with tetralogy of Fallot and cyanosis since birth. We discuss the possible circulatory adaptations which allowed exceptional survival up to the seventh decade: it is the sixth case reported in the literature. PMID:1470392

  1. Ten years survival with excellent outcome after living donor liver transplantation from 70 years old donor for primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Alekseev, Denis; Goralczyk, Armin; Lorf, Thomas; Ramadori, Giuliano; Obed, Aiman

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Primary hepatic carcinoid tumors (PHCT) are rare entities; they are even rarer than extrahepatic neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumors with only about 95 cases reported in the literature. An extrahepatic primary tumor must be excluded to confirm the diagnosis of PHCT. CASE PRESENTATION We report a case of a 42-year-old male patient with a primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma, who successfully underwent living donor liver transplantation from his 70 years old mother with 10 years follow-up. Both donor and recipient are still alive and in the good health. CONCLUSION Living liver donation from elderly donors for the patients with irresectable neuroendocrine liver malignancies can be as safe as deceased donation or liver donation from young donors (age < 50). Living donation from elderly donors might significantly expand the donor pool for patients with liver neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and potentially reduce waiting list mortality. Especially young patients with irresectable NET can benefit from this option. However, case–control studies are needed to verify the advantage of living liver transplantation (LDLT) for the patients with irresectable liver NET and to define selection criteria for these patients. PMID:22288038

  2. Anthropometric Measures of 9- to 10-Year-Old Native Tibetan Children Living at 3700 and 4300 m Above Sea Level and Han Chinese Living at 3700 m.

    PubMed

    Bianba, Bianba; Yangzong, Yangzong; Gonggalanzi, Gonggalanzi; Berntsen, Sveinung; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stigum, Hein; Nafstad, Per; Bjertness, Espen

    2015-10-01

    A high residential altitude impacts on the growth of children, and it has been suggested that linear growth (height) is more affected than body mass. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of obesity, overweight, underweight, and stunting in groups of native Tibetan children living at different residential altitudes (3700 vs 4300 m above sea level) and across ancestry (native Tibetan vs Han Chinese children living at the same altitude of 3700 m), as well as to examine the total effect of residential altitude and ancestry with stunting.Two cross-sectional studies of 1207 school children aged 9 to 10 years were conducted in Lhasa in 2005 and Tingri in 2007. Conventional age- and sex-specific cutoff values were used for defining underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obesity, whereas stunting was defined from sex-specific height-for-age z-scores (≤-2.0).The prevalence of underweight was high at 36.7% among Tingri Tibetan girls and 31.1% in Tingri Tibetan boys. The prevalence was statistically significant lower in Lhasa Tibetan girls (20.2%) than in both Tingri Tibetan girls and Han Chinese girls (33.7%), with a similar trend seen among boys. Severe and moderate stunting were found in 14.6% and 35.7%, respectively, of Tingri children, and near null among Han Chinese and native Tibetans in Lhasa. In logistic regression analyses, socioeconomic status and diet did not substantially change the observed crude association (total effect) (odds ratio [OR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-10.3) between ancestry and stunting. Similarly, adjustment for diet did not alter the crude association (direct effect) (OR = 101.3; 95% CI 37.1-276.4) between residential altitude and stunting.The prevalence estimates of stunting and underweight were high, and clearly higher among native Tibetan children living at a higher residential altitude (Tingri) than the lower residential altitude (Lhasa), in addition to being higher among Han Chinese children than

  3. 78 FR 28606 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Assisted Living Conversion Program Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ...In accordance with section 102(a)(4)(C) of the Department of Housing and Urban Development Reform Act of 1989, this announcement notifies the public of funding decisions made by the Department in a competition for funding under the Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Assisted Living Conversion Program (ALCP). This announcement contains the names of the grantees and the amounts of the......

  4. TRAINING FOR INDEPENDENT LIVING, A COMMUNITY PROGRAM FOR SEVERELY RETARDED ADULTS. A THREE YEAR REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TOBIAS, JACK

    AN OCCUPATIONAL DAY CENTER FOR MENTALLY RETARDED ADULTS WAS ESTABLISHED TO PROVIDE COMMUNITY SERVICES FOR RETARDED PERSONS WHO LIVE AT HOME AND, ALTHOUGH BEYOND SCHOOL AGE, ARE UNABLE TO PARTICIPATE IN SHELTERED WORKSHOP ACTIVITIES. THE STAFF INCLUDES A DIRECTOR, A SOCIAL WORKER, FIVE INSTRUCTORS, A TRAINING SUPERVISOR, AN OFFICE WORKER, AND A…

  5. Student Experiences and Administrator Perceptions of a Leadership Living Learning Community at a Four Year University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Termika Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to describe the learning experience of 29 freshman students bounded by participating in the Leadership Living Learning Community at Gulf Coast University (pseudonym) for the 2011-2012 school term. This study sought to explore students' experiences and attitudes and administrator perceptions about the…

  6. Extended School Year Programs: The Effects on Achievement and Other Phases of Student's Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crim, Roger D.

    Reasons for the present emphasis on all-year operation of schools differ from those prevailing 30-40 years ago. During the depression emphasis was on economy. Recently, a more sensible reason for an extended school year is coming into focus--the year-round school has educational value. It is not just something to be considered in order to save…

  7. Case report of FLT3-ITD-positive AML patient 11 years after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Taniai, N; Yoshida, H; Kawano, Y; Uchida, E

    2014-04-01

    With the increasing number of long-term survivors of living donor liver transplantation, the occurrence of secondary cancer is sometimes reported. Solid tumors such as lymphomas are mainly observed. However, only 8 cases of leukemia have been reported so far. For patients younger than 15 years old, leukemia developed in 4 within 3 years after the liver transplantation, whereas acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed in only 1 patient. This is the first case report of a patient in whom FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) developed more than 10 years after living donor liver transplantation for congenital biliary atresia. AML developed in a 14-year-old boy 11 years after living donor liver transplantation from his father. The patient received the transplant at the age of 3 years and was treated with tacrolimus and methylprednisolone for transplant rejection. Eleven years posttransplantation, he visited the hospital with general malaise and anemia. Blood tests revealed an elevated white blood cell count of 60,100/μL, and the patient was diagnosed with AML. Chromosome analysis revealed a t(6; 9) (p23 q34) translocation; moreover, genetic testing revealed a FLT3-ITD-positive mutation. We started treatment in accordance with the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group AML99 protocol. With chemotherapy treatment, the patient achieved complete remission. After chemotherapy, we performed stem cell transplantation from his father. Other patients were reported in relatively early stages after liver transplantation, but our case was more than 10 years posttransplantation. The association with the onset of congenital bile duct atresia and leukemia is still not clear, but we consider the possibility that long-term immunosuppressive drugs contribute to developing leukemia. PMID:24767404

  8. Measuring, discussing, and living together: lessons from 4 years in Suetsugi.

    PubMed

    Ando, R

    2016-06-01

    Cooperating with radiological protection experts and taking radiation measurements, the residents of Suetsugi, Iwaki City, Fukushima have been striving to reshape their lives since the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Suetsugi lies within 30 km of the power plant, so the residents have had serious reservations about continuing their lives there since the accident. Today, radiation remains a 'line' dividing their lives, with any dose measurements directly affecting their daily decision making. Assisted by medical and scientific specialists, the residents faced this challenging situation by measuring exposures individually and then discussing the results among themselves. Since 2012, the residents of Suetsugi have been using personal dosimeters, made village-wide trips for whole-body counter tests, and measured food contamination throughout the village. The results have been shared openly between the residents. Obtaining and discussing their own data were crucial to gain understanding of various results and to practice radiological protection in their daily routine. These 4 y of experience in Suetsugi demonstrate cooperation between various stakeholders, which should be a lesson for the future. PMID:26626285

  9. The Pre-Retirement Years: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnes, Herbert S.; And Others

    This volume examines a number of facets of the labor market experience and behavior of middle-aged men. It is based on a unique set of longitudinal data collected by personal interviews among the same sample of men in 1966, 1967, 1969, and 1971. The data contain a complete record of the labor market activity of the men over a five-year period,…

  10. Lactic acid bacteria--20 years exploring their potential as live vectors for mucosal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wyszyńska, Agnieszka; Kobierecka, Patrycja; Bardowski, Jacek; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta Katarzyna

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a diverse group of Gram-positive, nonsporulating, low G + C content bacteria. Many of them have been given generally regarded as safe status. Over the past two decades, intensive genetic and molecular research carried out on LAB, mainly Lactococcus lactis and some species of the Lactobacillus genus, has revealed new, potential biomedical LAB applications, including the use of LAB as adjuvants, immunostimulators, or therapeutic drug delivery systems, or as factories to produce therapeutic molecules. LAB enable immunization via the mucosal route, which increases effectiveness against pathogens that use the mucosa as the major route of entry into the human body. In this review, we concentrate on the encouraging application of Lactococcus and Lactobacillus genera for the development of live mucosal vaccines. First, we present the progress that has recently been made in the field of developing tools for LAB genetic manipulations, which has resulted in the successful expression of many bacterial, parasitic, and viral antigens in LAB strains. Next, we discuss the factors influencing the efficacy of the constructed vaccine prototypes that have been tested in various animal models. Apart from the research focused on an application of live LABs as carriers of foreign antigens, a lot of work has been recently done on the potential usage of nonliving, nonrecombinant L. lactis designated as Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM), as a delivery system for mucosal vaccination. The advantages and disadvantages of both strategies are also presented. PMID:25750046

  11. Positron annihilation characterization of free volume in micro- and macro-modified Cu0.4Co0.4Ni0.4Mn1.8O4 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klym, H.; Ingram, A.; Shpotyuk, O.; Hadzaman, I.; Solntsev, V.; Hotra, O.; Popov, A. I.

    2016-07-01

    Free volume and pore size distribution size in functional micro and macro-micro-modified Cu0.4Co0.4Ni0.4Mn1.8O4 ceramics are characterized by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy in comparison with Hg-porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy technique. Positron annihilation results are interpreted in terms of model implication positron trapping and ortho-positronium decaying. It is shown that free volume of positron traps are the same type for macro and micro modified Cu0.4Co0.4Ni0.4Mn1.8O4 ceramics. Classic Tao-Eldrup model in spherical approximation is used to calculation of the size of nanopores smaller than 2 nm using the ortho-positronium lifetime.

  12. Efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine in children 6 months to 17 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Belshe, Robert B.; Toback, Seth L.; Yi, Tingting; Ambrose, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Belshe et al. (2010). Efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine in children 6 months to 17 years of age. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(3), 141–145. Background  It has been suggested that live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) may be less effective in older individuals because of prior wild‐type influenza infections. LAIV is currently approved in the United States, South Korea and Hong Kong for individuals 2–49 years of age. Objective  To examine data from previously published pediatric studies to determine the efficacy of LAIV in various age groups. Methods  Four studies in which the subject age range exceeded 36 months were identified: one 2‐year study comparing LAIV with placebo and three 1‐year studies comparing LAIV with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). Efficacy against any strain regardless of antigenic similarity to vaccine was analyzed by age; age groups were based on the study design and sample size. A logistic regression model was used to assess whether age, as a continuous variable, was an effect modifier on LAIV efficacy. Results  The efficacy of LAIV did not vary with age in children aged 15–84 months compared with placebo or in children aged 6 months to 17 years compared with TIV. Conclusions  The available data from prospective, randomized studies in children does not support the concept that prior repeated exposure to influenza, either through wild‐type infection or vaccination with live, attenuated or inactivated vaccines, reduces the efficacy of LAIV compared with placebo or TIV. The decreased immunologic responses to LAIV reported in older individuals or those with pre‐existing immunity do not appear to translate into reduced protection from influenza in children. PMID:20409210

  13. Living with thalidomide: health status and quality of life at 40 years.

    PubMed

    Bent, N; Tennant, A; Neumann, V; Chamberlain, M A

    2007-06-01

    Thalidomide was first synthesized in 1953 and was subsequently marketed as a mild hypnotic and sedative in more than 20 countries. By 2001 it was estimated that there were 5,000 survivors from the 10,000 - 12,000 babies who were, as a result, born with severe abnormalities. For these survivors, recent concerns have emerged about their physical state, in particular their levels of pain and their ability to maintain independence. It was therefore wished to ascertain health status and current concerns amongst a sample of survivors living in the UK. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies was employed. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with a sample drawn from the population affected by thalidomide known to the Thalidomide Trust. Selection of participants was based upon a theoretical sample frame. Postal questionnaires to examine health status and various psychosocial aspects concerned with living with the consequences of thalidomide were sent subsequently to these same participants and to a random sample of those not originally drawn for the qualitative interviews. For the qualitative interviews, 28 agreed to take part; two refused and the remainder did not respond. Those agreeing to interview were representative of the original compensation bands (Chi-Square = 3.929; p = 0.416). Several themes emerged from these interviews, including the effects on work and career; coping in terms of attitude to life, self-image, confidence, self-esteem, stress and emotion; relationships, independent living issues and emergent problems such as pain, quality of life, and anxiety about the future. A postal questionnaire was then sent to those who had agreed to interview (28), plus a random sample of the remaining group who were not initially chosen for the qualitative interviews. In total 82 people were sent the questionnaire, of whom 41 (50%) responded. Two-thirds of responders were female. Seven out of ten lived with a partner, and over half (56%) had

  14. Lower respiratory symptoms among residents living near the World Trade Center, two and four years after 9/11.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shao; Jones, Rena; Reibman, Joan; Morse, Dale; Hwang, Syni-An

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether residents living near the World Trade Center (WTC) continued to experience respiratory problems several years after September 11, 2001 (9/11). Residents living within one mile of the WTC surveyed after 9/11 responded two and four years later to follow-up surveys that asked about lower respiratory symptoms (LRS), medical history, psychological stress, and indoor environmental characteristics. There were declines in the proportion of residents reporting LRS, new lower respiratory diagnoses, unplanned medical visits, and asthma medication use. However, the proportion of residents reporting any LRS in the affected area at follow-up remained higher than the original proportion in the control area; residents with multiple sources of potential 9/11-related exposures were at greatest risk for LRS at follow-up. Psychological stress, dust/odors, and moisture were significantly associated with LRS at follow-up. These data demonstrate that LRS continue to burden residents living in the areas affected by the WTC disaster. PMID:20166318

  15. How Shall I Live? Constructing a Life Story in the College Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Dan P.; Guo, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This chapter applies the concept of narrative identity to college student development. The authors describe a narrative interview method that can be used to promote the development of a purposeful life story in the college years.

  16. Improving Children's Lives, Transforming the Future--25 Years of Child Rights in South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNICEF, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Despite rapid economic growth in South Asia, strong inequalities persist and children pay a heavy price. This publication examines latest trends and data on children in the eight countries of the region. It highlights what has been achieved in the 25 years since the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child--and what remains to be done.

  17. Interdisciplinarity, Debate And Movie Clips As Highly Motivating Factors In Live Shows - Five Years Of Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stengler, E.; Sirera, J. M.

    2011-09-01

    A live show on any subject that includes experiments and continuous interaction with the audience is a well known approach for EPO activities that many are carrying out all over. We present such an initiative with some added ingredients such as interdisciplinarity, the use of movie clips, and especially the debate between the two presenters, a debate that is all the more attractive to the public if it not fully staged but closely represents their actual points of view. José Montesinos, from the "Orotava" Canarian Foundation for the History of Science, is and plays the role of the more mature math professor who has grown weary of the overrated value given in science to mathematics and its consequences. This poses a constant challenge to his colleague, Erik Stengler, from the Science Museum of Tenerife, the young down-to-earth hands-on scientist, who defends the usual view that science and technology are to be judged by their achievements, which have brought about the advancement of modern society. With this approach and as a collaboration between our institutions, we have produced and toured highly successful activities on: Einstein and Relativity (from 2005 to 2008, "Einstein Goes To School," including a theatre play); circularity, the number π, forces of inertia and the Newtonian revolution (in 2008/2009, "The Tension Between Circularity and The Straight Line"); and the foundations of modern astronomy (in 2009/2010 "Kepler and Galileo, Messengers of the Stars"). Audiences were very varied - students, adult students, general public, prison inmates, teachers - and all appreciated the presentations as fun, thought-provoking and highly motivating, and valued especially the interdisciplinary character of the activity. Movie clips have shown to be especially useful to recover the attention of the young when they lose the thread due to the short attention spans they presently have.

  18. [MusicPlayTherapy--a parent-child psychotherapy for children 0-4 years old].

    PubMed

    Stumptner, Katrin; Thomsen, Cornelia

    2005-10-01

    The early stage of building up the parent-child relationship is especially important. It is the basis for the child's development of the ability to relate to others and his or her further emotional, social and cognitive development. In this important early phase various risk factors may alienate parents from their intuitive parental competence towards their children. Such interaction problems indicate an intervention in the form of parent-children psychotherapy. This constitutes an entry point for the concept of MusicPlayTherapy (MPT): The early relationship is characterized mainly by complex communication sequences that address the senses at all levels. Therefore, the MPT concept integrates music as medium to communicate and opens up a playing space for play that allows emotions and experiences to be expressed. The components of music such as rhythm, sound, and melody stimulate babies and toddlers to express, play, and communicate preverbally. We work with the child and a parent in the MusicPlayTherapy sessions. Parents learn again to play and thereby learn to reach their children emotionally and to communicate with them. We complement the therapy sessions by counselling sessions with both parents. PMID:16231598

  19. Long-lived mesoscale eddies in the eastern Mediterranean Sea: Analysis of 20 years of AVISO geostrophic velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkhinini, Nadia; Coimbra, Andre Louis Santi; Stegner, Alexandre; Arsouze, Thomas; Taupier-Letage, Isabelle; Béranger, Karine

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed 20 years of AVISO data set to detect and characterize long-lived eddies, which stay coherent more than 6 months, in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. In order to process the coarse gridded (1/8°) AVISO geostrophic velocity fields, we optimized a geometrical eddy detection algorithm. Our main contribution was to implement a new procedure based on the computation of the Local and Normalized Angular Momentum (LNAM) to identify the positions of the eddy centers and to follow their Lagrangian trajectories. We verify on two mesoscale anticyclones, sampled during the EGYPT campaign in 2006, that our methodology provides a correct estimation of the eddy centers and their characteristic radius corresponding to the maximal tangential velocity. Our analysis reveals the dominance of anticyclones among the long-lived eddies. This cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry appears to be much more pronounced in eastern Mediterranean Sea than in the global ocean. Then we focus our study on the formation areas of long-lived eddies. We confirm that the generations of the Ierapetra and the Pelops anticyclones are recurrent and correlated to the Etesian wind forcing. We also provide some evidence that the smaller cyclonic eddies formed at the southwest of Crete may also be induced by the same wind forcing. On the other hand, the generation of long-lived eddies along the Libyo-Egyptian coast are not correlated to the local wind-stress curl but surprisingly, their initial formation points follow the Herodotus Trough bathymetry. Moreover, we identify a new formation area, not discussed before, along the curved shelf off Benghazi.

  20. Immune function in a free-living bird varies over the annual cycle, but seasonal patterns differ between years.

    PubMed

    Hegemann, Arne; Matson, Kevin D; Both, Christiaan; Tieleman, B Irene

    2012-11-01

    A central hypothesis of eco-immunology proposes trade-offs between immune defences and competing physiological and behavioural processes, leading to immunological variation within and among annual-cycle stages, as has been revealed for some species. However, few studies have simultaneously investigated patterns of multiple immune indices over the entire annual cycle in free-living birds, and none has investigated the consistency of seasonal patterns across multiple years. We quantified lysis, agglutination, haptoglobin, leukocyte profiles, and body mass in free-living skylarks (Alauda arvensis) through two complete annual cycles and within and between four breeding seasons. The skylarks' annual cycle is characterised by annually repeated changes in energy and time budgets, social structure and diet. If trade-offs relating to these cyclic changes shape evolution, predictable intra-annual immune patterns may result. Alternatively, intra-annual immune patterns may vary among years if fluctuating environmental changes affect the cost-benefit balances of immune function. We found significant variation in immune indices and body mass across the annual cycle, and these patterns differed between years. Immune parameters differed between four breeding seasons, and in all years, lysis and agglutination increased as the season progressed independent of average levels. Population-level patterns (intra-annual, inter-annual, within breeding season) were consistent with within-individual patterns based on repeated measurements. We found little evidence for sex differences, and only haptoglobin was correlated (negatively) with body mass. We conclude that immune modulation is not simply a pre-programmed phenomenon that reflects predictable ecological changes. Instead, fluctuating environmental conditions that vary among years likely contribute to the immunological variation that we observed. PMID:22562421

  1. Synoptic analyses, 5-, 2-, and 0.4-millibar surfaces, July 1973 - June 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Satellite radiance measurements and data from meteorological rocketsondes were employed to analyze a series of high-altitude constant pressure charts. The methods of processing the various types of data and the analysis procedure used are described. Broad-scale analyses for the Northern Hemisphere 5-, 2-, and 0.4-mb surfaces are presented for each week of the period from September through April, and on a once-per-month basis for July, August, May, and June. A brief discussion of the variations of the temperature and height fields throughout the year is also given.

  2. Synoptic analyses, 5-, 2-, and 0.4-millibar surfaces for July 1974 through June 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Meteorological rocketsonde and satellite radiance data were employed for analyses of a continuing series of high altitude constant pressure charts. The methods of processing, the various types of data utilized and the analysis procedure are described. Broad-scale analyses of temperature and geopotential height for the Northern Hemisphere 5, 2, and 0.4 mb surfaces are presented for each week of the period July 1974 through June 1976. Brief discussions of the variations of the temperature and height fields throughout the two year period are also given.

  3. Biofilm Community Diversity after Exposure to 0.4% Stannous Fluoride Gels

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Cavan; Rasmussen, Karin; Selberg, Tieg; Stevens, Justin; Jones, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To test the effect of %0.4 stannous fluoride (SnF2) glycerin based gels on the bacterial ecology in both a clinical observational study and in vitro polymicobial biofilm model. Methods and Results The influence of stannous fluoride (0.4% SnF2) gels on bacteria was tested in both an observational study in children 6-12 years of age (n=20) and an in vitro biofilm model system. The plaque derived multi-species bacterial biofilm model was based on clinical bacterial strains derived directly from the clinical study. Potential changes in the plaque ecology were determined through the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray-HOMIM (n=10). The semiquantitative data resulting from this system were analyzed with cumulative logit models for each bacterial strain and Bonferroni adjustments were employed to correct for multiple hypothesis testing. Both hierarchical biclustering and principal components analysis were used to graphically assess reproducibility within subjects over time. Mixed effects models were used to examine changes in plaque scores and numbers of bacterial strains found in the various conditions. Conclusions Both the observational clinical study and the biofilm model showed that short-term use of 0.4% SnF2 gel has little effect on the bacterial plaque ecology. The amount of plaque accumulation on a subject's teeth, which was measured by plaque index scores failed to show statistical significant changes over the two baselines or after treatment (p=0.9928). The in vitro results were similar when examining the effect of 0.4% SnF2 gels on biofilm adherence through a crystal violet assay (p= 0.1157). Significance and Impact of the Study The bacteria within the dental biofilms showed resilience in maintaining the overall community diversity after exposure to 0.4% Stannous Fluoride Gels. The study supports that the immediate benefits of using these gels each night to manage caries in children may be strictly from fluoride ions inhibiting tooth

  4. Probing the secret lives of rocks - the next 25 years of fission track thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleadow, A. J.; Kohn, B. P.

    2011-12-01

    Much has been achieved over ~40 years to realize the dream of using the annealing record of fission tracks in minerals to reconstruct the thermal histories of rocks. The technology of fission track analysis stabilised about 25 years ago based on neutron-irradiation, the external detector method (EDM) for uranium estimation, zeta calibration against independently-dated age standards, measurement of horizontal confined track lengths, and estimation of compositionally-controlled kinetic parameters. This approach has produced consistent data sets useful for thermal history modeling with increasingly sophisticated fission track annealing algorithms. Among the major limitations of this conventional approach, however, are the labour-intensive character of analysis, which limits data quality and quantity, individual-specific calibrations, and very long sample turn-around times. Important technical innovations now underway, however, are likely to transform the technology of fission track analysis over the next few years. The first is substitution of Laser Ablation ICP-MS for the EDM to estimate sample U [1]. This approach is still limited to a small number of laboratories, but is likely to accelerate with the proliferation of suitable instruments. The advantages for fission track analysis are rapid sample turnaround times and probably, improved analytical precision. The second is the emergence of new methods for autonomous image capture and automatic image analysis of fission tracks based on a new generation of high-precision, motorised microscopes, coupled with new software systems [2]. This approach can work with the conventional EDM, but particularly lends itself to automated LA-ICP-MS analysis. In minerals, such as apatite, automated recognition and counting of fission tracks dramatically reduces microscope time compared to manual measurements. This has the potential to improve counting statistics, data quality and calibration. Track length measurements are no longer

  5. Wartime losses and social bonding: influences across 40 years in men's lives.

    PubMed

    Elder, G H; Clipp, E C

    1988-05-01

    By 1990 over half of all American men entering the retirement years will be veterans with a life history shaped by participation in the Armed Forces. This investigation traces the burden of war mortality and social bonding across the life span of 149 veterans of World War II and the Korean conflict. These veterans come from longitudinal samples at the Institute of Human Development, University of California, Berkeley. Data were also obtained from the record of a Marine unit that served on Iwo Jima. The study is organized around two lines of inquiry. The first examines the relationship between combat and social ties, with emphasis on exposure to combat deaths, the loss of comrades/friends, and postwar stress reactions. The second concerns the healing potential of social ties with service friends and spouses in later life. According to the analysis, heavy combat veterans are more likely than other veterans to have enduring ties from the service. But combat experience alone does not explain these ties; it is war trauma and especially the loss of significant others during war, both comrades and friends, that intensify and maintain postwar relationships. Painful memories of war and stress symptoms in later life are likely to weaken through exposure to a supportive community of service mates and spouses, an effect that suggests the healing potential of periodic reunions of the primary military unit and marital sharing. PMID:3406230

  6. A year of living dangerously: the tobacco control community meets the global settlement.

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, M; Daynard, R; Roemer, R

    1998-01-01

    Momentum toward Congressional action on tobacco issues began with the announcement in June 1997 of a proposed "global tobacco settlement" between the tobacco industry, a group of state Attorneys General, and private class action lawyers. For the next year, tobacco issues received unprecedented national attention, culminating in the U.S. Senate's consideration and ultimate defeat of the McCain tobacco bill. Through the proposed settlement, the Attorneys General and others involved in talks with the industry sought to reduce tobacco use by attempting to forge a "win-win" solution for all parties. In exchange for money and public health concessions, the industry would be granted sweeping protection from litigation and thus a stable environment in which to operate. Members of the public health community responded to the "global tobacco settlement" in very different ways. The authors explore how different visions of possibilities and practicalities were played out in the fight for strong Federal tobacco control legislation and attempt to draw lessons for the future. Images p489-a p491-a p492-a p495-a p496-a PMID:9847920

  7. Five-year flask measurements of long-lived trace gases in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, X.; Indira, N. K.; Ramonet, M.; Delmotte, M.; Ciais, P.; Bhatt, B. C.; Reddy, M. V.; Angchuk, D.; Balakrishnan, S.; Jorphail, S.; Dorjai, T.; Mahey, T. T.; Patnaik, S.; Begum, M.; Brenninkmeijer, C.; Durairaj, S.; Kirubagaran, R.; Schmidt, M.; Swathi, P. S.; Vinithkumar, N. V.; Yver Kwok, C.; Gaur, V. K.

    2015-03-01

    With the rapid growth in population and economic development, emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the Indian subcontinent have sharply increased during recent decades. However, evaluation of regional fluxes of GHGs and characterization of their spatial and temporal variations by atmospheric inversions remain uncertain due to a sparse regional atmospheric observation network. As a result of Indo-French collaboration, three new atmospheric stations were established in India at Hanle (HLE), Pondicherry (PON) and Port Blair (PBL), with the objective of monitoring the atmospheric concentrations of GHGs and other trace gases. Here we present the results of five-year measurements (2007-2011) of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, CO, and H2 from regular flask sampling at these three stations. For each species, annual means, seasonal cycles and gradients between stations were calculated and related to variations in the natural GHG fluxes, anthropogenic emissions, and the monsoon circulations. Covariances between species at the synoptic scale were analyzed to investigate the dominant source(s) of emissions. The flask measurements of various trace gases at the three stations show potential to constrain the inversions of fluxes over Southern and Northeastern India. However, this network of ground stations needs further extension to other parts of India to allow a better understanding of, and constraints on the GHG budgets at regional and continental scales.

  8. Risk Factors Associated with Malnutrition in One-Year-Old Children Living in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Serene A.; Casapía, Martín; Blouin, Brittany; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Rahme, Elham; Gyorkos, Theresa W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children under two years of age are in the most critical window for growth and development. As mobility increases, this time period also coincides with first exposure to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in tropical and sub-tropical environments. The association between malnutrition and STH infection, however, has been understudied in this vulnerable age group. Methodology/Principal Findings A nested cross-sectional survey was conducted in 12 and 13-month old children participating in a deworming trial in Iquitos, an STH-endemic area of the Peruvian Amazon. An extensive socio-demo-epi questionnaire was administered to the child's parent. Length and weight were measured, and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development were administered to measure cognition, language, and fine motor development. Stool specimens were collected to determine the presence of STH. The association between malnutrition (i.e. stunting and underweight) and STH infection, and other child, maternal, and household characteristics, was analyzed using multivariable Poisson regression. A total of 1760 children were recruited between September 2011 and June 2012. Baseline data showed a prevalence of stunting and underweight of 24.2% and 8.6%, respectively. In a subgroup of 880 randomly-allocated children whose specimens were analyzed by the Kato-Katz method, the prevalence of any STH infection was 14.5%. Risk factors for stunting in these 880 children included infection with at least one STH species (aRR = 1.37; 95% CI 1.01, 1.86) and a lower development score (aRR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95, 0.99). A lower development score was also a significant risk factor for underweight (aRR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.95). Conclusions The high prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting, and its association with STH infection and lower developmental attainment in early preschool-age children is of concern. Emphasis should be placed on determining the most cost

  9. A 3-year follow-up of stroke patients: relationships between activities of daily living and personality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Elmståhl, S; Sommer, M; Hagberg, B

    1996-01-01

    The importance of some personality characteristics for improvement of activities of daily life (ADL) was studied in sixty-six stroke patients, initially admitted to geriatric rehabilitation (n=37) or the department of medicine (n=29), 3 years after stroke. Outcome measurements were activities of daily life and motor and mental functions assessed using the Activity Index (AI) by Hamrin and Wohlin (1982). Neuroticism and extroversion were measured with the Eysenck Personality Inventory Scale. Preferred coping strategies were assessed from interviews on how the patients handle difficult events. Major improvements of ADL and motor functions were seen the first year after stroke. There was no major differences between patients admitted, either to geriatric rehabilitation or traditional medical wards regarding the outcome measurements except for better eating ability in the former group 3 years later. Subjects living alone showed deteriorated ADL functions after 3 years. Extrovert personality and active coping strategy predicted improved ADL functions. Multiple regression analyses with AI as the dependent variable proved active coping to predict functional outcome. In conclusion; increased knowledge about personality characteristics can improve possibilities for a more individual rehabilitation program. PMID:15374173

  10. Duration of immunity following immunization with live measles vaccine: 15 years of observation in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed Central

    Dai, B.; Chen, Z. H.; Liu, Q. C.; Wu, T.; Guo, C. Y.; Wang, X. Z.; Fang, H. H.; Xiang, Y. Z.

    1991-01-01

    The duration of immunity following measles vaccination of 2882 immunized children has been investigated in a closed region of China for 15 years. A total of 1002 of the children were treated as primary immunization subjects, and 1547 as reimmunization subjects. These two cohorts were not in contact with known wild measles virus over the whole observation period, and the results obtained probably reflected the antibody responses to measles vaccine alone. The remaining 333 vaccinees came into contact with wild measles virus, and this permitted evaluation of the protective effect of the measles vaccines tested: 4 children experienced very mild clinical measles, and 329 experienced subclinical infection, including 12 who had had undetectable haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies for 9-10 years. These results indicate that the immunity induced by successful primary immunization may persist for at least 15 years. Within this period, a second dose of vaccine only induces low antibody responses which decrease rapidly to their original levels. This provides strong evidence that the immunity produced by primary immunization is long-lasting. However, there were some indications that reimmunization might produce better effects if live attenuated measles virus were used with a longer interval between doses. PMID:1934235

  11. Family function of the families consisting of Asian immigrant women living in South Korea: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Joh, Ju-Youn; Shin, Il-Seon

    2015-03-01

    Marriages between Korean men and immigrant women from elsewhere in Asia have increased rapidly during recent years. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship within families consisting of immigrant women and to identify the relevant factors. The study subjects were 62 Asian immigrant women married to South Korean men living in South Korea. In a baseline study in August 2008, the socioeconomic factors and family APGAR (adaptation, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve) scores were measured. Family APGAR has been widely used to study the relationship of family function and health problems in the busy clinician's office. A 3-year follow-up study was then conducted in August 2011, and the results were compared with the baseline study results. Family APGAR scores were higher at the 3-year follow-up than those at baseline. Changes in family APGAR scores were found to be influenced by the birthplace, reported subjective ability to read Korean, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale score. PMID:22652245

  12. Food insecurity among Iraqi refugees living in Lebanon, 10 years after the invasion of Iraq: data from a household survey.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Hala; Sassine, AnnieBelle J; Seyfert, Karin; Nord, Mark; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2014-07-14

    Iraqi refugees in Lebanon are vulnerable to food insecurity because of their limited rights and fragile livelihoods. The objective of the present study was to assess household food insecurity among Iraqi refugees living in Lebanon, almost 10 years after the invasion of Iraq. A representative survey of 800 UN High Commissioner for Refugees-registered refugee households in Lebanon was conducted using multi-stage cluster random sampling. We measured food insecurity using a modified US Department of Agriculture household food security module. We collected data on household demographic, socio-economic, health, housing and dietary diversity status and analysed these factors by food security status. Hb level was measured in a subset of children below 5 years of age (n 85). Weighted data were used in univariate and multivariate analyses. Among the Iraqi refugee households surveyed (n 630), 20·1% (95% CI 17·3, 23·2) were found to be food secure, 35·5% (95% CI 32·0, 39·2) moderately food insecure and 44·4% (95% CI 40·8, 48·1) severely food insecure. Severe food insecurity was associated with the respondent's good self-reported health (OR 0·3, 95% CI 0·2, 0·5), length of stay as a refugee (OR 1·1, 95% CI 1·0, 1·2), very poor housing quality (OR 3·3, 95% CI 1·6, 6·5) and the number of children in the household (OR 1·2, 95% CI 1·0, 1·4), and resulted in poor dietary diversity (P< 0·0001). Anaemia was found in 41% (95% CI 30·6, 51·9) of children below 5 years of age, but was not associated with food insecurity. High food insecurity, low diet quality and high prevalence of anaemia in Iraqi refugees living in Lebanon call for urgent programmes to address the food and health situation of this population with restricted rights. PMID:24739803

  13. First light with a carbon fiber reinforced polymer 0.4 meter telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Christopher C.; Santiago, Freddie; Jungwirth, Matthew E.; Martinez, Ty; Restaino, Sergio R.; Bagwell, Brett; Romeo, Robert

    2014-03-01

    For the passed several years, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been investigating the use of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) material in the construction of a telescope assembly including the optical components. The NRL, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Composite Mirror Applications, Inc. (CMA) have jointly assembled a prototype telescope and achieved "first light" images with a CFRP 0.4 m aperture telescope. CFRP offers several advantages over traditional materials such as creating structures that are lightweight and low coefficient of thermal expansion and conductivity. The telescope's primary and secondary mirrors are not made from glass, but CFRP, as well. The entire telescope weighs approximately 10 kg while a typical telescope of this size would weigh quite a bit more. We present the achievement of "first light" with this telescope demonstrating the imaging capabilities of this prototype and the optical surface quality of the mirrors with images taken during a day's quiescent periods.

  14. Clinical and epidemiological evaluation of a live, cold-adapted influenza vaccine for 3-14-year-olds.

    PubMed Central

    Rudenko, L. G.; Lonskaya, N. I.; Klimov, A. I.; Vasilieva, R. I.; Ramirez, A.

    1996-01-01

    Reported is a study of live, cold-adapted (CA) reassortant mono-, di-, and trivalent influenza type A and B vaccines in a series of controlled clinical and epidemiological investigations involving nearly 130 000 children aged 3-15 years. The results of clinical, immunological, and morbidity investigations of the vaccinees and a control group over 6-months' follow-up indicated that the vaccines were completely attenuated by the children. Transient febrile reactions occurred in < 1% of the children after vaccination, including double seronegative individuals with low antibody titres. The type A reisolates examined were genetically stable. The reassortants did not suppress each other after simultaneous inoculation of children and stimulated antibody response to influenza virus strains A1, A3, and B. The incidence of influenza-like diseases was approximately 30-40% lower among the vaccinated group than among the control group. The study demonstrates, for the first time, the efficacy of CA vaccine against infections caused by influenza B virus. PMID:8653819

  15. Free-living amoebae and their associated bacteria in Austrian cooling towers: a 1-year routine screening.

    PubMed

    Scheikl, Ute; Tsao, Han-Fei; Horn, Matthias; Indra, Alexander; Walochnik, Julia

    2016-09-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely spread in the environment and known to cause rare but often serious infections. Besides this, FLA may serve as vehicles for bacterial pathogens. In particular, Legionella pneumophila is known to replicate within FLA thereby also gaining enhanced infectivity. Cooling towers have been the source of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in the past and are thus usually screened for legionellae on a routine basis, not considering, however, FLA and their vehicle function. The aim of this study was to incorporate a screening system for host amoebae into a Legionella routine screening. A new real-time PCR-based screening system for various groups of FLA was established. Three cooling towers were screened every 2 weeks over the period of 1 year for FLA and Legionella spp., by culture and molecular methods in parallel. Altogether, 83.3 % of the cooling tower samples were positive for FLA, Acanthamoeba being the dominating genus. Interestingly, 69.7 % of the cooling tower samples were not suitable for the standard Legionella screening due to their high organic burden. In the remaining samples, positivity for Legionella spp. was 25 % by culture, but overall positivity was 50 % by molecular methods. Several amoebal isolates revealed intracellular bacteria. PMID:27177720

  16. Sociodemographic and lifestyle statistics of oldest old people (>80 years) living in ikaria island: the ikaria study.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Chrysohoou, Christina; Siasos, Gerasimos; Zisimos, Konstantinos; Skoumas, John; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2011-01-01

    Background. There are places around the world where people live longer and they are active past the age of 100 years, sharing common behavioral characteristics; these places (i.e., Sardinia in Italy, Okinawa in Japan, Loma Linda in California and Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica) have been named the "Blue Zones". Recently it was reported that people in Ikaria Island, Greece, have also one of the highest life expectancies in the world, and joined the "Blue Zones". The aim of this work work was to evaluate various demographic, lifestyle and psychological characteristics of very old (>80 years) people participated in Ikaria Study. Methods. During 2009, 1420 people (aged 30+) men and women from Ikaria Island, Greece, were voluntarily enrolled in the study. For this work, 89 males and 98 females over the age of 80 yrs were studied (13% of the sample). Socio-demographic, clinical, psychological and lifestyle characteristics were assessed using standard questionnaires and procedures. Results. A large proportion of the Ikaria Study's sample was over the age of 80; moreover, the percent of people over 90 were much higher than the European population average. The majority of the oldest old participants reported daily physical activities, healthy eating habits, avoidance of smoking, frequent socializing, mid-day naps and extremely low rates of depression. Conclusion. Modifiable risk factors, such as physical activity, diet, smoking cessation and mid-day naps, might depict the "secrets" of the long-livers; these findings suggest that the interaction of environmental, behavioral together with clinical characteristics may determine longevity. This concept must be further explored in order to understand how these factors relate and which are the most important in shaping prolonged life. PMID:21403883

  17. Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Statistics of Oldest Old People (>80 Years) Living in Ikaria Island: The Ikaria Study

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Chrysohoou, Christina; Siasos, Gerasimos; Zisimos, Konstantinos; Skoumas, John; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2011-01-01

    Background. There are places around the world where people live longer and they are active past the age of 100 years, sharing common behavioral characteristics; these places (i.e., Sardinia in Italy, Okinawa in Japan, Loma Linda in California and Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica) have been named the “Blue Zones”. Recently it was reported that people in Ikaria Island, Greece, have also one of the highest life expectancies in the world, and joined the “Blue Zones”. The aim of this work work was to evaluate various demographic, lifestyle and psychological characteristics of very old (>80 years) people participated in Ikaria Study. Methods. During 2009, 1420 people (aged 30+) men and women from Ikaria Island, Greece, were voluntarily enrolled in the study. For this work, 89 males and 98 females over the age of 80 yrs were studied (13% of the sample). Socio-demographic, clinical, psychological and lifestyle characteristics were assessed using standard questionnaires and procedures. Results. A large proportion of the Ikaria Study's sample was over the age of 80; moreover, the percent of people over 90 were much higher than the European population average. The majority of the oldest old participants reported daily physical activities, healthy eating habits, avoidance of smoking, frequent socializing, mid-day naps and extremely low rates of depression. Conclusion. Modifiable risk factors, such as physical activity, diet, smoking cessation and mid-day naps, might depict the “secrets” of the long-livers; these findings suggest that the interaction of environmental, behavioral together with clinical characteristics may determine longevity. This concept must be further explored in order to understand how these factors relate and which are the most important in shaping prolonged life. PMID:21403883

  18. Cluster-spin-glass behavior in layered LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fei; Bie, Xiaofei; Chen, Yan; Wei, Yingjin; Liu, Lina; Wang, Chunzhong; Zou, Guangtian; Chen, Gang

    2009-09-01

    Layered LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 has been synthesized by citrate precursor method. Its magnetic properties are investigated by dc magnetization. The high-temperature susceptibility curve follows the Curie-Weiss law with Curie and Weiss constant 1.435(2) emu K/mol Oe and -112(4) K, respectively, larger than those values reported in previous researches, which possibly results from the difference in the synthesis process and sintered temperature. Our dc susceptibility differs from that of the homogeneous spin glass in that below Tirr field cooled (FC) curve continues to rise, while the FC curve is almost flat for homogeneous spin glass. Together with the de Almeida-Thouless line analysis, cluster spin glass is suggested to be the ground state of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2. Frustration parameter |θ|/Tf in this system is estimated to be about four, lower than the value that frustration effect is strong enough to give rise to spin glass state. This fact indicates that the cluster-spin-glass results from the short-range structure disorder rather than the geometrical frustration.

  19. Memoirs of an amnesiac--two years with brain cancer, or the outer space of living with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Dor-Ner, A D

    1991-11-01

    Alexandra Dane Dor-Ner ("Ali" to friends) was a photographer, writer, and a producer of programs on child development. In February 1989, at the age of 41, she was diagnosed with malignant brain cancer. During the following months she underwent brain surgery, radiation, and implant radiation. Throughout her treatment, she continued to work on a novel and write stores and literary criticism. A volunteer in hospitals before her illness, she now became very active in a support group of brain tumor patients and often served as a first resource and contact for others diagnosed with brain cancer. All was very accomplished; her award-winning photographs have been exhibited in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, and her articles and pictures were published in books, periodicals, and newspapers around the world. A native of Boston, Ali lived for 17 years in Israel, where she joined a group of photographers documenting disappearing neighborhoods in Jerusalem. She was awarded first prize in the "Israel Through the Camera's Eye" competition in 1977. She also taught English and photography in Israeli high schools. Ali traveled extensively on photographic assignments. Early in their 22-year marriage, she and her husband circumnavigated the globe on a freighter, producing a documentary film of the voyage. "Memoirs of an Amnesiac" was written while Ali was a student at the Warren Wilson College Writers' Program in North Carolina; she intended to explore the compensatory aspects of her disease. In February 1991, within days of completing the piece, Ali had a third brain operation to remove a regrowth of cancerous tumor cells, as well as necrotic tissue. Two days later, she was again operated on to remove blood clots resulting from the previous surgery. For the next 12 weeks she fought to regain her ability to walk, talk, and write. In May, she underwent a fifth operation to relieve pressure in the brain. She was still in the hospital when she learned, to her great pleasure

  20. Prevalence of behavior problems in three-year-old children living near Three Mile Island: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Cornely, P; Bromet, E

    1986-07-01

    The Behavior Screening Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to determine whether 2 1/2-3 1/2 yr old children living near the TMI nuclear reactor were more disturbed than children living near another nuclear plant or near a fossil-fuel facility in Pennsylvania when assessed 2 1/2 yr later. The prevalence of behavior problems was 11%. Differences among the sites in overall rates and individual symptoms were small. Perceptions of environmental stress among the TMI sample of mothers were unrelated to BSQ scores, whereas in the comparison sites, where unemployment was rising, economic concerns were meaningfully related to the BSQ. PMID:3745348

  1. Assessment of coagulation with 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 in cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chung-Sik; Kim, Seong-Hyop; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Lim, Jeong-Ae; Woo, Nam-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Background Third-generation hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions have been developed to minimize negative effects on hemostasis. In normal pregnancy, the coagulation activity increases, reaching a maximum around term. This study examined the effects of hemodilution with HES 130/0.4 (6%) on blood coagulation in parturients in vivo and in vitro. Methods Forty parturients scheduled for cesarean sections were assigned randomly to receive either 500 or 1,000 ml of HES 130/0.4 (6%). Rotation thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) measurements were performed before and after administering HES 130/0.4 (6%). In addition, blood samples obtained from 20 randomly selected parturients were diluted 10% to 40% using HES 130/0.4 (6%), and ROTEM® measurements were performed before and after dilution. The changes from baseline and the effects of dilution were analyzed by ROTEM® parameters. Results Infusions of 500 or 1,000 ml of HES 130/0.4 (6%) in the parturients altered the clot formation time, α angle, and maximal clot firmness, although all remained within normal ranges. HES 130/0.4 (6%) affected in vitro blood coagulation in parturients' blood containing 10, 20, 30, and 40% HES. The clotting time was prolonged at each dilution percentage, but remained within the normal range. Other parameters showed an impairment of the coagulation system. Conclusions Blood coagulation in parturients may be compromised at high dilution ratios of HES 130/0.4 (6%) to blood. Nevertheless, the infusion of 1,000 ml of HES 130/0.4 (6%) in normal parturients did not significantly affect blood coagulation. PMID:22558500

  2. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation of Li(Ni0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4)O2 Cathode Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rumble, C.; Conry, T.E.; Doeff, Marca; Cairns, Elton J.; Penner-Hahn, James. E.; Deb, Aniruddha

    2010-02-02

    Li(Ni{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2-y}Al{sub y}Mn{sub 0.4})O{sub 2} with y=0.05 was investigated to understand the effect of replacement of the cobalt by aluminum on the structural and electrochemical properties. The effect of the substitution was studied by in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), utilizing a novel in situ electrochemical cell, specifically designed for long-term X-ray experiments. The cell was cycled at a moderate rate through a typical Li-ion battery operating voltage range (1.0-4.7 V). XAS measurements were performed at different states-of-charge (SOC) during cycling, at the Ni, Co, and the Mn edges, revealing details about the response of the cathode to Li insertion and extraction processes. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure region of the spectra revealed the changes of bond distance and coordination number of Ni, Co, and Mn absorbers as a function of the SOC of the material. The oxidation states of the transition metals in the system are Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 3+}, and Mn{sup 4+} in the as-made material (fully discharged), while during charging the Ni{sup 2+} is oxidized to Ni{sup 4+} through an intermediate stage of Ni{sup 3+}, Co{sup 3+} is oxidized towards Co{sup 4+} and Mn was found to be electrochemically inactive and remains as Mn{sup 4+}. The EXAFS results during cycling show that the Ni-O changes the most, followed by Co-O and Mn-O varies the least. These measurements on this cathode material confirmed that the material retains its symmetry and good structural short-range order leading to the superior cycling reported earlier.

  3. Structural and electrochemical Investigation of Li(Ni0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4)O2 Cathode Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rumble, C.; Conry, T.E.; Doeff, Marca; Cairns, Elton J.; Penner-Hahn, James E.; Deb, Aniruddha

    2010-06-14

    Li(Ni{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}Mn{sub 0.4})O{sub 2} was investigated to understand the effect of replacement of the cobalt by aluminum on the structural and electrochemical properties. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was performed, utilizing a novel in situ electrochemical cell, specifically designed for long-term X-ray experiments. The cell was cycled at a moderate rate through a typical Li-ion battery operating voltage range. (1.0-4.7 V) XAS measurements were performed at different states of charge (SOC) during cycling, at the Ni, Co, and the Mn edges, revealing details about the response of the cathode to Li insertion and extraction processes. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) region of the spectra revealed the changes of bond distance and coordination number of Ni, Co, and Mn absorbers as a function of the SOC of the material. The oxidation states of the transition metals in the system are Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 3+}, and Mn{sup 4+} in the as-made material (fully discharged), while during charging the Ni{sup 2+} is oxidized to Ni{sup 4+} through an intermediate stage of Ni{sup 3+}, Co{sup 3+} is oxidized toward Co{sup 4+}, and Mn was found to be electrochemically inactive and remained as Mn{sup 4+}. The EXAFS results during cycling show that the Ni-O changes the most, followed by Co-O, and Mn-O varies the least. These measurements on this cathode material confirmed that the material retains its symmetry and good structural short-range order leading to the superior cycling reported earlier.

  4. Half-Lives of 101Rh and 108m Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Eric; Browne, Edgardo; Shugart, Howard

    2014-09-01

    Half-lives of short-lived nuclei can easily be measured by direct counting techniques, whereas those of long-lived naturally-occurring nuclei are usually determined by specific activity measurements. However, half-lives in the range of 1 - 1,000,000 years are notoriously difficult to determine. For example, published values for the half-life of 101Rh range from 3.0 +/- 0.4 years to 10 +/- 1 years, and for 108m Ag published values range from 127 +/- 21 years to 438 +/- 9 years. In order to resolve the issues of what the half-lives of these isotopes actually are, we set up two separate long-term gamma-ray counting experiments. Gamma-ray data were collected in time bins using high-purity Ge detectors and ORTEC PC-based data acquisition systems. We counted in this manner for a period of approximately 5 years for 101Rh and 3 years for 108mAg. In this talk we will describe the details of these experiments and will present the final results for the half-lives of 101Rh and 108mAg determined from these measurements. Half-lives of short-lived nuclei can easily be measured by direct counting techniques, whereas those of long-lived naturally-occurring nuclei are usually determined by specific activity measurements. However, half-lives in the range of 1 - 1,000,000 years are notoriously difficult to determine. For example, published values for the half-life of 101Rh range from 3.0 +/- 0.4 years to 10 +/- 1 years, and for 108m Ag published values range from 127 +/- 21 years to 438 +/- 9 years. In order to resolve the issues of what the half-lives of these isotopes actually are, we set up two separate long-term gamma-ray counting experiments. Gamma-ray data were collected in time bins using high-purity Ge detectors and ORTEC PC-based data acquisition systems. We counted in this manner for a period of approximately 5 years for 101Rh and 3 years for 108mAg. In this talk we will describe the details of these experiments and will present the final results for the half-lives of 101Rh

  5. DC-Bias-Superposition Characteristics of Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4 Nanopowders Synthesized by Auto-Combustion.

    PubMed

    Sadhana, K; Sandhya, R; Praveena, K

    2015-06-01

    Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4 nanopowders were prepared by auto-combustion method. The as-synthesized powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo-gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and the powders were densified at different temperatures 400 degrees C, 500 degrees C, 600 degrees C and 700 degrees C/4 hrs using conventional sintering method. The sintered samples were characterized by XRD and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The bulk densities of the samples were increased with an increase of sintering temperature. The grain sizes of all the samples vary in between 18 nm to 30 nm. The hysteresis loops show high saturation magnetization and low coercivity, indicates that it is a soft material. The incremental permeability (permeability with magnetic field superposition) was influenced by both ΔM and H(c). A sample with higher initial permeability and favoured the attainment of a higher incremental permeability. The Q-factor was mainly determined by the sintered density and microstructure. To summarize, a uniform and dense microstructure with relatively small average grain size is favourable for obtaining better dc-bias-superposition characteristics, including permeability and Q-factor. PMID:26369079

  6. Fluorinated electrolyte for 4.5 V Li(Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2)O2/graphite Li-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian; Nie, M.; Burns, J. C.; Xiao, A.; Lamanna, W. M.; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-03-01

    A fluorinated electrolyte mixture, containing 1 M LiPF6/fluoroethylene carbonate:bis (2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) carbonate (1:1 w:w) with prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone as an electrolyte additive exhibited promising cycling and storage performance in Li(Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2)O2/graphite pouch type Li-ion cells tested to 4.5 V. The prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone additive was added to help control gas evolution in the fluorinated electrolyte cells, which was improved but still problematic even with the additive. Cells with the fluorinated electrolyte demonstrated higher impedance in early cycles compared to cells with carbonate solvents and state of the art additives. Symmetric cells were used to show this high impedance originated at the negative electrode/electrolyte interface. Nevertheless, in charge-discharge cycling tests to 4.5 V, cells with the fluorinated electrolyte and 1, 2 or 3% prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone additive, outperformed all non-fluorinated electrolytes with all additives tested. With further work, these, or other fluorinated carbonates, coupled with appropriate additives, may represent a viable path to NMC/graphite cells that can operate to 4.5 V and above.

  7. The high temperature proton conductor BaZr 0.4Ce 0.4In 0.2O 3-α

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, T.; Wen, C.; Taniguchi, N.; Otomo, J.; Takahashi, H.

    The oxygen ion conductor yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which is usually used as the electrolyte of SOFC, operates at high temperatures of about 1000 °C. The recent trend in developing SOFC is to reduce the operating temperature. Proton conducting cerates may allow the intermediate temperature operation for SOFC applications. Rare-earth-doped BaCeO 3 electrolytes with the perovskite structure present good protonic conductivities at moderate temperatures but rather poor chemical stability and endurance for moisture. Barium zirconate, in contrast, is a rather stable material but exhibits low protonic conductivity. We then focused on a practical protonic conductor of BaZr 0.4Ce 0.4In 0.2O 3 (BZCI) that has a relatively high durability against moisture and good protonic conductivity. However, little is known about its stability and electrochemical properties in reducing hydrogen. In this work, the electrochemical properties of BZCI as SOFC electrolytes were investigated in concentration cell and fuel cell operations. From the results of concentration cell measurements, it was revealed that BZCI has good proton conductivities in hydrogen-rich atmospheres and behaves as a protonic and oxide ionic conductor in oxygen-rich atmospheres, with some extent of electronic conductivity, which lowers its ionic transport number. Open circuit voltage (OCV) measurements in Fuel cell operations showed that OCV value of a Pt| BZCI| Pt cell is about 870 mV at 800 °C and 1020 mV at 600 °C.

  8. The characterization and electrochemical performance of Li[Li0.2Ni0.4Mn0.4]O2 material prepared by a combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wuwei; Wen, Hua; Chen, Yuanzhen; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Yongning

    2015-03-01

    A Li[Li0.2Ni0.4Mn0.4]O2 cathode material for lithium battery was synthesized in de-ionized water, ethanol and ethanol with PEG by a combustion method. XPS analysis shows that Ni and Mn are in 3+ and 4+ oxidation states, respectively. Three materials exhibit a layered hexagonal α-NaFeO2 structure, and that prepared in ethanol with PEG displays the best homogeneous morphology in a size distribution of 200-400 nm. The electrochemical tests show that the material prepared in ethanol with PEG displays the best cyclic performance and rate capability, such as the discharge capacity of 254 mAhg-1 in the first cycle at 0.1C and 234 mAhg-1 after 50 cycles. Capacity retention is more than 90% after 50 cycles for the cell with a charge/discharge pre-cycling treatment (one cycle at 4.5-2.0 V and followed by one cycle at 4.8-2.0 V) compared with that without pre-cycling. EIS measurements demonstrate that pre-cycling treatment leads to form a better SEI layer and the cell assembled with the material prepared in ethanol with PEG has the least RSEI and Rct values.

  9. New composite spectra of Mars, 0.4-5.7 μm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erard, Stephane; Calvin, Wendy M.

    1997-01-01

    About 15 areas were observed in the equatorial regions of Mars by the infrared spectrometers IRS (Mariner 6 and 7) and ISM (Phobos-2). The comparison between the spectra shows a remarkable consistency between two data sets acquired 20 years apart and calibrated independently. This similarity demonstrates the accuracy of ISM calibration above 2 μm, except for a possible stray light contribution above 2.6 μm, on the order of ∼1–2% of the solar flux at 2.7 μm. Most differences in spectral shapes are related to differences in spectral/spatial resolution and viewing geometries. No important variation in surface properties is detected, except for a spot in southern Arabia Terra which has a much deeper hydration feature in IRS spectra; differences in viewing geometries and spatial resolutions do not seem to account for this difference that could result from shifting or dehydration of surface materials. Composite spectra of several types of bright and dark materials are computed by modeling the thermal emission and are completed with telescopic spectra in the visible range. Modeled reflectance in the 3.0–5.7 μm range is consistent with basalts and palagonites. The bright regions and analog palagonite spectra are different from hematite in this range, but resemble several phyllosilicates. We infer that (1) although hematite dominates the spectra in the 0.4- to 2.5-μm range, the silicate-clay host is spectrally active beyond 3 μm and can be identified from this domain; (2) phyllosilicates such as montmorillonite or smectite may be abundant components of the martian soils, although the domain below 3 μm lacks the characteristic features of the most usual terrestrial clay minerals.

  10. Predictors for dioxin accumulation in residents living in Da Nang and Bien Hoa, Vietnam, many years after Agent Orange use.

    PubMed

    Pham, Diem T; Nguyen, Hang M; Boivin, Thomas G; Zajacova, Anna; Huzurbazar, Snehalata V; Bergman, Harold L

    2015-01-01

    Agent Orange (AO) was the main defoliant used by the US in Vietnam from 1961 to 1971; AO was contaminated with dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or TCDD). Three major dioxin “hot spots” remain from previous AO storage and use at former US bases at Bien Hoa, Da Nang, and Phu Cat, posing potential health risks for Vietnamese living on or near these hot spots. We evaluated potential risk factors contributing to serum TCDD levels in Vietnamese residents at and near contaminated sites in Da Nang and Bien Hoa, Vietnam. We used multiple linear regression to analyze possible associations of blood dioxin concentrations with demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and dietary risk factors for residents living on or near these hot spots. For the Da Nang study, fish farming on the site, living on property flooded from monsoon rains, and age were among the factors showing significant positive associations with serum TCDD concentrations. For the Bien Hoa study, fish farmers working at this site and their immediate family members had significantly higher serum TCDD concentrations. Our results suggest that water-related activities, especially fish-farming, at the hot spots increased the risk of exposure to dioxin. PMID:25463251

  11. Detection of 210Po on filter papers 16 years after use for the collection of short-lived radon progeny in a room.

    PubMed

    Abu-Jarad, F; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2003-01-01

    Radon gas was allowed to accumulate in its radium source and then injected into a 36 m(3) test room, resulting in an initial radon concentration of 15 kBq m(-3). Filter papers were used to collect the short-lived radon progeny and thus to measure the Potential Alpha Energy Concentration (PAEC) in-situ in the year 1984 at different times and conditions according to the experimental design. The radon progeny collected on the filter papers were studied as a function of aerosol particle concentration ranging from 10(2)-10(5) particles cm(-3) in three different experiments. The highest aerosol particle concentration was generated by indoor cigarette smoking. Those filters were stored after the experiment, and were used after 16 years to study the activity of the radon long-lived alpha emitter progeny, (210)Po (T(1/2)=138 days). This isotope is separated from the short-lived progeny by (210)Pb beta emitter with 22.3 years half-life. After 16 years' storage of these filters, each filter paper was sandwiched and wrapped between two CR-39 nuclear track detectors, to put the detectors in contact with the surfaces of different filters, for 337 days. Correlation between the PAEC measured using filter papers in the year 1984 and the activity of long-lived alpha emitter (210)Po on the same filter papers measured in the year 2000 were studied. The results of the (210)Po activity showed a very good correlation of 0.92 with the PAEC 16 years ago. The results also depict that the PAEC and (210)Po activity in indoor air increased with the increase of aerosol particle concentration, which shows the attachment of short-lived radon progeny with the aerosol particles. The experiment proves that indoor cigarette smoking is a major source of aerosol particles carrying radon progeny and, thus, indoor cigarette smoking is an additional source of internal radiation hazard to the occupants whether smoker or non-smoker. PMID:12633999

  12. Thermal decomposition study of Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Deshpande, M. P.; Tailor, Jiten P.

    2013-06-01

    The Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals were grown by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) analysis were carried out on the as-grown Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals in inert nitrogen atmosphere. All these thermal analysis were done from ambient temperature to 1223 K. The activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of Mo0.6W0.4Se2 single crystals were determined from the thermal curves using Broido, Horowitz-Metzger (H-M), Piloyan-Novikova (P-N) and Coats-Redfern (C-R) relations. The results are reported in this paper.

  13. How the Other 2/3 Live: Institutional Initiatives for Part-Time Faculty Assimilation in America's 2-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Michael H.

    The number of part-time faculty employed in two-year colleges has risen dramatically in recent years, with current data indicating that 64% of two-year college faculty work part time. It is critical, therefore, that colleges ensure that part-time faculty are well integrated into the organizational culture. In assessing initiatives for helping…

  14. The effect of electrolyte additives on both LaPO4-coated Li(Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2)O2 and uncoated Li(Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2)O2 in Li-ion pouch cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian; Lu, Z.; Camardese, J.; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    The effectiveness of some selected electrolyte additive blends were systematically studied in Li[Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2]O2/graphite and 3 wt% LaPO4-coated Li[Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2]O2/graphite pouch cells using ex-situ gas measurements, ultra high precision coulometry, automated storage experiments, long-term cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. For cells tested to an upper cutoff potential of 4.4 V the LaPO4-coating provided no benefit when state-of-the-art electrolyte additives were used. For cells tested to 4.5 V, the LaPO4 coating appeared to limit electrolyte oxidation slightly and resulted in better capacity retention compared to uncoated cells for cells with state-of-the-art electrolyte additives. However, even for cells tested to 4.5 V, the benefits of the additives far outweighed the benefits of the coating. This suggests literature papers that compare the impact of coatings on positive electrode materials in cells that contain electrolytes without electrolyte additives have limited value.

  15. The Perceived Effects of a Four-Year-Old Kindergarten Program on Children Living in a Native American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouimette, Larry William

    2009-01-01

    This case study examined the extent to which a voluntary public-school 4-year-old kindergarten program in a Native American Community integrates the cultural context of the community, influences student social and academic growth, and prepares students for kindergarten. This qualitative study interviewed 4-year-old kindergarten teachers,…

  16. Anthropometric Measures of 9- to 10-Year-Old Native Tibetan Children Living at 3700 and 4300 m Above Sea Level and Han Chinese Living at 3700 m

    PubMed Central

    Bianba, Bianba; Yangzong, Yangzong; Gonggalanzi, Gonggalanzi; Berntsen, Sveinung; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stigum, Hein; Nafstad, Per; Bjertness, Espen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A high residential altitude impacts on the growth of children, and it has been suggested that linear growth (height) is more affected than body mass. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of obesity, overweight, underweight, and stunting in groups of native Tibetan children living at different residential altitudes (3700 vs 4300 m above sea level) and across ancestry (native Tibetan vs Han Chinese children living at the same altitude of 3700 m), as well as to examine the total effect of residential altitude and ancestry with stunting. Two cross-sectional studies of 1207 school children aged 9 to 10 years were conducted in Lhasa in 2005 and Tingri in 2007. Conventional age- and sex-specific cutoff values were used for defining underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obesity, whereas stunting was defined from sex-specific height-for-age z-scores (≤−2.0). The prevalence of underweight was high at 36.7% among Tingri Tibetan girls and 31.1% in Tingri Tibetan boys. The prevalence was statistically significant lower in Lhasa Tibetan girls (20.2%) than in both Tingri Tibetan girls and Han Chinese girls (33.7%), with a similar trend seen among boys. Severe and moderate stunting were found in 14.6% and 35.7%, respectively, of Tingri children, and near null among Han Chinese and native Tibetans in Lhasa. In logistic regression analyses, socioeconomic status and diet did not substantially change the observed crude association (total effect) (odds ratio [OR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–10.3) between ancestry and stunting. Similarly, adjustment for diet did not alter the crude association (direct effect) (OR = 101.3; 95% CI 37.1–276.4) between residential altitude and stunting. The prevalence estimates of stunting and underweight were high, and clearly higher among native Tibetan children living at a higher residential altitude (Tingri) than the lower residential altitude (Lhasa), in addition to being higher among

  17. Reorganizing life: A qualitative study of fathers' lived experience in the 3 years subsequent to the very preterm birth of their child.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Pia; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Hallström, Inger

    2014-01-01

    This is the second part of a study that is following eight Swedish fathers of very preterm children using qualitative interviews. The aim was to illuminate fathers' lived experience of the 3 years since the birth of their very preterm child using a hermeneutic phenomenological method. The fathers described their lived experience as a process of reorganizing life, which constituted the overarching theme. They described a journey from the past to the present in which they adapted ordinary family life. The sub-themes identified were struggling to endure, experiencing empowerment, and building a secure base. The results may serve as a basis for neonatal staff to optimize care for both fathers and mothers during the child's hospitalization, as well as subsequent to their discharge. PMID:24239685

  18. LIPID PROFILE OF POLISH PRIMARY CARE PATIENTS AGED 35-55 YEARS LIVING IN THE DISTRICT OF PLESZEW.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Karolina; Matyjaszczyk, Piotr; Zaporowska-STACHOWIAK, Iwona; Kostrzewska, Magdalena; Piorunek, Tomasz; Minczykowskp, Andrzej; Bryl, Wieslaw

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, more than half of the adult population suffers from lipid disorders. Among the 18 million Polish people with hypercholesterolemia, over 10.8 million are unaware of this problem. To estimate the lipid profile of selected primary care patients in the district of Pleszew (Western Poland), general practitioners (GPs) recruited 681 patients aged 35-55 years in 2011. Fasting serum lipids were evaluated. We found statistically significant differences in all lipid parameters between all younger (35-45 years) and older (46-55 years) patients, between all female and male subjects, between women and men ages 35-45 years; in total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) between younger and older female population; in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TG between women and men ages 46-55 years. Dyslipidemia, both, newly detected and previously treated, was detected in 591 patients (86.8%): 322 females (84.3%) and 269 males (90.0%). The highest percentage of lipid disorders was found in males aged 46-55 years (91.9%) and the lowest among women aged 35-45 years (78.0%). Age and gender differences in the prevalence of dyslipidemia proved of statistical importance. Among 155 patients on lipid-lowering therapy, only 28 subjects (18.1%) reached the target value of serum lipids. The prevalence of lipid disorders among primary care patients aged 35-55 years in the district of Pleszew was significantly high, and it was proved that dyslipidemia is statistically prominent in males and older patients. Polish healthcare professionals should make more efforts to improve the detection and treatment of lipid disorders. PMID:27180447

  19. Learning a Living Across the Nation: Volume 3. Part 1: Narrative Report. Project Baseline Third National Report. Baseline Year: 1972-73 (Fiscal Year 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Arthur M.

    A narrative description of enrollments, costs, and other detail, the document represents the first of a two-part national report of vocational education and manpower training during the school year 1972-73. The Project Baseline study, the third national report, presents the developments of Federal assistance programs throughout the nation and…

  20. Live Poultry Trade in Southern China Provinces and HPAIV H5N1 Infection in Humans and Poultry: The Role of Chinese New Year Festivities

    PubMed Central

    Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Jia, Beibei; Guo, Fusheng; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Martin, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Background The number of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype (HPAIV H5N1) over the past 5 years has been drastically reduced in China but sporadic infections in poultry and humans are still occurring. In this study, we aimed to investigate seasonal patterns in the association between the movement of live poultry originating from southern China and HPAIV H5N1 infection history in humans and poultry in China. Methodology/Principal Findings During January to April 2010, longitudinal questionnaire surveys were carried out monthly in four wholesale live bird markets (LBMs) in Hunan and Guangxi provinces of South China. Using social network analysis, we found an increase in the number of observed links and degree centrality between LBMs and poultry sources in February and March compared to the months of January and April. The association of some live poultry traders (LPT’s) with a limited set of counties (within the catchment area of LBMs) in the months of February and March may support HPAIV H5N1 transmission and contribute to perpetuating HPAIV H5N1 virus circulation among certain groups of counties. The connectivity among counties experiencing human infection was significantly higher compared to counties without human infection for the months of January, March and April. Conversely, counties with poultry infections were found to be significantly less connected than counties without poultry infection for the month of February. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that temporal variation in live poultry trade in Southern China around the Chinese New Year festivities is associated with higher HPAIV H5N1 infection risk in humans and poultry. This study has shown that capturing the dynamic nature of poultry trade networks in Southern China improves our ability to explain the spatiotemporal dissemination in avian influenza viruses in China. PMID:23166751

  1. Design study of a 0.4 THz 100 kW pulsed gyrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, E.M.

    2011-07-01

    We present a status of development of a 0.4 THz, 100 kW pulsed gyrotron at UNIST 0.4 THz, 100 kW gyrotron is currently under design for a remote radioactive material detection. A magnetic injection gun (MIG) is used for the electron gun with a beam voltage of 70 kV and beam current of 10 A with a pulse duration of 10 usec. A second harmonic cavity for the gyrotron interaction is considered for the high power THz gyrotron. Numerical optimization of the electron gun design and the cavity is performed in the study. In this paper, we briefly report the design study of the gyrotron. (author)

  2. Numerical study on a 0.4 THz second harmonic gyrotron with high power

    SciTech Connect

    Chaojun, Lei; Sheng, Yu; Hongfu, Li; Yinghui, Liu; Xinjian, Niu; Qixiang, Zhao

    2013-07-15

    Terahertz and sub-terahertz science and technology are promising topics today. However, it is difficult to obtain high power source of terahertz wave. In this paper, the mode competition and beam-wave interaction in a gradually tapered cavity are studied to achieve high efficiency of a 0.4THz second harmonic gyrotron in practice. In order to attain high power and stable radiation, the TE{sub 32,5} mode is selected as the operating mode of the desired gyrotron to realize single mode oscillation. The issues of studying on the high-order mode gyrotrons are solved effectively by transforming the generalized telegraphist's equations. The efficiency and output power of the gyrotron under different conditions have been calculated by the code, which is based on the transformed equations. Consequently, the results show that single mode second harmonic radiation with power of over 150 kW at frequency of 0.4 THz could be achieved.

  3. Learning a Living across the Nation. Volume V. Project Baseline. Fifth National Report. Baseline Year: 1974-75 (Fiscal Year 1975). Part 2: Statistical Almanac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Arthur M.; Fitzgerald, Dorris

    This is the second part of a two-part volume of Project Baseline's annual report on the status of vocational education for the 1974-75 period. It is a statistical almanac containing three major sections and an appendix. Section I contains the tables based on data collected in fiscal year 1975. These tables are divided into four groups: Tables 1-16…

  4. Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  5. Energy for Living. Teacher's Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  6. Living Things and Their Food. Teacher's Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  7. A Phenomenology Study of First-Year Teachers Looking at the Shared Lived Experience of Learning to Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Brandon Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the phenomenon of how first-year teachers learn to evaluate students learning by (letter) grades. Grades seem simple enough; but in reality, each grade carries serious consequences with it--for either good or bad. For example, grades affect benefits/consequences at home; they affect placement in remedial or advanced courses;…

  8. Journal of a Living Experiment: A Documentary History of the First Ten Years of Teachers and Writers Collaborative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopate, Phillip, Ed.

    Intended to celebrate the first 10 years of Teachers and Writers Collaborative (the original organization which sent poets, novelists, and other artists into the schools on a regular basis), this book contains 29 articles, diaries, letters, manifestos, graphics, and memoirs. The book contains the following articles: (1) "Roots and Origins" (P.…

  9. Forces in Living Things. Study Guide. Unit H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty; Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  10. Energy for Living. Study Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide includes activities and…

  11. How to spend the summer? Free-living dormice (Glis glis) can hibernate for 11 months in non-reproductive years.

    PubMed

    Hoelzl, Franz; Bieber, Claudia; Cornils, Jessica S; Gerritsmann, Hanno; Stalder, Gabrielle L; Walzer, Chris; Ruf, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Edible dormice are arboreal rodents adapted to yearly fluctuations in seed production of European beech, a major food source for this species. In years of low beech seed abundance, dormice skip reproduction and non-reproductive dormice fed ad libitum in captivity can display summer dormancy in addition to winter hibernation. To test whether summer dormancy, that is, a very early onset of hibernation, actually occurs in free-living dormice, we monitored core body temperature (Tb) over ~12 months in 17 animals during a year of beech seeding failure in the Vienna Woods. We found that 8 out of 17 dormice indeed re-entered hibernation as early as in June/July, with five of them having extreme hibernation durations of 11 months or more (total range: 7.8-11.4 months). Thus, we show for the first time that a free-living mammal relying on natural food resources can continuously hibernate for >11 months. Early onset of hibernation was associated with high body mass in the spring, but the distribution of hibernation onset was bimodal with prolonged hibernation starting either early (prior to July 28) or late (after August 30). This could not be explained by differences in body mass alone. Animals with a late hibernation onset continued to maintain high nocturnal Tb's throughout summer but used short, shallow torpor bouts (mean duration 7.44 ± 0.9 h), as well as occasional multiday torpor for up to 161 h. PMID:26293446

  12. Evaluation of outcome and prognostic factors for dogs living greater than one year after diagnosis of osteosarcoma: 90 cases (1997–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Culp, William T. N.; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Sefton, Jennifer; Aldridge, Charles F.; Withrow, Stephen J.; Lafferty, Mary H.; Rebhun, Robert B.; Kent, Michael S.; Ehrhart, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical characteristics, outcome, and prognostic variables in a cohort of dogs surviving > 1 year after an initial diagnosis of osteosarcoma. Design Retrospective case series. Animals 90 client-owned dogs. Procedures Medical records for an 11-year period from 1997 through 2008 were reviewed, and patients with appendicular osteosarcoma that lived > 1 year after initial histopathologic diagnosis were studied. Variables including signalment, weight, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, tumor location, surgery, and adjuvant therapies were recorded. Median survival times were calculated by means of a Kaplan-Meier survival function. Univariate analysis was conducted to compare the survival function for categorical variables, and the Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the likelihood of death > 1 year after diagnosis on the basis of the selected risk factors. Results 90 dogs met the inclusion criteria; clinical laboratory information was not available in all cases. Median age was 8.2 years (range, 2.7 to 13.3 years), and median weight was 38 kg (83.6 lb; range, 21 to 80 kg [46.2 to 176 lb]). Serum alkaline phosphatase activity was high in 29 of 60 (48%) dogs. The most common tumor location was the distal portion of the radius (54/90 [60%]). Eighty-nine of 90 (99%) dogs underwent surgery, and 78 (87%) received chemotherapy. Overall, 49 of 90 (54%) dogs developed metastatic disease. The median survival time beyond 1 year was 243 days (range, 1 to 1,899 days). Dogs that developed a surgical-site infection after limb-sparing surgery had a significantly improved prognosis > 1 year after osteosarcoma diagnosis, compared with dogs that did not develop infections. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results of the present study indicated that dogs with an initial diagnosis of osteosarcoma that lived > 1 year had a median survival time beyond the initial year of approximately 8 months. As reported previously, the development of a surgical

  13. Physical activity and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents living in an area affected by the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami for 3 years.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Kanzo; Suzuki, Koya; Sakamoto, Yuzuru; Sasaki, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the change in physical activity levels among children and adolescents living in the area affected by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami for 3 years immediately following the disaster. Children and adolescents graded four to nine and attending school in the Pacific coastal area of northern Japan were included in a total of four serial prevalence investigations: the first at 6 months after the earthquake/tsunami (I, n = 434) and additional surveys at 1 year (II, n = 437), 2 years (III, n = 401), and 3 years (IV, n = 365) after the earthquake. Students were also required to undergo assessment of their accelerometer-determined daily steps and sedentary time using a self-administrated questionnaire. Accelerometer-determined median daily steps of children and adolescents were significantly different (p < 0.05) on both weekdays and weekends over 3 years. The median daily steps of children of both genders on weekdays and those of girls on weekends at period IV were significantly lower than those at period I. In addition, the median daily steps of adolescents on weekdays among girls and weekends among boys at period IV were significantly lower than those at period I. It appears that children and adolescents who survive the earthquake and tsunami experience a decrease in physical activity levels. Future research should elucidate longitudinal demographic and sociocultural factors that contribute to changes in physical activity levels among children and adolescents living in the areas affected by these disasters. PMID:26844143

  14. Vitamin E status of 20- to 59-year-old adults living in the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and functions primarily as a lipid antioxidant. Inadequate vitamin E status may increase risk of several chronic diseases. Thus, the objectives of this study were to estimate intake and plasma concentration of each tocopherol and to evaluate vitamin E status of Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS Three consecutive 24-h food recalls and fasting blood samples were collected from healthy 20- to 59-y-old adults (33 males and 73 females) living in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea. α-, β-, δ-, and γ-tocopherol intakes and plasma concentrations of tocopherols (α-, δ-, and γ-tocopherol) were analyzed by gender. RESULTS Dietary vitamin E and total vitamin E intake (dietary plus supplemental vitamin E) was 17.68 ± 14.34 and 19.55 ± 15.78 mg α-tocopherol equivalents, respectively. The mean daily α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol intakes were 3.07 ± 2.27 mg and 5.98 ± 3.74 mg, respectively. Intakes of total vitamin E and each tocopherol of males were significantly higher than those of females (P < 0.05). Plasma α-tocopherol concentration was 15.45 ± 10.16 of males and 15.00 ± 4.54 µmol/L of females, respectively. There were no significant differences in plasma tocopherol concentrations by gender (P ≥ 0.05). Plasma α-tocopherol was negatively correlated with γ-tocopherol intake (P < 0.05). Twenty-three percent of the subjects had plasma α-tocopherol concentrations < 12 µmol/L indicating a biochemical deficiency of vitamin E. Approximately 8% and 9% of these participants had plasma α-tocopherol:total lipid ratio less than 1.59 µmol/mmol and plasma α-tocopherol:total cholesterol ratio less than 2.22 µmol/mmol, respectively, which are also indicative of vitamin E deficiency. CONCLUSIONS Vitamin E intakes of Korean adults were generally adequate with the Korean Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin E. However, α-tocopherol intake was lower than that reported in other countries, and 23% of the

  15. An integrated, multistudy analysis of the safety of Ann Arbor strain live attenuated influenza vaccine in children aged 2–17 years

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Christopher S; Yi, Tingting; Falloon, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Background Trivalent, Ann Arbor strain, live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is approved in several countries for use in eligible children aged ≥2 years. Objective To describe the safety of Ann Arbor strain LAIV in children aged 2–17 years. Methods An integrated analysis of randomized, controlled trials of LAIV. Results A total of 4245 and 10 693 children received ≥1 dose of LAIV in year 1 of 6 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV)-controlled and 14 placebo-controlled studies, respectively; 3212 children were revaccinated in year 2 of 4 placebo-controlled studies. Compared with placebo for days 0–10 post-vaccination, LAIV recipients exhibited increased runny/stuffy nose (+7%), headache (+7%), and tiredness/decreased activity (+2%) after dose 1; and a higher rate of decreased appetite (+4%) after year 2 revaccination. Compared with TIV, only runny/stuffy nose was increased (dose 1, +12%; dose 2, +4%). Compared with initial vaccination, LAIV reactogenicity was lower after dose 2 in year 1 and revaccination in year 2. Unsolicited adverse events (AEs) increased with LAIV in some comparisons were headache, nasal congestion/rhinorrhea, rhinitis, and pyrexia; ear pain and lower respiratory illness were decreased. There was no evidence of an increase in any potential vaccine-related serious AE in LAIV recipients. Among children aged 2–17 years and specifically aged 24–35 months, there was no evidence that lower respiratory illness or wheezing illness occurred at a higher rate in LAIV recipients. Conclusion This analysis supports the safety of Ann Arbor strain LAIV in children aged 2–17 years and provides a consensus assessment of events expected after vaccination. PMID:21668683

  16. Balanced Hydroxyethylstarch (HES 130/0.4) Impairs Kidney Function In-Vivo without Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Martin Alexander; Baar, Wolfgang; Bruno, Raphael Romano; Wollborn, Jakob; Held, Christopher; Schneider, Reinhard; Flemming, Sven; Schlegel, Nicolas; Roewer, Norbert; Neuhaus, Winfried; Wunder, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Volume therapy is a standard procedure in daily perioperative care, and there is an ongoing discussion about the benefits of colloid resuscitation with hydroxyethylstarch (HES). In sepsis HES should be avoided due to a higher risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). Results of the usage of HES in patients without sepsis are controversial. Therefore we conducted an animal study to evaluate the impact of 6% HES 130/0.4 on kidney integrity with sepsis or under healthy conditions Sepsis was induced by standardized Colon Ascendens Stent Peritonitis (sCASP). sCASP-group as well as control group (C) remained untreated for 24 h. After 18 h sCASP+HES group (sCASP+VOL) and control+HES (C+VOL) received 50 ml/KG balanced 6% HES (VOL) 130/0.4 over 6h. After 24h kidney function was measured via Inulin- and PAH-Clearance in re-anesthetized rats, and serum urea, creatinine (crea), cystatin C and Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as well as histopathology were analysed. In vitro human proximal tubule cells (PTC) were cultured +/- lipopolysaccharid (LPS) and with 0.1–4.0% VOL. Cell viability was measured with XTT-, cell toxicity with LDH-test. sCASP induced severe septic AKI demonstrated divergent results regarding renal function by clearance or creatinine measure focusing on VOL. Soleley HES (C+VOL) deteriorated renal function without sCASP. Histopathology revealed significantly derangements in all HES groups compared to control. In vitro LPS did not worsen the HES induced reduction of cell viability in PTC cells. For the first time, we demonstrated, that application of 50 ml/KG 6% HES 130/0.4 over 6 hours induced AKI without inflammation in vivo. Severity of sCASP induced septic AKI might be no longer susceptible to the way of volume expansion. PMID:26340751

  17. Balanced Hydroxyethylstarch (HES 130/0.4) Impairs Kidney Function In-Vivo without Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Schick, Martin Alexander; Baar, Wolfgang; Bruno, Raphael Romano; Wollborn, Jakob; Held, Christopher; Schneider, Reinhard; Flemming, Sven; Schlegel, Nicolas; Roewer, Norbert; Neuhaus, Winfried; Wunder, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Volume therapy is a standard procedure in daily perioperative care, and there is an ongoing discussion about the benefits of colloid resuscitation with hydroxyethylstarch (HES). In sepsis HES should be avoided due to a higher risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). Results of the usage of HES in patients without sepsis are controversial. Therefore we conducted an animal study to evaluate the impact of 6% HES 130/0.4 on kidney integrity with sepsis or under healthy conditions Sepsis was induced by standardized Colon Ascendens Stent Peritonitis (sCASP). sCASP-group as well as control group (C) remained untreated for 24 h. After 18 h sCASP+HES group (sCASP+VOL) and control+HES (C+VOL) received 50 ml/KG balanced 6% HES (VOL) 130/0.4 over 6 h. After 24 h kidney function was measured via Inulin- and PAH-Clearance in re-anesthetized rats, and serum urea, creatinine (crea), cystatin C and Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as well as histopathology were analysed. In vitro human proximal tubule cells (PTC) were cultured +/- lipopolysaccharid (LPS) and with 0.1-4.0% VOL. Cell viability was measured with XTT-, cell toxicity with LDH-test. sCASP induced severe septic AKI demonstrated divergent results regarding renal function by clearance or creatinine measure focusing on VOL. Soleley HES (C+VOL) deteriorated renal function without sCASP. Histopathology revealed significantly derangements in all HES groups compared to control. In vitro LPS did not worsen the HES induced reduction of cell viability in PTC cells. For the first time, we demonstrated, that application of 50 ml/KG 6% HES 130/0.4 over 6 hours induced AKI without inflammation in vivo. Severity of sCASP induced septic AKI might be no longer susceptible to the way of volume expansion. PMID:26340751

  18. 0.4 Microns Spatial Resolution with 1 GHz (lambda = 30 cm) Evanescent Microwave Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabib-Azar, M.; Su, D.-P.; Pohar, A.; LeClair, S. R.; Ponchak, George E.

    1999-01-01

    In this article we describe evanescent field imaging of material nonuniformities with a record resolution of 0.4 microns at 1 GHz (lambda(sub g)/750000), using a resonant stripline scanning microwave probe. A chemically etched tip is used as a point-like evanescent field emitter and a probe-sample distance modulation is employed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Images obtained by evanescent microwave probe, by optical microscope, and by scanning tunneling microscope are presented for comparison. Probe was calibrated to perform quantitative conductivity measurements. The principal factors affecting the ultimate resolution of evanescent microwave probe are also discussed.

  19. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludbrook, B. M.; Ruck, B. J.; Granville, S.

    2016-07-01

    We report perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the half-metallic ferromagnetic Heusler alloy Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si (CFMS) in a MgO/CFMS/Pd trilayer stack. PMA is found for CFMS thicknesses between 1 and 2 nm, with a magnetic anisotropy energy density of KU=1.5 ×106 erg/cm3 for tCFMS=1.5 nm. Both the MgO and Pd layer are necessary to induce the PMA. We measure a tunable anomalous Hall effect, where its sign and magnitude vary with both the CFMS and Pd thickness.

  20. Primary calibration system for vibration transducers from 0.4 Hz to 160 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, C. D.; Ripper, G. P.; Dias, R. S.; Teixeira, D. B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a system developed at the Vibration Laboratory of Inmetro, which is used for primary calibration of vibration transducers by the fringe counting method. This system includes a vibration exciter, a Michelson interferometer, a data acquisition board, a band-pass filter, a universal counter and a software for measurement automation. It allows the laboratory to perform calibrations in accordance with the international standard ISO 16063-11 in the frequency range from 0.4 Hz to 160 Hz. Some experimental results are presented herein.

  1. The 339 Years of Living Dangerously in Indonesia: Earthquakes and Tsunamis in the Indonesian Region from 1538 to 1877

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. A.; Major, J.

    2013-05-01

    Using 339 years of Dutch records of geophysical events in Indonesia and tsunami modeling, we have identified previously unknown mega-thrust earthquake sources in eastern Indonesia that caused severe devastation in the past and are likely to reoccur in the near future. Indonesia has experienced some of the most extreme geohazards known (Toba, Krakatoa, Tambora, Indian Ocean tsunami). Although most of well known events occurred in western Indonesia, historical records reveal that eastern Indonesia is actually more hazardous. Strain rates in eastern Indonesia are twice those in Sumatra and tsunamis are much more frequent. Adding to the disaster potential in Indonesia is its rapid population growth and urbanization, especially in coastal regions. When the events documented in historical records reoccur in eastern Indonesia, as they have in western Indonesia, ten times more people and assets will be in harms way. Arthur Wichmann's Die Erdbeben Des Indischen Archipels [The Earthquakes of the Indian Archipelago] (1918) documents >100 destructive earthquakes and 68 tsunamis between 1600 and 1877. The largest and best documented are the events of 1629, 1674 and 1852 in the Banda Sea region, 1770 and 1859 in the Molucca Sea region, 1820 in Makassar, 1857 in Dili, Timor, 1815 in Bali and Lombak, 1699, 1771, 1780, 1815, 1848 and 1852 in Java and 1799, 1833 and 1861 in Sumatra. All of these events caused damage over a broad region notwithstanding high seismic attenuation rates, and are associated with years of temporal and spatial clustering of earthquakes. Several tsunami are recorded with run-up heights > 15 meters. Many islands were engulfed and coastal communities washed away. The earthquakes associated with these events were felt over a region as large as the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake in Japan and were followed by decades of aftershocks. Over the past 160 years no major shallow earthquakes have struck eastern Indonesia, which is characterized as an area incapable of mega

  2. The Dependence of galaxy colors on luminosity and environment at z~0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, H.K.C.; Hsieh, B.C.; Lin, Huan; Gladders, M.D.; /Carnegie Inst. Observ.

    2005-08-01

    The authors analyze the B-R{sub c} colors of galaxies as functions of luminosity and local galaxy density using a large photometric redshift catalog based on the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey. They select two samples of galaxies with a magnitude limit of M{sub R{sub e}} < -18.5 and redshift ranges of 0.2 {le} z < 0.4 and 0.4 {le} x < 0.6 containing 10{sup 5} galaxies each. they model the color distributions of subsamples of galaxies and derive the red galaxy fraction and peak colors of red and blue galaxies as functions of galaxy luminosity and environment. The evolution of these relationships over the redshift range of x {approx} 0.5 to z {approx} 0.05 is analyzed in combination with published results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They find that there is a strong evolution in the restframe peak color of bright blue galaxies in that they become redder with decreasing redshift, while the colors of faint blue galaxies remain approximately constant. This effect supports the ''downsizing'' scenario of star formation in galaxies. While the general dependence of the galaxy color distributions on the environment is small, they find that the change of red galaxy fraction with epoch is a function of the local galaxy density, suggesting that the downsizing effect may operate with different timescales in regions of different galaxy densities.

  3. Buying Years to Extinction: Is Compensatory Mitigation for Marine Bycatch a Sufficient Conservation Measure for Long-Lived Seabirds?

    PubMed Central

    Forero, Manuela G.; Oro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Along the lines of the ‘polluter pays principle’, it has recently been proposed that the local long-line fishing industry should fund eradication of terrestrial predators at seabird breeding colonies, as a compensatory measure for the bycatch caused by the fishing activity. The measure is economically sound, but a quantitative and reliable test of its biological efficacy has never been conducted. Here, we investigated the demographic consequences of predator eradication for Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea, breeding in the Mediterranean, using a population model that integrates demographic rates estimated from individual life-history information with experimental measures of predation and habitat structure. We found that similar values of population growth rate can be obtained by different combinations of habitat characteristics, predator abundance and adult mortality, which explains the persistence of shearwater colonies in islands with introduced predators. Even so, given the empirically obtained values of survival, all combinations of predator abundance and habitat characteristics projected a decline in shearwater numbers. Perturbation analyses indicated that the value and the sensitivity of shearwater population growth rates were affected by all covariates considered and their interactions. A decrease in rat abundance delivered only a small increase in the population growth rate, whereas a change in adult survival (a parameter independent of rat abundance) had the strongest impact on population dynamics. When adult survival is low, rat eradication would allow us to “buy” years before extinction but does not reverse the process. Rat eradication can therefore be seen as an emergency measure if threats on adult survival are eliminated in the medium-term period. For species with low fecundity and long life expectancy, our results suggest that rat control campaigns are not a sufficient, self-standing measure to compensate the biological toll of long

  4. Buying years to extinction: is compensatory mitigation for marine bycatch a sufficient conservation measure for long-lived seabirds?

    PubMed

    Igual, José Manuel; Tavecchia, Giacomo; Jenouvrier, Stephanie; Forero, Manuela G; Oro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Along the lines of the 'polluter pays principle', it has recently been proposed that the local long-line fishing industry should fund eradication of terrestrial predators at seabird breeding colonies, as a compensatory measure for the bycatch caused by the fishing activity. The measure is economically sound, but a quantitative and reliable test of its biological efficacy has never been conducted. Here, we investigated the demographic consequences of predator eradication for Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea, breeding in the Mediterranean, using a population model that integrates demographic rates estimated from individual life-history information with experimental measures of predation and habitat structure. We found that similar values of population growth rate can be obtained by different combinations of habitat characteristics, predator abundance and adult mortality, which explains the persistence of shearwater colonies in islands with introduced predators. Even so, given the empirically obtained values of survival, all combinations of predator abundance and habitat characteristics projected a decline in shearwater numbers. Perturbation analyses indicated that the value and the sensitivity of shearwater population growth rates were affected by all covariates considered and their interactions. A decrease in rat abundance delivered only a small increase in the population growth rate, whereas a change in adult survival (a parameter independent of rat abundance) had the strongest impact on population dynamics. When adult survival is low, rat eradication would allow us to "buy" years before extinction but does not reverse the process. Rat eradication can therefore be seen as an emergency measure if threats on adult survival are eliminated in the medium-term period. For species with low fecundity and long life expectancy, our results suggest that rat control campaigns are not a sufficient, self-standing measure to compensate the biological toll of long

  5. Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity from four to 16 years old children living in the Mexico-USA border.

    PubMed

    Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jones, Elizabeth G; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among Mexicans is alarming in both the child and adult populations. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity in pre-school (PS), elementary (ES), and middle high (MHS) public school children from Tijuana. From February to April of 2011, a bietapic random sample was selected by cluster method of 30 PS, 30 ES, and 30 MHS children. And a sample of 30 groups for each level was chosen. Twenty elementary teachers and eight graduate students were trained at one central location on how to take anthropometric measurements using a portable scale, a stadiometer, and a measuring tape to determine weight, height, and waist circumference. Body Mass Index values were computed and compared to age/gender BMI percentiles according to WHO criteria. Waist circumference for-age at the 90th percentile from NHANES III (Mexican-American) was used to define abdominal obesity. The sample was composed of 646 PS children, 961 ES children, and 1,095 MHS children. Their ages ranged from 4- 16 years. Results showed an overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in younger than 5y preschool children (> 2 SD) of 23.1%, in ≥ 5 y PS (> 1 SD) of 33.8%, in ES children of 46.3%, and in MHS children of 41.9%. Abdominal obesity in PS children was 18%, in ES children was 16.7%, and in MHS children was 15.2%. These results warrant immediate and comprehensive actions to prevent a critical public health problem in Mexico. PMID:23822701

  6. Burden of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Children Aged 1 Month to 12 Years Living in South Asia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Nishant; Singh, Meenu; Thumburu, Kiran Kumar; Bharti, Bhavneet; Agarwal, Amit; Kumar, Ajay; Kaur, Harpreet; Chadha, Neelima

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary objective was to estimate the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children aged 1 month to 12 years in South Asian countries. Methods We searched three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library) using a comprehensive search strategy, we manually searched published databases (Index Medicus and Current Contents) and we also searched the bibliographies of the included studies and retrieved reviews. The searches were current through June 2013. Eligible studies (community-based and hospital-based) were pooled and a separate analysis for India was also completed. A meta-regression analysis and heterogeneity analysis were performed. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO registration number CRD42013004483. Results A total of 22 studies surveying 36,714 children were included in the systematic review. Hospital-based prospective studies from South Asia showed that 3.57% of children had IPD, and 15% of all bacterial pneumonia cases were due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Indian studies showed that the incidence of IPD was 10.58% in children admitted to hospitals with suspected invasive bacterial diseases, and 24% of all bacterial pneumonia cases were due to S. pneumonia. Population-based studies from South Asian countries showed that 12.8% of confirmed invasive bacterial diseases were caused by S. pneumonia whereas retrospective hospital-based studies showed that 28% of invasive bacterial diseases were due to S. pneumoniae. Meta-regression showed that there was a significant influence of the antigen testing method for diagnosing IPD on IPD prevalence. Conclusion S. pneumoniae is responsible for a substantial bacterial disease burden in children of South Asian countries including India despite the presence of high heterogeneity in this meta-analysis. Treatment guidelines must be formulated, and preventive measures like vaccines must also be considered. PMID:24798424

  7. Increasing Number and Proportion of Adverse Obstetrical Outcomes among Women Living with HIV in the Ottawa Area: A 20-Year Clinical Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Sarah; Spaans, Johanna N.; Balfour, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence and associated risks with adverse obstetrical outcomes among women living with HIV are not well measured. The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate the prevalence and correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes among women with HIV. Methods. This 20-year (1990–2010) clinical case series assessed the prevalence of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV receiving care at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH). General estimating equation modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes, while controlling for year of childbirth clustering. Results. At TOH, there were 127 deliveries among 94 women (1990–2010): 22 preterm births, 9 births with low birth weight, 12 births small for gestational age, and 4 stillbirths. Per year, the odds of adverse obstetrical outcomes increased by 15% (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03–1.30). Psychiatric illness (AOR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.12–6.24), teen pregnancy (AOR: 3.35, 95% CI: 1.04–1.46), and recent immigrant status (AOR: 7.24, 95% CI: 1.30–40.28) were the strongest correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes. Conclusions. The increasing number and proportion of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV over the past 20 years highlight the need for social supports and maternal and child health interventions, especially among adolescents, new immigrants, and those with a history of mental illness. PMID:27528877

  8. Increasing Number and Proportion of Adverse Obstetrical Outcomes among Women Living with HIV in the Ottawa Area: A 20-Year Clinical Case Series.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Sarah; Muldoon, Katherine A; Spaans, Johanna N; Balfour, Louise; Samson, Lindy; Walker, Mark; Cameron, D William

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence and associated risks with adverse obstetrical outcomes among women living with HIV are not well measured. The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate the prevalence and correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes among women with HIV. Methods. This 20-year (1990-2010) clinical case series assessed the prevalence of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV receiving care at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH). General estimating equation modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes, while controlling for year of childbirth clustering. Results. At TOH, there were 127 deliveries among 94 women (1990-2010): 22 preterm births, 9 births with low birth weight, 12 births small for gestational age, and 4 stillbirths. Per year, the odds of adverse obstetrical outcomes increased by 15% (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30). Psychiatric illness (AOR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.12-6.24), teen pregnancy (AOR: 3.35, 95% CI: 1.04-1.46), and recent immigrant status (AOR: 7.24, 95% CI: 1.30-40.28) were the strongest correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes. Conclusions. The increasing number and proportion of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV over the past 20 years highlight the need for social supports and maternal and child health interventions, especially among adolescents, new immigrants, and those with a history of mental illness. PMID:27528877

  9. Synoptic analyses, 5-, 2-, and 0.4-millibar surfaces for January 1972 through June 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Data from meteorological rocketsonde and satellite radiance measurements were employed to analyze a series of high-altitude synoptic charts. The methods employed for processing the various types of data and the analysis procedure are described. Broad-scale analyses for the Northern Hemisphere 5-, 2-, and 0.4-mb surfaces are presented for each week from September through April and for each month from May through August during the period January 1972 through June 1973. A brief discussion of the height and temperature fields is also given. Circulation and temperature changes associated with a minor stratospheric warming in January and February 1972 and a major stratospheric warming in January and February 1973 are among the discussion items.

  10. Efficient generation of THz pulses with 0.4 mJ energy.

    PubMed

    Fülöp, J A; Ollmann, Z; Lombosi, Cs; Skrobol, C; Klingebiel, S; Pálfalvi, L; Krausz, F; Karsch, S; Hebling, J

    2014-08-25

    Efficient generation of THz pulses with high energy was demonstrated by optical rectification of 785-fs laser pulses in lithium niobate using tilted-pulse-front pumping. The enhancement of conversion efficiency by a factor of 2.4 to 2.7 was demonstrated up to 186 μJ THz energy by cryogenic cooling of the generating crystal and using up to 18.5 mJ/cm2 pump fluence. Generation of THz pulses with more than 0.4 mJ energy and 0.77% efficiency was demonstrated even at room temperature by increasing the pump fluence to 186 mJ/cm2. The spectral peak is at about 0.2 THz, suitable for charged-particle manipulation. PMID:25321225

  11. A model of the 0.4-GHz scatterometer. [used for agriculture soil moisture program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1978-01-01

    The 0.4 GHz aircraft scatterometer system used for the agricultural soil moisture estimation program is analyzed for the antenna pattern, the signal flow in the receiver data channels, and the errors in the signal outputs. The operational principal, system sensitivity, data handling, and resolution cell length requirements are also described. The backscattering characteristics of the agriculture scenes are contained in the form of the functional dependence of the backscattering coefficient on the incidence angle. The substantial gains of the cross-polarization term of the horizontal and vertical antennas have profound effects on the cross-polarized backscattered signals. If these signals are not corrected properly, large errors could result in the estimate of the cross-polarized backscattering coefficient. It is also necessary to correct the variations of the aircraft parameters during data processing to minimize the error in the 0 degree estimation. Recommendations are made to improve the overall performance of the scatterometer system.

  12. Shock structure and noise of supersonic jets in simulated flight to Mach 0.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norum, Thomas D.; Shearin, John G.

    1988-01-01

    Measured jet plume static pressure distributions and far-field acoustic spectra are presented for underexpanded jets in simulated flight up to a Mach number of 0.4. A gradual stretching of the downstream shock cells is found as the Mach number increases, with no perceptible change in the shock strength. There appears to be little effect of flight on the broadband shock noise amplitudes, and the small changes in its peak frequency for the same emission angle are correlated with the slightly longer shock cells in flight. The larger changes in the broadband peak frequency found at the same angle in wind tunnel coordinates are attributable to convection. Jet mixing noise production decreases significantly with increasing flight speed.

  13. A 0.4 to 10 GHz airborne electromagnetic environment survey of USA urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Hill, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of some U.S. metropolitan areas measured terrestrial emissions within the broad frequency spectrum from 0.4 to 10 GHz. A Cessna 402 commercial aircraft was fitted with both nadir-viewing and horizon-viewing antennas and instrumentation, including a spectrum analyzer, a 35 mm continuous film camera, and a magnetic tape recorder. Most of the flights were made at a nominal altitude of 10,000 feet, and Washington, D. C., Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and Chicago were surveyed. The 450 to 470 MHz land-mobile UHF band is especially crowded, and the 400 to 406 MHz space bands are less active. This paper discusses test measurements obtained up to 10 GHz. Sample spectrum analyzer photograhs were selected from a total of 5,750 frames representing 38 hours of data.

  14. 0.4- to 10-GHz airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of United States urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Hill, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic-environment survey of some U.S. metropolitan areas measured terrestrial emissions within the broad-frequency spectrum from 0.4 to 10 GHz. A Cessna 402 commercial aircraft was fitted with both nadir-viewing and horizon-viewing antennas and instrumentation, including a spectrum analyzer, a 35-mm continuous-film camera, and a magnetic-tape recorder. Most of the flights were made at a nominal altitude of 10,000 ft, and Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and Chicago were surveyed. The 450- to 470-MHz land-mobile UHF band is especially crowded, and the 400- to 406-MHz space bands are less active. Test measurements obtained up to 10 GHz are discussed. Sample spectrum-analyzer photographs were selected from a total of 5750 frames representing 38 hours of data.

  15. The "CEO" of women's work lives: how Big Five Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Openness predict 50 years of work experiences in a changing sociocultural context.

    PubMed

    George, Linda G; Helson, Ravenna; John, Oliver P

    2011-10-01

    Few long-term longitudinal studies have examined how dimensions of personality are related to work lives, especially in women. We propose a life-course framework for studying work over time, from preparatory activities (in the 20s) to descending work involvement (after age 60), using 50 years of life data from the women in the Mills Longitudinal Study. We hypothesized differential work effects for Extraversion (work as pursuit of rewards), Openness (work as self-actualization), and Conscientiousness (work as duty) and measured these 3 traits as predictor variables when the women were still in college. In a prospective longitudinal design, we then studied how these traits predicted the women's subsequent work lives from young adulthood to age 70 and how these effects depended on the changing sociocultural context. Specifically, the young adulthood of the Mills women in the mid-1960s was rigidly gender typed and family oriented; neither work nor education variables at that time were predicted from earlier personality traits. However, as women's roles changed, later work variables became related to all 3 traits, as expected from current Big Five theory and research. For example, early personality traits predicted the timing of involvement in work, the kinds of jobs chosen, and the status and satisfaction achieved, as well as continued work participation and financial security in late adulthood. Early traits were also linked to specific cultural influences, such as the traditional feminine role, the women's movement, and graduate education for careers. PMID:21859225

  16. Complexity Variations in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field between 0.4 and 5.3 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weygand, J. M.; Kivelson, M.; Velli, M.; Gekelman, W. N.; Khurana, K. K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Walker, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated how the character of magnetic fluctuations of solar wind plasma depends on radial distance from the Sun. We use measurements of the magnetic field taken at different distances from the Sun by different spacecraft: Helios between 0.4 and 1 AU, ACE and Wind at about 1 AU, and Ulysses at about 5.3 AU. Data intervals are selected to contain only what appear to be random fluctuations and to exclude solar wind structures such as coronal mass ejections, co-rotating interaction regions, heliospheric current sheets, shocks, etc. With these data we calculate the Jensen-Shannon complexity as a function of permutation entropy. Jensen-Shannon complexity maps indicate if the fluctuations in the magnetic fields are stochastic (low complexity and high entropy), or if they exhibit minimal or maximal complexity and lower entropy. The Jensen-Shannon complexity values determined from the spacecraft measurements evolve from moderate complexity and high entropy at 0.4 AU to lower complexity and higher entropy farther from the Sun. We interpret these data to mean that as the solar wind plasma expands outward, the magnetic field fluctuations evolve from chaotic (i.e., low dimensionality, deterministic fluctuations) to turbulent (i.e., low dimensionality, non-deterministic fluctuations). By separating the magnetic fluctuations into slow solar wind (<450 km/s) and fast solar wind (>550 km/s), we find that the younger solar wind (transported outward rapidly) has higher complexity than the older solar wind (transported outward slowly). These results can be tested by Solar Probe Plus to be launched in 2018.

  17. Attitudes and Beliefs of African Immigrant Mothers Living in the US Towards Providing Comprehensive Sex Education to Daughters Aged 12-17 Years: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Agbemenu, Kafuli; Terry, Martha Ann; Hannan, Margaret; Kitutu, Julius; Doswell, Willa

    2016-10-01

    The literature currently contains no comprehensive sex education (CSE) interventions targeting the African immigrant population. African immigrant mothers have been inhibited by several factors from providing their daughters with CSE. The primary aim of this study was to identify attitudes and beliefs of Sub-Saharan immigrant mothers living in the United States towards providing comprehensive sex education to their daughters aged 12-17 years. The study utilized a one-time anonymous nine-question survey. Fifteen women who met the inclusion criteria completed the study survey online or via paper format. African immigrant mothers are willing to allow comprehensive sex to be taught in schools and at home. Accepted education appears to range from religious and moral teaching to some factual information. This research will potentially assist in the designing of more culturally appropriate comprehensive sex education programs for African immigrant mothers and their daughters. PMID:26438661

  18. Performance improvement of graphite/LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 battery at high voltage with added Tris (trimethylsilyl) phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Haibo; Xu, Mengqing; Xie, Boyuan; Huang, Weizhao; Liao, Xiaolin; Xing, Lidan; Li, Weishan

    2015-01-01

    The performance of graphite/LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 pouch cells cycled to 4.35 V with 1.0 M LiPF6 in EC/DMC/EMC (1/1/1, v/v/v) solution with and without TMSP at room temperature has been investigated. Incorporation of 1% TMSP to the control electrolyte results in a significant improvement in cycling stability and rate performance of graphite/LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 cells. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) results indicate that the use of TMSP can dramatically decrease the impedance of the graphite/LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 pouch cells. After 70 cycles, ex-situ analyses of the graphite/LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 cells were conducted via the combinations of XPS, SEM, TEM, and ICP-MS. The enhanced performance is ascribed to the modified cathode film with TMSP incorporated, which inhibits the continuous decomposition of the electrolyte on the cathode surface and provides the protection for the cathode bulk material upon cycling.

  19. The Sloan Bright Arcs Survey : Six Strongly Lensed Galaxies at z=0.4-1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Allam, Sahar S.; Annis, James; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Diehl, H.Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Lin, Huan; Tucker, Douglas; /Fermilab

    2008-12-01

    We present new results of our program to systematically search for strongly lensed galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data. In this study six strong lens systems are presented which we have confirmed with followup spectroscopy and imaging using the 3.5m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Preliminary mass models indicate that the lenses are group-scale systems with velocity dispersions ranging from 466?878 km s{sup -1} at z = 0.17-0.45 which are strongly lensing source galaxies at z = 0.4-1.4. Galaxy groups are a relatively new mass scale just beginning to be probed with strong lensing. Our sample of lenses roughly doubles the confirmed number of group-scale lenses in the SDSS and complements ongoing strong lens searches in other imaging surveys such as the CFHTLS (Cabanac et al. 2007). As our arcs were discovered in the SDSS imaging data they are all bright (r {approx_equal} 22), making them ideally suited for detailed follow-up studies.

  20. 4. pi. physics. [/sup 40/Ar + KCl, 0. 4 to 1. 8 GeV/A

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, A.

    1980-03-01

    Exclusive ..pi../sup -/ and charged-particle production in collisions of /sup 40/Ar on KCl are studied at incident energies from 0.4 to 1.8 GeV/A. The correlation between the ..pi../sup -/ and the total charged particle multiplicity confines the reaction along a narrow ridge with no exotic islands of pion production. For high multiplicities the system reaches the total disintegration of target and projectile into singly charged fragments and pions. Every 200 MeV/A datum was taken with a central and inelastic trigger. For central collisions the mean ..pi../sup -/ multiplicity increases linearly with the bombarding energy with no marked discontinuities due to the ..delta..(3,3) resonance. At 1.8 GeV/A evidence for nonthermal ..pi../sup -/ production in central collisions is found. The total c.m. energy in ..pi../sup -/ shows linear dependence on the ..pi../sup -/ multiplicity with a slope of epsilon = 300 MeV/..pi../sup -/. Strange particle production in the central collision of 1.8 GeV/A Ar on KCl is seen. 8 figures.

  1. SunPy - Python for Solar Physics, Version 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Perez-Suarez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russel

    2014-06-01

    We presents version 0.4 of SunPy, a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation NumPy, SciPy and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualisation and plotting (matplotlib).SunPy is a data-analysis environment specialising in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric datasets in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from missions such as GOES, SDO/EVE, and PROBA2/LYRA, and radio spectra from e-Callisto and STEREO/SWAVES. We describe SunPy's functionality, provide examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing tools already available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy.

  2. Neurotoxicity of intrathecal 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 injection in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Vassal, O; Del Carmine, P; Beuriat, P-A; Desgranges, F-P; Gadot, N; Allaouchiche, B; Timour-Chah, Q; Stewart, A; Chassard, D

    2015-09-01

    Epidural blood patch is the gold standard treatment for post-dural puncture headache, although hydroxyethyl starch may be a useful alternative to blood if the latter is contraindicated. The aim of this experimental study was to assess whether hydroxyethyl starch given via an indwelling intrathecal catheter resulted in clinical or histopathological changes suggestive of neurotoxicity. The study was conducted in rats that were randomly allocated to receive three 10-μl injections on consecutive days of either saline or hydroxyethyl starch administered via the intrathecal catheter. Eight rats were given injections of saline 0.9% and 11 were given 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 derived from thin boiling waxy corn starch in 0.9% sodium chloride (Voluven). Daily clinical evaluation, activity measured by actimetry and neuropathological analysis of the spinal cord were subsequently performed to assess for signs of neurotoxicity. No clinical or actimetric changes were observed in either group following intrathecal saline or hydroxyethyl starch administration. Histopathological examination showed non-specific changes with no differences between the two groups. This experimental study in the rat suggests that repeated intrathecal injection of hydroxyethyl starch is not associated with neurotoxicity. PMID:25907209

  3. On the Fermi-GBM Event 0.4 s after GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, J.; Burgess, J. M.; Savchenko, V.; Yu, H.-F.

    2016-08-01

    In view of the recent report by Connaughton et al., we analyze continuous time-tagged event (TTE) data of Fermi-gamma-ray burst monitor (GBM) around the time of the gravitational-wave event GW 150914. We find that after proper accounting for low-count statistics, the GBM transient event at 0.4 s after GW 150914 is likely not due to an astrophysical source, but consistent with a background fluctuation, removing the tension between the INTEGRAL/ACS non-detection and GBM. Additionally, reanalysis of other short GRBs shows that without proper statistical modeling the fluence of faint events is over-predicted, as verified for some joint GBM–ACS detections of short GRBs. We detail the statistical procedure to correct these biases. As a result, faint short GRBs, verified by ACS detections, with significances in the broadband light curve even smaller than that of the GBM–GW150914 event are recovered as proper non-zero source, while the GBM–GW150914 event is consistent with zero fluence.

  4. A Statistical Study of Mg II Absorption Selected Galaxies in the SDSS at 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Brittney; Lundgren, B.

    2014-01-01

    The spectra of distant quasars frequently exhibit absorption features from singly-ionized magnesium (Mg II), which are understood to trace gas outflow and accretion processes in foreground galaxies. Host galaxies of the Mg II absorbing gas are difficult to detect because they are often faint and have small angular separation from the bright background quasar. We have undertaken a statistical study of low redshift ( 0.4) galaxies identified as potential Mg II absorption hosts which are visible in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Using data from the SDSS DR7, we compiled a census of ~3200 photometrically-identified galaxies within a projected 150 kpc of an Mg II absorbing system. These potential Mg II absorption hosts were then compared to a control sample of galaxies in the foreground of quasars without absorption systems in the same redshift range. We report a positive detection of excess galaxies around the lines of sight to quasars with Mg II absorption systems, extending to ~90 kpc. We present the luminosity distribution of these excess galaxies and compare to previous, smaller studies from the literature. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation's REU program through NSF Award AST-1004881 to the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  5. Living related liver transplantation in an adult patient with hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma 13 years after bone marrow transplantation for Fanconi anemia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Colle, Isabelle; Laureys, Geneviève; Raevens, Sarah; Libbrecht, Louis; Reyntjens, Koen; Geerts, Anja; Rogiers, Xavier; Troisi, Roberto; Hoehn, Holger; Schindler, Detlev; Hanenberg, Helmut; De Wilde, Vincent; Van Vlierberghe, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome, characterised by failing DNA repair. Hematopoetic stem cell transplantation, known to be curative for the bone marrow failure, does neither prevent or cure other manifestations such as the development of malignancies. We describe a 26-year-old male patient with known Fanconi anemia and Marfan syndrome who in 1994 underwent a successful bone marrow transplantation of stem cells from his HLA-identical sister. In 2006, three hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions in the liver were detected and promptly resected. The resection specimen contained 3 lesions, all showing activation of the beta-catenin pathway: a well differentiated steatotic HCC with remnants of the underlying adenoma from which it arose, an adenoma with small foci of well differentiated HCC and a cholestatic adenoma. Known risk factors for developing HCC include Fanconi anemia itself and the use of androgens (oxymetholone) for a period of 3 years preceeding transplantation. Because of the increased risk of developing additional HCC’s, liver transplantation was proposed, taking into account that immunosuppression increases the risk of other malignancies. By using part of the liver of the HLA-identical sister, already acting as bone marrow donor 13 years before, immunosuppression could be avoided. A left lobe liver transplantation was performed without immediate complications for donor and acceptor on July 2, 2007. Nine months after liver transplantation the recipient developed an anastomotic biliary stricture that had to be dilated by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Two months later however, the stenosis recurred, necessitating a surgical reanastomosis (hepaticojejunostomy). Five years after liver transplantation the patient is still doing well. This case report is twofold special being the first case reporting Fanconi anemia linked to Marfan syndrome and being the first reported case of Fanconi anemia who was treated for

  6. Biocompatibility of Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles and Their Thermotherapy on VX2-Carcinoma-Induced Liver Tumors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chun-Yan; Tang, Qiu-Sha; Zhang, Dong-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumors are the most serious threat to human health. Much research has focused on revealing the characteristics of this disease and developing methods of treatment. Because tumor cells are more sensitive to heat than normal cells, thermotherapy for the treatment of tumors has attracted much attention. In this paper, we presented functional Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles with the molecular composition of Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 as the magnetic response material for the thermotherapy. The suggested Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles were with a self-regulation temperature of 43 degrees C which was ideal for tumor thermotherapy. The biocompatibility and anti-tumor effect of this material were well investigated. It was found that the Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 nanoparticles have no hemolysis activity, no genotoxic effects and cytotoxicity. Its Median Lethal Dose (LD50) arrived at 6.026 g/kg and it did not induce any abnormal clinical signs in laboratory animals. Moreover, the suggested nanoparticles can increase the inhibitory ratio of weight and volume of tumors, cause tumor tissues necrosis and show the therapeutic effect on the xenograft live cancers in vivo. Based on these results, we could envision the valuable application of the Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 nanoparticles for the practical thermotherapy. PMID:26328307

  7. The type Ia supernova rate at {ital z}{approximately}0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Pain, R. |; Hook, I.M. |; Deustua, S.; Gabi, S.; Goldhaber, G. |; Groom, D.; Kim, A.G.; Kim, M.Y.; Lee, J.C.; Pennypacker, C.R. |; Perlmutter, S. |; Small, I.A.; Goobar, A.; Ellis, R.S.; McMahon, R.G.; Glazebrook, K.; Boyle, B.J.; Bunclark, P.S.; Carter, D.; Irwin, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    We present the first measurement of the rate of Type Ia supernovae at high redshift. The result is derived by using a large subset of data from the Supernova Cosmology Project. Three supernovae were discovered in a surveyed area of 1.7 deg{sup 2}. The survey spanned a {approximately}3 week baseline and used images with 3 {sigma} limiting magnitudes of {ital R}{approximately}23. We present our methods for estimating the numbers of galaxies and the number of solar luminosities to which the survey is sensitive, as well as the supernova detection efficiency, which is used to determine the control time, the effective time for which the survey is sensitive to a Type Ia event. We derive a rest-frame Type Ia supernova (SN) rate at {ital z}{approximately}0.4 of 0.82{sub {minus}0.37{minus}0.25}{sup +0.54+0.37} {ital h}{sup 2} SNu (1 SNu=1 SN per century per 10{sup 10} {ital L}{sub {ital B}{circle_dot}}), where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second includes systematic effects. For the purposes of observers, we also determine the rate of SNe, per sky area surveyed, to be 34.4{sub {minus}16.2}{sup +23.9} SNe yr{sup {minus}1} deg{sup {minus}2} for SN magnitudes in the range 21.3{lt}{ital R}{lt}22.3. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}

  8. AEGIS: THE MORPHOLOGIES OF GREEN GALAXIES AT 0.4 < z < 1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Alexander J.; Coil, Alison L.; Moustakas, John; Lotz, Jennifer; Salim, Samir; Simard, Luc

    2011-08-01

    We present quantitative morphologies of {approx}300 galaxies in the optically defined green valley at 0.4 < z < 1.2, in order to constrain the mechanism(s) responsible for quenching star formation in the bulk of this population. The sample is selected from galaxies in the All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS). While the green valley is defined using optical U - B colors, we find that using a green valley sample defined using NUV - R colors does not change the results. Using Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging, we study several quantitative morphological parameters including CAS, B/T from GIM2D, and Gini/M{sub 20}. We find that the green galaxy population is intermediate between the red and blue galaxy populations in terms of concentration, asymmetry, and morphological type and merger fraction estimated using Gini/M{sub 20}. We find that most green galaxies are not classified as mergers; in fact, the merger fraction in the green valley is lower than in the blue cloud. We show that at a given stellar mass, green galaxies have higher concentration values than blue galaxies and lower concentration values than red galaxies. Additionally, we find that 12% of green galaxies have B/T = 0 and 21% have B/T {<=} 0.05. Our results show that green galaxies are generally massive (M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 10.5} M{sub sun}) disk galaxies with high concentrations. We conclude that major mergers are likely not the sole mechanism responsible for quenching star formation in this population and that either other external processes or internal secular processes play an important role both in driving gas toward the center of these galaxies and in quenching star formation.

  9. Discovery of nine extended ionized gas clouds in a z = 0.4 cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, Masafumi; Koyama, Yusei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Gu, Liyi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Hattori, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2015-02-01

    From deep Hα imaging data of Suprime-Cam/Subaru, we discovered nine extended ionized gas clouds (EIG) around galaxies in the Abell 851 cluster (A851) at z = 0.4. We surveyed a 30 × 25 arcmin region, and the EIGs were found only near the cluster center (<2.3 arcmin ∼ 750 kpc). The parent galaxies of the EIGs are star-forming or post-starburst galaxies, all of which are spectroscopically confirmed members of the cluster. Four out of the nine parent galaxies show distortion of stellar distribution in the disk, which can be a sign of recent interaction, and the interaction may have made the EIGs. On the other hand, six parent galaxies (one overlaps those exhibiting distortion) show Hα emission without stars, which implies ram pressure stripping. The spectrum of the brightest parent galaxy shows a post-starburst signature and resembles the Hα stripped galaxies found in the Coma cluster. Meanwhile, two brightest parent galaxies in A851 are more massive than the EIG parent galaxies in the Coma cluster. This is consistent with a “downsizing” of star-forming galaxies, though it is still within the statistical variance. We also analyzed Suprime-Cam data of another z=0.39 cluster, CL0024+17, but found no EIGs. The key difference between A851 and CL0024+17 would be the existence of a subcluster colliding with the main body of A851, in which six or seven out of the nine parent galaxies in A851 exist, and the fraction of EIGs in the subcluster is significantly higher than the main subcluster of A851 and CL0024+17.

  10. Discovery of Nine Extended Ionized Gas Clouds in a z = 0.4 Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Masafumi; Gu, Liyi; Koyama, Yusei; Nakata, Fumiaki; Kodama, Tadayuki; Hattori, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2015-02-01

    From deep Hα imaging data of Suprime-Cam/Subaru, we discovered nine extended ionized gas clouds (EIG) around galaxies in the Abell 851 cluster (A851) at z = 0.4. We surveyed a 30 × 25 arcmin region, and the EIGs were found only near the cluster center (\\lt 2.3 arcmin ˜ 750 kpc). The parent galaxies of the EIGs are star-forming or post-starburst galaxies, all of which are spectroscopically confirmed members of the cluster. Four out of the nine parent galaxies show distortion of stellar distribution in the disk, which can be a sign of recent interaction, and the interaction may have made the EIGs. On the other hand, six parent galaxies (one overlaps those exhibiting distortion) show Hα emission without stars, which implies ram pressure stripping. The spectrum of the brightest parent galaxy shows a post-starburst signature and resembles the Hα stripped galaxies found in the Coma cluster. Meanwhile, two brightest parent galaxies in A851 are more massive than the EIG parent galaxies in the Coma cluster. This is consistent with a “downsizing” of star-forming galaxies, though it is still within the statistical variance. We also analyzed Suprime-Cam data of another z=0.39 cluster, CL0024+17, but found no EIGs. The key difference between A851 and CL0024+17 would be the existence of a subcluster colliding with the main body of A851, in which six or seven out of the nine parent galaxies in A851 exist, and the fraction of EIGs in the subcluster is significantly higher than the main subcluster of A851 and CL0024+17.

  11. Large Scale Structure in Absorption up to z~0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejos, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    We propose to observe and characterize IGM absorption systems associated with Large Scale Structure {LSS} in a statistical manner up to redshift 0.4. For this purpose, we have used a recently published cluster catalog {GMBCG; Hao et al., 2010} to identify massive nodes in the 'cosmic web'. Then, we used cluster pairs with small separations {<20 Mpc} at similar redshifts to identify zones where filaments should reside with high probabilities. Combining the GMBCG cluster catalog with the SDSS DR7 QSO catalog, we selected a single QSO whose sightline passes through a total of 6 predicted filaments {3 of which are independent} and 3 clusters with spectroscopic redshifts at impact parameters <1.5 Mpc. This will considerably increase the sample of known LSS {especially filaments} at low redshift. We propose to observe the QSO with HST/COS using the G130M and G160M gratings to cover the full FUV spectral range at high resolution {R 20000}. We require observations at S/N 10 to ensure a full characterization of HI and OVI lines at small column densities {N 10^13 cm^-2}. These low column densities will allow us to detect broad and shallow HI lines with OVI, believed to be associated with portions of the warm-hot intergalactic medium {WHIM}. Our results will also be suitable for testing an alternative hypothesis which states that the majority of OVI absorbers at low-z are confined within <300 kpc from galaxies and are not directly related to the WHIM {Prochaska et al., 2011; Tumlinson et al., 2011}. Our findings will test our understanding of galaxy formation and the importance of AGN/supernova feedbacks by comparing them with state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations.

  12. Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 Cervicovaginal Shedding Among Women Living With HIV-1 and Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Burkina Faso: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Low, Andrea J.; Nagot, Nicolas; Weiss, Helen A.; Konate, Issouf; Kania, Dramane; Segondy, Michel; Meda, Nicolas; van de Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) replication is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA shedding and genital ulcer disease (GUD) in a cohort of women living with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) in Burkina Faso. Methods. Participants were screened for cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA, GUD, cervicovaginal and systemic HIV-1 RNA, and reproductive tract infections every 3–6 months over 8 years. Associations with HSV-2 shedding and quantity were examined using random-effects logistic and linear regression, respectively. Results. Of the 236 women with data on HSV-2 shedding, 151 took ART during the study period. Cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA was detected in 42% of women (99 of 236) in 8.2% of visits (151 of 1848). ART was associated with a reduction in the odds of HSV-2 shedding, which declined for each year of ART use (odds ratio [OR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], .59–.92). In the multivariable model, the impact of ART was primarily associated with suppression of systemic HIV-1 RNA (adjusted OR, 0.32; 95% CI, .15–.67). A reduction in the odds of GUD was also observed during ART, mainly in those with HIV-1 suppression (adjusted OR, 0.53; 95% CI, .25–1.11). Conclusions. ART is strongly associated with a decrease in cervicovaginal HSV-2 shedding, and the impact was sustained over several years. PMID:26475931

  13. Tobacco Smoking and Its Association with Illicit Drug Use among Young Men Aged 15-24 Years Living in Urban Slums of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Mohammad Alamgir; Goh, Kim-Leng; Kamal, Sunny Mohammad Mostafa; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking (TS) and illicit drug use (IDU) are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i) identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii) examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15–24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS), which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15–59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05) associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%), and smoked ganja (2.8%) and tari (1.6%). In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10) predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables) revealed significantly (p<0.001) higher likelihood of IDU (OR = 9.59, 95% CI = 5.81–15.82) among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001) with increased use of cigarettes. Conclusions/Significance Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC) programs. PMID:23935885

  14. THE HIGH-VELOCITY MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN MASSIVE CLUSTER-FORMING REGION G10.6-0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang Qizhou E-mail: pho@asiaa.sinica.edu.t

    2010-12-20

    We report the arcsecond resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the {sup 12}CO (2-1) transition in the massive cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4. In these observations, the high-velocity {sup 12}CO emission is resolved into individual outflow systems, which have a typical size scale of a few arcseconds. These molecular outflows are energetic and are interacting with the ambient molecular gas. By inspecting the shock signatures traced by CH{sub 3}OH, SiO, and HCN emissions, we suggest that abundant star formation activities are distributed over the entire 0.5 pc scale dense molecular envelope. The star formation efficiency over one global free-fall timescale (of the 0.5 pc molecular envelope, {approx}10{sup 5} years) is about a few percent. The total energy feedback of these high-velocity outflows is higher than 10{sup 47} erg, which is comparable to the total kinetic energy in the rotational motion of the dense molecular envelope. From order-of-magnitude estimations, we suggest that the energy injected from the protostellar outflows is capable of balancing the turbulent energy dissipation. No high-velocity bipolar molecular outflow associated with the central OB cluster is directly detected, which can be due to the photoionization.

  15. Low-temperature specific heat of magnetic superconductors Dy0.6Y0.4Rh3.85Ru0.15B4 and Dy0.6Y0.4Rh4B4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terekhov, A. V.; Zolochevskii, I. V.; Ishchenko, L. A.; Zaleski, A.; Khlybov, E. P.; Lachenkov, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    Specific heat CM(T) of polycrystalline Dy0.6Y0.4Rh4B4 and Dy0.6Y0.4Rh3.85Ru0.15B4 was studied in the temperature range of 0.5-9 K and magnetic fields 0-10 kOe for the first time. It was found that the λ-anomaly in the specific heat exists at Tc ≈ 6 K for Dy0.6Y0.4Rh4B4 and at Tc ≈ 6.6 K for Dy0.6Y0.4Rh3.85Ru0.15B4. It is suppressed in a magnetic field and shifted to lower temperatures. Partial substitution of Rh by Ru enhances superconductivity, presumably, due to stronger inner magnetism of the dysprosium sublattice in Dy0.6Y0.4Rh4B4 as compared with Dy0.6Y0.4Rh3.85Ru0.15B4. Furthermore, it was observed that the molar heat capacity CM(T) of Dy0.6Y0.4Rh3.85Ru0.15B4 increases with decreasing temperature for T < 4 K. In Dy0.6Y0.4Rh4B4, an increase in CM(T) with decreasing temperature is accompanied by the appearance of a maximum at Tmax = 1.5 K, which might be a manifestation of the magnetic phase transition in the dysprosium subsystem at this temperature.

  16. Breastfeeding Knowledge and Practices among Mothers of Children under 2 Years of Age Living in a Military Barrack in Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akinyinka, Modupe Rebekah; Olatona, Foluke Adenike; Oluwole, Esther Oluwakemi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human milk is uniquely superior as a source of nutrition for infants, and breastfeeding has many benefits. This study determined the breastfeeding knowledge and practices of women who have children aged 0-2 years living in a Naval Barracks. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among 220 women in a Naval Barracks selected using systematic random sampling method. Pre tested questionnaires were administered by trained interviewers, and data was analyzed using Epi info 2000 and Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 19. Results: There was generally fair knowledge about breastfeeding among the women. Most of the respondents (97.3%) had ever breastfed their babies, 56.5% of them initiated breastfeeding within an hour of delivery, 24.1% admitted that they gave pre lacteal feeds, 74.1% practiced exclusive breastfeeding for a mean period of 4.98 months and 30.7% engaged in bottle-feeding. Several factors were significantly associated with breastfeeding practices. Conclusions: Breastfeeding practices varied among the respondents despite the fair knowledge. Global Health Implications: This study reveals the need to educate women and communities worldwide particularly in low-income countries about good breastfeeding practices. Targeting these women will help to improve maternal and child health. PMID:27622007

  17. Somatic complaints and refrain from buying prescribed medications. Results from a cross-sectional study on people 60 years and older living in Kaunas (Lithuania)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of medicines by elderly people is a growing area of concern in social pharmacy. A significant proportion of older people do not follow the recommendations from physicians and refrain from buying prescribed medications. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations between self-rated health, somatic complaints and refraining from buying prescribed medications by elderly people. Findings Data was collected in a cross-sectional study in 2009. We received 624 completed questionnaires (response rate – 48.9%) from persons aged 60–84 years living in Kaunas (Lithuania). Somatic complaints were measured with the 24 item version of the Giessen Complaint List (GBB-24). Logistic regression (Enter model) was used for evaluation of the associations between refraining from buying medications and somatic complaints. These associations were measured using odds ratio (OR) and calculating the 95% confidence interval (CI). The mean scores in total for the GBB scale and sub-scales (exhaustion, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular) were lowest among respondents who did not refrain from buying prescribed medications (means for GBB-24 scale: 21.04 vs. 24.82; p=0.001). Logistic regression suggests that somatic complaints were associated with a increased risk of refraining from buying prescribed medications (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.15-1.60). Conclusions Somatic complaints were significantly associated with the decision to refrain from buying prescribed medications. PMID:23351159

  18. Self-care telephone talks as a health-promotion intervention in urban home-living persons 75+ years of age: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Sundsli, Kari; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a telephone-based self-care intervention among urban living individuals 75+ years of age by comparing self-reported perceived health, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency before and after the intervention. Materials and methods In a randomized controlled study, 15 persons answered a questionnaire about perceived health, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency. In a sex- and age-matched control group (n=15), the same questions were answered. Data were collected before and after intervention. An open-ended question about experiences of the intervention was included in the last questionnaire. The intervention consisted of a first meeting with health professionals and additional five self-care telephone calls. The control group did not receive any intervention or attention except for the questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study group. To compare the intervention group and control group on nominal and ordinal levels, the McNemar test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, respectively, were chosen. Results Thirty individuals (14 females and 16 males) participated in the study, ranging in age between 75 and 93 years. A significant difference was obtained in the intervention group regarding mental health. Mental health improved significantly in the intervention group (P=0.037). In the control group, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency showed worse outcome results after the intervention (19 weeks). Conclusion Self-care telephone talks improved mental health significantly in our sample, and mental health focus could be understood as a possible condition for health promotion to take place. Structured self-care telephone talks have proved to be successful and a relevant method to use in practice. PMID:24421638

  19. Weight gain and reduced energy expenditure in low-income Brazilian women living in slums: a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Florêncio, Telma M M T; Bueno, Nassib B; Clemente, Ana P G; Albuquerque, Fabiana C A; Britto, Revilane P A; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Sawaya, Ana L

    2015-08-14

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible changes in anthropometric and biochemical parameters in low-income women living in the outskirts of Maceió (northeast Brazil), and to explore the possible role of dietary intake and physical activity in these changes. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a cohort of mothers of malnourished children who attended the Center for Nutritional Recovery and Education, an outreach programme of the Federal University of Alagoas. Socio-economic, anthropometric, biochemical and dietary intake data were assessed at baseline and after a follow-up period of 4 years. Energy expenditure (using doubly labelled water) and physical activity (using triaxial accelerometers) were assessed only in a subgroup of women after 4 years. A total of eighty-five women were assessed. Participants showed an altered biochemical profile, increased systolic blood pressure, decreased thyroid hormone levels, and body-weight gain. However, dietary intakes of the participants did not include large quantities of highly processed and high-glycaemic index foods. The energy intake of the participants did not differ from their total energy expenditure (7990.3 (7173.7-8806.8) v. 8798.1 (8169.0-9432.4) kJ, respectively; P= 0.084). Multivariate analyses showed a significant effect of time spent watching television (β = 0.639 (0.003 to 1.275); P= 0.048) and dietary diversity score (β = -1.039 ( -2.010 to -0.067); P = 0.036) on weight gain. The present study indicates that poor women, who are mothers of malnourished children and have a reasonably balanced dietary intake, exhibit weight gain and are at risk of developing chronic diseases. PMID:26123236

  20. A low-cost, sustainable, second generation system for surveillance of people living with HIV in Spain: 10-year trends in behavioural and clinical indicators, 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Diez, M; Diaz, A; Garriga, C; Pons, M; Ten, A; Marcos, H; Gutierrez, G; Moreno, S; Gonzalez-Garcia, J; Barrios, Am; Arponen, S; Garcia, Mt; Royo, Mc; Toledo, J; Gonzalez, G; Aranguren, R; Izquierdo, A; Viloria, Lj; Elizalde, L; Martinez, E; Castrillejo, D; Lopez, I; Redondo, C; Cano, A; The Hospital Survey Study Group, C

    2014-01-01

    A second-generation surveillance system of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been implemented in Spain. Behavioural and clinical data were collected between 2002 and 2011 through an annual one-day, cross-sectional survey in public hospitals, including all in- and outpatients receiving HIVrelated care on the survey day. Mean age increased over time (from 38.7 years in 2002 to 43.8 years in 2011) and 68.4% of the 7,205 subjects were male. The proportion of migrants increased from 6.1% to 15.9%, while people who inject or used to inject drugs (PWID and Ex-PWID) decreased and men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals increased. Unprotected intercourse at last sex increased among MSM and PWID/Ex-PWID. Patients receiving antiretroviral treatment increased significantly from 76.0% to 88.2% as did those with CD4 T-cell counts ≥350 (from 48.2% to 66.9%) and viral copies <200 (from 47.0% to 85.2%). HIV-infected people with hepatitis C virus RNA decreased from 36.0% in 2004 to 29.9% in 2011, while those with HBsAg remained stable at around 4.4%. Implementation of a low-cost, sustainable system for second-generation surveillance in people living with HIV is feasible. In Spain, the information obtained has helped to define and refine public health policy and document treatment effectiveness. PMID:24871758

  1. From Expectations to Experiences: Using a Structural Typology to Understand First-Year Student Outcomes in Academically Based Living-Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wawrzynski, Matthew R.; Jessup-Anger, Jody E.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated to what extent noncognitive variables (e.g., expectations for college) and the college environment (i.e., academically based living-learning communities) influence students' college experience. This research goes beyond grouping all living-learning students into one category, which has dominated much of the…

  2. "You're Awfully Old to Have This Disease": Experiences of Stigma and Ageism in Adults 50 Years and Older Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emlet, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Older adults living with HIV infection may be doubly stigmatized, as they are branded by both age as well as HIV status. Through semistructured interviews, this study sought to examine whether older adults with HIV/AIDS experience both ageism and HIV stigma and how those experiences manifest in their lives. Design and Methods: This was a…

  3. Magnetic properties of the superconducting polymers (SN)/sub x/ and (SNBr/sub 0. 4/)/sub x/

    SciTech Connect

    Dee, R.H.; Carolan, J.F.; Turrell, B.G.; Greene, R.L.

    1980-07-01

    The magnetizations of the superconducting sulfur nitrogen polymer (SN)/sub x/ and its brominated modification, (SNBr/sub 0.4/)/sub x/, have been studied as a function of magnetic field and temperature. There is anisotropy in the magnetization observed in both materials. However, (SNBr/sub 0.4/)/sub x/ behaves more like a bulk superconductor than (SN)/sub x/ does, indicating stronger interfiber coupling in the former.

  4. Nanocrystalline Pyrochlore La2Sn1.6Zr0.4 as a New Candidate for Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Shanmugavani, A; Murugeswari, R; Sanjeeviraja, C; Selvan, R Kalai

    2015-04-01

    Nanocrystalline La2Sn1.6Zr0.4O7 is synthesized by microwave assisted combustion method. The phase formation and morphological features of La2Sn1.6Zr0.4O7 are characterized by X-ray diffrac- tion (XRD), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrum and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) respectively. XRD pattern shows the formation of cubic Pyrochlore structure of La2Sn1.6Zr0.4O7. FTIR studies attributed the presence of characteristic functional groups of La-O, Sn-O and Zr-O. TEM image reveals that the size of La2Sn1.6Zr0.4O7 particle exhibits from 50 nm to 100 nm and the observed d-spacing from HRTEM is matched well with the XRD d-spacing. The SAED pattern shows the polycrystalline behaviour of La2Sn1.6Zr0.4O7. The room temperature electrical conductivity of La2Sn1.6Zr0.4O7 is 3.12 x 10(-6) S cm(-1). The synthe- sized La2Sn1.6Zr0.4O7 particle is explored as electrodes for supercapacitor and the performances are studied by cyclic voltammetric and charge discharge studies using 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte. From charge-discharge analysis the specific capacitance was found to be 74 Fg(-1) at 1 mA cm(-2). The resistive behaviour of the electrodes is studied through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Also the cycling stability is studied by performing the 100 charge-discharge cycles. It reveals that there is almost 100% cycling stability is achieved. Hence nanocrystalline La2Sn1.6Zr0.4O7 pyrochlore can have the feasibility as an electrode material for supercapacitor application. PMID:26353494

  5. Development of High Capacity Na0.7(Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.1Fe0.1)O2 Cathode Material for Sodium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kant Kaithwas, Chandra; Kundu, T. K.

    2015-02-01

    Sodium ion battery (SIB) has great potential as sustainable large scale energy storage application compared to lithium-ion battery due to abundance and cost effectiveness of sodium. Na0.7(Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.1Fe0.1)O2 as new cathode material for SIB is prepared by solid state reaction synthesis method. The structure of the new cathode material was characterized by X- ray diffraction using Co-Kα radiation. Morphologies and particle size range (0.37-1.9 microns) of the Na0.7(Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.1Fe0.1)O2 cathode material have been identified by scanning electron microscope. Electrochemical performance of the cathode material for coin cell battery using sodium as anode and NaClO4 as electrolyte was examined in constant current mode. The material cycling performance showed very good reversibility between 2.0 - 4.3 V with reversible capacity of 202 mAh g-1 at 0.11 mA current. At C/10 reversible capacity of 191 mAh g-1 have been found. The prepared material shows considerable (40%) retention capacity after 45 cycle of charging and discharging with retention capacity of 79 mAh g-1. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis has been performed between 100 kHz to 10 mHz frequency range and after 10 cycles the resistance for grain and grain boundaries are found to be 26.20 Ω and 354.7 Ω respectively. Na0.7(Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.1Fe0.1)O2 can be a promising cathode material for SIB as it shows very good charging and discharging characteristics with high reversible capacity.

  6. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

  7. A Comparison of Live Classroom Instruction and Internet-Based Lessons for a Preparatory Training Course Delivered to 4th Year Pharmacy Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi

    2013-08-01

    To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students prepared by receiving only live classroom instruction. All students in the four cohorts were given a survey to evaluate the training sessions, and results were analyzed using the analysis of variance statistical test (ANOVA). Preceptors at the sites who interacted with students in all four cohorts were surveyed to evaluate which students appeared more prepared; these data were compared using paired t tests. Final assessment data for students in all four cohorts were analyzed using ANOVA. There were statistical differences between the two live training groups, with the second group finding the training to be more beneficial for preparing them, feeling the training length was appropriate and preferring the live modality for delivery. The two internet training cohorts were similar except for perceptions regarding the length of the online training. Comparing responses from those students who received live training with those receiving internet instruction demonstrated a statistical difference with the live groups rating the trainings as more helpful in preparing them for the clinics, rating the training as necessary, and rating their confidence higher in seeing patients. Preceptors rated the live training statistically higher than online training in preparing students. There was no difference between groups on their final site assessments. Live classroom training appears to be superior to the recorded internet training in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings.

  8. Interactions between the volume effects of hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 and Ringer´s acetate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The turnover of Ringer´s solutions is greatly dependent on the physiological situation, such as the presence of dehydration or anaesthesia. The present study evaluates whether the kinetics is affected by previous infusion of colloid fluid. Methods Ten male volunteers with a mean age of 22 years underwent three infusion experiments, on separate days and in random order. The experiments included 10 mL/kg of 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (Voluven™), 20 mL/kg of Ringer's acetate, and a combination of both, where Ringer´s was administered 75 minutes after the starch infusion ended. The kinetics of the volume expansion was analysed by non-linear least- squares regression, based on urinary excretion and serial measurement of blood haemoglobin concentration for up to 420 minutes. Results The mean volume of distribution of the starch was 3.12 L which agreed well with the plasma volume (3.14 L) estimated by anthropometry. The volume expansion following the infusion of starch showed monoexponential elimination kinetics with a half-life of two hours. Two interaction effects were found when Ringer´s acetate was infused after the starch. First, there was a higher tendency for Ringer´s acetate to distribute to a peripheral compartment at the expense of the plasma volume expansion. The translocated amount of Ringer´s was 70% higher when HES had been infused earlier. Second, the elimination half-life of Ringer´s acetate was five times longer when administered after the starch (88 versus 497 minutes, P <0.02). Conclusions Starch promoted peripheral accumulation of the later infused Ringer´s acetate solution and markedly prolonged the elimination half-life. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01195025 PMID:23718743

  9. Crystal growth and spin reorientation transition in Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 orthoferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiangyang; Zhang, Kailin; Xu, Kai; Man, Peiwen; Xie, Tao; Wu, Anhua; Ma, Guohong; Cao, Shixun; Su, Liangbi

    2016-04-01

    High quality Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 single crystal has been successfully grown by the floating zone method. Temperature dependence of the magnetizations of Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 under ZFC process is studied in the temperature range of 4-300 K. Spin reorientation transition between Γ2 (Gz, Fx) and Γ4 (Gx, Fz) is observed in the temperature range of 170-210 K, which is significantly lower than that of SmFeO3, while much higher than that of ErFeO3. A compensation point (35.8 K) corresponding to zero magnetization and a spontaneous magnetization reversal transition at 49.5 K are observed in Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3. Temperature-induced SRT of Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 is systematically studied by THz-TDS range from 40 K to 300 K. The temperature dependence of amplitude of AFM mode coincides well with the magnetization measurement which demonstrate that SRT in Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 can be studied through the amplitude of AFM mode FID emission. The AF mode frequency is almost invariant, while the F mode frequency significantly decreases with increasing temperature, which could be explained by the temperature dependence of anisotropy energy.

  10. Discounting human lives

    SciTech Connect

    Cropper, M.L. ); Portney, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    The future costs of regulatory programs to protect human health are routinely discounted, but the lives they save in the future are not. To shed light on the public's attitude toward the discounting of human lives, researchers at Resources for the Future asked 2,600 individuals to choose between one hypothetical program that would save lives immediately and another that would save lives in 5, 10, 25, 50, or 100 years. From the responses, they inferred the number of lives that must be saved in the future to make people as content as saving one life today, compared this implicit discount rate to the respondents' discount rate for money, and identified several factors that affect discount rates for human lives.

  11. The Impact of Aluminum and Iron Substitution on the Structure and Electrochemistry of Li[Ni0.4Co0.2-yMyMn0.4]O2 Materials

    SciTech Connect

    WIlcox, James D.; Rodriguez, Efrain E.; Doeff, Marca M.

    2009-07-23

    Li[Ni0.4Co0.2-yMyMn0.4]O2 (0<_y<_0.2) (M=Al) and Li[Ni0.4Co0.15Fe0.05Mn0.4]O2 compounds were prepared in order to investigate the effect of replacement of all or part of the cobalt on the structural and electrochemical properties. The impact of substitution on the structure has been examined by both x-ray and neutron diffraction experiments. The incorporation of aluminum has minimal effect on the anti-site defect concentration, but leads to structural changes that affect electrochemical performance. The most important effect is an opening of the lithium slab dimension upon substitution, which results in improved rate performance compared to the parent compound. In contrast, the lithium slab dimension is not affected by iron substitution and no rate enhancement effect is observed. The cycling stability of aluminum containing materials is superior to both the parent material and iron-substituted materials.

  12. Composite cathode La0.4Sr0.4TiO3-δ-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ impregnated with Ni for high-temperature steam electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yun; Qin, Qingqing; Chen, Shigang; Wang, Yan; Dong, Dehua; Xie, Kui; Wu, Yucheng

    2014-01-01

    Composite Ni-SDC (Samaria doped Ceria) cathodes are able to operate in strong reducing atmospheres for steam electrolysis, and composite cathodes based on redox-stable La0.4Sr0.4TiO3 (LSTO) have demonstrated promising performances without the reducing gas flow. However, the electro-catalytic activity of cathodes based on LSTO is insufficient for the efficient electrochemical reduction of steam or carbon oxide. In this work, catalytic-active Ni nanoparticles were loaded on a La0.4Sr0.4TiO3-δ-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ cathode (Ni-loaded LSTO-SDC) via an impregnation method to improve the electrode performances for direct steam electrolysis. The synergetic effect of catalytically-active Ni nanoparticles and the redox-stable LSTO-SDC skeleton contributed to the improved performances and the excellent stability of the cathode for direct steam electrolysis. The current efficiency with a Ni-loaded cathode was enhanced by 3% and 17% compared to the values with a bare LSTO-SDC cathode under 2.0 V of applied voltage at 800 °C with a flow of 3% H2O/5% H2/Ar and 3% H2O/Ar to cathodes, respectively.

  13. Tailoring the surface properties of LiNi(0.4)Mn(0.4)Co(0.2)O2 by titanium substitution for improved high voltage cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Wolff-Goodrich, Silas; Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M; Nordlund, Dennis; Xin, Huolin L; Asta, Mark; Doeff, Marca M

    2015-09-14

    The present study aims to provide insights into the behavior of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.18Ti0.02O2 (NMC442-Ti02) cathode materials under galvanostatic cycling to high potentials, in the context of previous work which predicted that Ti-substituted variants should deliver higher capacities and exhibit better cycling stability than the unsubstituted compounds. It is found that NMC cathodes containing Ti show equivalent capacity fading but greater specific capacity than those without Ti in the same potential range. When repeatedly charged to the same degree of delithiation, NMC cathodes containing Ti showed better capacity retention. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra for Mn and Co indicated increased reduction in these elements for NMC cathodes without Ti, indicating that the substitution of Ti for Co acts to suppress the formation of a high impedance rock salt phase at the surface of NMC cathode particles. The results of this study validate the adoption of a facile change to existing NMC chemistries to improve cathode capacity retention under high voltage cycling conditions. PMID:26247817

  14. Tailoring the surface properties of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O₂ by titanium substitution for improved high voltage cycling performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff-Goodrich, Silas; Xin, Huolin L.; Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M.; Nordlund, Dennis; Asta, Mark; Doeff, Marca M.

    2015-07-30

    The present research aims to provide insights into the behavior of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O₂ (NMC442-Ti02) cathode materials under galvanostatic cycling to high potentials, in the context of previous work which predicted that Ti-substituted variants should deliver higher capacities and exhibit better cycling stability than the unsubstituted compounds. It is found that NMC cathodes containing Ti show equivalent capacity fading but greater specific capacity than those without Ti in the same potential range. When repeatedly charged to the same degree of delithiation, NMC cathodes containing Ti showed better capacity retention. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra for Mn and Co indicated increased reduction in these elements for NMC cathodes without Ti, indicating that the substitution of Ti for Co acts to suppress the formation of a high impedance rock salt phase at the surface of NMC cathode particles. The results of this study validate the adoption of a facile change to existing NMC chemistries to improve cathode capacity retention under high voltage cycling conditions.

  15. Tailoring the surface properties of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O₂ by titanium substitution for improved high voltage cycling performance

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wolff-Goodrich, Silas; Xin, Huolin L.; Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M.; Nordlund, Dennis; Asta, Mark; Doeff, Marca M.

    2015-07-30

    The present research aims to provide insights into the behavior of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O₂ (NMC442-Ti02) cathode materials under galvanostatic cycling to high potentials, in the context of previous work which predicted that Ti-substituted variants should deliver higher capacities and exhibit better cycling stability than the unsubstituted compounds. It is found that NMC cathodes containing Ti show equivalent capacity fading but greater specific capacity than those without Ti in the same potential range. When repeatedly charged to the same degree of delithiation, NMC cathodes containing Ti showed better capacity retention. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra for Mn and Comore » indicated increased reduction in these elements for NMC cathodes without Ti, indicating that the substitution of Ti for Co acts to suppress the formation of a high impedance rock salt phase at the surface of NMC cathode particles. The results of this study validate the adoption of a facile change to existing NMC chemistries to improve cathode capacity retention under high voltage cycling conditions.« less

  16. Surface bidirectional reflectance properties of two southwestern Arizona deserts for wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.2 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, Charles H.; Purgold, G. Carlton; Lecroy, Stuart R.

    1987-01-01

    Surface bidirectional reflectance characteristics are presented for the Sonora Desert and the Mohawk Valley at solar zenith angles of 13, 31, and 57 degs at wavelengths between 0.4 and 1.6 microns. Nadir reflectance values are presented for wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.2 microns for solar zenith angles of 13, 17.5, 27, 31, 45, 57, and 62 degs. Data were taken from a helicopter during May l985 in support of an Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), a Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE II), and an Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite validation experiment.

  17. Dynamic evaluation of RPI's 0.4 scale unmanned Martian roving vehicle model. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, A. G.

    1973-01-01

    A design for a Mars Roving Vehicle is presented in a three dimensional model considering three degrees of freedom. In addition, the physical characteristics of the 0.4 scale RPI-MRV are presented along with the basic dynamic responses.

  18. Healthy Active Living: A Residence Community-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity and Healthy Eating during the Transition to First-Year University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Denver M. Y.; Bray, Steve R.; Beatty, Kevin R.; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a Healthy Active Living (HAL) community intervention on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC), and psychosocial mediators of physical activity among students transitioning into university. Methods: Sixty undergraduate students were assigned to reside in either the…

  19. A Comparison of Live Classroom Instruction and Internet-Based Lessons for a Preparatory Training Course Delivered to 4th Year Pharmacy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students…

  20. Helping Older People To Live Independently. Annual Report to the Governor and the Illinois General Assembly on Public Act 81-202, Fiscal Year 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. on Aging, Springfield.

    This document describes Illinois' Community Care Program (CCP), a program which provides chore housekeeping, homemaker, and adult day care services to older persons who cannot perform some tasks basic of everyday life without assistance, in order to help them live independently. Case management, information and referral, and nursing home…

  1. The Origins of the Rate Enhancement in LiNi0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4O2 (0

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M; Wilcox, James; Doeff, Marca M.

    2008-05-29

    Recently, much research has been directed towards finding a replacement cathode material for LiCoO{sub 2} combining high performance with lower cost and toxicity. One promising candidate material is the mixed transition metal oxide LiNi{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.4}O{sub 2}, which delivers 180 mAh/g below 4.4 V versus Li/Li{sup +} (1, 2). However, in this material, there is 4% anti-site cation mixing, which hinders the mobility of lithium within the lattice, adversely affecting its rate performance in lithium batteries. Ongoing work in our lab has shown that partial or full substitution of cobalt with aluminum, LiNi{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (0 < y {le} 0.2), can lead to significant improvements in rate performance (3). In particular, LiNi{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} shows greatly improved rate capability with almost no sacrifice in the overall capacity delivered at low rates between 2.0 and 4.3V (Figure 1). The smaller ionic radius of Al{sup 3+} in octahedral coordination (0.535 {angstrom}) compared to Li{sup +} (0.76 {angstrom}) creates a strong driving force for the formation of a more lamellar structure in the aluminum containing materials (4, 5). XRD experiments and subsequent Rietveld refinement (Figure 2) reveal a significant decrease in anti-site defect concentration upon aluminum substitution, dropping from {approx}4% at y=0 to {approx}2.5% at y=0.2. Concurrently, there is an increase in the lithium slab dimension from 2.6 {angstrom} to 2.63 {angstrom}. This expansion allows for a reduced activation energy and improved lithium diffusivity through the crystal lattice (6). Interestingly, the pressed pellet conductivities of Al-substituted compounds are lower than that of the parent as determined by AC impedance measurements. This lends further credence to the hypothesis that structural effects resulting in improved lithium diffusivity are responsible for the rate enhancement, rather than changes in the electronic structure. Further

  2. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home care, it is still ... of services an older person chooses, the price costs can range from less than $25,000 a ...

  3. Environmental degradation properties of YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ and Y 0.6Ca 0.4Ba 1.6La 0.4Cu 3O 7-δ thin film structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ji-Ping; Lo, Rung-Kuang; Savoy, Steven M.; Arendt, Mark; Armstrong, Jeff; Yang, Du-Yu; Talvacchio, John; McDevitt, John T.

    1997-02-01

    Utilization of the high temperature superconductor, YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ, in commercial applications is becoming increasingly feasible. Before full advantage of this material can be taken, however, the lifetime, oxygen stability and processability of this ambient reactive superconductor must be improved. Corrosion resistance of YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ and a cation substituted compound, Y 0.6Ca 0.4Ba 1.6La 0.4Cu 3O 7-δ, were studied and their lifetimes in aqueous environments were determined. Results indicate a dramatic enhancement in the stability against environmental degradation for the cation substituted phase. Important mechanistic factors responsible for the enhanced corrosion resistance of the substituted phase over the parent compound are discussed.

  4. Characterization and Electrochemical Performance of SubstitutedLiNi0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4O2 (0<_y<_0.2) Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, James D.; Doeff, Marca M.

    2007-11-28

    A complete series of LiNi0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4O2 (0<_y<_0.2) materials have been synthesized and investigated as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. When cycled between 2.0 and 4.3 V vs. Li/Li+ at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm2, stable capacities of ~;;160 mAh/g for y=0 to ~;;110 mAh/g for y=0.2 are achieved. Upon increasing the current density, it is found that all materials containing aluminum show reduced polarization and improved rate performance. The optimal performance at all current densities was found for the compound with y=0.05. The effect of aluminumsubstitution on the crystal structure of the host is discussed.

  5. Luminescent properties of sol-gel processed red-emitting phosphor Ca0.6 Sr0.4-1.5x-0.5y Mo0.4  W0.6 O4:Eux Liy.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Xie, Huidong; Xi, Haihong; Dang, Fangfang; Wang, Xiaochang

    2015-08-01

    A series of red-emitting phosphors Ca0.6Sr(0.4-1.5x-0.5y)Mo0.4W0.6O4:Eux Liy (x = 0.02-0.12, y = 0-0.12) has been synthesized by a sol-gel method. The effects of calcining temperature, concentrations of Li(+) and Eu(3+) , and compensation ions on the luminescent properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic results showed that as-prepared phosphors were of single phase with several microns. The Li(+) compensated compositions showed remarkably intense red emission at 619 nm. The emission intensity of the series reached maximum for compositions at x = 0.08 and y = 0.08 when the calcining temperature was 900 °C. PMID:25339264

  6. Structural investigation and microwave characteristics of (Ba0.2La0.8)Fe0.2Mn0.4Ti0.4O3 absorbing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaf, Azwar; Adi, Wisnu Ari

    2014-03-01

    Synthesis and characterization of (Ba0.2La0.8)Fe0.2Mn0.4Ti0.4O3 absorbing material by mechanical alloying process has been performed. The absorbing material was prepared by oxide materials, namely BaCO3, La2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, and MnCO3. The mixture was milled for 10 h and then sintered at a temperature of 1000 ° C for 10 h. The refinement results of x-ray diffraction pattern of lanthanum manganite substituted with barium showed that the sample consisted of two phases, namely, La0.9125MnO3 phase which has a structure monoclinic (I12/a1) with lattice parameters a = 5.527(1) Å, b = 5.572(1) Å and c = 7.810(1) Å, α = γ = 90° and β = 89.88(5)°, the unit cell volume of V = 240.57(8) Å3, and the atomic density of ρ = 6.238 gr.cm-3. The microstructure analyses showed that the particle shapes was polygonal with the varied particle sizes of 1 ˜ 3 μm distributed homogeneously on the surface of the samples. The results of the electromagnetic wave absorption curve analysis by using a vector network analyzer (VNA) showed that the sample can absorb microwaves in the frequency range of 8-15 GHz with a very wide absorption bandwidth. It indicates that the as prepared absorber presents potential absorbing property in X and Ku-band. We concluded that the (Ba0.2La0.8)Fe0.2Mn0.4Ti0.4O3 material can be applied as a candidate absorber material of microwaves or electromagnetic wave.

  7. Presentation and prognostic indicators for free-living black cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus spp.) admitted to an Australian zoo veterinary hospital over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Le Souëf, Anna; Holyoake, Carly; Vitali, Simone; Warren, Kristin

    2015-04-01

    The veterinary records of three species of free-living, endangered black cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus spp.; n = 565) admitted to the Perth Zoo Veterinary Hospital in Western Australia during a 10-yr period (2000-09) were analyzed to determine the effect of clinical presentation and treatment on survival to release. The most-common reason for admission was trauma (at least 76.7% of cases), and trauma was also the most-frequent finding on necropsy examination (80.1% of cases). Anemia and paralysis-paresis were significant factors determining the decreased likelihood of survival of cockatoos undergoing rehabilitation. Human activities, in particular vehicle strike, were significant causes of morbidity and mortality in free-living black cockatoo populations. PMID:25647589

  8. A New Ba0.6 Sr0.4 TiO3 -Silicon Hybrid Metamaterial Device in Terahertz Regime.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Du, Ting; Xu, Ningning; Ding, Chunfeng; Li, Hui; Sheng, Quan; Liu, Ming; Yao, Jianquan; Wang, Zhiyong; Lou, Xiaojie; Zhang, Weili

    2016-05-01

    Metamaterials, offering unprecedented functionalities to manipulate electromagnetic waves, have become a research hotspot in recent years. Through the incorporation of active media, the exotic electromagnetic behavior of metamaterials can be dramatically empowered by dynamic control. Many ferroelectric materials such as BaSrTiO3 (abbreviated as BST), exhibiting strong response to external electric field, hold great promise in both microwave and terahertz tunable devices. A new active Ba0.6 Sr0.4 TiO3 -silicon hybrid metamaterial device, namely, a SRR (square split-ring resonator)-BaSrTiO3 thin film-silicon three-layer structure is fabricated and intensively studied. The active Ba0.6 Sr0.4 TiO3 thin film hybrid metamaterial, with nanoscale thickness, delivers a transmission contrast up to ≈79% due to electrically enabled carrier transport between the ferroelectric thin film and silicon substrate. This work has significantly increased the low modulation rate of ferroelectric based devices in terahertz range, a major problem in this field remaining unresolved for many years. The proposed BST metamaterial is promising in developing high-performance real world photonic devices for terahertz technology. PMID:27007192

  9. Design for Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Bringing a newborn home from the hospital can come with stress for any parent. Coming home with twins can be double the stress. This article shares the story of a couple faced with this situation 12 years ago with the birth of twins, one was born with complications. They lived in a Colonial until the twins were almost five years old, at which time…

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER G144.9+0.4 IN THE CAMELOPARDALIS OB1 ASSOCIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chien-Cheng; Chen, W. P.; Panwar, Neelam

    2013-10-01

    Our star-count analysis of the Two Micron All Sky Survey point sources resulted in an identification of the star cluster G144.9+0.4. The cluster was found, but not characterized, by Glushkova et al. We show that the cluster is physically associated with the Cam OB1 association at a distance of about 1 kpc and with an age of 1-2 Myr. Pre-main sequence stars are identified on the basis of photometric and proper motion data. A total of 91 additional OB star candidates was found in subgroups 1A and 1B, a significant increase from the currently known 43 OB stars. The OB members show an age spread that indicates a sustained star formation for at least the last 10-15 Myr. The young cluster G144.9+0.4 represents the latest episode of sequential star formation in this cloud complex.

  11. Surface Nb-ALLOYING on 0.4C-13Cr Stainless Steel: Microstructure and Tribological Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shengwang; You, Kai; Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yihui; Wang, Zhenxia; Liu, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    0.4C-13Cr stainless steel was alloyed with niobium using double glow plasma surface alloying and tribological properties of Nb-alloyed steel such as hardness, friction and wear were measured. Effects of the alloying temperature on microstructure and the tribological behavior of the alloyed steel were investigated compared with untreated steel. Formation mechanisms of Nb-alloyed layers and increased wear resistance were also studied. The result shows that after surface Nb-alloying treatment, the 0.4C-13Cr steel exhibits a diffusion adhesion at the alloyed layer/substrate interface and improved tribological property. The friction coefficient of Nb-alloyed steel is decreased by about 0.3-0.45 and the wear rate after Nb-alloying is only 2-5% of untreated steel.

  12. A 0.4-2.3 GHz broadband power amplifier extended continuous class-F design technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; He, Songbai

    2015-08-01

    A 0.4-2.3 GHz broadband power amplifier (PA) extended continuous class-F design technology is proposed in this paper. Traditional continuous class-F PA performs in high-efficiency only in one octave bandwidth. With the increasing development of wireless communication, the PA is in demand to cover the mainstream communication standards' working frequencies from 0.4 GHz to 2.2 GHz. In order to achieve this objective, the bandwidths of class-F and continuous class-F PA are analysed and discussed by Fourier series. Also, two criteria, which could reduce the continuous class-F PA's implementation complexity, are presented and explained to investigate the overlapping area of the transistor's current and voltage waveforms. The proposed PA design technology is based on the continuous class-F design method and divides the bandwidth into two parts: the first part covers the bandwidth from 1.3 GHz to 2.3 GHz, where the impedances are designed by the continuous class-F method; the other part covers the bandwidth from 0.4 GHz to 1.3 GHz, where the impedance to guarantee PA to be in high-efficiency over this bandwidth is selected and controlled. The improved particle swarm optimisation is employed for realising the multi-impedances of output and input network. A PA based on a commercial 10 W GaN high electron mobility transistor is designed and fabricated to verify the proposed design method. The simulation and measurement results show that the proposed PA could deliver 40-76% power added efficiency and more than 11 dB power gain with more than 40 dBm output power over the bandwidth from 0.4-2.3 GHz.

  13. Effects of annealing, acid and alcoholic beverages on Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Taen, T.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Shi, Z. X.; Tamegai, T.

    2013-01-01

    We have systematically investigated and compared different methods to induce superconductivity in the iron chalcogenide Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4, including annealing in a vacuum, N2, O2 and I2 atmospheres and immersing samples into acid and alcoholic beverages. Vacuum and N2 annealing are proved to be ineffective in inducing superconductivity in a Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystal. Annealing in O2 and I2 and immersion in acid and alcoholic beverages can induce superconductivity by oxidizing the excess Fe in the sample. Superconductivity in O2 annealed samples is of a bulk nature, while I2, acid and alcoholic beverages can only induce superconductivity near the surface. By comparing the different effects of O2, I2, acid and alcoholic beverages we propose a scenario to explain how the superconductivity is induced in the non-superconducting as-grown Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4.

  14. Critical behavior and magnetic relaxation dynamics of Nd0.4Sr0.6MnO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Nath, T. K.

    2013-07-01

    Detailed DC and AC magnetic properties of chemically synthesized Nd0.4Sr0.6MnO3 with different particle size (down to 27 nm) have been studied in details. We have found ferromagnetic state in the nanoparticles, whereas the bulk Nd0.4Sr0.6MnO3 is known to be an A-type antiferromagnet. A Griffiths-like phase has also been identified in the nanoparticles. Further, critical behaviour of the nanoparticles has been studied around the second-order ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition region (|(T-T C)/T C| ⩽ 0.04) in terms of modified Arrott plot, Kouvel-Fisher plot and critical isotherm analysis. The estimated critical exponents (β, γ, δ) are quite different from those predicted according to three-dimensional mean-field, Heisenberg and Ising models. This signifies a quite unusual nature of the size-induced ferromagnetic state in Nd0.4Sr0.6MnO3. The nanoparticles are found to be interacting and do not behave like ideal superparamagnet. Interestingly, we find spin glass like slow relaxation of magnetization, aging and memory effect in the nanometric samples. These phenomena have been attributed to very broad distribution of relaxation time as well as to inter-particle interaction. Experimentally, we have found out that the dynamics of the nanoparticle systems can be best described by hierarchical model of spin glasses.

  15. Effects of Pnictogen Atmosphere Annealing on Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Tatsuhiro; Sun, Yue; Pyon, Sunseng; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    It has been clarified that bulk superconductivity in Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 can be induced by annealing in an appropriate atmosphere to remove the harmful effects of excess iron. In order to clarify the details of the annealing process, we studied the changes in the physical properties and reaction products of Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 annealed in pnictogen (P, As, Sb) atmospheres. Crystals annealed in a pnictogen atmosphere show bulk superconductivity and the values of Tc and Jc are about 14 K and (2-4) × 105 A/cm2 (2 K, self-field), respectively. It is also found that the reaction rate increases with the increase in the saturated vapor pressure of the pnictogen. Unexpectedly, the reaction products of Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 after annealing in a P atmosphere mainly consist of FeTe2. In addition, the amount of P required to obtain the optimal Tc is much smaller than the amount of excess iron, which is similar to the case of oxygen annealing. P, oxygen, and to some extent As could serve as catalysts to form FeTe2 to remove excess iron.

  16. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... are part of retirement communities. Others are near nursing homes, so a person can move easily if needs change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people ...

  17. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

  18. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as ... the facility provide a written statement of its philosophy of care? Visit each facility more than once, ...

  19. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... premises. Adult foster care has the advantages of maintaining frail older adults in a more home-like ... pay to live in these communities, though some facilities have beds for skilled care that are funded ...

  20. Living Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mules, B. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

  1. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be ...

  2. No differences in metabolic outcomes between nadir GH 0.4 and 1.0 ng/mL during OGTT in surgically cured acromegalic patients (observational study).

    PubMed

    Ku, Cheol Ryong; Choe, Eun Yeong; Hong, Jae Won; Kim, Eui Hyun; Park, Se Hee; Kim, Sun Ho; Lee, Eun Jig

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic impairment is the common cause for mortality in acromegalic patients. In this study, long-term improvements of metabolic parameters were evaluated according to 2 different remission criteria.This was an observational cohort study before and up to 1 year after transsphenoidal adenomectomy (TSA). Participants were 187 patients with acromegaly. At 6 months after TSA, remitted patients with age- and sex-matched normalized IGF-1 were divided into 2 groups: remission 1 (R1), nadir growth hormone (GH) below 0.4 ng/mL; and remission 2 (R2), nadir GH between 0.4 and 1.0 ng/mL in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Metabolic parameters during serial OGTTs were evaluated for 12 months. Remission was achieved in 157 (R1-136; R2-21) patients. Immediate postoperative metabolic parameters including body weight, body mass index, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid in OGTT were all significantly improved in R1 and R2. HOMA-%β and HOMA-IR scores also improved in both R1 and R2. These improvements persisted for duration (12 months) of this study. However, no difference was present in metabolic parameters between R1 and R2. Although the patients with preoperative adrenal insufficiency presented significantly increased HOMA scores before TSA, there was no difference between classifications of deficient pituitary axes and changes of metabolic parameters after TSA. Remitted patients exhibited rapid restoration of metabolic parameters immediate postoperative period. Long-term improvements in metabolic parameters were not different between the 2 different nadir GH cut-offs, 0.4 and 1.0 ng/mL. PMID:27310957

  3. The Origins of the Rate Enhancement in LiNi0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4O2 (0

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M; Wilcox, James D

    2008-10-12

    Recently, much research has been directed towards finding a replacement cathode material for LiCoO{sub 2} combining high performance with lower cost and toxicity. One promising candidate material is the mixed transition metal oxide LiNi{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.4}O{sub 2}, which delivers 180 mAh/g below 4.4 V versus Li/Li{sup +}. However, in this material, there is 4% anti-site cation mixing, which hinders the mobility of lithium within the lattice, adversely affecting its rate performance in lithium batteries. Ongoing work in our lab has shown that partial or full substitution of cobalt with aluminum, LiNi{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2-y}Al{sub y}Mn{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (0 < y {le} 0.2), can lead to significant improvements in rate performance. In particular, LiNi{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}Mn{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} shows greatly improved rate capability with almost no sacrifice in the overall capacity delivered at low rates between 2.0 and 4.3V (Figure 1). The smaller ionic radius of Al{sup 3+} in octahedral coordination (0.535 {angstrom}) compared to Li{sup +} (0.76 {angstrom}) creates a strong driving force for the formation of a more lamellar structure in the aluminum containing materials. XRD experiments and subsequent Rietveld refinement (Figure 2) reveal a significant decrease in anti-site defect concentration upon aluminum substitution, dropping from {approx}4% at y=0 to {approx}2.5% at y=0.2. Concurrently, there is an increase in the lithium slab dimension from 2.6 {angstrom} to 2.63 {angstrom}. This expansion allows for a reduced activation energy and improved lithium diffusivity through the crystal lattice. Interestingly, the pressed pellet conductivities of Al-substituted compounds are lower than that of the parent as determined by AC impedance measurements. This lends further credence to the hypothesis that structural effects resulting in improved lithium diffusivity are responsible for the rate enhancement, rather than changes in the electronic structure. Further

  4. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Novel Barium Vanadium Oxide: Ba 0.4V 3O 8(VO) 0.4 · nH 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Yoshio; Tamada, Osamu; Yao, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Naoichi

    1995-02-01

    A new barium vanadium oxide Ba0.4V3O8(VO)0.4 · n H2O (n ∼ 0.6) has been synthesized hydrothermally from a VOCl2-BaCl2 solution. The green-black crystal composed of elongated thin plates exhibits a monoclinic system: P 21/m, a = 10.153(3) Å, b = 3.6329(9) Å, c = 9.435(2) Å, and β = 102.10(2)°. Structural analysis using 951 independent reflections led to R = 0.063 and Rw = 0.076. The structure is basically a layered type made up of V3O8 layers with interstitial Ba2+ ions and water molecules. Its striking feature is that the V3O8 layers are bridged imperfectly by partially absent VO5 trigonal bipyramids which form tunnel-like openings. The structure is thus regarded as an intermediate between layered and tunnel structure types. Interstitial Ba2+ ions were observed to be displaced from the position on the mirror plane.

  5. The Dense Filamentary Giant Molecular Cloud G23.0-0.4: Birthplace of Ongoing Massive Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yang; Zhang, Shaobo; Shao, Xiangjun; Yang, Ji

    2015-10-01

    We present observations of 1.5 square degree maps of the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O (J = 1 - 0) emission toward the complex region of the supernova remnant (SNR) W41 and SNR G22.7-0.2. A massive (˜ 5× {10}5 {M}⊙ ), large (˜84 × 15 pc), and dense (˜103 cm-3) giant molecular cloud (GMC), G23.0-0.4 with {V}{LSR} ˜ 77 km s-1, is found to be adjacent to the two SNRs. The GMC displays a filamentary structure approximately along the Galactic plane. The filamentary structure of the dense molecular gas, traced by C18O (J = 1 - 0) emission, is also coincident well with the distribution of the dust-continuum emission in the direction. Two dense massive MC clumps, two 6.7 GHz methanol masers, and one H ii/SNR complex, associated with the 77 km s-1 GMC G23.0-0.4, are aligned along the filamentary structure, indicating the star-forming activity within the GMC. These sources have periodic projected spacing of 0.°18-0.°26 along the giant filament, which is consistent with the theoretical predictions of 0.°22. This indicates that the turbulence seems to dominate the fragmentation process of the dense gaseous filament on a large scale. The established 4.4 kpc distance of the GMC and the long dense filament traced by C18O emission, together with the rich massive star-formation groups in the nearby region, suggest that G23.0-0.4 is probably located at the near side of the Scutum-Centaurus arm in the first quadrant. Considering the large scale and the elongation structure along the Galactic plane, we speculate that the dense filamentary GMC is related to the spiral density wave of the Milky Way.

  6. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of atmospheric water vapor from 0.4 to 2.7 THz.

    SciTech Connect

    Allman, Ronald E.; Foltynowicz, Robert J.

    2005-10-01

    We conducted broadband absorption measurements of atmospheric water vapor in the ground state, X {sup 1}A{sub 1} (000), from 0.4 to 2.7 THz with a pressure broadening-limited resolution of 6.2 GHz using pulsed, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). We measured a total of seventy-two absorption lines and forty-nine lines were identified as H{sub 2}{sup 16}O resonances. All the H{sub 2}{sup 16}O lines identified were confirmed by comparing their center frequencies to experimental values available in the literature.

  7. Exploiting phase separation in monolithic La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja, L.; Hueso, L. E.; Levy, P.; Mathur, N. D.

    2013-08-01

    Devices based on mesas were fabricated from thin films of magnetically phase-separated La0.6Ca0.4MnO3. Low-field magnetoresistance arises because the volume fraction of the ferromagnetic metallic phase is large enough for percolation but small enough to permit magnetic decoupling between each mesa and the underlying track. Magnetic domain walls in the antiparallel mesa-track configuration possess a giant resistance-area product of (3-7) × 10-8 Ωm2. This figure represents an 11 order-of-magnitude improvement with respect to the figure for cobalt.

  8. Synoptic analyses, 5-, 2-, 1-, and 0.4-millibar surfaces for July 1976 through June 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Meteorological rocketsonde and satellite radiance data are employed for analyses of a continuing series of high-altitude constant-pressure charts. The automated methods of data processing and the objective analysis procedures are described. Broad-scale analyses of temperature and geopotential height for the Northern Hemisphere 5-, 2-, 1-, and 0.4-mb surfaces are presented for each week of the period July 1976 through June 1977. Brief discussions of the variations of the temperature and height fields throughout the period are also given.

  9. Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Gschneidner, Jr., K. A.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2014-10-13

    We report on the magnetic, magnetocaloric and magnetotransport properties of Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. The title compound exhibits a large positive magnetoresistance (MR) for H ≥ 40 kOe and a small but non negligible negative MR for H ≤ 30 kOe. The maximum positive MR reaches 13% at H = 80 kOe. The magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes as functions of temperature each show two anomalies: a broad dome-like maximum below 20 K and a relatively sharp peak at higher temperature. As a result, observed behaviors are unique among other binary and mixed lanthanide compounds.

  10. Handgrip strength, quadriceps muscle power, and optimal shortening velocity roles in maintaining functional abilities in older adults living in a long-term care home: a 1-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Kozicka, Izabela; Kostka, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the relative role of handgrip strength (HGS), quadriceps muscle power (Pmax), and optimal shortening velocity (υopt) in maintaining functional abilities (FAs) in older adults living in a long-term care home over a 1-year follow-up. Subjects and methods Forty-one inactive older institutionalized adults aged 69.8±9.0 years participated in this study. HGS, Pmax, υopt, cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination, depressive symptoms using the Geriatric Depression Scale, nutritional status using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and physical activity (PA) using the Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire were assessed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. FAs were assessed with activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL, and Timed Up & Go test. Results Both at baseline and at follow-up, FAs were related to age, HGS, Pmax/kg, υopt, MNA, and PA. These associations were generally similar in both sexes. As revealed in multiple regression analysis, υopt was the strongest predictor of FA, followed by Pmax/kg, PA, and MNA. FA deteriorated after 1 year as measured by ADL and Timed Up & Go test. Pmax and υopt, but not HGS, also decreased significantly after 1 year. Nevertheless, 1-year changes in FAs were not related to changes in HGS, Pmax, υopt, or PA. Conclusion The 1-year period of physical inactivity among older institutionalized adults was found to have a negative effect on their FAs, Pmax, and υopt. The present study demonstrates that Pmax and, especially, υopt correlated with FAs of older adults more than HGS, both at baseline and at follow-up. Despite this, 1-year natural fluctuations of PA, Pmax, and υopt are not significant enough to influence FAs in inactive institutionalized older adults. PMID:27307720

  11. Evaluation of age and gender dependences of the rate of strontium elimination 25-45 years after intake: analysis of data from residents living along the Techa river.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Zalyapin, V I; Degteva, M O; Kozheurov, V P; Tokareva, E E; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

    2003-02-01

    The Mayak Production Association released large amounts of 90Sr into the Techa River with peak amounts in 1950-1951. Residents near the Techa River ingested an average of approximately 3,000 kBq of 90Sr. The affected people have been followed by scientists at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine. The whole-body content of 90Sr of approximately 15,000 individuals has been measured over a period of 24 years (1974-1997) using a special whole-body counter. This report evaluates the gender and age dependences of individual rates of strontium elimination. Data on persons who had been measured 12 or more times were selected for study. There were 108 men and 81 women older than 30 years who met this criterion. Individual measurement results were fitted to an exponential function and grouped mean averages of the rate of strontium elimination as a function of age for each sex were derived. For men, a significant increase (from 2.8% year(-1) to 3.2% year(-1)) in the rate of strontium elimination after age 55 years is seen. For women, the increase in the rate of elimination was significant at age 45 and reached 5.8% year(-1) after the age of 60. The results may be used to develop a gender- and age-dependent model of strontium metabolism. PMID:12537529

  12. Magnetic and structural transitions in La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2 single crystals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yan, Jiaqiang; Nandi, S.; Saparov, Bayrammurad I.; Cermak, P.; Xiao, Y.; Su, Y.; Jin, W. T.; Schneidewind, A.; Bruckel, Th.; McCallum, R. W.; et al

    2015-01-05

    La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2 single crystals have been grown out of an NaAs flux in an alumina crucible and characterized by measuring magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, specific heat, as well as single-crystal x-ray and neutron diffraction. La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2 single crystals show a structural phase transition from a high-temperature tetragonal phase to a low-temperature orthorhombic phase at Ts=125 K. This structural transition is accompanied by an anomaly in the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity, anisotropic magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat. Concomitant with the structural phase transition, the Fe moments order along the a direction with an ordered moment of 0.7(1) μB at T=5 K. Finally,more » the low-temperature stripe antiferromagnetic structure is the same as that in other AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) compounds. La0.5₋xNa0.5+xFe2As2 provides a material platform for the study of iron-based superconductors where the electron-hole asymmetry could be studied by simply varying the La/Na ratio.« less

  13. Vortex pinning and dynamics in high performance Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chiheng; Lin, He; Huang, He; Yao, Chao; Zhang, Xianping; Wang, Dongliang; Zhang, Qianjun; Ma, Yanwei; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    We have studied vortex pinning and dynamics in a Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 superconducting tape with critical current density Jc ˜ 0.1 MA/cm2 at 4.2 K and 10 T. It is found that grain boundary pinning is dominant in the vortex pinning mechanism. Furthermore, we observe large density of dislocations which can also serve as effective pinning centers. We find that the temperature dependence of critical current density is in agreement with the model of vortices pinned via spatial fluctuation of charge carrier mean free path. Magnetic relaxation measurement indicates that the magnetization depends on time in a logarithmic way. The relaxation rate in the low and intermediate temperature region is small, and it exhibits a weak temperature and field dependence. A crossover from elastic creep to plastic creep regime is observed. Finally, we conclude a vortex phase diagram for the high performance Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 superconducting tape.

  14. Beating the cost curve and redefining the scientific telescope utility using 0.4-meter robotic cluster network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubberley, Matthew A.; Walker, Zachary A.; Haldeman, Benjamin J.

    2008-07-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is redefining the function of robotic telescopes by deploying 0.4 meter telescopes that act as a highly networked intelligent instrument. The 0.4 meter telescopes, (P4) are optimized for quick and accurate object acquisition and tracking. This minimizes response time and enables the leveraging of the instrument. A single P4 can independently execute multiple science programs concurrently or team up with other P4s for deeper or multi-color observations of a single target. The intelligent control software will optimize the observation schedule for each individual telescope and the entire network. LCOGT is deploying 6 networked clusters consisting of four P4s around the world, providing capacity and versatility beyond the classical observatory. Each P4 has zero slippage, no backlash friction systems, and is currently achieving 20 deg/s slewing. Blind pointing is currently 8 arcsec RMS. Using the AG acquisition routine, the drive will have repeatable pointing to within 0.6 arcsec within 12 seconds from anywhere on the sky. Other features include wind buffet correction, rapid thermalization, dual autoguiders, novel scanning flat fielding device, large 20 kg instrument capacity, high speed instrument changer, and a stiff split ring mount.

  15. 0.4 Ah class graphite/LiMn 2O 4 lithium-ion battery prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appetecchi, Giovanni Battista; Prosini, Pier Paolo

    0.4 Ah lithium-ion battery prototypes, developed within a national project devoted to development of power sources for consumer applications, have been fabricated and tested. A novel, intrinsically porous, PVdF-HFP/MgO composite separator, capable to be hot-laminated onto PVDF-HFP-based electrodes without losing its ability to retain liquid electrolyte, was developed. The devices were assembled by direct lamination of the components, namely graphite anode tapes, PVDF-HFP/MgO separators and LiMn 2O 4 cathode films. The prototypes, formed by a stack of 12 single cells connected in parallel, need no external pressure to maintain contact between the layers. The battery performance was evaluated in terms of capacity, cycle life, energy and power density at different rates. The capability of prototypes to uptake liquid electrolyte was also investigated. The results have indicated the feasibility to scale-up lithium-ion cells to manufacture 0.4 Ah class battery prototypes showing good cycling performance.

  16. Thermal wet oxidation of GaP and Al0.4Ga0.6P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epple, J. H.; Chang, K. L.; Pickrell, G. W.; Cheng, K. Y.; Hsieh, K. C.

    2000-08-01

    Thermal wet oxidations of GaP and Al0.4Ga0.6P at 650 °C for various times have been performed. Comparisons are made on oxidation rates and post oxidation morphology. Transmission electron microscopy shows that when oxidizing GaP, polycrystalline monoclinic GaPO4ṡ2H2O forms without noticeable loss of phosphorus. Oxidation for 6 h or more leads to poor morphology resulting in cracks and detachment. A thickness expansion of about 2.5-3 times is noticed as a result of oxidation. In contrast, oxidized Al0.4Ga0.6P exhibits much better morphology without cracks or detachment from the substrate. The oxide has an almost amorphous-like microstructure. The oxidation process shows typical diffusion-limited reaction at long anneals. Preliminary work on the oxidation of AlP indicates that the reaction leads to formation of Al2O3 and possible volatile P2O5 diffusing out of the specimen. Thus, from the structural viewpoint, AlGaP forms a better oxide suitable for device needs.

  17. Martian atmosphere modeling between 0.4 and 3.5 microns - Comparison of theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, W. G.; Fischbein, W. L.; Hilgeman, T.; Smith, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    A model of the lower atmosphere of Mars has been constructed that combines aerosol absorption and scattering with a line-by-line analysis of CO2 and H2O in a multilayer radiative transfer program. Aerosol composition previously inferred from the NASA Lear Jet Observatory data was used to measure the optical complex indices of refraction of appropriate Martian analogs from 0.4 to 2.5 microns. The aerosol vertical particle density scale was deduced using the Viking camera observations of the soil and sky intensities between 0.4 and 1.0 microns in comparison with those modeled using a multilayer Mie scattering program. A comparison of observed Mars atmospheric absorptions was made with those obtained using Lorentz, Voigt, and Doppler line profiles in a multilayer model of the CO2 and H2O. The Voigt line profile of CO2 absorption at approximately 4976 kaysers was then combined in a multilayer aerosol model of the Martian atmosphere. An evaluation of the effect on the line shape was made using several aerosol loadings.

  18. Phase decomposition and electrochemical properties of single phase La1.6Mg0.4Ni7 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Han, Shumin; Han, Da; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Jingjing

    2014-12-01

    The Ce2Ni7-type (hexagonal, 2H) single phase La1.6Mg0.4Ni7 alloy has been obtained by annealing the induction melting as-cast sample at 1223 K for 12 h. The relationship between phase structural stability and volume change rate of the three kinds of slabs in Ce2Ni7-type structure is studied. It is found that the volume change rate of Mg-containing [La1.22Mg0.78Ni4] slab after hydrogenation/dehydrogenation is larger than that of [LaNi5] I (outer) and [LaNi5] II (inner) slabs, and the consecutive cell volume change of [La1.22Mg0.78Ni4] slab ultimately results in the decomposition of Ce2Ni7-type phase La1.6Mg0.4Ni7 to amorphous La and Mg phases, nanocrystalline Ni, and CaCu5-type LaNi5 phases, as well as the reduction of electrochemical discharge capacity. Electrochemical studies show that the single phase alloy electrode possesses good discharge capacity (400 mAh g-1) and cycling stability (84.2% after 100 cycles). The improvement in phase structure stability and the cycling stability of the superlattice structure alloys can be achieved by inhibiting the significant volume change of Mg-containing slabs during hydrogenation/dehydrogenation.

  19. Shape Comparison Between 0.4–2.0 and 20–60 lm Cement Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Holzer, L.; Flatt, R; Erdogan, S; Bullard, J; Garboczi, E

    2010-01-01

    Portland cement powder, ground from much larger clinker particles, has a particle size distribution from about 0.1 to 100 {micro}m. An important question is then: does particle shape depend on particle size? For the same cement, X-ray computed tomography has been used to examine the 3-D shape of particles in the 20-60 {micro}m sieve range, and focused ion beam nanotomography has been used to examine the 3-D shape of cement particles found in the 0.4-2.0 {micro}m sieve range. By comparing various kinds of computed particle shape data for each size class, the conclusion is made that, within experimental uncertainty, both size classes are prolate, but the smaller size class particles, 0.4-2.0 {micro}m, tend to be somewhat more prolate than the 20-60 {micro}m size class. The practical effect of this shape difference on the set-point was assessed using the Virtual Cement and Concrete Testing Laboratory to simulate the hydration of five cement powders. Results indicate that nonspherical aspect ratio is more important in determining the set-point than are the actual shape details.

  20. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get ...

  1. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…

  2. Learn & Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burness, Patty, Ed.; Snider, William, Ed.

    Along with a companion documentary video, "Learn & Live," this resource manual focuses on innovative schools around the country that are integrating technology and involving parents, business, and the community. Ten chapters are divided into four sections. In Section 1, "Students," two chapters look at learning and assessment. The two chapters in…

  3. Outdoor Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Kathy

    Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

  4. Impregnation of La0.4Ce0.6O1.8-La0.4Sr0.6TiO3 as solid oxide fuel cell anode in H2S-containing fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar, Milad R.; Yan, Ning; Zahiri, Beniamin; Mitlin, David; Chuang, Karl T.; Luo, Jing-Li

    2015-01-01

    Active anodes were fabricated via wet chemical impregnation of optimized amount of La0.4Sr0.6TiO3 (L4ST) into La0.4Ce0.6O1.8 (LDC) pre-infiltrated porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) matrix. Impregnations of 10 wt% LDC with 16 wt% L4ST significantly improved the performance of the fuel cell from 48 mW cm-2 for pure L4ST to 161 mW cm-2 for LDC-L4ST at 900 °C in H2. The contribution of the pre-loaded LDC to this improvement was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The measurement results indicated that pre-infiltrated LDC increased the activity of the anode more effectively by decreasing the total polarization resistance of the cell from 3.3 Ω cm2 to 1.0 Ω cm2 in humidified H2 at 900 °C. More importantly, the LDC nano-deposits (<20 nm) behaved as an effective "adhesive" that substantially enhanced the wettability of L4ST on YSZ matrix, resulting in finer and more uniform structure of L4ST infiltrates. The LDC-L4ST cells also demonstrated significantly improved performances in 0.5% H2S-H2 and 0.5% H2S-CH4 with higher stability than cells with pure L4ST anode.

  5. Quenching rate constants for reactions of Ar(4p'[1/2]0, 4p[1/2]0, 4p[3/2]2, and 4p[5/2]2) atoms with 22 reagent gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, N.; Setser, D. W.; Francis, A.; Czarnetzki, U.; Döbele, H. F.

    2001-08-01

    The total quenching rate constants of argon atoms in the 4p'[1/2]0, 4p[1/2]0, 4p[3/2]2, and 4p[5/2]2 states (2p1, 2p5, 2p6, and 2p8, respectively, in the Paschen numbering system) by rare gases, H2, D2, N2, CO, NO, O2, F2, Cl2, CO2, NO2, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, CF4, CHF3, and SF6 have been determined at room temperature. These four excited states of argon (energy 13.09-13.48 eV) were selectively prepared by two-photon excitation from the ground state using VUV (184-190 nm range) laser pulses. The total quenching rates were deduced from the pressure dependence of the decay times of the excited-state atoms, measured by observing their fluorescence emission intensities in the presence of added reagents. The quenching constants increase from values of ≅0.01×10-10 cm3 atom-1 s-1 for Ne, to ≅0.1×10-10 cm3 atom-1 s-1 for He and Ar, and to very large values, (5-15)×10-10 cm3 atom-1 s-1, for most polyatomic molecules, F2, Cl2, and O2. The quenching mechanisms of the Ar(4p,4p') atoms are briefly discussed and compared to the reactions of the Ar(4s,4s') metastable and resonance state atoms, 11.55-11.83 eV, which can serve as a reference.

  6. [A Patient with Stage IV Advanced Gastric Cancer with Multiple Liver Metastases Living for More Than 6 Years after Treatment with TS-1 Alone].

    PubMed

    Hara, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Kazuya; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Ikeda, Akihiko; Hashiyata, Hiroshi; Nakamoto, Kenbu; Takeshige, Motohiro

    2016-07-01

    The patient was a 58-year-old man with advanced gastric cancer with multiple liver metastases. He received TXL/TS-1 therapy during February 2009, but treatment was stopped immediately when he developed anorexia, diarrhea, and numbness in his fingers. Therefore, only TS-1 was administered. Following treatment initiation, tumor marker levels promptly dropped. The gastric lesion disappeared and, to date, only a slight scar remains since April 2010. Similarly, liver metastases have not been detected since August 2011. There has been no lesion progression for 6 years since the start of the chemotherapy. PMID:27431636

  7. The Social Networks of People with Intellectual Disability Living in the Community 12 Years after Resettlement from Long-Stay Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester-Jones, Rachel; Carpenter, John; Coolen-Schrijner, Pauline; Cambridge, Paul; Tate, Alison; Beecham, Jennifer; Hallam, Angela; Knapp, Martin; Wooff, David

    2006-01-01

    Background: The social inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities presents a major challenge to services. As part of a 12-year follow up of people resettled from long-stay hospitals, the size of 213 individuals' social networks and the types of social support they received were investigated, as viewed by people with intellectual…

  8. The Reading Lives of 8 to 11-Year-Olds 2005-2013: An Evidence Paper for the Read On. Get On. Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This report focuses on children aged 8 to 11 and their enjoyment of reading, reading behaviour, and attitudes toward reading. It synthesises information from surveys that have been conducted since 2005, but most heavily exploits data from the fourth annual literacy survey conducted in November/December 2013 in which 10,946 8 to 11-year-olds…

  9. Hope Lives in the Heart: Refugee and Immigrant Children's Perceptions of Hope and Hope-Engendering Sources during Early Years of Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yohani, Sophie C.; Larsen, Denise J.

    2009-01-01

    Children's adjustment to resettlement countries is vitally important to future outcomes, yet little attention is given to the role of hope in this process. This research focused on expressions of hope in 10 refugee and immigrant children during early years of resettlement. Using case study methods that employed arts-based data collection,…

  10. Baccalaureate and Beyond: A First Look at the Employment Experiences and Lives of College Graduates, 4 Years On (B&B:08/12). NCES 2014-141

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Siegel, Peter; Shepherd, Bryan; Cooney, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This report presents initial findings about the employment outcomes of bachelor's degree recipients approximately 4 years after they completed their 2007-08 degrees. These findings are based on data from the second follow-up of the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12), a nationally representative longitudinal sample…