Sample records for 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine

  1. Oxidation of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine by hypochlorite ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheidorov, V. P.; Ershov, Yu. A.; Chalyi, G. Yu.; Titorovich, O. V.


    The kinetics of the oxidative conversion of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine upon treatment with hypochlorite ions (OCl-) in aqueous medium at 283-298 K and pH 8.2 was studied. The reaction order with respect to each component was determined and proved to be 1. It was established that the temperature dependence of the reaction rate follows the Arrhenius equation. The activation parameters of the reaction were measured: E a = 33.58 kJ/mol, Δ H ≠ = 31.12 kJ/mol, Δ S ≠ = -170.02 J/(K mol), Δ G ≠ = 81.45 kJ/mol. The stoichiometry of the reaction was studied, and the chemistry of the oxidative conversion of caffeine treated with OCl- is discussed.

  2. Absorption spectra of isomeric OH adducts of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine

    SciTech Connect

    Vinchurkar, M.S.; Rao, B.S.M.; Mohan, H.; Mittal, J.P.; Schmidt, K.H.; Jonah, C.D.


    The reactions of OH{sup .}, O{sup .-}, and SO{sub 4}{sup .-} with 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) were studied by pulse radiolysis with optical and conductance detection techniques. The absorption spectra of transients formed in OH{sup .} reaction in neutral solutions exhibited peaks at 310 and 335 nm, as well as a broad absorption maximum at 500 nm, which decayed by first-order kinetics. The rate (k = (4.0 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}) of this decay is independent of pH in the range 4-9 and is in agreement with that determined from the conductance detection (k = 4 x 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}). The spectrum in acidic solutions has only a broad peak around 330 nm with no absorption in the higher wavelength region. The intermediates formed in reaction of O{sup .-} absorb around 310 and at 350 nm, and the first-order decay at the latter wavelength was not seen. The OH radical adds to C-4 (X-40H{sup .}) and C-8 (X-80H{sup .}) positions of caffeine in the ratio 1:2 as determined from the redox titration and conductivity measurements. H abstraction from the methyl group is an additional reaction channel in O{sup .-} reaction. Dehydroxylation of the X-40H{sup .} adduct occurs, whereas the X-80H{sup .} adduct does not undergo ring opening. The spectrum obtained for OH{sup .} reaction in oxygenated solutions is similar to that observed in SO{sub 4}{sup .-} reaction in basic solutions. 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) in foods: a comprehensive review on consumption, functionality, safety, and regulatory matters.


    Heckman, Melanie A; Weil, Jorge; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira


    Caffeine ranks as one of the top most commonly consumed dietary ingredients throughout the world. It is naturally found in coffee beans, cacao beans, kola nuts, guarana berries, and tea leaves including yerba mate. The total daily intake, as well as the major source of caffeine varies globally; however, coffee and tea are the 2 most prominent sources. Soft drinks are also a common source of caffeine as well as energy drinks, a category of functional beverages. Moderate caffeine consumption is considered safe and its use as a food ingredient has been approved, within certain limits, by numerous regulatory agencies around the world. Performance benefits attributed to caffeine include physical endurance, reduction of fatigue, and enhancing mental alertness and concentration. Caffeine has also been recently linked to weight loss and consequent reduction of the overall risks for developing the metabolic syndrome. However, the caloric contribution of caffeine-sweetened beverages needs to be considered in the overall energy balance. Despite all these benefits the potential negative effects of excessive caffeine intake should also be considered, particularly in children and pregnant women. PMID:20492310

  4. Biosynthesis of caffeine underlying the diversity of motif B' methyltransferase.


    Nakayama, Fumiyo; Mizuno, Kouichi; Kato, Misako


    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) and theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine) are well-known purine alkaloids in Camellia, Coffea, Cola, Paullinia, Ilex, and Theobroma spp. The caffeine biosynthetic pathway depends on the substrate specificity of N-methyltransferases, which are members of the motif B' methyl-transferase family. The caffeine biosynthetic pathways in purine alkaloid-containing plants might have evolved in parallel with one another, consistent with different catalytic properties of the enzymes involved in these pathways. PMID:26058161

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacterium Pseudomonas putida CBB5, Which Can Utilize Caffeine as a Sole Carbon and Nitrogen Source

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Erik M.; Summers, Ryan M.; Subramanian, Mani V.


    Pseudomonas putida CBB5 was isolated from soil by enriching for growth on caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine). The draft genome of this strain is 6.9 Mb, with 5,941 predicted coding sequences. It includes the previously studied Alx gene cluster encoding alkylxanthine N-demethylase enzymes and other genes that enable the degradation of purine alkaloids. PMID:26067973

  6. Autopsy report for a caffeine intoxication case and review of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takuma; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Kubo, Shin-ichi; Emoto, Yuko; Hara, Kenji; Waters, Brian; Umehara, Takahiro; Murase, Takehiko; Ikematsu, Kazuya


    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a popular mild central nervous system stimulant found in the leaves, seeds and fruits of various plants and in foodstuffs such as coffee, tea, and chocolate, among others. Caffeine is widely used and is not associated with severe side effects when consumed at relatively low doses. Although rarely observed, overdoses can occur. However, only a few fatal caffeine intoxication cases have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report the pathological examination results and information on caffeine concentrations in the blood, urine and main organs in a fatal caffeine intoxication case. Even though high caffeine concentrations were found in the systemic organs, no caffeine-related pathological changes were detected. PMID:26023259

  7. Chemotaxis of Pseudomonas sp. to caffeine and related methylxanthines.


    Dash, Swati Sucharita; Sailaja, Nori Sri; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N


    Pseudomonas sp. isolated from soil of coffee plantation area has been shown to degrade higher concentrations of caffeine ( approximately 15 g l(-1)) by N-demethylation at a rate higher than what has been reported for any strain so far. This strain exhibits positive chemotaxis towards caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) in swarm plate assay and modified capillary assay in a dose dependant manner. Related methylxanthines and xanthine also act as chemoattractants for the strain with the highest relative chemotactic response (RCR) seen for xanthine. Chemotaxis in Pseudomonas sp. is possibly plasmid mediated as indicated by positive chemotaxis of plasmid transformed E. coli DH5alpha. The chemotactic abilities of Pseudomonas sp. combined with higher rates of degradation of caffeine can be used in the development of strategies for biodecaffeination of caffeine containing wastes. PMID:18383225

  8. Removal of caffeine from industrial wastewater using Trichosporon asahii.


    Lakshmi, V; Das, Nilanjana


    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), a natural alkaloid present mainly in tea and coffee products has been suggested as an environmental pollutant. Decaffeination is an important process for the removal of caffeine from coffee industrial wastes. In the present study, caffeine removal (through degradation) by yeast isolate, Trichosporon asahii immobilized on various conventional matrices (sodium alginate, carboxymethyl cellulose, chitosan, agar and agarose) was investigated using the method of entrapment. The biofilm forming ability of T. asahii was monitored by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Exopolysaccharide produced by T asahii biofilm was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and HPLC analysis. Caffeine removal from coffee processing industrial effluent was found to be 75 and 80 % by alginate immobilized yeast and yeast biofilm formed on gravels over a period of 48 hr in batch mode. Effectiveness of the process was also tested involving the continuous--flow column studies. PMID:24640246

  9. Regulation of Purine Metabolism in Intact Leaves of Coffea arabica.

    PubMed Central

    Nazario, G. M.; Lovatt, C. J.


    The capacity of Coffea arabica leaves (5- x 5-mm pieces) to synthesize de novo and catabolize purine nucleotides to provide precursors for caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) was investigated. Consistent with de novo synthesis, glycine, bicarbonate, and formate were incorporated into the purine ring of inosine 5[prime]-monophosphate (IMP) and adenine nucleotides ([sigma]Ade); azaserine, a known inhibitor of purine de novo synthesis, inhibited incorporation. Activity of the de novo pathway in C. arabica per g fresh weight of leaf tissue during a 3-h incubation period was 8 [plus or minus] 4 nmol of formate incorporated into IMP, 61 [plus or minus] 7 nmol into [sigma]Ade, and 150 nmol into caffeine (the latter during a 7-h incubation). Coffee leaves exhibited classical purine catabolism. Radiolabeled formate, inosine, adenosine, and adenine were incorporated into hypoxanthine and xanthine, which were catabolized to allantoin and urea. Urease activity was demonstrated. Per g fresh weight, coffee leaf squares incorporated 90 [plus or minus] 22 nmol of xanthine into caffeine in 7 h but degraded 102 [plus or minus] 1 nmol of xanthine to allantoin in 3 h. Feedback control of de novo purine biosynthesis was contrasted in C. arabica and Cucurbita pepo, a species that does not synthesize purine alkaloids. End-product inhibition was demonstrated to occur in both species but at different enzyme reactions. PMID:12232012

  10. The best defense against hypoglycemia is to recognize it: is caffeine useful?


    Watson, J; Kerr, D


    Caffeine, 1,3,7trimethylxanthine, is used by 80% of the adult population of the world in its various forms. Even the simple pleasure of consuming this socially acceptable drug has implications for the person with diabetes mellitus. Caffeine may increase an individual's sensitivity to hypoglycemia through the combined effects of reducing substrate delivery to the brain via constriction of the cerebral arteries, whilst simultaneously increasing brain glucose metabolism and augmenting catecholamine production. This article summarizes the evidence supporting the hypothesis that caffeine influences the perception of and physiological response to hypoglycemia. Under laboratory conditions, acute ingestion of caffeine markedly enhances the symptomatic and sympathoadrenal responses to hypoglycemia in both healthy volunteers and patients with type 1 diabetes. Recently a study of free-living people with type 1 diabetes showed that caffeine consumption increased the awareness of hypoglycemia. Caffeine has been associated with a number of negative effects and addiction. Most serious of these associations are ischemic heart disease and hypertension, the relationships have not been clearly established and the evidence to date is controversial. Thus we conclude that in modest doses, caffeine may be a useful adjuvant therapy for patients with hypoglycemia unawareness. For once here is a therapy which is inexpensive, safe, and remarkably popular with its consumers. PMID:11475292

  11. Production of Recombinant Caffeine Synthase from Guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis) in Escherichia coli.


    Schimpl, Flávia Camila; Kiyota, Eduardo; Mazzafera, Paulo


    Caffeine synthase (CS) is a methyltransferase responsible for the last two steps of the caffeine biosynthesis pathway in plants. CS is able to convert 7-methylxanthine to theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine) and theobromine to caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) using S-adenosyl-L-methionine as the methyl donor in both reactions. The production of a recombinant protein is an important tool for the characterization of enzymes, particularly when the enzyme has affinity for different substrates. Guarana has the highest caffeine content among more than a hundred plant species that contain this alkaloid. Different from other plants, in which CS has a higher affinity for paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine), caffeine synthase from guarana (PcCS) has a higher affinity for theobromine. Here, we describe a method to produce a recombinant caffeine synthase from guarana in Escherichia coli and its purification by affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein retains activity and can be used in enzymatic assays and other biochemical characterization studies. PMID:26843165

  12. Mutant quantity and quality in mammalian cells (AL) exposed to cesium-137 gamma radiation: effect of caffeine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuinness, S. M.; Shibuya, M. L.; Ueno, A. M.; Vannais, D. B.; Waldren, C. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)


    We examined the effect of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) on the quantity and quality of mutations in cultured mammalian AL human-hamster hybrid cells exposed to 137Cs gamma radiation. At a dose (1.5 mg/ml for 16 h) that reduced the plating efficiency (PE) by 20%, caffeine was not itself a significant mutagen, but it increased by approximately twofold the slope of the dose-response curve for induction of S1- mutants by 137Cs gamma radiation. Molecular analysis of 235 S1- mutants using a series of DNA probes mapped to the human chromosome 11 in the AL hybrid cells revealed that 73 to 85% of the mutations in unexposed cells and in cells treated with caffeine alone, 137Cs gamma rays alone or 137Cs gamma rays plus caffeine were large deletions involving millions of base pairs of DNA. Most of these deletions were contiguous with the region of the MIC1 gene at 11p13 that encodes the S1 cell surface antigen. In other mutants that had suffered multiple marker loss, the deletions were intermittent along chromosome 11. These "complex" mutations were rare for 137Cs gamma irradiation (1/63 = 1.5%) but relatively prevalent (23-50%) for other exposure conditions. Thus caffeine appears to alter both the quantity and quality of mutations induced by 137Cs gamma irradiation.

  13. Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Caffeine and Theobromine Production

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lu; Bhuiya, Mohammad Wadud; Li, Mengmeng; Liu, XiangQi; Han, Jixiang; Deng, WeiWei; Wang, Min; Yu, Oliver; Zhang, Zhengzhu


    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) and theobromine (3, 7-dimethylxanthine) are the major purine alkaloids in plants, e.g. tea (Camellia sinensis) and coffee (Coffea arabica). Caffeine is a major component of coffee and is used widely in food and beverage industries. Most of the enzymes involved in the caffeine biosynthetic pathway have been reported previously. Here, we demonstrated the biosynthesis of caffeine (0.38 mg/L) by co-expression of Coffea arabica xanthosine methyltransferase (CaXMT) and Camellia sinensis caffeine synthase (TCS) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, we endeavored to develop this production platform for making other purine-based alkaloids. To increase the catalytic activity of TCS in an effort to increase theobromine production, we identified four amino acid residues based on structural analyses of 3D-model of TCS. Two TCS1 mutants (Val317Met and Phe217Trp) slightly increased in theobromine accumulation and simultaneously decreased in caffeine production. The application and further optimization of this biosynthetic platform are discussed. PMID:25133732

  14. Decaffeination and measurement of caffeine content by addicted Escherichia coli with a refactored N-demethylation operon from Pseudomonas putida CBB5.


    Quandt, Erik M; Hammerling, Michael J; Summers, Ryan M; Otoupal, Peter B; Slater, Ben; Alnahhas, Razan N; Dasgupta, Aurko; Bachman, James L; Subramanian, Mani V; Barrick, Jeffrey E


    The widespread use of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) and other methylxanthines in beverages and pharmaceuticals has led to significant environmental pollution. We have developed a portable caffeine degradation operon by refactoring the alkylxanthine degradation (Alx) gene cluster from Pseudomonas putida CBB5 to function in Escherichia coli. In the process, we discovered that adding a glutathione S-transferase from Janthinobacterium sp. Marseille was necessary to achieve N 7 -demethylation activity. E. coli cells with the synthetic operon degrade caffeine to the guanine precursor, xanthine. Cells deficient in de novo guanine biosynthesis that contain the refactored operon are ″addicted″ to caffeine: their growth density is limited by the availability of caffeine or other xanthines. We show that the addicted strain can be used as a biosensor to measure the caffeine content of common beverages. The synthetic N-demethylation operon could be useful for reclaiming nutrient-rich byproducts of coffee bean processing and for the cost-effective bioproduction of methylxanthine drugs. PMID:23654268

  15. Association of riboflavin, caffeine, and sodium salicylate in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovskii, S. F.; Bolotin, P. A.


    We have used UV and visible spectrophotometry to study self-association of aromatic riboflavin molecules (RFN, vitamin B2, 7,8-dimethyl-10-N-(1'-D-ribityl)isoalloxazine) in aqueous solution (pH 6.86) at T = 298 K, using a dimer model. We have determined the equilibrium dimerization constant for riboflavin, KdB = 125 ± 40 M-1. We have studied heteroassociation in the system of molecules of 7,8-dimethyl-10-ribitylisoalloxazine with 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) and sodium salicylate (NAS) in aqueous solution (pH 6.86; T = 298 K). We have determined the heteroassociation constants for RFN-NAS and RFN-caffeine molecules in the absence and in the presence of urea in solutions using a modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation: 25 ± 4, 17 ± 3, and 74 ± 11, 53 ± 7 M-1 respectively. We have determined the dimerization constants for NAS (2.7 ± 0.5 M-1) and caffeine (17.0 ± 1.5 M-1). We conclude that heteroassociation of the aromatic molecules leads to a lower effective riboflavin concentration in solution, and the presence of urea in mixed solutions leads to an decrease in the complexation constants for the RFN-NAS and RFN-caffeine systems.

  16. Effect of caffeine on oxidative stress during maximum incremental exercise.


    Olcina, Guillermo J; Muñoz, Diego; Timón, Rafael; Caballero, M Jesús; Maynar, Juan I; Córdova, Alfredo; Maynar, Marcos


    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is an habitual substance present in a wide variety of beverages and in chocolate-based foods and it is also used as adjuvant in some drugs. The antioxidant ability of caffeine has been reported in contrast with its pro- oxidant effects derived from its action mechanism such as the systemic release of catecholamines. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of caffeine on exercise oxidative stress, measuring plasma vitamins A, E, C and malonaldehyde (MDA) as markers of non enzymatic antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation respectively. Twenty young males participated in a double blind (caffeine 5mg·kg- 1 body weight or placebo) cycling test until exhaustion. In the exercise test, where caffeine was ingested prior to the test, exercise time to exhaustion, maximum heart rate, and oxygen uptake significantly increased, whereas respiratory exchange ratio (RER) decreased. Vitamins A and E decreased with exercise and vitamin C and MDA increased after both the caffeine and placebo tests but, regarding these particular variables, there were no significant differences between the two test conditions. The results obtained support the conclusion that this dose of caffeine enhances the ergospirometric response to cycling and has no effect on lipid peroxidation or on the antioxidant vitamins A, E and C. Key PointsCaffeine ingestion may improve maximal aerobic performance in non trained men.Cellular oxidative damage is not altered by caffeine ingestion in maximal aerobic exercises.Antioxidant response to exercise, vitamins A, E and C, is not modified by caffeine action in maximal aerobic efforts. PMID:24357958

  17. Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Alexandra; Fraichard, Stephane; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Faure, Philippe; Artur, Yves; Ferveur, Jean-François; Heydel, Jean-Marie


    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine), an alkaloid produced by plants, has antioxidant and insecticide properties that can affect metabolism and cognition. In vertebrates, the metabolites derived from caffeine have been identified, and their functions have been characterized. However, the metabolites of caffeine in insects remain unknown. Thus, using radiolabelled caffeine, we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline. In contrast to mammals, theobromine was the predominant metabolite (paraxanthine in humans; theophylline in monkeys; 1, 3, 7-trimethyluric acid in rodents). A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins, including several cytochromes P450s (CYPs) that were highly overexpressed. Flies treated with metyrapone—an inhibitor of CYP enzymes—showed dramatically decreased caffeine metabolism, indicating that CYPs are involved in this process. Using interference RNA genetic silencing, we measured the metabolic and transcriptomic effect of three candidate CYPs. Silencing of CYP6d5 completely abolished theobromine synthesis, whereas CYP6a8 and CYP12d1 silencing induced different consequences on metabolism and gene expression. Therefore, we characterized several metabolic products and some enzymes potentially involved in the degradation of caffeine. In conclusion, this pioneer approach to caffeine metabolism in insects opens novel perspectives for the investigation of the physiological effects of caffeine metabolites. It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects. PMID:25671424

  18. The perspective of caffeine and caffeine derived compounds in therapy.


    Pohanka, M


    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a plant secondary metabolite with a significant impact on multiple processes and regulatory pathways in the body. Though major part of the population meets caffeine via coffee, tea or chocolate, it has also an important role in pharmacology and it is used as a supplementary substance in medicaments. Currently, the ability of caffeine to ameliorate some neurodegenerative disorders is proved in some studies. This review describes basic data about caffeine including toxicity, pharmacokinetics, biological mechanism of the action, and metabolism. Beside this, promising applications of caffeine, new medicaments and derivatives are discussed. Relevant papers and inventions are depicted in the manuscript. Caffeine is a pharmacologically promising substance that deserves big consideration in the current research and development. The compound has several reasons to be an object of scientific interest and to be used for pharmacology purposes. Despite an extensive research for a long time, no significantly negative effects on human health were proved hence caffeine can be considered as a completely safe compound. The recent data about amelioration of neurodegenerative and other disorders are promising and deserving more work on the issue. ARTICLE HIGHLIGHTS: Caffeine is a purine alkaloid from plants and it has a broad use in current pharmacology. Caffeine is a competitive antagonist of neurotransmitter adenosine on adenosine receptors. The substance is added as a supplementary to drugs and food.Besides interfering on adenosine receptors, caffeine interacts with acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidase, phosphodiesterase, ryanodine receptors and others.Current research is devoted to the role of caffeine in neurodegenerative diseases and immunity alteration. New chemical compounds based on caffeine moiety are prepared (Tab. 4, Fig. 6, Ref. 149). PMID:26435014

  19. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Three Distinct N-Methyltransferases Involved in the Caffeine Biosynthetic Pathway in Coffee Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Uefuji, Hirotaka; Ogita, Shinjiro; Yamaguchi, Yube; Koizumi, Nozomu; Sano, Hiroshi


    Caffeine is synthesized from xanthosine through N-methylation and ribose removal steps. In the present study, three types of cDNAs encoding N-methyltransferases were isolated from immature fruits of coffee (Coffea arabica) plants, and designated as CaXMT1, CaMXMT2, and CaDXMT1, respectively. The bacterially expressed encoded proteins were characterized for their catalytic properties. CaXMT1 catalyzed formation of 7-methylxanthosine from xanthosine with a Km value of 78 μm, CaMXMT2 catalyzed formation of 3,7-dimethylxanthine (theobromine) from 7-methylxanthine with a Km of 251 μm, and CaDXMT1 catalyzed formation of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) from 3,7-dimethylxanthine with a Km of 1,222 μm. The crude extract of Escherichia coli was found to catalyze removal of the ribose moiety from 7-methylxanthosine, leading to the production of 7-methylxanthine. As a consequence, when all three recombinant proteins and E. coli extract were combined, xanthosine was successfully converted into caffeine in vitro. Transcripts for CaDXMT1 were predominantly found to accumulate in immature fruits, whereas those for CaXMT1 and CaMXMT2 were more broadly detected in sites encompassing the leaves, floral buds, and immature fruits. These results suggest that the presently identified three N-methyltransferases participate in caffeine biosynthesis in coffee plants and substantiate the proposed caffeine biosynthetic pathway: xanthosine → 7-methylxanthosine → 7-methylxanthine → theobromine → caffeine. PMID:12746542

  20. Molecular and biochemical characterization of caffeine synthase and purine alkaloid concentration in guarana fruit.


    Schimpl, Flávia Camila; Kiyota, Eduardo; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Gonçalves, José Francisco de Carvalho; da Silva, José Ferreira; Mazzafera, Paulo


    Guarana seeds have the highest caffeine concentration among plants accumulating purine alkaloids, but in contrast with coffee and tea, practically nothing is known about caffeine metabolism in this Amazonian plant. In this study, the levels of purine alkaloids in tissues of five guarana cultivars were determined. Theobromine was the main alkaloid that accumulated in leaves, stems, inflorescences and pericarps of fruit, while caffeine accumulated in the seeds and reached levels from 3.3% to 5.8%. In all tissues analysed, the alkaloid concentration, whether theobromine or caffeine, was higher in young/immature tissues, then decreasing with plant development/maturation. Caffeine synthase activity was highest in seeds of immature fruit. A nucleotide sequence (PcCS) was assembled with sequences retrieved from the EST database REALGENE using sequences of caffeine synthase from coffee and tea, whose expression was also highest in seeds from immature fruit. The PcCS has 1083bp and the protein sequence has greater similarity and identity with the caffeine synthase from cocoa (BTS1) and tea (TCS1). A recombinant PcCS allowed functional characterization of the enzyme as a bifunctional CS, able to catalyse the methylation of 7-methylxanthine to theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine), and theobromine to caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), respectively. Among several substrates tested, PcCS showed higher affinity for theobromine, differing from all other caffeine synthases described so far, which have higher affinity for paraxanthine. When compared to previous knowledge on the protein structure of coffee caffeine synthase, the unique substrate affinity of PcCS is probably explained by the amino acid residues found in the active site of the predicted protein. PMID:24856135

  1. Mutant quantity and quality in mammalian cells (A{sub L}) exposed to cesium-137 gamma radiation: Effect of caffeine

    SciTech Connect

    McGuinness, S.M.; Shibuya, M.L.; Ueno, A.M.


    We examined the effect of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) on the quantity and quality of mutations in cultured mammalian A{sub L} human-hamster hybrid cells exposed to {sup 137}Cs {gamma} radiation. At a dose (1.5 mg/ml for 16 h) that reduced the plating efficiency (PE) by 20%, caffeine was not itself a significant mutagen, but it increased by approximately twofold the slope of the dose-response curve for induction of S1{sup {minus}} mutants by {sup 137}Cs {gamma} radiation. Molecular analysis of 235 S1{sup {minus}} mutants using a series of DNA probes mapped to the human chromosome 11 in the A{sub L} hybrid cells revealed that 73 to 85% of the mutations in unexposed cells and in cells treated with caffeine alone, {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays alone or {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays plus caffeine were large deletions involving millions of base pairs of DNA. Most of these deletions were contiguous with the region of the MIC1 gene at 11p13 that encodes the S1 cell surface antigen. In other mutants that had suffered multiple marker loss, the deletions were intermittent along chromosome 11. These {open_quotes}complex{close_quotes} mutations were rare for {sup 137}Cs {gamma} irradiation (1/63 = 1.5%) but relatively prevalent (23-50%) for other exposure conditions. Thus caffeine appears to alter both the quantity and quality of mutations induced by {sup 137}Cs {gamma} irradiation. 62 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Quantification of theobromine and caffeine in saliva, plasma and urine via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: a single analytical protocol applicable to cocoa intervention studies.


    Ptolemy, Adam S; Tzioumis, Emma; Thomke, Arjun; Rifai, Sami; Kellogg, Mark


    Targeted analyses of clinically relevant metabolites in human biofluids often require extensive sample preparation (e.g., desalting, protein removal and/or preconcentration) prior to quantitation. In this report, a single ultra-centrifugation based sample pretreatment combined with a designed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) protocol provides selective quantification of 3,7-dimethylxanthine (theobromine) and 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) in human saliva, plasma and urine samples. The optimized chromatography permitted elution of both analytes within 1.3 min of the applied gradient. Positive-mode electrospray ionization and a triple quadruple MS/MS instrument operated in multiple reaction mode were used for detection. (13)C(3) isotopically labeled caffeine was included as an internal standard to improve accuracy and precision. Implementing a 20-fold dilution of the isolated low MW biofluid fraction prior to injection effectively minimized the deleterious contributions of all three matrices to quantitation. The assay was linear over a 160-fold concentration range from 2.5 to 400 micromol L(-1) for both theobromine (average R(2) 0.9968) and caffeine (average R(2) 0.9997) respectively. Analyte peak area variations for 2.5 micromol L(-1) caffeine and theobromine in saliva, plasma and urine ranged from 5 and 10% (intra-day, N=10) to 9 and 13% (inter-day, N=25) respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision of theobromine and caffeine elution times were 3 and <1% for all biofluids and concentrations tested. Recoveries for caffeine and theobromine ranged from 114 to 118% and 99 to 105% at concentration levels of 10 and 300 micromol L(-1). This validated protocol also permitted the relative saliva, plasma and urine distribution of both theobromine and caffeine to be quantified following a cocoa intervention. PMID:20045386

  3. Polymorphism and disorder in natural active ingredients. Low and high-temperature phases of anhydrous caffeine: Spectroscopic ((1)H-(14)N NMR-NQR/(14)N NQR) and solid-state computational modelling (DFT/QTAIM/RDS) study.


    Seliger, Janez; Žagar, Veselko; Apih, Tomaž; Gregorovič, Alan; Latosińska, Magdalena; Olejniczak, Grzegorz Andrzej; Latosińska, Jolanta Natalia


    The polymorphism of anhydrous caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine; 1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-(3H,7H)-dione) has been studied by (1)H-(14)N NMR-NQR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance) double resonance and pure (14)N NQR (Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance) followed by computational modelling (Density Functional Theory, supplemented Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules with Reduced Density Gradient) in solid state. For two stable (phase II, form β) and metastable (phase I, form α) polymorphs the complete NQR spectra consisting of 12 lines were recorded. The assignment of signals detected in experiment to particular nitrogen sites was verified with the help of DFT. The shifts of the NQR frequencies, quadrupole coupling constants and asymmetry parameters at each nitrogen site due to polymorphic transition were evaluated. The strongest shifts were observed at N(3) site, while the smallest at N(9) site. The commercial pharmaceutical sample was found to contain approximately 20-25% of phase I and 75-80% of phase II. The orientational disorder in phase II with a local molecular arrangement mimics that in phase I. Substantial differences in the intermolecular interaction phases I and II of caffeine were analysed using computational (DFT/QTAIM/RDS) approach. The analysis of local environment of each nitrogen nucleus permitted drawing some conclusions on the topology of interactions in both polymorphs. For the most stable orientations in phase I and phase II the maps of the principal component qz of EFG tensor and its asymmetry parameter at each point of the molecular system were calculated and visualized. The relevant maps calculated for both phases I and II indicates small variation in electrostatic potential upon phase change. Small differences between packings in phases slightly disturb the neighbourhood of the N(1) and N(7) nitrogens, thus are meaningless from the biological point of view. The composition of two phases in pharmaceutical material