Science.gov

Sample records for 1-associated periodic syndrome

  1. Falling into TRAPS – receptor misfolding in the TNF receptor 1-associated periodic fever syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kimberley, Fiona C; Lobito, Adrian A; Siegel, Richard M; Screaton, Gavin R

    2007-01-01

    TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is a dominantly inherited disease caused by missense mutations in the TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) gene. Patients suffer from periodic bouts of severe abdominal pain, localised inflammation, migratory rashes, and fever. More than 40 individual mutations have been identified, all of which occur in the extracellular domain of TNFR1. In the present review we discuss new findings describing aberrant trafficking and function of TNFR1 harbouring TRAPS mutations, challenging the hypothesis that TRAPS pathology is driven by defective receptor shedding, and we suggest that TNFR1 might acquire novel functions in the endoplasmic reticulum, distinct from its role as a cell surface receptor. We also describe the clinical manifestations of TRAPS, current treatment regimens, and the widening array of patient mutations. PMID:17666110

  2. [Genetic fever syndromes. Hereditary recurrent (periodic) fever syndromes].

    PubMed

    Neudorf, U; Lainka, E; Kallinich, T; Holzinger, D; Roth, J; Fll, D; Niehues, T

    2013-05-01

    Genetic fever syndromes or hereditary recurrent fever syndromes (HRF) are considered to be part of the autoinflammatory diseases (AID) which result from errors in the innate immune system. Patients typically have self-limiting episodes of fever and high levels of inflammation markers. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant. The diseases of the HRF include familial Mediterranean fever, tumor necrosis factor receptor 1-associated periodic syndrome, hyper-IgD syndrome and cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndromes. The disease known as deficiency of interleukin 1 (IL1) receptor antagonist does not fully belong to this group because fever is not a typical symptom. The therapy depends on the type and severity of the disease. Effective prophylaxis is possible for FMF. Biologicals, especially IL1 blocking agents are highly effective in very severe fever syndromes. In order to collect more information on AID, to establish a biobank and coordinate research in this field the AID-Net project was founded. Currently 606 patients with AID are registered of whom 381 have HRF. PMID:23552978

  3. Congenital nephrotic syndrome of NPHS1 associated with cardiac malformation.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Berfin; Dnmez, Osman; Uysal, Fahrettin; Akac?, Okan; Vuru?kan, Berna Ayta; Berdeli, Afig

    2015-02-01

    Congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) is a rare disease inherited as an autosomally recessive trait and defined as proteinuria manifesting at birth or in the first 3 months of life. The classical form is the Finnish type of CNS (CNF), which is caused by mutations in the nephrin gene (NPHS1). The classical findings include prematurity, large placenta and massive proteinuria. Minor cardiac findings have been reported as a minor functional disorder but CNS with major cardiac malformation is rare. Here we report the case of a Turkish child with CNS with small indel mutation (c.614_621delCACCCCGGinsTT) in exon 6 of NPHS1 and also major cardiac malformation who did not develop end-stage renal disease until the age of 5 years. PMID:25711261

  4. Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Posch, Christian; Kaulfersch, Wilhelm; Rappersberger, Klemens

    2014-01-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are characterized by apparently unprovoked attacks of fever, rashes, and musculoskeletal and sensorineural inflammation accompanied by high acute-phase reactants. Excessive interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling appears to be a constant feature in the pathomechanism of the disease, driven by a gain-of-function mutation in the NLRP3 gene. Herein, we present the case of a 9-month-old boy with recurrent nonpruritic rashes and episodes of fever. The difficulties of early diagnosis due to initially mild clinical symptoms and the dramatic response to anti-IL-1 therapy after diagnosis emphasize the practical relevance of considering CAPS as a differential diagnosis in these patients. PMID:22891689

  5. Familial neurofibromatosis type 1 associated with an overgrowth syndrome resembling Weaver syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    van Asperen, C J; Overweg-Plandsoen, W C; Cnossen, M H; van Tijn, D A; Hennekam, R C

    1998-01-01

    The simultaneous occurrence of familial neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and an overgrowth syndrome resembling Weaver syndrome was observed in two related cases (a mother and her son). NF1 was confirmed by molecular genetic analysis showing a large deletion at 17q11.2, encompassing the entire NF1 gene. The other symptoms in the two cases were similar to the features reported in Weaver syndrome. Although the combination of NF1 and an overgrowth syndrome resembling Weaver syndrome in this family may be fortuitous, we favour the hypothesis that the deletion of the entire gene has caused this combined phenotype. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed. The observation suggests a relation between NF1 with an extraordinarily large gene deletion and a Weaver(-like) syndrome. This warrants investigation for deletions in the 17q11.2 region in Weaver(-like) syndrome patients. Images PMID:9598729

  6. Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, Adenitis Syndrome (PFAPA)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, Adenitis Syndrome (Juvenile) Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, Adenitis Syndrome (Juvenile) Fast Facts PFAPA usually resolves spontaneously during the second decade of life. Steroids given at the start of an episode usually ...

  7. Measuring the rotation periods of 4-10 Myr T-Tauri stars in the Orion OB1 association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanveer Karim, Md; Stassun, Keivan; Briceno, Cesar; Vivas, Kathy; Raetz, Stefanie; Calvet, Nuria; Mateu, Cecilia; Downes, Juan Jose; Hernandez, Jesus; Neuhäuser, Ralph; Mugrauer, Markus; Takahashi, Hidenori; Tachihara, Kengo; Chini, Rolf; YETI

    2016-01-01

    Most existing studies of young stellar populations have focused on the youngest (< 2-3 Myr) T-Tauri stars, which are usually associated with their natal gas and hence easier to identify. In contrast, older T-Tauri stars (~ 4-10 Myr), being more difficult to find, have been less studied, even though they hold key insight to understanding evolution of lower-mass (0.1-2 M⊙) stars and of protoplanetary discs. We present a study of photometric variability of 1974 confirmed 4-10 Myr old T-Tauri stars in the Orion OB1 association using optical time-series from three different surveys: the Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía-Quest Equatorial Survey Team (CIDA-QUEST), the Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative (YETI) and from a Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) campaign. We investigated stellar rotation periods according to the type of stars (Classical or Weak-lined T-Tauri stars) and their locations, to look for population-wide trends. We detected 563 periodic variables and 1411 non-periodic variables by investigating the light curves of these stars. We find that ~ 30% of Weak-line T-Tauri stars (WTTS) and ~ 20% of Classical T-Tauri stars (CTTS) are periodic. Though we did not find any noticeable difference in rotation period between CTTS and WTTS, our study does show a change in the overall rotation periods of stars 4-10 Myr old, consistent with predictions of angular momentum evolution models, an important constraint for theoretical models for an age range for which no similar data existed.

  8. [Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome].

    PubMed

    Agbo-kpati, K-P; Condor, R; Hollenberg, H; Chalvon Demersay, A; Cuisset, L; Quartier, P

    2014-07-01

    We report the cases of two sisters born of parents who were first-degree cousins, who started recurrent fever with lymph node and digestive tract involvement at the age of 2 years. There was no mutation of the familial Mediterranean fever gene and a diagnosis of partial mevalonate kinase (MVK) deficiency was made. However, immunoglobulin (Ig) D and A levels were normal. Elevated mevalonic acid in the patients' urine during an episode and MVK gene analysis provided the diagnosis. Clinical remission was obtained under anti-TNF-alpha treatment with etanercept. These observations and those of several previously reported patients, particularly in French and Dutch series, illustrate the importance of considering the diagnosis in a child with early-onset auto-inflammatory syndrome even in the absence of hyper-IgD or -IgA. PMID:24935455

  9. Babinski-Nageotte Syndrome Diagnosed in Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Oruç, Serdar; Demirbaş, Hayri; Güzel, Abdullah; Beker Acay, Mehtap; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Babinski-Nageotte Syndrome (BNS) is one of the brainstem syndromes characterized by muscle weakness in the opposite half of the body with classic Wallenberg findings. According to our literature survey, only a few cases have been reported and none of them was in the postpartum period. We report a case of a typical BNS in a postpartum woman with an ischemic lesion in the medulla oblongata shown on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26989533

  10. Secondary Sjogren's syndrome presenting with hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Dormohammadi Toosi, Taraneh; Naderi, Neda; Movassaghi, Shafieh; Seradj, Mehran Heydari; Khalvat, Ali; Shahbazi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) may develop in a large population of patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS), but most of the subjects are asymptomatic. Here, we report a patient with known rheumatoid arthritis and symptoms of xerostomia, xerophthalmia and periodic paralysis. SS should be considered as a cause of RTA. The treatment of the underlying disorder may ameliorate the symptoms. PMID:25988057

  11. Secondary Sjogren's syndrome presenting with hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Dormohammadi Toosi, Taraneh; Naderi, Neda; Movassaghi, Shafieh; Seradj, Mehran Heydari; Khalvat, Ali; Shahbazi, Fatemeh

    2014-11-01

    Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) may develop in a large population of patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS), but most of the subjects are asymptomatic. Here, we report a patient with known rheumatoid arthritis and symptoms of xerostomia, xerophthalmia and periodic paralysis. SS should be considered as a cause of RTA. The treatment of the underlying disorder may ameliorate the symptoms. PMID:25988057

  12. How do we diagnose migraine and childhood periodic syndromes?

    PubMed

    Winner, Paul

    2005-10-01

    Migraine remains substantially underdiagnosed and undertreated in the pediatric population. The incidence and prevalence of migraine in the pediatric population is not fully appreciated. The recently revised International Headache Society (IHS) criteria, The International Classification of Headache Disorders, is a step in the right direction to improving our diagnostic accuracy. These criteria are the basis for scientific studies and serve as the foundation for future research and clinical care. In this article, the diagnostic issues related to migraine and childhood periodic syndromes in the IHS 2004 revisions are reviewed. PMID:16157064

  13. Recurrent Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis Unmasks Sjogren Syndrome without Sicca Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yao-Min; Huang, Neng-Chyan; Wann, Shue-Ren; Chang, Yun-Te; Wang, Jyh-Seng

    2015-04-01

    Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis (HPP) may occur as a rare complication of Sjogren Syndrome (SS) and Renal Tubular Acidosis (RTA). A 64-year male patient came with HPP, and was later diagnosed with distal RTA. The patient, who had no xerostomia and xerophthalmia, was diagnosed with primary SS from serologic and histologic findings of minor salivary gland biopsy. The patient recovered after potassium replacement therapy. Renal biopsy was also performed and revealed evidence of tubulointerstitial nephritis. Corticosteroids were administered and there was no recurrence of HPP during a 4-year follow-up period. The case highlights the significance of acute hypokalemia management in emergency department as it can unmask SS even if the SS is not associated with sicca symptoms. Hypokalemic paralysis associated with normal anion gap metabolic acidosis should prompt toward the diagnosis of SS. PMID:25933458

  14. Periodic Fever and Neutrophilic Dermatosis: Is It Sweet's Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Raheleh; Parvaneh, Nima; Moradinejad, Mohammad-Hassan

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old boy with high grade fever (39C) and warm, erythematous, and indurated plaque above the left knee was referred. According to the previous records of this patient, these indurated plaques had been changed toward abscesses formation and then spontaneous drainage had occurred after about 6 to 7 days, and finally these lesions healed with scars. In multiple previous admissions, high grade fever, leukocytosis, and a noticeable increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were noted. After that, until 7th year of age, he had shoulder, gluteal, splenic, kidney, and left thigh lesions and pneumonia. The methylprednisolone pulse (30?mg/kg) was initiated with the diagnosis of Sweet's syndrome. After about 1014 days, almost all of the laboratory data regressed to nearly normal limits. After about 5 months, he was admitted again with tachypnea and high grade fever and leukocytosis. After infusion of one methylprednisolone pulse, the fever and tachypnea resolved rapidly in about 24 hours. In this admission, colchicine (1?mg/kg) was added to the oral prednisolone after discharge. In the periodic fever and neutrophilic dermatosis, the rheumatologist should search for sterile abscesses in other organs. PMID:25544911

  15. Periodic Fever and Neutrophilic Dermatosis: Is It Sweet's Syndrome?

    PubMed

    Assari, Raheleh; Ziaee, Vahid; Parvaneh, Nima; Moradinejad, Mohammad-Hassan

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old boy with high grade fever (39C) and warm, erythematous, and indurated plaque above the left knee was referred. According to the previous records of this patient, these indurated plaques had been changed toward abscesses formation and then spontaneous drainage had occurred after about 6 to 7 days, and finally these lesions healed with scars. In multiple previous admissions, high grade fever, leukocytosis, and a noticeable increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were noted. After that, until 7th year of age, he had shoulder, gluteal, splenic, kidney, and left thigh lesions and pneumonia. The methylprednisolone pulse (30?mg/kg) was initiated with the diagnosis of Sweet's syndrome. After about 10-14 days, almost all of the laboratory data regressed to nearly normal limits. After about 5 months, he was admitted again with tachypnea and high grade fever and leukocytosis. After infusion of one methylprednisolone pulse, the fever and tachypnea resolved rapidly in about 24 hours. In this admission, colchicine (1?mg/kg) was added to the oral prednisolone after discharge. In the periodic fever and neutrophilic dermatosis, the rheumatologist should search for sterile abscesses in other organs. PMID:25544911

  16. Novel loss-of-function variants in DIAPH1 associated with syndromic microcephaly, blindness, and early onset seizures.

    PubMed

    Al-Maawali, Almundher; Barry, Brenda J; Rajab, Anna; El-Quessny, Malak; Seman, Ann; Coury, Stephanie Newton; Barkovich, A James; Yang, Edward; Walsh, Christopher A; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H; Stoler, Joan M

    2016-02-01

    Exome sequencing identified homozygous loss-of-function variants in DIAPH1 (c.2769delT; p.F923fs and c.3145C>T; p.R1049X) in four affected individuals from two unrelated consanguineous families. The affected individuals in our report were diagnosed with postnatal microcephaly, early-onset epilepsy, severe vision impairment, and pulmonary symptoms including bronchiectasis and recurrent respiratory infections. A heterozygous DIAPH1 mutation was originally reported in one family with autosomal dominant deafness. Recently, however, a homozygous nonsense DIAPH1 mutation (c.2332C4T; p.Q778X) was reported in five siblings in a single family affected by microcephaly, blindness, early onset seizures, developmental delay, and bronchiectasis. The role of DIAPH1 was supported using parametric linkage analysis, RNA and protein studies in their patients' cell lines and further studies in human neural progenitors cells and a diap1 knockout mouse. In this report, the proband was initially brought to medical attention for profound metopic synostosis. Additional concerns arose when his head circumference did not increase after surgical release at 5 months of age and he was diagnosed with microcephaly and epilepsy at 6 months of age. Clinical exome analysis identified a homozygous DIAPH1 mutation. Another homozygous DIAPH1 mutation was identified in the research exome analysis of a second family with three siblings presenting with a similar phenotype. Importantly, no hearing impairment is reported in the homozygous affected individuals or in the heterozygous carrier parents in any of the families demonstrating the autosomal recessive microcephaly phenotype. These additional families provide further evidence of the likely causal relationship between DIAPH1 mutations and a neurodevelopmental disorder. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26463574

  17. Neonatal Bartter syndrome--use of indomethacin in the newborn period and prevention of growth failure.

    PubMed

    Mackie, F E; Hodson, E M; Roy, L P; Knight, J F

    1996-12-01

    Neonatal Bartter syndrome differs from the classical Bartter syndrome in the occurrence of antenatal presentation with polyhydramnios. Nephrocalcinosis and severe growth retardation are common sequelae. Indomethacin has been reported to improve linear growth, but its use in the early newborn period has been infrequently described. In this paper we report normal growth and development and the absence of nephrocalcinosis in an infant now aged 19 months with neonatal Bartter syndrome treated from day 3 of life with indomethacin. With early diagnosis and treatment with indomethacin plus adequate water, calories, and sodium, normal growth can be achieved and nephrocalcinosis may be prevented in children with neonatal Bartter syndrome. PMID:8971899

  18. Periodic fever syndromes in Eastern and Central European countries: results of a pediatric multinational survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalence of diagnosed and suspected autoinflammatory diseases in Eastern and Central European (ECE) countries, with a particular interest on the diagnostic facilities in these countries. Methods Two different strategies were used to collect data on patients with periodic fever syndromes from ECE countries- the Eurofever survey and collection of data with the structured questionnaire. Results Data from 35 centers in 14 ECE countries were collected. All together there were 11 patients reported with genetically confirmed familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), 14 with mevalonate-kinase deficiency (MKD), 11 with tumor necrosis factor receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) and 4 with chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome (CINCA). Significantly higher numbers were reported for suspected cases which were not genetically tested. All together there were 49 suspected FMF patients reported, 24 MKD, 16 TRAPS, 7 CINCA and 2 suspected Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) patients. Conclusions The number of genetically confirmed patients with periodic fever syndromes in ECE countries is very low. In order to identify more patients in the future, it is important to organize educational programs for increasing the knowledge on these diseases and to establish a network for genetic testing of periodic fever syndromes in ECE countries. PMID:21539753

  19. Diagnosis of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome: challenges, recommendations and emerging concepts.

    PubMed

    Sarrabay, Guillaume; Grandemange, Sylvie; Touitou, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome are rare autosomal dominantly inherited diseases. They include three overlapping phenotypes: familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome, and chronic infantile neurological cutaneous articular syndrome/neonatal onset multisystem autoinflammatory syndrome (NOMID/CINCA). Recurrent fevers, joint pain, and urticarial skin rash are the main clinical features of these conditions. Renal amyloidosis and sensorineural complications may occur. Gain-of-function mutations in NLRP3 gene are responsible for the overactivation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, a multimolecular complex involved in the inflammatory process. Missense mutations are almost always encountered, particularly in exon 3, which encodes the nucleotide-binding domain. Mosaicism is not rare, especially in CINCA/NOMID. Next-generation sequencing will grant access to new insights about NLRP3 implication in oligogenic and multifactorial diseases. PMID:25979514

  20. A case of Keutel syndrome diagnosed in the neonatal period: associated with Binder phenotype.

    PubMed

    Demirel, G; Oguz, S S; Celik, I H; Erdeve, O; Uras, N; Dilmen, U

    2012-01-01

    Keutel syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by brachytelephalangia (short, broad distal phalanges), midfacial hypoplasia, abnormal cartilage calcifications, peripheral pulmonary stenosis and hearing loss. Binder profile is a well known maxillonasal dysplasia composed of midfacial hypoplasia with absence of anterior nasal spine and facial dysmophism (short nose, flat nasal bridge, perialar flatness, convex upper lip). Here we report a Keutel syndrome presenting with Binder phenotype, abnormal calcifications, hearing loss and respiratory insufficiency in the newborn period. Keutel syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children with tracheobronchial calcifications, midfacial hypoplasia and stippled epiphysis. PMID:22611639

  1. Somatic mosaic mutations of IDH1 and NPM1 associated with cup-like acute myeloid leukemia in a patient with Maffucci syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Masaharu; Yamaoka, Masayoshi; Mikami-Terao, Yoko; Ohyama, Wataru; Yokoi, Kentaro; Arakawa, Yasuhiro; Takita, Junko; Suzuki, Hideaki; Yamada, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Maffucci syndrome is a nonhereditary congenital disorder characterized by multiple enchondromas and with soft-tissue hemangiomas. Somatic mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene have been detected in enchondroma and hemangioma tissue from patients with Maffucci syndrome. The rate of malignant transformation in Maffucci syndrome is high, with enchondromas transforming into chondrosarcomas and the development of secondary neoplasms, including pancreatic and hepatic adenocarcinoma, mesenchymal ovarian tumors, and brain tumors such as glioma. However, hematopoietic malignancies arising in Maffucci syndrome are rare. We report a 7-year-old girl with Maffucci syndrome in whom acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with cup-like nuclear invagination developed. Both leukemic cells and hemangioma had the same gene mutations: an insertion frameshift c.863_864insTCTG (p.W288fs) in the nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene and a missense mutation c.392_395GTCG>CTCT (p.G131_R132>AL) in the IDH1 gene. However, buccal mucosa cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells harvested after two cycles of chemotherapy showed wild-type genotypes. These results suggest that the multiple somatic mutations of the IDH1 and NPM1 genes in hemangioblasts are related to the development of cup-like AML associated with Maffucci syndrome. However, further studies are needed to identify additional molecular events in AML but not in hemangioma. PMID:26508204

  2. Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach to the patient with a periodic fever syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lachmann, H J

    2011-01-01

    The periodic fever syndromes are disorders of innate immunity. They may be inherited or acquired and present as recurrent attacks of apparently spontaneous self-limiting inflammation without evidence of autoantibodies or infection. Over the past decade-and-a-half there has been significant progress in their understanding and treatment. PMID:21736563

  3. A novel mutation of laminin ?-2 gene in Pierson syndrome manifested with nephrotic syndrome in the early neonatal period.

    PubMed

    Aydin, B; Ipek, M S; Ozaltin, F; Zenciro?lu, A; Dilli, D; Beken, S; Okumu?, N; Ho?a?asi, N; Saygili-Karagl, B; Kundak, A; Renda, R; Aydog, O

    2013-01-01

    Pierson syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which is mainly characterized by congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS), diffuse mesangial sclerosis (DMS) and distinct ocular abnormalities, including microcoria. Most affected children exhibit early onset of chronic renal failure, neurodevelopmental deficits, and blindness. It is caused by a homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the gene encoding laminin beta2 (LAMB2) on chromosome 3p21. In this article, we report on a patient with CNS, bilateral megalocornea and microcoria. The patient had developed renal failure at very early postnatal period and died of septic shock. A novel homozygous donor splice mutation (IVS4 + 2T > C) in LAMB2 gene was identified in the patient. PMID:24032283

  4. Successful management of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome with canakinumab in infancy.

    PubMed

    Kanariou, Maria; Tantou, Sofia; Varela, Ioanna; Raptaki, Maria; Petropoulou, Chrissa; Nikas, Ioannis; Valari, Manthoula

    2014-11-01

    Neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID)/chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articular (CINCA) syndrome is a rare, early-onset autoinflammatory disorder and the most severe form of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome, which is associated with overproduction of interleukin (IL)-1?. This is a case report of a 70-day-old boy, who was diagnosed with NOMID/CINCA syndrome and who has been treated with anti-IL-1? monoclonal antibody (canakinumab) since then, despite his early infancy. The patient presented with fever, aseptic meningitis, and rash. The clinical manifestations combined with the elevated acute-phase reactants strengthened the suspicion of the diagnosis of NOMID/CINCA syndrome. Specific immunologic workup revealed high levels of serum amyloid A and IL-6. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of a de novo mutation of the CIAS1/NLR3 gene (p.Thr348Met), and canakinumab was started at a dose of 4 mg/kg, higher than the recommended dose for older age. White blood cell, serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, and IL-6 levels quickly decreased and became normal within a month, and the clinical condition of the patient improved significantly. The infant remains without recurrence of disease or further complications and with satisfactory mental development with anti-IL-1? monoclonal antibody treatment for >2 years. This report indicates the importance of early diagnosis of NOMID/CINCA syndrome and medication with IL-1 blockers as soon as possible for the improvement of the prognosis of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome and of a better patient outcome. PMID:25349319

  5. Changes in Yearly Birth Prevalence Rates of Children with Down Syndrome in the Period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaf, G.; Haveman, M.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method: On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down syndrome diagnoses in five out of the eight Dutch

  6. Changes in Yearly Birth Prevalence Rates of Children with Down Syndrome in the Period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaf, G.; Haveman, M.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method: On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down syndrome diagnoses in five out of the eight Dutch…

  7. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aguado-Gil, L; Irarrazaval-Armendriz, I; Pretel-Irazabal, M

    2013-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is a rare autosomal dominant disease included in the group of autoinflammatory syndromes. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation in different regions of the body. The main clinical manifestations are myalgia, migratory erythematous rash, periorbital edema, and abdominal pain. The diagnosis is reached using gene analysis and prognosis depends on the appearance of amyloidosis secondary to the recurrent episodes of inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors and corticosteroids are the most widely used treatments. In recent years, significant advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of TRAPS, thanks to a better understanding of its pathogenesis. Dermatologists must be aware that the skin manifestations of TRAPS are particularly important, as they are often diagnostic. PMID:23891452

  8. Identification of Multiple Phytotoxins Produced by Fusarium virguliforme Including a Phytotoxic Effector (FvNIS1) Associated With Sudden Death Syndrome Foliar Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hao-Xun; Domier, Leslie L; Radwan, Osman; Yendrek, Craig R; Hudson, Matthew E; Hartman, Glen L

    2016-02-01

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean is caused by a soilborne pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme. Phytotoxins produced by F. virguliforme are translocated from infected roots to leaves, in which they cause SDS foliar symptoms. In this study, additional putative phytotoxins of F. virguliforme were identified, including three secondary metabolites and 11 effectors. While citrinin, fusaric acid, and radicicol induced foliar chlorosis and wilting, Soybean mosaic virus (SMV)-mediated overexpression of F. virguliforme necrosis-inducing secreted protein 1 (FvNIS1) induced SDS foliar symptoms that mimicked the development of foliar symptoms in the field. The expression level of fvnis1 remained steady over time, although foliar symptoms were delayed compared with the expression levels. SMV::FvNIS1 also displayed genotype-specific toxicity to which 75 of 80 soybean cultivars were susceptible. Genome-wide association mapping further identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms at two loci, where three leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase (LRR-RLK) genes were found. Culture filtrates of fvnis1 knockout mutants displayed a mild reduction in phytotoxicity, indicating that FvNIS1 is one of the phytotoxins responsible for SDS foliar symptoms and may contribute to the quantitative susceptibility of soybean by interacting with the LRR-RLK genes. PMID:26646532

  9. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome managed with the couple canakinumab-alendronate.

    PubMed

    Lopalco, Giuseppe; Rigante, Donato; Vitale, Antonio; Frediani, Bruno; Iannone, Florenzo; Cantarini, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Management of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is puzzling, and therapeutic choices can be complicated, due to both wide genetic heterogeneity and protean clinical phenotype. We report on a 35-year-old female who was diagnosed with TRAPS, after finding the V95M mutation on the TNFRSF1A gene; who was treated in order with etanercept, anakinra, and canakinumab (150 mg/every 8 weeks by subcutaneous injection, then increased to 150 mg every 4 weeks); and who started therapy with oral alendronate (70 mg/weekly) to control her osteoporosis. Alendronate combined with canakinumab led to the optimal clinical control of all TRAPS manifestations and normalization of inflammatory markers. Further studies should be performed to clarify bisphosphonates' role in the scenery of autoinflammatory disorders. PMID:24609716

  10. Concurrence of thyrotoxicosis and Gitelman's syndrome-associated hypokalemia-induced periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Imashuku, Shinsaku; Teramura-Ikeda, Tomoko; Kudo, Naoko; Kaneda, Shigehiro; Tajima, Toshihiro

    2012-04-01

    A 16-year-old Japanese boy with a history of truancy had been treated at a psychiatric clinic. When the patient was referred to us for hypokalemia-associated paralysis, the diagnosis of thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis was made, common in Asian men. Subsequently, the patient was found to have persistently high plasma renin and aldos-terone levels. Thus, solute carrier family 12 member 3 gene (SLC12A3) analysis was performed. A novel missense homozygous mutation CTC->CAC at codon 858 (L858H) was found for which the patient was homozygous and his non-consanguineous parents heterozygote. These findings indicated that the patient developed hypokalemia-associated paralysis concurrently with thyrotoxicosis and Gitelman's syndrome. This case underscores the importance of careful examinations of adolescents with complaints of truancy as well as of precise determinations of the causes of hypokalemia-associated paralysis. PMID:22802996

  11. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progressionthat is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  12. Unified Modeling of Familial Mediterranean Fever and Cryopyrin Associated Periodic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Yasemin; Demir, Alper; Erman, Burak; Gl, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Familial mediterranean fever (FMF) and Cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are two prototypical hereditary autoinflammatory diseases, characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation as a result of mutations in MEFV and NLRP3 genes encoding Pyrin and Cryopyrin proteins, respectively. Pyrin and Cryopyrin play key roles in the multiprotein inflammasome complex assembly, which regulates activity of an enzyme, Caspase 1, and its target cytokine, IL-1?. Overproduction of IL-1? by Caspase 1 is the main cause of episodic fever and inflammatory findings in FMF and CAPS. We present a unifying dynamical model for FMF and CAPS in the form of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The model is composed of two subsystems, which capture the interactions and dynamics of the key molecular players and the insults on the immune system. One of the subsystems, which contains a coupled positive-negative feedback motif, captures the dynamics of inflammation formation and regulation. We perform a comprehensive bifurcation analysis of the model and show that it exhibits three modes, capturing the Healthy, FMF, and CAPS cases. The mutations in Pyrin and Cryopyrin are reflected in the values of three parameters in the model. We present extensive simulation results for the model that match clinical observations. PMID:26161132

  13. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome during the peripartum period: report of four cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Buyukaslan, Hasan; Lok, Ugur; Gulacti, Umut; Sogut, Ozgur; Kaya, Halil; Gokdemir, Tahir; Yalin, Oner

    2015-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a cliniconeuroradiologic disorder affecting the brains occipital and parietal lobes characterized by altered mental status, seizures, headache and blurred vision. Eclampsia is one of the main causes of posterior reversible encephalopathy. We aimed to discuss here literature guided clinical and radiologic findings of four women who had experienced status epilepticus at peripartum period and diagnosed as PRES. PMID:25932085

  14. Cauda equina syndrome as a rare manifestation of leukemia relapse during postallograft period.

    PubMed Central

    Onal, Ibrahim Koral; Shorbagi, Ali; Gker, Hakan; Bykask, Yahya; Ozakar, Levent; Tufan, Abdurrahman; Aksu, Salih; Haznedaroglu, Ybrahim C.

    2006-01-01

    Here we report a 41-year-old woman with the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia. While being followed on remission after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, she developed systemic and central nervous system (CNS) relapse. CNS involvement presented first with meningeal irritation signs and then with cauda equina syndrome (CES). We define an interesting presentation of CES as abdominal pain and discuss the rare coexistence of the syndrome and leukemia under the light of the pertinent literature. Images Figure 1 PMID:16749661

  15. Language Development in Down Syndrome: From the Prelinguistic Period to the Acquisition of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbeduto, Leonard; Warren, Steven F.; Conners, Frances A.

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with abnormalities in multiple organ systems and a characteristic phenotype that includes numerous behavioral features. Language, however, is among the most impaired domains of functioning in DS and, perhaps, also the greatest barrier to independent meaningful inclusion in the community. In this article, we review

  16. Assessment of 25(OH)D vitamin concentration in plasma of residents of Lodz with metabolic syndrome in pre- and postmenopausal period

    PubMed Central

    Materek-Ku?mierkiewicz, Izabela; Moczulski, Dariusz; Gaszy?ska, Ewelina; Szatko, Franciszek; Tokarski, S?awomir; Kowalski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome disorders and the occurrence of these disorders greatly contributes to the deficiency of vitamin D. Postmenopausal women are particularly prone to that deficiency. Aim The aim of the study was to assess vitamin D concentration in the plasma of pre- and postmenopausal women, with or without metabolic syndrome. Material and methods The study included 141 women aged 26-77 (the mean age 58.74 years old), divided into 4 groups depending on the pre- or postmenopausal period and diagnosed or not with metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria (2005). Vitamin D concentration was assessed by LIAISON test using chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) technology. Results The mean vitamin D concentration was the highest among premenopausal women without metabolic syndrome (24.32 ng/ml), it was insignificantly higher than in postmenopausal women without metabolic syndrome (23.52 ng/ml) and significantly higher than in both groups with metabolic syndrome premenopausal (19.86 ng/ml) and postmenopausal women (9.32 ng/ml). The recommended plasma 25(OH)D concentration was not found in any of postmenopausal women with diagnosed metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome had a significantly lower 25(OH)D vitamin concentration in plasma than postmenopausal women without metabolic syndrome. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency in women with metabolic syndrome was very high, significantly higher than in women without metabolic syndrome. PMID:26327869

  17. Headache and status epilepticus in the postpartum period; posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome or cerebral venous thrombosis?

    PubMed

    Zis, Panagiotis; Tavernarakis, Antonios

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a young woman, with a history of a miscarriage and a molar pregnancy, who developed headache and status epilepticus in postpartum day three. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST) can present with identical clinical picture; however, the imaging findings can help the clinician to make the correct diagnosis and initiate the appropriate treatment. Both PRES and CVST are medical emergencies and fully reversible entities especially when treatment initiation is immediate. PMID:23710378

  18. [Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Value of intravenous flecainide for detecting Kent's pathways with short refractory period].

    PubMed

    Talard, P; Cointe, R; Bru, P; Moyal, C; Lacombe, P; Bremondy, M; Levy, S; Gerard, R

    1990-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of a non-invasive test in detecting accessory pathways with short anterograde effective refractory periods (AERP) (less than or equal to 270 ms) in patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. An intravenous injection of Flecainide acetate was administered to 19 consecutive patients referred for electrophysiological investigation of a WPW syndrome with permanent pre-excitation of the surface electrocardiogram. The first 8 patients (Group I) received a dose of 1.5 mg/kg over 5 minutes and the following 11 patients (Group II) were given 2 mg/kg in 5 minutes. In Group I, preexcitation disappeared in 3 patients (37.5%) who all had accessory pathways with AERP greater than 270 ms. It persisted in the other 5 patients (62.5%) of whom 4 had AERP less than or equal to 270 ms and 1 an AERP greater than 270 ms (false negative). In Group II, preexcitation disappeared in 8 patients (72.2%) of whom 4 had AERP greater than 270 ms and 4 had AERP less than 270 ms (false positives). Preexcitation persisted in the 3 other patients (27.3%); the AERP was less than or equal to 270 ms in 2 patients and greater than 270 ms in the other patients. These results suggest that intravenous Flecainide acetate at the dose of 1.5 mg/kg could be useful in differentiating WPW syndromes with long refractory periods (greater than 270 ms) from those with short refractory periods (less than or equal to 270 ms) with a satisfactory sensitivity and specificity, and that further studies on larger numbers of patients are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:2111669

  19. Restless leg syndrome, periodic limb movements, febrile seizures and Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in an Indian family

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Meena; Batra, Amit; Trivedi, Anurag; Chowdhury, Debashish; Khwaja, Geeta A.

    2012-01-01

    Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder which can affect individuals of all age groups and incidence increasing with age. It can cause severe sleep disruption and negatively impact quality of life of an individual. Its diagnosis is clinical, based on essential criteria of International RLS Study Group. It can be idiopathic or associated with various medical and other neurological disorders. Idiopathic RLS can be sporadic or may have a familial inheritance, with several genetic loci been reported till date. RLS has a strong association with periodic limb movements, both sleep and awake. Very few studies of familial RLS/Periodic limb movements in sleep and their associations have been reported. We report an Indian family with autosomal dominant RLS/PLMS, with RLS and PLMS as well as psychiatric disorders, febrile seizures and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in different family members, over three generations. PMID:22412272

  20. Experiences in a family with the Upshaw-Schulman syndrome over a 44-year period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Michael; Chubar, Yevgeni; Gavish, Israel; Aviv, Ariel; Stemer, Galia; Chap-Marshak, Dafna

    2014-04-01

    A family with a novel c.717_del frameshift and a c.3655C > T missense mutation of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I motif, member 13 protein (ADAMTS13) is described. Family members have been under observation for 44 years. Two double heterozygotes have severe early-onset Upshaw-Schulman syndrome and require prophylactic plasma infusions. Analysis reveals that 2 weekly plasma infusions are not sufficient in preventing laboratory evidence of a thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) attack. Both the double heterozygotes also have a heterozygous factor V Leiden G1291A mutation. One underwent splenectomy, which did not reduce the frequency of TTP episodes but resulted in a recurrent pulmonary embolism and has necessitated lifelong anticoagulant therapy. The other has mild chronic renal failure and has had episodes of atrial fibrillation and cerebral infarction. Of the 3 heterozygotes in the family, 1 has had episodes of mild thrombocytopenia. PMID:23872162

  1. Recurrent diplopia over a 30-year period: natural history of a Lewis and Sumner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, Romain; Bouwyn, Jean Paul; Wallon, David; Bedat-Millet, Anne-Laure; Ahtoy, Patrick; Perot, Guillaume; Hannequin, Didier; Maltte, David

    2012-06-01

    We described the case of a patient with recurrent episodes of isolated diplopia over the last 30 years. On her last event, neurological examination revealed not only a right third and sixth cranial nerves involvement, but also a right peripheral facial palsy and a motor weakness on the left ulnar territory. Electrophysiological nerves motor conduction study revealed a conduction block on the left ulnar nerve and a less severe on the right ulnar nerve. Asymmetrical upper limb sensorimotor weakness combined with conduction block and cranial nerves palsy led to a diagnosis of Lewis and Sumner syndrome (LSS). This case is unusual by the presentation of the disease and is, to our knowledge the longer natural disease course of LSS reported. Moreover, it suggests that the recurrent diplopia variant may represent a separate entity with a good prognosis even in absence of invasive treatment. PMID:22426656

  2. Remission of severe restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep after bilateral excision of multiple foot neuromas: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs in response to uncomfortable leg sensations. While asleep, 70 to 90 percent of patients with restless legs syndrome have periodic limb movements in sleep. Frequent periodic limb movements in sleep and related brain arousals as documented by polysomnography are associated with poorer quality of sleep and daytime fatigue. Restless legs syndrome in middle age is sometimes associated with neuropathic foot dysesthesias. The causes of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep are unknown, but the sensorimotor symptoms are hypothesized to originate in the central nervous system. We have previously determined that bilateral forefoot digital nerve impingement masses (neuromas) may be a cause of both neuropathic foot dysesthesias and the leg restlessness of restless legs syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first report of bilateral foot neuromas as a cause of periodic limb movements in sleep. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian woman with severe restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep and bilateral neuropathic foot dysesthesias was diagnosed as having neuromas in the second, third, and fourth metatarsal head interspaces of both feet. The third interspace neuromas represented regrowth (or 'stump') neuromas that had developed since bilateral third interspace neuroma excision five years earlier. Because intensive conservative treatments including repeated neuroma injections and various restless legs syndrome medications had failed, radical surgery was recommended. All six neuromas were excised. Leg restlessness, foot dysesthesias and subjective sleep quality improved immediately. Assessment after 18 days showed an 84 to 100 percent reduction of visual analog scale scores for specific dysesthesias and marked reductions of pre-operative scores of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index, fatigue severity scale, and the international restless legs syndrome rating scale (36 to 4). Polysomnography six weeks post-operatively showed improved sleep efficiency, a marked increase in rapid eye movement sleep, and marked reductions in hourly rates of both periodic limb movements in sleep with arousal (135.3 to 3.3) and spontaneous arousals (17.3 to 0). Conclusion The immediate and near complete remission of symptoms, the histopathology of the excised tissues, and the marked improvement in polysomnographic parameters documented six weeks after surgery together indicate that this patient's severe restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep was of peripheral nerve (foot neuroma) origin. Further study of foot neuromas as a source of periodic limb movements in sleep and as a cause of sleep dysfunction in patients with or without concomitant restless legs syndrome, is warranted. PMID:20849622

  3. Nystagmus in a newborn: a manifestation of Joubert syndrome in the neonatal period.

    PubMed

    Salva, Ins; Albuquerque, Carolina; Moreira, Ana; Dmaso, Catarina

    2016-01-01

    Joubert syndrome is a rare disorder, usually autosomal recessive, with a prevalence of 1:80?000 to 1:100?000. This disease presents most commonly as breathing irregularities, although the two major clinical criteria are hypotonia and developmental delay, sometimes associated with ocular movement abnormalities. The severity of the presentation varies, ranging from mild cases with normal intelligence to severe developmental delays associated with early death. We report a case of a newborn who presented to the emergency department for absent ocular fixation and torsional nystagmus without other neurological abnormalities. Her cranial MR showed cerebellar vermis agenesis and a molar tooth sign. Her laboratory evaluation, and renal and abdominal ultrasound were normal. An electroretinogram showed mixed retinal dystrophy and an AHI1 homozygous missense c.1981T>C mutation was identified (parents are carriers). Throughout infancy, she has shown mild developmental delay and hypotonia, but no respiratory abnormalities. Owing to variable expressivity, a high level of suspicion is required. PMID:26759440

  4. Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, and Cervical Adenitis (PFAPA) Syndrome: a Review of the Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Vanoni, Federica; Hofer, Michaël

    2016-04-01

    PFAPA syndrome represents the most common cause of recurrent fever in children in European populations, and it is characterized by recurrent episodes of high fever, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis, and aphthous stomatitis. Many possible causative factors have been explored so far, including infectious agents, immunologic mechanisms and genetic predisposition, but the exact etiology remains unclear. Recent findings demonstrate a dysregulation of different components of innate immunity during PFAPA flares, such as monocytes, neutrophils, complement, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1β, suggesting an inflammasome-mediated innate immune system activation and supporting the hypothesis of an autoinflammatory disease. Moreover, in contrast with previous considerations, the strong familial clustering suggests a potential genetic origin rather than a sporadic disease. In addition, the presence of variants in inflammasome-related genes, mostly in NLRP3 and MEFV, suggests a possible role of inflammasome-composing genes in PFAPA pathogenesis. However, none of these variants seem to be relevant, alone, to its etiology, indicating a high genetic heterogeneity as well as an oligogenic or polygenic genetic background. PMID:26984802

  5. Determination of rifaximin treatment period according to lactulose breath test values in nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome subjects.

    PubMed

    Bae, Suhyun; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Kyu-Nam

    2015-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can partly explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and rifaximin has been observed to improve abdominal symptoms in nonconstipated IBS patients. However, there are few reports on the association of the rifaximin treatment periods with the results of a lactulose breath test (LBT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the relation between the rifaximin treatment periods with LBT results in nonconstipated IBS patients. We also evaluated the time to achieve a symptomatic improvement in the IBS patients as compared to the changes in the LBT. We reviewed the charts for patients who showed IBS symptoms with documented positive results for LBT during their initial visit and who had a follow-up LBT after treatment with rifaximin. The LBT values were compared to the subjects' symptom scores. A total of 102 subjects had a follow-up LBT to assess LBT normalization. The subjects were divided into groups according to treatment periods of 4 weeks (n = 36), 8 weeks (n = 43), and 12 weeks (n = 23). The groups with a longer treatment exhibited an increase in the hydrogen gas value at 90 min and its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT. There were significant differences in hydrogen gas value at 90 min and in its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT between the groups treated for 4 and 12 weeks. The most significant treatment response was observed during the first 4 weeks for all treatment groups. Symptomatic improvement occurred earlier than LBT normalization in the treatment period over 4 weeks. The results indicate that different rifaximin treatment periods are needed in accordance with LBT levels to effectively eradicate SIBO. PMID:26028929

  6. Comparison of early postoperative period electrophysiological and clinical findings following carpal tunnel syndrome: is EMG necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Aksekili, Mehmet Atıf Erol; Biçici, Vedat; Işık, Çetin; Aksekili, Hatice; Uğurlu, Mahmut; Akkurt, Adem; Doğan, Metin

    2015-01-01

    Background: In this study, we aimed to compare the clinical findings and ENMG results of the patients who underwent surgery due to CTS, in the preoperative and early postoperative period. Methods: 33 wrists of 29 patients who underwent open carpal tunnel surgery in our clinic due to CTS, between 2009 and 2011, were evaluated. Electrophysiological progress was evaluated with ENMG and clinical state with Boston scale. Results: A significant decrease was observed in the postoperative BS symptomatic (SSS) and functional (FSS) scores of patients as compared to preoperative period (P=0.00), In the electrophysiological findings, statistically significant improvement was observed in all groups but very severe CTS group (P<0.05). When preoperative and postoperative EMG findings were compared, changes in DSL and DSA values were statistically significant (P<0.05). However, no statistically significant difference was seen between DML (P=0.085) and DMA (P=246) values on the 3rd month. When an examination was conducted on the patients whose DML and DSL values could not be obtained in the preoperative EMG, DML values were obtained in the early postoperative period in 6 of 7 cases (85.71% P<0.001), and DSL values were obtained in 17 of 24 cases (70.8% P<0.000). Conclusions: Sensory nerve findings were more significant, showed faster recovery compared to motor nerve findings, and accompanied the clinical recovery. Performance of an EMG test, especially on sensory nerves, will be more effective in patients selected in the early period, with the exception of patients with very severe CTS. PMID:26309691

  7. Comparison of early postoperative period electrophysiological and clinical findings following carpal tunnel syndrome: is EMG necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Aksekili, Mehmet Atıf Erol; Biçici, Vedat; Işık, Çetin; Aksekili, Hatice; Uğurlu, Mahmut; Doğan, Metin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the clinical findings and ENMG results of the patients who underwent surgery due to CTS, in the preoperative and early postoperative period. Methods: 33 wrists of 29 patients who underwent open carpal tunnel surgery in our clinic due to CTS, between 2009 and 2011, were evaluated. Electrophysiological progress was evaluated with ENMG and clinical state with Boston scale. Results: A significant decrease was observed in the postoperative BS symptomatic (SSS) and functional (FSS) scores of patients as compared to preoperative period (P=0.00). In the electrophysiological findings, statistically significant improvement was observed in all groups but very severe CTS group (P<0.05). When preoperative and postoperative EMG findings were compared, changes in DSL and DSA values were statistically significant (P<0.05). However, no statistically significant difference was seen between DML (P=0.085) and DMA (P=246) values on the 3rd month. When an examination was conducted on the patients whose DML and DSL values could not be obtained in the preoperative EMG, DML values were obtained in the early postoperative period in 6 of 7 cases (85.71%, P<0.001), and DSL values were obtained in 17 of 24 cases (70.8%, P<0.000). Conclusions: Sensory nerve findings were more significant, showed faster recovery compared to motor nerve findings, and accompanied the clinical recovery. Performance of an EMG test, especially on sensory nerves, will be more effective in patients selected in the early period, with the exception of patients with very severe CTS. PMID:26131237

  8. Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome May Happen Same as Paraneoplastic Syndrome in a Period of Time and Prior to The Appearance of Malignancy: A case Study of 6 Patients.

    PubMed

    Aznab, Mozaffar; Kavianymoghadam, Kaveh

    2013-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome is a bone marrow failure in which differentiation and maturity do not happen naturally and dysplasia exists in each of 3 cell categories in Bone marrow. Refractory anemia is one of the major complaints with which the patients come to hematology clinics, which in diagnostic considerations lead to MDS as diagnosis. Often there is no recognized reason for this, so it is called "primary MDS". In practice, we meet some patients who have MDS criteria however we can also find specific reasons for it; therefore we call it "secondary MDS". One of the most important reasons for secondary MDS is the side effects of medications used in chemotherapy and radiotherapy in patients who undergo these therapies. We observed 6 patients in this case study during lengthy follow up that were diagnosed as MDS and during follow up period malignancy appeared in 6 cases. Supportive and therapeutic measures in these patients did not considerably improve blood cell count, most patients required blood injection and antibiotics for infection treatment. However align with malignancy treatment such problems are completely resolved both in terms of clinical and laboratory. PMID:24505525

  9. TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS): description of a novel TNFRSF1A mutation and response to etanercept.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Adriana A; Oliveira, Joo B; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Fujihira, Erika; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda M S; Duarte, Alberto J S; Silva, Clovis A A

    2008-12-01

    TRAPS is the most common of the autosomal dominant periodic fever syndromes. It is caused by mutations in the TNFRSF1A gene, which encodes for the type 1 TNF-receptor (TNFR1). We describe here a Brazilian patient with TRAPS associated to a novel TNFRSF1A de novo mutation and the response to anti-TNF therapy. The patient is a 9-year-old girl with recurrent fevers since the age of 3 years, usually lasting 3 to 7 days, and recurring every other week. These episodes are associated with mild abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and generalized myalgia. Recurrent conjunctivitis and erysipela-like skin lesions in the lower limbs also occur. Laboratory studies show persistent normocytic normochromic anemia, thrombocytosis, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. IgD levels are normal. Mutational screening of TNFRSF1A revealed the association of a novel C30F mutation with the common R92Q low-penetrance mutation. The R92Q mutation is seen in 5% of the general population and is associated with an atypical inflammatory phenotype. The patient had a very good response to etanercept, with cessation of fever and normalization of inflammatory markers. Our report expands the spectrum of TNFRSF1A mutations associated with TRAPS, adding further evidence for possible additive effects of a low-penetration R92Q and cysteine residue mutations, and confirms etanercept as an efficacious treatment alternative. PMID:18408954

  10. A novel syndrome of congenital sideroblastic anemia, B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD)

    PubMed Central

    May, Alison; Jolles, Stephen; Connor, Philip; Powell, Colin; Heeney, Matthew M.; Giardina, Patricia J.; Klaassen, Robert J.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Geraghty, Michael T.; Major-Cook, Nathalie; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Thuret, Isabelle; Thompson, Alexis A.; Marques, Laura; Hughes, Stephen; Bonney, Denise K.; Bottomley, Sylvia S.; Fleming, Mark D.; Wynn, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital sideroblastic anemias (CSAs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders identified by pathological erythroid precursors with perinuclear mitochondrial iron deposition in bone marrow. An international collaborative group of physicians and laboratory scientists collated clinical information on cases of CSA lacking known causative mutations, identifying a clinical subgroup of CSA associated with B immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and development delay. Twelve cases from 10 families were identified. Median age at presentation was 2 months. Anemia at diagnosis was sideroblastic, typically severe (median hemoglobin, 7.1 g/dL) and markedly microcytic (median mean corpuscular volume, 62.0 fL). Clinical course involved recurrent febrile illness and gastrointestinal disturbance, lacking an infective cause. Investigation revealed B-cell lymphopenia (CD19+ range, 0.016-0.22 109/L) and panhypogammaglobulinemia in most cases. Children displayed developmental delay alongside variable neurodegeneration, seizures, cerebellar abnormalities, sensorineural deafness, and other multisystem features. Most required regular blood transfusion, iron chelation, and intravenous immunoglobulin replacement. Median survival was 48 months, with 7 deaths caused by cardiac or multiorgan failure. One child underwent bone marrow transplantation aged 9 months, with apparent cure of the hematologic and immunologic manifestations. We describe and define a novel CSA and B-cell immunodeficiency syndrome with additional features resembling a mitochondrial cytopathy. The molecular etiology is under investigation. PMID:23553769

  11. Microbes of the tonsils in PFAPA (Periodic Fever, Aphtous stomatitis, Pharyngitis and Adenitis) syndrome - a possible trigger of febrile episodes.

    PubMed

    Lantto, Ulla; Koivunen, Petri; Tapiainen, Terhi; Glumoff, Virpi; Hirvikoski, Pasi; Uhari, Matti; Renko, Marjo

    2015-06-01

    Periodic Fever, Aphtous stomatitis, Pharyngitis, and Adenitis (PFAPA) is a childhood febrile syndrome that is often cured by tonsillectomy (TE). We hypothesized that microbes present in the tonsils may act as a trigger for the activation of inflammasomes and investigated the microbiology of the tonsils in PFAPA patients and controls. We recruited 31 consecutive children who underwent TE due to PFAPA; 24 children who underwent TE due to other reasons served as controls. We cultured all the samples for bacteria, mycobacteria, yeasts, and viruses and used PCR for 15 viruses. Also biofilm formation and histologic findings were identified. The samples of the patients yielded Candida albicans more often than did the controls (16 vs 0%, p = 0.003). Staphylococcus aureus occurred in only 10% of the patients, but in 38% of the controls (p = 0.01). Varicella zoster and Herpes simplex viruses occurred less often in patients than in controls. Biofilm was present in 55% of PFAPA tonsils, but in only 24% of the controls (p = 0.03). The microbes found in the tonsils of PFAPA patients showed significant differences from those of controls. This may in part explain the efficacy of TE in PFAPA. PMID:25907769

  12. Transient compartment-like syndrome and normokalaemic periodic paralysis due to a Cav1.1 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chunxiang; Lehmann-Horn, Frank; Weber, Marc-Andr; Bednarz, Marcin; Groome, James R.; Jonsson, Malin K. B.

    2013-01-01

    We studied a two-generation family presenting with conditions that included progressive permanent weakness, myopathic myopathy, exercise-induced contracture before normokalaemic periodic paralysis or, if localized to the tibial anterior muscle group, transient compartment-like syndrome (painful acute oedema with neuronal compression and drop foot). 23Na and 1H magnetic resonance imaging displayed myoplasmic sodium overload, and oedema. We identified a novel familial Cav1.1 calcium channel mutation, R1242G, localized to the third positive charge of the domain IV voltage sensor. Functional expression of R1242G in the muscular dysgenesis mouse cell line GLT revealed a 28% reduced central pore inward current and a ?20 mV shift of the steady-state inactivation curve. Both changes may be at least partially explained by an outward omega (gating pore) current at positive potentials. Moreover, this outward omega current of 27.5 nS/nF may cause the reduction of the overshoot by 13 mV and slowing of the upstroke of action potentials by 36% that are associated with muscle hypoexcitability (permanent weakness and myopathic myopathy). In addition to the outward omega current, we identified an inward omega pore current of 95 nS/nF at negative membrane potentials after long depolarizing pulses that shifts the R1242G residue above the omega pore constriction. A simulation reveals that the inward current might depolarize the fibre sufficiently to trigger calcium release in the absence of an action potential and therefore cause an electrically silent depolarization-induced muscle contracture. Additionally, evidence of the inward current can be found in 23Na magnetic resonance imaging-detected sodium accumulation and 1H magnetic resonance imaging-detected oedema. We hypothesize that the episodes are normokalaemic because of depolarization-induced compensatory outward potassium flux through both delayed rectifiers and omega pore. We conclude that the position of the R1242G residue before elicitation of the omega current is decisive for its conductance: if the residue is located below the gating pore as in the resting state then outward currents are observed; if the residue is above the gating pore because of depolarization, as in the inactivated state, then inward currents are observed. This study shows for the first time that functional characterization of omega pore currents is possible using a cultured cell line expressing mutant Cav1.1 channels. Likewise, it is the first calcium channel mutation for complicated normokalaemic periodic paralysis. PMID:24240197

  13. Evaluation of macrophage activation syndrome associated with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: single center experience over a one-year period

    PubMed Central

    Barut, Kenan; Yücel, Gözde; Sinoplu, Ada Bulut; Şahin, Sezgin; Adroviç, Amra; Kasapçopur, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the demographic, clinical, laboratory properties of patients with macrophage activation syndrome and treatment outcomes. Material and Methods: The data of the patients who were diagnosed with macrophage activation syndrome secondary to systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis between June 2013–May 2014 were evaluated by screening patient records. Results: Ten patients with macrophage activation syndrome were followed up in one year. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was found to be 7.6±4.5 years. The most common clinical finding at presentation (80%) was increased body temperature. Hepatosplenomegaly was found in half of the patients. The most common hematological finding (90%) was anemia. The mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate was found to be 71.8±36.2 mm/h, whereas it was measured to be lower (31.2±25.2 mm/h) at the time of the diagnosis of macrophage activation syndrome. Increased ferritin level was found in all of our patients (the mean ferritin level was found to be 23 957±15 525 ng/mL). Hypertriglyceridemia was found in nine patients (90%). The mean triglyceride level was found to be 397±332 mg/dL. Systemic steroid treatment was administered to all patients. Cyclosporine A was given to eight patients (80%), canakinumab was given to four patients (40%) and anakinra was given to five patients (50%). Plasmapheresis was performed in two patients. Improvement was found in all patients except for one patient. The patient in whom no improvement was observed showed a chronic course. Conclusions: The diagnosis of macrophage activation syndrome should be considered in presence of sudden disturbance in general condition, resistant high fever and systemic inflammation findings in children with active rheumatic disease. Complete recovery can be provided with early and efficient treatment in macrophage activation syndrome which develops secondary to systemic juvenil idiopathic arthritis. PMID:26884689

  14. Analysis of the genetic basis of periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gioia, Silvio Alessandro Di; Bedoni, Nicola; von Scheven-Gte, Annette; Vanoni, Federica; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Hofer, Michal; Rivolta, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    PFAPA syndrome is the most common autoinflammatory syndrome in children from Western countries. In spite of its strong familial clustering, its genetic basis and inheritance pattern are still unknown. We performed a comprehensive genetic study on 68 individuals from 14 families. Linkage analysis suggested a susceptibility locus on chromosome 8, but direct molecular sequencing did not support this initial statistical finding. Exome sequencing revealed the absence of any gene that was mutated in all patients. Exhaustive screening of genes involved in other autoinflammatory syndromes or encoding components of the human inflammasome showed no DNA variants that could be linked to PFAPA molecular pathology. Among these, the previously-reported missense mutation V198M in the NLRP3 gene was clearly shown not to co-segregate with PFAPA. Our results on this relatively large cohort indicate that PFAPA syndrome is unlikely to be a monogenic condition. Moreover, none of the several genes known to be involved in inflammation or in autoinflammatory disorders seem to be relevant, alone, to its etiology, suggesting that PFAPA results from oligogenic or complex inheritance of variants in multiple disease genes and/or non-genetic factors. PMID:25988833

  15. A pilot study to compare the cerebral hemodynamics between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement syndrome (PLMS) during nocturnal sleep with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Fritschi, Ursula; Hgli, Gordana; Lehner, Isabella; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2014-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement in sleep syndrome (PLMS) are two common sleep disorders. Previous studies showed that OSA and PLMS share common features, such as increased cardio-vascular risk, both apnea events and limb movements occur periodically, they are usually associated with cortical arousals, and both of them can induce declines in peripheral oxygen saturation measured with pulse oximetry. However, the question whether apnea events and limb movements also show similar characteristics in cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation has never been addressed. In this pilot study, we will first time compare the cerebral hemodynamic changes induced by apnea events and limb movements in patients with OSA (n=4) and PLMS (n=4) with NIRS. In patients with OSA, we found periodic oscillations in HbO2, HHb, and blood volume induced by apnea/hypopnea events, HbO2 and HHb showed reverse changing trends. By contrast, the periodic oscillations linked to limb movements were only found in HbO2 and blood volume in patients with PLMS. These findings of different cerebral hemodynamics patterns between apnea events and limb movements may indicate different regulations of nervous system between these two sleep disorders.

  16. The Pathogenesis of Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, and Cervical Adenitis Syndrome: A Review of Current Research

    PubMed Central

    Kraszewska-Głomba, Barbara; Matkowska-Kocjan, Agnieszka; Szenborn, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Background. PFAPA syndrome is a chronic disease that is characterized by recurrent episodes of high fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis. Knowledge regarding the etiology of PFAPA is limited. Objectives. To provide up-to-date information considering etiology of PFAPA syndrome, by summarizing what has been explored and established in this area so far. Materials and Methods. PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched for pertinent reports. Eventually 19 articles were selected. The results were classified into categories regarding three areas of interest: familial occurrence, genetic basis, and immunological mechanisms of PFAPA. Results. Recent findings suggest that there is a familial tendency to PFAPA but the level of evidence does not warrant definite conclusions. The absence of a clear monogenic trait indicates a heterogenous, polygenic, or complex inheritance of PFAPA syndrome. As two mutations with a possible functional effect on the inflammasomes (MEFV E148Q and NLRP3 Q703K) have been found in several PFAPA cohorts, the role of inflammasome-related genes in PFAPA pathogenesis cannot be excluded. Immunological mechanisms of PFAPA involve an abnormal, IL-1β dependent innate immune response to an environmental trigger, which leads to Th1-driven inflammation expressed by recruitment of T-cells to the periphery. PMID:26457006

  17. Basic Characteristics of Adults with Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, and Adenopathy Syndrome in Comparison with the Typical Pediatric Expression of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cattalini, Marco; Soliani, Martina; Rigante, Donato; Lopalco, Giuseppe; Iannone, Florenzo; Galeazzi, Mauro; Cantarini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Autoinflammatory diseases are caused by inflammasome dysregulation leading to overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and a pathological delay in the inflammation switching off. The progress of cellular biology has partially clarified pathogenic mechanisms behind monogenic autoinflammatory diseases, whereas little is known about the polygenic ones. Although the genetic susceptibility of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenopathy (PFAPA) syndrome is still obscure, the presence of overlapping symptoms with monogenic periodic fevers, the recurrence in family members, the important role played by dysregulated interleukin- (IL-) 1β secretion during flares, the overexpression of inflammasome-associated genes during attacks, and, last but not least, the therapeutic efficacy of IL-1β blockade strongly indicate a potential genetic involvement in its pathogenesis, probably linked with environmental factors. PFAPA syndrome has a typical inception in the pediatric age, but a delayed onset during adulthood has been described as well. Treatments required as well as effectiveness of tonsillectomy remain controversial, even if the disease seems to have a self-limited course mostly in children. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this complex polygenic/multifactorial autoinflammatory disorder in which the innate immune system undoubtedly plays a basic role. PMID:26357457

  18. Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease and Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep in the Elderly with and without Dementia.

    PubMed

    Figorilli, Michela; Puligheddu, Monica; Ferri, Raffaele

    2015-09-01

    There is great interest in the study of sleep in healthy and cognitively impaired elderly. Sleep disorders have been related to quality of aging. Sleep-related movements are a frequent cause of disordered sleep and daytime sleepiness. Restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) is often unrecognized in the elderly. This review explores RLS/WED in the elderly population. The elderly population may be subdivided into 3 groups: healthy, dependent, and frail. The RLS/WED could be a predictor for lower physical function; its burden on quality of life and health care-related costs, in the elderly, should be an important clinical and public health concern. PMID:26329443

  19. A Case Report of Idiopathic Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome That Occurred During the Postoperative Period of Abdominoperineal Resection for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Saito, Shinsuke; Ishihara, Soichiro; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman without any past medical history underwent abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer in our department. On postoperative day 15, the patient complained of sudden abdominal pain, and high fever was noted in addition to the appearance of erythema around the stoma. The diagnosis of phlegmon was made, and antibiotic infusion was started. However, a few days later, the patient developed hypovolemic shock with hypoalbuminemia and hemoconcentration. Fasciotomy was performed to exclude the necrotizing fasciitis, though all cultures were negative. Upon exclusion of the differential diagnoses, idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (ISCLS) was diagnosed. She was successfully treated with massive fluid infusion under ventilation and continuous hemodiafiltration. Here, we report the first case of ISCLS that occurred during the postoperative period of colorectal surgery. PMID:25594640

  20. A case report of idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome that occurred during the postoperative period of abdominoperineal resection for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Saito, Shinsuke; Ishihara, Soichiro; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman without any past medical history underwent abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer in our department. On postoperative day 15, the patient complained of sudden abdominal pain, and high fever was noted in addition to the appearance of erythema around the stoma. The diagnosis of phlegmon was made, and antibiotic infusion was started. However, a few days later, the patient developed hypovolemic shock with hypoalbuminemia and hemoconcentration. Fasciotomy was performed to exclude the necrotizing fasciitis, though all cultures were negative. Upon exclusion of the differential diagnoses, idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (ISCLS) was diagnosed. She was successfully treated with massive fluid infusion under ventilation and continuous hemodiafiltration. Here, we report the first case of ISCLS that occurred during the postoperative period of colorectal surgery. PMID:25594640

  1. Recurrent abdominal pain as the presentation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) in an Asian girl: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Ju; Yu, Hsin-Hui; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lau, Yu-Lung; Lee, Wen-I; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is characterized by periodic fever, cutaneous rash, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, myalgia, and arthralgia. It is a rare autosomal dominant disease and strongly associated with heterozygous mutations in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor super family 1A (TNFRSF1A) gene. It is believed to be more common in Western countries than in Asian countries. Here, we present the case of a 14-year-old girl with periodic fever and abdominal pain with elevation of inflammatory markers for 2 years. After extensive work-up of infectious etiology with negative results, the diagnosis of TRAPS was made although no gene mutations were identified in the TNFRSF1A gene, MVK gene, and NALP3/CIAS1 gene. She had partial clinical response to corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents. However, the treatment response to TNF-? inhibitor etanercept was dramatic. She has remained symptom free under regular weekly to biweekly etanercept treatment for 2 years. We also reviewed the related literature and summarized the data of 10 Asian cases of TRAPS. PMID:22921805

  2. [Demographic characteristics of Down's syndrome in Navarra. Trends of pre and postnatal diagnosis for the period 1991-2009].

    PubMed

    Ramos Arroyo, M A; Lizarraga Rojas, M; Hernndez Charro, B; Martnez Jaurrieta, M D; Zabaleta Jurio, J; Alonso Snchez, A

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the development of pre and postnatal diagnosis of sindrome de Down (SD) in the Autonomous Community of Navarre from 1991 to 2009 and assesses its preventive impact in the population, as well as to associated socio-demographic changes. In the absence of a prenatal diagnosis for DS, the change in maternal age from 1991 to 2009 would have caused a 50% increase in births with this disorder. However, the antenatal rate detection of DS increased from 15.8% in 1991-4 to 64.3% in 2006-9, giving rise to a decreasing incidence trend, not statistically significant, during the study period and to a higher mean age of mothers of live births with DS (32.75 5,02 and 34.84,82 years during the first and second periods of the study, respectively). The proportion of young mothers (<35 years) of live births with DS was 66% in 1991-4 and 45% in 2006-9. Close to one fifth of the total population of pregnant women, however, did not want to go through a maternal screening test or amniocentesis. Seventeen per cent of all live births with DS had a positive screening test, but mothers decided to continue pregnancy. These results suggest that, despite the application of new and more sensitive prenatal screening tests, the incidence of DS may still be relatively high in our population, an important factor to be considered for future antenatal preventive programs and adequate postnatal care. PMID:24008527

  3. Acute subdural haemorrhage in the postpartum period as a rare manifestation of possible HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low-platelet count) syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The HELLP syndrome (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low-platelet count) occurs in about 0.5 to 0.9% of all pregnancies. With occurrence of thrombocytopaenia, it signals for several potentially lethal conditions such as complete or partial HELLP syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Case presentation A previously healthy 27-year-old, Sinhala ethnic primigravida with pregnancy-induced hypertension was admitted at 38weeks of gestation with lower abdominal pain and a blood pressure of 140/90mmHg. She underwent emergency Caesarian section due to faetal distress giving birth to a healthy baby girl. Since postpartum day one, she was having intermittent fever spikes. All the routine investigations were normal in the first three weeks. Platelet count started dropping from post-partum day-20 onwards. On day-23, she had developed a seizure and computed tomography scan brain showed a subdural haemorrhage. She had a platelet count of 22,000??109/liter and was managed conservatively. She also had elevated liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase and bilirubin levels. Blood picture on day-24 showed haemolytic anemia. On day- 36, patient again developed seizures and she was having intermittent fever with generalized headache and signs of meningism. Computed tomography scan revealed an acute on chronic subdural haemorrhage. Conclusions Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy should be managed as high-risk throughout the postpartum period. Development of thrombocytopaenia can be considered as an early warning sign for HELLP, thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura or acute fatty liver of pregnancy which are lethal conditions. Prompt recognition of intracranial haemorrhages and early neurosurgical intervention is lifesaving. PMID:24972626

  4. Pharmacologically Induced/Exacerbated Restless Legs Syndrome, Periodic Limb Movements of Sleep, and REM Behavior Disorder/REM Sleep Without Atonia: Literature Review, Qualitative Scoring, and Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Romy; Chesson, Andrew L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pharmacologically induced/exacerbated restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS), and REM behavior disorder/REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) are increasingly recognized in clinical sleep medicine. A scoring system to evaluate the literature was created and implemented. The aim was to identify the evidence with the least amount of confound, allowing for more reliable determinations of iatrogenic etiology. Methods: Points were provided for the following criteria: manuscript type (abstract, peer-reviewed paper); population size studied (large retrospective study, small case series, case report); explicitly stated dosage timing; identification of peak symptoms related to time of medication administration (i.e., medication was ingested in the evening or at bedtime); initiation of a treatment plan; symptoms subsided or ceased with decreased dosage or drug discontinuation (for RLS articles only); negative personal history for RLS prior to use of the medication; exclusion of tobacco/alcohol/excessive caffeine use; exclusion of sleep disordered breathing by polysomnography (PSG); and PSG documentation of presence or absence of PLMS. For RLS and PLMS articles were also given points for the following criteria: each 2003 National Institutes of Health (NIH) RLS criteria met; exclusion of low serum ferritin; and exclusion of peripheral neuropathy by neurological examination. Results: Thirty-two articles on drug-induced RLS, 6 articles on drug-induced PLMS, and 15 articles on drug-induced RBD/RSWA were analyzed. Conclusion: Based on scores ? 10 and trials of medication reduction/cessation, the strongest evidence available for drug induced RLS are for the following drugs: escitalopram; fluoxetine; L-dopa/carbidopa and pergolide; L-thyroxine; mianserin; mirtazapine; olanzapine; and tramadol. Since none of the PLMS articles assessed PLMI in trials of medication reduction/cessation, the strongest evidence based on scores ? 10 are for the following drugs: bupropion, citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine. Based on scores ? 10 and/or trials of medication cessation, the strongest evidence for drug induced RBD/RSWA is for the following drugs: clomipramine, selegiline, and phenelzine. Citation: Hoque R; Chesson Jr AL. Pharmacologically induced/exacerbated restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements of sleep, and rem behavior disorder/rem sleep without atonia: literature review, qualitative scoring, and comparative analysis. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(1):79-83. PMID:20191944

  5. HTLV-1-associated infective dermatitis and probable HTLV-1- associated myelopathy in an adolescent female*

    PubMed Central

    Steglich, Raquel Bisacotti; Tonoli, Renata Elise; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Pinto, Giselle Martins; Riesgo, Rudimar dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated infective dermatitis (ID) is a chronic, severe and recurrent eczema occurring during childhood in patients vertically infected with HTLV-1. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesia (HAM/ TSP) is slow and progressive. We report the case of an adolescent female from a non-endemic area for HTLV-1 who presents ID and, most likely, associated HAM/TSP. PMID:26312674

  6. Experience of severe desaturation during anesthetic induction period in an obese adult patient with Prader-Willi syndrome -A case report-.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joon Woo; Kim, Eun-Ju; Min, Byung Woo; Ban, Jong Seouk; Lee, Sang Gon; Lee, Ji-Hyang

    2012-02-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome is characterized by infantile hypotonia, childhood-onset obesity, short stature, mental retardation, hyperphagia, hypogonadism. After infantile hypotonia phase, patient is prone to morbid obesity due to hyperphagia. Complications associated with morbid obesity are recognized as the main risk factors for death the lifespan of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. We experienced desaturation and bronchospasm during arteriovenous fistula surgery in an obese adult with Prader-Willi syndrome. PMID:22379576

  7. Spontaneous Low-Frequency Cerebral Hemodynamics Oscillations in Restless Legs Syndrome with Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Jung-Ick; Lee, Gwan-Taek; Kim, Choong-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Periodic limb movements (PLM) during sleep (PLMS) are associated with cortical and cardiovascular activation. Changes in cerebral hemodynamics caused by cortical activity can be measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We investigated oscillatory components of cerebral hemodynamics during PLM and different sleep stages in restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients with PLMS. Methods Four female RLS patients with PLMS, and four age- and sex-matched normal controls were included. PLM and sleep stages were scored using polysomnography, while the spontaneous cerebral hemodynamics was measured by NIRS. The phase and amplitude of the cerebral oxyhemoglobin concentration [HbO] and the deoxyhemoglobin concentration [Hb] low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) were evaluated during each sleep stage [waking, light sleep (LS; stages N1 and N2), slow-wave sleep (stage N3), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep]. In RLS patients with PLMS, the cerebral hemodynamics during LS was divided into LS with and without PLM. Results The cerebral hemodynamics activity varied among the different sleep stages. There were changes in phase differences between [HbO] and [Hb] LFOs during the different sleep stages in the normal controls but not in the RLS patients with PLMS. The [HbO] and [Hb] LFO amplitudes were higher in the patient group than in controls during both LS with PLM and REM sleep. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated the presence of cerebral hemodynamics disturbances in RLS patients with PLMS, which may contribute to an increased risk of cerebrovascular events. PMID:26754783

  8. Hyper-IgD and periodic fever syndrome: a new MVK mutation (p.R277G) associated with a severe phenotype.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joana A; Arstegui, Juan I; Brito, Maria J; Neves, Conceio; Conde, Marta

    2014-06-01

    Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS; MIM# 260920) is a rare recessively-inherited autoinflammatory condition caused by mutations in the MVK gene, which encodes for mevalonate kinase, an essential enzyme in the isoprenoid pathway. HIDS is clinically characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation. Here we report on the case of a 2 year-old Portuguese boy with recurrent episodes of fever, malaise, massive cervical lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly since the age of 12 months. Rash, arthralgia, abdominal pain and diarrhea were also seen occasionally. During attacks a vigorous acute-phase response was detected, including elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and leukocytosis. Clinical and laboratory improvement was seen between attacks. Despite normal serum IgD level, HIDS was clinically suspected. Mutational MVK analysis revealed the homozygous genotype with the novel p.Arg277Gly (p.R277G) mutation, while the healthy non-consanguineous parents were heterozygous. Short nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroid courses were given during attacks with poor benefits, whereas anakinra showed positive responses only at high doses. The p.R277G mutation here described is a novel missense MVK mutation, and it has been detected in this case with a severe HIDS phenotype. Further studies are needed to evaluate a co-relation genotype, enzyme activity and phenotype, and to define the best therapeutic strategies. PMID:24656624

  9. Homozygosity for the V377I mutation in mevalonate kinase causes distinct clinical phenotypes in two sibs with hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS)

    PubMed Central

    Messer, Laurent; Alsaleh, Ghada; Georgel, Philippe; Carapito, Raphael; Waterham, Hans R; Dali-Youcef, Nassim; Bahram, Siamak; Sibilia, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mevalonate kinase (MVK) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive auto-inflammatory disorder characterised by recurring episodes of fever associated with multiple non-specific inflammatory symptoms and caused by mutations in the MVK gene. The phenotypic spectrum is wide and depends mostly on the nature of the mutations. Hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS) is a relatively mild presentation and predominantly associated with a c.1129G>A (p.V377I) mutation in the MVK gene. We report cases of two sisters homozygous for this mutation but exhibiting distinct (symptomatic vs asymptomatic) phenotypes. Methods Patient history was obtained; physical and clinical examination and laboratory tests were performed; lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was quantified. Results Low MVK enzymatic activity is not necessarily associated with inflammatory symptoms. Increased inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to LPS is associated with symptomatic MVK deficiency. Conclusions Individuals who are homozygous for the common p.V377I mutation in the MVK gene may not display the characteristic inflammatory episodes diagnostic of MKD and thus may be lost for correct and timely diagnosis. PMID:26977311

  10. Restless legs syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a nervous system problem that causes you to feel an unstoppable urge to get ... DA, Bista SR, et al. The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults-an ...

  11. Kidney Transplant in a Patient With Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1 Syndrome (TRAPS): Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Rodziewicz, N; Bhushan, S; Avasia, A; Singh, N

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor -1-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is a rare disease that may result in chronic kidney disease due to secondary amyloidosis. We report a case of a patient with a history of TRAPS who received a kidney transplant 11 years ago and still has functioning kidney transplant despite recurrence of amyloidosis and proteinuria. PMID:26915881

  12. Syndromic Scoliosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Neurofibromatosis (NF) Noonan Syndrome VATER/VACTERL Syndrome Angelman Syndrome Rett Prader Willi Osteogenesis Imperfecta Trisomy 21 (Down's Syndrome) Symptoms Highly variable based on underlying syndrome and ...

  13. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1?-Associated Kidney Disease: More than Renal Cysts and Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Verhave, Jacobien C; Bech, Anneke P; Wetzels, Jack F M; Nijenhuis, Tom

    2016-02-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1? (HNF1?)-associated disease is a recently recognized clinical entity with a variable multisystem phenotype. Early reports described an association between HNF1B mutations and maturity-onset diabetes of the young. These patients often presented with renal cysts and renal function decline that preceded the diabetes, hence it was initially referred to as renal cysts and diabetes syndrome. However, it is now evident that many more symptoms occur, and diabetes and renal cysts are not always present. The multisystem phenotype is probably attributable to functional promiscuity of the HNF1? transcription factor, involved in the development of the kidney, urogenital tract, pancreas, liver, brain, and parathyroid gland. Nephrologists might diagnose HNF1?-associated kidney disease in patients referred with a suspected diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, medullary cystic kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, or CKD of unknown cause. Associated renal or extrarenal symptoms should alert the nephrologist to HNF1?-associated kidney disease. A considerable proportion of these patients display hypomagnesemia, which sometimes mimics Gitelman syndrome. Other signs include early onset diabetes, gout and hyperparathyroidism, elevated liver enzymes, and congenital anomalies of the urogenital tract. Because many cases of this disease are probably undiagnosed, this review emphasizes the clinical manifestations of HNF1?-associated disease for the nephrologist. PMID:26319241

  14. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a condition in which there is an extra electrical pathway of the heart. The ... to periods of rapid heart rate ( tachycardia ). Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is one of the most common ...

  15. Compartment syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Metabolic Syndrome KidsHealth > For Teens > Metabolic Syndrome Print A A ... applies to a condition known as metabolic syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome Is an Early Warning Sign Metabolic syndrome isn' ...

  17. Effects of chronic administration of SGS-111 during adulthood and during the pre- and post-natal periods on the cognitive deficits of Ts65Dn mice, a model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Noem; Flrez, Jess; Martnez-Cu, Carmen

    2008-04-01

    The Ts65Dn mouse is the most commonly used model of Down syndrome. This mouse shows many phenotypic characteristics present in people with Down syndrome, including behavioral and cognitive deficits. SGS-111 is a novel analogue of the nootropic piracetam, which prevents oxidative damage and apoptosis in both normal and Down syndrome human cortical neurons. In this work we tested the ability of chronic administration of SGS-111 to adult Ts65Dn mice to reverse the cognitive deficit found in these mice. Moreover, since oxidative stress has been reported as early as the fetal stage, SGS-111 was also administered to pregnant Ts65Dn females from the day of conception throughout the pregnancy and to Ts65Dn pups during their entire life (5 months), from birth to the end of the behavioral testing period. A characterization of the effects of SGS-111 treatment on Ts65Dn and control mice sensorimotor abilities, motor coordination, spontaneous activity, activity in the open field, exploration, anxiety and spatial and non-spatial short- and long-term learning and memory was performed. The behavioral characterization showed that chronic administration of the antioxidant SGS-111 reduced the hyperactivity shown by Ts65Dn mice in their home cage, in the open field and in the hole board test. SGS-111 administration during adulthood improved performance in the first session in the Morris water maze in control mice, and when administered during the pre- and post-natal periods, improved spatial learning in the control mice but not in Ts65Dn mice. Chronic SGS-111 administration failed to affect behavior and cognition in Ts65Dn mice. PMID:18178265

  18. Canakinumab (ACZ885, a fully human IgG1 anti-IL-1? mAb) induces sustained remission in pediatric patients with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) represents a spectrum of three auto-inflammatory syndromes, familial cold auto-inflammatory syndrome (FCAS), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease/chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome (NOMID/CINCA) with etiology linked to mutations in the NLRP3 gene resulting in elevated interleukin-1? (IL-1?) release. CAPS is a rare hereditary auto-inflammatory disease, which may start early in childhood and requires a life-long treatment. Canakinumab, a fully human anti-IL-1? antibody, produces sustained selective inhibition of IL-1?. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of canakinumab in the treatment of pediatric CAPS patients. Methods Seven pediatric patients (five children and two adolescents) with CAPS were enrolled in a phase II, open-label study of canakinumab in patients with CAPS. Canakinumab was administered at a dose of 2 mg/kg subcutaneously (s.c.) (for patients with body weight ? 40 kg) or 150 mg s.c. (for patients with body weight > 40 kg) with re-dosing upon each relapse. The primary efficacy variable was time to relapse following achievement of a complete response (defined as a global assessment of no or minimal disease activity and no or minimal rash and values for serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and/or serum amyloid A (SAA) within the normal range, < 10 mg/L). Results All patients achieved a complete response within seven days after the first dose of canakinumab and responses were reinduced on retreatment following relapse. Improvements in symptoms were evident within 24 hours after the first dose, according to physician assessments. The estimated median time to relapse was 49 days (95% CI 29 to 68) in children who received a dose of 2 mg/kg. Canakinumab was well tolerated. One serious adverse event, vertigo, was reported, but resolved during treatment. Conclusions Canakinumab, 2 mg/kg or 150 mg s.c., induced rapid and sustained clinical and biochemical responses in pediatric patients with CAPS. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00487708 PMID:21356079

  19. Second-Impact Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Sarah; Battin, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Sports-related injuries are among the more common causes of injury in adolescents that can result in concussion and its sequelae, postconcussion syndrome and second-impact syndrome (SIS). Students who experience multiple brain injuries within a short period of time (hours, days, or weeks) may suffer catastrophic or fatal reactions related to SIS.

  20. Second-Impact Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Sarah; Battin, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Sports-related injuries are among the more common causes of injury in adolescents that can result in concussion and its sequelae, postconcussion syndrome and second-impact syndrome (SIS). Students who experience multiple brain injuries within a short period of time (hours, days, or weeks) may suffer catastrophic or fatal reactions related to SIS.…

  1. Cushing's Syndrome in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    Cushing’s Syndrome in Children by Meg Keil, MS, CRNP How is Cushing’s syndrome (CS) in children different than in adults? · CS in children is rare. An estimated ... child or adolescent during this period. Editor’s Note: Meg Keil,MS, CRNP is a nurse practitioner at ...

  2. A community outbreak of haemolytic-uraemic syndrome in children occurring in a large area of northern Italy over a period of several months.

    PubMed Central

    Tozzi, A. E.; Niccolini, A.; Caprioli, A.; Luzzi, I.; Montini, G.; Zacchello, G.; Gianviti, A.; Principato, F.; Rizzoni, G.

    1994-01-01

    From March to October 1993, 15 cases of haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS) in children were detected in a large area of northern Italy, where only 8 cases had occurred in the previous 5 years. Analysis of stool and serum specimens obtained from 14 cases showed evidence of Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) infection in 13. Serum antibodies to the E. coli O157 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were found in 8 patients and to the O111 LPS in 2. An O86 VTEC was isolated from another patient. Fourteen children needed dialysis, and 1 died. No obvious epidemiologic link was observed among cases, most of whom lived in small townships. A case-control study did not show an association between HUS and food or exposure to cattle, but suggested an association with contact with chicken coops (OR = 6.5, 95% C.I. 1.2-34.9). However, VTEC were not isolated from stool samples obtained from the chicken coops involved. The risk factors for VTEC infection related to living in rural settlements, including the exposure to live poultry, should be considered in outbreak investigations. PMID:7925660

  3. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Th M e etabolic Syndrome What is the metabolic syndrome? The term metabolic syndrome describes a cluster of risk factors that increase ... high blood sugar). The exact cause of the metabolic syndrome is not known but genetic factors, too much ...

  4. Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Antiphospholipid Syndrome Information Page Synonym(s): Hughes Syndrome Table of Contents ( ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Antiphospholipid Syndrome? Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder caused ...

  5. Cushing's Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Cushing's Syndrome Overview What is Cushing's syndrome? Cushing's syndrome occurs when your body is exposed to high levels ... they can cause problems with your eyesight. Diagnosis & Tests How is Cushing's syndrome diagnosed? Your doctor may ...

  6. Down Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Down Syndrome KidsHealth > For Kids > Down Syndrome Print A A ... skills. continue Do a Lot of People Have Down Syndrome? Down syndrome is not contagious , so you can' ...

  7. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... associated with a defect in chromosome number 11. Infancy can be a critical period in babies with ... Children with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome who survive infancy do ... appears to be normal to very slightly decreased. Swelling of ...

  8. Genetic and antigenic characterization of complete genomes of Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) isolated in Denmark over a period of 10 years.

    PubMed

    Kvisgaard, Lise K; Hjulsager, Charlotte K; Kristensen, Charlotte S; Lauritsen, Klara T; Larsen, Lars E

    2013-12-26

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV) is considered one of the most devastating swine diseases worldwide. PRRS viruses are divided into two major genotypes, Type 1 and Type 2, with pronounced diversity between and within the genotypes. In Denmark more than 50% of the herds are infected with Type 1 and/or Type 2 PRRSV. The main objective of this study was to examine the genetic diversity and drift of Type 1 viruses in a population with limited introduction of new animals and semen. A total of 43 ORF5 and 42 ORF7 nucleotide sequences were obtained from viruses collected from 2003 to February 2013. Phylogenetic analysis of ORF5 nucleotide sequences showed that the Danish isolates formed two major clusters within the subtype 1. The nucleotide identity to the subtype 1 protogenotype Lelystad virus (LV) spanned 84.9-98.8% for ORF5 and 90.7-100% for ORF7. Among the Danish viruses the pairwise nucleotide identities in ORF5 and ORF7 were 81.2-100% and 88.9-100%, respectively. Sequencing of the complete genomes, including the 5'- and 3'-end nucleotides, of 8 Danish PRRSV Type 1 showed that the genome lengths differed from 14,876 to 15,098 nucleotides and the pairwise nucleotide identity among the Danish viruses was 86.5-97.3% and the identity to LV was 88.7-97.9%. The study strongly indicated that there have been at least two independent introductions of Type 1 PRRSV in Denmark and analysis of the full genomes revealed a significant drift in several regions of the virus. PMID:24153055

  9. Period Cramps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ago. She's learned to handle using pads and tampons, but the cramps are really bothering her. Sometimes ... Periods Getting Your Period at School Pads and Tampons Do Periods Ever End? All About Menstruation Contact ...

  10. A retrospective study on equine herpesvirus type-1 associated myeloencephalopathy in France (2008-2011).

    PubMed

    van Galen, Gaby; Leblond, Agnes; Tritz, Pierre; Martinelle, Ludovic; Pronost, Stphane; Saegerman, Claude

    2015-09-30

    Diagnosis of equine herpesvirus-1 associated myeloencephalopathy (EHM) can be troublesome, but early recognition and knowledge of risk factors are essential for prevention and control. The objectives for this study are to (1) describe EHM in France, (2) improve clinical recognition, (3) identify risk factors. Through epidemiosurveillance of acute neurological cases (all considered to be potentially infectious cases) in France (2008-2011), 26 EHM cases were identified and 29 EHM negative control cases. EHM cases were described and compared to controls with univariate, multivariate and classification and regression tree analysis. EHM cases had a 46% fatality rate and were frequently isolated cases. Most showed ataxia, paresis and a cauda equina syndrome, yet presence of other neurological signs was variable. Statistical analysis identified the following variables to be significantly associated to EHM compared to controls: introduction of a new horse to the herd, cauda equina syndrome, larger herd size, saddle horses and month of occurrence. The presence of many isolated cases, and less typical and variable clinical presentations emphasize the difficulty in diagnosing EHM. Nevertheless, history and clinical examination of acute neurological cases can be valuable in recognizing EHM early as well in order to select those cases that need further laboratory testing and infection control measures. Moreover, with a different study format and geographic location, risk factors were found to be similar to previous studies, therefore strengthening their significance to the spread of EHM. PMID:26228835

  11. Dravet Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NINDS Dravet Syndrome Information Page Synonym(s): Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy (SMEI) Table of Contents (click to ... Dravet Syndrome? Dravet syndrome, also called severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI), is a severe form of ...

  12. Metabolic syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Metabolic syndrome is a name for a group of risk factors that occur together and increase the chance ... Metabolic syndrome is becoming very common in the United States. Doctors are not sure whether the syndrome is ...

  13. Down Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Down Syndrome: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is Down syndrome? Down syndrome describes a set of cognitive and ...

  14. Piriformis Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Piriformis Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Piriformis Syndrome? Piriformis syndrome is a rare neuromuscular disorder that ...

  15. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treated? Coping With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome en espaol Sndrome de ovario poliqustico Cecily never really worried that her periods weren't regular because, like many girls, she assumed her monthly cycle would take time to settle down. But then Cecily's periods stopped for several months, ...

  16. Hemophagocytic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al-Talag, A H; Mohamed, A E; Dafulla, M M; Ghandour, Z; Al-Karawi, M A; Haleem, A

    2000-10-01

    This case report is about an elderly man who presented with a long-standing history of high-grade fever and weight loss. He initially had only hepatosplenomegaly, but then developed jaundice. He also had pancytopenia and raised liver enzymes. His septic screen was negative, but he had a positive Monospot test and immunoglobulin G for Epstein-Barr virus. The liver biopsy showed sinusoidal phagocytosis and the subsequent bone marrow aspiration and biopsy showed significant hemophagocytosis, hence Hemophagocytic syndrome was diagnosed. The fever was refractory to antibiotic and anti-tuberculosis therapy, but it responded only partially to steroids. Full response was only noticed following anti-viral treatment in the form of intravenous Ganciclovir. The patient's general condition, liver enzymes, bilirubin, hematological parameters and even the weight returned back to their normal range 2 weeks after Ganciclovir therapy. Cessation of this drug resulted in relapse of his symptoms and oral antivirals did not help. Splenectomy, steroid pulse therapy and immunosuppressive treatment were only partially helpful. Reintroduction of Ganciclovir did help for a short period. We conclude that our patient had virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome most likely related to Epstein-Barr virus infection, which was then confirmed by the splenic biopsy, and that Ganciclovir can be of great help in eradicating the virus and treating the disease, provided that it is given for a long enough period. PMID:11369969

  17. Long-term outcome and lineage-specific chimerism in 194 patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome treated by hematopoietic cell transplantation in the period 1980-2009: an international collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    Moratto, Daniele; Giliani, Silvia; Bonfim, Carmem; Mazzolari, Evelina; Fischer, Alain; Ochs, Hans D.; Cant, Andrew J.; Thrasher, Adrian J.; Cowan, Morton J.; Albert, Michael H.; Small, Trudy; Pai, Sung-Yun; Haddad, Elie; Lisa, Antonella; Hambleton, Sophie; Slatter, Mary; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Picard, Capucine; Torgerson, Troy R.; Burroughs, Lauri; Koliski, Adriana; Neto, Jose Zanis; Porta, Fulvio; Qasim, Waseem; Veys, Paul; Kavanau, Kristina; Hnig, Manfred; Schulz, Ansgar; Friedrich, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    In this retrospective collaborative study, we have analyzed long-term outcome and donor cell engraftment in 194 patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) who have been treated by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the period 1980- 2009. Overall survival was 84.0% and was even higher (89.1% 5-year survival) for those who received HCT since the year 2000, reflecting recent improvement of outcome after transplantation from mismatched family donors and for patients who received HCT from an unrelated donor at older than 5 years. Patients who went to transplantation in better clinical conditions had a lower rate of post-HCT complications. Retrospective analysis of lineage-specific donor cell engraftment showed that stable full donor chimerism was attained by 72.3% of the patients who survived for at least 1 year after HCT. Mixed chimerism was associated with an increased risk of incomplete reconstitution of lymphocyte count and post-HCT autoimmunity, and myeloid donor cell chimerism < 50% was associated with persistent thrombocytopenia. These observations indicate continuous improvement of outcome after HCT for WAS and may have important implications for the development of novel protocols aiming to obtain full correction of the disease and reduce post-HCT complications. PMID:21659547

  18. The Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movement Disorder in AdultsAn Update for 2012: Practice Parameters with an Evidence-Based Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Kristo, David A.; Bista, Sabin R.; Rowley, James A.; Zak, Rochelle S.; Casey, Kenneth R.; Lamm, Carin I.; Tracy, Sharon L.; Rosenberg, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic literature review and meta-analyses (where appropriate) were performed to update the previous AASM practice parameters on the treatments, both dopaminergic and other, of RLS and PLMD. A considerable amount of literature has been published since these previous reviews were performed, necessitating an update of the corresponding practice parameters. Therapies with a STANDARD level of recommendation include pramipexole and ropinirole. Therapies with a GUIDELINE level of recommendation include levodopa with dopa decarboxylase inhibitor, opioids, gabapentin enacarbil, and cabergoline (which has additional caveats for use). Therapies with an OPTION level of recommendation include carbamazepine, gabapentin, pregabalin, clonidine, and for patients with low ferritin levels, iron supplementation. The committee recommends a STANDARD AGAINST the use of pergolide because of the risks of heart valve damage. Therapies for RLS secondary to ESRD, neuropathy, and superficial venous insufficiency are discussed. Lastly, therapies for PLMD are reviewed. However, it should be mentioned that because PLMD therapy typically mimics RLS therapy, the primary focus of this review is therapy for idiopathic RLS. Citation: Aurora RN; Kristo DA; Bista SR; Rowley JA: Zak RS; Casey KR; Lamm CI; Tracy SL; Rosenberg RS. The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adultsan update for 2012: practice parameters with an evidence-based systematic review and meta-analyses. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1039-1062. PMID:22851801

  19. Metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mardarowicz, Grazyna; Lopaty?ski, Jerzy; Nicer, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    The authors present the history of selecting and understanding the essence of the metabolic syndrome (X syndrome, Reaven's syndrome) related to insulin resistance as well as its contemporary working definition allowing diagnosing affected individuals. They describe the cycle of their own study investigating the prevalence of metabolic syndrome elements in patients treated because of their thyrotoxicosis. It has been observed that 4 weeks after thyrostatic treatment is started, many of these patients are affected by the growth of their body mass and total cholesterol level (mostly at the cost of LDL-cholesterol). After 2 years the growth of body mass is significant, many patients develop arterial hypertension. After 15 years of obesity, diabetes type 2 (DM-2), arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinaemia and full metabolic syndrome are found much more frequently than in the control group. In the research carried in the 1987--1989 period, we found the following in 11,546 subjects from the Lublin region (villagers aged over 18): overweight in 36% women and 34% of men, and obesity in 30% of women and 10% of men, and arterial hypertension in 24.2% and DM 2 in 2.7% of the whole examined group. Within the research carried out between 1998 and 2000 we examined 3,782 persons (63%) out of 6,000 persons aged over 35 carefully selected from the Lublin town and the Lublin region villages. DM 2 was found in 17.6% of the examined in the countryside and in 14.1% from the town (newly diagnosed diabetes--75% and 56% respectively). Obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) was found in 30.8% of the examined from villages and 30.1% town dwellers, arterial hypertension (RR > or = 140/90 mmHg) was found in 69.4% villagers and 68.6% subjects from the town. Total serum cholesterol > or = 5.2 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) was found in 66.4% of the examined from the countryside and in 60% from the town, LDL-cholesterol > or = 3.5 mmol/l (135 mg/dl) was found in 57.3% and 52.6% respectively, and triglycerides > or = 1.7 mmol/l (150 mg/dl) in 33,3% and 44.8 respectively. Hypo-HDL-cholesterolaemia was found in 21.7% of the examined from villages and in 31.4% of the examined from Lublin. 76.5% of the examined from the countryside and 72.7% from the town had a raised WHR index. PMID:15315027

  20. [Proteus syndrome].

    PubMed

    Benichou, J J; Labrune, B; Formanek, A; Denoix, C; Oger, P

    1990-01-01

    Two new cases of Proteus syndrome are reported. This congenital syndrome, first described in 1983, comprises gigantism of extremities, body hemihypertrophy, pigmented nevi and multiple tumors (subcutaneous, lipomas, hamartomas). This syndrome belongs to the same group as Recklinghausen disease, Maffucci or Klippel-Trenaunay syndromes. The prognosis is not well known but mostly depends on functional and psychologic consequences of important deformations. PMID:2206106

  1. AAV Gene Therapy for MPS1-associated Corneal Blindness.

    PubMed

    Vance, Melisa; Llanga, Telmo; Bennett, Will; Woodard, Kenton; Murlidharan, Giridhar; Chungfat, Neil; Asokan, Aravind; Gilger, Brian; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Samulski, R Jude; Hirsch, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Although cord blood transplantation has significantly extended the lifespan of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) patients, over 95% manifest cornea clouding with about 50% progressing to blindness. As corneal transplants are met with high rejection rates in MPS1 children, there remains no treatment to prevent blindness or restore vision in MPS1 children. Since MPS1 is caused by mutations in idua, which encodes alpha-L-iduronidase, a gene addition strategy to prevent, and potentially reverse, MPS1-associated corneal blindness was investigated. Initially, a codon optimized idua cDNA expression cassette (opt-IDUA) was validated for IDUA production and function following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector transduction of MPS1 patient fibroblasts. Then, an AAV serotype evaluation in human cornea explants identified an AAV8 and 9 chimeric capsid (8G9) as most efficient for transduction. AAV8G9-opt-IDUA administered to human corneas via intrastromal injection demonstrated widespread transduction, which included cells that naturally produce IDUA, and resulted in a >10-fold supraphysiological increase in IDUA activity. No significant apoptosis related to AAV vectors or IDUA was observed under any conditions in both human corneas and MPS1 patient fibroblasts. The collective preclinical data demonstrate safe and efficient IDUA delivery to human corneas, which may prevent and potentially reverse MPS1-associated cornea blindness. PMID:26899286

  2. AAV Gene Therapy for MPS1-associated Corneal Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Melisa; Llanga, Telmo; Bennett, Will; Woodard, Kenton; Murlidharan, Giridhar; Chungfat, Neil; Asokan, Aravind; Gilger, Brian; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Samulski, R. Jude; Hirsch, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Although cord blood transplantation has significantly extended the lifespan of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) patients, over 95% manifest cornea clouding with about 50% progressing to blindness. As corneal transplants are met with high rejection rates in MPS1 children, there remains no treatment to prevent blindness or restore vision in MPS1 children. Since MPS1 is caused by mutations in idua, which encodes alpha-L-iduronidase, a gene addition strategy to prevent, and potentially reverse, MPS1-associated corneal blindness was investigated. Initially, a codon optimized idua cDNA expression cassette (opt-IDUA) was validated for IDUA production and function following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector transduction of MPS1 patient fibroblasts. Then, an AAV serotype evaluation in human cornea explants identified an AAV8 and 9 chimeric capsid (8G9) as most efficient for transduction. AAV8G9-opt-IDUA administered to human corneas via intrastromal injection demonstrated widespread transduction, which included cells that naturally produce IDUA, and resulted in a >10-fold supraphysiological increase in IDUA activity. No significant apoptosis related to AAV vectors or IDUA was observed under any conditions in both human corneas and MPS1 patient fibroblasts. The collective preclinical data demonstrate safe and efficient IDUA delivery to human corneas, which may prevent and potentially reverse MPS1-associated cornea blindness. PMID:26899286

  3. Period Cramps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and what to do if you're a girl who gets them. What Are Period Cramps? Lots of girls experience cramps before or during their periods. Cramps ... prostaglandins (say: pross-tuh-GLAN-dinz), chemicals a girl's body produces to make the muscles of the ...

  4. An infrared supershell surrounding the Cygnus OB1 association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saken, Jon M.; Shull, J. M.; Garmany, Catharine D.; Nichols-Bohlin, Joy; Fesen, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    New studies are reported of a large, 2 x 5 deg peanut-shaped cavity in the far-infrared emission seen using IRAS data for the Cygnus X region. A more complete and better defined infrared supershell than reported by Lozinskaya and Repin (1990) is found and connected to the Cyg OB1 association. It is shown that the cavity represents the early stages of a superbubble produced by the winds and possible SNe from 10 to 20 massive stars. The locations and properties of these stars are used to estimate the energy deposition rate and to understand the manner in which supershells form and propagate. In Cyg OB1, spatially distributed subclustering appears to have played an important role in determining the nonspherical morphology of the superbubble.

  5. HTLV-1-associated infective dermatitis: updates on the pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    McGill, Neilia-Kay; Vyas, Jui; Shimauchi, Takatoshi; Tokura, Yoshiki; Piguet, Vincent

    2012-11-01

    HTLV-1-associated infective dermatitis (HAID) is the main paediatric manifestation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). It is characterised by a chronic exudative eczematous eruption and persistent infection with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and beta-haemolytic streptococci (BHS). Prevalence is highest in the Caribbean and Brazil; however, cases have been reported in other HTLV-1 endemic regions. Approximately 20 million people worldwide are infected with HTLV-1 and only 5-10% suffer from disease. Other manifestations include adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). HAID may also progress to ATLL or TSP/HAM. Treatment options are limited to prolonged antibiotic therapy. The aim of this paper is to review existing evidence and propose new theories on the pathogenesis of HAID. The current view is that HTLV-1 infection is required and in susceptible individuals leads to immune dysregulation with subsequent immunosuppression and superinfection with SA and BHS. Evidence suggests that host, environment and genetic factors may play a causative role. Genetic factors within ethnic groups determine host immune response and carrier state or disease manifestation of HTLV-1 infection. Increased IgE levels may contribute to the SA and BHS superinfection in HAID. Additionally, the possible impact of filaggrin, skin proteinase dysregulation, Langerhans cell dysfunction and TH2 chemokines is highlighted. More than 45years since the discovery of HAID, the exact pathogenesis is still not fully understood. Further research is still needed to clearly elucidate the exact pathogenic mechanism of HAID. PMID:23163646

  6. Thyroid Function in Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated the thyroid function of 181 patients (mean age 14 years) with Down's syndrome and found more thyroid dysfunctions than in the general population. Periodic thyroid hormone function tests are recommended for Down's syndrome individuals, especially as they get older. (Author/DB)

  7. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  8. Paraneoplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NINDS Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Paraneoplastic Syndromes ... done? Research on paraneoplastic syndromes is aimed at enhancing scientific understanding and evaluating new therapeutic interventions. Researchers ...

  9. Angelman Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heads, jerky movements, protruding tongues, and bouts of laughter." Infants with Angelman syndrome appear normal at birth, ... develop techniques to diagnose, treat, prevent, and ultimately cure them. NIH Patient Recruitment for Angelman Syndrome Clinical ...

  10. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Like for Kids With Marfan Syndrome? en espaol Sndrome de Marfan Evan couldn't wait for school ... for Marfan syndrome runs in families, getting passed down to children from parents who have the disease. ...

  11. Brown Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... poor binocular vision (which can result in poor depth perception) and/or amblyopia. Are there different kinds of Brown syndrome? Brown syndrome can be classified according to severity. In mild cases there is a reduced ability to look up ...

  12. LEOPARD syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    LEOPARD syndrome is a very rare inherited disorder in which there are problems with the skin, face, ... LEOPARD syndrome is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. This means the person only needs the abnormal ...

  13. Asperger syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Asperger syndrome is often considered a high functioning form of autism. It can lead to difficulty interacting socially, repeat behaviors, and clumsiness. Asperger syndrome is a part of the larger developmental ...

  14. Pseudoaminopterin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kraoua, Lilia; Capri, Yline; Perrin, Laurence; Benmansour, Abdelmajjid; Verloes, Alain

    2012-09-01

    Pseudoaminopterin syndrome or aminopterin syndrome-like sine aminopterin (ASSA syndrome--OMIM 600325] is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome defined by characteristic dysmorphic features, skeletal defects, limb anomalies, cryptorchidism, and growth retardation. The syndrome owes its name to the fact that patients resemble the children exposed to aminopterin or to methotrexate, two dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors used for chemotherapy, or as an abortificient in early pregnancy. Ten patients have been described with pseudoaminopterin syndrome. Their phenotype is variable, and differs from the phenotype resulting from folic acid deprivation, leading to the notion that the pathogenesis may be more complex than simple vitamin deficiency. We report on an Algerian patient with pseudoaminopterin syndrome, review the previously reported cases and confirm that pseudoaminopterin syndrome does not result from a detectable contiguous gene imbalance as high resolution CGH array was normal in this child. PMID:22811276

  15. Fahr's Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is Fahr's Syndrome? Fahr's Syndrome is a rare, genetically dominant, inherited neurological disorder characterized by abnormal deposits ... the NINDS or the NIH is appreciated. Last Modified February 13, 2007 National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  16. Pendred Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pendred syndrome will show vestibular weakness when their balance is tested. However, the brain is very good at making up for a weak vestibular system, and most children and adults with Pendred syndrome don't have a problem ...

  17. Rett Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disease that causes developmental and nervous system problems, mostly in girls. It's related to autism spectrum disorder. Babies with Rett syndrome seem to grow and develop normally at first. ...

  18. Rett Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Rett Syndrome: Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Rett syndrome is a neurological and developmental genetic disorder that ...

  19. Craniofacial Syndrome Descriptions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Goldenhar/Hemifacial Moebius syndrome Pfeiffer syndrome Pierre Robin Sequence Treacher Collins syndrome Other syndromes Wonder News & Events ... of the radial limb. Pfeiffer syndrome Pierre Robin Sequence Saethre-Chotzen Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is a condition ...

  20. Velocardiofacial Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Frisch, Amos; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as DiGeorge, conotruncal anomaly face, and Cayler syndromes, is caused by a microdeletion in the long arm of Chromosome 22. We review the history of the syndrome from the first clinical reports almost half a century ago to the current intriguing molecular findings associating genes from the

  1. Piriformis Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the symptoms of piriformis syndrome? The most common symptom of piriformis syndrome is sciatica. This term describes pain, tingling or numbness that ... such as a car accident or a fall. ... something other than piriformis syndrome is causing your sciatica, he or she may order additional tests. Computerized ...

  2. Turcot Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of colorectal cancer , and an increased risk of brain cancer . The type of brain cancer generally depends on whether the Turcot syndrome ... Lynch syndrome or FAP. The two most common types of brain tumors in Turcot syndrome are: Glioblastoma . This type ...

  3. Rowell syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Ramesh Y; Varma, Chaitanya; Bhatt, Sonia; Balachandran, C

    2014-01-01

    Rowell syndrome is a rare disease consisting of erythema multiforme-like lesions associated with lupus erythematosus. The syndrome occurs mostly in middle-aged women. The authors describe the syndrome in a 15-year-old boy who responded well to systemic steroids and hydroxychloroquine. PMID:25506561

  4. Velocardiofacial Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Frisch, Amos; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as DiGeorge, conotruncal anomaly face, and Cayler syndromes, is caused by a microdeletion in the long arm of Chromosome 22. We review the history of the syndrome from the first clinical reports almost half a century ago to the current intriguing molecular findings associating genes from the…

  5. Aase syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Aase-Smith syndrome; Hypoplastic anemia/Triphalangeal thumb syndrome ... Jones KL, ed. Aase syndrome. In: Smith's Recognizable Patterns Of Human Malformation. 6th ed. Saunders. 2005. Clinton C, Gazda HT. Diamond-Blackfan Anemia. 2009 Jun 25 [Updated 2013 Jul ...

  6. Update: Toxic Shock Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.

    1981-01-01

    School health professionals can help reduce the incidence of Toxic Shock Syndrome by suggesting that women not use tampons continuously during menses and that tampons should not be left in place for long periods of time. Tampons should be changed every few hours and used intermittently with pads. (JN)

  7. Genetics of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Groop, L

    2000-03-01

    The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and glucose intolerance in the same persons has been called the metabolic or insulin-resistance syndrome. In 1998 WHO proposed a unifying definition for the syndrome and chose to call it the metabolic syndrome rather than the insulin-resistance syndrome. Although insulin resistance has been considered as a common denominator for the different components of the syndrome, there is still debate as to whether it is pathogenically involved in all of the different components of the syndrome. Clustering of the syndrome in families suggests a genetic component. It is plausible that so-called thrifty genes, which have ensured optimal storage of energy during periods of fasting, could contribute to the phenotype of the metabolic syndrome. Common variants in a number of candidate genes influencing fat and glucose metabolism can probably, together with environmental triggers, increase susceptibility to the syndrome. Among these, the genes for beta 3-adrenergic receptor, hormone-sensitive lipase, lipoprotein lipase, IRS-1, PC-1, skeletal muscle glycogen synthase, etc. appear to increase the risk of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, novel genes may be identified by genome-wide searches. PMID:10889791

  8. Periodic Fever: A Review on Clinical, Management and Guideline for Iranian Patients - Part II

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Mansouri, Sedigeh; Ziaee, Vahid; Aghighi, Yahya; Moradinejad, Mohammad-Hassan; Fereshteh-Mehregan, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Periodic fever syndromes are a group of diseases characterized by episodes of fever with healthy intervals between febrile episodes. In the first part of this paper, we presented a guideline for approaching patients with periodic fever and reviewed two common disorders with periodic fever in Iranian patients including familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and periodic fever syndromes except for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA). In this part, we review other autoinflammatory disorders including hyper IgD, tumor necrosis factor receptorassociated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes, autoinflammatory bone disorders and some other rare autoinflammatory disorders such as Sweets and Blau syndromes. In cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes group, we discussed chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articular (CINCA) syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome and familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome. Autoinflammatory bone disorders are categorized to monogenic disorders such as pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma ;gangraenosum and acne (PAPA) syndrome, the deficiency of interleukine-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA) and Majeed syndrome and polygenic background or sporadic group such as chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) or synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome are classified in sporadic group. Other autoinflammatory syndromes are rare causes of periodic fever in Iranian system registry. PMID:25562014

  9. Periodic Fever: A Review on Clinical, Management and Guideline for Iranian Patients - Part II.

    PubMed

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Mansouri, Sedigeh; Ziaee, Vahid; Aghighi, Yahya; Moradinejad, Mohammad-Hassan; Fereshteh-Mehregan, Fatemeh

    2014-06-01

    Periodic fever syndromes are a group of diseases characterized by episodes of fever with healthy intervals between febrile episodes. In the first part of this paper, we presented a guideline for approaching patients with periodic fever and reviewed two common disorders with periodic fever in Iranian patients including familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and periodic fever syndromes except for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA). In this part, we review other autoinflammatory disorders including hyper IgD, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes, autoinflammatory bone disorders and some other rare autoinflammatory disorders such as Sweet's and Blau syndromes. In cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes group, we discussed chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articular (CINCA) syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome and familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome. Autoinflammatory bone disorders are categorized to monogenic disorders such as pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma ;gangraenosum and acne (PAPA) syndrome, the deficiency of interleukine-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA) and Majeed syndrome and polygenic background or sporadic group such as chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) or synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome are classified in sporadic group. Other autoinflammatory syndromes are rare causes of periodic fever in Iranian system registry. PMID:25562014

  10. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Espaol Making a Change Your Personal Plan Hot ... > Irregular Periods Print A A A Text Size ...

  11. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  12. Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Devi, Basanti; Behera, Binodini; Patro, Sibasish; Pattnaik, Subhransu S; Puhan, Manas R

    2013-05-01

    Gorlin Syndrome, a rare genodermatosis, otherwise known as Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a multisystem disease affecting skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, and bones. It is characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, jaw cysts, and bony deformities like kyphoscoliosis and frontal bossing. We would like to report a case of Gorlin syndrome with classical features, as this is a rare genodermatosis. PMID:23723494

  13. [Premenstrual syndrome].

    PubMed

    Breckwoldt, M; Keck, Ch

    2002-04-01

    The Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is defined as the repeated occurrence of psychic disability accompanied by physical symptoms such as weight-gain, mastodynia and edema during the luteal phase. Irritability, depressive mood, lack of concentration and anxiety are the dominant psychiatric features. These symptoms culminate during the premenstrual period and disappear at the onset of menstrual bleeding. The symptomatology is of variable degree. About 2 to 3% of all women of reproductive age are severely impaired by these symptoms. The etiology of PMS is unknown. Disturbance of serotonin metabolism in the central nervous system is discussed. Furthermore abnormalities of the metabolism of sex-steroids in the brain could be involved, since these metabolites are able to modulate the GABA-ergic system. This applies in particular to progesterone-metabolites. Other etiologic concepts favour the ideas of elevated aldosterone activity, variations of endogenous opiod-levels or transient hyperprolactinemia. Thus the unknown etiology and the complex pathophysiology explain the polypragmatic therapeutic strategies including psychotherapy, treatment with psychopharmacologic agents, administration of aldosterone-antagonists, GnRH-analoga and finally prescription of oral contraceptives. The management of PMS requires individualized care by primarily treating the leading symptoms. PMID:12018036

  14. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Irritable Bowel Syndrome KidsHealth > For Teens > Irritable Bowel Syndrome Print ... intestinal disorder called irritable bowel syndrome. What Is Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common ...

  15. Prostatitis Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. Curtis

    1991-01-01

    The many prostatitis syndromes remain a frustrating enigma to family physicians as well as specialists. An understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of these syndromes and a rigorous diagnostic plan to properly classify the patients at first presentation are essential to a successful treatment outcome. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:21229071

  16. HELLP Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... get HELLP syndrome if you're white and older than 25 years of age. You are also more likely to get it if you have had children before or if you had a problem with a pregnancy in the past. Treatment How is HELLP syndrome ...

  17. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Connective tissue helps support all parts of your body. It also helps control how your body grows and develops. Marfan syndrome most often affects ... A mutation, or change, in the gene that controls how the body makes fibrillin causes Marfan syndrome. Fibrillin is a ...

  18. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... even exercise — they just have to be a little more careful. Kids should always check with their doctors about what's ... activities during gym class. But other than that, kids with Marfan syndrome are just like everyone else — only a little taller. If you have Marfan syndrome, you probably ...

  19. Bloom's Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Niemann-Pick Disease, Type A Spinal Muscular Atrophy Tay-Sachs Disease Usher Syndrome, Type 1F and Type III Walker- ... Niemann-Pick Disease, Type A Spinal Muscular Atrophy Tay-Sachs Disease Usher Syndrome, Type 1F and Type III Walker- ...

  20. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Leyton, Edward; Pross, Hugh

    1992-01-01

    To determine the effect of certain herbal and homeopathic preparations on symptoms, lymphocyte markers, and cytotoxic function of the lymphocytes in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, we studied six outpatients diagnosed with the disease by their family physicians. Patients were given herbal and homeopathic preparations after a 3-week symptom-recording period. After treatment, symptoms were again recorded. Blood samples were taken before and after treatment. None of the values showed any significant change after treatment. PMID:21221272

  1. Kounis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ntuli, P M; Makambwa, E

    2015-10-01

    Kounis syndrome is characterised by a group of symptoms that manifest as unstable vasospastic or non-vasospastic angina secondary to a hypersensitivity reaction. It was first described by Kounis and Zavras in 1991 as the concurrence of an allergic response with an anaphylactoid or anaphylactic reaction and coronary artery spasm or even myocardial infarction. Since then, this condition has evolved to include a number of mast cell activation disorders associated with acute coronary syndrome. There are many triggering factors, including reactions to multiple medications, exposure to radiological contrast media, poison ivy, bee stings, shellfish and coronary stents. In addition to coronary arterial involvement, Kounis syndrome comprises other arterial systems with similar physiologies, such as mesenteric and cerebral circulation resulting in ischaemia/infarction of the vital organs. The incidence of this condition is difficult to establish owing to the number of potential instigating factors and its relatively infrequent documentation in the literature.We report the case of an HIV-negative 39-year-old man with no coronary risk factors or family history of premature coronary artery disease, who developed Kounis syndrome after the administration of fluoroquinolone for dysuria. However, to the best of our knowledge,no data on the incidence and prevalence of Kounis syndrome in South Africa have ever been reported in the literature. The recent understanding of Kounis syndrome has led to the condition being classified into three syndrome variants. PMID:26636160

  2. [HELLP syndrome].

    PubMed

    Vigil-De Gracia, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are one of the most common complications of pregnancy, but one of the most serious expressions of this pathology is HELLP syndrome. The HELLP syndrome is characterized by the presence of hypertension disorder more a triad: microangiopathic hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count. Patient with HELLP syndrome is associated with increased maternal risk complications such as: cerebral hemorrhage, retinal detachment, hematoma/ hepatic rupture, acute renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, placental abruption and therefore a maternal death. For all these reasons it is recommended to search for findings of HELLP syndrome in patients with hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. The main clinical confusion of HELLP syndrome is acute fatty liver of pregnancy, however there are parameters that help correct identification. The presence of HELLP syndrome involves a rapid termination of pregnancy and the administration of corticosteroids does not improve maternal morbidity and mortality but may help raise the platelet count, thus decreasing the need for transfusion and shorten hospital stay. Much of the decline in maternal morbidity and mortality associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is in proper diagnosis and effective management of HELLP syndrome. PMID:26016316

  3. Neuroacanthocytosis Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Neuroacanthocytosis (NA) syndromes are a group of genetically defined diseases characterized by the association of red blood cell acanthocytosis and progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia. NA syndromes are exceptionally rare with an estimated prevalence of less than 1 to 5 per 1'000'000 inhabitants for each disorder. The core NA syndromes include autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis and X-linked McLeod syndrome which have a Huntingtons disease-like phenotype consisting of a choreatic movement disorder, psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline, and additional multi-system features including myopathy and axonal neuropathy. In addition, cardiomyopathy may occur in McLeod syndrome. Acanthocytes are also found in a proportion of patients with autosomal dominant Huntington's disease-like 2, autosomal recessive pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration and several inherited disorders of lipoprotein metabolism, namely abetalipoproteinemia (Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome) and hypobetalipoproteinemia leading to vitamin E malabsorption. The latter disorders are characterized by a peripheral neuropathy and sensory ataxia due to dorsal column degeneration, but movement disorders and cognitive impairment are not present. NA syndromes are caused by disease-specific genetic mutations. The mechanism by which these mutations cause neurodegeneration is not known. The association of the acanthocytic membrane abnormality with selective degeneration of the basal ganglia, however, suggests a common pathogenetic pathway. Laboratory tests include blood smears to detect acanthocytosis and determination of serum creatine kinase. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging may demonstrate striatal atrophy. Kell and Kx blood group antigens are reduced or absent in McLeod syndrome. Western blot for chorein demonstrates absence of this protein in red blood cells of chorea-acanthocytosis patients. Specific genetic testing is possible in all NA syndromes. Differential diagnoses include Huntington disease and other causes of progressive hyperkinetic movement disorders. There are no curative therapies for NA syndromes. Regular cardiologic studies and avoidance of transfusion complications are mandatory in McLeod syndrome. The hyperkinetic movement disorder may be treated as in Huntington disease. Other symptoms including psychiatric manifestations should be managed in a symptom-oriented manner. NA syndromes have a relentlessly progressive course usually over two to three decades. PMID:22027213

  4. LEOPARD Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Majumdar, Biswajit; Rudra, Olympia; Chakraborty, Sougat

    2015-01-01

    LEOPARD syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited or sporadic disorder of variable penetrance and expressivity. The acronym LEOPARD stands for its cardinal clinical features including Lentigines, Electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, Ocular hypertelorism, Pulmonary stenosis, Abnormalities of genitalia, Retardation of growth, and Deafness. We present herein a patient with LEOPARD syndrome and distinctive features. It was noteworthy that our patient presented with the concern of generalized lentiginosis and subsequent evaluation revealed that the patient had LEOPARD syndrome. In this report we would like to highlight the importance of detailed clinical examination and appropriate imaging in patients with multiple lentigines. PMID:26632807

  5. Syndrome designations.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, M M

    1976-01-01

    Because syndrome designations permit the collection of data, they are much more than just lables. As new syndromes become delineated, their names connote (1) their phenotypic spectra, (2) their natural histories, and (3) their modes of inheritance or risk of recurrence. Various methods for designating new syndromes are reviewed, including naming them after (1) the basic defect, (2) an eponym, (3) one or more striking features, (4) an acronym, (5) a numeral, (6) a geographic term, and (7) some combination of the above. None of these systems of nomenclature is without fault. The advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. PMID:957375

  6. Velocardiofacial syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Pike, A. C.; Super, M.

    1997-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome is a syndrome of multiple anomalies that include cleft palate, cardiac defects, learning difficulties, speech disorder and characteristic facial features. It has an estimated incidence of 1 in 5000. The majority of cases have a microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2. The phenotype of this condition shows considerable variation, not all the principal features are present in each case. Identification of the syndrome can be difficult as many of the anomalies are minor and present in the general population. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9497944

  7. Caplan syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... people with rheumatoid arthritis who have breathed in mining dust that contains coal. This lung disease is ... Caplan syndrome is caused by breathing in coal mining dust. This causes inflammation and can lead to ...

  8. Joubert Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NINDS Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Joubert Syndrome ... Funding | News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | ...

  9. Aicardi Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NINDS Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Aicardi Syndrome ... Funding | News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | ...

  10. Behcet's Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Behcet's syndrome is a disease that involves vasculitis, which is inflammation of the blood vessels. It causes problems in many parts of the body. The ... National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

  11. Turner syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... birth if a chromosome analysis is done during prenatal testing. The doctor will perform a physical exam and look for signs of poor development. Infants with Turner syndrome often have swollen hands ...

  12. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... won't make them less intelligent or need treatment at a hospital or doctor's office. Sometimes a person with Tourette syndrome might have other conditions, like attention deficit hyperactivity ...

  13. Aicardi syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the two sides of the brain (called the corpus callosum) is partly or completely missing. Nearly all known ... Aicardi syndrome if they meet the following criteria: Corpus callosum that is partly or completely missing Female sex ...

  14. Usher Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... expand treatment options. Scientists also are developing mouse models that have the same characteristics as the human types of Usher syndrome. Mouse models will make it easier to determine the function ...

  15. Down Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chromosome 21. People with Down syndrome can have physical problems, as well as intellectual disabilities. Every person ... can help improve skills. They may include speech, physical, occupational, and/or educational therapy. With support and ...

  16. HELLP syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... early. It is very important to have regular prenatal checkups. You should also let your health care ... prevent HELLP syndrome. All pregnant women should start prenatal care early and continue it through the pregnancy. ...

  17. Proteus Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Criteria & FAQs Medical Research Glossary Donate Cash Donation Life Insurance Gift Matching Gift Stock Gift Sunshine Society Contact Privacy Policy Proteus Syndrome Definition Common Signs Diagnostic Criteria (I have a paragraph ...

  18. Menkes syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Menkes syndrome, cells in the body can absorb copper, but they are unable to release it. It ... makes it hard for the body to distribute copper in food from the intestines into the bloodstream ...

  19. Down Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or problems with their heart, stomach or eyes. Intelligence ranges from low normal to very retarded (slow ... a baby who has Down syndrome will be. Intelligence ranges from low normal to very retarded (slow ...

  20. Cushing's Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not have abnormally elevated cortisol levels. For example, polycystic ovary syndrome can cause menstrual disturbances, weight gain beginning in ... alcohol, have poorly controlled diabetes, or are severely obese. Pseudo-Cushing’s does not have the same long- ...

  1. Williams syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... condition caused by missing a copy of several genes. Parents may not have any family history of the condition. However, a person with Williams syndrome has a 50% ... 25 missing genes is the gene that produces elastin, a protein ...

  2. Alport syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Learning new skills such as lip reading or sign language and getting hearing aids may help. Young men with Alport syndrome should use hearing protection in noisy environments. Genetic counseling may be recommended because the disorder is inherited.

  3. Bartter syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... syndrome include: High levels of potassium , calcium, and chloride in the urine High levels of the hormones renin and aldosterone in the blood Low blood chloride Metabolic alkalosis These same signs and symptoms can ...

  4. Sanfilippo syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... recessive trait. Sanfilippo syndrome occurs when the substances (enzymes) needed to break down the heparan sulfate sugar ... The type a person has depends on which enzyme is affected. Sanfilippo type A is the most ...

  5. Beals Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have many of the skeletal (bone) and aortic enlargement problems as people with Marfan syndrome, and treatments ... appearance to the top of the ear Aortic enlargement and/or mitral valve regurgitation (occasionally) People with ...

  6. Ohtahara Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have primarily tonic seizures, but may also experience partial seizures, and rarely, myoclonic seizures. Ohtahara syndrome is ... a characteristic pattern of high voltage spike wave discharge followed by little activity. This pattern is known ...

  7. Klinefelter syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    These groups can provide more information: The American Association for Klinefelter Syndrome Information and Support (AAKSIS) -- www.aaksis.org National Institute of Health, National Human Genome Research Institute -- www.genome.gov/19519068

  8. Piriformis syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sciatica; Hip socket neuropathy; Pelvic outlet syndrome; Low back pain - piriformis ... or numbness in the buttock and along the back of the leg Difficulty sitting Pain from sitting that grows worse as you continue ...

  9. Reye syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Reye syndrome: Confusion Lethargy Loss of consciousness or coma Mental changes Nausea and vomiting Seizures Unusual placement ... breathing machine may be needed during a deep coma) Fluids by IV to provide electrolytes and glucose ...

  10. [Heptopulmonary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Antonio; Díaz, Ainhoa; Iruzubieta, Paula; Salcines, José Ramón; Crespo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome is characterized by the presence of liver disease, pulmonary vascular dilatations, and arterial hypoxemia. It is usually associated with cirrhosis of any origin, but has been described in other liver diseases, both acute and chronic, and not always associated with portal hypertension. The gold standard method to detect pulmonary vascular dilations is contrast enhancement echocardiography with saline and is essential for the diagnosis of hepatopulmonary syndrome. These dilatations reflect changes in the pulmonary microvasculature (vasodilatation, intravascular monocyte accumulation, and angiogenesis) and induce a ventilation/perfusion mismatch, or even true intrapulmonary shunts, which eventually trigger hypoxemia. This syndrome worsens patients' prognosis and impairs their quality of life and may lead to the need for liver transplantation, which is the only effective and definitive treatment. In this article, we review the etiological, pathophysiological, clinical and therapeutic features of this syndrome. PMID:25840463

  11. Sheehan syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... occur in a woman who bleeds severely during childbirth. Sheehan syndrome is a type of hypopituitarism . ... Severe bleeding during childbirth can cause tissue in the pituitary gland to die. This gland does not work properly as a result. The ...

  12. Isaac's Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... often is caused by an autoimmune condition. Autoimmune-mediated Issacs' syndrome is typically caused by antibodies that ... Espaol sndrome de Isaac Prepared by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  13. Klinefelter Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Families Recursos en Español Teaching Resources Medical and Science Glossaries More Quick Links Evaluating Health Information Financial ... Links About the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) GARD Home Diseases Klinefelter syndrome Diseases Genetic ...

  14. Usher Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Families Recursos en Español Teaching Resources Medical and Science Glossaries More Quick Links Evaluating Health Information Financial ... Links About the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) GARD Home Diseases Usher syndrome Diseases Genetic ...

  15. Branchiootorenal Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Families Recursos en Español Teaching Resources Medical and Science Glossaries More Quick Links Evaluating Health Information Financial ... Links About the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) GARD Home Diseases Branchiootorenal syndrome Diseases Genetic ...

  16. Troyer Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Troyer syndrome is one of more than 40 genetically-distinct neurological disorders known collectively as the hereditary ... the NINDS or the NIH is appreciated. Last Modified January 3, 2012 National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  17. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone your body produces to help ... into energy for your body. If you are insulin resistant, too much sugar builds up in your ...

  18. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... shouts unexpectedly or blinks his eyes hard. These tics are symptoms of Luke's Tourette syndrome. But to ... looks like he's in pain or needs help. Tics are sudden, repetitive movements or sounds that some ...

  19. Down syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    There is no specific treatment for Down syndrome. A child born with a gastrointestinal blockage may need major surgery immediately after birth. Certain heart defects may also require surgery. When breast-feeding, ...

  20. Cushing Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The syndrome is named after a brain surgeon, Harvey Cushing, who identified the condition in 1932. 2 ... Shlomo, M., Polonsky, K.S, Larsen, P.R., eds. Williams. Textbook of Endocrinology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders ...

  1. Reye Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are recovering from a viral infection, such as chicken pox or the flu. It usually develops a week ... after common viral infections such as influenza or chickenpox. Reye syndrome can also develop after an ordinary ...

  2. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Web version Metabolic Syndrome Overview What is insulin resistance? Your body changes most of the food you ... insulin. Doctors refer to this condition as insulin resistance. If you have insulin resistance, your body will ...

  3. Hunter syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Hunter syndrome is a disease in which long chains of sugar molecules (glycosaminoglycans, formerly called mucopolysaccharides ) are ... of the enzyme iduronate sulfatase. Without this enzyme, chains of sugar molecules build up in various body ...

  4. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, blood vessels, and other organs. One of these proteins is fibrillin. A problem with the ...

  5. Rett Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... features include reduced mobility, curvature of the spine (scoliosis) and muscle weakness, rigidity, spasticity, and increased muscle ... does not have Rett syndrome. Supportive criteria include scoliosis. teeth-grinding, small cold hands and feet in ...

  6. Aarskog syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the face. Inherited means that it is passed down through families. ... Seek genetic counseling if you have a family history of Aarskog syndrome. Contact a genetic specialist if your doctor thinks ...

  7. Noonan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Amy E; Allanson, Judith E; Tartaglia, Marco; Gelb, Bruce D

    2014-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a genetic multisystem disorder characterised by distinctive facial features, developmental delay, learning difficulties, short stature, congenital heart disease, renal anomalies, lymphatic malformations, and bleeding difficulties. Mutations that cause Noonan syndrome alter genes encoding proteins with roles in the RASMAPK pathway, leading to pathway dysregulation. Management guidelines have been developed. Several clinically relevant genotypephenotype correlations aid risk assessment and patient management. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease could help development of pharmacogenetic treatments. PMID:23312968

  8. Williams-Beuren's Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Hassan; Babazadeh, Kazem; Fattahi, Saeid; Mokhtari-Esbuie, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome is a rare familial multisystem disorder occurring in 1 per 20,000 live births. It is characterized by congenital heart defects (CHD), skeletal and renal anomalies, cognitive disorder, social personality disorder and dysmorphic facies. We present a case of Williams syndrome that presented to us with heart murmur and cognitive problem. A 5-year-old girl referred to pediatric cardiologist because of heart murmurs. She had a systolic murmur (2-3/6) in right upper sternal border with radiation to right cervical region. She also had a bulge forehead. Angiography showed mild supra valvular aortic stenosis and mild multiple peripheral pulmonary stenosis. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed and the result was: 46.XX, ish del (7q11.2) (ELN X1) (7q22 X2) ELN deletion compatible with Williams syndrome. Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis is associated with Noonan syndrome, Alagille syndrome, Cutis laxa, Ehler-Danlos syndrome, and Silver-Russel syndrome. The patient had peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, but no other signs of these syndromes were present, and also she had a supravalvular aortic stenosis which was not seen in other syndromes except Williams syndrome. Conclusion. According to primary symptoms, paraclinical and clinical finding such as dysmorphic facies, cognitive disorder and congenital heart defect, Williams syndrome was the first diagnosis. We suggest a more attention for evaluating heart murmur in childhood period, especially when the patient has abnormal facial features or mental problem. PMID:22927862

  9. [Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome].

    PubMed

    Costedoat-Chalumeau, N; Arnaud, L; Saadoun, D; Chastre, J; Leroux, G; Cacoub, P; Amoura, Z; Piette, J-C

    2012-04-01

    The catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) is a life-threatening condition resulting from rapidly progressive widespread thromboses mainly affecting the microvasculature in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Within a few days, the patients develop multiorgan failure with pulmonary distress, renal failure with severe hypertension, cerebral, cardiac, digestive or cutaneous involvement. CAPS develops in less than 1% of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, either primary or associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. CAPS reveals the antiphospholipid syndrome in about 50% of cases. CAPS may be precipitated by infectious diseases, surgical procedures or discontinuation of anticoagulation. CAPS overall mortality rate has decreased in the past decade and is now around 30%. Within our hospital, it has been reduced to 10%. The main differential diagnoses are other thrombotic microangiopathies, and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. The treatment of CAPS consists of the empirical association of anticoagulation and corticosteroids, plus plasma exchange or intravenous immunoglobulins. Cyclophosphamide is added in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The prevention of CAPS is based upon the adequate management of the perioperative period when surgery cannot be avoided, the prompt treatment of infections and the education of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. PMID:22341856

  10. Learning about WAGR Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... children who have WAGR syndrome may have normal intelligence. Other symptoms of WAGR syndrome may also include: ... mild. Some individuals with WAGR syndrome have normal intelligence. Children with WAGR syndrome should be referred for ...

  11. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Information Page Synonym(s): Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome, ... Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Complex Regional Pain Syndrome? Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a ...

  12. Miller Fisher Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Miller Fisher Syndrome Information Page Synonym(s): Fisher Syndrome Table of Contents ( ... and Information Publicaciones en Espaol What is Miller Fisher Syndrome? Miller Fisher syndrome is a rare, acquired nerve ...

  13. Androgen insensitivity syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at the tip Reifenstein syndrome (also known as Gilbert-Dreyfus syndrome or Lubs syndrome) Infertile male syndrome ... F, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, et al., eds. Williams Obstetrics . 23rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, ...

  14. Down Syndrome (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Down Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Down Syndrome Print A A ... Help en espaol El sndrome de Down About Down Syndrome Down syndrome (DS), also called Trisomy 21, is ...

  15. Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Job syndrome; Hyper IgE syndrome ... Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome is also called Job syndrome, after the biblical character Job whose faithfulness was tested by an affliction with draining skin sores and pustules . People with this ...

  16. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Irritable Bowel Syndrome KidsHealth > For Kids > Irritable Bowel Syndrome Print ... to minimize or prevent these symptoms. What Is Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a fairly ...

  17. Proteus Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Gift Stock Gift Sunshine Society Contact Privacy Policy Proteus Syndrome Foundation The Proteus Syndrome Foundation , a 501c3 ... Phase 1 Clinical Trail Patient Enrollment Has Begun Proteus Syndrome Patient Registry The Proteus Syndrome Foundation Contact ...

  18. What Is Usher Syndrome?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You are here Home › Retinal Diseases Listen What is Usher Syndrome? What is Usher syndrome? How is ... are available? Are there any related diseases? What is Usher Syndrome? Usher syndrome is an inherited condition ...

  19. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Information Page Condensed from Carpal Tunnel Syndrome ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome? Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) occurs when the ...

  20. Alport Syndrome Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meet Jessi Patient to Patient - John Connect on Twitter Tweets by @AlportSyndFndn Alport Syndrome Diagnosis Early and ... Alport Syndrome YouTube Alport Syndrome LinkedIn Alport Syndrome Twitter Alport Syndrome Flickr Alport Syndrome Instagram Follow @twitterapi ...

  1. Nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Andolino, Tecile Prince; Reid-Adam, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    On the basis of observational studies, the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in school-aged children is minimal change disease. On the basis of research evidence and consensus, corticosteroids are considered first-line therapy for treatment of nephrotic syndrome. On the basis of consensus, prednisone therapy should be initiated at doses of 60 mg/m2 per day (2 mg/kg per day) administered for 4 to 6 weeks, followed by 40 mg/m2 per dose (1.5 mg/kg) every other day for at least 6 to 8 weeks. On the basis of consensus and expert opinion, it is important to recognize and manage the complications that can arise in patients with nephrotic syndrome, such as dyslipidemia, infection, and thrombosis. On the basis of research evidence, consensus, and expert opinion, several alternative therapies have been observed to have variable efficacy in children with both corticosteroid-dependent and corticosteroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, although caution must be exercised in the administration of these corticosteroid-sparing medications secondary to toxic adverse effects. On the basis of observational studies, the course of nephrotic syndrome in most patients is that of relapse and remission. PMID:25733763

  2. Preexcitation Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Atul; Sra, Jasbir; Akhtar, Masood

    2016-03-01

    The classic electrocardiogram in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is characterized by a short PR interval and prolonged QRS duration in the presence of sinus rhythm with initial slurring. The clinical syndrome associated with above electrocardiogram finding and the history of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia is referred to as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Various eponyms describing accessory or anomalous conduction pathways in addition to the normal pathway are collectively referred to as preexcitation syndromes. The latter form and associated eponyms are frequently used in literature despite controversy and disagreements over their actual anatomical existence and electrophysiological significance. This communication highlights inherent deficiencies in the knowledge that has existed since the use of such eponyms began. With the advent of curative ablation, initially surgical, and then catheter based, the knowledge gaps have been mostly filled with better delineation of the anatomic and electrophysiological properties of anomalous atrioventricular pathways. It seems reasonable, therefore, to revisit the clinical and electrophysiologic role of preexcitation syndromes in current practice. PMID:26897561

  3. Expressive vocabulary ability of toddlers with Williams syndrome or Down syndrome: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Mervis, C B; Robinson, B F

    2000-01-01

    School-aged children and adults with Williams syndrome have repeatedly been found to evidence an expressive vocabulary advantage relative to same-aged individuals with Down syndrome. However, Singer Harris, Bellugi, Bates, Jones, and Rossen (1997) argued that this advantage is reversed during the initial period of language acquisition; during this time, children with Down syndrome have larger expressive vocabularies than children with Williams syndrome. This result may have been due to methodological problems, however. This study uses a different design to reconsider the question of whether toddlers with Williams syndrome show an expressive vocabulary advantage over same-aged toddlers with Down syndrome. Parents of twenty-four 2-year-olds with Williams syndrome and twenty-eight 2-year-olds with Down syndrome completed the vocabulary checklist from the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences. The 2 groups were carefully matched for chronological age (CA). Results indicated that the toddlers with Williams syndrome had substantially and significantly larger expressive vocabulary sizes than did the CA-matched children with Down syndrome. Additional analyses of children for whom data were available between the ages of 2 years 0 months and 2 years 3 months indicated that the expressive vocabulary advantage for children with Williams syndrome was present even at this very young age when none of the children had begun to produce word combinations. The Discussion section that follows addresses the discrepancy between these findings and those of Singer Harris et al. and considers the variability present within both the Williams syndrome and Down syndrome samples. Also discussed is the continuity across the lifespan in both the expressive vocabulary advantage shown by individuals with Williams syndrome relative to same-aged individuals with Down syndrome and the expressive vocabulary variability within each syndrome. PMID:10916578

  4. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Crotti, Lia; Taravelli, Erika; Girardengo, Giulia; Schwartz, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    The Short QT Syndrome is a recently described new genetic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT interval, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This autosomal dominant syndrome can afflict infants, children, or young adults; often a remarkable family background of cardiac sudden death is elucidated. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, with atrial fibrillation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. Gain of function mutations in three genes encoding K+ channels have been identified, explaining the abbreviated repolarization seen in this condition: KCNH2 for Ikr (SQT1), KCNQ1 for Iks (SQT2) and KCNJ2 for Ik1 (SQT3). The currently suggested therapeutic strategy is an ICD implantation, although many concerns exist for asymptomatic patients, especially in pediatric age. Pharmacological treatment is still under evaluation; quinidine has shown to prolong QT and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, but awaits additional confirmatory clinical data. PMID:20126594

  5. [Papillary edema in Muckle-Wells syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wirths, G; Grenzebach, U; Eter, N

    2015-09-01

    Papillary edema may occur isolated without functional impairment or secondary related to various syndromes, increased intracerebral pressure or associated with medicinal treatment. The Muckle-Wells syndrome is a rare disease, which among many other symptoms can lead to optic disc swelling and recurrent increase in intracerebral pressure. Besides familial cold-induced autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS) and neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID), the Muckle-Wells syndrome also belongs to the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). In most cases of CAP syndromes there is an underlying genetic disorder that leads to overproduction of interleukin-1? (IL-1?); therefore, typical symptoms include inflammation reactions, such as repeated skin rash, fatigue, fever, joint pain and conjunctivitis. PMID:25614348

  6. [Kallmann syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mokosch, A; Bernecker, C; Willenberg, H S; Neumann, N J

    2011-10-01

    The Kallmann syndrome is a very rare congenital association of gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency and hyposmia or anosmia. Clinically it is characterized by low serum concentrations of testosterone and inadequate low levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone as well as incomplete sexual maturation, lack of secondary sexual features (facial and body hair growth, deepening of the voice), micropenis and sometimes even cryptorchidism. The reduced or absent sense of smell is typical for the Kallmann syndrome and distinguishes this syndrome from other causes of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Additional findings may include synkinesia, hearing loss, unilateral renal aplasia, brachy- or syndactyly, agenesis of corpus callosum, cleft palate and dental agenesis. A 19-year-old man presented to our male infertility clinic with delayed sexual maturation, eunuchoid habitus, micropenis, cryptorchidism, erectile dysfunction and absence of ejaculation, anemia and osteoporosis as well as low serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone in combination with hyposmia. PMID:21918848

  7. Flammer syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The new term Flammer syndrome describes a phenotype characterized by the presence of primary vascular dysregulation together with a cluster of symptoms and signs that may occur in healthy people as well as people with disease. Typically, the blood vessels of the subjects with Flammer syndrome react differently to a number of stimuli, such as cold and physical or emotional stress. Nearly all organs, particularly the eye, can be involved. Although the syndrome has some advantages, such as protection against the development of atherosclerosis, Flammer syndrome also contributes to certain diseases, such as normal tension glaucoma. The syndrome occurs more often in women than in men, in slender people than in obese subjects, in people with indoor rather than outdoor jobs, and in academics than in blue collar workers. Affected subjects tend to have cold extremities, low blood pressure, prolonged sleep onset time, shifted circadian rhythm, reduced feeling of thirst, altered drug sensitivity, and increased general sensitivity, including pain sensitivity. The plasma level of endothelin-1 is slightly increased, and the gene expression in lymphocytes is changed. In the eye, the retinal vessels are stiffer and their spatial variability larger; the autoregulation of ocular blood flow is decreased. Glaucoma patients with Flammer syndrome have an increased frequency of the following: optic disc hemorrhages, activated retinal astrocytes, elevated retinal venous pressure, optic nerve compartmentalization, fluctuating diffuse visual field defects, and elevated oxidative stress. Further research should lead to a more concise definition, a precise diagnosis, and tools for recognizing people at risk. This may ultimately lead to more efficient and more personalized treatment. PMID:25075228

  8. Flammer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Konieczka, Katarzyna; Ritch, Robert; Traverso, Carlo Enrico; Kim, Dong Myung; Kook, Michael Scott; Gallino, Augusto; Golubnitschaja, Olga; Erb, Carl; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Kida, Teruyo; Kurysheva, Natalia; Yao, Ke

    2014-01-01

    The new term Flammer syndrome describes a phenotype characterized by the presence of primary vascular dysregulation together with a cluster of symptoms and signs that may occur in healthy people as well as people with disease. Typically, the blood vessels of the subjects with Flammer syndrome react differently to a number of stimuli, such as cold and physical or emotional stress. Nearly all organs, particularly the eye, can be involved. Although the syndrome has some advantages, such as protection against the development of atherosclerosis, Flammer syndrome also contributes to certain diseases, such as normal tension glaucoma. The syndrome occurs more often in women than in men, in slender people than in obese subjects, in people with indoor rather than outdoor jobs, and in academics than in blue collar workers. Affected subjects tend to have cold extremities, low blood pressure, prolonged sleep onset time, shifted circadian rhythm, reduced feeling of thirst, altered drug sensitivity, and increased general sensitivity, including pain sensitivity. The plasma level of endothelin-1 is slightly increased, and the gene expression in lymphocytes is changed. In the eye, the retinal vessels are stiffer and their spatial variability larger; the autoregulation of ocular blood flow is decreased. Glaucoma patients with Flammer syndrome have an increased frequency of the following: optic disc hemorrhages, activated retinal astrocytes, elevated retinal venous pressure, optic nerve compartmentalization, fluctuating diffuse visual field defects, and elevated oxidative stress. Further research should lead to a more concise definition, a precise diagnosis, and tools for recognizing people at risk. This may ultimately lead to more efficient and more personalized treatment. PMID:25075228

  9. Evans Syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Porcaro, F; Valenzise, M; Candela, G; Chiera, F; Corica, D; Pitrolo, E; Santucci, S; Romeo, M; Nigro, S; Zirilli, G

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of a 14-years old caucasian female affected by autoimmune hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids. Nevertheless, neutropenia occurred during follow-up period. Positivity of direct antiglobulin test and sieric anti-neutrophil antibodies suggested the diagnosis of Evans syndrome trilineage. PMID:25573707

  10. The behavioral characteristics of Sotos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Krupa; Moss, Joanna; Hyland, Sarah; Stinton, Chris; Cole, Trevor; Oliver, Chris

    2015-12-01

    In this study we describe the levels of clinically significant behavior in participants with Sotos syndrome relative to three matched contrast groups in which the behavioral phenotype is well documented (Autism Spectrum Disorder, ASD; Prader-Willi, and Down syndromes). Parents and carers of 38 individuals with Sotos syndrome (mean age?=?17.3; SD?=?9.36), completed questionnaires regarding self-injury, aggression, repetitive behavior, autism spectrum phenomenology, overactivity, impulsivity and mood, interest and pleasure. Individuals with Sotos syndrome showed an increased risk of self-injurious behavior, physical aggression, and destruction of property relative to the Down syndrome group but not a greater risk of stereotyped behavior. Impulsivity and levels of activity were also significantly higher relative to those with Down syndrome and comparable to those with ASD. A large proportion of participants met the cut off score for ASD (70.3%) and Autism (32.4%) on the Social Communication Questionnaire. Social impairments were particularly prominent with repetitive behavior and communication impairments less characteristic of the syndrome. Interestingly, preference for routine and repetitive language were heightened in individuals with Sotos syndrome and the repetitive behavior profile was strikingly similar to that observed in individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome. These findings build upon previous research and provide further evidence of the behavioral phenotype associated with Sotos syndrome. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26418839

  11. Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nivean, M; Utkarsha, P

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudoexfoliation (PXF) syndrome is a well-recognized clinical entity of considerable clinical significance. It is associated with poor mydriasis, cataracts with weak zonular support, secondary glaucoma and possibly with biochemical abnormalities, such as elevated homocysteine and systemic diseases involving the cardiovascular and central nervous system. There have also been some recent studies identifying mutations in genes which are associated with PXF. How to cite this article: Ariga M, Nivean M, Utkarsha P. Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome. J Current Glau Prac 2013;7(3): 118-120.

  12. Eagle syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro Costa; Mendanha, Mário; Frada, Tiago; Carvalho, Jorge; Silva, Alvaro; Amarante, José

    2014-01-01

    Eagle syndrome, also known as elongated styloid process, is a condition first described by Watt Eagle in 1937. It occurs when an elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament causes recurrent throat pain or foreign body sensation, dysphagia, or facial pain. Additional symptoms may include neck or throat pain with radiation to the ipsilateral ear. It is usually hard to diagnose because the symptoms related to this condition can be confused with those attributed to a wide variety of facial neuralgias. In this article, a case of Eagle syndrome exhibiting unilateral symptoms with bilateral elongation of styloid process is reported. PMID:24406612

  13. IL-1 Blockade in Autoinflammatory Syndromes1

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Adriana A.; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2014-01-01

    Monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes present with excessive systemic inflammation including fever, rashes, arthritis, and organ-specific inflammation and are caused by defects in single genes encoding proteins that regulate innate inflammatory pathways. Pathogenic variants in two interleukin-1 (IL-1)regulating genes, NLRP3 and IL1RN, cause two severe and early-onset autoinflammatory syndromes, CAPS (cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes) and DIRA (deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist). The discovery of the mutations that cause CAPS and DIRA led to clinical and basic research that uncovered the key role of IL-1 in an extended spectrum of immune dysregulatory conditions. NLRP3 encodes cryopyrin, an intracellular molecular sensor that forms a multimolecular platform, the NLRP3 inflammasome, which links danger recognition to the activation of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1?. The success and safety profile of drugs targeting IL-1 in the treatment of CAPS and DIRA have encouraged their wider use in other autoinflammatory syndromes including the classic hereditary periodic fever syndromes (familial Mediterranean fever, TNF receptorassociated periodic syndrome, and hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with periodic fever syndrome) and additional immune dysregulatory conditions that are not genetically well defined, including Stills, Behcets, and Schnitzler diseases. The fact that the accumulation of metabolic substrates such as monosodium urate, ceramide, cholesterol, and glucose can trigger the NLRP3 inflammasome connects metabolic stress to IL-1?-mediated inflammation and provides a rationale for therapeutically targeting IL-1 in prevalent diseases such as gout, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. PMID:24422572

  14. Imaging manifestations of a dreaded obstetric complication in the immediate postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Zarghouni, Mehrzad; Cannon, Walter

    2014-01-01

    HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet) syndrome is a dreaded complication that may develop during pregnancy or in the immediate postpartum period. Rarely this syndrome manifests itself with imaging findings. We report a case of HELLP syndrome in which the diagnosis was reaffirmed via imaging findings. PMID:24688204

  15. [Premorbid period of anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Marilov, V V; Sule?manov, R A

    2004-01-01

    Premorbid period of anorexia nervosa was studied in 96 female patients. In 64 cases (group 1) anorexia nervosa was as a separate disease and in 32 cases (group 2)--as a syndrome of endogenous mental disorder. In group 1 premorbid period was characterized by the features of neuropathy and residual organic disorders in combination with accumulation of subjects with personality disorders in the patient's family that promoted development of prolonged neurotic disorders. In group 2 there was hereditary psychosis load, high frequency of obstetrical and other perinatal complications, overvalued ideas and predisposition to autistic games and fantasying. In both groups, psychopathological peculiarities included typical affective, obsessive-phobic, hypochondriac, cenesthopathic and behavioral disorders, of a stable character often provoked by psychotraumatic events. PMID:15553374

  16. Aortic dimensions in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Emilio; Lapidus, Jodi; Shaughnessy, Robin; Chen, Zunqiu; Silberbach, Michael

    2015-11-01

    In Turner syndrome, linear growth is less than the general population. Consequently, to assess stature in Turner syndrome, condition-specific comparators have been employed. Similar reference curves for cardiac structures in Turner syndrome are currently unavailable. Accurate assessment of the aorta is particularly critical in Turner syndrome because aortic dissection and rupture occur more frequently than in the general population. Furthermore, comparisons to references calculated from the taller general population with the shorter Turner syndrome population can lead to over-estimation of aortic size causing stigmatization, medicalization, and potentially over-treatment. We used echocardiography to measure aortic diameters at eight levels of the thoracic aorta in 481 healthy girls and women with Turner syndrome who ranged in age from two to seventy years. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the influence of karyotype, age, body mass index, bicuspid aortic valve, blood pressure, history of renal disease, thyroid disease, or growth hormone therapy. Because only bicuspid aortic valve was found to independently affect aortic size, subjects with bicuspid aortic valve were excluded from the analysis. Regression equations for aortic diameters were calculated and Z-scores corresponding to 1, 2, and 3 standard deviations from the mean were plotted against body surface area. The information presented here will allow clinicians and other caregivers to calculate aortic Z-scores using a Turner-based reference population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26118429

  17. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Metabolic Syndrome? Changing Your Course en espaol El sndrome metablico Choices. Life is full of them. And many choices affect our health: Will you choose pizza at that post-game dinner or salad with grilled chicken? Do you flop down in front of the TV after school or ...

  18. [SAPHO syndrome].

    PubMed

    Heldmann, F; Kiltz, U; Baraliakos, X; Braun, J

    2014-10-01

    The SAPHO syndrome, an acronym for synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis, is a rare disease which affects bones, joints and the skin. The main osteoarticular features are hyperostosis and osteitis. Osteoarticular symptoms predominantly occur on the anterior chest wall but the spine and the peripheral skeleton can also be involved. The most important skin affections are palmoplantar pustulosis and severe acne. The etiology of this syndrome remains unclear but infectious, immunological and genetic factors are involved. The diagnostic features of SAPHO syndrome are clinical and radiological. The most important diagnostic procedure is Tc-99 m bone scintigraphy but conventional x-rays as well as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can also contribute to the final diagnosis. Bone histology and positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT) may help to differentiate SAPHO syndrome from malignancies and infectious osteomyelitis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the cornerstone of treatment. The results obtained using antibiotics and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as sulfasalazine and methotrexate are inconsistent. Bisphosphonates and anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drugs have shown promising results in small studies but further research is still necessary. PMID:25260820

  19. Reye's Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 5600 Fishers Lane, CDER-HFD-240 Rockville, MD 20857 http://www.fda.gov Tel: 301-827-4573 888-INFO-FDA (463-6332) National Reye's Syndrome Foundation P.O. Box 829 426 North Lewis ...

  20. Alport Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... older the risk of kidney failure increases. All boys and girls with the autosomal recessive type of Alport Syndrome ... with this disease have the X-linked type. Boys with this type are severely ... in their lives. Girls with this type usually have milder symptoms than ...

  1. Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbert, Linda A.

    This pamphlet reviews the historical process involved in initially recognizing Rett Syndrome as a specific disorder in girls. Its etiology is unknown, but studies have considered factors as hyperammonemia, a two-step mutation, a fragile X chromosome, metabolic disorder, environmental causation, dopamine deficiency, and an inactive X chromosome.

  2. Compartment syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... affected area (for example, a person with compartment syndrome in the foot or lower leg will have severe pain when moving the toes up and down) Swelling in the area To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor or nurse may need to directly ...

  3. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) Anxiety Depression The cause of Tourette syndrome is unknown. It is more common in boys than girls. The tics usually start in childhood and may be worst in the early teens. Many people eventually outgrow them. No treatment is ...

  4. Satoyoshi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Debadatta; Ghosh, Apurba; Mukhopadhyay, Maya

    2011-09-01

    Satoyoshi syndrome is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by alopecia, painful muscle spasms, diarrhea and secondary skeletal changes. We report a 11 year old girl presenting with the typical features of alopecia totalis, severe muscle spasm and skeletal deformities. PMID:21992906

  5. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... levels, and it’s closely linked to overweight and obesity. Genetics (ethnicity and family history) and older age are other factors that may play a role in causing metabolic ... due to a rise in obesity rates among adults. In the future, metabolic syndrome ...

  6. Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbert, Linda A.

    This pamphlet reviews the historical process involved in initially recognizing Rett Syndrome as a specific disorder in girls. Its etiology is unknown, but studies have considered factors as hyperammonemia, a two-step mutation, a fragile X chromosome, metabolic disorder, environmental causation, dopamine deficiency, and an inactive X chromosome.…

  7. Postthrombotic Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... syndrome. Blood . 2009 ; 114 : 4624 –4631. Abstract / FREE Full Text ↵ Vazquez SR, Freeman A, VanWoerkom RC, Rondina MT. ... CIRCULATIONAHA.109.925651 Extract Free Figures Only Free » Full Text Free PDF Free PPT Slides of All Figures ...

  8. Prenatal Testing for Intellectual Disability: Misperceptions and Reality with Lessons from down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acharya, Kruti

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most common cause of intellectual disability. In the United States, it is recommended that prenatal testing for Down syndrome be offered to all women. Because of this policy and consequent public perception, having Down syndrome has become a disadvantage in the prenatal period. However, in the postnatal period, there may be

  9. Prenatal Testing for Intellectual Disability: Misperceptions and Reality with Lessons from down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acharya, Kruti

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most common cause of intellectual disability. In the United States, it is recommended that prenatal testing for Down syndrome be offered to all women. Because of this policy and consequent public perception, having Down syndrome has become a disadvantage in the prenatal period. However, in the postnatal period, there may be…

  10. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkins, Michael L.; Grady, Deborah

    1988-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common and potentially disabling condition. When suspected, the diagnosis can be readily made on clinical evidence without the the need for extensive ancillary tests. Primary physicians should be able to manage most patients with medical therapy. Patients for whom medical treatment fails or who present with weakness or thenar atrophy should be referred to a competent hand surgeon. Most patients can expect to have a good outcome if the diagnosis is made early, appropriate therapy is instituted, and a periodic reassessment is done to guide further clinical decisions. Images PMID:3348036

  11. Down syndrome in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    al-Awadi, S A; Farag, T I; Teebi, A S; Naguib, K K; Sundareshan, T S; Murthy, D S

    1990-01-01

    During a 7-year-period (1980-1986) trisomy 21 was confirmed in 635 cases (257 males and 278 females). There were 611 cases of trisomy 21 (96.2%), 12 of different translocations (1.9%), 9 of mosaicism (1.4%), and 3 with nonclassical karyotypes (0.5%). The frequency of chromosome aberrations in our study is compared to that of major world-wide cytogenetic surveys comprising 17,738 Down syndrome cases. These surveys showed that regular trisomy 21 constitutes 92.9%, translocations 4.3%, mosaicism 2.2%, and nonclassical karyotypes 0.5%. PMID:2149982

  12. The Source for Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Hoge, Debra Reichert

    Designed for practicing speech-language pathologists, this book discusses different syndrome disabilities, pertinent speech-language characteristics, and goals and strategies to begin intervention efforts at a preschool level. Chapters address: (1) Angelman syndrome; (2) Asperger syndrome; (3) Down syndrome; (4) fetal alcohol syndrome; (5) fetal

  13. The Source for Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Hoge, Debra Reichert

    Designed for practicing speech-language pathologists, this book discusses different syndrome disabilities, pertinent speech-language characteristics, and goals and strategies to begin intervention efforts at a preschool level. Chapters address: (1) Angelman syndrome; (2) Asperger syndrome; (3) Down syndrome; (4) fetal alcohol syndrome; (5) fetal…

  14. Thyroid Hormone Receptors Predict Prognosis in BRCA1 Associated Breast Cancer in Opposing Ways

    PubMed Central

    Heublein, Sabine; Mayr, Doris; Meindl, Alfons; Angele, Martin; Gallwas, Julia; Jeschke, Udo; Ditsch, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Since BRCA1 associated breast cancers are frequently classified as hormone receptor negative or even triple negative, the application of endocrine therapies is rather limited in these patients. Like hormone receptors that bind to estrogen or progesterone, thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. TRs might be interesting biomarkers - especially in the absence of classical hormone receptors. The current study aimed to investigate whether TRs may be specifically expressed in BRCA1 associated cancer cases and whether they are of prognostic significance in these patients as compared to sporadic breast cancer cases. This study analyzed TR? and TR? immunopositivity in BRCA1 associated (n = 38) and sporadic breast cancer (n = 86). Further, TRs were studied in MCF7 (BRCA1 wildtype) and HCC3153 (BRCA1 mutated) cells. TR? positivity rate was significantly higher in BRCA1 associated as compared to sporadic breast cancers (p = 0.001). The latter observation remained to be significant when cases that had been matched for clinicopathological criteria were compared (p = 0.037). Regarding BRCA1 associated breast cancer cases TR? positivity turned out to be a positive prognostic factor for five-year (p = 0.007) and overall survival (p = 0.026) while TR? positivity predicted reduced five-year survival (p = 0.030). Activation of TR? resulted in down-modulation of CTNNB1 while TR? inhibition reduced cell viability in HCC3153. However, only BRCA1 wildtype MCF7 cells were capable of rapidly degrading TR?1 in response to T3 stimulation. Significantly, this study identified TR? to be up-regulated in BRCA1 associated breast cancer and revealed TRs to be associated with patients prognosis. TRs were also found to be expressed in triple negative BRCA1 associated breast cancer. Further studies need to be done in order to evaluate whether TRs may become interesting targets of endocrine therapeutic approaches, especially when tumors are triple-negative. PMID:26029931

  15. Premenstrual Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that start one to two weeks before your period. Most women have at least some symptoms of PMS, and the symptoms go away after their periods start. For some women, the symptoms are severe enough to interfere with ...

  16. Paraneoplastic syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) comprise a diverse group of disorders that are associated with cancer but unrelated to the size, location, metastases, or physiologic activities of the mature tissue of origin. They are remote effects of tumors that may appear as signs, symptoms, or syndromes which can mimic other disease conditions encountered in veterinary medicine. Recognition of PNS is valuable for several reasons: the observed abnormalities may represent tumor cell markers and facilitate early diagnosis of the tumor; they may allow assessment of premalignant states; they may aid in the search metastases; they may help quantify and monitor response to therapy; and, they may provide insight into the study of malignant transformation and oncogene expression. This review will concentrate on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of some of the common PNS encountered in veterinary medicine.

  17. Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Andr; Feelders, Richard A; Stratakis, Constantine A; Nieman, Lynnette K

    2015-08-29

    Chronic exposure to excess glucorticoids results in diverse manifestations of Cushing's syndrome, including debilitating morbidities and increased mortality. Genetic and molecular mechanisms responsible for excess cortisol secretion by primary adrenal lesions and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion from corticotroph or ectopic tumours have been identified. New biochemical and imaging diagnostic approaches and progress in surgical and radiotherapy techniques have improved the management of patients. The therapeutic goal is to normalise tissue exposure to cortisol to reverse increased morbidity and mortality. Optimum treatment consisting of selective and complete resection of the causative tumour is necessay to allow eventual normalisation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, maintenance of pituitary function, and avoidance of tumour recurrence. The development of new drugs offers clinicians several choices to treat patients with residual cortisol excess. However, for patients affected by this challenging syndrome, the long-term effects and comorbidities associated with hypercortisolism need ongoing care. PMID:26004339

  18. Overtraining Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kreher, Jeffrey B.; Schwartz, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Fatigue and underperformance are common in athletes. Understanding overtraining syndrome (OTS) is helpful in the evaluation, management, and education of athletes. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles in English were searched with OVID (1948-2011) and PubMed using the following keywords: overtraining syndrome, overtraining, overreaching, unexplained underperformance, staleness, pathophysiology, management, treatment, evaluation. Bibliographies were reviewed for additional resources. Results: OTS appears to be a maladapted response to excessive exercise without adequate rest, resulting in perturbations of multiple body systems (neurologic, endocrinologic, immunologic) coupled with mood changes. Many hypotheses of OTS pathogenesis are reviewed, and a clinical approach to athletes with possible OTS (including history, testing, and prevention) is presented. Conclusions: OTS remains a clinical diagnosis with arbitrary definitions per the European College of Sports Science’s position statement. History and, in most situations, limited serologies are helpful. However, much remains to be learned given that most past research has been on athletes with overreaching rather than OTS. PMID:23016079

  19. Kartagener syndrome.

    PubMed

    Skeik, Nedaa; Jabr, Fadi I

    2011-01-01

    Kartagener syndrome is a rare, ciliopathic, autosomal recessive genetic disorder that causes a defect in the action of the cilia lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tube. Patients usually present with chronic recurrent rhinosinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, and bronchiectasis caused by pseudomonal infection. Situs inversus can be seen in about 50% of cases. Diagnosis can be made by tests to prove impaired cilia function, biopsy, and genetic studies. Treatment is supportive. In severe cases, the prognosis can be fatal if bilateral lung transplantation is delayed. We present a case of a 66-year-old woman with chronic recurrent upper respiratory infections, pseudomonal pneumonia, and chronic bronchiectasis who presented with acute respiratory failure. She was diagnosed with Kartagener syndrome based on her clinical presentation and genetic studies. She expired on ventilator with refractory respiratory and multiorgan failure. PMID:21403791

  20. [Hepatorenal syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pillebout, Evangline

    2014-02-01

    Hepatorenal syndrome is a severe complication of end-stage liver disease. The pathophysiological hallmark is severe renal vasoconstriction, resulting from peripheral and splanchnic vasodilation as well as activation of renal vasoconstrictor molecules, which induce the effective arterial volume reduction and the functional renal failure. The diagnosis of hepatorenal syndrome is currently based on the exclusion of other causes of renal failure (especially prerenal). Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is one of the triggering factors and should be sought in all patients with severe liver disease and acute renal failure. Quickly treating patients with parental antibiotics and albumin infusion significantly decreases the risk. The combined use of intravenous albumin, splanchnic and peripheral vasoconstrictor and/or renal replacement therapy sometimes enables a delay until liver transplantation (or combined liver-kidney in selected patients). Transplantation is in fact the only way to improve the long-term prognosis. PMID:24388293

  1. Metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Denke, Margo A

    2002-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome is like an elephant, and any literary review of its importance is shamefully reduced to an examination of tusks, trunk, and tail. Evidence continues to mount that this diminutive approach is an incorrect management strategy for such a large problem. Diet and lifestyle are effective strategies, but they must effectively compete with behaviors that have instant gratification. Our society has turned its focus away from the long-term rewards of good sustainable behaviors and has instead focused on short-term rewards of unsustainable behaviors. To tame the behaviors that promote the metabolic syndrome, simple answers from diet and drug therapy will require support from society to be effective. PMID:12361491

  2. Bruck syndrome.

    PubMed

    Datta, Vikram; Sinha, Aditi; Saili, Arvind; Nangia, Sushma

    2005-05-01

    The combination of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and osteogenesis imperfecta is extremely rare. This combination is named Bruck syndrome. A 34 week male baby weighing 1.7 kg at birth was noted to have multiple flexion contractures and pterygia at elbows, wrists and knees, in addition to right foot talipes equinovarus deformity. Postnatally the child developed multiple swellings involving both the upper and lower limbs. A plain radiograph revealed the presence of fractures involving the long bones of the upper and lower limbs. A diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita was made, and the patient was labeled as a case of Bruck Syndrome. The aim of this report is to make the readers aware regarding this rare entity and to specifically look for presence of features suggestive of osteogenesis imperfecta when encountered with a neonate born with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. PMID:15973030

  3. [Fibromyalgia syndrome].

    PubMed

    Naranjo Hernndez, A; Rodrguez Lozano, C; Ojeda Bruno, S

    1992-02-01

    The Fibromialgia Syndrome (FS) is a common clinical entity which may produce symtoms and signs related to multiple fields of Medicine. Typical clinical characteristics of FS include extensive pain, presence of sensitive points during exploration, morning stiffness, asthenia and non-refresing sleep. Frequently, associated rheumatologic diseases are observed, as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthrosis and vertebral disorders. In FS, complementary tests are usually normal. The most widely accepted hypothesis suggests that this is a disorder affecting modulation of pain sensitivity. PMID:1576317

  4. Fluency Disorders in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Tetnowski, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of various genetic syndromes have included "stuttering" as a primary symptom associated with that syndrome. Specifically, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type I, and Turner syndrome all list "stuttering" as a characteristic of that syndrome. An extensive review of…

  5. Fluency Disorders in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Tetnowski, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of various genetic syndromes have included "stuttering" as a primary symptom associated with that syndrome. Specifically, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type I, and Turner syndrome all list "stuttering" as a characteristic of that syndrome. An extensive review of

  6. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  7. Acrodysostosis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Silve, C; Le-Stunff, C; Motte, E; Gunes, Y; Linglart, A; Clauser, E

    2012-01-01

    Acrodysostosis (ADO) refers to a heterogeneous group of rare skeletal dysplasia that share characteristic features including severe brachydactyly, facial dysostosis and nasal hypoplasia. The literature describing acrodysostosis cases has been confusing because some reported patients may have had other phenotypically related diseases presenting with Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) such as pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP1a) or pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP). A question has been whether patients display or not abnormal mineral metabolism associated with resistance to PTH and/or resistance to other hormones that bind G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) linked to Gsα, as observed in PHP1a. The recent identification in patients affected with acrodysostosis of defects in two genes, PRKAR1A and PDE4D, both important players in the GPCR-Gsα-cAMP-PKA signaling, has helped clarify some issues regarding the heterogeneity of acrodysostosis, in particular the presence of hormonal resistance. Two different genetic and phenotypic syndromes are now identified, both with a similar bone dysplasia: ADOHR, due to PRKAR1A defects, and ADOP4 (our denomination), due to PDE4D defects. The existence of GPCR-hormone resistance is typical of the ADOHR syndrome. We review here the PRKAR1A and PDE4D gene defects and phenotypes identified in acrodysostosis syndromes, and discuss them in view of phenotypically related diseases caused by defects in the same signaling pathway. PMID:24363928

  8. Acrodysostosis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Silve, C; Le-Stunff, C; Motte, E; Gunes, Y; Linglart, A; Clauser, E

    2012-01-01

    Acrodysostosis (ADO) refers to a heterogeneous group of rare skeletal dysplasia that share characteristic features including severe brachydactyly, facial dysostosis and nasal hypoplasia. The literature describing acrodysostosis cases has been confusing because some reported patients may have had other phenotypically related diseases presenting with Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) such as pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP1a) or pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP). A question has been whether patients display or not abnormal mineral metabolism associated with resistance to PTH and/or resistance to other hormones that bind G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) linked to Gsα, as observed in PHP1a. The recent identification in patients affected with acrodysostosis of defects in two genes, PRKAR1A and PDE4D, both important players in the GPCR–Gsα–cAMP–PKA signaling, has helped clarify some issues regarding the heterogeneity of acrodysostosis, in particular the presence of hormonal resistance. Two different genetic and phenotypic syndromes are now identified, both with a similar bone dysplasia: ADOHR, due to PRKAR1A defects, and ADOP4 (our denomination), due to PDE4D defects. The existence of GPCR-hormone resistance is typical of the ADOHR syndrome. We review here the PRKAR1A and PDE4D gene defects and phenotypes identified in acrodysostosis syndromes, and discuss them in view of phenotypically related diseases caused by defects in the same signaling pathway. PMID:24363928

  9. Sweet's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Limdiwala, Piyush G; Parikh, Shilpa J; Shah, Jigna S

    2014-01-01

    Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis or Sweet's syndrome (SS) is characterized by painful, erythematous plaques of rapid onset accompanied by fever. The etiology of SS is unknown and it may be associated with antecedent infections, malignancies, autoimmune diseases, drugs and vaccines, upper respiratory or gastrointestinal infection, pregnancy, inflammatory bowel disease as well as chemotherapy or idiopathic. The standard therapy for SS is systemic corticosteroids. We report a rare case of 19-year-old young male patient with complaint of severe ill-defined type of pain in both jaws associated with plaques and papules on extensor surfaces of upper and lower extremities with bodyache and myalgia. Histopathological examination suggested perivascular neutrophilic infiltration with scattered eosinophils. Sweet syndrome has rare oral manifestations secondary to hematological changes. It can also present as a paraneoplastic syndrome (malignancy-associated form of condition, which is most commonly related to acute myelogenous leukemia), which leads to poor prognosis and thus it requires careful examination, early diagnosis and long-term follow-up. PMID:25099003

  10. CUSHING'S SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Allan B.

    1961-01-01

    Sixteen cases of verified Cushing's syndrome, and twelve cases of probable Cushing's syndrome were reviewed and data on them were compared with various reports on Cushing's syndrome in the literature. The diagnosis hinges upon a high index of suspicion, and one or several of the major criteria may be lacking. Ultimate establishment of correct diagnosis should be based largely on the clinical features, although stimulation and suppression tests may help to confirm a clinical diagnosis. In well-established clinical cases, with borderline laboratory confirmation, exploration may be justified, especially if tests fail to identify a specific cause. In cases of adrenal cortical tumor, all pathological tissue should be removed if possible, with great care to support and stimulate the remaining atrophic adrenal gland during and following operation. In cases of bilateral adrenal cortical hyperplasia, the problem is one of how much to remove. At present most investigators advocate radical subtotal resection, leaving less than 10 per cent of one side. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:13785315

  11. Hepatorenal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lata, Jan

    2012-09-28

    Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is defined as a functional renal failure in patients with liver disease with portal hypertension and it constitutes the climax of systemic circulatory changes associated with portal hypertension. This term refers to a precisely specified syndrome featuring in particular morphologically intact kidneys, where regulatory mechanisms have minimised glomerular filtration and maximised tubular resorption and urine concentration, which ultimately results in uraemia. The syndrome occurs almost exclusively in patients with ascites. Type 1 HRS develops as a consequence of a severe reduction of effective circulating volume due to both an extreme splanchnic arterial vasodilatation and a reduction of cardiac output. Type 2 HRS is characterised by a stable or slowly progressive renal failure so that its main clinical consequence is not acute renal failure, but refractory ascites, and its impact on prognosis is less negative. Liver transplantation is the most appropriate therapeutic method, nevertheless, only a few patients can receive it. The most suitable "bridge treatments" or treatment for patients ineligible for a liver transplant include terlipressin plus albumin. Terlipressin is at an initial dose of 0.5-1 mg every 4 h by intravenous bolus to 3 mg every 4 h in cases when there is no response. Renal function recovery can be achieved in less than 50% of patients and a considerable decrease in renal function may reoccur even in patients who have been responding to therapy over the short term. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt plays only a marginal role in the treatment of HRS. PMID:23049205

  12. Brugada Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    ANTZELEVITCH, CHARLES

    2007-01-01

    First introduced as a new clinical entity in 1992, the Brugada syndrome is associated with a relatively high risk of sudden death in young adults, and occasionally in children and infants. Recent years have witnessed a striking proliferation of papers dealing with the clinical and basic aspects of the disease. Characterized by a coved-type ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads of the electrocardiogram (ECG), the Brugada syndrome has a genetic basis that thus far has been linked only to mutations in SCN5A, the gene that encodes the ?-subunit of the sodium channel. The Brugada ECG is often concealed, but can be unmasked or modulated by a number of drugs and pathophysiological states including sodium channel blockers, a febrile state, vagotonic agents, tricyclic antidepressants, as well as cocaine and propranolol intoxication. Average age at the time of initial diagnosis or sudden death is 40 22, with the youngest patient diagnosed at 2 days of age and the oldest at 84 years. This review provides an overview of the clinical, genetic, molecular, and cellular aspects of the Brugada syndrome, incorporating the results of two recent consensus conferences. Controversies with regard to risk stratification and newly proposed pharmacologic strategies are discussed. PMID:17038146

  13. [Crush syndrome].

    PubMed

    Scapellato, S; Maria, S; Castorina, G; Sciuto, G

    2007-08-01

    Crush injuries and crush syndrome are common after natural (e.g. earthquake, land-slide, tornadoes, tsunami) or man-made catastrophes (e.g. wars, terrorist attacks), in fact the history of this disease is well reported both in earthquake rescue reviews and in military literature. However, there are instances due to conventional causes, such as building collapses, road traffic accident, accident at work or altered level of consciousness after stroke or drug overdose. These situations of ''big or small'' catastrophes can occur at any time and anywhere, for this reason every clinician should be prepared to address issues of crush syndrome quickly and aggressively. The treatment has to manage and to predict clinical conditions before they present themselves. In particular, acute renal failure is one of the few life-threatening complications that can be reversed. This article reviews the various evidences and summarizes the treatment strategies available. Fundamental targets in crush syndrome management are early aggressive hydration, urine alkalinization and, when possible, forced diuresis. Since electrolyte imbalance may be fatal due to arrhythmias secondary to hyperkalemia (especially associated with hypocalcemia), it's necessary to correct these abnormalities using insulin-glucose solution and/or potassium binders, and if nevertheless serum potassium levels remain high this serious disease will necessitate dialysis, which is often a vital procedure. PMID:17641588

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of Robinow syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Castro, Simon; Peraza, Efren; Barraza, Astrid; Zapata, Marco

    2014-06-01

    Robinow syndrome, also known as fetal face syndrome, is a rare genetically heterogeneous condition characterized mainly by mesomelic limb shortening, facial malformations, and genital abnormalities. This report describes the sonographic findings in a case of autosomal-dominant Robinow syndrome diagnosed at 23.1 weeks' gestation, in a patient with no history of affected relatives. Here we describe the sonographic characteristics of this syndrome from the diagnosis until birth. The prenatal and postnatal findings, the differential diagnosis, and the prognosis of patients with this syndrome are discussed. 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 42:297-300, 2014. PMID:24151023

  15. Kearns-Sayre Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Kearns-Sayre Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Kearns-Sayre Syndrome? Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a rare ...

  16. Central Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Central Pain Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Pain Syndrome? Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition ...

  17. Marfan Syndrome (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... syndrome doesn't affect your child's intelligence, some modifications may be needed in class (such as letting ... Bones, Muscles, and Joints Heart and Circulatory System Genetic Counseling Growth Disorders Marfan Syndrome Marfan Syndrome Contact ...

  18. Marfan Syndrome (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Activities When to Call the Doctor en espaol Sndrome de Marfan About Marfan Syndrome Marfan syndrome is ... for Marfan syndrome runs in families, getting passed down to kids from parents who have the disease. ...

  19. Facts about Down Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Down Syndrome Data and Statistics Growth Charts Encephalocele Gastroschisis Hypospadias Microcephaly Omphalocele Spina Bifida Upper and Lower ... Down Syndrome Eye Defects Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders Gastroschisis Heart Defects Coarctation of the Aorta Hypoplastic left ...

  20. Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome? Tethered spinal cord syndrome is a neurological ...

  1. Sturge-Weber Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Sturge-Weber Syndrome Information Page Synonym(s): Encephalotrigeminal Angiomatosis Table of ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Sturge-Weber Syndrome? Sturge-Weber syndrome is a neurological disorder ...

  2. Reye syndrome - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - Reye syndrome ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Reye Syndrome : National Reye's Syndrome Foundation, Inc. -- www.reyessyndrome.org National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke -- www. ...

  3. Down Syndrome: Eye Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... life expectancy. Do children with Down syndrome have eye problems? Individuals with Down syndrome are at increased ... When should children with Down syndrome receive an eye exam? The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that ...

  4. What Causes Down Syndrome?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What causes Down syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... Down Syndrome Registry​ . Chromosomal Changes That Can Cause Down Syndrome Research shows that three types of chromosomal changes ...

  5. Angelman Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Testing Labs and Resources Medical Information Angelman Syndrome Behaviors Informational Series Individuals with AS Photo Gallery Genetic Mechanisms of Angelman Syndrome Normal 15 Chromosome We ...

  6. Alport Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alport Syndrome through education, empowerment, advocacy, and funding research. 2015 Alport Syndrome Foundation Inc. All Rights Reserved | Privacy Policy | Sitemap | Disclaimer Arizona Web Design by Artistik Designs ")});

  7. Radiation-induced moyamoya syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Snehal S.; Paulino, Arnold C. . E-mail: apaulino@tmh.tmc.edu; Mai, Wei Y.; Teh, Bin S.

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: The moyamoya syndrome is an uncommon late complication after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English-language articles, with radiation, radiotherapy, and moyamoya syndrome used as search key words, yielded 33 articles from 1967 to 2002. Results: The series included 54 patients with a median age at initial RT of 3.8 years (range, 0.4 to 47). Age at RT was less than 5 years in 56.3%, 5 to 10 years in 22.9%, 11 to 20 years in 8.3%, 21 to 30 years in 6.3%, 31 to 40 years in 2.1%, and 41 to 50 years in 4.2%. Fourteen of 54 patients (25.9%) were diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). The most common tumor treated with RT was low-grade glioma in 37 tumors (68.5%) of which 29 were optic-pathway glioma. The average RT dose was 46.5 Gy (range, 22-120 Gy). For NF-1-positive patients, the average RT dose was 46.5 Gy, and for NF-1-negative patients, it was 58.1 Gy. The median latent period for development of moyamoya syndrome was 40 months after RT (range, 4-240). Radiation-induced moyamoya syndrome occurred in 27.7% of patients by 2 years, 53.2% of patients by 4 years, 74.5% of patients by 6 years, and 95.7% of patients by 12 years after RT. Conclusions: Patients who received RT to the parasellar region at a young age (<5 years) are the most susceptible to moyamoya syndrome. The incidence for moyamoya syndrome continues to increase with time, with half of cases occurring within 4 years of RT and 95% of cases occurring within 12 years. Patients with NF-1 have a lower radiation-dose threshold for development of moyamoya syndrome.

  8. [Potassium channelopathies and Morvan's syndromes].

    PubMed

    Serratrice, Georges; Pellissier, Jean-Franois; Serra-Trice, Jacques; Weiller, Pierre-Jean

    2010-02-01

    Interest in Morvan's disease or syndrome has grown, owing to its close links with various potassium channelopathies. Potassium is crucial for gating mechanisms (channel opening and closing), and especially for repolarization. Defective potassium regulation can lead to neuronal hyperexcitability. There are three families of potassium channels: voltage-gated potassium channels or VGKC (Kv1.1-Kv1.8), inward rectifier K+ channels (Kir), and two-pore channels (K2p). VGK channels are the commonest, and especially those belonging to the Shaker group (neuromyotonia and Morvan's syndrome, limbic encephalitis, and type 1 episodic ataxia). Brain and heart K+ channelopathies are a separate group due to KCNQ1 mutation (severe type 2 long QT syndrome). Kv7 channel mutations (in KNQ2 and KCNQ3) are responsible for benign familial neonatal seizures. Mutation of the Ca+ activated K+ channel gene causes epilepsy and paroxysmal dyskinesia. Inward rectifier K+ channels regulate intracellular potassium levels. The DEND syndrome, a treatable channelopathy of the brain and pancreas, is due to KCNJ1 mutation. Andersen's syndrome, due to KCNJ2 mutation, is characterized by periodic paralysis, cardiac arrythmia, and dysmorphia. Voltage-insensitive K2p channelopathies form a final group. PMID:21166127

  9. CFC syndrome: a syndrome distinct from Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Verloes, A; Le Merrer, M; Soyeur, D; Kaplan, J; Pangalos, C; Rigo, J; Briard, M L

    1988-01-01

    We report two children with a common pattern of birth defects. Both have very sparse, curly hair, nystagmus and mental retardation. The first one has Noonan syndrome habitus associated with keratosis plantaris and nystagmus; the second one has a slightly Noonan-like face, macrocephaly, keratosis pilaris, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. They represent the extreme of a spectrum of congenital defects recently reported independently as CFC syndrome by Reynolds and as "Noonan-like short stature syndrome with sparse hair" by Baraitser and Patton. The clinical features are reviewed and the autonomy of the syndrome with regards to Noonan syndrome, is disputed, since every sign seems to occur independently in Noonan syndrome. The father of the second case probably has a minor syndrome expression, pointing to probable autosomal dominant inheritance. PMID:3265306

  10. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy in Sotos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Terumichi; Ihara, Kenji; Ochiai, Masayuki; Kinjo, Tadamune; Yoshikawa, Yoko; Kojima-Ishii, Kanako; Noda, Marie; Mizumoto, Hiroshi; Misaki, Maiko; Minagawa, Kyoko; Tominaga, Koji; Hara, Toshiro

    2013-01-01

    Sotos syndrome (OMIM #117550) is a congenital syndrome characterized by overgrowth with advanced bone age, macrocephaly, and learning difficulties. Endocrine complications of this syndrome have not yet been fully described in previous reports. We here investigated the clinical manifestations of Sotos syndrome in Japanese patients who presented with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy. We recruited patients diagnosed as having Sotos syndrome who presented with the complication of hyperinsulinemia during the neonatal period using a survey of the abstracts of Pediatric Meetings in domestic areas of Japan from 2007 to 2011. As a result, five patients (four females and one male) were recruited to evaluate the clinical presentation of Sotos syndrome by reference to the clinical record of each patient. A 5q35 deletion including the NSD1 gene was detected in all patients. Major anomalies in the central nervous, cardiovascular, and genito-urinary systems were frequently found. Hypoglycemia occurred between 0.5 and 3?hr after birth and high levels of insulin were initially found within 3 days of birth. The patients were treated with intravenous glucose infusion at a maximum rate of 4.6-11.0?mg/kg/min for 12-49 days. Three of the five patients required nasal tube feeding. One patient received medical treatment with diazoxide. This study shows that patients with Sotos syndrome may present with transient hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in the neonatal period. PMID:23239432

  11. Morvan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Maskery, Mark; Chhetri, Suresh K.; Dayanandan, Rejith; Gall, Claire

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old gentleman was admitted to the regional neurosciences center with encephalopathy, myokymia, and dysautonomia. Chest imaging had previously identified an incidental mass in the anterior mediastinum, consistent with a primary thymic tumor. Antivoltage-gated potassium channel (anti-VGKC) antibodies were positive (titer 1273 pmol/L) and he was hypokalemic. Electromyogram and nerve conduction studies were in keeping with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndrome, and an electroencephalogram was consistent with encephalopathy. A diagnosis of Morvan syndrome was made, for which he was initially treated with high-dose steroids, followed by a 5-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. He also underwent thymectomy, followed by a postexcision flare of his symptoms requiring intensive care management. Further steroids, plasmapheresis, and IVIG achieved stabilization of his clinical condition, enabling transfer for inpatient neurorehabilitation. He was commenced on azathioprine and a prolonged oral steroid taper. A subsequent presumed incipient relapse responded well to further IVIG treatment. This case report documents a thymoma-associated presentation of anti-VGKC-positive Morvan syndrome supplemented by patient and carer narrative and video, both of which provide valuable further insights into this rare disorder. There are a limited number of publications surrounding this rare condition available in the English literature. This, combined with the heterogenous presentation, association with underlying malignancy, response to treatment, and prognosis, provides a diagnostic challenge. However, the association with anti-VGKC antibody-associated complexes and 2 recent case series have provided some scope for both accurate diagnosis and management. PMID:26740856

  12. Genetics Home Reference: SLC4A1-associated distal renal tubular acidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... acidosis and the other features of complete distal renal tubular acidosis. It is not clear why some people develop metabolic acidosis and others ... still have specific questions about SLC4A1-associated distal renal tubular ... information about genetics in clear language. What does it mean if a disorder ...

  13. Methylation is less abundant in BRCA1-associated compared with sporadic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suijkerbuijk, K. P. M.; Fackler, M. J.; Sukumar, S.; van Gils, C. H.; van Laar, T.; van der Wall, E.; Vooijs, M.; van Diest, P. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Promoter methylation is a common epigenetic mechanism to silence tumor suppressor genes during breast cancer development. We investigated whether BRCA1-associated breast tumors show cancer-predictive methylation patterns similar to those found in sporadic tumors. Patients and methods: Quantitative multiplex methylation-specific PCR of 11 genes involved in breast carcinogenesis (RARB, RASSF1, TWIST1, CCND2, ESR1, SCGB3A1, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDKN2A, APC, CDH1) was carried out on 32 BRCA1-associated and 46 sporadic breast carcinomas and on normal breast tissue from seven BRCA1 mutation carriers and 13 non-carriers. Results: The extent of cumulative methylation increased with age (P < 0.001). The median cumulative methylation index (CMI) of all studied genes was significantly higher in tumors (89) than in normal tissue (13, P < 0.001). The median CMI was significantly lower in BRCA1-associated (59) than in sporadic breast tumors (122, P = 0.001), in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors (73) than in ER-positive tumors (122, P = 0.005) and in lymph node-negative (77) compared with lymph node-positive tumors (137, P = 0.007). In subgroup analysis, the effect of a BRCA1 germline mutation on methylation proved to be independent of ER status, lymph node status and age. Conclusions: These data indicate that BRCA1-associated breast cancers show less promoter methylation compared with sporadic breast carcinomas indicating a difference in disease etiology. PMID:18647968

  14. Ortner's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shahul, Hameed Aboobackar; Manu, Mohan K; Mohapatra, Aswini Kumar; Magazine, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    A 42-year-old man with a significant smoking history presented with chronic expectorative cough and exertional shortness of breath with recent-onset hoarseness. Chest examination was essentially normal and cardiovascular examination was suggestive of aortic regurgitation. Ears, nose and throat evaluation showed left vocal cord palsy and CT scan revealed an aortic arch aneurysm. Ortner's syndrome refers to hoarseness due to recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy secondary to a cardiovascular abnormality. Aortic aneurysms usually present with chest pain, back pain or epigastric pain, depending on the site of the aneurysm. An aortic arch aneurysm presenting as hoarseness is extremely rare. PMID:24618861

  15. Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Odenike, Olatoyosi; Anastasi, John; Le Beau, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis The myelodysplastic syndromes are a diverse group of clonal stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, peripheral cytopenias, and an increased propensity to evolve to acute myeloid leukemia. The molecular pathogenesis of these disorders is poorly understood, but recurring chromosomal abnormalities occur in ~50% of cases, and are the focus of much investigation. The availability of newer molecular techniques has allowed the identification of additional genetic aberrations, including mutations and epigenetic changes of prognostic and potential therapeutic importance. This review will focus on the key role of cytogenetic analysis in MDS in the context of the diagnosis, prognosis, and pathogenesis of these disorders. PMID:22118747

  16. Postmenopausal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Pronob K.; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Menopause is one of the most significant events in a woman's life and brings in a number of physiological changes that affect the life of a woman permanently. There have been a lot of speculations about the symptoms that appear before, during and after the onset of menopause. These symptoms constitute the postmenopausal syndrome; they are impairing to a great extent to the woman and management of these symptoms has become an important field of research lately. This chapter attempts to understand these symptoms, the underlying pathophysiology and the management options available. PMID:26330639

  17. Brugada Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Refaat, Marwan M; Hotait, Mostafa; Scheinman, Melvin

    2016-03-01

    Brugada syndrome might stay undetected in patients until surviving cardiac arrest. Despite the prominent advances in exploring the disease in the past 2 decades, many questions remain unanswered and the controversies continue. Despite all mutations identified to be associated with the disease, two-thirds of cases have a negative genetic test. Future studies should be more directed on modulating factors and their impact on patients' risk for sudden death to help physicians in risk stratifying their patients and optimally implementing an implantable cardioverter defibrillator to prevent sudden cardiac death. PMID:26920201

  18. Antiphospholipid syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Gerard; Cervera, Ricard

    2008-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is diagnosed when arterial or venous thrombosis or recurrent miscarriages occur in a person in whom laboratory tests for antiphospholipid antibodies (anticardiolipin antibodies and/or lupus anticoagulant and/or anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I) are positive. Despite the strong association between antiphospho-lipid antibodies and thrombosis, their pathogenic role in the development of thrombosis has not been fully elucidated. Novel mechanisms involving both the complement pathway and micro-particles have been described. The knowledge of these new pathogenic approaches might identify novel therapeutic targets and therefore may improve the management of these patients. PMID:19090981

  19. [Alagille syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Mirta; Alvarez, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Alagille syndrome (AS) is a multisystemic disease autosomal dominant, with variable expression. The major clinical manifestations are: chronic cholestasis, congenital heart disease, posterior embryotoxon in the eye, characteristic facial phenotype, and butterfy vertebrae. AS is caused by mutations in JAGGED1 (more than 90%) and in NOTCH2. Differential diagnosis include: infections, genetic-metabolic diseases, biliary atresia, idiopathic cholestasis. Cholestasis, pruritus and xanthomas have been successfully treated with choleretic agents (ursodeoxycholic acid) and other medications (cholestyramine, rifampin, naltrexone). In certain cases, partial external biliary diversion has also proved successful. Liver transplantation is indicated in children with cirrhosis and liver failure. PMID:23224309

  20. Expanding the phenotype of feingold syndrome-2.

    PubMed

    Grote, Lauren E; Repnikova, Elena A; Amudhavalli, Shivarajan M

    2015-12-01

    Feingold syndrome-2 has been recently shown to be caused by germline heterozygous deletions of MIR17HG with 10 reported patients to date. Manifestations common to both Feingold syndrome-1 and Feingold syndrome-2 include microcephaly, short stature, and brachymesophalangy; but those with Feingold syndrome-2 lack gastrointestinal atresias. Here we describe a 14-year-old male patient who presented to our Cardiovascular Genetics Clinic with a history of a bicuspid aortic valve with aortic stenosis, short stature, hearing loss, and mild learning disabilities. Upon examination he was noted to have dysmorphic features and brachydactyly of his fingers and toes. His head circumference was 54.5?cm (25th-50th centile) and his height was 161.3?cm (31st centile) after growth hormone therapy. A skeletal survey noted numerous abnormalities prompting suspicion for Feingold syndrome. A comparative genomic hybridization microarray was completed and a ?3.6?Mb interstitial heterozygous deletion at 13q31.3 including MIR17HG was found consistent with Feingold syndrome-2. Clinically, this patient has the characteristic digital anomalies and short stature often seen in Feingold syndrome-2 with less common features of a congenital heart defect and hearing loss. Although non-skeletal features have been occasionally reported in Feingold syndrome-1, only one other patient with a 13q31 microdeletion including MIR17HG has had non-skeletal manifestations. Additionally, our patient does not have microcephaly and, to our knowledge, is the first reported pediatric patient with Feingold syndrome-2 without this feature. This report illustrates significant phenotypic variability within the clinical presentation of Feingold syndrome-2 and highlights considerable overlap with Feingold syndrome-1. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26360630

  1. Rett syndrome: a study of the face.

    PubMed

    Allanson, Judith E; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Moog, Ute; Smeets, Eric E

    2011-07-01

    Rett syndrome is a unique disorder of neurodevelopment that is characterized by an evolving behavioral and developmental phenotype, which emerges after an apparently normal early infantile period. It almost exclusively affects females. The face of Rett syndrome is said to resemble that of Angelman syndrome, although there seems little objective support for this impression and it is not a concept with universal support. This observational and anthropometric study was carried out to define the key facial characteristics of females with Rett syndrome and to evaluate whether any changes of significance occur with age. Thirty-seven affected Caucasian females, from 2 to 20 years of age, were evaluated. Thirty-five of them had a documented mutation in MECP2 while the remaining two fulfilled the clinical criteria for Rett syndrome and had been diagnosed by an experienced clinician. Few unusual facial features were noted. Almost all facial measurements were within the normal range although head circumference tended to fall below the normal range with increasing age. The pattern of measurements was constant over time, with the exception of increased facial width in the under 3-year-old girls. The face of Rett syndrome does not demonstrate marked prognathism, wide mouth, spaced teeth or striking microcephaly, all features of Angelman syndrome. Thus, while Rett and Angelman syndromes have similar clinical, neurological, and behavioral phenotypes, they do not appear to share similar facial features. PMID:21626673

  2. Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein Is a Novel Biological Target for Neurofibromatosis Type 1-associated Tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Daiki; Hirayama, Mio; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Mizuguchi, Souhei; Wilson Morifuji, Masayo; Ihn, Hironobu; Takeya, Motohiro; Kuramochi, Akira; Araki, Norie

    2014-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disease that predisposes individuals to develop benign neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). Due to the lack of information on the molecular mechanism of NF1-associated tumor pathogenesis or biomarkers/therapeutic targets, an effective treatment for NF1 tumors has not been established. In this study, the novel NF1-associated protein, translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), was identified by integrated proteomics and found to be up-regulated via activated MAPK/PI3K-AKT signaling in response to growth factors in NF1-deficient Schwann cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of NF1-associated tumors revealed that the TCTP expression level correlated with tumorigenicity. In NF1-deficient MPNST cells, TCTP protein but not mRNA was down-regulated by NF1 GTPase-activating protein-related domain or MAPK/PI3K inhibitors, and this correlated with suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. mTOR inhibition by rapamycin also down-regulated TCTP protein expression, whereas knockdown or overexpression of TCTP suppressed or activated mTOR signaling, respectively, and affected cell viability. These results suggest that a positive feedback loop between TCTP and mTOR contributes to NF1-associated tumor formation. Last, the anti-tumor effect of artesunate, which binds to and degrades TCTP, was evaluated. Artesunate significantly suppressed the viability of MPNST cells but not normal Schwann cells, and the TCTP level inversely correlated with artesunate sensitivity. Moreover, combinational use of artesunate and rapamycin enhanced the cytotoxic effect on MPNST cells. These findings suggest that TCTP is functionally implicated in the progression of NF1-associated tumors and could serve as a biological target for their therapy. PMID:25092287

  3. Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ben Zeev Ghidoni, Bruria

    2007-07-01

    Rett syndrome (RS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder and the second most common cause of genetic mental retardation in females. Different mutations in MECP2 are found in up to 95% of typical cases of RS. This mainly neuronal expressed gene functions as a major transcription repressor. Extensive studies on girls who have RS and mouse models are aimed at finding main gene targets for MeCP2 protein and defining neuropathologic changes caused by its defects. Studies comparing autistic features in RS with idiopathic autism and mentally retarded patients are presented. Decreased dendritic arborization is common to RS and autism, leading to further research on similarities in pathogenesis, including MeCP2 protein levels in autistic brains and MeCP2 effects on genes connected to autism, like DLX5 and genes on 15q11-13 region. This area also is involved in Angelman syndrome, which has many similarities to RS. Despite these connections, MECP2 mutations in nonspecific autistic and mentally retarded populations are rare. PMID:17562589

  4. Lowe syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Loi, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Lowe syndrome (the oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe, OCRL) is a multisystem disorder characterised by anomalies affecting the eye, the nervous system and the kidney. It is a uncommon, panethnic, X-linked disease, with estimated prevalence in the general population of approximately 1 in 500,000. Bilateral cataract and severe hypotonia are present at birth. In the subsequent weeks or months, a proximal renal tubulopathy (Fanconi-type) becomes evident and the ocular picture may be complicated by glaucoma and cheloids. Psychomotor retardation is evident in childhood, while behavioural problems prevail and renal complications arise in adolescence. The mutation of the gene OCRL1 localized at Xq26.1, coding for the enzyme phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate 5 phosphatase, PtdIns (4,5)P2, in the trans-Golgi network is responsible for the disease. Both enzymatic and molecular testing are available for confirmation of the diagnosis and for prenatal detection of the disease. The treatment includes: cataract extraction, glaucoma control, physical and speech therapy, use of drugs to address behavioural problems, and correction of the tubular acidosis and the bone disease with the use of bicarbonate, phosphate, potassium and water. Life span rarely exceeds 40 years. PMID:16722554

  5. Meckel syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, R; Paavola, P

    1998-01-01

    Meckel syndrome (MKS) is a lethal syndrome with a central nervous system malformation, usually occipital meningoencephalocele, bilaterally large multicystic kidneys with fibrotic changes of the liver, and polydactyly in most cases. Additional anomalies are frequent. A common characteristic of the parenchymal changes of many organs is a proliferation of the stromal connective tissue and increase and dilatation of the associated epithelial ducts. Autosomal recessive inheritance is well confirmed and the gene locus has been mapped to chromosome 17q21-24 by genome wide linkage study. The locus was later refined to within a less than 1 cM region (17q22), in which most of the Finnish MKS patients share a common chromosomal haplotype suggesting one major and relatively old mutation. However, in most of the non-Finnish MKS families studied, this linkage could not be confirmed. The linkage studies provide evidence that more than one locus is involved in bringing about the combination of CNS malformations, cystic kidneys, and polydactyly, maybe even in typical cases of MKS. Prenatal diagnosis of MKS by vaginal ultrasound scan is possible from 11-12 weeks of pregnancy, especially in families where there is a known risk. In those families where linkage to 17q22 is established, prenatal diagnosis by DNA analysis is possible. Images PMID:9643292

  6. Lowe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Loi, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Lowe syndrome (the oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe, OCRL) is a multisystem disorder characterised by anomalies affecting the eye, the nervous system and the kidney. It is a uncommon, panethnic, X-linked disease, with estimated prevalence in the general population of approximately 1 in 500,000. Bilateral cataract and severe hypotonia are present at birth. In the subsequent weeks or months, a proximal renal tubulopathy (Fanconi-type) becomes evident and the ocular picture may be complicated by glaucoma and cheloids. Psychomotor retardation is evident in childhood, while behavioural problems prevail and renal complications arise in adolescence. The mutation of the gene OCRL1 localized at Xq26.1, coding for the enzyme phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate 5 phosphatase, PtdIns (4,5)P2, in the trans-Golgi network is responsible for the disease. Both enzymatic and molecular testing are available for confirmation of the diagnosis and for prenatal detection of the disease. The treatment includes: cataract extraction, glaucoma control, physical and speech therapy, use of drugs to address behavioural problems, and correction of the tubular acidosis and the bone disease with the use of bicarbonate, phosphate, potassium and water. Life span rarely exceeds 40 years. PMID:16722554

  7. [Mirizzi's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Roullet-Audy, J C; Guivarc'h, M; Mosnier, H

    1989-04-15

    Six cases of Mirizzi syndrome are reported. The syndrome consists of a special anatomical variant of the cystic duct, which has a low opening but runs side-by-side with the common bile duct, associated with entrapment of a gallstone in the cystic duct or the neck of the gallbladder, partial or total obstruction of the hepatic duct by the stone and by inflammatory lesions, and recurrent cholangitis. Clinical signs are non-specific and suggest at first sight an obstructive jaundice. Pre-operative morphological examination seldom provide a diagnosis before surgery. In the most typical cases ultrasonography shows dilatation of the upper biliary tract with narrowing of the hepatic duct below the dilatation, due to a stone located outside the common bile duct. Opacification of the biliary tract by endoscopic retrograde catheterization of the papilla duodeni or by transparietohepatic puncture give suggestive images (non-opacification of the cystic duct, narrowing of the hepatic duct opposite the extrinsic compression, with overlying dilatation), but these images are not specific. The per-operative diagnosis is difficult owing to the inflammatory lesions, and a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma may be envisaged. Cholecystectomy with recanalization of the cystic duct suppresses the extrinsic compression and helps the inflammatory lesions to regress. However, opening and draining the common bile duct is often necessary. PMID:2524051

  8. [Hyponatremic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Urso, C; Caimi, G

    2012-01-01

    Sodium, the most important extracellular fluid electrolyte, is the focus of several homeostatic mechanisms that regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte abnormality caused by an actual sodium deficiency or extracellular compartment fluid excess. Clinical symptoms are related with acuity and speed with which this abnormality is established. The symptoms are mainly neurological and neuromuscular disorders (headache, confusion, stupor, seizures, coma) due to brain cells edema. Hyponatremia due to sodium deficiency is caused by sodium loss from kidney (nephritis, diuretics, mineralocorticoid deficiency) and / or extrarenal (vomiting, diarrhea, burns). Hyponatremia due to water excess seems to be the most common and it is attributable to cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, heart failure, infusion 5% glucose solutions and drugs that stimulate ADH secretion. It was recently highlighted the role of inflammation and IL-6 in the non-osmotic ADH release. Hyponatremia is considered also marker of phlogosis. Acute (<48 h) and severe (<125 mEq/ L) hyponatremia is a medical emergency that requires prompt correction. Patients with chronic hyponatremia have a high risk of osmotic demyelination syndrome if rapid correction of the plasmatic sodium occurs. In combination with conventional therapy, a new class of drugs, vasopressin receptors antagonists (AVP-R antagonists) would be able to increase the excretion of electrolyte-free water and the serum sodium concentration. PMID:22362242

  9. Holmes-Adie Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Adie syndrome Information Page Synonym(s): Adie's Syndrome, Adie's Pupil Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Holmes-Adie syndrome ? Is there any treatment? What is the prognosis? What ... syndrome (HAS) is a neurological disorder affecting the pupil of the eye and the autonomic nervous system. ...

  10. [Endocrinopathies during the postpartum period. Management].

    PubMed

    Gallo-Vallejo, J L; Gallo-Vallejo, F J

    2015-03-01

    The various endocrinopathies that may occur during the postpartum period are described. The most important and common is gestational and pre-gestational diabetes, but other less common, and also very important ones, are mentioned such as hypopituitarism (Sheehan's syndrome and lymphocytic hypophysitis) and thyroid disorders, pre-existing (hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism), or postpartum onset (postpartum thyroiditis and Graves' disease). After describing their characteristics, the emphasis is placed on the proper management of these endocrine diseases, some of them which exclusively appear during the postpartum period. PMID:24837528

  11. Allergic acute coronary syndrome (Kounis syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Lovely; Masrur, Shihab; Parker, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis rarely manifests as a vasospastic acute coronary syndrome with or without the presence of underlying coronary artery disease. The variability in the underlying pathogenesis produces a wide clinical spectrum of this syndrome. We present three cases of anaphylactic acute coronary syndrome that display different clinical variants of this phenomenon. The main pathophysiological mechanism of the allergic anginal syndromes is the inflammatory mediators released during a hypersensitivity reaction triggered by food, insect bites, or drugs. It is important to appropriately recognize and treat Kounis syndrome in patients with exposure to a documented allergen. PMID:26130889

  12. Periodic exploding dissipative solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2016-03-01

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These nonchaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modeling fiber soliton lasers. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos (chaotic explosions).

  13. Burning Mouth Syndrome: update.

    PubMed

    Spanemberg, Juliana Cassol; Rodrguez de Rivera Campillo, Eugenia; Salas, Enric Jan; Lpez Lpez, Jos

    2014-06-01

    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disorder that predominately affects middle-aged women in the postmenopausal period. The condition is distinguished by burning symptoms of the oral mucosa and the absence of any clinical signs. The etiology of BMS is complex and it includes a variety of factors. Local, systemic and psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression are listed among the possible causes of BMS. BMS may sometimes be classified as BMS Type I, II or III. Although this syndrome is not accompanied by evident organic alterations and it does not present health risks, it can significantly reduce the patient's quality of life. This study analyzes the available literature related to BMS, and makes special reference to its therapeutic management. The pages that follow will also discuss the diagnostic criteria that should be respected, etiological factors, and clinical aspects. We used the PubMed database and searched it by using the keywords "burning mouth syndrome", "BMS and review", and "burning mouth and review", in the title or abstract of the publication. BMS treatment usually steers towards the management of the symptoms; however, the specific local factors that could play a significant role in worsening the oral burning sensation should be eradicated. The most widely accepted treatment options that show variable results include tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines and antipsychotic drugs; nevertheless there are other therapies that can also be carried out. Professionals that work in the field of dentistry should formulate standardized symptomatic and diagnostic criteria in order to more easily identify the most effective and reliable strategies in BMS treatment through multidisciplinary research. PMID:24984658

  14. Human imprinting syndromes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Derek Hk; Maher, Eamonn R

    2009-12-01

    Human imprinting disorders can provide critical insights into the role of imprinted genes in human development and health, and the molecular mechanisms that regulate genomic imprinting. To illustrate these concepts we review the clinical and molecular features of several human imprinting syndromes including Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Silver-Russell syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism, transient neonatal diabetes, familial complete hydatidiform moles and chromosome 14q32 imprinting domain disorders. PMID:22122706

  15. Metabolic Syndrome: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy. PMID:26280343

  16. Biomarkers of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders: challenges of proteomic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ciborowski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 enters the brain shortly after infection, which may lead to neurological complications and in the most severe cases to encephalitis, dementia and death. The introduction of antiretroviral therapy reduced the incidence of the most severe conditions, nevertheless, approximately half of those infected with this virus will suffer to various degrees from HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. Despite many years of research, there are no biomarkers that can objectively measure and, more importantly, predict the onset and the tempo of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. Here we review biomarker candidates of neurocognitive impairment due to HIV infection of the brain that have been proposed during the last two decades, and discuss perspectives and limitations of proteomic approaches in the search for new, more sensitive and specific biomarkers. PMID:20477714

  17. Hepatopulmonary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yong; Fan, Daiming

    2015-07-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a pulmonary complication observed in patients with chronic liver disease and/or portal hypertension, attributable to an intrapulmonary vascular dilatation that may induce severe hypoxemia. Microvascular dilation and angiogenesis in the lung have been identified as pathologic features that drive gas exchange abnormalities in experimental HPS. Pulse oximetry is a useful screening test for HPS, which can guide subsequent use of arterial blood gases. Contrast-enhanced echocardiography, perfusion lung scanning, and pulmonary arteriography are three currently used diagnostic imaging modalities that identify the presence of intrapulmonary vascular abnormalities. The presence of HPS increases mortality and impairs quality of life, but is reversible with liver transplantation. No medical therapy is established as effective for HPS. At the present time, liver transplantation is the only available treatment for HPS. PMID:25732713

  18. Nodding Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sejvar, James J.; Riek, Lul; Vandemaele, Katelijn A.H.; Lamunu, Margaret; Kuesel, Annette C.; Schmutzhard, Erich; Matuja, William; Bunga, Sudhir; Foltz, Jennifer; Nutman, Thomas B.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Mbonye, Anthony K.

    2013-01-01

    An epidemic illness characterized by head nodding associated with onchocerciasis has been described in eastern Africa since the early 1960s; we summarize published reports and recent studies. Onset of nodding occurs in previously healthy 5–15-year-old children and is often triggered by eating or cold temperatures and accompanied by cognitive impairment. Its incidence has increased in Uganda and South Sudan over the past 10 years. Four case–control studies identified modest and inconsistent associations. There were nonspecific lesions seen by magnetic resonance imaging, no cerebrospinal fluid inflammation, and markedly abnormal electroencephalography results. Nodding episodes are atonic seizures. Testing has failed to demonstrate associations with trypanosomiasis, cysticercosis, loiasis, lymphatic filariasis, cerebral malaria, measles, prion disease, or novel pathogens; or deficiencies of folate, cobalamin, pyridoxine, retinol, or zinc; or toxicity from mercury, copper, or homocysteine. There is a consistent enigmatic association with onchocerciasis detected by skin snip or serologic analysis. Nodding syndrome is an unexplained epidemic epilepsy. PMID:23965548

  19. Nodding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dowell, Scott F; Sejvar, James J; Riek, Lul; Vandemaele, Katelijn A H; Lamunu, Margaret; Kuesel, Annette C; Schmutzhard, Erich; Matuja, William; Bunga, Sudhir; Foltz, Jennifer; Nutman, Thomas B; Winkler, Andrea S; Mbonye, Anthony K

    2013-01-01

    An epidemic illness characterized by head nodding associated with onchocerciasis has been described in eastern Africa since the early 1960s; we summarize published reports and recent studies. Onset of nodding occurs in previously healthy 5-15-year-old children and is often triggered by eating or cold temperatures and accompanied by cognitive impairment. Its incidence has increased in Uganda and South Sudan over the past 10 years. Four case-control studies identified modest and inconsistent associations. There were nonspecific lesions seen by magnetic resonance imaging, no cerebrospinal fluid inflammation, and markedly abnormal electroencephalography results. Nodding episodes are atonic seizures. Testing has failed to demonstrate associations with trypanosomiasis, cysticercosis, loiasis, lymphatic filariasis, cerebral malaria, measles, prion disease, or novel pathogens; or deficiencies of folate, cobalamin, pyridoxine, retinol, or zinc; or toxicity from mercury, copper, or homocysteine. There is a consistent enigmatic association with onchocerciasis detected by skin snip or serologic analysis. Nodding syndrome is an unexplained epidemic epilepsy. PMID:23965548

  20. Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, E.E.J.; Pelc, K.; Dan, B.

    2012-01-01

    Rett syndrome is one of the most common causes of complex disability in girls. It is characterized by early neurological regression that severely affects motor, cognitive and communication skills, by autonomic dysfunction and often a seizure disorder. It is a monogenic X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder related to mutation in MECP2, which encodes the methyl-CpG-binding protein MeCP2. There are several mouse models either based on conditional knocking out of the Mecp2 gene or on a truncating mutation. We discuss the clinical aspects with special emphasis on the behavioral phenotype and we review current perspectives in clinical management alongside with perspectives in altering gene expression. PMID:22670134

  1. [Stormorken's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Stormorken, Helge

    2002-12-10

    In 1985, a new syndrome with the following characteristics was described: thrombopathia, thrombopenia, asplenia, miosis, headache, ichthyosis, dyslexia, muscle defect, and subsequently also hypocalcaemia. Skin and deep bleedings, leg spasms, disturbed dark vision and dyslexia are main worries. This paper describes these patients with a review of the investigations performed. Causes of the bleeding tendency are complex disturbances of the platelet membrane causing insufficient stability of the haemostatic plug, the nature of which is unresolved, but involves membrane scrambling. The muscle defect consists in tubular aggregates and high blood values of creatine kinase. A connection with the hypocalcaemia is possible, because increasing the ionic Ca with calcitriol significantly improves muscle function. Miosis is resistant to mydriatics and causes decreased dark vision, possibly also influencing dyslexia. The asplenia has little influence on immunocompetence, and the patients have survived 300 patient years without critical infections. The gene defect has not yet been unravelled. PMID:12569706

  2. Fraser Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Adnan Aslam; Siddiqui, Sorath Noorani

    2015-10-01

    Fraser's Syndrome (FS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with a spectrum of malformations. The most consistent features are Cryptophthalmos (CO), syndactyly, genitourinary tract abnormalities, laryngeal and tracheal anomalies, craniofacial dysmorphism, malformations of the ear and nose, orofacial clefting and musculoskeletal defects. FS is genetically heterogeneous; so far mutations in FRAS1, FREM2 and GRIP1 genes have been linked to FS. FS can be diagnosed on clinical examination, pre-natal ultrasound or perinatal autopsy. We present a case of a 3 months old child born to consanguineous healthy parents with bilateral complete CO, unilateral microphthalmia, hypertelorism, syndactyly (hands and feet bilaterally), ambiguous genitalia with cryptorchidism and an umbilical hernia. We also present the criteria for diagnosing FS and the significant features on pre-natal ultrasonography. Around 200 case reports of patients with FS and CO have been published. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of FS in Pakistan. PMID:26522198

  3. Lowe syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Madhivanan, Kayalvizhi; Mukherjee, Debarati; Aguilar, R. Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Lowe syndrome (LS) is a lethal X-linked genetic disease caused by functional deficiencies of the phosphatidlyinositol 5-phosphatase, Ocrl1. In the past four years, our lab described the first Ocrl1-specific cellular phenotypes using dermal fibroblasts from LS patients. These phenotypes, validated in an ocrl1-morphant zebrafish model, included membrane remodeling (cell migration/spreading, fluid-phase uptake) defects and primary cilia assembly abnormalities. On one hand, our findings unraveled cellular phenotypes likely to be involved in the observed developmental defects; on the other hand, these discoveries established LS as a ciliopathy-associated disease. This article discusses the possible mechanisms by which loss of Ocrl1 function may affect RhoGTPase signaling pathways leading to actin cytoskeleton rearrangements that underlie the observed cellular phenotypes. PMID:23739214

  4. Cirrhosis and hepatopulmonary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tumgor, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized as a triad: liver disease, intrapulmonary vascular dilatation and arterial hypoxemia. HPS is reported to be present in 4% to 32% of adult patients with end-stage liver disease and in 9%-20% of children. The pathogenesis of HPS has not been clearly identified. Portal hypertension causes impairment in the perfusion of the bowel and increases the enteral translocation of Gram (-) bacteria and endotoxins. This stimulates the release of vasoactive mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, heme oxygenase-derived carbon monoxide and nitric oxide. Genetic alterations have not been associated with this syndrome yet; however, cytokines and chemokines have been suggested to play a role. Recently, it was reported that cumulated monocytes lead to the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent signaling pathways and pulmonary angiogenesis, which plays an important role in HPS pathogenesis. At present, the most effective and only radical treatment is a liver transplant (LT). Cirrhotic patients who are on the waiting list for an LT have a shorter survival period if they develop HPS. Therefore, it is suggested that all cirrhotic cases should be followed closely for HPS and they should have priority in the waiting list. PMID:24627594

  5. Periodic Limb Movement Disorder and Restless Legs Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... described as burning, creeping, or tugging or like insects crawling inside the legs. Walking or moving or ... are done overnight. In polysomnography, brain activity, heart rate, breathing, muscle activity, and eye movements are monitored ...

  6. Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD) and Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... during the day. Anticonvulsants: An anticonvulsant, such as gabapentin or pregabalin (see ), is effective in some people. ... serious side effects, including the possibility of addiction. Gabapentin enacarbil may help relieve symptoms of restless legs ...

  7. Periodic Limb Movement Disorder and Restless Legs Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... condition microcephaly, which is... Stephan Chiu Experiences on Rotations One of the main goals of third year ... like or dont like on your core rotations. Now that Im over halfway... More Student ...

  8. A syndrome of microcephaly, short stature, polysyndactyly, and dental anomalies caused by a homozygous KATNB1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Gökhan; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Bögershausen, Nina; Beleggia, Filippo; Möller-Hartmann, Claudia; Altmüller, Janine; Thiele, Holger; Nürnberg, Peter; Wollnik, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous acceptor splice-site mutation in intron 6 of the KATNB1 gene in a patient from a consanguineous Turkish family who presented with congenital microcephaly, lissencephaly, short stature, polysyndactyly, and dental abnormalities. cDNA analysis revealed complete loss of the natural acceptor splice-site resulting either in the usage of an alternative, exonic acceptor splice-site inducing a frame-shift and premature protein truncation or, to a minor extent, in complete skipping of exon 7. Both effects most likely lead to complete loss of KATNB1 function. Homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations in KATNB1 have very recently been described as a cause of microcephaly with brain malformations and seizures. We extend the KATNB1 associated phenotype by describing a syndrome characterized by primordial dwarfism, lissencephaly, polysyndactyly, and dental anomalies, which is caused by a homozygous truncating KATNB1 mutation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26640080

  9. Addressing the Needs of Students with Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ellenburg, Jennifer S.; Acton, Olivia M.; Torrey, Gregory

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses symptoms of students with Rett Syndrome, a disability in females characterized by the development of multiple specific deficits following a period of normal functioning after birth. Specific interventions for students with Rett syndrome are provided and address communication, stereotypic movements, self-injurious behaviors,…

  10. Child neurology: Zellweger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Paul R; Raymond, Gerald V

    2013-05-14

    Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is a severe manifestation of disease within the spectrum of peroxisome biogenesis disorders that includes neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, infantile Refsum disease, and rhizomelic chondroplasia punctata. Patients with ZS present in the neonatal period with a characteristic phenotype of distinctive facial stigmata, pronounced hypotonia, poor feeding, hepatic dysfunction, and often seizures and boney abnormalities. In patients with ZS, a mutation in one of the PEX genes coding for a peroxin (a peroxisome assembly protein) creates functionally incompetent organelles causing an accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), among other complications. Despite an absence of treatment options, prompt diagnosis of ZS is important for providing appropriate symptomatic care, definitive genetic testing, and counseling regarding family planning. PMID:23671347

  11. Fifteen-Year Follow-Up of Thyroid Status in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Ninan, S.; Haque, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome is relatively unknown with limited long-term follow-up data. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with Down syndrome over a 15-year period. Results: For healthy adults with Down syndrome there is a gradual increase in thyroxine…

  12. Fifteen-Year Follow-Up of Thyroid Status in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Ninan, S.; Haque, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome is relatively unknown with limited long-term follow-up data. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with Down syndrome over a 15-year period. Results: For healthy adults with Down syndrome there is a gradual increase in thyroxine

  13. Syndromes and constitutional chromosomal abnormalities associated with Wilms tumour

    PubMed Central

    Scott, R H; Stiller, C A; Walker, L; Rahman, N

    2006-01-01

    Wilms tumour has been reported in association with over 50 different clinical conditions and several abnormal constitutional karyotypes. Conclusive evidence of an increased risk of Wilms tumour exists for only a minority of these conditions, including WT1 associated syndromes, familial Wilms tumour, and certain overgrowth conditions such as Beckwith?Wiedemann syndrome. In many reported conditions the rare co?occurrence of Wilms tumour is probably due to chance. However, for several conditions the available evidence cannot either confirm or exclude an increased risk, usually because of the rarity of the syndrome. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that an increased risk of Wilms tumour occurs only in a subset of individuals for some syndromes. The complex clinical and molecular heterogeneity of disorders associated with Wilms tumour, together with the apparent absence of functional links between most of the known predisposition genes, suggests that abrogation of a variety of pathways can promote Wilms tumorigenesis. PMID:16690728

  14. Anxiety in Asperger's syndrome: Assessment in real time.

    PubMed

    Hare, Dougal J; Wood, Christopher; Wastell, Sarah; Skirrow, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Anxiety is a major problem for many people with Asperger's syndrome who may have qualitatively different fears from a non-Asperger's syndrome population. Research has relied on measures developed for non-Asperger's syndrome populations that require reporting past experiences of anxiety, which may confound assessment in people with Asperger's syndrome due to problems with autobiographical memory as are often reported in this group.Experience sampling methodology was used to record real-time everyday experiences in 20 adults with Asperger's syndrome and 20 neurotypical adults. Within-subject analysis was used to explore the phenomenology of thoughts occurring in people with Asperger's syndrome when they were anxious. Comparisons were made with the group that did not have Asperger's syndrome. The Asperger's syndrome group were significantly more anxious than the comparison group. Factors associated with feelings of anxiety in the Asperger's syndrome group were high levels of self-focus, worries about everyday events and periods of rumination lasting over 10 min. People in the Asperger's syndrome group also had a tendency to think in the image form, but this was not associated with feelings of anxiety. The results are discussed with reference to psychological models of Asperger's syndrome, cognitive models of anxiety and implications for psychological therapy for this group. PMID:24811968

  15. The sinking bone syndrome?

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo, Alessandro; Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Alvaro, Lorenzo; Colasanti, Roberto; Dobran, Mauro; Di Somma, Lucia Giovanna Maria; Moriconi, Elisa; Scerrati, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Bone resorption is a known complication of cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy (DC). A peculiar group of insidious, progressive, invalidating neurological symptoms was observed in patients presenting with incomplete resorption and abnormal mobility of the re-implanted bone. Such symptoms were similar, but with time more severe, to those encountered in the sinking flap syndrome. Are we facing a sort of Sinking Bone Syndrome? We accurately analyze these cases and review the literature. Over a 7-years period, 312 DCs were performed at our Institution. In 7 patients, headache, vertigo, gait ataxia, confusion, blurred speech, short-term memory impairment, hemiparesis, sudden loss of consciousness, and third cranial nerve palsy were observed in a time period ranging from 18 months to 5 years after cranioplasty. Clinical and neuroradiological examinations were performed to disclose the possible etiopathogenesis of this condition. Collected data showed partial resorption of the repositioned bone and its unnatural inward movements during postural changes. Bone movements were interpreted as the major cause of the symptoms. A new cranioplasty was then performed in every case, using porous hydroxyapatite in 6 patients and polyetherketone implant in the other. Full resolution of symptoms was always obtained 3 to 20 days after the second surgery. No further complications were reported. We believe that long-term follow up in patients operated on by cranioplasty after DC will be needed regularly for years after skull reconstruction and that newly appearing symptoms should never go underestimated or simply interpreted as a long-term consequence of previous brain damage. PMID:23708225

  16. Sjögren syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Xerostomia-Sjögren syndrome; Keratoconjunctivitis sicca - Sjögren; Sicca syndrome ... Sjögren syndrome is defined as dry eyes and dry mouth without another autoimmune disorder. Secondary Sjögren syndrome occurs ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Robinow syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dwarfism-small genitalia syndrome Robinow dwarfism Robinow-Silverman-Smith syndrome Robinow-Silverman syndrome Robinow's syndrome For more ... a page outside Genetics Home Reference. Links to web sites outside the Federal Government do not constitute ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Menkes syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... include treatment providers. Gene Review: ATP7A-Related Copper Transport Disorders Genetic Testing Registry: Menkes kinky-hair syndrome ... names do people use for Menkes syndrome? Copper transport disease Hypocupremia, Congenital Kinky Hair Syndrome Menkea syndrome ...

  19. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy

  20. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  1. The progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Holland, G N

    1994-01-01

    The progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a recently described clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by varicellazoster virus infection of the retina. Its course and clinical features distinguish it from the acute retinal necrosis syndrome and CMV retinopathy. Early disease is characterized by multifocal deep retinal opacification. Lesions rapidly coalesce and progress to total retinal necrosis over a short period of time. Despite aggressive therapy with intravenous antivirial drugs, prognosis is poor; disease progression and/or recurrence is common, and the majority of patients develop no light perception vision. Total retinal detachments are common. Prophylaxis against retinal detachment using laser retinopexy has not been useful in most cases. PORN syndrome is an uncommon, but devastating complication of AIDS. PMID:7852023

  2. Down syndrome. Clinical review of ocular features.

    PubMed

    Caputo, A R; Wagner, R S; Reynolds, D R; Guo, S Q; Goel, A K

    1989-08-01

    A total of 187 medical records of Down syndrome individuals over a 10-year period were reviewed retrospectively for strabismus, myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, nystagmus, cataract, glaucoma, and other significant eye findings. This study showed that a higher proportion of these individuals than reported in previous studies had strabismus (57%). Refractive errors of myopia (22.5%), hyperopia (20.9%) and astigmatism (22%) were common. The primary care physician needs to be aware of the specific eye problems of Down syndrome individuals so that he or she may initiate or refer the patient for appropriate ophthalmologic care, because most of the eye findings in Down syndrome are treatable. Significant visual loss, a usually avoidable event in Down syndrome, should occur rarely. PMID:2527102

  3. Nonlethal multiple pterygium syndrome: Escobar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bissinger, Robin L; Koch, Frances R

    2014-02-01

    Nonlethal Escobar is a rare disorder that is a variant of multiple pterygium syndromes. It is a form of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita characterized by excessive webbing (pterygia), congenital contractures (arthrogryposis), and scoliosis. It is usually diagnosed in utero on fetal ultrasound and then confirmed in the neonatal period. A case of nonlethal neonatal Escobar is reported in a 35-week-and-6-day old infant who presented in utero with decreased fetal movement, oligohydramnios, and arthrogryposis. The etiologies from maternal causes were excluded prior to birth. Subsequent workup after birth led to a highly suspected diagnosis of nonlethal Escobar by the geneticist. The diagnosis was confirmed by a positive CHRNG gene sequence analysis after discharge. The infant demonstrated contractures and bilateral hip subluxation but was feeding well and was discharged home with outpatient follow-up. Treatment after discharge has been extensive secondary to difficulties associated with this disease. The clinical presentation of nonlethal Escobar, as well as diagnosis and treatment strategies, is provided with caregiving strategies. PMID:24472885

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Poland syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... understanding Poland syndrome? arteries ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; brachydactyly ; cell ; dextrocardia ; embryonic ; gene ; inherited ; kidney ; puberty ; sporadic ; syndactyly ; syndrome ; ulna ; ...

  5. Period problems: disorders of menstruation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Peacock, A; Alvi, N S; Mushtaq, T

    2012-06-01

    Adolescence is a time of great psychological and physical change. In the UK, girls enter puberty around the age of 10 years with a median age of menarche of 12.9 years; thereafter, it may be several years before regular menstrual cycles are established. Variations in the type and the frequency of periods may create anxiety regarding ill health or serious underlying disorders. With the increase in childhood obesity and subsequent polycystic ovary syndrome, there is a greater awareness and presentation of girls with disorders of menstruation. This review focuses on normal variations of menses and common pathological causes of menstrual problems, including amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea and menorrhagia. Further consideration is given to the variations of presentation of polycystic ovary syndrome. It provides a guide to evaluate the various symptoms, investigations and management options. PMID:20576661

  6. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome(s) mimicking child abuse: Is there an impact on clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders characterized by increased fragility of various non-ossified tissues. It is usually ascertained due to abnormal skin texture, scarring complications, vascular fragility, or chronic symptoms, such as fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. Sometimes, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome remains undetected until the patient, usually in the pediatric age, shows extensive or severe mucocutaneous injuries after only minor traumas. In this scenario, the misdiagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with child abuse is a possibility, as occasionally reported in the literature. Recently, more attention was posed by lay people between the possible association of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and bone fragility. Literature and personal experience show a strong association between Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, generalized joint hypermobility and reduced bone mass density in older children and adults, especially fertile women. The existence of a true increased risk of fracture in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is still a matter of debate in children and adults with little and conflicting evidence. In case of suspected child abuse, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is certainly on the differential for bruising, especially in EDS types with marked cutaneous and capillary involvement. In suspected child abuse cases, careful examination of the index case and her/his extended family is routine, as well as exclusion of other disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta. The hypothesis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome as an alternative explanation for infantile fractures remains speculative. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26452443

  7. Premenstrual syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yonkers, Kimberly Ann; OBrien, P M Shaughn; Eriksson, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Most women of reproductive age have some physical discomfort or dysphoria in the weeks before menstruation. Symptoms are often mild, but can be severe enough to substantially affect daily activities. About 58% of women thus suffer from severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS); most of these women also meet criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Mood and behavioural symptoms, including irritability, tension, depressed mood, tearfulness, and mood swings, are the most distressing, but somatic complaints, such as breast tenderness and bloating, can also be problematic. We outline theories for the underlying causes of severe PMS, and describe two main methods of treating it: one targeting the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis, and the other targeting brain serotonergic synapses. Fluctuations in gonadal hormone levels trigger the symptoms, and thus interventions that abolish ovarian cyclicity, including long-acting analogues of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or oestradiol (administered as patches or implants), effectively reduce the symptoms, as can some oral contraceptives. The effectiveness of serotonin reuptake inhibitors, taken throughout the cycle or during luteal phases only, is also well established. PMID:18395582

  8. Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kyllerman, Mrten

    2013-01-01

    Angelman syndrome combines severe mental retardation, epilepsy, ataxia, speech impairment, and unique behavior with happy demeanor, laughing, short attention span, hyperactivity, and sleep disturbance. Occurrence has been calculated at 1:20000 to 1:12000 constituting about 6% of all children with severe mental retardation and epilepsy. The physical "prototype" includes microcephaly with flat neck, fair skin and hair, wide-spaced teeth, and open mouth with tongue protrusion. Epilepsy is characterized by atypical absences, erratic myoclonus, and occasional tonic-clonic seizures. EEG demonstrates high-amplitude 2-3Hz delta activity with spike and slow-wave discharges and sleep-activated generalized epileptiform discharges. Sodium valproate, benzodiazepines, and priacetam are frequently used and effective. Development is generally slow, the majority attaining independent walking in the first 2.5-6 years. Vocabulary is limited to a few single words with superior speech and object apprehension. The condition is due to a lack of expression of the UBE3A gene on chromosome 15q. Maternal deletions of 15q11-13 produce the most pronounced phenotype (65-70% of probands), uniparental disomy and imprinting center mutations (10%), and UBE3A point mutations (11%) produce milder phenotypes. PMID:23622177

  9. Parkinsonian Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Litvan, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review The different parkinsonian conditions can be challenging to separate clinically. This review highlights the important clinical features that guide the diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Strategies for treatment and disease management are also discussed. Recent Findings Over the past decade there has been an increasing recognition of the broad clinical presentations of the neurodegenerative forms of parkinsonism. Nonmotor symptoms in these diseases, including psychiatric, cognitive, autonomic, and gastrointestinal dysfunction, appear to have a major impact on quality of life and disability. PSP and CBD are now considered pathologic diagnoses, with several different and varied clinical phenotypes, that overlap and share features with PDand frontotemporal dementia syndromes. PD is distinguished by its excellent response to dopaminergic medications that is maintained over many years, in contrast to the response seen in patients with MSA and PSP. New diagnostic criteria have been proposed for CBD. No new therapeutic interventions have emerged for PSP, MSA, or CBD. Infusional therapies and deep brain stimulation surgery are established therapies for advanced PD. Summary The “parkinsonian syndromes” encompass a number of nosologic entities that are grouped together on the basis of their shared clinical features but are separated on the basis of their different pathologies. Overall, the consideration of clinical signs, mode of disease onset, and nature of disease progression are all important to make a timely and definitive diagnosis. PMID:24092286

  10. Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lisa; Lehman, Erik; Brown, Ashley D.; Ahmad, Syeda; Berlin, Cheston

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of a 35-year single-center experience with pediatric tics and Tourette syndrome was conducted. 482 charts from 1972 to 2007 were reviewed. Follow-up surveys were mailed to last known address and 83 patients responded (17%). Response rate was affected by long interval from last visit; contact information was often incorrect as it was the address of the patient as a child. Males constituted 84%. Mean tic onset was 6.6 years. At first visit, 83% had multiple motor tics and >50% had comorbidities. 44% required only 1 visit and 90% less than 12 visits. Follow-up showed positive clinical and social outcomes in 73/83 survey responses. Of those indicating a poor outcome, mean educational level was lower and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities were significantly higher. Access to knowledgeable caregivers was a problem for adult patients. A shortage of specialists may in part be addressed by interested general pediatricians. PMID:25200367

  11. Angelman Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Seth S; Sell, Gabrielle L; Zbinden, Mark A; Bird, Lynne M

    2015-07-01

    In this review we summarize the clinical and genetic aspects of Angelman syndrome (AS), its molecular and cellular underpinnings, and current treatment strategies. AS is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe cognitive disability, motor dysfunction, speech impairment, hyperactivity, and frequent seizures. AS is caused by disruption of the maternally expressed and paternally imprinted UBE3A, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Four mechanisms that render the maternally inherited UBE3A nonfunctional are recognized, the most common of which is deletion of the maternal chromosomal region 15q11-q13. Remarkably, duplication of the same chromosomal region is one of the few characterized persistent genetic abnormalities associated with autistic spectrum disorder, occurring in >1-2% of all cases of autism spectrum disorder. While the overall morphology of the brain and connectivity of neural projections appear largely normal in AS mouse models, major functional defects are detected at the level of context-dependent learning, as well as impaired maturation of hippocampal and neocortical circuits. While these findings demonstrate a crucial role for ubiquitin protein ligase E3A in synaptic development, the mechanisms by which deficiency of ubiquitin protein ligase E3A leads to AS pathophysiology in humans remain poorly understood. However, recent efforts have shown promise in restoring functions disrupted in AS mice, renewing hope that an effective treatment strategy can be found. PMID:26040994

  12. Pisa Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Michel, Senz Farret; Oscar, Arias Carrin; Correa, Thalia Estefania Snchez; Alejandro, Pellene Luis; Micheli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Lateral trunk flexion is often seen in patients with Parkinson disease, sometimes coming on as a subacute phenomenon associated with medication adjustments, and in others with gradual onset that seems related to a neurodegenerative process related to the evolution of the disease.Either acute or subacute presentations seem to be pure abnormalities in the coronal plane and are usually reversible. However, a chronic form occurs often in a combined fashion with anteroposterior flexion (camptocormia), improves only partially, remains stable, or even worsens over time.The acute/subacute phenotype is the condition originally named as Pisa syndrome (PS).The pathophysiology of PS remains poorly understood, and a cholinergic-dopaminergic imbalance has been suggested as being involved in the cause of this disorder. The role of other neurotransmitters and how they become dysfunctional in PS remains to be elucidated.Specific treatments, other than discontinuing the medications responsible for the disorder, whenever possible, are undeveloped because of the unknown etiology. PMID:26166239

  13. Refeeding syndrome in a vegan patient with stage IV gastric cancer: a novel case.

    PubMed

    Brown, Teresa V; Moss, Rebecca A

    2015-03-01

    The refeeding syndrome encompasses the complex physiologic state that occurs in malnourished patients who receive nutrition after a period of decreased oral intake. The hallmark of the syndrome is hypophosphatemia, though other electrolyte imbalances and severe fluid shifts are commonly involved. Patients with newly diagnosed malignancies and those undergoing treatment for malignancies are at increased risk for developing the refeeding syndrome, however there are few reported cases or other data in the oncology literature regarding this syndrome in cancer patients. PMID:25880674

  14. Gershoni-Baruch syndrome: First report of a surviving child.

    PubMed

    Valfr, Laura; Baban, Anwar; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Bevilacqua, Francesca; Bagolan, Pietro; Conforti, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Gershoni-Baruch syndrome is an extremely rare malformation complex characterized by omphalocele, diaphragmatic hernia, radial ray defects, and cardiovascular abnormalities. Autosomal recessive inheritance was suggested. To date, academic literature described only seven patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for the condition. None survived the neonatal period. This study reports the first individual with Gershoni-Baruch syndrome surviving past early infancy. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26639892

  15. Early onset marfan syndrome: Atypical clinical presentation of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Ozyurt, A; Baykan, A; Argun, M; Pamukcu, O; Halis, H; Korkut, S; Yuksel, Z; Gunes, T; Narin, N

    2015-01-01

    Early onset Marfan Syndrome (eoMFS) is a rare, severe form of Marfan Syndrome (MFS). The disease has a poor prognosis and most patients present with resistance to heart failure treatment during the newborn period. This report presents two cases of eoMFS with similar clinical features diagnosed in the newborn period and who died at an early age due to the complications related to the involvement of the cardiovascular system. PMID:26929908

  16. Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a severe form of epilepsy. Seizures usually begin before 4 years of age. ... broad program of basic and clinical research on epilepsy including Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. These studies are aimed ...

  17. Anisocoria and Horner's Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... In children, Horner’s syndrome may be caused by neuroblastoma, a tumor arising in another part of the body. Although rare, the risk of neuroblastoma is significantly greater with acquired Horner’s syndrome than ...

  18. Learning about Klinefelter Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for the genetic terms used on this page Learning About Klinefelter Syndrome What is Klinefelter syndrome? What ... they are referred to a doctor to evaluate learning disabilities. The diagnosis may also be considered in ...

  19. Fragile X Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... syndrome (FXS) is a genetic condition that causes intellectual disability, behavioral and learning challenges and various physical characteristics. ... of males with fragile X syndrome demonstrate significant intellectual disability (formerly referred to as mental retardation). Disabilities in ...

  20. Sick sinus syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rhythms worse. These include digitalis, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, and anti-arrhythmics. ... low. Sick sinus syndrome may cause symptoms of heart failure to start or get worse. Sick sinus syndrome ...

  1. Schwartz–Jampel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor; Gayathri, N.; Shivaram, Sumanth

    2015-01-01

    Schwartz–Jampel syndrome is a very rare congenital myotonic syndrome with typical phenotypic and electrophysiological features. Diagnosis is made by awareness into the typical phenotypic characters. PMID:26167227

  2. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Twitter. What Is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome? Obesity hypoventilation (HI-po-ven-tih-LA-shun) syndrome (OHS) is ... e-DE-mah), pulmonary hypertension (PULL-mun-ary HI-per-TEN-shun), cor pulmonale (pul-meh-NAL- ...

  3. HAMARTOMATOUS POLYPOSIS SYNDROMES

    PubMed Central

    Calva, Daniel; Howe, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Since the histological description of the hamartomatous polyp in 1957 by Horrilleno et al., several different syndromes have been described with the propensity to develop these polyps in the upper and lower GI tracts. These include Juvenile Polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome, and the PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes (Cowden and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndromes), which are autosomal-dominantly inherited, and Cronkhite-Canada syndrome, which is acquired. The clinical aspects, the molecular pathogenesis, the organ systems affected, the risks of cancer, and the management of these hamartomatous polyposis syndromes will be reviewed in this paper. Although the incidence of these syndromes is low, it is important for clinicians to recognize these disorders in order to prevent morbidity and mortality in these patients, and to perform presymptomatic testing in patients at risk. PMID:18672141

  4. Green Nail Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rights Job Postings Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Green Nail Syndrome Share | Green nail syndrome (GNS) ...

  5. Fragile X Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Cruz, Felix F.

    1985-01-01

    Physical, psychological, and cytogenic characteristics of individuals with the Fragile X syndrome are reviewed. Prospects for therapy with folic acid, prenatal diagnosis, phenotype of heterozygote for the marker X, and unresolved issues about the syndrome are discussed. (CL)

  6. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Trials Organizations What is Postural Tachycardia Syndrome? Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is one of a group of disorders that have orthostatic intolerance (OI) as their primary symptom. OI describes ...

  7. Munchausen syndrome by proxy

    MedlinePLUS

    Factitious disorder by proxy ... one is sure what causes Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Sometimes the person was abused as a child ... to see a diagnosis of Munchausen syndrome by proxy. What are signs in a child? The child ...

  8. Dubin-Johnson syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Dubin-Johnson syndrome is a disorder passed down through families (inherited) in which a person has mild jaundice throughout ... Dubin-Johnson syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder. In order to inherit the condition, a child must get ...

  9. Riley-Day syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Riley-Day syndrome is an inherited disorder that affects nerves throughout the body. ... Riley-Day syndrome is passed down through families (inherited). A person must inherit a copy of the defective gene ...

  10. What Is Marfan Syndrome?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 11 Size: 10.5 MB November 2014 What Is Marfan Syndrome? Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read ... Done on Marfan Syndrome? For More Information What Is Connective Tissue? Connective tissue supports many parts of ...

  11. Carpal tunnel syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition in which there is excessive pressure on the median nerve. This is the ... and movement to parts of the hand. Carpal tunnel syndrome can lead to numbness, tingling, weakness, or ...

  12. National Down Syndrome Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The article describes the history and current status of the National Down Syndrome Society and presents the society's fact sheet on Down Syndrome which lists common characteristics and developmental variations. (CL)

  13. Complex regional pain syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    CRPS; RSDS; Causalgia - RSD; Shoulder-hand syndrome; Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome; Sudeck atrophy ... Doctors are not sure what causes CRPS. In some cases, the sympathetic ... role in the pain. Another theory is that CRPS is caused by ...

  14. Modeling the incubation period of inhalational anthrax.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, Dean A

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the pioneering work of Philip Sartwell, the incubation period distribution for infectious diseases is most often modeled using a lognormal distribution. Theoretical models based on underlying disease mechanisms in the host are less well developed. This article modifies a theoretical model originally developed by Brookmeyer and others for the inhalational anthrax incubation period distribution in humans by using a more accurate distribution to represent the in vivo bacterial growth phase and by extending the model to represent the time from exposure to death, thereby allowing the model to be fit to nonhuman primate time-to-death data. The resulting incubation period distribution and the dose dependence of the median incubation period are in good agreement with human data from the 1979 accidental atmospheric anthrax release in Sverdlovsk, Russia, and limited nonhuman primate data. The median incubation period for the Sverdlovsk victims is 9.05 (95% confidence interval = 8.0-10.3) days, shorter than previous estimates, and it is predicted to drop to less than 2.5 days at doses above 10(6) spores. The incubation period distribution is important because the left tail determines the time at which clinical diagnosis or syndromic surveillance systems might first detect an anthrax outbreak based on early symptomatic cases, the entire distribution determines the efficacy of medical intervention-which is determined by the speed of the prophylaxis campaign relative to the incubation period-and the right tail of the distribution influences the recommended duration for antibiotic treatment. PMID:18556642

  15. [Ocular immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ma, N; Ye, J J

    2016-02-11

    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a collection of inflammatory disorders associated with paradoxical worsening of preexisting infectious processes or emerging diseases or even dead after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in a period of recovery of immune function. Ocular immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is mainly caused by cytomegalovirus which performing a series of ocular inflammation accompanied with the increase of CD4+ T lymphocytes, such as cytomegalovirus retinitis, after HAART. With HAART widely used, the patients of IRIS gradually increased. But the clinical presentations of IRIS were various because of different pathogens. This review summarized the clinical manifestations, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment of ocular IRIS.(Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 51: 150-153). PMID:26906710

  16. [Disseminated pigmented nevus syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cabrera, H N; Savoia, J; Pietropaolo, N; Snchez, G

    1988-01-01

    Two patients carriers of a neuro-cutaneous syndrome showing scattered pigmentary nevus and neurologic disorders are exposed, who are added to three similar cases presented in a previous publication. Differences with other syndromes that show cafe-au-lait spots, like those of Recklinghausen and Albright, and also of other known publications, are remarked. Ultrastructural studies are contributed. The denomination of "disseminated pigmentary nevus syndrome" is proposed in comparison with the epidermal nevus syndrome. PMID:3050324

  17. Coexpression Pattern Analysis of NPM1-Associated Genes in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, S. C. Cesar; Siu, Parco M.; Yung, Benjamin Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) plays an important role in ribosomal synthesis and malignancies, but NPM1 mutations occur rarely in the blast-crisis and chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. The NPM1-associated gene set (GCM_NPM1), in total 116 genes including NPM1, was chosen as the candidate gene set for the coexpression analysis. We wonder if NPM1-associated genes can affect the ribosomal synthesis and translation process in CML. Results. We presented a distribution-based approach for gene pair classification by identifying a disease-specific cutoff point that classified the coexpressed gene pairs into strong and weak coexpression structures. The differences in the coexpression patterns between the normal and the CML groups were reflected from the overall structure by performing two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Our developed method effectively identified the coexpression pattern differences from the overall structure: P??value = 1.71 10?22 < 0.05 for the maximum deviation D = 0.109. Moreover, we found that genes involved in the ribosomal synthesis and translation process tended to be coexpressed in the CML group. Conclusion. Our developed method can identify the coexpression difference between two different groups. Dysregulation of ribosomal synthesis and translation process may be related to the CML disease. Our significant findings may provide useful information for the novel CML mechanism exploration and cancer treatment. PMID:25961029

  18. [Myelodysplastic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Thol, F; Heuser, M; Ganser, A

    2015-04-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) encompasses a heterogeneous group of diseases originating in hematopoietic stem cells and is characterized by inefficient hematopoiesis and dysplastic changes in the bone marrow. In peripheral blood patients show anemia (mostly macrocytic), frequently accompanied by neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Thus, clinically the patients suffer from fatigue (anemia), increased bleeding (thrombocytopenia) and infectious complications (neutropenia). Approximately one quarter of MDS patients develop acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the course of the disease, which is characterized by a 20?% or more increase of blasts in the bone marrow. The estimated overall survival as well as the risk for AML transformation can be calculated with the international prognostic scoring system (IPSS) as well as the revised IPSS score (IPSS-R). Novel sequencing methods (e.g. next generation sequencing) allow the detection of recurrent gene mutations in MDS patients. Genes of the splicing machinery as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation (e.g. ASXL1 and TET2) are most frequently mutated in MDS. Therapy is selected based on the patient risk profile (IPSS). Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is a curative approach for high risk patients (i.e. IPSS int-2 and higher) with a good performance status and a biological age below 70 years. Otherwise, high risk patients are treated with demethylating agents (e.g. decitabine and azacitidine). Low risk patients (IPSS low and int-1) mainly receive supportive therapy including iron chelation. An exceptional position is presented by MDS with an isolated 5q deletion as it can be treated with lenalidomide with good success. Enrolling patients in clinical trials is strongly recommended to improve the prospects of this disease. PMID:25700647

  19. Moebius Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... want to miss it! View Buy MSF Apparel Online! T-shirts, long sleeve t-shirts and hoodies now available! All proceeds benefit the Moebius Syndrome Foundation. Click here to start shopping. What is Moebius syndrome? Moebius syndrome is a ...

  20. CONSTIPATION IN RETT SYNDROME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal problems occur frequently in girls with Rett syndrome. Constipation is a common problem in girls with Rett syndrome because of their neurological abnormalities. Research studies to better understand the abnormalities of large bowel function in our girls with Rett syndrome have not b...

  1. Miller Fisher Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Miller Fisher Syndrome To obtain more information, contact the GBS/CIDP Foundation International The Holly Building 104 1 / 2 Forrest ... Science and Education. What Is Miller Fisher Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), also called Fishers syndrome, usually begins with ...

  2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ePublications > Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) fact sheet ePublications Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) fact sheet This information in Spanish (en español) Print this fact sheet Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) fact sheet (PDF, 533 KB) Related ...

  3. Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Child All About Food Allergies Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome Print A A A Text Size What's ... Help for the Parent or Caregiver Munchausen by proxy syndrome (MBPS) is a relatively rare form of ...

  4. The Axenfeld syndrome and the Rieger syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, N; Kaback, M

    1978-01-01

    A family is reported in which both the syndrome of Axenfeld and the eye malformations of the syndrome of Rieger occur, indicating that both may be expressions of the same gene. We also review the associated anomalies already reported, emphasise their high incidence, suggest that these are not accidental associations, and propose some possible explanations for the high incidence. Images PMID:416212

  5. Periodic chiral structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, Dwight L.; Engheta, Nader; Pelet, Philippe; Liu, John C.; Kowarz, Marek W.; Kim, Yunjin

    1989-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of a structure that is both chiral and periodic are investigated using coupled-mode equations. The periodicity is described by a sinusoidal perturbation of the permittivity, permeability, and chiral admittance. The coupled-mode equations are derived from physical considerations and used to examine bandgap structure and reflected and transmitted fields. Chirality is observed predominantly in transmission, whereas periodicity is present in both reflection and transmission.

  6. Mental Development of Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Measures of cognitive, verbal, and functional performance obtained at widely separated time periods were examined for adults with Down syndrome. Comparisons of first and last test profiles demonstrated significant increases over five years, not attributable to year of entry into program, history of institutionalization, or age of the individuals.

  7. Painful menstrual periods

    MedlinePLUS

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... a few days during each menstrual cycle. Painful menstruation is the leading cause of lost time from ...

  8. Hypereosinophilic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Roufosse, Florence E; Goldman, Michel; Cogan, Elie

    2007-01-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) constitute a rare and heterogeneous group of disorders, defined as persistent and marked blood eosinophilia (> 1.5 × 109/L for more than six consecutive months) associated with evidence of eosinophil-induced organ damage, where other causes of hypereosinophilia such as allergic, parasitic, and malignant disorders have been excluded. Prevalence is unknown. HES occur most frequently in young to middle-aged patients, but may concern any age group. Male predominance (4–9:1 ratio) has been reported in historic series but this is likely to reflect the quasi-exclusive male distribution of a sporadic hematopoietic stem cell mutation found in a recently characterized disease variant. Target-organ damage mediated by eosinophils is highly variable among patients, with involvement of skin, heart, lungs, and central and peripheral nervous systems in more than 50% of cases. Other frequently observed complications include hepato- and/or splenomegaly, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, and coagulation disorders. Recent advances in underlying pathogenesis have established that hypereosinophilia may be due either to primitive involvement of myeloid cells, essentially due to occurrence of an interstitial chromosomal deletion on 4q12 leading to creation of the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene (F/P+ variant), or to increased interleukin (IL)-5 production by a clonally expanded T cell population (lymphocytic variant), most frequently characterized by a CD3-CD4+ phenotype. Diagnosis of HES relies on observation of persistent and marked hypereosinophilia responsible for target-organ damage, and exclusion of underlying causes of hypereosinophilia, including allergic and parasitic disorders, solid and hematological malignancies, Churg-Strauss disease, and HTLV infection. Once these criteria are fulfilled, further testing for eventual pathogenic classification is warranted using appropriate cytogenetic and functional approaches. Therapeutic management should be adjusted to disease severity and eventual detection of pathogenic variants. For F/P+ patients, imatinib has undisputedly become first line therapy. For others, corticosteroids are generally administered initially, followed by agents such as hydroxycarbamide, interferon-alpha, and imatinib, for corticosteroid-resistant cases, as well as for corticosteroid-sparing purposes. Recent data suggest that mepolizumab, an anti-IL-5 antibody, is an effective corticosteroid-sparing agent for F/P-negative patients. Prognosis has improved significantly since definition of HES, and currently depends on development of irreversible heart failure, as well as eventual malignant transformation of myeloid or lymphoid cells. PMID:17848188

  9. Barth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    First described in 1983, Barth syndrome (BTHS) is widely regarded as a rare X-linked genetic disease characterised by cardiomyopathy (CM), skeletal myopathy, growth delay, neutropenia and increased urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid (3-MGCA). Fewer than 200 living males are known worldwide, but evidence is accumulating that the disorder is substantially under-diagnosed. Clinical features include variable combinations of the following wide spectrum: dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE), left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC), ventricular arrhythmia, sudden cardiac death, prolonged QTc interval, delayed motor milestones, proximal myopathy, lethargy and fatigue, neutropenia (absent to severe; persistent, intermittent or perfectly cyclical), compensatory monocytosis, recurrent bacterial infection, hypoglycaemia, lactic acidosis, growth and pubertal delay, feeding problems, failure to thrive, episodic diarrhoea, characteristic facies, and X-linked family history. Historically regarded as a cardiac disease, BTHS is now considered a multi-system disorder which may be first seen by many different specialists or generalists. Phenotypic breadth and variability present a major challenge to the diagnostician: some children with BTHS have never been neutropenic, whereas others lack increased 3-MGCA and a minority has occult or absent CM. Furthermore, BTHS was first described in 2010 as an unrecognised cause of fetal death. Disabling mutations or deletions of the tafazzin (TAZ) gene, located at Xq28, cause the disorder by reducing remodeling of cardiolipin, a principal phospholipid of the inner mitochondrial membrane. A definitive biochemical test, based on detecting abnormal ratios of different cardiolipin species, was first described in 2008. Key areas of differential diagnosis include metabolic and viral cardiomyopathies, mitochondrial diseases, and many causes of neutropenia and recurrent male miscarriage and stillbirth. Cardiolipin testing and TAZ sequencing now provide relatively rapid diagnostic testing, both prospectively and retrospectively, from a range of fresh or stored tissues, blood or neonatal bloodspots. TAZ sequencing also allows female carrier detection and antenatal screening. Management of BTHS includes medical therapy of CM, cardiac transplantation (in 14% of patients), antibiotic prophylaxis and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy. Multidisciplinary teams/clinics are essential for minimising hospital attendances and allowing many more individuals with BTHS to live into adulthood. PMID:23398819

  10. The lax eyelid syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, W A; Lemij, H G

    1994-01-01

    The floppy eyelid syndrome (FES) was first described in middle aged, obese men. In later descriptions, age and sex were not specifically mentioned. Associations of FES with various other syndromes have been described. The authors question whether all these cases represent the same, single, syndrome. They suggest that a clinical picture similar to FES may occur in lax upper eyelids of any cause. Four such cases are reported here. The authors therefore coin the more general term 'lax eyelid syndrome'. They suggest using the term 'floppy eyelid syndrome' uniquely for patients with the classic signs and symptoms. Images PMID:7947544

  11. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; George, Reeba; Dixit, R.; Gupta, R. C.; Gupta, N.

    2013-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is an often overlooked cause of breathlessness in trauma wards. Presenting in a wide range of clinical signs of varying severity, fat embolism is usually diagnosed by a physician who keeps a high degree of suspicion. The clinical background, chronology of symptoms and corroborative laboratory findings are instrumental in a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. There are a few diagnostic criteria which are helpful in making a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. Management is mainly prevention of fat embolism syndrome, and organ supportive care. Except in fulminant fat embolism syndrome, the prognosis is usually good. PMID:23661916

  12. Activities: Periodic Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Christian R., Ed.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Activities to extend the core curriculum through the study of the periodicity of rational numbers to help students develop calculator and research skills are presented. Four worksheets are included, to be used as discovery activities. A computer program is listed, as well as examples of periodic pictures. (MNS)

  13. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  14. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…

  17. Wavelet periodicity detection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, John J.; Pfander, Goetz E.

    1998-10-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of time series with respect to certain known periodicities. In particular, we shall present a fast method aimed at detecting periodic behavior inherent in noise data. The method is composed of three steps: (1) Non-noisy data are analyzed through spectral and wavelet methods to extract specific periodic patterns of interest. (2) Using these patterns, we construct an optimal piecewise constant wavelet designed to detect the underlying periodicities. (3) We introduce a fast discretized version of the continuous wavelet transform, as well as waveletgram averaging techniques, to detect occurrence and period of these periodicities. The algorithm is formulated to provide real time implementation. Our procedure is generally applicable to detect locally periodic components in signals s which can be modeled as s(t) equals A(t)F(h(t)) + N(t) for t in I, where F is a periodic signal, A is a non-negative slowly varying function, and h is strictly increasing with h' slowly varying, N denotes background activity. For example, the method can be applied in the context of epileptic seizure detection. In this case, we try to detect seizure periodics in EEG and ECoG data. In the case of ECoG data, N is essentially 1/f noise. In the case of EEG data and for t in I,N includes noise due to cranial geometry and densities. In both cases N also includes standard low frequency rhythms. Periodicity detection has other applications including ocean wave prediction, cockpit motion sickness prediction, and minefield detection.

  18. Orion's Cloak - A rapidly expanding shell of gas centered on the Orion OB1 association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, L. L.; Songaila, A.; York, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of the interstellar gas surrounding the Orion OB1 association and the neighboring lambda Orionis association is detailed. UV absorption lime spectra of various ionization stages of C, N, Si and S in the directions of 12 stars were obtained by means of the spectrometer on board the Copernicus satellite. The presence of a shell of material surrounding the two associations and expanding at 100 to 120 km/sec, designated Orion's Cloak, was revealed, together with sporadically occurring higher column density matter at lower velocities. Results are interpreted to indicate the presence of a rapidly moving radiative shock outside the H II region of the association stars and inside this feature, a lower velocity, higher column density cloud which appears to be directly ionized by association stars. It is suggested that the gas features are caused by the effects of a recent supernova and of multiple supernovae, stellar winds and rocket-accelerated clouds in addition to stellar ionization.

  19. Grp1-associated scaffold protein regulates skin homeostasis after ultraviolet irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Anand; Coleman, Daniel J.; Nevrivy, Daniel J.; Long, Tulley; Kioussi, Chrissa; Indra, Arup K.; Leid, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Grp1-associated scaffold protein (Grasp), the product of a retinoic acid-induced gene in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells, is expressed primarily in brain, heart, and lung of the mouse. We report herein that Grasp transcripts are also found in mouse skin in which the Grasp gene is robustly induced following acute ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure. Grasp−/− mice were found to exhibit delayed epidermal proliferation and a blunted apoptotic response after acute UVB exposure. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the nuclear residence time of the tumor suppressor protein p53 was reduced in Grasp−/− mice after UVB exposure. Taken together, our results suggest that a physiological role of Grasp may be to regulate skin homeostasis after UVB exposure, potentially by influencing p53-mediated apoptotic responses in skin. PMID:24407555

  20. A Peruvian family with a high burden of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carolina; Verdonck, Kristien; Tipismana, Martn; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is frequent in Peru; an estimated 1-2% of the Peruvian population carry this retrovirus. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic disabling disease that affects about 1% of the carriers of HTLV-1. It is not yet known why some HTLV-1-infected people develop HAM/TSP while others do not. In this case report, we present a family with an unusually high burden of HAM/TSP: 5 (the 2 parents and 3 of their children) of 7 HTLV-1 carriers developed the same disease. We describe the clinical presentation and discuss the clustering of disease against the current knowledge of the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. Families such as this may hold the key to discovering which factors trigger the development of HAM/TSP. PMID:26392440

  1. Association of Sicca Syndrome with Proviral Load and Proinflammatory Cytokines in HTLV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Clara Mônica; Santos, Silvane; Dourado, Adriana; Carvalho, Natália B.; Bittencourt, Valéria; Lessa, Marcus Miranda; Siqueira, Isadora; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2016-01-01

    The Sjögren syndrome has been diagnosed in patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy and dry mouth and dry eyes are documented in HTLV-1 carriers. However the diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome in these subjects has been contested. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the role of immunological factors and proviral load, in sicca syndrome associated with HTLV-1 in patients without myelopathy. Subjects were recruited in the HTLV-1 Clinic, from 2009 to 2011. The proviral load and cytokine levels (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-5, and IL-10) were obtained from a database containing the values presented by the subjects at admission in the clinic. Of the 272 participants, 59 (21.7%) had sicca syndrome and in all of them anti-Sjögren syndrome related antigen A (SSA) and antigen B (SSB) were negatives. The production of TNF-α and IFN-γ was higher in the group with sicca syndrome (P < 0.05) than in HTLV-1 infected subjects without sicca syndrome. Our data indicates that patients with sicca syndrome associated with HTLV-1 do not have Sjögren syndrome. However the increased production of TNF-α and IFN-γ in this group of patients may contribute to the pathogenesis of sicca syndrome associated with HTLV-1. PMID:26904697

  2. Homozygous missense mutation in STYXL1 associated with moderate intellectual disability, epilepsy and behavioural complexities.

    PubMed

    Isrie, Mala; Zamani Esteki, Masoud; Peeters, Hilde; Voet, Thierry; Van Houdt, Jeroen; Van Paesschen, Wim; Van Esch, Hilde

    2015-04-01

    The introduction of massive parallel sequencing has led to the identification of multiple novel genes for intellectual disability (ID) as well as epilepsy. Whereas dominant de novo mutations have been proven to be a leading cause for these disorders, they do not apply to families suggestive of an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. In this study, we combined the use of linkage analysis with exome sequencing to elucidate the cause of moderate non-syndromic ID, epilepsy and behavioural problems in a consanguineous Asian family. A founder missense mutation was identified in STYXL1. We propose this as a novel candidate gene involved in ID, accompanied by seizures and behavioural problems. Our findings further confirm the genetic heterogeneity of cognitive disorders and genetic epilepsy. PMID:25724587

  3. Otolaryngologic manifestations of Maffucci's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gordon H; Myer, Charles M

    2009-07-01

    Maffucci's syndrome is an uncommon congenital disease marked by multiple vascular malformations and enchondromas throughout the body. Otolaryngologic manifestations are relatively rare but potentially can cause symptoms such as respiratory distress and dysphagia if the lesions appear in the upper aerodigestive tract or larynx. We report a case of a young woman who demonstrated a wide range of head and neck pathology associated with this unique disease, including sphenoid enchondroma, bilateral petrous apex lesions, and rarely reported laryngeal and hypopharyngeal vascular malformations, over a period of nearly 20 years. PMID:19394093

  4. Do you know this syndrome?

    PubMed

    Meotti, Carolina Degen; Pulga, Raquel Fonseca Ferreira da Silva; Fernandes, Karen de Almeida Pinto; Gusmo, Paula Regazzi de; Fernandes, Karina de Almeida Pinto; Rocha, Ana Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cowden's disease or multiple hamartoma syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disease and the main dermatological features are facial trichilemmomas (hamartomas of the follicular infundibula), oral fibroma and benign acral keratoses. The importance of this disease lays in the increased susceptibility to malignization of some lesions, especially breast, thyroid and genitourinary tract. Despite its varied phenotypic expression, this disease is generally unknown. Consequently, many cases are undiagnosed or diagnosis comes at a late stage, which reinforces the importance of an early investigation of the disease so the patient may have periodic check-ups to discover and treat malignancies. PMID:24173198

  5. Periodized Daubechies wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.; Schlossnagle, G.

    1996-03-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrated by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and their use ius illustrated in the approximation of two commonly used differential operators. The periodization of the connection coefficients in Galerkin schemes is presented in detail.

  6. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  7. Disruption of IAP/SHPS-1 association inhibits pathophysiologic changes in retinal endothelial function in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Maile, L A.; Gollahon, K.; Wai, C.; Byfield, G.; Hartnett, M. E.; Clemmons, D.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Our studies have shown that the association between integrin-associated protein (IAP) and SHPS-1 regulates the response of cells including osteoclasts, osteoblasts, smooth muscle and retinal endothelial cells to Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The aims of this study were to determine whether the regulation of IGF-I responsiveness by IAP/SHPS-1 association is a generalized response of endothelial cells, to identify the mechanism by which IAP/SHPS-1 association contributes to changes in endothelial cell responses to IGF-I and to determine whether inhibiting their association alters pathophysiologic changes that occur in vivo. Methods and Results Endothelial cells, maintained in 5mmol/l glucose, showed constitutive cleavage of the extracellular domain of IAP (containing the SHPS-1 binding site) and IAP/SHPS-1 association was not detected. In contrast, hyperglycemia inhibited IAP cleavage allowing IAP/SHPS-1 association and IGF-I stimulated SHPS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Exposure to an anti-IAP antibody that disrupts IAP/SHPS-1 association inhibited IGF-I stimulated tube formation and increased permeability. Rodent models of endothelial cell dysfunction were used to investigate the role of IAP-SHPS-1 association in endothelial cell function in vivo. Basal IAP/SHPS-1 association was not detected in retinal extracts in normal rats but was fully restored in rats with diabetes. The anti-IAP antibody inhibited IAP/SHPS-1 association and reduced retinal vascular permeability and leukocyte adherence to levels that were similar to non-diabetic rats. The antibody also significantly inhibited aberrant neovascularization that was induced by hypoxia. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the increase in IAP/SHPS-1 association contributes to the pathophysiologic changes in the endothelium that are induced by hyperglycemia and hypoxia. PMID:22193512

  8. Survival of patients with BRCA1-associated breast cancer diagnosed in an MRI-based surveillance program.

    PubMed

    Mller, Pl; Stormorken, Astrid; Jonsrud, Christoffer; Holmen, Marit Muri; Hagen, Anne Irene; Clark, Neal; Vab, Anita; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A; Mhle, Lovise

    2013-05-01

    We report the 5- and 10-year survival rate of women diagnosed with breast cancer in the context of an annual MRI-based surveillance program. In 2001, as part of a national initiative, women in Norway with a BRCA1 mutation were offered annual screening with breast MRI in addition to mammography. 802 women with a BRCA1 mutation were screened one or more times and followed for a mean of 4.2 years. As of December 2011, 68 of 802 women in the screening program were diagnosed with DCIS or invasive breast cancer (8.5 %), including eight prevalent, 50 incident screen-detected and eight interval cancers. Two latent cancers were detected at prophylactic mastectomy. Sixty-three of the cancers were invasive and five were in situ. The mean tumour size was 1.4 cm (range 0.2-4.5 cm), and 85 % of the patients were node-negative. Ten of the 68 patients died of cancer in the follow-up period. The 5-year breast cancer-specific survival for women with cancer was 75 % (95 % CI 56-86 %) and the 10-year survival was 69 % (95 % CI: 48-83 %). The 5-year survival for women with Stage 1 breast cancer was 82 % compared to 98 % in the population. The 5- and 10-year survival of women with a BRCA1-associated breast cancer detected in a national MRI-based screening program in BRCA1 mutation carriers Norway was less than anticipated. The benefit of annual MRI surveillance on reducing breast cancer mortality in BRCA1 mutation carriers remains to be proven. PMID:23615785

  9. Sick sinus syndrome in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Ector, H; Van der Hauwaert, L G

    1980-01-01

    The clinical and electrocardiographic findings in five children with the sick sinus syndrome and an otherwise normal heart are described. There were three boys and two girls. Their age at onset of either bradycardia or symptoms ranged from 1 day to 7 years. In one patient, the youngest ever reported with this syndrome, bradycardia was noted before birth. Four children presented with neurological symptoms--attacks of dizziness, fainting spells, or syncope. One boy, treated for epilepsy before the underlying arrhythmia ws diagnosed, died suddenly while playing. One child had near-fatal syncope caused by ventricular tachycardia. Continuous 24-hour electrocardiographic monitoring is the best method of assessing the severity of the condition. Sinus bradycardia, sinuatrial block, and periods of sinus arrest up to 4.8 seconds were recorded. Two patients had associated atrioventricular block and were therefore presumed to have binodal disease. Atrial fibrillation or flutter occurred in three patients. Isolated sick sinus syndrome may be a life-threatening condition in childhood for which, in selected cases, the insertion of a permanent pacemaker is indicated. Images PMID:7459152

  10. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NINDS Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic ... Funding | News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | ...

  11. Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dysmenorrhea? Glossary What is dysmenorrhea? Pain associated with menstruation is called dysmenorrhea . How common is dysmenorrhea? Dysmenorrhea ... the menstrual period? Pain usually occurs right before menstruation starts, as the level of prostaglandins increases in ...

  12. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  13. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... menstrual flow lasts about 4 days (plus or minus 2 - 3 days). It produces a total blood ... and occurs normally every 28 days (plus or minus 7 days). Vaginal bleeding that occurs between periods ...

  14. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  15. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  16. Type VI Aplasia Cutis Congenita: Bart's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kulalı, Ferit; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur; Kale, Yusuf; Celik, Istemi Han; Demirel, Nihal; Apaydın, Sema

    2015-01-01

    Bart's syndrome is characterized by aplasia cutis congenita and epidermolysis bullosa. We present the case of a newborn male who developed blisters on the mucous membranes and the skin following congenital localized absence of skin. Bart's syndrome (BS) is diagnosed clinically based on the disorder's unique signs and symptoms but histologic evaluation of the skin can help to confirm the final diagnosis. The patient was managed conservatively with topical antibacterial ointment and wet gauze dressing. Periodic follow-up examinations showed complete healing. We emphasized that it is important to use relatively simple methods for optimal healing without the need for complex surgical interventions. PMID:26609453

  17. Asperger syndrome in 23 Swedish children.

    PubMed

    Gillberg, C

    1989-08-01

    Twenty-three Swedish children aged five to 18 years who fulfilled specific criteria for Asperger syndrome were examined and compared with an age- and IQ-matched group with infantile autism. The boy:girl ratio was 10:1. Less than 10 per cent were mentally retarded and 17 per cent were of above-average intelligence. Apart from motor clumsiness (very common in the Asperger group) and reduced optimality in the prenatal and perinatal periods (more common in the autistic group), there was very little in the clinical or neurobiological backgrounds to suggest a clear distinction between Asperger syndrome and infantile autism. PMID:2680690

  18. Inherited cerebrorenal syndromes.

    PubMed

    Schurman, Scott J; Scheinman, Steven J

    2009-09-01

    Abnormalities in the central nervous system and renal function are seen together in a variety of congenital syndromes. This Review examines the clinical presentation and the genetic basis of several such syndromes. The X-linked oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe is characterized by developmental delay, blindness, renal tubular dysfunction, and progressive renal failure. This syndrome results from mutations in the OCRL gene, which encodes a phosphatase involved in endosomal trafficking. Mutations in OCRL also occur in Dent disease, which has a milder disease phenotype than Lowe syndrome. Patients with Joubert syndrome have cerebellar ataxia, pigmentary retinopathy, and nephronophthisis. Joubert syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous condition associated with mutations in at least five genes that encode ciliary proteins. Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a clinically variable condition associated with learning disabilities, progressive visual loss, obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and cystic and fibrotic renal changes that can lead to renal failure. Most of the 12 genes mutated in Bardet-Biedl syndrome are also involved in ciliary function, as are the genes implicated in other 'ciliopathies' with similar phenotypes, including Meckel syndrome. PMID:19701229

  19. Monogenic Autoinflammatory Syndromes: State of the Art on Genetic, Clinical, and Therapeutic Issues

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Luisa; Atteno, Mariangela; Compagnone, Adele; Caso, Paolo; Frediani, Bruno; Galeazzi, Mauro; Punzi, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes (MAISs) are caused by innate immune system dysregulation leading to aberrant inflammasome activation and episodes of fever and involvement of skin, serous membranes, eyes, joints, gastrointestinal tract, and nervous system, predominantly with a childhood onset. To date, there are twelve known MAISs: familial Mediterranean fever, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome, familial cold urticaria syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome, CINCA syndrome, mevalonate kinase deficiency, NLRP12-associated autoinflammatory disorder, Blau syndrome, early-onset sarcoidosis, PAPA syndrome, Majeed syndrome, and deficiency of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Each of these conditions may manifest itself with more or less severe inflammatory symptoms of variable duration and frequency, associated with findings of increased inflammatory parameters in laboratory investigation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the main genetic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of MAISs and their most recent classification with the ultimate goal of increasing awareness of autoinflammation among various internal medicine specialists. PMID:24282415

  20. [HYPP--hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in horses].

    PubMed

    Zeilmann, M

    1993-12-01

    A literature review of the clinical syndrome HYPP (Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis) affecting Quarter Horses is given. HYPP is characterized by sporadic attacks of muscle tremors, weakness and/or collapse, lasting for variable periods of time. Diagnosis is based on physical findings in association with hyperkalemia. In horses with HYPP, the regulation of ion transport through the sodium channels in the muscle cells occasionally fails, causing uncontrollable muscle twitching. Further investigations into molecular genetics reveals a mutation in the gene responsible for sodium and potassium regulation. The identification of this gene mutation is the basis for the blood test used to diagnose HYPP. HYPP is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Treatment of HYPP attacks by intravenous application of calcium gluconate, bicarbonate and glucose results in rapid recovery. Consequent dietary management and daily administration of acetazolamide effectively controls the disease. PMID:8122239

  1. Interleukin-17 mediated differences in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated tuberculous and cryptococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Marais, Suzaan; Meintjes, Graeme; Lesosky, Maia; Wilkinson, Katalin A.; Wilkinson, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Cryptococcus neoformans are major causes of meningitis in HIV-1-infected patients. Identifying differences in the inflammatory profiles of HIV-1-associated tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and cryptococcal meningitis may inform differences in immunopathogenic mechanisms in these diseases. In this study we compared the clinical and inflammatory features of HIV-1-associated TBM, and cryptococcal meningitis. Methods: A prospective study of HIV-1-infected adults who presented with either TBM [antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive] or cryptococcal meningitis (regardless of ART prescription). Clinical and laboratory findings and concentrations of 40 inflammatory mediators measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, 33 paired with blood) were compared between TBM and cryptococcal meningitis patients regardless of ART prescription and between TBM and cryptococcal meningitis patients not receiving ART. Results: Clinical and laboratory findings were similar in TBM (n=34) and cryptococcal meningitis (n = 19; ART prescribed: n = 10, no ART prescribed: n = 9). Exceptions included a higher median CD4+ cell count [interquartile: 113 (69–199) vs. 25 (8–49) cells/μl, P = 0.0001] and higher HIV-1 median viral load [plasma: 5.46 (4.82–5.89) vs. 4.87 (4.36–5.17) log10copies/ml, P = 0.037; CSF: 6.05 (5.43–6.56) vs. 5.56 (4.52–5.80) log10copies/ml, P = 0.03] in TBM vs. cryptococcal meningitis patients not receiving ART. CSF interleukin (IL)-17A was lower in TBM compared with cryptococcal meningitis [1.00 (0.25–2.35) vs. 9.31 (1.24–23.36) pg/ml, P-adjusted = 0.03]. Conclusion: Despite presenting with higher peripheral CD4+ cell counts, TBM patients also presented with higher HIV-1 viral loads compared with cryptococcal meningitis patients, suggesting a greater propensity of M. tuberculosis compared with C. neoformans to increase HIV-1 replication in vivo. CSF IL-17A was lower in TBM; its role in the immunopathogenesis of TBM and cryptococcal meningitis deserves further research. PMID:26765934

  2. Hospitalizations of Infants and Young Children with Down Syndrome: Evidence from Inpatient Person-Records from a Statewide Administrative Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, S. A.; Urbano, R. C.; Hodapp, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although individuals with Down syndrome are increasingly living into the adult years, infants and young children with the syndrome continue to be at increased risk for health problems. Using linked, statewide administrative hospital discharge records of all infants with Down syndrome born over a 3-year period, this study "follows

  3. Hospitalizations of Infants and Young Children with Down Syndrome: Evidence from Inpatient Person-Records from a Statewide Administrative Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, S. A.; Urbano, R. C.; Hodapp, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although individuals with Down syndrome are increasingly living into the adult years, infants and young children with the syndrome continue to be at increased risk for health problems. Using linked, statewide administrative hospital discharge records of all infants with Down syndrome born over a 3-year period, this study "follows…

  4. Basal cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thalakoti, Srikanth; Geller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) or Gorlin syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome sometimes known as the fifth phacomatosis, inherited in autosomal dominant fashion with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Gorlin syndrome is characterized by development of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, calcification of falx cerebri, various developmental skeletal abnormalities such as bifid rib, hemi- or bifid vertebra and predisposition to the development of various tumors. BCNS is caused by a mutation in the PTCH1 gene localized to 9q22.3. Its estimated prevalence varies between 1/55600 and 1/256000 with an equal male to female ratio. The medulloblastoma variant seen in Gorlin syndrome patients is of the desmoplastic type, characteristically presenting during the first 3 years of life. Therefore, children with desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be carefully screened for other features of BCNS. Radiation therapy for desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be avoided in BCNS patients as it may induce development of invasive BCCs and other tumors in the skin area exposed to radiation. This syndrome is a multisystem disorder so involvement of multiple specialists with a multimodal approach to detect and treat various manifestations at early stages will reduce the long-term sequelae and severity of the condition. Life expectancy is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications and cosmetic scarring can be substantial. PMID:26564075

  5. SAPHO syndrome associated spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masato; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Misawa, Haruo; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Takahata, Tomohiro; Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Nakahara, Shinnosuke; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2008-01-01

    The concept of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome has been well clarified, after Chamot et al. suggested this peculiar disorder in 1987. The most commonly affected site in SAPHO syndrome is the anterior chest, followed by the spine. However, the clinical course and taxonomic concept of SAPHO spinal lesions are poorly understood. This study was performed to analyze: (1) the detailed clinical course of spinal lesions in SAPHO syndrome, and (2) the relationship between SAPHO syndrome with spinal lesions and seronegative spondyloarthropathy. Thirteen patients with spondylitis in SAPHO syndrome were analyzed. The features of spinal lesions were a chronic onset with a slight inflammatory reaction, and slowly progressing non-marginal syndesmophytes at multi spinal levels, besides the coexistence of specific skin lesions. SAPHO syndrome, especially spinal lesions related to palmoplantar pustulosis, can be recognized as a subtype of seronegative spondyloarthropathy. PMID:18642032

  6. Psychogenic movement disorder in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 associated myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Puccioni-Sohler, Marzia; Ramos, Jessyca T M A; Rosadas, Carolina; Vasconcellos, Luiz Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the spinal cord. Acute cases of HAM/TSP and those complicated by movement disorders are rarely reported. Otherwise, psychiatric disturbances are very frequent in infected patients. It can evolve to psychogenic disorders. The case of a 46-year-old woman with acute HAM/TSP complicated by depression and psychogenic movement disorders (chorea of the hands and dystonia-like facial symptoms) is reported. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed non-specific small white matter lesions. The involuntary movements arose suddenly and disappeared when the patient was distracted. Two years of psychotherapy and psychiatric follow-up induced complete remission of the symptoms. The association of psychogenic movement disorders and HAM/TSP, increasing the range of neurological manifestations associated with HTLV-1, is related here. Early diagnosis of psychogenic movement disorders is very important to improve the prognosis and treatment of the two conditions, thereby improving the quality of life of HAM/TSP patients and avoiding irreversible sequelae. PMID:26603645

  7. Hypometabolism of watershed areas of the brain in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Akitoshi; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Ebihara, Yuka; Ishii, Nobuyuki; Shiomi, Kazutaka; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2015-11-01

    In previous studies of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), areas of slow blood flow in the spinal cord were related to pathological changes. While the pathological changes in the brain are milder than those in the spinal cord, they are also more significant in sites with slow blood flow. In this study, we investigated brain glucose metabolism in slow blood flow areas using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET). Clinical features and brain (18)F-FDG-PET parameters were analyzed in six patients with HAM/TSP. For comparison of PET data, eight healthy volunteers were enrolled as normal controls (NLs). Glucose metabolism in the watershed areas of the middle and posterior cerebral arteries, as compared with that in the occipital lobes as a control, was significantly lower in HAM/TSP patients than in NLs. This result confirmed the relationship between slow blood flow areas and hypometabolism in HAM/TSP, and is consistent with previous findings that pathological changes are accentuated in sites with slow blood flow. PMID:26156876

  8. Organ-specific PTB1-associated microRNAs determine expression of pyruvate kinase isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Kohei; Ito, Yuko; Sugito, Nobuhiko; Kumazaki, Minami; Shinohara, Haruka; Yamada, Nami; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Sugiyama, Tarou; Futamura, Manabu; Otsuki, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa; Akao, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    The Warburg effect is a well-known feature of cancer cells. However, its' functional significance hasn't been elucidated yet. Pyruvate kinase muscle (PKM), which is a rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme, has 2 isoforms, PKM1 and PKM2. It has been reported that PKM2 is a tumor-specific isoform and promotes the Warburg effect. Also, it has been thought that tumor cells switch their PKM isoform from PKM1 to PKM2 during tumor development. Here, we showed that this switching machinery was induced only in limited cases, based on PKM expression in normal tissues, and that brain-specific microRNA (miR)-124 and muscle-specific miR-133b regulated this machinery by controlling PKM expression through targeting polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTB1), which is a splicer of the PKM gene. Also, we confirmed that the PKM2/PKM1 ratio was further elevated in other PKM2-dominant organs such as colon through the down-regulation of these PTB1-associated microRNAs during tumor development. PMID:25721733

  9. Neurofibromatosis 1-associated panhypopituitarism presenting as hypoglycaemic seizures and stroke-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Waqar; Nathan, Muriel H; Allen, Gilman B; Borden, Neil M; Babi, M Ali; Tandan, Rup

    2015-01-01

    A 37-year-old man with a known history of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) presented within 2?days of diarrhoeal illness followed by encephalopathy, facial twitching, hypoglycaemia, hypotension, tachycardia and low-grade fever. Examination showed multiple caf-au-lait spots and neurofibromas over the trunk, arms and legs and receptive aphasia with right homonymous hemianopia, which resolved. Workup for cardiac, inflammatory and infectious aetiologies was unrevealing. A brain MRI showed gyral swelling with increased T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal and diffusion restriction in the left cerebral cortex. Neuroendocrine findings suggested panhypopituitarism with centrally derived adrenal insufficiency. Supportive treatment, hormone supplementation, antibiotics, antivirals and levetiracetam yielded clinical improvement. A follow-up brain MRI showed focal left parieto-occipital atrophy with findings of cortical laminar necrosis. In conclusion, we describe a case of NF1-associated panhypopituitarism presenting as hypoglycaemic seizures and stroke-like findings, hitherto unreported manifestations of NF1. Prompt recognition and treatment of these associated conditions can prevent devastating complications. PMID:26531733

  10. Circulating Carnosine Dipeptidase 1 Associates with Weight Loss and Poor Prognosis in Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arner, Peter; Henjes, Frauke; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Darmanis, Spyros; Dahlman, Ingrid; Iresj, Britt-Marie; Naredi, Peter; Agustsson, Thorhallur; Lundholm, Kent; Nilsson, Peter; Rydn, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer cachexia (CC) is linked to poor prognosis. Although the mechanisms promoting this condition are not known, several circulating proteins have been proposed to contribute. We analyzed the plasma proteome in cancer subjects in order to identify factors associated with cachexia. Design/Subjects Plasma was obtained from a screening cohort of 59 patients, newly diagnosed with suspected gastrointestinal cancer, with (n = 32) or without (n = 27) cachexia. Samples were subjected to proteomic profiling using 760 antibodies (targeting 698 individual proteins) from the Human Protein Atlas project. The main findings were validated in a cohort of 93 patients with verified and advanced pancreas cancer. Results Only six proteins displayed differential plasma levels in the screening cohort. Among these, Carnosine Dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1) was confirmed by sandwich immunoassay to be lower in CC (p = 0.008). In both cohorts, low CNDP1 levels were associated with markers of poor prognosis including weight loss, malnutrition, lipid breakdown, low circulating albumin/IGF1 levels and poor quality of life. Eleven of the subjects in the discovery cohort were finally diagnosed with non-malignant disease but omitting these subjects from the analyses did not have any major influence on the results. Conclusions In gastrointestinal cancer, reduced plasma levels of CNDP1 associate with signs of catabolism and poor outcome. These results, together with recently published data demonstrating lower circulating CNDP1 in subjects with glioblastoma and metastatic prostate cancer, suggest that CNDP1 may constitute a marker of aggressive cancer and CC. PMID:25898255

  11. Functional outcome measures for NF1-associated optic pathway glioma clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Robert A.; Allen, Jeffrey C.; Ardern-Holmes, Simone L.; Bilaniuk, Larissa T.; Ferner, Rosalie E.; Gutmann, David H.; Listernick, Robert; Martin, Staci; Ullrich, Nicole J.; Liu, Grant T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis Visual Outcomes Committee is to define the best functional outcome measures for future neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-associated optic pathway glioma (OPG) clinical trials. Methods: The committee considered the components of vision, other ophthalmologic parameters affected by OPG, potential biomarkers of visual function, and quality of life measures to arrive at consensus-based, evidence-driven recommendations for objective and measurable functional endpoints for OPG trials. Results: Visual acuity (VA) assessments using consistent quantitative testing methods are recommended as the main functional outcome measure for NF1-OPG clinical trials. Teller acuity cards are recommended for use as the primary VA endpoint, and HOTV as a secondary endpoint once subjects are old enough to complete it. The optic disc should be assessed for pallor, as this appears to be a contributory variable that may affect the interpretation of VA change over time. Given the importance of capturing patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials, evaluating visual quality of life using the Children's Visual Function Questionnaire as a secondary endpoint is also proposed. Conclusions: The use of these key functional endpoints will be essential for evaluating the efficacy of future OPG clinical trials. PMID:24249802

  12. Familial Hemiplegic Migraine Type 1 Associated with Parkinsonism: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bruun, Marie; Hjermind, Lena Elisabeth; Thomsen, Carsten; Danielsen, Else; Thomsen, Lise Lykke; Pinborg, Lars Hageman; Khabbazbavani, Nastaran; Nielsen, Joergen Erik

    2015-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) are allelic disorders caused by mutations in the CACNA1A gene on chromosome 19p13. It is well described that FHM1 can present with cerebellar signs, but parkinsonism has not previously been reported in FHM1 or EA2 even though parkinsonism has been described in SCA6. We report a 63-year-old woman with FHM1 caused by an R583Q mutation in the CACNA1A gene, clinically presenting with migraine and permanent cerebellar ataxia. Since the age of 60 years, the patient also developed parkinsonism with rigidity, bradykinesia and a resting tremor. An MRI showed a normal substantia nigra, but a bilateral loss of substance in the basal ganglia, which is in contrast to the typically normal MRI in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography demonstrated a decreased DAT-binding potential in the putamen. We wish to draw attention to FHM1 associated with parkinsonism; however, whether the reported case is a consequence of FHM1 being allelic to SCA6, unknown modifiers to the specific R583Q CACNA1A mutation or idiopathic Parkinson's disease remains unanswered. PMID:25969684

  13. Global Stress Response in a Prokaryotic Model of DJ-1-Associated Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Messaoudi, Nadia; Gautier, Valérie; Kthiri, Fatoum; Lelandais, Gaelle; Mihoub, Mouadh; Joseleau-Petit, Danièle; Caldas, Teresa; Bohn, Chantal; Tolosa, Leah; Rao, Govind; Tao, Kazuyuki; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Bouloc, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    YajL is the most closely related Escherichia coli homolog of Parkinsonism-associated protein DJ-1, a protein with a yet-undefined function in the oxidative-stress response. YajL protects cells against oxidative-stress-induced protein aggregation and functions as a covalent chaperone for the thiol proteome, including FeS proteins. To clarify the cellular responses to YajL deficiency, transcriptional profiling of the yajL mutant was performed. Compared to the parental strain, the yajL mutant overexpressed genes coding for chaperones, proteases, chemical chaperone transporters, superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxidases, components of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems, iron transporters, ferritins and FeS cluster biogenesis enzymes, DNA repair proteins, RNA chaperones, and small regulatory RNAs. It also overexpressed the RNA polymerase stress sigma factors sigma S (multiple stresses) and sigma 32 (protein stress) and activated the OxyR and SoxRS oxidative-stress transcriptional regulators, which together trigger the global stress response. The yajL mutant also overexpressed genes involved in septation and adopted a shorter and rounder shape characteristic of stressed bacteria. Biochemical experiments showed that this upregulation of many stress genes resulted in increased expression of stress proteins and improved biochemical function. Thus, protein defects resulting from the yajL mutation trigger the onset of a robust and global stress response in a prokaryotic model of DJ-1-associated Parkinsonism. PMID:23292772

  14. Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 associated with parkinsonism: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bruun, Marie; Hjermind, Lena Elisabeth; Thomsen, Carsten; Danielsen, Else; Thomsen, Lise Lykke; Pinborg, Lars Hageman; Khabbazbavani, Nastaran; Nielsen, Joergen Erik

    2015-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) are allelic disorders caused by mutations in the CACNA1A gene on chromosome 19p13. It is well described that FHM1 can present with cerebellar signs, but parkinsonism has not previously been reported in FHM1 or EA2 even though parkinsonism has been described in SCA6. We report a 63-year-old woman with FHM1 caused by an R583Q mutation in the CACNA1A gene, clinically presenting with migraine and permanent cerebellar ataxia. Since the age of 60 years, the patient also developed parkinsonism with rigidity, bradykinesia and a resting tremor. An MRI showed a normal substantia nigra, but a bilateral loss of substance in the basal ganglia, which is in contrast to the typically normal MRI in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography demonstrated a decreased DAT-binding potential in the putamen. We wish to draw attention to FHM1 associated with parkinsonism; however, whether the reported case is a consequence of FHM1 being allelic to SCA6, unknown modifiers to the specific R583Q CACNA1A mutation or idiopathic Parkinson's disease remains unanswered. PMID:25969684

  15. Systems biology approaches reveal a specific interferon-inducible signature in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Tattermusch, Sonja; Skinner, Jason A; Chaussabel, Damien; Banchereau, Jacques; Berry, Matthew P; McNab, Finlay W; O'Garra, Anne; Taylor, Graham P; Bangham, Charles R M

    2012-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that persists lifelong in the host. In ?4% of infected people, HTLV-1 causes a chronic disabling neuroinflammatory disease known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The pathogenesis of HAM/TSP is unknown and treatment remains ineffective. We used gene expression microarrays followed by flow cytometric and functional assays to investigate global changes in blood transcriptional profiles of HTLV-1-infected and seronegative individuals. We found that perturbations of the p53 signaling pathway were a hallmark of HTLV-1 infection. In contrast, a subset of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes was over-expressed in patients with HAM/TSP but not in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers or patients with the clinically similar disease multiple sclerosis. The IFN-inducible signature was present in all circulating leukocytes and its intensity correlated with the clinical severity of HAM/TSP. Leukocytes from patients with HAM/TSP were primed to respond strongly to stimulation with exogenous IFN. However, while type I IFN suppressed expression of the HTLV-1 structural protein Gag it failed to suppress the highly immunogenic viral transcriptional transactivator Tax. We conclude that over-expression of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes in chronic HTLV-1 infection does not constitute an efficient host response but instead contributes to the development of HAM/TSP. PMID:22291590

  16. Systems Biology Approaches Reveal a Specific Interferon-Inducible Signature in HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tattermusch, Sonja; Skinner, Jason A.; Chaussabel, Damien; Banchereau, Jacques; Berry, Matthew P.; McNab, Finlay W.; O'Garra, Anne; Taylor, Graham P.; Bangham, Charles R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that persists lifelong in the host. In ?4% of infected people, HTLV-1 causes a chronic disabling neuroinflammatory disease known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The pathogenesis of HAM/TSP is unknown and treatment remains ineffective. We used gene expression microarrays followed by flow cytometric and functional assays to investigate global changes in blood transcriptional profiles of HTLV-1-infected and seronegative individuals. We found that perturbations of the p53 signaling pathway were a hallmark of HTLV-1 infection. In contrast, a subset of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes was over-expressed in patients with HAM/TSP but not in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers or patients with the clinically similar disease multiple sclerosis. The IFN-inducible signature was present in all circulating leukocytes and its intensity correlated with the clinical severity of HAM/TSP. Leukocytes from patients with HAM/TSP were primed to respond strongly to stimulation with exogenous IFN. However, while type I IFN suppressed expression of the HTLV-1 structural protein Gag it failed to suppress the highly immunogenic viral transcriptional transactivator Tax. We conclude that over-expression of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes in chronic HTLV-1 infection does not constitute an efficient host response but instead contributes to the development of HAM/TSP. PMID:22291590

  17. Congenital analgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aren, Gamze; Sepet, Elif; Erbay, Elif; Ermi?, Ismail

    2002-09-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy is a rare syndrome which is seen in early childhood. Five different types have been described. Absence of pain and self-mutilation are characteristic findings of this syndrome. This report describes one female and two male children with the syndrome. The most severe oral consequence of their disorder was damage to the oral tissues and tongue. The primary aim in management was to monitor the eruption of the permanent teeth. PMID:12955568

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Gorlin syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Gorlin syndrome On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed October 2012 What is Gorlin syndrome? Gorlin syndrome, also known as nevoid basal ...

  19. Guide to Understanding Apert Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    a guide to understanding apert syndrome a publication of childrens craniofacial association a guide to understanding apert syndrome t his parents guide to Apert syndrome is designed to answer questions that are frequently ...

  20. Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome (KTS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as well as in the brain is Sturge-Weber syndrome. These individuals may experience seizures and mental ... features of the Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and Sturge-Weber syndrome coincide. Another overlapping condition is the Parkes- ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Jacobsen syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 11, Jacobsen syndrome is also known as 11q terminal deletion disorder. The signs and symptoms of Jacobsen ... disorder 11q deletion syndrome 11q- deletion syndrome 11q terminal deletion disorder Jacobsen thrombocytopenia For more information about ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Poland syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Poland syndrome On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed November 2015 What is Poland syndrome? Poland syndrome is a disorder in which ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Silver syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ClinicalTrials.gov Research studies PubMed Recent literature Conditions > Silver syndrome On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed February 2012 What is Silver syndrome? Silver syndrome belongs to a group of ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: WAGR syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... signs and symptoms of WAGR syndrome can include childhood-onset obesity, inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), and kidney failure. When WAGR syndrome includes childhood-onset obesity, it is often referred to as WAGRO syndrome. ...

  5. First Trimester Down Syndrome Screen

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? First Trimester Down Syndrome Screen Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... is carrying has a chromosomal abnormality such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21) or Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18) . The ...

  6. Malignant Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Min-Yuen Cynthia; Shahed, Joohi; Jankovic, Joseph

    2007-09-15

    The aim of this work was to draw attention to potentially life-threatening symptoms associated with Tourette syndrome (TS) and to explore their relationship to TS comorbidities. Medical records of all patients with TS evaluated at our Movement Disorders Clinic between July 2003 and July 2006 were reviewed. Data on patients with malignant TS, defined as >or=2 emergency room (ER) visits or >or=1 hospitalizations for TS symptoms or its associated behavioral comorbidities, were entered into a dataset and analyzed. Five illustrative cases are described. Of 333 TS patients evaluated during the 3-year period, 17 (5.1%) met the criteria for malignant TS. Hospital admission or ER visits were for tic-related injuries, self-injurious behavior (SIB), uncontrollable violence and temper, and suicidal ideation/attempts. Compared with patients with nonmalignant TS, those with malignant TS were significantly more likely to have a personal history of obsessive compulsive behavior/disorder (OCB/OCD), complex phonic tics, coprolalia, copropraxia, SIB, mood disorder, suicidal ideation, and poor response to medications. Although TS is rarely a disabling disorder, about 5% of patients referred to a specialty clinic have life-threatening symptoms. Malignant TS is associated with greater severity of motor symptoms and the presence of >or=2 behavioral comorbidities. OCD/OCB in particular may play a central role in malignant TS; obsessive compulsive qualities were associated with life-threatening tics, SIB, and suicidal ideation. Malignant TS is more refractory to medical treatment than nonmalignant TS. PMID:17566119

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) varies depending on the criteria used to diagnose it, but it ranges from about 5% to 20%. IBS is associated with abnormal gastrointestinal motor function and enhanced visceral perception, as well as psychosocial and genetic factors. People with IBS often have other bodily and psychiatric symptoms, and have an increased likelihood of having unnecessary surgery compared with people without IBS. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments in people with IBS? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 18 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 5HT3 receptor antagonists (alosetron and ramosetron); 5HT4 receptor agonists (tegaserod); antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs]); antispasmodics (including peppermint oil); cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT); hypnotherapy; soluble and insoluble fibre supplementation; and loperamide. PMID:21718578

  8. Irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) varies depending on the criteria used to diagnose it, but it ranges from about 5% to 20%. IBS is associated with abnormal gastrointestinal motor function and enhanced visceral perception, as well as psychosocial and genetic factors. People with IBS often have other bodily and psychiatric symptoms, and have an increased likelihood of having unnecessary surgery compared with people without IBS. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments in people with IBS? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 27 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 5HT3 receptor antagonists (alosetron and ramosetron), 5HT4 receptor agonists (tegaserod), antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs]), antispasmodics (including peppermint oil), cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), hypnotherapy, loperamide, and soluble and insoluble fibre supplementation. PMID:22296841

  9. Chemoprevention in Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Burn, John; Mathers, John C; Bishop, D Tim

    2013-12-01

    CAPP1 tested aspirin 600 mg/day and/or resistant starch 30 g/day in 200 adolescent FAP carriers. Aspirin treatment resulted in a non-significant reduction in polyp number and a significant reduction in polyp size among patients treated with aspirin for more than 1 year. CAPP2 RCT used the same interventions in 937 Lynch syndrome patients, the first RCT to have cancer prevention as the primary endpoint. Aspirin did not reduce the risk of colorectal neoplasia in a mean treatment period of 29 months but double blind post intervention follow-up has revealed 48 participants developed 53 CRCs. Per protocol analysis showed 63% fewer colon cancers with aspirin (p = 0.008) apparent from 4 years, with a similar effect on other LS cancers. Resistant starch was not beneficial at long term followup. CAPP3 will involve a double blind dose non-inferiority trial comparing 100, 300 or 600 mg daily in 3,000 gene carriers. We can now recommend aspirin in people at high risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:23880960

  10. [Neuroleptic malignant syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Anand, Jacek Sein; Rutkowski, Przemys?aw

    2003-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is the most dangerous side effect of phenothiazines therapy. In the period of time from 1995 to 2002 in the Intensive Toxicological Unit there were five patients, 3 men and 2 women, aged from 25 to 62 (average 44.2) years-old, admitted from the regional inpatients psychiatric units with the diagnosis of pneumonia and/or sepsis. The patients about 48-72 hours before admittance were given some phenotiazine derivatives (promazine, perphenazine, clozapine, pipamperon) and/or buthyrophenone (haloperidol) because of psychotic state. Altered consciousness, muscle rigidity, hyperpyrexia (39.0-41.0 degrees C), sweating, tachycardia (120-150/min.), tachypnoea (respiratory rate more than 25/min.) and high level of creatine kinase activity (23,751-112,288 U/l) dominated. Only one patient had clinical picture of pneumonia. Because of the rapid development of acute respiratory failure, respirathorotherapy was initiated and continued for 8 and 10 days in two patients respectively. Transient thrombocytopenia (26,000/microliter) in one subject was observed. The neuroleptic drug was withdrawn and intensive supportive care with administration of bromocriptine (15-20 mg/24 h) was provided. None one of the doctors told the patients about the possibility of NMS during phenothiazines therapy. PMID:14569909

  11. Sick-building syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Stolwijk, J A

    1991-01-01

    The sick-building syndrome (SBS) is defined as the occurrence of an excessive number of subjective complaints by the occupants of a building. These complaints include headache, irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, lethargy, inability to concentrate, objectionable odors, and less frequently, nausea, dizziness, chest tightness, etc. These complaints will always be reported by a fraction of the occupants of any building if a questionnaire is administered that asks the respondent to recall any subjective symptoms they remember having had in the last 2 weeks or or over some period of time. It is often considered that SBS symptom reports have a minimum prevalence of about 15 to 20% for a 2-week recall period. SBS symptoms reported by 30% or more of occupants are indicative of conditions in the building environment that warrant attention. It is not often that a clear, single cause is responsible for the excess symptom reports. The following factors, often in combinations, are seen to contribute to SBS: outdoor air supply that is inadequate, ventilation distribution or effectiveness that is inadequate, the presence of temporary or long-term sources of contaminants such as tobacco smoke, adhesives, composite materials such as chipboard, and the growth of microorganisms in the HVAC equipment or in carpets or other furnishings. Depending on which causes contribute, the condition may be intermittent or even temporary. Psychosocial factors such as labor-management relations and satisfaction or dissatisfaction with other factors in the work environment can have a profound influence on the level of response of the occupants to their environment. Although hard data are difficult to collect, it is likely that productivity in the office environment is sensitive to conditions causing SBS. PMID:1821387

  12. A special case of Wellens' syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abulaiti, Alimujiang; Aini, Renaguli; Xu, Hiarong; Song, Zejun

    2013-01-01

    Wellens' syndrome is a pattern of electrocardiographic T-wave changes associated with critical stenosis of proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD). T-waves abnormalities were found in precordial leads, especially in V2V3 during pain-free periods, and ECG obtained during episodes of pain demonstrates upright T-waves with possible elevated or isoelectric ST segments. Early recognition and appropriate intervention carries significant diagnostic and prognostic value. We reported a case of Wellens' syndrome with different etiology and prognosis. Although the ECG showed typical T-wave changes in V2V5 leads, patient's coronary angiography revealed moderate stenosis in proximal LAD, and coronary artery spasm was suggested. Unlike the classic Wellens' syndrome, which needs aggressive coronary intervention, our patient fared well with conservative medical therapy (diltiazem and nitrates) and showed favorable prognosis. PMID:24023474

  13. Intraocular Lens Subluxation in Marfan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Bolaos-Jimnez; Paulina, Lpez-Lizrraga E; Francesc, March de R; Eduardo, Telich-Tarriba J; Alejandro, Navas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : Ectopia lentis (EL) is a major criteria for the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome, it may vary from an asymptomatic mild displacement to a significant subluxation that places the equator of the lens in the pupillary axis. The purpose of this work is to present the case of a patient with Marfan syndrome who received treatment for subluxation at our institution. Case Report : A 51-year-old female diagnosed with Marfan syndrome presented to the emergency department with bilateral eye redness, foreign body sensation and crusting around the eyes on awakening. She had the following history of cardiac and ophthalmologic complications, including: 1. Lens subluxation 2. High myopia 3. Aortic root dilation, 4. Mitral valve prolapse and 5. Tricuspid insufficiency. Conclusion : The ophthalmological management of Marfan patients is challenging and periodical follow-up is needed. Surgical versus conservative management is controversial, each case needs to be evaluated individually to analyze the risks and benefits of the procedures. PMID:25279020

  14. Organic brain syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    OBS; Organic mental disorder (OMS); Chronic organic brain syndrome ... Listed below are disorders associated with OBS. Brain injury caused by ... the brain ( subarachnoid hemorrhage ) Blood clot inside the ...

  15. Chromosome instability syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 11, discusses chromosome instability syndromes. The focus is on the most extensively studied genotypic chromosomal aberrations which include Bloom syndrome, Fanconi anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, and xeroderma pigmentosum. The great interest in these syndromes is out of proportion to their rare occurrence; however, studies of genotypic chromosome breakage have been inspired by the hope of throwing light on chromosome structure and behavior. A table is given which relates chromosomal aberrations in Bloom syndrome which may cause or promote cancer. 34 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Leypoldt, F; Wandinger, K-P

    2014-01-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes are immune-mediated erroneous attacks on the central or peripheral nervous systems, or both, directed originally against the tumour itself. They have been known for more than 40 years, but recently the discovery of new subgroups of paraneoplastic encephalitis syndromes with a remarkably good response to immune therapy has ignited new clinical and scientific interest. Knowledge of these subgroups and their associated autoantibodies is important in therapeutic decision-making. However, the abundance of new autoantibodies and syndromes can be confusing. This review paper summarizes current knowledge and new developments in the field of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, their classification, pathophysiology and treatment. PMID:23937626

  17. Locked-in syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael S

    2013-02-01

    Locked-in syndrome is a rare neuropsychological disorder. Its primary features are quadriplegia and paralysis of the cranial nerves except for those responsible for vertical eye movements. The differential diagnosis includes persistent vegetative state, brain death, minimally conscious states, C3 transection of the spinal cord, and conversion locked-in syndrome. Etiologies of locked-in syndrome include hemorrhagic and thrombotic events, tumors affecting the ventral pons, infectious agents, iatrogenic causes, trauma, metabolic abnormalities, and other miscellaneous causes. The clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis, neuropsychological assessment, rehabilitation, and prognosis of patients with locked-in syndrome are discussed. PMID:23378122

  18. Postpartum Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome in a Patient with the Joint Hypermobility Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kanjwal, Khalil; Karabin, Beverly; Kanjwal, Yousuf; Grubb, Blair P.

    2009-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) commonly affects women of childbearing age. We report on a 37-year-old woman who developed symptoms of recurrent syncope in the postpartum period. Her head up tilt test and clinical presentation was consistent with POTS. PMID:19946638

  19. Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1-Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gonalves, Denise Utsch; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Ribas, Joo Gabriel Ramos; Arajo, Marcelo Grossi; Pinheiro, Snia Regina; Guedes, Antnio Carlos; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Brbara F.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the first human retrovirus to be discovered, is present in diverse regions of the world, where its infection is usually neglected in health care settings and by public health authorities. Since it is usually asymptomatic in the beginning of the infection and disease typically manifests later in life, silent transmission occurs, which is associated with sexual relations, breastfeeding, and blood transfusions. There are no prospects of vaccines, and screening of blood banks and in prenatal care settings is not universal. Therefore, its transmission is active in many areas such as parts of Africa, South and Central America, the Caribbean region, Asia, and Melanesia. It causes serious diseases in humans, including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and an incapacitating neurological disease (HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis [HAM/TSP]) besides other afflictions such as uveitis, rheumatic syndromes, and predisposition to helminthic and bacterial infections, among others. These diseases are not curable as yet, and current treatments as well as new perspectives are discussed in the present review. PMID:20610824

  20. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Associated with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Coincidence or Possible Link.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Junaid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a common form of chronic autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and often coexists with other autoimmune diseases, but Hashimoto's thyroiditis associated with an autosomal dominant neurofibromatosis type 1 is exceedingly rare. Case Presentation. A 30-year-old Bengali woman presented to the OPD with complaints of aching pain and tingling sensation in her hands and feet. Physical examination revealed dysmorphic facies, nodular swelling in the neck, cafe-au-lait spots, and neurofibromas covering the entire surface of her body. Her thyroid hormones were within normal limits. Thyroid ultrasound revealed a cystic area in the left lobe of the gland, and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology revealed lymphocytic infiltration of the gland, suggesting Hashimoto's thyroiditis. High levels of autoimmune antibodies such as antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal antibodies confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusion. When encountered with a patient of Neurofibromatosis type 1, a physician should be careful about the possibility of a concomitant autoimmune disease. Clinical presentation of neurofibromatosis and Noonan syndrome often overlaps and recent studies have implicated a mutation in NF1 gene in the etiology of NFNS. More extensive reports and further investigations of such patients having combination of neurofibromatosis type 1 and autoimmune thyroiditis will certainly provide better understanding of this link in the near future. PMID:23691379

  1. TopBP1 associates with NBS1 and is involved in homologous recombination repair

    SciTech Connect

    Morishima, Ken-ichi; Sakamoto, Shuichi; Kobayashi, Junya; Izumi, Hideki; Suda, Tetsuji; Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki; Tauchi, Hiroshi; Ide, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Kenshi; Matsuura, Shinya

    2007-11-03

    TopBP1 is involved in DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoint. Recent studies have demonstrated that TopBP1 is a direct positive effecter of ATR. However, it is not known how TopBP1 recognizes damaged DNA. Here, we show that TopBP1 formed nuclear foci after exposure to ionizing radiation, but such TopBP1 foci were abolished in Nijmegen breakage syndrome cells. We also show that TopBP1 physically associated with NBS1 in vivo. These results suggested that NBS1 might regulate TopBP1 recruitment to the sites of DNA damage. TopBP1-depleted cells showed hypersensitivity to Mitomycin C and ionizing radiation, an increased frequency of sister-chromatid exchange level, and a reduced frequency of DNA double-strand break induced homologous recombination repair. Together, these results suggested that TopBP1 might be a mediator of DNA damage signaling from NBS1 to ATR and promote homologous recombination repair.

  2. Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sathasivam, Sivakumar

    2008-01-01

    The Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVL) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by progressive pontobulbar palsy associated with sensorineural deafness. Fifty-eight cases have been reported in just over 100 years. The female to male ratio is approximately 3:1. The age of onset of the initial symptom varies from infancy to the third decade. The syndrome most frequently presents with sensorineural deafness, which is usually progressive and severe. Lower cranial nerve involvement and lower and upper motor neuron limb signs are common neurological features. Other features include respiratory compromise (the most frequent non-neurological finding), limb weakness, slurring of speech, facial weakness, and neck and shoulder weakness. Optic atrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, macular hyperpigmentation, autonomic dysfunction, epilepsy may occur. The etiopathogenesis of the condition remains elusive. Approximately 50% of cases are familial, of which autosomal recessive is suggested. The remaining cases are sporadic. The diagnosis is usually based on the clinical presentation. Investigations (neurophysiological studies, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, muscle biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid examination) are done to exclude other causes or to confirm the clinical findings. The differential diagnoses include the Fazio-Londe syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Nathalie syndrome, Boltshauser syndrome and Madras motor neuron disease. Treatment with steroids or intravenous immunoglobulin may result in temporary stabilization of the syndrome. However, the mainstays of management are supportive and symptomatic treatment, in particular assisted ventilation and maintenance of nutrition via gastrostomy. The clinical course of BVVL is variable and includes gradual deterioration (almost half of cases), gradual deterioration with stable periods in between (a third of cases) and deterioration with abrupt periods of worsening (just under a fifth of cases). After the initial presentation, one third of patients survive for ten years or longer. PMID:18416855

  3. Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sathasivam, Sivakumar

    2008-01-01

    The Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVL) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by progressive pontobulbar palsy associated with sensorineural deafness. Fifty-eight cases have been reported in just over 100 years. The female to male ratio is approximately 3:1. The age of onset of the initial symptom varies from infancy to the third decade. The syndrome most frequently presents with sensorineural deafness, which is usually progressive and severe. Lower cranial nerve involvement and lower and upper motor neuron limb signs are common neurological features. Other features include respiratory compromise (the most frequent non-neurological finding), limb weakness, slurring of speech, facial weakness, and neck and shoulder weakness. Optic atrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, macular hyperpigmentation, autonomic dysfunction, epilepsy may occur. The etiopathogenesis of the condition remains elusive. Approximately 50% of cases are familial, of which autosomal recessive is suggested. The remaining cases are sporadic. The diagnosis is usually based on the clinical presentation. Investigations (neurophysiological studies, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, muscle biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid examination) are done to exclude other causes or to confirm the clinical findings. The differential diagnoses include the Fazio-Londe syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Nathalie syndrome, Boltshauser syndrome and Madras motor neuron disease. Treatment with steroids or intravenous immunoglobulin may result in temporary stabilization of the syndrome. However, the mainstays of management are supportive and symptomatic treatment, in particular assisted ventilation and maintenance of nutrition via gastrostomy. The clinical course of BVVL is variable and includes gradual deterioration (almost half of cases), gradual deterioration with stable periods in between (a third of cases) and deterioration with abrupt periods of worsening (just under a fifth of cases). After the initial presentation, one third of patients survive for ten years or longer. PMID:18416855

  4. Periodicities of cardiac mechanics.

    PubMed

    Ben-Haim, S A; Fruchter, G; Hayam, G; Edoute, Y

    1991-08-01

    Using a finite-difference equation to model cardiac mechanics, we simulated the stable action of the left ventricle. This model describes the left ventricular end-diastolic volume as a function of the previous end-diastolic volume and several physiological parameters describing the mechanical properties and hemodynamic loading conditions of the heart. Our theoretical simulations demonstrated that transitions (bifurcations) can occur between different modes of dynamic organization of the isolated working heart as parameters are changed. Different regions in the parameter space are characterized by different stable limit cycle periodicities. Experimental studies carried out in an isolated working rat heart model verified the model predictions. The experimental studies showed that stable periodicities were invoked by changing the parameter values in the direction suggested by the theoretical analysis. We propose in the present work that mechanical periodicities of the heart action are an inherent part of its nonlinear nature. The model predictions and experimental results are compatible with previous experimental data but may contradict several hypotheses suggested to explain the phenomenon of cardiac periodicities. PMID:1877669

  5. Periodical Price Index 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Kathryn Hammell; Alexander, Adrian W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents information on 1992 prices for periodical subscriptions including data on average prices by subject category, price percent increases by subject category, annually since 1983, percentage of titles increasing in price by subject category, average prices by Library of Congress Classification Codes, and price increases indexed to the 1977

  6. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Naylor, J M

    1997-04-01

    Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is an autosomal codominant genetic disease of horses who are descendants of the quarter horse sire Impressive. It produces a muscular phenotype that has been selected by show judges, which has resulted in the rapid dissemination of this disease. Clinical attacks are characterized by muscle fasciculation and spasm, and they respond to treatments for the concurrent hyperkalemia. PMID:9106348

  7. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about

  8. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  9. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  10. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  11. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  12. Tropical spastic paraparesis and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy: clinical, epidemiological, virological and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Gessain, A; Mahieux, R

    2012-03-01

    In 1980, Human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first oncogenic human retrovirus to be discovered. HTLV-1 belongs to the Retroviridae family, the Orthoretrovirinae subfamily and to the deltaretrovirus genus. HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4(+) lymphoid cells in vivo. Three molecules have been identified for binding and/or entry of HTLV-1: heparan sulfate proteoglycans, neuropilin-1, and glucose transporter 1. An efficient transfer of the virus from an infected cell to a target cell can occur through the formation of a viral synapse and/or by virofilm structure. As for all retroviruses, HTLV-1 genome possesses three major ORFs (gag, pol and env) encoding the structural and enzymatic proteins. HTLV-1 encodes also some regulatory and auxillary proteins including the tax protein with transforming activities and the HBZ protein which plays a role in the proliferation and maintenance of the leukemic cells. HTLV-1 is present throughout the world with clusters of high endemicity including mainly Southern Japan, the Caribbean region, areas in South America and in intertropical Africa. The worldwide HTLV-1 infected population is estimated to be around 10-20 million. HTLV-1 has three modes of transmission: (1): mother to child, mainly linked to prolonged breast-feeding; (2): sexual, mainly occurring from male to female and (3): contaminated blood products. HTLV-1 possesses a remarkable genetic stability. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of mainly two severe diseases: a malignant T CD4(+) cell lymphoproliferation, of very poor prognosis, named Adult T cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL), and a chronic neuro-myelopathy named Tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy (TSP/HAM). The lifetime risk among HTLV-1 carriers is estimated to be around 0.25 to 3%. TSP/HAM mainly occurs in adults, with a mean age at onset of 40-50 years and it is more common in women than in men. Blood transfusion is a major risk factor for TSP/HAM development. Clinically, TSP/HAM is mainly defined as a chronic spastic paraparesis and minor sensory signs. The onset is insidious with often gait disturbance and urinary symptoms. In more than 90% of the cases, the neurological features involve: spasticity and/or hyperreflexia of the lower extremities, urinary bladder disturbance, lower extremity muscle weakness, and in around 50% of the cases, sensory disturbances with low back pain. Central functions and cranial nerves are usually spared. The clinical course is generally progressive without remission. High levels of antibodies titers directed against HTLV-1 antigens are present in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A high HTLV-1 proviral load is frequently observed in the blood. Mild to moderate increase of proteins may be present in the CSF. However, intrathecal production of specific HTLV-1 antibody index provides additional data to support the diagnosis. Brain white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging are frequent. A mild atrophy of the thoracic spinal cord can also be observed. Pathologically, it is characterized by a chronic inflammation with perivascular lymphocytic cuffing and mild parenchymal lymphocytic infiltrates. The cells are mostly CD4(+) in early disease and mostly CD8(+) in latter disease. Pyramidal tract damage with myelin and axonal loss, mainly in the lower thoracic spinal cord are observed. TSP/HAM pathogenesis is still poorly understood and viral and host factors as the proviral load and the cellular immune response play a major role in disease progression. TSP/HAM can be associated with other HTLV-1 associated symptoms (uveitis, myositis, infective dermatitis). Therapy of TSP/HAM remains disappointing and symptomatic treatment remains still the mainstay of therapy. PMID:22405461

  13. A plasma diagnostic model of human T-cell leukemia virus-1 associated myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Makoto; Araya, Natsumi; Sato, Tomoo; Saichi, Naomi; Fujii, Risa; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Ueda, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Objective Human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) associated myelopathy/tropic spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is induced by chronic inflammation in spinal cord due to HTLV-1 infection. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neopterin or proviral load are clinically measured as disease grading biomarkers, however, they are not exactly specific to HAM/TSP. Therefore, we aimed to identify HAM/TSP-specific biomarker molecules and establish a novel less-invasive plasma diagnostic model for HAM/TSP. Methods Proteome-wide quantitative profiling of CSFs from six asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (AC) and 51 HAM/TSP patients was performed. Fourteen severity grade biomarker proteins were further examined plasma enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays (n=71). Finally, we constructed three-factor logistic regression model and evaluated the diagnostic power using 105 plasma samples. Results Quantitative analysis for 1871 nonredundant CSF proteins identified from 57 individuals defined 14 CSF proteins showing significant correlation with Osame's motor disability score (OMDS). Subsequent ELISA experiments using 71 plasma specimens confirmed secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) demonstrated the same correlations in plasma (R=?0.373 and R=0.431, respectively). In this training set, we constructed a HAM/TSP diagnostic model using SPARC, VCAM1, and viral load. Sensitivity and specificity to diagnose HAM/TSP patients from AC (AC vs. OMDS 111) were 85.3% and 81.1%, respectively. Importantly, this model could be also useful for determination of therapeutic intervention point (OMDS 13+AC vs. OMDS 411), exhibiting 80.0% sensitivity and 82.9% specificity. Interpretation We propose a novel less-invasive diagnostic model for early detection and clinical stratification of HAM/TSP. PMID:25815350

  14. Modification of BRCA1-Associated Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk by BRCA1 Interacting Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Mitra, Nandita; Domchek, Susan M.; Wan, Fei; Friebel, Tara M.; Tran, Teo V.; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng Maria; Blum, Joanne L.; Tung, Nadine; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Lynch, Henry T.; Snyder, Carrie L.; Garber, Judy E.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Peock, Susan; Evans, D. Gareth; Paterson, Joan; Kennedy, M. John; Donaldson, Alan; Dorkins, Huw; Easton, Douglas F.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Daly, Mary B.; Isaacs, Claudine; Nevanlinna, Heli; Couch, Fergus J.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Freidman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Ganz, Patricia A.; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Narod, Steven A.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Greenberg, Roger; Nathanson, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Inherited BRCA1 mutations confer elevated breast cancer risk. Recent studies have identified genes that encode proteins that interact with BRCA1 as modifiers of BRCA1-associated breast cancer. We evaluated a comprehensive set of genes that encode most known BRCA1 interactors to evaluate the role of these genes as modifiers of cancer risk. A cohort of 2,825 BRCA1 mutation carriers was used to evaluate the association of haplotypes at ATM, BRCC36, BRCC45 (BRE), BRIP1 (BACH1/FANCJ), CTIP, ABRA1 (FAM175A), MERIT40, MRE11A, NBS1, PALB2 (FANCN), RAD50, RAD51, RAP80, TOPBP1 and time to breast and ovarian cancer diagnosis. False Discovery Rate (FDR) adjusted p-value for overall association of haplotypes (pFDR) with breast cancer were identified at ATM (pFDR =0.029), BRCC45 (pFDR=0.0.19), BRIP1 (pFDR =0.008), CTIP (pFDR =0.017), MERIT40 (pFDR =0.019), NBS1 (pFDR=0.003), RAD50 (pFDR=0.014), and TOPBP1 (pFDR =0.011) and were associated with breast cancer risk. Haplotypes at ABRA1 (pFDR=0.007), BRCC45 (pFDR=0.016 and pFDR=0.005 in two haplotype blocks) and RAP80 (pFDR<0.001) were associated with ovarian cancer risk. Overall, the data suggest that genomic variation at multiple loci that encode proteins that interact biologically with BRCA1 are associated with modified breast cancer and ovarian cancer risk in women who carry BRCA1 mutations. PMID:21799032

  15. Neuroimaging and clinical characterization of Sotos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Trkmen, S; ?ahin, S; Koer, N; Peters, H; Mundlos, S; Tysz, B

    2015-01-01

    Sotos syndrome is a well-known overgrowth syndrome characterized by excessive growth during childhood, macrocephaly, distinctive facial appearance and learning disability. This disorder is caused by mutations or deletions in NSD1 gene. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the neuroimaging and clinical features of children with Sotos syndrome. Six Turkish children with Sotos syndrome were followed up about 3-7 years. The diagnosis was confirmed with molecular genetic analysis. We identified the pathogenic NSD1 mutation including three novel in all patients. All the patients had a characteristic facial gestalt of Sotos syndrome consisting of triangular face with prominent forehead, frontoparietal sparseness of hair and small nose. However, the degree of psychomotor and intellectual development was variable. Severe learning defect and speech delay were remarkable in two patients. The neuroimaging analysis showed abnormalities in four of six patients including bilateral large ventricles, thinning of the corpus callosum and persistent cavum septum pellucidum et vergae. Typical craniofacial appearance is the primary finding for the diagnosis of the disease even in the infantile period. However, the degree of psychomotor and intellectual development is very variable and does not correlate with the neuroimaging findings. PMID:26043501

  16. CANDLE SYNDROME: Orodfacial manifestations and dental implications.

    PubMed

    Roberts, T; Stephen, L; Scott, C; di Pasquale, T; Naser-Eldin, A; Chetty, M; Shaik, S; Lewandowski, L; Beighton, P

    2015-01-01

    A South African girl with CANDLE Syndrome is reported with emphasis on the orodental features and dental management. Clinical manifestations included short stature, wasting of the soft tissue of the arms and legs, erythematous skin eruptions and a prominent abdomen due to hepatosplenomegaly. Generalized microdontia, confirmed by tooth measurement and osteopenia of her jaws, confirmed by digitalized radiography, were previously undescribed syndromic components. Intellectual impairment posed problems during dental intervention. The carious dental lesions and poor oral hygiene were treated conservatively under local anaesthetic. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered an hour before all procedures.Due to the nature of her general condition, invasive dental procedures were minimal. Regular follow-ups were scheduled at six monthly intervals. During this period, her overall oral health status had improved markedly.The CANDLE syndrome is a rare condition with grave complications including immunosuppression and diabetes mellitus. As with many genetic disorders, the dental manifestations are often overshadowed by other more conspicuous and complex syndromic features. Recognition of both the clinical and oral changes that occur in the CANDLE syndrome facilitates accurate diagnosis and appropriate dental management of this potentially lethal condition. PMID:26711936

  17. A Boy with Relentless Pruritus: Job's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kamran; Wozniak, Susan E; Giannone, Anna Lucia; Abdulmassih, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Job's syndrome (hyper IgE syndrome) is a very rare primary immunodeficiency disease that has an annual approximate incidence of less than 1/1,000,000. This manuscript aims to provide education regarding diagnosis and management strategies of this syndrome worldwide. CASE REPORT A 6-year-old boy was seen at the clinic secondary to persistent pruritus interfering with sleep. At the age of 2 months, the patient developed diffuse eczematous and desquamating skin lesions. He was subsequently diagnosed with atopic dermatitis and managed conservatively. From 2 months to 7 years of age, intermittent exacerbations of dermatitis persisted despite an aggressive treatment regimen. The serum IgE level increased exponentially over a period of 7 years, with a peak value of 57,400 IU/ml. Molecular genetic testing revealed a dominant negative mutation within the SH2 domain of the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT3) gene. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with Job's syndrome. Management included proper skin care, prophylactic antibiotics, immunomodulating agents, and psychotherapy. CONCLUSIONS Job's syndrome can often go unrecognized and masquerade as atopic dermatitis. Therefore, genetic testing for this condition should be obtained in all patients with treatment-refractory AD. Additionally, psychotherapy can be a successful management strategy for the grating psychological impact that can be imposed on children with excessive pruritus. PMID:26897360

  18. Periodic Fever: A Review on Clinical, Management and Guideline for Iranian Patients - Part I

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Mansori, Sedigeh; Ziaee, Vahid; Alijani, Neda; Aghighi, Yahya; Parvaneh, Nima; Mordinejad, Mohammad-Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Periodic fever syndromes are a group of diseases characterized by episodes of fever with healthy intervals between febrile episodes. The first manifestation of these disorders are present in childhood and adolescence, but infrequently it may be presented in young and middle ages. Genetic base has been known for all types of periodic fever syndromes except periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA). Common periodic fever disorders are Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and PFAPA. In each patient with periodic fever, acquired infection with chronic and periodic nature should be ruled out. It depends on epidemiology of infectious diseases. Some of them such as Familial Mediterranean fever and PFAPA are common in Iran. In Iran and other Middle East countries, brucellosis, malaria and infectious mononucleosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of periodic fever disorders especially with fever and arthritis manifestation. In children, urinary tract infection may be presented as periodic disorder, urine analysis and culture is necessary in each child with periodic symptoms. Some malignancies such as leukemia and tumoral lesions should be excluded in patients with periodic syndrome and weight loss in any age. After excluding infection, malignancy and cyclic neutropenia, FMF and PFAPA are the most common periodic fever disorders. Similar to other countries, Hyper IgD, Chronic Infantile Neurologic Cutaneous and Articular, TRAPS and other auto-inflammatory syndromes are rare causes of periodic fever in Iranian system registry. In part 1 of this paper we reviewed the prevalence of FMF and PFAPA in Iran. In part 2, some uncommon auto-inflammatory disorders such as TRAPS, Hyper IgD sydrome and cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes will be reviewed. PMID:25793039

  19. DISC1 association, heterogeneity and interplay in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Hennah, W; Thomson, P; McQuillin, A; Bass, N; Loukola, A; Anjorin, A; Blackwood, D; Curtis, D; Deary, I J; Harris, S E; Isomets, E T; Lawrence, J; Lnnqvist, J; Muir, W; Palotie, A; Partonen, T; Paunio, T; Pylkk, E; Robinson, M; Soronen, P; Suominen, K; Suvisaari, J; Thirumalai, S; St Clair, D; Gurling, H; Peltonen, L; Porteous, D

    2009-09-01

    Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) has been associated with risk of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, major depression, autism and Asperger syndrome, but apart from in the original translocation family, true causal variants have yet to be confirmed. Here we report a harmonized association study for DISC1 in European cohorts of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We identify regions of significant association, demonstrate allele frequency heterogeneity and provide preliminary evidence for modifying interplay between variants. Whereas no associations survived permutation analysis in the combined data set, significant corrected associations were observed for bipolar disorder at rs1538979 in the Finnish cohorts (uncorrected P=0.00020; corrected P=0.016; odds ratio=2.73+/-95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42-5.27) and at rs821577 in the London cohort (uncorrected P=0.00070; corrected P=0.040; odds ratio=1.64+/-95% CI 1.23-2.19). The rs821577 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showed evidence for increased risk within the combined European cohorts (odds ratio=1.27+/-95% CI 1.07-1.51), even though significant corrected association was not detected (uncorrected P=0.0058; corrected P=0.28). After conditioning the European data set on the two risk alleles, reanalysis revealed a third significant SNP association (uncorrected P=0.00050; corrected P=0.025). This SNP showed evidence for interplay, either increasing or decreasing risk, dependent upon the presence or absence of rs1538979 or rs821577. These findings provide further support for the role of DISC1 in psychiatric illness and demonstrate the presence of locus heterogeneity, with the effect that clinically relevant genetic variants may go undetected by standard analysis of combined cohorts. PMID:18317464

  20. Syndrome in question*

    PubMed Central

    Peruzzo, Juliano; Nazar, Fernanda Luca; Tubone, Mariana Quirino; Escobar, Gabriela Fortes; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is an inherited disease characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, pigmentation changes and minor facial malformations. It has four clinical variants. We report the case of a girl who, like her mother, was affected by this syndrome. The diagnosis was made after detection and treatment of deafness. PMID:26375234

  1. Fanconi-Bickel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mohandas Nair K; Sakamoto, Osamu; Jagadeesh, Sujatha; Nampoothiri, Sheela

    2012-01-01

    We present the first mutation proven case of Fanconi-Bickel syndrome, a rare type of glycogen storage disease, from India. A four-year-old girl presented with severe growth retardation, genu varum and hepatomegaly. Investigations confirmed severe hypophosphatemic rickets and Fanconi syndrome. Molecular analysis confirmed a homozygous deletion insertion mutation in Glut 2 gene. PMID:21327337

  2. Cri du chat syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Cri du chat syndrome is a group of symptoms that result from missing a piece of chromosome number 5. The syndrome’s ... Cri du chat syndrome is rare. It is caused by a missing piece of chromosome 5. Most cases are believed to ...

  3. Macrocytosis in Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachtel, Tom J.; Pueschel, Siegfried M.

    1991-01-01

    The study, with 61 Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) adult subjects, found that macrocytosis in the absence of anemia was virtually universal and erythrocyte survival half-time was shorter than normal. Findings suggest that erythrocytes have a younger mean age in persons with Down Syndrome, possibly indicating an accelerated aging process of red blood…

  4. Redefining syndromic surveillance.

    PubMed

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Baker, Julia; Test, Elisa

    2011-12-01

    With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field's capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries. PMID:23856373

  5. Managing Sjogren's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Sheila; Tagliavini, Lynda B

    2015-10-01

    There are approximately 4 million Americans diagnosed with Sjogren's Syndrome. This article discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostics, and implications for home care clinicians who may encounter patients with this syndrome. Chronic pain is discussed as well as interventions to manage symptoms such fatigue, dry eyes mouth and skin. PMID:26418108

  6. National Down Syndrome Society

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Syndrome Advocacy 101 About NDSS Mission & Vision NDSS History Our Team Media Kit Financials Newsroom Shop NDSS NDSS #DSWORKS Employment ... Syndrome Advocacy 101 About NDSS Mission & Vision NDSS History Our Team Media Kit Financials Newsroom Contact Us Helpline: 800-221- ...

  7. The sick building syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sumedha M.

    2008-01-01

    The sick building syndrome comprises of various nonspecific symptoms that occur in the occupants of a building. This feeling of ill health increases sickness absenteeism and causes a decrease in productivity of the workers. As this syndrome is increasingly becoming a major occupational hazard, the cause, management and prevention of this condition have been discussed in this article. PMID:20040980

  8. Tics and Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... go, and usually they aren't a severe problem. It is possible for your child to have a tic but not have Tourette syndrome. Talk to your ... go, and usually they aren't a severe problem. It is possible for your child to have a tic but not have Tourette syndrome. Talk to your ...

  9. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS), also called polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PGAS), are a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterized by autoimmune activity against more than one endocrine organs, although non-endocrine organs can be affected. The two major autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes, (type1-type2/APS-1 and APS-2), both have Addison's disease as a prominent component. Further autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes include APS3 and APS4. The major autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes have a strong genetic component with the type 2 syndrome occurring in multiple generations and the type I syndrome in siblings. It is well recognized that more than 20years may elapse between the onset on one endocrinopathy and the diagnosis of the next, for example, almost 40-50% of subjects with Addison's disease will develop an associated endocrinopathy. The discovery of the polyendocrine autoimmune syndromes offered the possibility to understand autoimmune disorders with particular interest for type 1A diabetes and the neuroendocrine immunology (NEI) is further contributing to understand the links. PMID:24055063

  10. Epidemiology of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur

  11. Acute Coronary Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2015 So youve never heard of an acute coronary syndrome. But what about heart attack , or unstable angina ? Those well-known conditions are ... too many doctors say, Youre having an acute coronary syndrome. They say, Youre having a heart attack. What are the symptoms? Chest pain or discomfort ...

  12. Irritable bowel syndrome - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may be a lifelong condition. You may be suffering from cramping and loose stools, ... Ferri FF. Irritable bowel syndrome. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:pages 669-70. What ...

  13. Irritable bowel syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder that leads to abdominal pain and bowel changes. IBS is not ... Ferri FF. Irritable bowel syndrome. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2016 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:723-4. Mayer EA. ...

  14. Marshall/Stickler syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baraitser, Michael

    1982-01-01

    A family originally reported as a variant of Marshall syndrome is re-examined. The clinical picture now encompasses both the Marshall and Stickler syndromes and it is suggested that the distinction between the two should be abandoned. Images PMID:7077624

  15. Macrocytosis in Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachtel, Tom J.; Pueschel, Siegfried M.

    1991-01-01

    The study, with 61 Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) adult subjects, found that macrocytosis in the absence of anemia was virtually universal and erythrocyte survival half-time was shorter than normal. Findings suggest that erythrocytes have a younger mean age in persons with Down Syndrome, possibly indicating an accelerated aging process of red blood

  16. Geriatric Sexuality Breakdown Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaas, Merrie Jean

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on the relationship between social environment and the older individual. By utilizing the Social Breakdown Syndrome a cycle of events is defined by the Geriatric Sexuality Breakdown Syndrome, in which an older individual is initially predisposed to diminished sexual activity to the end point of self-identification as nonsexual. (Author)

  17. A prospective uncontrolled trial of fermented milk drink containing viable Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota in the treatment of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Toshio; Saito, Mineki; Usuku, Koichiro; Nose, Hirohisa; Izumo, Shuji; Arimura, Kimiyoshi; Osame, Mitsuhiro

    2005-10-15

    Ten patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) were treated in an uncontrolled preliminary trial by oral administration of viable Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) containing fermented milk. HTLV-1 provirus load, motor function, neurological findings, and immunological parameters were evaluated after 4 weeks. Although LcS did not change the frequencies or absolute numbers of all the examined cell surface phenotypes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, NK cell activity was significantly increased after 4 weeks of oral administration of LcS preparation. Improvements in spasticity (modified Ashworth Scale scores) and urinary symptoms were also seen after LcS treatment. No adverse effect was observed in all the 10 patients throughout the study period. Our results indicated that LcS may be a safe and beneficial agent for the treatment of HAM/TSP; therefore randomized controlled studies are warranted. PMID:15961107

  18. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  19. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself.

  20. Craniosynostosis in Alagille syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Binita M; Stolle, Catherine; Bason, Lynn; Colliton, Raymond P; Piccoli, David A; Spinner, Nancy B; Krantz, Ian D

    2002-10-01

    Alagille syndrome is a multisystem developmental disorder with primary involvement of the liver, heart, skeleton, eyes and facial structures, and demonstrates highly variable expressivity with respect to all of the involved systems. Alagille syndrome is caused by mutations in the Jagged1 gene. Jagged1 is a ligand in the Notch signaling pathway that has been shown to regulate early cell fate determination. Mutations in Jagged1 have been identified in approximately 80% of patients with Alagille syndrome. We have recently identified two patients with mutation proven Alagille syndrome who also had unilateral coronal craniosynostosis. Both individuals were screened for mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, 2, 3 and TWIST genes, all associated with various types of craniosynostosis and no mutations were identified. The finding of a conserved form of craniosynostosis in two unrelated patients with Alagille syndrome and mutations in Jagged1 may indicate that Jagged1 plays a role in cranial suture formation. PMID:12244552

  1. Thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, John E; Lebus V, George F; Bible, Jesse E

    2015-04-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is a well-described disorder caused by thoracic outlet compression of the brachial plexus and/or the subclavian vessels. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome is the most common manifestation, presenting with pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, and vasomotor changes of the upper extremity. Vascular complications of thoracic outlet syndrome are uncommon and include thromboembolic phenomena and swelling. The clinical presentation is highly variable, and no reproducible study exists to confirm the diagnosis; instead, the diagnosis is based on a physician's judgment after a meticulous history and physical examination. Both nonsurgical and surgical treatment methods are available for thoracic outlet syndrome. Whereas nonsurgical management appears to be effective in some persons, surgical treatment has been shown to provide predictable long-term cure rates for carefully selected patients. In addition, physicians who do not regularly treat patients with thoracic outlet syndrome may not have an accurate view of this disorder, its treatment, or the possible success rate of treatment. PMID:25808686

  2. Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, DN; Raval, N; Patadiya, H; Tarsariya, V

    2014-01-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS) (the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused due to mutations in the patched gene found on chromosome arm 9 q. It shows high penetrance and variable expressivity; is characterized by basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts, palmar and/or plantar pits and ectopic calcifications of the falx cerebri. Until date, very few cases of GGS have been reported in India. Early diagnosis and treatment as well as genetic counseling are essential for this syndrome. A rare case report of a patient with characteristic features of GGS diagnosed at a rural dental college of Gujarat, India is presented here. This case report draws attention of the valuable role of dentist in diagnosis and early management of this syndrome. PMID:24761254

  3. The skinache syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Bassøe, C F

    1995-01-01

    Chronic pain of unknown aetiology, and characterized by cutaneous trigger points, has been coined the skinache syndrome. The treatment of the skinache syndrome was evaluated in 94 patients by two independent methods 2 years after treatment. After one subcutaneous injection of lidocaine 68% of the patients were cured. The pain recurred in 27 patients having suffered for an average of 2 years. Surgical removal of the cutaneous trigger points cured 77% of the latter patients. The odds ratio of success of surgical treatment versus all other treatments combined was 101.3. The skinache syndrome requires a precise clinical investigation. Even when the origin of the pain in tendons, muscle and adipose tissue is excluded, the skinache syndrome remains a common, debilitating disorder. In contrast to fibromyalgia, the skinache syndrome has a simple and effective cure. PMID:8537946

  4. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  5. The yeast telomerase RNA, TLC1, participates in two distinct modes of TLC1-TLC1 association processes in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Matsuguchi, Tet

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase core enzyme minimally consists of the telomerase reverse transcriptase domain-containing protein (Est2 in budding yeast S. cerevisiae) and telomerase RNA, which contains the template specifying the telomeric repeat sequence synthesized. Here we report that in vivo, a fraction of S. cerevisiae telomerase RNA (TLC1) molecules form complexes containing at least two molecules of TLC1, via two separable modes: one requiring a sequence in the 3′ region of the immature TLC1 precursor and the other requiring Ku and Sir4. Such physical TLC1-TLC1 association peaked in G1 phase and did not require telomere silencing, telomere tethering to the nuclear periphery, telomerase holoenzyme assembly, or detectable Est2-Est2 protein association. These data indicate that TLC1-TLC1 associations reflect processes occurring during telomerase biogenesis; we propose that TLC1-TLC1 associations and subsequent reorganization may be regulatory steps in telomerase enzymatic activation. PMID:27004145

  6. Axillary Web Syndrome after Sentinel Node Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Aydogan, Fatih; Belli, Ahmet Korkut; Baghaki, Semih; Karabulut, Kagan; Tahan, Gulgun; Uras, Cihan

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Axillary web syndrome (AWS) is a self-limiting cause of morbidity in the early postoperative period after axillary surgery, but it is encountered also after sentinel lymph node biopsy. The syndrome is characterized by cords of subcutaneous tissue extending from the axilla into the medial arm. Case Report Here, we report a patient presenting with AWS several weeks after sentinel lymph node biopsy. Conclusion AWS has been reported to be resolved spontaneously in all patients 816 weeks after axillary surgery, and shoulder movements improve in this period. There is no definitive treatment modality for AWS. Patients should be reassured and informed that this condition will improve even without treatment. PMID:21076609

  7. Legius syndrome, an Update. Molecular pathology of mutations in SPRED1.

    PubMed

    Brems, Hilde; Legius, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Multiple caf-au-lait macules (CALMs) are the hallmark of Von Recklinghausen disease, or neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). In 2007 we reported that some individuals with multiple CALMs have a heterozygous mutation in the SPRED1 gene and have NF1-like syndrome, or Legius syndrome. Individuals with Legius syndrome have multiple CALMs with or without freckling, but they do not show the typical NF1-associated tumors such as neurofibromas or optic pathway gliomas. NF1-associated bone abnormalities and Lisch nodules are also not reported in patients with Legius syndrome. Consequently, individuals with Legius syndrome require less intense medical surveillance than those with NF1. The SPRED1 gene was identified in 2001 and codes for a protein that downregulates the RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (RAS-MAPK) pathway; as does neurofibromin, the protein encoded by the NF1 gene. It is estimated that about 1-4% of individuals with multiple CALMs have a heterozygous SPRED1 mutation. Mutational and clinical data on 209 patients with Legius syndrome are tabulated in an online database (http://www.lovd.nl/SPRED1). Mice with homozygous knockout of the Spred1 gene show learning deficits and decreased synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons similar to those seen in Nf1 heterozygous mice, underlining the importance of the RAS-MAPK pathway for learning and memory. Recently, specific binding between neurofibromin and SPRED1 was demonstrated. SPRED1 seems to play an important role in recruiting neurofibromin to the plasma membrane. PMID:24334617

  8. The Source for Syndromes 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Hoge, Debra Reichert

    Designed for practicing speech-language pathologists, this book discusses different lesser-known syndrome disabilities, pertinent speech-language characteristics, and goals and strategies to begin intervention efforts at a preschool level. Chapters address: (1) Apert syndrome; (2) Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome; (3) CHARGE syndrome; (4) Cri-du-Chat

  9. Cutaneous pseudovasculitis, antiphospholipid syndrome and obstetric misadventure.

    PubMed

    Thayaparan, A S; Lowe, S A

    2015-09-01

    We present two women with severe obstetric complications from antiphospholipid (aPL) syndrome associated with a rare dermatological manifestation, cutaneous pseudovasculitis. Both of these women developed a rash on the palmar aspect of the hands during the post partum period, with histology consistent with microthrombotic disease, despite anticoagulation. Cutaneous pseudovasculitis appears to be a maternal manifestation of aPL coagulopathy, possibly reflecting the severity of the underlying pregnancy pathology. PMID:25748061

  10. Hydrodynamics of periodic breathers.

    PubMed

    Chabchoub, A; Kibler, B; Dudley, J M; Akhmediev, N

    2014-10-28

    We report the first experimental observation of periodic breathers in water waves. One of them is Kuznetsov-Ma soliton and another one is Akhmediev breather. Each of them is a localized solution of the nonlinear Schrdinger equation (NLS) on a constant background. The difference is in localization which is either in time or in space. The experiments conducted in a water wave flume show results that are in good agreement with the NLS theory. Basic features of the breathers that include the maximal amplitudes and spectra are consistent with the theoretical predictions. PMID:25246673

  11. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Haider; Kothari, Nikhil; Bogra, Jaishri

    2012-01-01

    Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a rare genetic disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of skeletal muscle weakness with associated hypokalemia which is precipitated by stress, cold, carbohydrate load, infection, glucose infusion, hypothermia, metabolic alkalosis, anesthesia, and steroids. We encountered one such incidence of prolonged recovery after general anesthesia, which on further evaluation revealed a case of hypokalemic paralysis. The key to successful management of such a patient was vigilant pre-operative evaluation, perioperative monitoring, and aggressive treatment of hypokalemia when it occurs. PMID:23833504

  12. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates. PMID:17757358

  13. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  14. Differential secretion of the mutated protein is a major component affecting phenotypic severity in CRLF1-associated disorders

    PubMed Central

    Herholz, Jana; Meloni, Alessandra; Marongiu, Mara; Chiappe, Francesca; Deiana, Manila; Herrero, Carmen Roche; Zampino, Giuseppe; Hamamy, Hanan; Zalloum, Yusra; Waaler, Per Erik; Crisponi, Giangiorgio; Crisponi, Laura; Rutsch, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Crisponi syndrome (CS) and cold-induced sweating syndrome type 1 (CISS1) are disorders caused by mutations in CRLF1. The two syndromes share clinical characteristics, such as dysmorphic features, muscle contractions, scoliosis and cold-induced sweating, with CS patients showing a severe clinical course in infancy involving hyperthermia, associated with death in most cases in the first years of life. To evaluate a potential genotype/phenotype correlation and whether CS and CISS1 represent two allelic diseases or manifestations at different ages of the same disorder, we carried out a detailed clinical analysis of 19 patients carrying mutations in CRLF1. We studied the functional significance of the mutations found in CRLF1, providing evidence that phenotypic severity of the two disorders mainly depends on altered kinetics of secretion of the mutated CRLF1 protein. On the basis of these findings, we believe that the two syndromes, CS and CISS1, represent manifestations of the same disorder, with different degrees of severity. We suggest renaming the two genetic entities CS and CISS1 with the broader term of SoharCrisponi syndrome. PMID:21326283

  15. Differential secretion of the mutated protein is a major component affecting phenotypic severity in CRLF1-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Herholz, Jana; Meloni, Alessandra; Marongiu, Mara; Chiappe, Francesca; Deiana, Manila; Herrero, Carmen Roche; Zampino, Giuseppe; Hamamy, Hanan; Zalloum, Yusra; Waaler, Per Erik; Crisponi, Giangiorgio; Crisponi, Laura; Rutsch, Frank

    2011-05-01

    Crisponi syndrome (CS) and cold-induced sweating syndrome type 1 (CISS1) are disorders caused by mutations in CRLF1. The two syndromes share clinical characteristics, such as dysmorphic features, muscle contractions, scoliosis and cold-induced sweating, with CS patients showing a severe clinical course in infancy involving hyperthermia, associated with death in most cases in the first years of life. To evaluate a potential genotype/phenotype correlation and whether CS and CISS1 represent two allelic diseases or manifestations at different ages of the same disorder, we carried out a detailed clinical analysis of 19 patients carrying mutations in CRLF1. We studied the functional significance of the mutations found in CRLF1, providing evidence that phenotypic severity of the two disorders mainly depends on altered kinetics of secretion of the mutated CRLF1 protein. On the basis of these findings, we believe that the two syndromes, CS and CISS1, represent manifestations of the same disorder, with different degrees of severity. We suggest renaming the two genetic entities CS and CISS1 with the broader term of Sohar-Crisponi syndrome. PMID:21326283

  16. Subgingival Microbiota in Adult Down Syndrome Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Khocht, Ahmed; Yaskell, Tina; Janal, Malvin; Turner, Bobby F.; Rams, Thomas E.; Haffajee, Anne D.; Socransky, Sigmund S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The subgingival microbiota in Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome (non-DS) adults receiving periodic dental care was examined for 40 bacterial species with checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization, and related to clinical periodontal attachment loss (AL). Methods A total of 44 Down syndrome, 66 non-DS mentally retarded, and 83 mentally normal adults were clinically evaluated, with subgingival specimens removed and pooled per subject from three interproximal sites on different teeth, and assessed for the presence and levels of 40 bacterial species using species-specific whole genomic DNA probes and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Significant group differences in species proportions averaged across subjects were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and associations between subgingival species and mean subject AL within Down syndrome and non-DS subject groups were quantified with Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. Results Down syndrome subjects exhibited greater AL than non-DS subjects (P = 0.05). Down syndrome subjects yielded most microbial species at levels similar to non-DS subjects, except for higher proportions of Selenomonas noxia, Propionibacterium acnes, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus oralis as compared to non-DS study subjects, higher Treponema socranskii than non-DS mentally retarded subjects, and higher Streptococcus constellatus relative to mentally normal subjects. Down syndrome adults classified with periodontitis revealed higher subgingival levels of T. socranskii than non-periodontitis Down syndrome subjects (P = 0.02). Higher subgingival proportions of S. constellatus, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum, S. noxia and Prevotella nigrescens showed significant positive correlations (r = 0.35 to 0.42), and Actinomyces naeslundii II and Actinomyces odontolyticus negative correlations (r = ?0.36 to ?0.40), with increasing mean subject AL in Down syndrome adults. Conclusions Individuals with DS show higher levels of some subgingival bacterial species and specific associations between certain subgingival bacterial species and loss of periodontal attachment. These findings are consistent with the notion that certain subgingival bacteria may contribute to the increased level of periodontal disease seen in DS individuals, and raise the question as to the reason for increased colonization in DS. PMID:22221039

  17. ST3GAL1-Associated Transcriptomic Program in Glioblastoma Tumor Growth, Invasion, and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Yuk Kien; Sandanaraj, Edwin; Koh, Lynnette W. H.; Thangaveloo, Moogaambikai; Tan, Melanie S. Y.; Koh, Geraldene R. H.; Toh, Tan Boon; Lim, Grace G. Y.; Holbrook, Joanna D.; Kon, Oi Lian; Nadarajah, Mahendran; Ng, Ivan; Ng, Wai Hoe; Tan, Nguan Soon; Lim, Kah Leong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cell surface sialylation is associated with tumor cell invasiveness in many cancers. Glioblastoma is the most malignant primary brain tumor and is highly infiltrative. ST3GAL1 sialyltransferase gene is amplified in a subclass of glioblastomas, and its role in tumor cell self-renewal remains unexplored. Methods: Self-renewal of patient glioma cells was evaluated using clonogenic, viability, and invasiveness assays. ST3GAL1 was identified from differentially expressed genes in Peanut Agglutinin–stained cells and validated in REMBRANDT (n = 390) and Gravendeel (n = 276) clinical databases. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upstream processes. TGFβ signaling on ST3GAL1 transcription was assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation. Transcriptome analysis of ST3GAL1 knockdown cells was done to identify downstream pathways. A constitutively active FoxM1 mutant lacking critical anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome ([APC/C]-Cdh1) binding sites was used to evaluate ST3Gal1-mediated regulation of FoxM1 protein. Finally, the prognostic role of ST3Gal1 was determined using an orthotopic xenograft model (3 mice groups comprising nontargeting and 2 clones of ST3GAL1 knockdown in NNI-11 [8 per group] and NNI-21 [6 per group]), and the correlation with patient clinical information. All statistical tests on patients’ data were two-sided; other P values below are one-sided. Results: High ST3GAL1 expression defines an invasive subfraction with self-renewal capacity; its loss of function prolongs survival in a mouse model established from mesenchymal NNI-11 (P < .001; groups of 8 in 3 arms: nontargeting, C1, and C2 clones of ST3GAL1 knockdown). ST3GAL1 transcriptomic program stratifies patient survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.72 to 3.55, REMBRANDT P = 1.92x10-8; HR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.94 to 4.30, Gravendeel P = 1.05x10-11), independent of age and histology, and associates with higher tumor grade and T2 volume (P = 1.46x10-4). TGFβ signaling, elevated in mesenchymal patients, correlates with high ST3GAL1 (REMBRANDT gliomacor = 0.31, P = 2.29x10-10; Gravendeel gliomacor = 0.50, P = 3.63x10-20). The transcriptomic program upon ST3GAL1 knockdown enriches for mitotic cell cycle processes. FoxM1 was identified as a statistically significantly modulated gene (P = 2.25x10-5) and mediates ST3Gal1 signaling via the (APC/C)-Cdh1 complex. Conclusions: The ST3GAL1-associated transcriptomic program portends poor prognosis in glioma patients and enriches for higher tumor grades of the mesenchymal molecular classification. We show that ST3Gal1-regulated self-renewal traits are crucial to the sustenance of glioblastoma multiforme growth. PMID:26547933

  18. Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes.

    PubMed

    Michels, Aaron W; Gottlieb, Peter A

    2010-05-01

    The autoimmune polyglandular syndromes-a group of syndromes comprising a combination of endocrine and nonendocrine autoimmune diseases-differ in their component diseases and in the immunologic features of their pathogenesis. One of the three main syndromes, type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS-1), has a unique pathogenic mechanism owing to mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, which results in the loss of central tolerance-a process by which developing T cells with potential reactivity for self-antigens are eliminated during early differentiation in the thymus. Patients with IPEX (immune dysfunction, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) syndrome harbor mutations in the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) gene in regulatory T cells, which leads to severe autoimmunity and immune deficiency. Although both of these disorders are rare, their well-defined mechanisms of disease provide a basis for the understanding of the more common condition, APS-2. In this syndrome, alleles of human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) determine the targeting of specific tissues by autoreactive T cells, which leads to organ-specific autoimmunity as a result of this loss of tolerance. Non-HLA genes also contribute to autoimmunity in APS-2 and, depending on the polymorphism, potentially predispose to a loss of tolerance or influence which organ is specifically targeted. This Review discusses the genetic basis of APS-1, APS-2 and IPEX syndrome, with an emphasis on the mechanisms of autoimmunity and presents currently available therapies to treat their underlying autoimmune disorders. PMID:20309000

  19. Vascular compression syndromes.

    PubMed

    Czihal, Michael; Banafsche, Ramin; Hoffmann, Ulrich; Koeppel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Dealing with vascular compression syndromes is one of the most challenging tasks in Vascular Medicine practice. This heterogeneous group of disorders is characterised by external compression of primarily healthy arteries and/or veins as well as accompanying nerval structures, carrying the risk of subsequent structural vessel wall and nerve damage. Vascular compression syndromes may severely impair health-related quality of life in affected individuals who are typically young and otherwise healthy. The diagnostic approach has not been standardised for any of the vascular compression syndromes. Moreover, some degree of positional external compression of blood vessels such as the subclavian and popliteal vessels or the celiac trunk can be found in a significant proportion of healthy individuals. This implies important difficulties in differentiating physiological from pathological findings of clinical examination and diagnostic imaging with provocative manoeuvres. The level of evidence on which treatment decisions regarding surgical decompression with or without revascularisation can be relied on is generally poor, mostly coming from retrospective single centre studies. Proper patient selection is critical in order to avoid overtreatment in patients without a clear association between vascular compression and clinical symptoms. With a focus on the thoracic outlet-syndrome, the median arcuate ligament syndrome and the popliteal entrapment syndrome, the present article gives a selective literature review on compression syndromes from an interdisciplinary vascular point of view. PMID:26515219

  20. The first case of adult-onset PFAPA syndrome in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kutsuna, Satoshi; Ohmagari, Norio; Tanizaki, Ryutaro; Hagino, Noboru; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Ujiie, Mugen; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Kanagawa, Shuzo

    2016-03-01

    A 26-year-old woman presented with fever and pharyngitis. She previously experienced four periodic febrile episodes at 30- to 40-day intervals. We suspected periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome, and prescribed predisolone, thereby her fever rapidly subsided. Her febrile episodes improved after daily cimetidine treatment. Genetic testing results of genomic DNA for periodic fever syndromes were negative, although she was heterozygous for p.Glu148Gln variation in MEFV, supporting the diagnosis of PFAPA syndrome. PMID:24289199