Sample records for 1-butene 2-methylpropene trans-2-butene

  1. Metabolism of 2-Methylpropene (Isobutylene) by the Aerobic Bacterium Mycobacterium sp. Strain ELW1.


    Kottegoda, Samanthi; Waligora, Elizabeth; Hyman, Michael


    An aerobic bacterium (Mycobacterium sp. strain ELW1) that utilizes 2-methylpropene (isobutylene) as a sole source of carbon and energy was isolated and characterized. Strain ELW1 grew on 2-methylpropene (growth rate = 0.05 h(-1)) with a yield of 0.38 mg (dry weight) mg 2-methylpropene(-1). Strain ELW1 also grew more slowly on both cis- and trans-2-butene but did not grow on any other C2 to C5 straight-chain, branched, or chlorinated alkenes tested. Resting 2-methylpropene-grown cells consumed ethene, propene, and 1-butene without a lag phase. Epoxyethane accumulated as the only detected product of ethene oxidation. Both alkene consumption and epoxyethane production were fully inhibited in cells exposed to 1-octyne, suggesting that alkene oxidation is initiated by an alkyne-sensitive, epoxide-generating monooxygenase. Kinetic analyses indicated that 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane is rapidly consumed during 2-methylpropene degradation, while 2-methyl-2-propen-1-ol is not a significant metabolite of 2-methylpropene catabolism. Degradation of 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane by 2-methylpropene-grown cells led to the accumulation and further degradation of 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, two sequential metabolites previously identified in the aerobic microbial metabolism of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Growth of strain ELW1 on 2-methylpropene, 1,2-epoxy-2-methylpropane, 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol, and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate was fully inhibited when cobalt ions were omitted from the growth medium, while growth on 3-hydroxybutyrate and other substrates was unaffected by the absence of added cobalt ions. Our results suggest that, like aerobic MTBE- and TBA-metabolizing bacteria, strain ELW1 utilizes a cobalt/cobalamin-dependent mutase to transform 2-hydroxyisobutyrate. Our results have been interpreted in terms of their impact on our understanding of the microbial metabolism of alkenes and ether oxygenates. PMID:25576605

  2. Vacuum ultraviolet-infrared photo-induced Rydberg ionization spectroscopy: C-H stretching frequencies for trans-2-butene and trichloroethene cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, H. K.; Wang, P.; Lau, K.-C.; Xing, X.; Ng, C. Y.


    We have demonstrated the two-color vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)-infrared (IR) photoinduced Rydberg ionization (PIRI) experiment. Trichloroethene (ClCH=CCl2) and trans-2-butene (trans-CH3CH=CHCH3) were prepared in Rydberg states in the range of effective principal quantum number n*?7-93 by VUV excitation prior to IR-induced autoionization. The observed VUV-IR-PIRI spectra are found to be independent of n*, suggesting that the electron Rydberg orbital is conserved, i.e., the Rydberg electron is behaving as a spectator during the excitation process. The observed IR active C-H stretching vibrational frequencies ?12+=3072±5 cm-1 for ClCH=CCl2+ and ?23+=2908±3 cm-1, ?25+=2990±10 cm-1 and ?30+=3022±10 cm-1 for trans-CH3CH=CHCH3+ are compared with predictions based on ab initio quantum-chemical procedures and density functional calculations.

  3. Oxidative dehydrogenation of 1-butene over manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, V.V.; Suib, S.L. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)] [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)


    Steady state kinetic studies of the oxidative dehydrogenation of 1-butene to 1,3-butadiene have been carried out on manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS) and octahedral layered (OL) materials. Process parameters such as temperature, feed composition of 1-butene and oxygen, and feed flow rates were varied to study their effect on the activity and selectivity toward the oxidative dehydrogenation process. In addition to process parameters, modifications in the catalyst such as the ion-exchange of tunnel cations and framework substitution of manganese cations were also implemented in order to observe their effects on catalytic activity and the selectivity of 1,3-butadiene production. The ion-exchanged OMS and OL materials showed rapid deactivation with time when subjected to reaction mixtures of 1% 1-butene/0.7% oxygen/Ar and 1% 1-butene/1.1% oxygen/Ar at reaction temperatures greater than 400 C. Their selectivity toward 1,3-butadiene were typically from 15--20% (yield of 4--6%). The other products were cis and trans 2-butene and carbon dioxide and water (40--60% selectivity). Much of the oxidation was therefore nonselective. XRD data have shown that there is a phase change of the original precursor to a mixture of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MnO or plain MnO, in some cases after exposing the catalyst to reaction conditions for about 1--2 h. Framework substitution of some of the manganese with copper (OMS and OL), however, has led to higher yields and selectivities toward 1,3-butadiene. [Cu] OL-1 showed a yield of 11.8% and a maximum selectivity of 26% toward 1,3-butadiene. [Cu] OMS-1 shows a dramatically high selectivity of 36% and a yield of 11% toward 1,3-butadiene. The effect of framework substitution seems to also impede the phase change to Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} (Hausmannite). The TPR spectra also show an increase in the lattice oxygen peak by about 40 C, in comparison with ion-exchanged OMS. This is sufficient indication that framework substitution of manganese by copper, partially, has enhanced the stability of the catalyst and improved its capacity for selective oxidation.

  4. Anhydrous ferric chloride as an alkylation catalyst: The condensation of 2-methylpropene and benzene, preparation and identification of several fractions.

    E-print Network

    Mommessin, Pierre Robert


    . - BSTC. r, Ber, , 2 /, 1Wi-~l and make their identification. However, it was possible to oxidize the fraction and to obtain terephthalic acid in a very low yield. This indicate the presence of 1&4-di-alkyl-benzene homologs in this fraction, O ? O O... . mer. CONCLUSIONS 1. When benzene is alkylated with 2-methylpropene in the presence of ferric chloride the following hydrocarbons can be identified among the products of the reaction: t-butylbenzene, t-amylbenzene, t-hexylbenzene, l-isopropy1-3-t...

  5. Radical product yields from the ozonolysis of short chain alkenes under atmospheric boundary layer conditions.


    Alam, Mohammed S; Rickard, Andrew R; Camredon, Marie; Wyche, Kevin P; Carr, Timo; Hornsby, Karen E; Monks, Paul S; Bloss, William J


    The gas-phase reaction of ozone with unsaturated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), alkenes, is an important source of the critical atmospheric oxidant OH, especially at night when other photolytic radical initiation routes cannot occur. Alkene ozonolysis is also known to directly form HO2 radicals, which may be readily converted to OH through reaction with NO, but whose formation is poorly understood. We report a study of the radical (OH, HO2, and RO2) production from a series of small alkenes (propene, 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, 2-methylpropene, 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene (tetramethyl ethene, TME), and isoprene). Experiments were performed in the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE) atmospheric simulation chamber, with OH and HO2 levels directly measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and HO2 + ?RO2 levels measured by peroxy-radical chemical amplification (PERCA). OH yields were found to be in good agreement with the majority of previous studies performed under comparable conditions (atmospheric pressure, long time scales) using tracer and scavenger approaches. HO2 yields ranged from 4% (trans-2-butene) to 34% (2-methylpropene), lower than previous experimental determinations. Increasing humidity further reduced the HO2 yields obtained, by typically 50% for an RH increase from 0.5 to 30%, suggesting that HOx production from alkene ozonolysis may be lower than current models suggest under (humid) ambient atmospheric boundary layer conditions. The mechanistic origin of the OH and HO2 production observed is discussed in the context of previous experimental and theoretical studies. PMID:24171583

  6. Oligomerization of 2-methylpropene and transformation of 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentene over supported and unsupported perfluorinated resinsulfonic acid catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Bucsi, I.; Olah, G.A. (Univ. of Southern California, University Park, Los Angeles (United States))


    Oligomerization of 2-methylpropene was studied with two types of supported (on alumina and on silicon carbide) as well neat perfluorinated resinsulfonic acid catalysts. The heterogeneous reactions were carried out over the solid acid catalysts in a continuous flow reactor at temperatures between 85 and 170 C under atmospheric pressure. Under the studied conditions (85 to 105 C, 1 atm pressure, WHSV:1-3 g/g {center dot} h) all catalysts studied are suitable for oligomerization of 2-methyl-propene. Product distributions show regular temperature dependence: upon increasing temperature the molecular weight of oligomers decreases, with no difference in the selectivity of the catalysts. Transformation of 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentene in the liquid phase at room temperature shows surprising selectivity using either the hydrated or dehydrated forms of the resinsulfonic acids. In the case of the hydrated forms of the acids, only double bond isomerization takes place. With dehydrated acids oligomerization as well as isomerization occurs. Above 50 C the selectivity is lost.

  7. 21 CFR 177.1570 - Poly-1-butene resins and butene/ethylene copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR


    ...characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Viscosity. Poly-1-butene resins and the...ethylene copolymers have an intrinsic viscosity 1.0 to 3.2 as determined by ASTM method...Standard Test Method for Dilute Solution Viscosity of Ethylene Polymers,”...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1570 - Poly-1-butene resins and butene/ethylene copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR


    ...characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Viscosity. Poly-1-butene resins and the...ethylene copolymers have an intrinsic viscosity 1.0 to 3.2 as determined by ASTM method...Standard Test Method for Dilute Solution Viscosity of Ethylene Polymers,”...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1570 - Poly-1-butene resins and butene/ethylene copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR


    ...characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Viscosity. Poly-1-butene resins and the...ethylene copolymers have an intrinsic viscosity 1.0 to 3.2 as determined by ASTM method...Standard Test Method for Dilute Solution Viscosity of Ethylene Polymers,”...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1570 - Poly-1-butene resins and butene/ethylene copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR


    ...characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Viscosity. Poly-1-butene resins and the...ethylene copolymers have an intrinsic viscosity 1.0 to 3.2 as determined by ASTM method...Standard Test Method for Dilute Solution Viscosity of Ethylene Polymers,”...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1570 - Poly-1-butene resins and butene/ethylene copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR


    ...characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Viscosity. Poly-1-butene resins and the...ethylene copolymers have an intrinsic viscosity 1.0 to 3.2 as determined by ASTM method...Standard Test Method for Dilute Solution Viscosity of Ethylene Polymers,”...

  12. Investigation of the reaction of trimethylstannyl anionoids with 4-bromo-3,3-dimethyl-1-butene

    E-print Network

    Sanchez, Robert Michael


    . In the trapping studies, both methyl- cyclopropane 5 and 1-butene were observed, indicating that the cyclo- propylcarbinyl anion can undergo rearrangement to the 3-butenyl anion in competition with other prccesses (Scheme V). The icdide shows a small amount... product yield, SnRs SnR3 entry halide additive 12 ( cis/trans ) ( c is/trans ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 (If s Ols Cl Cl Cl Br Br Br I I I none 10 DCPH none 10 DCPH 10 TBA none 10 DCPH 10 TBA none 10 DCPH 10 TBA 96 89...

  13. Alkylation to form trimethylpentanes from isobutane and 1-butene catalyzed by solid superacids of sulfated metal oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunihiko Satoh; Hiromi Matsuhashi; Kazushi Arata


    The gas-phase alkylation of 1-butene with isobutane was carried out over 0.2g of superacids of sulfated metal oxides, SO4\\/Fe2O3, SO4\\/Al2O3, SO4\\/TiO2, SO4\\/SnO2, and SO4\\/ZrO2, at 0°C with a 10:1 ratio of isobutane to 1-butene in a closed recirculation reactor. The products were pentanes (C5), hexanes (C6), heptanes (C7), and octanes (C8). The highest acid strength of the catalysts was linearly

  14. Synthesis and characterization of ZSM-22 zeolites and their catalytic behavior in 1-butene isomerization reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, M.W.; Suib, S.L. (Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)); O'Young, Chi-Lin (Texaco Inc., Beacon, NY (United States))


    ZSM-22 zeolites, having a Si/Al ratio of 45, have been synthesized by sol-gel methods using 1,6-diaminohexane as a templating agent. The structures of these materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and adsorption techniques. Based on these analyses, these materials are determined to be of the Theta-1 structure type. Titration with pyridine base shows that these catalysts have a Bronsted to Lewis ratio of 7.0. Temperature programmed desorption experiments with NH[sub 3] show that both strong and weak acid sites are present in this material and that the ratio of strong acid sites to weak acid sites is 1.1. From this information a total of 0.96 H[sup +] sites/u.c. has been calculated for this material, suggesting that these catalysts have relatively low acidity. The unique unidirectional pore structure and accompanying high Si/Al ratio of ZSM-22 provide for a potentially useful isomerization catalyst. These materials are used in this study for the isomerization of 1-butene, where shape selectivity is believed to be important in this first order reaction. Other kinetic information is obtained through deactivation studies and from studies of the effect of flow rates and temperature on conversion, selectivity, and yields of isobutylene. Yields and selectivities of 39.5 and 89%, respectively, have been obtained with this catalyst system. 25 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Characterization of catalytic lanthanum oxide for double bond isomerization of n-butenes

    E-print Network

    Fox, Janan Sherlene


    of 4. 2x10 20 2. 5xlO , and 4. 3x10 molecules/m /min at O'C for l-butene, cis- 19 18 2 and trans-2-butene, respectively, following catalyst evacuation at 650'C. In the temperature range 0-50'C, the initial reaction is zero order for 1-butene... reactant, 0. 48 for cis-2-butene, and 0. 36 for trans-2-butene, for initial reactant pressures of 25-200 torr, A cumulative self-poisoning of the catalyst is observed at reaction temperatures due to the adsorption of a strongly held, unreactive form...

  16. Electrical conductivity and equation of state of liquid nitrogen, oxygen, benzene, and 1-butene shocked to 60 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, D.C.


    Measurements are reported for the electrical conductivity of liquid nitrogen (N/sub 2/), oxygen (O/sub 2/) and benzene (C/sub 6/H/sub 6/), and Hugoniot equation of state of liquid 1-butene (C/sub 4/H/sub 8/) under shock compressed conditions. The conductivity data span 7 x 10/sup -4/ to 7 x 10/sup 1/ ..cap omega../sup -1/cm/sup -1/ over a dynamic pressure range 18.1 to 61.5 GPa and are discussed in terms of amorphous semiconduction models which include such transport phenomena as hopping, percolation, pseudogaps, and metallization. Excellent agreement is found between the equation-of-state measurements, which span a dynamic pressure range 12.3 to 53.8 GPa, and Ree's calculated values which assume a 2-phase mixture consisting of molecular hydrogen and carbon in a dense diamond-like phase. There is a 2-1/2 fold increase in the thermal pressure contribution over a less dense, stoichiometrically equivalent liquid. 90 refs., 48 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Temperature dependence of the gas-phase reactions of Cl atoms with propene and 1-butene between 285 < T < 313 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceacero-Vega, Antonio A.; Ballesteros, Bernabé; Albaladejo, José; Bejan, Iustinian; Barnes, Ian


    Relative rate coefficients for the reactions of chlorine atoms with propene and 1-butene have been measured as a function of temperature (285-313 K) at 1 bar total pressure of air using FTIR as detection technique. Such studies are necessary to model the atmospheric chemistry of these alkenes and their impact on the air quality in areas where Cl chemistry is potentially important such as maritime and heavily polluted environments. The temperature dependence can be adequately described by the simple Arrhenius relationship and the following expressions in units of cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 have been obtained: kpropene = (1.43 ± 0.35) × 10 -14 exp[(2886 ± 73)/ T] and k1-butene = (1.60 ± 0.81) × 10 -13 exp[(2235 ± 152)/ T] (errors are 2 ?).

  18. Propane\\/Propylene Separation by Simulated Moving Bed II. Measurement and Prediction of Binary Adsorption Equilibria of Propane, Propylene, Isobutane, and 1Butene on 13X Zeolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabil Lamia; Miguel A. Granato; Pedro SÁ Gomes; Carlos A. Grande; Luc Wolff; Philibert Leflaive; Damien Leinekugel-le-Cocq; Alírio E. Rodrigues


    The design of a simulated moving bed (SMB) process relies on valid thermodynamic predictions of multicomponent adsorption built up from accurate binary adsorption equilibrium data. Experimental adsorption equilibria of binary mixtures constituted by propane, propylene, isobutane and 1-butene on 13X zeolite were determined using breakthrough experiments at 373 K and 150 kPa. In addition, these binary adsorption experiments allow to confirm

  19. Determination of thermodynamic properties of isotactic poly(1-butene) at infinite dilution using density and inverse gas chromatography.


    Koz?owska, Marta Karolina; Doma?ska, Urszula; Lempert, Ma?gorzata; Rogalski, Marek


    The partial molar volumes, V1(M), and the molar volume of isotactic crystalline low-molecular-weight poly(1-butene), iPBu-1, V1, have been calculated from the measured density of {iPBu-1 + solvent (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-nonane, n-decane, p-xylene, cyclohexane and chloroform)} systems. Some of the thermodynamic quantities were also obtained for the iPBu-1 with eight hydrocarbons (n-octane, n-decane, n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tridecane, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene) by the method of inverse gas chromatography at various temperatures. The weight fraction activity coefficients of the solvent at infinite dilution, omega2(infinity) and the Flory-Huggins thermodynamic interaction parameters, chi21(infinity), between polymer and solvents were determined. The partial molar free energy, deltaG2(infinity), the partial molar heat of mixing, deltaH2(infinity), at infinite dilution and the polymer solubility parameter, delta1, were calculated. Additionally, the (solid + liquid) binary mixtures equilibria, SLE, of iPBu-1 with three hydrocarbons (n-octane, n-decane and m-xylene) were studied by a dynamic method. By performing these experiments over a large concentration range, the T-x phase diagrams of the polymer-solvent systems were constructed. The excess Gibbs energy models were used to describe the nonideal behaviour of the liquid phase. The omega2(infinity) were determined from the solubility measurements and were predicted by using the UNIFAC FV model. PMID:15830936

  20. Comparative Kinetics of the 3-Buten-1-ol and 1-Butene Reactions with OH Radicals: A Density Functional Theory/RRKM Investigation.


    Peirone, Silvina; Nieto, Jorge D; Cometto, Pablo M; da Silva Barbosa, Thaís; Bauerfeldt, Glauco Favilla; Arbilla, Graciela; Lane, Silvia I


    The compared kinetics of the reactions of unsaturated alcohols and alkenes with OH radicals is a topic of great interest from both the theoretical chemistry and the atmospheric chemistry points of view. The enhanced reactivity of an unsaturated alcohol, with respect to its alkene analogue, toward OH radicals has been previously demonstrated, at 298 K, by experimental and theoretical research. In this work, a new comparative investigation of such reactions is performed for 3-buten-1-ol and 1-butene. The model assumes that the overall kinetics is governed by the first OH addition steps of the mechanism. Calculations have been performed at the DFT level, employing the BHandHLYP functional and the cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets, and the rate coefficients have been determined on the basis of the microcanonical variational transition state theory. The rate coefficients obtained for the OH reactions with 3-buten-1-ol (kOH(31BO)) and 1-butene (kOH(1B)) at 298.15 K are lower than the experimental rate coefficient available in the literature, showing deviations of 18% and 25%, respectively. Negative temperature dependence is verified for these rate coefficients. The kOH(31BO)/kOH(1B) ratios have also been investigated as a function of the temperature, suggesting that at room temperature the unsaturated alcohol reacts with the OH radicals faster than 1-butene, by a factor of 1.2, but at higher temperatures (400-500 K), the alkene should react faster, and that the stabilization of prebarrier complexes and saddle points due to hydrogen bonds is no longer an important factor to govern the reactivity of the unsaturated alcohol toward OH radicals, with respect to the alkene analogue. PMID:25785926

  1. Chirality Effect on Flory-Huggins Interaction Parameters in Polylactide-b-Poly(ethylene-co-1-butene)-b-Polylactide Triblock Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Weiqiang; Zhu, Lei; Rong, Lixia; Hsiao, Benjamin S.


    In this work, a set of well-defined polylactide-b-poly(ethylene-co-1-butene)-b-polylactide (PLA-PEB-PLA) triblock copolymers were synthesized by controlled ring-opening polymerization of corresponding lactide monomers (L-lactide and racemic mixture of D- and L-lactides) using Sn(Oct)2 as the catalyst. The volume fractions of PLA in the triblock copolymers were adjusted by tuning its molecular weight. The mesophase morphology and phase transitions in these triblock copolymers were studied by temperature-dependent small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter ? between EB and lactide as a function of temperature were estimated from the order-disorder transition temperature (TODT) using the mean-field critical (?N)c values. The effects of PLA chirality on both Flory-Huggins interaction parameter and segmental lengths were investigated.

  2. Evaluation of Kinetic and Mechanistic Data for Modeling of Photochemical Smog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Atkinson; Alan C. Lloyd


    This review is a critical evaluation of the rate constants, mechanisms, and products of selected atmospheric reactions of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides in air. The evaluation considers eight hydrocarbons (n-butane, 2,3-dimethylbutane, ethene, propene, 1-butene, trans-2-butene, toluene, and m-xylene) for which smog chamber irradiations have been carried out under carefully controlled conditions and which have been the subject of

  3. Conformationally disordered crystals and their influence on material properties: The cases of isotactic polypropylene, isotactic poly(1-butene), and poly(L-lactic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocca, Mariacristina; Androsch, René; Righetti, Maria Cristina; Malinconico, Mario; Di Lorenzo, Maria Laura


    This article provides a comprehensive review of the physical properties of the conformationally disordered (condis) structures of isotactic polypropylene (iPP), isotactic poly(1-butene) (iPB-1) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), in comparison with the respective more stable crystalline forms. The aim of this review is to define the influence of the condis modifications on the thermal and mechanical properties of these materials. The condis structures of the three polymers are metastable and spontaneously transform into the more stable crystalline structures upon annealing above a critical temperature. The transition from the mesophase to the more stable crystalline structure becomes possible when the chains have sufficient mobility to allow rearrangements of chain conformations. A rigid amorphous fraction develops during solidification of iPP, iPB-1 and PLLA. Crystallization of iPB-1 and PLLA into the more stable forms leads to a larger coupling of the amorphous and crystalline chain segments, compared to the conformationally disordered arrangements, which results in a higher fraction of rigid amorphous chain segments. The difference in chain packing, together with the varied mobility of the coupled amorphous chain portions, affects both the initial resistance to the tensile strain and the large strain properties. All the three stable crystalline forms have a higher Young's modulus compared to the condis mesophases, and can sustain lower deformation under mechanical stimuli.

  4. Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition of Copper Using (Hexafluoroacetylacetonate)Cu(I)(3,3-dimethyl-1-butene) with a Liquid Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyeong-Keun; Pyo, Sung G.; Lee, Dok Won; Rhee, Shi-Woo


    From variable temperature (VT) 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and a heating test, it was found that (hexafluoroacetylacetonate)Cu(I)(3,3-dimethyl-1-butene) [(hfac)Cu(I)(DMB)] was stable up to 65°C. The effects of various process conditions such as substrate temperature, liquid precursor flow rate and hydrogen carrier gas flow rate on the deposition rate, texture, microhardness, surface roughness and uniformity were studied using a direct liquid injection 200 mm metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor with hollow-cathode magnetron (HCM) sputter-deposited Cu substrate on silicon wafer. The MOCVD Cu process with (hfac)Cu(I)(DMB) showed good conformality, continuous film morphology and low resistivity at a substrate temperature of 190°C, vaporizer temperature of 55°C, total pressure of 2.5 Torr and precursor flow rate of 0.5 cm3/min. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses demonstrated a strong (111) texture of the copper film. The higher (111) peak intensity and the narrower width at half maximum were obtained when the source feed rate was low. Also the higher (111) peak intensity was observed at higher substrate temperature. At temperature below about 200°C, the microhardness was increased with increasing substrate temperature. In the high temperature regime (>200°C), the hardness was decreased.

  5. Proton affinity distributions of TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} mixed oxides and their relationship to catalyst activities for 1-butene isomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Contescu, C.; Popa, V.T.; Schwarz, J.A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)] [and others] [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); and others


    Proton-releasing properties at the oxide/aqueous solution interface were examined as a function of pH for two series of mixed oxide aerogels and their pure oxide components using potentiometric titrimetry. Reports of synthesis, surface characterization, and catalytic activity (1-butene isomerization) have appeared recently for similar preparation batches of titania-silica and zirconia-silica. After deconvolution of potentiometric titration data, the pK spectra of the oxide surfaces were obtained; they reveal the number and strength of various proton donor sites present under {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} conditions. The activity in 1-butene isomerization measures weak Bronsted sites of the {open_quotes}pseudo-dry{close_quotes} catalyst (reaction at 423 K after drying at 473 K). We find that the activity for 1-butene isomerization is linearly related to the density of a particular type of proton donor site determined from pK spectra. This shows that only a limited number of the total Bronsted sites accessed by potentiometric titrimetry is specifically active for 1-butene isomerization under the conditions used here. The pK range of active sites and the corresponding TOF numbers are 6.3 {le} pK {le} 8.7, (8.2 {plus_minus} 2.1) x 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1} for titania-silica and 6.4 {le} pK {le} 6.5, (93 {plus_minus} 24) x 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1} for zirconia-silica. In the two catalysts series the catalytic performance varied with either composition (titania-silica) or preparation parameters (zirconia-silica) at constant composition. 51 refs., 9; figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy of 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation on 4 nm Pt@SiO2, Pd@SiO2, and Rh@SiO2 core-shell catalysts.


    Krier, James M; Michalak, William D; Cai, Xiaojun; Carl, Lindsay; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; Somorjai, Gabor A


    1,3-Butadiene (1,3-BD) hydrogenation was performed on 4 nm Pt, Pd, and Rh nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated in SiO2 shells at 20, 60, and 100 °C. The core-shells were grown around polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated NPs (Stöber encapsulation) prepared by colloidal synthesis. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was performed to correlate surface intermediates observed in situ with reaction selectivity. It is shown that calcination is effective in removing PVP, and the SFG signal can be generated from the metal surface. Using SFG, it is possible to compare the surface vibrational spectrum of Pt@SiO2 (1,3-BD is hydrogenated through multiple paths and produces butane, 1-butene, and cis/trans-2-butene) to Pd@SiO2 (1,3-BD favors one path and produces 1-butene and cis/trans-2-butene). In contrast to Pt@SiO2 and Pd@SiO2, SFG and kinetic experiments of Rh@SiO2 show a permanent accumulation of organic material. PMID:25272243

  7. Raman spectroscopy and dioxygen adsorption on Cs-loaded zeolite catalysts for butene isomerization.


    Li, Junhui; Davis, Robert J


    Cesium-exchanged zeolite X was impregnated with cesium acetate (Cs(Ac)/CsX) or cesium carbonate (Cs(2)CO(3)/CsX) and subsequently calcined to yield a basic catalyst. The Raman spectra of calcined Cs(Ac)/CsX and Cs(2)CO(3)/CsX exhibited a new peak at 1036 cm(-1) associated with the occluded species. No evidence for cesium peroxide or superoxide was observed. The occluded cesium species in both samples is proposed to be an oxycarbonate, which is a metastable intermediate between cesium carbonate and cesium oxide. The isomerization of 1-butene to cis- and trans-2-butene was catalyzed by cesium-loaded zeolite X. Although CO(2) readily poisoned the active base sites for catalysis, pretreatment of a basic zeolite with O(2) at 373 K did not. Co-feeding O(2) with 1-butene at 373 K, however, completely deactivated the base sites. Analysis of the reactor effluent at 473 K and the IR spectrum of the catalyst indicated the formation of carbon dioxide, which irreversibly adsorbed on the basic sites of the catalyst. Deactivation of basic catalysts by O(2) is proposed to occur through a low temperature oxidation of 1-butene to carbon dioxide, which strongly adsorbs on the active sites. PMID:16851814

  8. Mesophases in polyethylene, polypropylene, and poly(1-butene)

    SciTech Connect

    Androsch, Rene J [ORNL; Di Lorenzo, Maria [ORNL; Schick, Christoph [Rostock University, Rostock, Germany; Wunderlich, Bernhard {nmn} [ORNL


    This paper contains new views about the amorphous and partially ordered phases of the three polymers listed in the title. The discussion is based on information on structure, thermodynamic stability, and large-amplitude molecular motion. Polyethylene is the basic backbone of all alkene polymers, and the other two are the first members of the vinyl polymers which have stereospecifically placed alkyl side chains. Their multiphase structures consist of metastable crystals, mesophases, and surrounding rigid and mobile amorphous fractions. All these phases have sizes ranging from micrometer dimensions down to nanometers. Besides the phase structures, information about the molecular coupling between the phases must be considered. Depending on temperature, the polymer phases can vary from solid (rigid) to liquid (mobile). New knowledge is also gained by cross-comparison of the title polymers. The experimental information was gained from (a) various forms of slow, fast, and temperature-modulated thermal analysis to identify equilibrium and non-equilibrium states, (b) measurement of structure and morphology at various length scales, and (c) tracing of the large-amplitude molecular motion, the kinetics of order/disorder changes, and the liquid/solid transitions (glass transitions). It is shown that much more needs to be known about the various phases and their coupling to characterize a given polymer and to fine-tune its properties for a given application.

  9. Adsorption structures of non-aromatic hydrocarbons on silicalite-1 using the single-crystal X-ray diffraction method.


    Fujiyama, Shinjiro; Seino, Shintaro; Kamiya, Natsumi; Nishi, Koji; Yoza, Kenji; Yokomori, Yoshinobu


    The actual adsorption structures of non-aromatic hydrocarbons on the MFI-type zeolites have not yet been determined. This is due to the presence of twinning, which makes crystallographic analysis difficult. We recently overcame this problem, and now report the various adsorption structures of n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, 1-butene, cis and trans-2-butene, 2-butyne and isopentane on silicalite-1 (MFI-type zeolite) as determined via single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures were elucidated for both low and high loadings of each guest molecule in order to clarify the adsorption process. The low-loaded structures provide valuable insight into guest-framework interactions and initial adsorption behavior. The n-alkanes are initially adsorbed in the sinusoidal channel, while 2-butyne is adsorbed in the straight channel. In the case of the normal hydrocarbons, the molecular configuration (bent or linear) of the compound determines which channel is the preferred adsorption site. Bent molecules prefer the sinusoidal channel and linear molecules prefer the straight channel. In contrast, isopentane is initially adsorbed at the intersection, since the channels are too narrow to maintain the preferred distance between the framework and the bulky isopentane molecule. In the high-loaded structures, the guest molecules occupy additional sites, such that the normal hydrocarbons are located in both channels and isopentane is found at the intersection and the sinusoidal channel. PMID:24954128

  10. VUV-optical oscillator strength distributions of C3H6 and C4H8 isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Hitoshi; Yoshimi, Tohru; Shinsaka, Kyoji; Ukai, Masatoshi; Morita, Makoto; Hatano, Yoshihiko; Yagishita, Akira; Ito, Kenji


    The photoabsorption cross sections of C3H6 isomers (cyclopropane and propylene) and C4H8 isomers (1-butene, iso-butene, cis-2-butene, and trans-2-butene) have been measured in the wavelength region from 300 Å to the ionization potential of each molecule (about 1200-1400 Å) using an ionization chamber with four ion-collection plates. The obtained photoabsorption cross sections show a maximum value at about 700-800 Å for each molecule. In the wavelength region which is shorter than about 500 Å the cross sections are almost the same among the isomers and equal to the sum of the cross sections for the constituent atoms. In the longer wavelength region, however, the cross sections have different peaks and shoulders depending on an isomer, i.e., on its molecular structure. The obtained cross section values, together with previously reported ones in the wavelength region outside of the present experiment, satisfy the Thomas-Kuhn-Reiche sum rule within experimental errors.

  11. Degradation of chlorinated butenes and butadienes in granular iron columns.


    Hughes, Rodney; Gui, Lai; Gillham, Robert W


    Manufacturing facilities for production of chlorobutyl rubber have the potential to release a mixture of at least 5 chlorinated butenes and butadienes including trans-1,4-dichlorobutene-2 (1,4-DCB-2), 3,4-dichlorobutene-1 (3,4-DCB-1), 2,3,4-trichlorobutene-1 (TCB), 2-chlorobutadiene-1,3 (chloroprene) and 2,3-dichlorobutadiene-1,3 (DCBD) into groundwater environment. To evaluate the potential of using granular iron in the remediation of the above contaminants, a series of column experiments were conducted. Degradation of all 5 compounds followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The three chlorinated butenes degraded much faster (surface area normalized half-lives, t(1/2)', ranged from 1.6 to 5.2 min m2/mL) than the 2 chlorinated butadienes (t(1/2)' ranged from 102 to 197 min m2/mL). All contaminants fully dechlorinated by granular iron to 1,3-butadiene as a common reaction intermediate that then degraded to a mixture of relatively non-harmful end products consisting of 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene and n-butane. Based on the kinetic data, product distributions, and chlorine mass balances, reaction pathways for these compounds are proposed. For the chlorinated butenes, 3,4-DCB-1 and TCB, undergo reductive beta-elimination reactions resulting in 1,3-butadiene and chloroprene intermediates. Dechlorination of 1,4-DCB-2 to 1,3-butadiene occurs through a reductive elimination similar to reductive beta-elimination. For dechlorination of the two chlorinated butadienes, chloroprene and DCBD, dechlorination occurs through a hydrogenolysis pathway. The common non-chlorinated intermediate, 1,3-butadiene, undergoes catalytic hydrogenation resulting in a mixture of butane isomers and n-butane. The results suggest that granular iron is an effective material for treatment of groundwater contaminated with these compounds. PMID:19847707

  12. Sources of C?-C? alkenes, the most important ozone nonmethane hydrocarbon precursors in the Pearl River Delta region.


    Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Zhou; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Li, Longfeng


    Surface ozone is becoming an increasing concern in China's megacities such as the urban centers located in the highly industrialized and densely populated Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, where previous studies suggested that ozone production is sensitive to VOC emissions with alkenes being important precursors. However, little was known about sources of alkenes. Here we present our monitoring of ambient volatile organic compounds at four representative urban, suburban and rural sites in the PRD region during November-December 2009, which experienced frequent ozone episodes. C2-C4 alkenes, whose total mixing ratios were 11-20% of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) quantified, accounted for 38-64% of ozone formation potentials (OFPs) and 30-50% of the total hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity by NMHCs. Ethylene was the most abundant alkene, accounting for 8-15% in total mixing ratios of NMHCs and contributed 25-46% of OFPs. Correlations between C2-C4 alkenes and typical source tracers suggested that ethylene might be largely related to vehicle exhausts and industry activities, while propene and butenes were much more LPG-related. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) confirmed that vehicle exhaust and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were two major sources that altogether accounted for 52-62%, 58-77%, 73-83%, 68-79% and 73-84% for ethylene, propene, 1-butene, trans-2-butene and cis-2-butene, respectively. Vehicle exhausts alone contributed 32-49% ethylene and 35-41% propene. Industry activities contributed 13-23% ethylene and 7-20% propene. LPG instead contributed the most to butenes (38-65%) and substantially to propene (23-36%). Extensive tests confirmed high fractions of propene and butenes in LPG then used in Guangzhou and in LPG combustion plumes; therefore, limiting alkene contents in LPG would benefit regional ozone control. PMID:25260169

  13. Quantum-chemical calculation of the bimolecular complex of phenol and 1-butene on an aluminum oxide cluster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Gun'ko; L. M. Roev


    The initial geometry of phenol was determined with the use of the structure obtained in the investigation of the adsorption of Ph0H on an enclosed AI ion [2], and the initial geometric parameters of l-butene were taken from [5]. The relative orientation of phenol, lbutene, and the aluminum oxide cluster is schematically depicted in Fig. i. The distance between the

  14. Laboratory Analysis Of Water, Hydrocarbon And Ammonia Ice Mixtures Exposed To High-energy Electron Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Kevin P.; Carlson, R. W.; Tsapin, A. I.


    Irradiation of low temperature ices in the laboratory provides insight into processes that may be occurring on icy bodies in the solar system. Here we report on results from high-energy (10keV) electron irradiation of thin ice films at 1e-8 torr and 70-120K. Mixtures include water with CO2, C3H8, C3H6, C4H10 (butane and isobutane), C4H8,(1-butene and cis/trans-2-butene), and NH3. During irradiation of H2O + alkane films at 80K, CO2 and CH4 production is observed and both species are retained in the ice, possibly trapped in clathrates. The -CH3 infrared bands initially present are seen to decrease with increasing dose. Bands associated with -CH2- persist, indicating polymerization of the initial short-chain hydrocarbons. In alkenes a similar evolution toward polymerization is observed, however the first step appears to be the destruction of the C=C bond. Upon warming of the film, mass spectra data compliment the mid-infrared data and indicate the production of H2CO, however glycolic acid is not explicitly seen in the mass spectra. When warmed to 300K, residues remained for all irradiated films except that of the H2O + CO2 mixtures. Residues were analyzed with Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI). Results show the production of large aliphatic, very refractory, hydrocarbons (with m/z up to 2500). Mid-infrared spectra of the residues indicate carbonyls and alcohols, likely due to polymerized aldehydes and carboxylic acids. Films of H2O + C3H8 + NH3 at 70K show the production of OCN- (cyanate ion), formamide, along with other possible amides and hydrocarbons. HPLC results indicate the production of racemic alanine. Finally, results of abiotic experiments are compared to results from the irradiation of bacterial spores in ice. The application to Europa and Enceladus is discussed.

  15. Evaluation of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions based on an ambient air measurement in Tokyo area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Sou N.; Chatani, Satoru; Morikawa, Tazuko; Nakatsuka, Seiji; Suthawaree, Jeeranut; Tajima, Yosuke; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi; Minoura, Hiroaki


    Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are known to have an important role on air quality due to their high reactivity. NMHC analysis has been performed on 148 ambient air samples collected at five different sites in the Kanto area (Tokyo metropolitan area and surrounding six prefectures) of Japan in summer and winter of 2008, and fifty NMHCs have been determined and quantified. A field measurement campaign has been conducted at one of the busiest intersections in Tokyo metropolitan area in winter of 2008. NMHC emissions are evaluated through comparison of distributions of individual NMHCs emitted from motor vehicles, which are estimated from the measurements, with those determined from the current emissions inventory. The comparison revealed that the measured distributions of acetylene, ethylene and toluene showed a good agreement with those estimated from the emissions inventory (the values estimated from the measurements are a factor of 1.5, 0.56 and 2.3 larger than the emissions inventory in median, respectively), however, propane and isobutane are found to be significantly underestimated in the emissions inventory (the measured values were a factor of 18 and 5.1 larger than the emissions inventory, respectively). The significant underestimate of propane can be explained by that the current emissions inventory does not consider emissions from liquefied propane gas (LPG) fueled vehicles. However, for isobutane, reasons for the underestimate are still unclear. Another field measurement has been conducted in summer of 2008, where the air samples have been collected at three different sites on the ground and by a helicopter as well. Remarkable high concentrations of 1-butene and cis- and trans-2-butenes have been sporadically observed in the samples collected at Urayasu in the coastal area of Tokyo bay. Calculated propylene equivalent (PE) concentrations of butenes revealed that those have a significantly important role in ozone formation when the air plume is affected by emissions from their emission sources. The PE concentrations of butenes varied from 0.1 to 39 ppbC, and accounted for 1.5-75% of total PE concentrations at Urayasu. Most of the continuous air quality monitoring stations does not record concentrations of individual hydrocarbons, therefore, the importance of reactive and low concentration hydrocarbon such as butenes might be overlooked in the current emissions inventory and/or air quality model. In this paper, the reliability of NMHC emissions is evaluated based on the field measurements. Their possible impacts on air quality in the Kanto area are discussed as well, based on the calculated propylene equivalent concentrations.

  16. Synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry measurements of product formation in low-temperature n-butane oxidation: toward a fundamental understanding of autoignition chemistry and n-C4H9 + O2/s-C4H9 + O2 reactions.


    Eskola, Arkke J; Welz, Oliver; Savee, John D; Osborn, David L; Taatjes, Craig A


    Product formation in the laser-initiated low-temperature (575-700 K) oxidation of n-butane was investigated by using tunable synchrotron photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry at low pressure (?4 Torr). Oxidation was triggered either by 351 nm photolysis of Cl2 and subsequent fast Cl + n-butane reaction or by 248 nm photolysis of 1-iodobutane or 2-iodobutane. Iodobutane photolysis allowed isomer-specific preparation of either n-C4H9 or s-C4H9 radicals. Experiments probed the time-resolved formation of products and identified isomeric species by their photoionization spectra. For stable primary products of butyl + O2 reactions (e.g., butene or oxygen heterocycles) bimodal time behavior is observed; the initial prompt formation, primarily due to chemical activation, is followed by a slower component arising from the dissociation of thermalized butylperoxy or hydroperoxybutyl radicals. In addition, time-resolved formation of C4-ketohydroperoxides (C4H8O3, m/z = 104) was observed in the n-C4H9 + O2 and Cl-initiated oxidation experiments but not in the s-C4H9 + O2 measurements, suggesting isomeric selectivity in the combined process of the "second" oxygen addition to hydroperoxybutyl radicals and subsequent internal H-abstraction/dissociation leading to ketohydroperoxide + OH. To further constrain product isomer identification, Cl-initiated oxidation experiments were also performed with partially deuterated n-butanes (CD3CH2CH2CD3 and CH3CD2CD2CH3). From these experiments, the relative yields of butene product isomers (cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, and 1-butene) from C4H8 + HO2 reaction channels and oxygenated product isomers (2,3-dimethyloxirane, 2-methyloxetane, tetrahydrofuran, ethyloxirane, butanal, and butanone) associated with OH formation were determined. The current measurements show substantially different isomeric selectivity for oxygenated products than do recent jet-stirred reactor studies but are in reasonable agreement with measurements from butane addition to reacting H2/O2 mixtures at 753 K. PMID:24125058

  17. Effects of biomass burning on summertime nonmethane hydrocarbon concentrations in the Canadian wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. R.; Smith, T. W., Jr.; Chen, T.-Y.; Whipple, W. J.; Rowland, F. S.


    Approximately 900 whole air samples were collected and assayed for selected C2-C10 hydrocarbons and seven halocarbons during the 5-week Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B conducted in eastern Canadian wetland areas. In more than half of the 46 vertical profiles flown, enhanced nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) concentrations attributable to plumes from Canadian forest fires were observed. Urban plumes, also enhanced in many NMHCs, were separately identified by their high correlation with elevated levels of perchloroethene. Emission factors relative to ethane were determined for 21 hydrocarbons released from Canadian biomass burning. Using these data for ethane, ethyne, propane, n-butane, and carbon monoxide enhancements from the literature, global emissions of these four NMHCs were estimated. Because of its very short atmospheric lifetime and its below detection limit background mixing ratio, 1,3-butadiene is an excellent indicator of recent combustion. No statistically significant emissions of nitrous oxide, isoprene, or CFC 12 were observed in the biomass-burning plumes encountered during ABLE 3B. The presence of the short-lived biogenically emitted isoprene at altitudes as high as 3000 m implies that mixing within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) was rapid. Although background levels of the longer-lived NMHCs in this Canadian region increase during the fire season, isoprene still dominated local hydroxyl radical photochemistry within the PBL except in the immediate vicinity of active fires. The average biomass-burning emission ratios for hydrocarbons from an active fire sampled within minutes of combustion were, relative to ethane, ethene, 2.45; ethyne 0.57; propane, 0.25; propene, 0.73; propyne, 0.06; n-butane, 0.09; i-butane, 0.01; 1-butene, 0.14; cis-2-butene, 0.02; trans-2-butene, 0.03; i-butylene, 0.07; 1,3-butadiene, 0.12; n-pentane, 0.05; i-pentane, 0.03; 1-pentene, 0.06; n-hexane, 0.05; 1-hexene, 0.07; benzene, 0.37; toluene, 0.16.


    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...


    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Transferable Potentials for Phase Equilibria. 4. United-Atom Description of Linear and Branched Alkenes and Alkylbenzenes

    SciTech Connect



    The Transferable Potentials for Phase Equilibria-United Atom (TraPPE-UA) force field for hydrocarbons is extended to alkenes and alkylbenzenes by introducing the following pseudo-atoms: CH{sub 2}(sp{sup 2}), CH(sp{sup 2}), CH(aro), R-C(aro) for the link to aliphatic side chains, and C(aro) for the link of two benzene rings. In this united-atom force field, the nonbonded interactions of the hydrocarbon pseudo-atoms are solely governed by Lennard-Jones 12-6 potentials, and the Lennard-Jones well depth and size parameters for the new pseudo-atoms were determined by fitting to the single-component vapor-liquid phase equilibria of a few selected model compounds. Configurational-bias Monte Carlo simulations in the NVT version of the Gibbs ensemble were carried out to calculate the single-component vapor-liquid coexistence curves for ethene, propene, 1-butene, trans- and cis-2-butene. 2-methylpropene, 1,5-hexadiene, 1-octene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, isopropylbenzene, o-, m-, and p-xylene, and naphthalene. The phase diagrams for the binary mixtures of (supercritical) ethene/n-heptane and benzene/n-pentane were determined from simulations in the NpT Gibbs ensemble. Although the TraPPE-UA force field is rather simple and makes use of relatively few different pseudo-atoms, its performance, as judged by comparisons to other popular force fields and available experimental data, is very satisfactory.

  1. Spectroscopic detection of ozone-olefin charge-transfer complexes in cryogenic matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Singmaster, K.A. (San Jose State Univ., CA (USA)); Pimentel, G.C. (Univ of California, Berkeley (USA))


    When ozone-olefin mixtures are codeposited in argon or krypton matrices, broad intense visible-UV absorptions appear that are clearly due to the long-sought ozone-olefin charge-transfer (C-T) complexes. With olefins tetramethylethylene, trimethylethylene, cis- and trans-2-butene, isobutylene, and propene, the maximum absorptions appear, respectively, at 500, 388, 400, 407, 388, and 345 nm. As is usual for C-T absorptions, these wavelengths provide values of {upsilon}{sub max}(C-T) that correlate with the olefin ionization potentials. As the matrix temperature is raised, ozonolysis begins; kinetic measurements give activation energies of 1.0 {plus minus} 0.4 kcal/mol for the krypton matrix reaction between ozone and cis- or trans-2-butene.

  2. Kinetic analysis of isobutane\\/butene alkylation over ultrastable H-Y zeolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F. Simpson; James Wei; Sankaran Sundaresan


    The alkylation of isobutane with trans-2-butene over ultrastable Y-type zeolites has been studied. It is well-known that this reaction is accompanied by a rapid deactivation of the catalyst. The objective of this study is to elucidate the route to catalyst deactivation so that the means of mitigating this problem can be identified. Using the initial reaction rate data, evidence has

  3. Influence of process variables on the continuous alkylation of isobutane with 2-butene on superacid sulfated zirconia catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Corma; A. Martinez; C. Martinez


    Two sulfated zirconia catalysts have been prepared by impregnation of zirconium hydroxide with HâSOâ 0.3 N and 1 N. Both samples showed superacid sites as shown by a desorption temperature peak in the NHâ TPD at ca. 813 K. The activity and selectivity of these catalysts have been studied for the alkylation of isobutane with trans-2 butene in a computer-controlled

  4. Carbene reactions produced by recoil excitation methods

    E-print Network

    Lowery, Kirby


    by irradiation of samples in the presence of two competitors. Using ethylene as the standard in each case and using other olefins such as propylene, l-butene, isobutylene, cis-2-butene, and trans-2- butene, Tang and Rowland showed that the reactivity... Company in 99. 9! purity. The other gases used were obtained from The Matheson Company in research grade. Propane, isobutylene, methyl bromide, and methyl chloride had purity of greater than 99. 5X. Ethyl chloride, ethylene, isobutylene, pro- 13...

  5. A Comparison Between Conventional and Ultrasound-Mediated Heterogeneous Catalysis: Hydrogenation of 3-buten-1-ol Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Disselkamp, Robert S.; Judd, Kayte M.; Hart, Todd R.; Peden, Charles HF; Posakony, Gerald J.; Bond, Leonard J.


    A power flow scheme applicable to probe-type ultrasound reactors is presented, that has been deduced from both experimental measurements employing an unjacketed vessel and theoretical predictions. Under typical conditions for water, 77% of the electrical power is converted into mechanical motion of the probe, that in turn is dissipated to both acoustic power (~12%) and cavitational heating (~88%). Approximately 92% of the mechanical power of the probe was converted into heat, with the remaining power presumably converted into audible acoustic and/or mechanical motion. Heterogeneous catalysis experiments have been performed at 298 K in an isothermal (i.e., jacketed) reaction vessel comparing chemistry in conventional (e.g., thermal) versus ultrasound-assisted systems. Both product state distribution and reaction rate measurements have been performed for the hydrogenation (using hydrogen gas) of aqueous 3-buten-1-ol solutions employing Pd-black powder. Products from the heterogeneous catalysis include isomerization to cis and trans 2-buten-1-ol, as well as hydrogenation to 1-butanol. Based on the observed differences in cis- to trans- 2-buten-1-ol ratios in conventional experiments, employing untreated and pre-reduced catalysts, it has been determined that a kinetic effect controls the observed product state distribution. In addition, differences in the ratio between cis- plus trans- 2-buten-1-ol to 1-butanol, comparing ultrasound-assisted to conventional catalysis, reveal a ~5-fold enhancement in isomerization relative to the more energetically favored hydrogenation due to application of ultrasound. Finally, the product formation rates for 1-butanol, as well as isomerization plus hydrogenation, revealed that conventional and ultrasound experiments showed both a non-linear dependence with applied ultrasound power and no differences between untreated and pre-reduced catalysts. The observed reaction rate enhancements were 1:36:183 for the conventional, 90 W ultrasound, and 190 W ultrasound experiments, respectively.

  6. Cis– trans isomerization of olefinic alcohols promoted by Rh(I) complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Musolino; G. Apa; A. Donato; R. Pietropaolo


    Homogeneous hydrogenation and isomerization reaction of cis-2-butene-1,4-diol has been investigated in ethanol by using tris(triphenylphosphine)chlororhodium(I), RhCl(PPh3)3, and triethylamine at 303K and 0.01–0.1MPa partial hydrogen pressure. Under reduced H2 pressure, the geometric isomerization reaction occurs, to a high extent, leading to trans-2-butene-1,4-diol up to 93% selectivity at 90% conversion of the cis analogous. Effects of H2 partial pressure as well as

  7. Infrared multiphoton dissociation of two perfluorobutenes

    E-print Network

    Longfellow, Cheryl A.; Berrie, Cindy L.; Suits, Arthur G.; Lee, Yuan T.


    Photofragment translational spectroscopy was used to examine the infrared multiphotondissociation of octafluoro-1-butene and octafluoro-2-butene. The predominant unimolecular reaction in octafluoro-1-butene at moderate laser fluences is cleavage...

  8. Polybutenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, D. J.; And Others


    Discusses the use of aluminum chloride and other Friedel-Crafts type catalysts to polymerize 2-methylpropene and the application of such products in industry and agriculture. Includes a laboratory experiment on the polybutene preparation suitable for high school purposes. (CC)

  9. Use of propane as a quench gas in argon-filled proportional counters and comparison with other quench gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, P. C.; Ramsey, B. D.


    An experimental investigation of propane and six other quench gases was carried out in argon-filled proportional counters. The objective of the study was to find the best gas mixture for optimizing the gas gain and the energy resolution as well as to understand the role of the ionization potential of quench gases in determining these parameters. It was found that the best gas gains and energy resolutions are obtained with propane, ethane, and isobutane in that order. The ionization potentials of these three lie below the argon metastable potentials and have the lowest value of resonance defect compared to the other quench gases. The better results obtained with these mixtures can be explained by an increased ionization yield resulting from the Penning effect. Propylene and trans-2-butene give inferior performance compared to the above three gases. Methane and carbon dioxide, the most commonly used quench gases in the argon-filled detectors, provide the worst results.

  10. The Effect of Supercritical Fluids on Solid Acid Catalyst Alkylation

    SciTech Connect

    Ginosar, Daniel Michael; Thompson, David Neil; Burch, Kyle Coates; Zalewski, D. J.


    The alkylation of isobutane with trans-2-butene was explored over six solid acid catalysts in the liquid, near-critical liquid, and supercritical regions through the addition of an inert cosolvent to the reaction feed mixture. The addition of supercritical cosolvents did not result in sustained catalytic alkylation activity. A modest improvement in product yield was obtained with the addition of methane in the modified-liquid region; however, catalyst longevity and product selectivity were decreased compared to cosolvent-free liquid conditions. This paper describes the catalyst screening and selection process, an exploration of catalyst performance with varying concentrations of methane, and an examination of the effects of seven supercritical fluids on catalyst performance. The catalysts included two zeolites, two sulfated metal oxides, and two Nafion catalysts. Three hydrocarbons, two fluorocarbons, carbon dioxide, and sulfur hexafluoride were explored as inert cosolvents added to the reaction mixture.

  11. H2SO4 formation from the gas-phase reaction of stabilized Criegee Intermediates with SO2: Influence of water vapour content and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, Torsten; Jokinen, Tuija; Sipilä, Mikko; Mauldin, Roy L.; Herrmann, Hartmut; Stratmann, Frank; Junninen, Heikki; Kulmala, Markku


    The importance of gas-phase products from alkene ozonolysis other than OH radicals, most likely stabilized Criegee Intermediates (sCI), for the process of atmospheric SO2 oxidation to H2SO4 has been recently discovered. Subjects of this work are investigations on H2SO4 formation as a function of water vapour content (RH = 2-65%) and temperature (278-343 K) starting from the ozonolysis of trans-2-butene and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene (TME). H2SO4 production other than via the OH radical reaction was attributed to the reaction of SO2 with sCI, i.e. acetaldehyde oxide arising from trans-2-butene ozonolysis and acetone oxide from TME. Measurements have been conducted in an atmospheric pressure flow tube using NO3--CI-APi-TOF mass spectrometry for H2SO4 detection. The sCI yields derived from H2SO4 measurements at 293 K were 0.49 ± 0.22 for acetaldehyde oxide and 0.45 ± 0.20 for acetone oxide. Our findings indicate a H2SO4 yield from sCI + SO2 of unity or close to unity. The deduced rate coefficient ratio for the reaction of sCI with H2O and SO2, k(sCI + H2O)/k(sCI + SO2), was found to be strongly dependent on the structure of the Criegee Intermediate, for acetaldehyde oxide at 293 K: (8.8 ± 0.4)·10-5 (syn- and anti-conformer in total) and for acetone oxide: <4·10-6. H2SO4 formation from sCI was pushed back with rising temperature in both reaction systems most probably due to an enhancement of sCI decomposition. The ratio k(dec)/k(sCI + SO2) increased by a factor of 34 (acetone oxide) increasing the temperature from 278 to 343 K. In the case of acetaldehyde oxide the temperature effect is less pronounced. The relevance of atmospheric H2SO4 formation via sCI + SO2 is discussed in view of its dependence on the structure of the Criegee Intermediate.

  12. Two-color photoionization-photoelectron spectroscopy using tunable vacuum ultraviolet and infrared laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Hin-Koon

    A photoion-photoelectron apparatus has been constructed for photoion and photoelectron spectroscopic studies allowing for high-resolution photoion and photoelectron spectroscopic studies of polyatomic molecules trans -2-butene (trans-CH3CH=CHCH3), cis-2-butene, (cis-CH3CH=CHCH3), trans-1-bromopropene (trans-CH3CH=CHBr), cis-1-brompropene (cis-CH3CH=CHBr) and trichloroethene, (ClCH=CCl2) using tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) lasers. Coherent VUV laser radiation is generated via nonlinear four-wave frequency mixing techniques, while IR laser light is generated via an optical parametric oscillator/amplifier based on difference-frequency mixing. The high-resolution photoelectron techniques employed are pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) spectroscopy and photo-induced Rydberg ionization (PIRI) spectroscopy. The single-photon VUV-PFI-PE spectra of trans -2-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-1-bromopropene, and cis-1-bromopropene have been measured, yielding highly precise ionization energies and vibrational frequencies of the corresponding cations. The VUV-IR-PIRI detection scheme is used to probe the high-frequency vibrational modes associated with the symmetric and asymmetric C--H stretching motions in trans-CH3CH=CHCH3 + and ClCH=CCl2+, which cannot be observed in VUV-PFI-PE spectroscopic studies because of the limitation of negligible Franck-Condon factors. We show that by exciting the neutral molecule to a vibrational state prior to VUV photoionization, state-selected and state-to-state photoionization cross sections can be obtained. As a demonstration experiment, we have obtained the frequency for the nu12 (C--H stretching) mode of ClCH=CCl2 by IR-VUV-PFI-PE-depletion and IR-VUV-photoion measurements. By fixing the IR laser at the nu12 frequency followed by VUV-PIE measurements, we have determined the relative state-to-state photoionization cross sections for the processes, ClCH=CCl2+(nu 12+ = 1) ClCH=CCl2(nu12 = 1), ClCH=CCl2+ ? ClCH=CCl2, and ClCH=CCl 2+ ? ClCH=CCl2(nu12 = 1), where ClCH=CCl2 and ClCH=CCl2+ are in their vibrational states.

  13. Moessbauer spectra of ferrite catalysts used in oxidative dehydrogenation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cares, W. R.; Hightower, J. W.


    Room temperature Mossbauer spectroscopy was used to examine bulk changes which occur in low surface area CoFe2O4 and CuFe2O4 catalysts as a result of contact with various mixtures of trans-2-butene and O2 during oxidative dehydrogenation reactions at about 420 C. So long as there was at least some O2 in the gas phase, the CoFe2O4 spectrum was essentially unchanged. However, the spectrum changed from a random spinel in the oxidized state to an inverse spinel as it was reduced by oxide ion removal. The steady state catalyst lies very near the fully oxidized state. More dramatic solid state changes occurred as the CuFe2O4 underwent reduction. Under severe reduction, the ferrite was transformed into Cu and Fe3O4, but it could be reversibly recovered by oxidation. An intense doublet located near zero velocity persisted in all spectra of CuFe2O4 regardless of the state of reduction.

  14. The use of design-of-experiments methodology to optimize polymer capsule fabrication. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics: Student research reports

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, L. [Pittsford Mendon High School, NY (United States)


    Future inertial-fusion experiments on Omega will utilize {approximately} 1 mm-diameter cryogenic targets that have a {approximately} 100-{micro}m-thick, uniformly-frozen fuel layer on their interior. It is desired that they have a stress-free wall thickness < 1 {micro}m and an rms surface roughness < 20 nm. A design-of-experiments (DOE) approach was used to characterize a glow-discharge-polymerization coater built at LLE to fabricate smooth, stress-free capsules with submicron wall thicknesses. The DOE approach was selected because several parameters can be changed simultaneously in a manner which allows the minimum number of runs to be performed to obtain statistically-relevant data. Planar, silicon substrates were coated with {approximately} 3--5 {micro}m of polymer and profilometry was used to determine the coating rate, the film stress, and the surface roughness. The coating rate was found to depend on the trans-2-butene/hydrogen ratio, the total gas-flow rate, the total chamber pressure, and the RF power. In addition, a two-parameter interaction between the total pressure and the RF power also affects the coating rate. The film stress depends on the total chamber pressure and the total mass-flow rate. The surface roughness is independent of the parameters studied. Preliminary results indicate that capsules can be produced rapidly without affecting the smoothness of their outside surface and without residual stress in their walls.

  15. Influence of process variables on the continuous alkylation of isobutane with 2-butene on superacid sulfated zirconia catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Corma, A.; Martinez, A.; Martinez, C. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica, Valencia (Spain)] [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica, Valencia (Spain)


    Two sulfated zirconia catalysts have been prepared by impregnation of zirconium hydroxide with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.3 N and 1 N. Both samples showed superacid sites as shown by a desorption temperature peak in the NH{sub 3} TPD at ca. 813 K. The activity and selectivity of these catalysts have been studied for the alkylation of isobutane with trans-2 butene in a computer-controlled continuous fixed bed reactor coupled with a sampling system which allows to make differential analysis of the products from very short reaction times. In this way, the influence of the main process variables, i.e, time on stream, reaction temperature, olefin WHSV, and isoparaffin/olefin ratio, on the 2-butene conversation and product distribution has been investigated. Cracking of larger carbocations and alkylation of isobutane with 2-butene to give trimethylpentanes were the predominant reactions occurring on the superacid catalyst in the initial stages of the reaction. The alkylation/cracking ratio increased when decreasing reaction temperature. A fast catalyst decay with time on stream was also observed, and this was accompanied by an increase in the oligomerization of butene. 23 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Kinetic analysis of isobutane/butene alkylation over ultrastable H-Y zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.F.; Wei, J.; Sundaresan, S. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    The alkylation of isobutane with trans-2-butene over ultrastable Y-type zeolites has been studied. It is well-known that this reaction is accompanied by a rapid deactivation of the catalyst. The objective of this study is to elucidate the route to catalyst deactivation so that the means of mitigating this problem can be identified. Using the initial reaction rate data, evidence has been found for a Broensted acid mechanism. Under liquid-phase conditions, the reaction has been found to be severely diffusion limited. Using a kinetic model that accounts for the effect of diffusion, it was found that alkylation over this catalyst suffers from slow hydride transfer relative to olefin addition. This gives rise to a rapid formation of C{sub 12}{sup +} carbocations. The formation of these cations has been tied to catalyst deactivation, using a mathematical model for the reaction. On the basis of the insight gained from the experiments and modeling work, optimal reactor and catalyst design issues are examined. It is inferred from the reaction mechanism and confirmed experimentally that alkylation under pulsed flow conditions yields higher trimethylpentane/dimethylhexane ratios and slower rates of deactivation. It is suggested that the cause of the slow rate of hydride transfer is steric hindrance. Strategies for relieving this steric hindrance are proposed.

  17. Isobutane/2-butene alkylation on ultrastable Y zeolites: Influence of zeolite unit cell size

    SciTech Connect

    Corma, A.; Martinez, A.; Martinez, C. (Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica, Valencia (Spain))


    The alkylation reaction of isobutane with trans-2-butene has been carried out on a series of steam-dealuminated Y zeolites with unit cell sizes ranging from 2.450 to 2.426 nm. A fixed-bed reactor connected to an automatized multiloop sampling system allowed differential product analysis from very short (1 min or less) to longer times on stream. A maximum in the initial 2-butene conversion was found on samples with unit cell sizes between 2.435 and 2.450 nm. However, the TMP/DMH ratio, i.e., the alkylation-to-oligomerization ratio, continuously increased with zeolite unit cell size. The concentration of reactants in the pores, the strength distribution of Bronsted acid sites, and the extent of hydrogen transfer reactions, which in turn depend on the framework Si/Al ratio of a given zeolite, were seen to affect activity and product distribution of the catalysts. Finally, the influence of these factors on the aging characteristics of the samples was also discussed. 17 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. A sputtering derived atomic oxygen source for studying fast atom reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrieri, Richard A.; Yung, Y. Chu; Wolf, Alfred P.


    A technique for the generation of fast atomic oxygen was developed. These atoms are created by ion beam sputtering from metal oxide surfaces. Mass resolved ion beams at energies up to 60 KeV are produced for this purpose using a 150 cm isotope separator. Studies have shown that particles sputtered with 40 KeV Ar(+) on Ta2O5 were dominantly neutral and exclusively atomic. The atomic oxygen also resided exclusively in its 3P ground state. The translational energy distribution for these atoms peaked at ca 7 eV (the metal-oxygen bond energy). Additional measurements on V2O5 yielded a bimodal distribution with the lower energy peak at ca 5 eV coinciding reasonably well with the metal-oxygen bond energy. The 7 eV source was used to investigate fast oxygen atom reactions with the 2-butene stereoisomers. Relative excitation functions for H-abstraction and pi-bond reaction were measured with trans-2-butene. The abstraction channel, although of minor relative importance at thermal energy, becomes comparable to the addition channel at 0.9 eV and dominates the high-energy regime. Structural effects on the specific channels were also found to be important at high energy.

  19. An extended baseline examination of indoor VOCs in a city of low ambient pollution: Perth, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisey, S. J.; Saunders, S. M.; West, N.; Franklin, P. J.


    This study of indoor air quality reports VOC concentrations in 386 suburban homes located in Perth Western Australia, a city of low ambient pollution and temperate climate. Details of indoor VOC concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, and information on house characteristics and occupant activities were collected during the sampling periods. The concentration of VOCs observed in typical homes was low and individual compounds rarely exceeded 5 ?g m-3. Median individual VOC concentrations ranged from 0.06 ?g m-3 for 1,1,1 trichloroethane and butyl ether to 26.6 ?g m-3 for cis/trans 2-butene. Recently renovated homes had higher concentrations of VOCs than non renovated homes, including ?VOCs (p = 0.026), ?BTEX (p = 0.03), ?xylene (p = 0.013), toluene (p = 0.05), cyclohexane (p = 0.039), and propyl benzene (p = 0.039). Statistical analyses showed house age and attached garages were not significant factors for any of the VOCs tested. The concentrations of indoor VOCs in Perth were lower than overseas observations and those reported in recent Australian studies, with inferences made to differences in the climate and the occupant behaviour. The results are a baseline profile of indoor VOCs over the period 2006-2011, in an Australian city of low population density and of generally low ambient pollution.

  20. Pulmonary function in normal and elastase-treated hamsters exposed to a complex mixture of olefin-ozone-sulfur dioxide reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Raub, J.A.; Miller, F.J.; Graham, J.A.; Gardner, D.E.; O'Neil, J.J.


    An elastase-induced emphysema model was utilized to determine if hamsters with preexisting lung disease were more susceptible to lung damage from air-pollutant exposure. Male golden hamsters, divided into two treatment groups, were given a single intratracheal injection of either 6 units of porcine pancreatic elastase (EMP) or buffer (CNT). After a 4-week recovery period, equal numbers of each group were exposed 23 hr/day x 28 day to filtered air (AIR) or to the complex by-products from a dark-phase-reaction mixture of trans-2-butene, ozone, and sulfur dioxide (MIX). Lung-function measurements on the elastase-treated groups showed changes consistent with mild emphysema. There were no significant differences in lung volumes or lung compliance between the AIR- and MIX-exposed animals. However, the nitrogen washout slope decreased and the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide increased in both the CNT and EMP hamsters exposed to the MIX. The change in diffusing capacity was greater in normal hamsters than in hamsters with emphysema, and it is hypothesized that animals with impaired lung function had a decreased ability to respond to a pulmonary insult from the mix.

  1. Reactions of hydroxyl radicals with alkenes in low-temperature matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltham, Emma J.; Almond, Matthew J.; Marston, George; Wiltshire, Karen S.; Goldberg, Nicola


    The reactions of hydroxyl radicals with a number of stable alkenes have been studied in low-temperature matrices. The reactions were initiated by broad band UV-visible irradiation of matrices containing H 2O 2 and the alkene under investigation. The hydroxyalkyl radical products were identified principally by comparison of their spectra with the spectra of corresponding stable alcohols. Accordingly, IR spectra were recorded for the following series of alcohols isolated in argon matrices — methanol, ethanol, ethanol- d6, propan-1-ol, propan-2-ol, butan-2-ol, 2-methylpropan-1-ol ( iso-butyl alcohol), 2-methylpropan-2-ol ( tert-butyl alcohol), 2-methylbutan-2-ol ( tert-amyl alcohol), 3-methylbutan-2-ol and 2,3-dimethylbutan-2-ol. The hydroxyalkyl radicals, which appear to be formed from the alkenes studied were as follows — from ethene, 2-hydroxyethyl radical; from cis- or trans-but-2-ene, 1-methyl-2-hydroxypropyl radical; from propene, 1-methyl-2-hydroxyethyl and 2-hydroxypropyl radicals; from but-1-ene, 1-hydroxymethylpropyl and 2-hydroxybutyl radicals; from 2-methylpropene ( iso-butene), 1,1-dimethyl-2-hydroxyethyl and 2-methyl-2-hydroxypropyl radicals; the radical products from buta-1,3-diene and isoprene could not be identified. In the cases, where two radical products were possible, i.e. when propene, but-1-ene or 2-methylpropene were the substrates, it was found that the concentration of the secondary or tertiary radical always exceeded that of the primary radical. However, the relative concentration of these radicals appears to be determined by subsequent photolysis to give carbonyl compounds. There seems, therefore, to be little preference for the secondary and tertiary radicals over the primary radicals in the primary addition process. Comments on the mechanism of the transformation from radical to carbonyl compound based upon identification of intermediates within the matrix and isotopic substitution experiments are made. The characterisation of the 2-hydroxyethyl radical has been backed up by experiments utilising isotopic substitution with 13C and D ( 2H). The other radicals have been identified with varying degrees of certainty. Those radicals, which are observed at the highest concentration and which are, therefore, characterised more certainly are — 2-hydroxyethyl ( 1), from ethene; 1-methyl-2-hydroxypropyl ( 2), from cis- and trans-but-2-ene; 1-methyl-2-hydroxyethyl ( 3), from propene; 1-hydroxymethylpropyl ( 5), from but-1-ene; and 1,1- dimethyl-2-hydroxyethyl ( 8), from 2-methylpropene.

  2. The role of transition metal promoters on sulfated zirconia catalysts for low-temperature butane isomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Tabora, J.E.; Davis, R.J. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)


    The low temperature isomerization of butane to isobutane was catalyzed by sulfated zirconia promoted with transition metals like Fe, Mn, and Pt. At 323 K, the Fe,Mn-promoted sample exhibited the usual induction period to a highly active state, followed by rapid deactivation. At the same conditions, a Pt-promoted catalyst also showed an induction period but was followed by a period of unusually stable activity, even in the absence of dihydrogen. The mechanism of the isomerization reaction, evaluated by using {sup 13}C-labeled butane over Fe,Mn-promoted at 323 K and unpromoted sulfated zirconia at 473 K, was found to be intermolecular. Because the formation of a C{sub 8} intermediate in a bimolecular pathway most likely involves the reaction of olefins, the effect of adding trans-2-butene to the butane feed was investigated. The increase in isomerization activity that accompanied butene addition was consistent with a mechanism in which butene is protonated by acid sites of the catalyst to initiate a chain reaction that eventually produces isobutane. Since the calculated chain length (moles isobutane formed/moles butene added) was similar for all of the materials studied, the acidities of the catalysts appear to be unaffected by the presence of transition metals. Therefore, the role of transition metal promoters in sulfated zirconia is to increase the surface concentration of intermediate butenes that subsequently react to form isobutane. Due to the very different stabilities of the promoted catalysts at low temperatures, the authors speculate that the Fe,Mn-promoted sample forms butene non-catalytically whereas the Pt-promoted sample forms butene catalytically. 46 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Naveed; Majeed, Tariq; Iqbal, Mazhar; Riemer, Daniel; Apel, Eric; Lootah, Nadia

    The gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry system has been used to identify major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sources in the UAE (latitude 24.45N; longitude 54.22E). VOCs are emitted from an extensive number of sources in urban environments including fuel production, distribution, and consumption. Transport sources contribute a substantial portion of the VOC burden to the urban atmosphere in developed regions. UAE is located at the edge of the Persian Gulf and is highly affected by emissions from petrochemical industries in neighbouring Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Iran. VOCs emerging from these industries can be transported to the UAE with jet streams. The analysis of the collected air samples at three locations in Sharjah, UAE during the autumn and winter seasons indicates the presence of more than 100 VOC species. The concentrations of these species vary in magnitudes but the most prominent are: acetylene, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, benzene, and toluene. The possible tracers for various emission sources have also been identified such as 2-methylpentane, 1, 3-butadiene and 2, 2-dimethlybutane for vehicle exhaust, the light hydrocarbons, namely n-butane, trans-2-butene, and n-pentane for gasoline vapor, and n-nonane, n-decane, and n-undecane for diesel vapor and asphalt application processes. As various emission sources are characterized by overlapping VOC species, the ratio of possible VOC tracers are used to quantify the contribution of different sources. Our aim in this paper is to explore and discuss possible impacts of transported emissions on the local VOC emission inventory from various sources for the UAE. This work is partially supported by Office of Development and Alumni Affairs at the American University of Sharjah, U.A.E.

  4. Ozone precursors for the São Paulo Metropolitan Area.


    Orlando, João Paulo; Alvim, Débora Souza; Yamazaki, Amélia; Corrêa, Sergio Machado; Gatti, Luciana Vanni


    Ozone represents the main atmospheric pollutant in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). In this region, its concentration exceeds the national air quality standards for several days out of the year. Ozone is a secondary pollutant and is a product of VOCs, NO(x), and sunlight. Thus, it is very difficult to elaborate efficient strategies for its reduction. Computational simulations may provide an interesting alternative to evaluate the many factors that affect ozone formation. In this study, the trajectory model OZIPR was used together with the SAPRC chemical mechanism to determine the incremental reactivity scale for VOCs in the SPMA. VOC input data were obtained from two campaigns that were performed in the studied area in 2006. Values for CO, NO(x), and meteorological parameters were obtained by automatic monitors. Five base-cases were created to verify the variation in maximum ozone concentration and thus determine the ozone formation potential of each VOC. NO(x) and VOC emissions were independently and simultaneously reduced by 5, 10, 20, and 30% to verify variations in ozone formation. With the simulator output data, ozone isopleths charts were generated for the city of São Paulo. Analysis of the obtained results shows that the most frequent compounds found among the ten main ozone precursors in São Paulo, using the reactivity scales created from the five base-cases, were: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propene, isoprene, cis-2-butene, and trans-2-butene, with formaldehyde being always the main ozone precursor compound. The simulations also show that an efficient strategy to decrease ozone concentrations in the SPMA would be to reduce total VOC emissions. The same strategy is not possible for NO(x), as the reduction of these pollutants would increase ozone concentrations. PMID:20034654

  5. Systematic preparation of selective heterogeneous catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.


    The Single Turnover (STO) procedure, involving pulses of hydrogen and 1-butene, was developed for studying the types of active sites present on supported metal catalysts. The STO procedure was used to study direct saturated sites and other topics. Frontier molecular orbital studies were also made.

  6. Systematic preparation of selective heterogeneous catalysts. Final report, September 1, 1984--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.


    The Single Turnover (STO) procedure, involving pulses of hydrogen and 1-butene, was developed for studying the types of active sites present on supported metal catalysts. The STO procedure was used to study direct saturated sites and other topics. Frontier molecular orbital studies were also made.

  7. Nucleophilic intermolecular chemistry and reactivity of dimethylcarbene.


    Cang, Hui; Moss, Robert A; Krogh-Jespersen, Karsten


    Experimental and computational studies find that dimethylcarbene (DMC), the parent dialkylcarbene, is both predicted to be and functions as a very reactive nucleophilic carbene in addition reactions with five simple alkenes. Activation energies and enthalpies for DMC additions to 2-ethyl-1-butene and methyl acrylate are computed and observed to be negative. PMID:25668053

  8. The catalytic oxidation of ethylene and butenes with air: total aldehyde production and selectivity

    E-print Network

    Burns, John Cunningham


    passed at 368 over 775 parts of a catalyst con- taining 0. 4. percent Cu20 supported on SiC, the yield of acrolein was sixty five percent. 1-butene and 2-butene give CHZCHCOCII3. Isobutylene r ives methacrolein. See. ch (3) in 1951 patented. a proce...

  9. Studies of vanadium-phosphorus-oxygen selective oxidation catalysts by sup 31 P and sup 51 V NMR spin-echo and volume susceptibility measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Juan.


    The purpose of this work is to characterize the vanadium-phosphorous oxide (V-P-O) catalysts for the selective oxidation of n-butane and 1-butene to maleic anhydride. The utility of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance as an analytical tool in this investigation lies in its sensitivity to the electronic environment surrounding the phosphorous and vanadium nuclei, and proximity of paramagnetic species. Spin-echo mapping NMR of {sup 31}p and {sup 51}v and volume magnetic susceptibility measurements were used as local microscopic probes of the presence of V{sup 5+}, V{sup 4+}, V{sup 3+} species in the model compounds: {beta}-VOPO{sub 4}, {beta}-VOPO{sub 4} treated with n-butane/1-butene, (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} treated with n-butane/1-butene; and industrial catalysts with P/V (phosphorus to vanadium) ratio of 0.9, 1.0 and 1.1, before and after treatment with n-butane and 1-butene. The NMR spectra provide a picture of how the oxidation states of vanadium are distributed in these catalysts. 73 refs., 32 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Diversity-Oriented Stereoselective Synthesis of ?,?-Disubstituted tert-Homoallylic Alcohols.


    Takeda, Takeshi; Amarume, Sota; Sekioka, Ippei; Tsubouchi, Akira


    The successive treatment of ?-(trimethylsilyl)allyl phenyl sulfides with titanocene(II)-1-butene complex and ketones produced tertiary ?-(trimethylsilyl)homoallylic alcohols with good anti-selectivity, which reacted with a variety of organic halides in the presence of copper(I) tert-butoxide to afford the cross-coupling products, ?-substituted homoallylic alcohols. PMID:25689686

  11. STM Tip Catalyzed Adsorption of Thiol Molecules at the Nanometer Scale

    E-print Network

    Kim, Sehun

    been used as a heterogeneous catalyst for the skeletal isomerization of 1-butene,21,22 olefin; Abstract: The tungsten oxide covered tungsten (W) tip of a scanning tunneling microscope was found to act as a catalyst to catalyze the S-H dissociative adsorption of phenylthiol and 1

  12. Identification of novel aroma-active thiols in pan-roasted white sesame seeds.


    Tamura, Hitoshi; Fujita, Akira; Steinhaus, Martin; Takahisa, Eisuke; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Schieberle, Peter


    Screening for aroma-active compounds in an aroma distillate obtained from freshly pan-roasted sesame seeds by aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 32 odorants in the FD factor range of 2-2048, 29 of which could be identified. The highest FD factors were found for the coffee-like smelling 2-furfurylthiol, the caramel-like smelling 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, the coffee-like smelling 2-thenylthiol (thiophen-2-yl-methylthiol), and the clove-like smelling 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol. In addition, 9 odor-active thiols with sulfurous, meaty, and/or catty, black-currant-like odors were identified for the first time in roasted sesame seeds. Among them, 2-methyl-1-propene-1-thiol, (Z)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (Z)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, and 4-mercapto-3-hexanone were previously unknown as food constituents. Their structures were confirmed by comparing their mass spectra and retention indices as well as their sensory properties with those of synthesized reference compounds. The relatively unstable 1-alkene-1-thiols represent a new class of food odorants and are suggested as the key contributors to the characteristic, but quickly vanishing, aroma of freshly ground roasted sesame seeds. PMID:20491509

  13. Determination of Tamoxifen and its Major Metabolites in Exposed Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tamoxifen (TAM), (Z)-1-(p-dimethylaminoethoxyphenyl)-1, 2-diphenyl-1-butene, is a nonsteroidal agent that has been used in breast cancer treatment for decades. Its major metabolites are 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT), N-desmethyltamoxifen (DMT), and endoxifen. While TAM and metabolit...

  14. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric VOCs in the downtown area of Guangzhou, China].


    Li, Lei; Li, Hong; Wang, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Xin-Min; Wen, Chong


    The measurements of 31 kinds of VOCs in the ambient air of a site were carried out in the downtown of Guangzhou by online method from November 5, 2009 to November 9, 2009. The ambient level and composition characteristics, temporal variation characteristics, sources identification, and chemical reactivity of VOCs were studied, and the health risk of VOCs in the ambient air in the study area was assessed by using the international recognized health risk assessment method. Results showed that the mean and the range of the mass concentrations of 31 VOCs were 114.51 microg x m(-3) and 29.42-546.06 microg x m(-3), respectively. The mass concentrations of 31 VOCs, and those of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics all showed a changing trend of higher in the morning and in the evening, and lower at noontime. Vehicular exhaust, gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas evaporates were the main sources of VOCs with the volatilization of paints and solvents being important emission sources. Toluene, trans-2-butene, m/p-xylene, i-butane, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the key reactive species among the 31 VOCs. Vehicular exhaust and gasoline evaporation were the main sources of VOCs leading to the formation of ozone. Health risk assessment showed that n-hexane, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene had no appreciable risk of adverse non-cancer health effect on the exposed population, but 1, 3-butadiene and benzene had potential cancer risk. By comparing the corresponding data about health risk assessment of benzene compounds in some cities in China, it is concluded that benzene can impose relatively high cancer risk to the exposed populations in the ambient air of some cities in China. Therefore, strict countermeasures should be taken to further control the pollution of benzene in the ambient air of cities, and it is imperative to start the related studies and develop the atmospheric environmental health criteria and national ambient air quality standard for benzene in China. PMID:24640890

  15. The effect of cavitating ultrasound on the aqueous phase hydrogenation of cis-2-buten-1-ol and cis-2-penten-1-ol on Pd-black

    SciTech Connect

    Disselkamp, Robert S.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Hart, Todd R.; White, James F.; Peden, Charles HF.


    We have studied the effect of cavitating ultrasound on the heterogeneous aqueous hydrogenation of cis-2-buten-1-ol (C4 olefin) and cis-2-penten-1-ol (C5 olefin) on Pd-black to form the trans-olefins (trans-2-buten-1-ol and trans-2-penten-1-ol) and saturated alcohols (1-butanol and 1-pentanol, respectively). Silent (and magnetically stirred) experiments served as control experiments. As described in an earlier publication by our group, we have added an inert dopant, 1-propanol, in the reaction mixture to ensure the rapid onset of cavitation in the ultrasound-assisted reactions that can lead to altered selectivity compared to silent reaction systems [R.S. Disselkamp, Ya-Huei Chin, C.H.F. Peden, J. Catal. 227 (2004) 552]. The motivation for this study is to examine whether cavitating ultrasound can reduce the [trans-olefin/saturated alcohol] molar ratio during the course of the reaction. This could have practical application in that it may offer an alternative processing methodology of synthesizing healthier edible seed oils by reducing trans-fat content.We have observed that cavitating ultrasound results in a [(trans-olefin/saturated alcohol)ultrasound/(trans-olefin/saturated alcohol)silent] ratio quantity less than 0.5 at the reaction mid-point for both the C4 and C5 olefin systems. This indicates that ultrasound reduces trans-olefin production compared to the silent control experiment. Furthermore, there is an added 30% reduction for the C5 versus C4 olefin compounds again at reaction mid-point. We attribute differences in the ratio quantity as a moment of inertia effect. In principle, the C4 versus C5 olefins has a {approx}52% increase in moment of inertia about C2 C3 double bond slowing isomerization. Since seed oils are C18 multiple cis-olefins and have a moment of inertia even greater than our C5 olefin here, our study suggests that even a greater reduction in trans-olefin content may occur for partial hydrogenation of C18 seed oils.

  16. The Effect of Cavitating Ultrasound on the Aqueous Phase Hydrogenation of Cis-2-buten-1-ol and Cis-2-penten-1-ol on Pd-black

    SciTech Connect

    Disselkamp, Robert S.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Hart, Todd R.; White, James F.; Peden, Charles HF.


    We have studied the effect of cavitating ultrasound on the heterogeneous aqueous hydrogenation of cis-2-buten-1-ol (C4 olefin) and cis-2-penten-1-ol (C5 olefin) on Pd-black to form the trans-olefins (trans-2-buten-1-ol and trans-2-penten-1-ol) and saturated alcohols (1-butanol and 1-pentanol, respectively). Silent (and magnetically stirred) experiments served as control experiments. As described in an earlier publication by our group, we have added an inert dopant, 1-propanol, in the reaction mixture to ensure the rapid onset of cavitation in the ultrasound-assisted reactions that can lead to altered selectivity compared to silent reaction systems [Disselkamp et al., J. Catal., 227 (2004) 552]. The motivation for this study is to examine whether cavitating ultrasound can reduce the [trans-olefin/saturated alcohol] molar ratio during the course of the reaction. This could have practical application in that it may offer an alternative processing methodology of synthesizing healthier edible seed oils by reducing trans-fat content. We have observed that cavitating ultrasound results in a [(trans-olefin/saturated alcohol)ultrasound/(trans-olefin/saturated alcohol)silent] ratio quantity less than 0.5 at the reaction mid-point for both the C4 and C5 olefin systems. This indicates that ultrasound reduces trans-olefin production compared to the silent control experiment. Furthermore, there is an added 30% reduction for the C5 versus C4 olefin compounds again at reaction mid-point. We attribute differences in the ratio quantity as a moment of inertia effect. In principle, the C4 versus C5 olefins has a {approx}52% increase in moment of inertia about C2=C3 double bond slowing isomerization. Since seed oils are C18 multiple cis olefins and have an moment of inertia even greater than our C5 olefin here, our study suggests that even a greater reduction in trans-olefin content may occur for partial hydrogenation of C18 seed oils.

  17. Gas phase reaction of the NO 3 radical with organic compounds in the dark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Yvonne; Ljungström, Evert

    The reactions of the NO 3 radical with four organic compounds, 1-butene, 1,3-butadiene, ethene and vinyl chloride were studied at 296 ± 1 K at atmospheric pressure with N 2 as the matrix gas. N 2O 5 was used as the NO 3 radical source. The reactants were monitored with an FTIR White optical system. The rate coeificients were determined to be (6.1 ± 2.9) 10 -17, (6.4 ± 0.3) × 10 -15, (4.4±0.8) × 10 -14 and (1.4 ± 0.9) × 10 -16 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 for ethene, 1-butene, 1,3-butadiene and vinyl chloride, respectively. The i.r. spectra indicate the presence of nitrate compounds as intermediates and aldehydes as comparatively stable products.

  18. The Thermodynamic Conjugation Stabilization of 1,3-Butadiyne Is Zero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Donald W.; Zavitsas, Andreas A.; Matsunaga, Nikita


    Many textbooks point out that the thermodynamic stabilization enthalpy of 1 mol of 1,3-butadiene relative to 2 mol of 1-butene or to 1 mol of 1,4-pentadiene is slightly less than 4 kcal mol[superscript -1], owing to conjugation between the double bonds in the 1,3 configuration. It is reasonable to suppose that the analogous thermochemical…

  19. Characterization of Dispersed Heteropoly Acid on Mesoporous Zeolite Using Solid-State P-31 NMR Spin-Lattice Relaxation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kake Zhu; Jian Z. Hu; Xiaoyan She; Jun Liu; Zimin Nie; Yong Wang; Charles HF Peden; Ja Hun Kwak


    Dispersion and quantitative characterization of supported catalysts is a grand challenge in catalytic science. In this paper, heteropoly acid H3PW12O40 (HPA) is dispersed on mesoporous zeolite silicalite-1 derived from hydrothermal synthesis using carbon black nanoparticle templates, and the catalytic activity is studied for 1-butene isomerization. The HPAs supported on conventional zeolite and on mesoporous zeolite exhibit very different activities and

  20. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic properties of titania–silica catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Mokhtar Mohamed; T. M Salama; T Yamaguchi


    The preparation of titania doped (0.63–3.2 mmol g?1) silica (TiO2\\/SiO2) was described together with a mixed oxide sample (TiO2–SiO2) at a nominal molar ratio near to 1. These materials were thoroughly characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption at 76 K and ammonia adsorption measurements as well as FTIR spectroscopy. The activity of the materials towards 1-butene isomerization was also tested. FTIR

  1. The catalytic oxidation of propylene: investigation of catalyst activity.

    E-print Network

    Woodham, John Frank


    as that of the stabilised oatalyst, The work of Brettonj Wan and &odge (6) involved the oxidation of n-butanes 1-butenes 2-butene~ isobutylenes and Ip5 butadiene in the vapor phase over various silver and silver oxide catalysts and over vanadium pentoxide catalyst... suitable for explaining the experimental results were formulated and disoussed, The principal products obtained by the authors over vana- dium pentoxide catalyst wares ~HB E-Butane 1- and 2-Butylene Isobutylens Butadiene princi sl Oxidation Products...

  2. An investigation of the preparation of some alkylphosphonyl dichlorides

    E-print Network

    Metzger, Sidney Henry


    . 20 lt is felt that the success of' benzoyl peroxide as a cata- lyst in the above examples does not neccessarily apply to such oleiins as isobutylene and 2, $-dimethyl-l-butene. For example, it is well known that the addition oi' hydrogen bromide.... Consequently, 1-butene would add hydrogen bromide in the presence of oxygen to easily give n-butyl bromide, 'but isobutylene required ascaridole (benzoyl peroxicle not mentioned). Michael and 25 Weiner also used only ascaridole for reverse addition...

  3. Acid–base reactions on alumina-supported niobia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mona A. Abdel-Rehim; Ana Carlota B. dos Santos; Vera Lúcia L. Camorim; Arnaldo da Costa Faro


    Catalysts containing from 8 to 28%wt. of niobia supported on ?-alumina by impregnation with niobium pentaethoxide solutions were characterized by infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed pyridine as a probe for acidic sites and CO2 adsorption as a probe for basic sites. The catalysts had their activity measured in isopropanol dehydration at 453K, 1-butene isomerization at 348K and in cumene dealkylation at

  4. Thermal desorption spectroscopy from high-specific-area solids: hydrocarbon adsorption and diffusion in NaX zeolite crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kiskinova; G. L. Griffin; J. T. Jr. Yates


    This work illustrates a novel application of the thermal desorption spectroscopy technique to investigate adsorption, desorption, and surface diffusion phenomena on small zeolite crystals. Ultrahigh-vacuum procedures employed with zeolite samples of very small mass permit measurements to be made without the presence of intergranular diffusion effects. Studies of 1-butene and CâHâ adsorption have been carried out. A diffusion energy of

  5. Role of ZSM-5 and ultrastable Y zeolites for increasing gasoline octane number

    Microsoft Academic Search



    Octane number of gasoline made in a fluid catalytic cracker can be catalytically enhanced by using an ultrastable HY zeolite instead of one containing rare earth cations or by adding small amounts of ZSM-5 to a Y zeolite catalyst. ZSM-5 addition catalyzes both normal and branched olefin cracking to give mainly propylene, butenes, 2-methyl 1-butene, and 2-methyl 2-butene. Increase in

  6. Coke formation and its effects on shape selective adsorptive and catalytic properties of ferrierite/ZSM-35

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, W.Q.; Yin, Y.G.; Suib, S.L. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)] [and others


    Channels of ferrierite are blocked by carbonaceous deposits (coke) which are formed during butene treatments. The pore blocking inside ferrierite/alumina catalysts affects the yield and selectivity to isobutylene in these reactions. Pore size distribution experiments show that blocking of 10-member ring channels (4.2 x 5.4 {Angstrom}) and 8-member ring channels (3.5 x 4.8 {Angstrom}) of ferrierite by coke reduces the channel size smaller than that of dinitrogen (4.5 {Angstrom}). Thermal desorption data show that ammonia uptake for coked samples of different TOS (time on stream) is decreased from about 62% to 35% of that for the fresh sample. This suggests that channels in coked ferrierites are at least larger than the size of the ammonia molecule (2 {Angstrom}). Uptakes for more bulky molecules such as 1-butene and isobutylene are severely reduced by coke formation (<9% of 1-butene and isobutylene uptakes for the fresh sample). About 76.9% of the coke formed during 18 hr TOS is deposited inside the micropores (<10 {Angstrom}) of ferrierite/alumina. Such coke is aromatic in nature and its hydrogen to carbon ratio decreases with TOS. Three kinds of acid sites were successfully probed with ammonia, 1-butene, and isobutylene. These experiments suggest that adsorption of probe molecules on ferrierite is also a shape selective process.

  7. Effects of metal and acidic sites on the reaction by-products of butyl acetate oxidation over palladium-based catalysts.


    Yue, Lin; He, Chi; Hao, Zhengping; Wang, Shunbing; Wang, Hailin


    Catalytic oxidation is widely used in pollution control technology to remove volatile organic compounds. In this study, Pd/ZSM-5 catalysts with different Pd contents and acidic sites were prepared via the impregnation method. All the catalysts were characterized by means of N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), H2 temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), and NH3 temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). Their catalytic performance was investigated in the oxidation of butyl acetate experiments. The by-products of the reaction were collected in thermal desorption tubes and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. It was found that the increase of Pd content slightly changed the catalytic activity of butyl acetate oxidation according to the yield of CO2 achieved at 90%, but decreased the cracking by-products, whereas the enhancement of strong acidity over Pd-based catalysts enriched the by-product species. The butyl acetate oxidation process involves a series of reaction steps including protolysis, dehydrogenation, dehydration, cracking, and isomerization. Generally, butyl acetate was cracked to acetic acid and 2-methylpropene and the latter was an intermediate of the other by-products, and the oxidation routes of typical by-products were proposed. Trace amounts of 3-methylpentane, hexane, 2-methylpentane, pentane, and 2-methylbutane originated from isomerization and protolysis reactions. PMID:25079284

  8. Equilibrium constants for methyl tert-butyl ether and ethyl tert-butyl ether liquid-phase syntheses using C[sub 4] olefinic cut

    SciTech Connect

    Izquierdo, J.F.; Cunill, F.; Vila, M.; Iborra, M.; Tejero, J. (Univ. of Barcelona (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.)


    Equilibrium constants for the liquid-phase syntheses of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) were determined experimentally in the temperature range 313--353 K and at 1.6 MPa, using as source of 2-methylpropene (isobutylene) a C[sub 4] olefinic cut proceeding from a steam cracking unit. To reach etherification equilibrium, the macroporous sulfonic acid resin K-2631 (Bayer) was used as the catalyst. The thermodynamic equilibrium constants and the enthalpy, free energy, and entropy changes of reactions were given as a temperature function. At 298 K, the standard molar reaction enthalpy [Delta][sub r]H[sub m][degree](298 K, 1.6 MPa) for MTBE and ETBE are [minus](37.3 [+-] 2) and [minus](34.8 [+-] 1.3) kJ/mol, respectively, and are compared with literature data. A comparison of the equilibrium constant values with those obtained using pure reactants with and without small initial amounts of water (<5 wt %) is also included. The UNIFAC estimates of activity coefficients were used to describe the liquid-phase nonideality. The standard molar enthalpies of formation [Delta][sub f]H[sub m][degree](l, 298.2 K) of MTBE and ETBE are [minus]313.5 and [minus]349.9 kJ/mol, respectively.

  9. Fermentative production of isobutene.


    van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J


    Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock. PMID:22234536

  10. Genotoxicity of alkene epoxides in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HL60 leukaemia cells evaluated with the comet assay.


    Fabiani, Roberto; Rosignoli, Patrizia; De Bartolomeo, Angelo; Fuccelli, Raffaela; Morozzi, Guido


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) exert their carcinogenic activity through the production of epoxide metabolites. Because of their high reactivity some epoxides are also produced in the chemical industry for the synthesis of other compounds. Therefore, human exposure to VOCs epoxides does occur and may be an important human health concern. In this study, the in vitro genotoxic potential of epoxides originating from 1,3-butadiene (3,4-epoxy-1-butene: EB; 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane: DEB), isoprene (3,4-epoxy-2-methyl-1-butene: IO), styrene (styrene-7,8-oxide: SO), propylene (propylene oxide: PO) and 1-butene (1,2-epoxy-butane: BO) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and promyelocytic leukaemia cells (HL60) was measured with the comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis, SCGE). The effect of inclusion of foetal calf serum (FCS, 5%) in the cell-culture medium and different durations of exposure (2h, 24h) were also investigated. All epoxides tested produced DNA damage in a concentration range that did not reduce cell viability. HL60 cells were more resistant than PBMCs to the DNA damage induced by the different epoxides. With the exception of IO, the treatment for 24h resulted in an increase of DNA damage. FCS slightly protected PBMCs from the genotoxic effects induced by IO and BO, whilst no such effect was noted for the other compounds. Overall, the dose-dependent effects that were seen allowed us to define a genotoxicity scale for the different epoxides as follows: SO>EB>DEB>IO>PO>BO, which is in partial agreement with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification of the carcinogenic hazards. PMID:22285587

  11. CCMR: Quantum Mechanical Studies of Naphthoannulation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nuez, Betsy


    The reactivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon has been known to be significant in the development of new methods for synthesizing compounds. The purpose of this project was to investigate the properties that affect the efficiency of the synthesis of naphthalene ring systems. The focus was on determining the possible transition states for the naphthoannulation cyclization. In this study, the naphthoannulation reaction of 1,1?-(2-ethyl-1-buten-3- ynylidenene)bis-benzene to form [4]-helicene has been investigated using the B3LYP/6-31G* method as implemented in GAUSSIAN 03. Computational chemistry was used to examine the energies, cyclization barriers, and the frequencies of naphthoannulation similar systems.

  12. Estrogenic Activity of Styrene Oligomers after Metabolic Activation by Rat Liver Microsomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeyuki Kitamura; Motoko Ohmegi; Seigo Sanoh; Kazumi Sugihara; Shinichi Yoshihara; Nariaki Fujimoto; Shigeru Ohta


    In this study we examined estrogenic activity of styrene oligomers after metabolic activation by rat liver microsomes. trans-1,2-Diphenylcyclobutane (TCB), cis-1,2-diphenylcyclobutane (CCB), 1,3- diphenylpropane, 2,4-diphenyl-1-butene, 2,4,6-triphenyl-1-hexene, and 1?-phenyl-4?-(1´- phenylethyl)tetralin were negative in the yeast estrogen screening assay and estrogen reporter assay using estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. However, TCB exhibited estro- genic activity after incubation with liver microsomes of

  13. Conversion of methanol to light olefins on SAPO-34: kinetic modeling and reactor design

    E-print Network

    Al Wahabi, Saeed M. H.


    -pentene...................................62 Figure IV-8. Single event rate coefficients for elementary cracking steps. Curve (a): 2,2-diMe-4-hexyl R+ into 1-butene and 2-Me-2- propyl R+. Curve (b): 2,2,4-triMe-4-pentyl R+ into isobutylene and 2-Me-2....3 Total 100.0 100.0 Olefins Yields, wt% Ethylene 6.1 0.8 Propylene 21.0 4.9 Isobutylene 5.1 1.9 Total butylenes 14.3 8.1 II.3 Paraffins Dehydrogenation Propane dehydrogenation technology has gained importance in recent years due...

  14. Protonation Sites and Dissociation Mechanisms of t-Butylcarbamates in Tandem Mass Spectrometric Assays for Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Spá?il, Zden?k; Hui, Renjie; Gelb, Michael H.; Ture?ek, František


    Structures of tert-butylcarbamate ions in the gas phase and methanol solution were studied for simple secondary and tertiary carbamates as well as for carbamate-containing products and internal standards for lysosomal enzyme assays used in newborn screening of a ?-galactosidase A deficiency (GLA, Fabry disease), mucopolysaccharidosis I (Hurler disease), and mucopolysaccharidosis II (Hunter disease). Protonation of simple t-butylcarbamates can occur at the carbonyl group which is the preferred site in the gas phase. Protonation in methanol solution is more favorable if occurring at the carbamate nitrogen atom. Protonation of more complex t-butylcarbamates occurs at amide and carbamate carbonyl groups, and the ions are stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonding which is affected by solvation. Tertiary carbamates containing aminophenol amide groups were calculated to have substantially greater gas-phase basicities than secondary carbamates containing coumarin amide groups. The main diagnostically important ion dissociation by elimination of 2-methylpropene (isobutylene, i-C4H8) and carbon dioxide is shown by experiment and theory to proceed in two steps. Energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation of the Hurler’s disease enzymatic product ion, which is a coumarin-diamine linker-t-butylcarbamate conjugate (3a+), indicated separate energy thresholds for the loss of i-C4H8 and CO2. Computational investigation of the potential energy surface along two presumed reaction pathways indicated kinetic preference for the migration of a t-butyl hydrogen atom to the carbamate carbonyl resulting in the isobutylene loss. The consequent loss of CO2 required further proton migrations that had to overcome energy barriers. PMID:22012676

  15. Protonation sites and dissociation mechanisms of t-butylcarbamates in tandem mass spectrometric assays for newborn screening.


    Spá?il, Zden?k; Hui, Renjie; Gelb, Michael H; Ture?ek, František


    Structures of tert-butylcarbamate ions in the gas-phase and methanol solution were studied for simple secondary and tertiary carbamates as well as for carbamate-containing products and internal standards for lysosomal enzyme assays used in newborn screening of a ?-galactosidase A deficiency (Fabry disease), mucopolysaccharidosis I (Hurler disease), and mucopolysaccharidosis II (Hunter disease). The protonation of simple t-butylcarbamates can occur at the carbonyl group, which is the preferred site in the gas phase. Protonation in methanol solution is more favorable if occurring at the carbamate nitrogen atom. The protonation of more complex t-butylcarbamates occurs at amide and carbamate carbonyl groups, and the ions are stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonding, which is affected by solvation. Tertiary carbamates containing aminophenol amide groups were calculated to have substantially greater gas-phase basicities than secondary carbamates containing coumarin amide groups. The main diagnostically important ion dissociation by elimination of 2-methylpropene (isobutylene, i-C(4)H(8)) and carbon dioxide is shown by experiment and theory to proceed in two steps. Energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation of the Hurler's disease enzymatic product ion, which is a coumarin-diamine linker-t-butylcarbamate conjugate (3a(+)), indicated separate energy thresholds for the loss of i-C(4)H(8) and CO(2). Computational investigation of the potential energy surface along two presumed reaction pathways indicated kinetic preference for the migration of a t-butyl hydrogen atom to the carbamate carbonyl resulting in the isobutylene loss. The consequent loss of CO(2) required further proton migrations that had to overcome energy barriers. PMID:22012676

  16. Ring-expansion reactions in the thermal decomposition of tert-butyl-1,3-cyclopentadiene.


    McGivern, W Sean; Manion, Jeffrey A; Tsang, Wing


    The thermal decomposition of tert-butyl-1,3-cyclopentadiene has been investigated in single-pulse shock-tube studies at shock pressures of 182-260 kPa and temperatures of 996-1127 K. Isobutene (2-methylpropene), 1,3-cyclopentadiene, and toluene were observed as the major stable products in the thermolysis of dilute mixtures of the substrate in the presence of a free-radical scavenger. Hydrogen atoms were also inferred to be a primary product of the decomposition and could be quantitatively determined on the basis of products derived from the free-radical scavenger. Of particular interest is the formation of toluene, which involves the expansion of the ring from a five- to a six-membered system. The overall reaction mechanism is suggested to include isomerization of the starting material; a molecular elimination channel; and C-C bond fission reactions, with toluene formation occurring via radical intermediates formed in the latter pathway. These radical intermediates are analogous to those believed to be important in soot formation reactions occurring during combustion. Molecular and thermodynamic properties of key species were determined from G3MP2B3 quantum chemistry calculations and are reported. The temperature dependence of the product spectrum was fit with a detailed chemical kinetic model, and best-fit kinetic parameters were derived using a Nelder-Mead simplex minimization algorithm. Our mechanism and rate constants are consistent with and provide experimental support for the H-atom-assisted routes to the conversion of fulvene to benzene that have been proposed in the literature on the basis of theoretical investigations. PMID:17125296

  17. Gas-phase kinetics of hydroxyl radical reactions with alkenes: experiment and theory.


    Daranlot, Julien; Bergeat, Astrid; Caralp, Françoise; Caubet, Philippe; Costes, Michel; Forst, Wendell; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Hickson, Kevin M


    Reactions of the hydroxyl radical with propene and 1-butene are studied experimentally in the gas phase in a continuous supersonic flow reactor over the range 50?T/K?224. OH radicals are produced by pulsed laser photolysis of H(2)O(2) at 266 nm in the supersonic flow and followed by laser-induced fluorescence in the (1, 0) A(2)?(+)?X(2)?(3/2) band at about 282 nm. These reactions are found to exhibit negative temperature dependences over the entire temperature range investigated, varying between (3.1-19.2) and (4.2-28.6)×10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the reactions of OH with propene and 1-butene, respectively. Quantum chemical calculations of the potential energy surfaces are used as the basis for energy- and rotationally resolved Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculations to determine the rate constants over a range of temperatures and pressures. The negative temperature dependences of the rate constants are explained by competition between complex redissociation and passage to the adducts by using a model with two transition states. The results are compared and contrasted with earlier studies and discussed in terms of their potential relevance to the atmosphere of Saturn. PMID:20839269

  18. Palladium-mediated hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons with hydrogen gas released during anaerobic cellulose degradation. [Neocallimastix frontalis; Ruminococcus albus; methanospirillum hungatei

    SciTech Connect

    Mountfort, D.O.; Kaspar, H.F.


    Among five hydrogenation catalysts, palladium on charcoal was the most reactive one when suspended in anaerobic culture medium, and Lindlar catalyst (Pd on CaCO/sub 3/) was the most reactive one when suspended in the gas phase of culture tubes. Palladium on charcoal in the culture medium (40 to 200 mg 10 ml/sup -1/) completely inhibited growth of Neocallimastix frontalis and partly inhibited Ruminococcus albus. Lindlar catalyst (40 to 200 mg per tube) suspended in a glass pouch above the culture medium did not affect the rate of cellulose degradation or the ration of fermentation products by these organisms. Acetylene added to tubes containing Lindlar catalyst in pouches, and either of the two organisms in monoculture or coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei, was reduced to ethylene and then ethane, followed by hydrogen production. Similar results were obtained with 1-pentene. Neither acetylene nor 1-pentene affected cellulose degradation but both inhibited methanogenesis. In the presence of Lindlar catalyst and propylene or 1-butene, fermenter-methanogen cocultures continued to produce methane at the same rate as controls and no olefin reduction occurred. Upon addition of bromoethanesulfonic acid, methanogenesis stopped and olefin reduction took place followed by hydrogen evolution. In a gas mixture consisting of propylene, 1-butene, and 1-pentene, the olefins were reduced at rates which decreased with increasing molecular size.

  19. Intercomparison of Hantzsch and fiber-laser-induced-fluorescence formaldehyde measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, J.; Li, X.; Tillmann, R.; Acir, I.; Holland, F.; Rohrer, F.; Wegener, R.; Keutsch, F. N.


    Two gas-phase formaldehyde (HCHO) measurement techniques, a modified commercial wet-chemical instrument based on Hantzsch fluorimetry and a custom-built instrument based on fiber laser-induced fluorescence (FILIF), were deployed at the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber) to compare the instruments' performances under a range of conditions. Thermolysis of para-HCHO and ozonolysis of 1-butene were used as HCHO sources, allowing for calculations of theoretical HCHO mixing ratios. Calculated HCHO mixing ratios are compared to measurements, and the two measurements are also compared. Experiments were repeated under dry and humid conditions (RH < 2% and RH > 60%) to investigate the possibility of a water artifact in the FILIF measurements. The ozonolysis of 1-butene also allowed for the investigation of an ozone artifact seen in some Hantzsch measurements in previous intercomparisons. Results show that under all conditions the two techniques are well correlated (R2 ? 0.997), and linear regression statistics show measurements agree with within stated uncertainty (15% FILIF + 5% Hantzsch). No water or ozone artifacts are identified. While a slight curvature is observed in some Hantzsch vs. FILIF regressions, the potential for variable instrument sensitivity cannot be attributed to a single instrument at this time. Measurements at low concentrations highlight the need for a secondary method for testing the purity of air used in instrument zeroing and the need for further FILIF White cell outgassing experiments.

  20. Volatile organic compound constituents from an integrated iron and steel facility.


    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Chen, Chih-Yu; Lai, Nina; Ma, Sen-Yi; Chiang, Hung-Lung


    This study measured the volatile organic compound (VOC) constituents of four processes in an integrated iron and steel industry; cokemaking, sintering, hot forming, and cold forming. Toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, isopentane, m,p-xylene, 1-butene, ethylbenzene, and benzene were the predominant VOC species in these processes. However, some of the chlorinated compounds were high (hundreds ppbv), i.e., trichloroethylene in all four processes, carbon tetrachloride in the hot forming process, chlorobenzene in the cold forming process, and bromomethane in the sintering process. In the sintering process, the emission factors of toluene, benzene, xylene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and ethylbenzene were over 9 g/tonne-product. In the vicinity of the manufacturing plant, toluene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, xylene and ethylbenzene were high. Toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, xylene, 1-butene and isopentane were the major ozone formation species. Aromatic compounds were the predominant VOC groups, constituting 45-70% of the VOC concentration and contributing >70% to the high ozone formation potential in the stack exhaust and workplace air. The sequence of VOC concentration and ozone formation potential was as follows: cold forming>sintering>hot forming>cokemaking. For the workplace air, cokemaking was the highest producer, which was attributed to the fugitive emissions of the coke oven and working process release. PMID:18289777

  1. The activation of hydrocarbon C-H bonds over transition metal oxide catalysts: A FTIR study of hydrocarbon catalytic combustion over MgCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Finnocchio, E.; Busca, G.; Lorenzelli, V. [Universita P.le Kennedy, Geneva (Italy)] [Universita P.le Kennedy, Geneva (Italy); Willey, R.J. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)] [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)


    The interaction of light hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, propane, propene, n-butane, isobutane, 1-butene, benzene, and toluene) with the oxidized surface of the spinel MgCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} (an active hydrocarbon combustion catalyst) has been investigated by FTIR spectroscopy in the temperature range 300-773 K. This interaction results in the reduction of the catalyst and the production of oxygen-containing adsorbed species. These species have been identified by comparison with the spectra of oxygen-containing species (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, carbon oxides) directly adsorbed on the surface. It has been concluded that every hydrocarbon reacts at its weakest C-H bond on Cr{sup n+}=O (n = 5 or 6) surface sites giving rise by hydrogen abstraction and C-O bond formation to alkoxy groups. These species are further oxidized to carbonyl compounds and/or carboxylate anions and, finally, carbon oxides. The earlier intermediates (alkoxides, carbonyl compounds) are detectable only with the most reactive hydrocarbons (propane, n-butane, isobutane, propene, 1-butene, toluene), while with the least reactive hydrocarbons (methane and benzene), because of their two high activation temperature, only the final intermediates are detectable (carbonates, carboxylates). Molecular-level mechanism for C-H cleavage and hydrocarbon catalytic combustion are proposed. 47 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Coke formation and its effects on shape selective adsorptive and catalytic properties of ferrierite

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, W.Q.; Yin, Y.G.; Suib, S.L. (Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)); O'Young, C.L. (Texaco Inc., Beacon, NY (United States))


    Channels or cavities of ferrierite are blocked by carbonaceous deposits (coke) which are formed during butene treatments. The pore blocking inside ferrierite/alumina catalysts affects the yield and selectivity to isobutylene in the catalytic reaction of butene isomerization. Pore size distribution experiments show that the blocking of 10-member ring channels (4.2 x 5.4 A) and 8-member ring channels (3.5 x 4.8 A) of ferrierite by coke reduces the channel size smaller than that of the nitrogen molecule (4.09 A). TPD data show that ammonia uptake for coked samples of different times on stream is decreased from about 62% to 35% of that for the fresh sample. Uptakes for more bulky molecules such as 1-butene (2.99 x 4.71 A) and isobutylene (3.28 x 4.14 A) are severely reduced by coke formation (< 9% of 1-butene and isobutylene uptakes for the fresh sample). About 76.9% of the coke formed after 18 h is deposited inside the micropores (< 10 A) of ferrierite/alumina. Modification of pore shapes through such coke deposition favors reactions involving small molecules, such as butene isomerization to isobutylene. 45 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. A simplified chemistry module for atmospheric transport and dispersion models: Proof-of-concept using SCIPUFF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Douglas S.; Rottmann, Shawn D.; Plitz, Angela B. L.; Wiseman, Floyd L.; Moore, William; Chynwat, Veeradej


    An atmospheric chemistry module was developed to predict the fate of environmentally hazardous compounds discharged into the atmosphere. The computationally efficient model captures the diurnal variation within the environment and in the degradation rates of the released compounds, follows the formation of toxic degradation products, runs rapidly, and in principle can be integrated with any atmospheric transport and dispersion model. To accomplish this, a detailed atmospheric chemistry mechanism for a target toxic industrial compound (TIC) was reduced to a simple empirical effective degradation rate term (keff). Empirically derived decay functions for keff were developed as a function of important meteorological parameters such as solar flux, temperature, humidity, and cloud cover for various land uses and locations by statistically analyzing data generated from a detailed chemistry mechanism run over a wide range of (typical) atmospheric conditions. 1-Butene and two degradation products (propanal and nitrooxybutanone) were used as representative chemicals in the algorithm development for this proof-of-concept demonstration of the capability of the model. The quality of the developed model was evaluated via comparison with experimental chamber data and the results (decay rates) compared favorably for ethene, propene, and 1-butene (within a factor of two 75% or more of the time).

  4. Synthesis of an un-supported, high-flow ZSM-22 zeolite membrane


    Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM); Nenoff, Tina M. (Albuquerque, NM)


    Novel methods for synthesizing wholly un-supported, high-flow catalytic membranes consisting of 100% crystalline ZSM-22 crystals with no binder phase, having sufficient porosity to allow high Weight Hourly Space Velocities of feedstock to pass through without generating back pressure. The ZSM-22 membranes perform favorably to existing bulk ZSM-22 catalysts (e.g., via 1-butene conversion and selectivity). The method of membrane synthesis, based on Vapor Phase Transport, allows free-standing, binder-less membranes to be fabricated in varied geometries and sizes so that membranes can be tailor-made for particular geometries applications. The ZSM-22 precursor gel may be consolidated into a semi-cohesive body prior to vapor phase crystallization, for example, by uniaxial pressing. These crystalline membranes may be modified by ion exchange, pore ion exchange, framework exchange, synthesis modification techniques to incorporate other elements into the framework, such as K, H, Mg, Zn, V, Ga, and Pt.

  5. Precision Polyolefin Structure: Modeling Polyethylene Containing Methyl and Ethyl Branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Giovanni; Wagener, Kenneth B.

    Sequenced copolymers of ethylene and diverse species have been created using acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization, a step growth, condensation- type polymerization driven to high conversion by the removal of ethylene. ADMET permits control over branch content and branch length, which can be predetermined during the monomer synthesis, allowing sequence control in the resultant unsaturated polymer. Monomers are symmetrical ?,?dienes with a pendant functionality. Diverse functional groups are compatible with ADMET polymerization when Schrock’s or first-generation Grubb’s catalysts are used. Saturation with hydrogen after ADMET polymerization affords a polyethylene (PE) backbone bearing specific functionalities in precise places. Varying both the pendant functional group and the spacing between functionalities alters the physical and chemical properties of the polymer. Incorporation of alkyl chains into the PE backbone via ADMET leads to the study of perfect structures modeling the copolymerization of ethylene with ?-olefins such as 1-propene, 1-butene, 1-hexene, and 1-octene.

  6. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities


    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano [Madison, WI; West, Ryan M [Madison, WI


    Described is a method to make liquid chemicals. The method includes deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be conveted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes.

  7. Oligomerize for better gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Nierlich, F. (Huls AG, Marl (DE))


    This paper reports on normal butene containing isobutene-depleted C{sub 4} hydrocarbons like raffinate II which are oligomerized using the Octol process in the liquid phase on a heterogeneous catalyst system to yield mainly C{sub 8} and C{sub 12} olefins. Raffinate II, the spent C{sub 4} fraction of an MTBE unit, is an ideal feedstock for further n-butene processing because of its high olefin concentration ranging between 70% and 80%. By modifications of MTBE technology, implementation of selective hydrogenation for removal of residual butadiene and superfractionating raffinate II, polymer grade 1-butene can be produced. Until the mid-70s raffinate I, the team cracker C{sub 4} cut after butadiene extraction, was mainly burned or blended into gasoline. Now nearly all raffinate I is or will be consumed for the purpose of converting isobutylene to MTBE.

  8. Fuel structure and pressure effects on the formation of soot particles in diffusion flames. Annual technical report, 15 January 1988-15 January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.J.


    Studies emphasizing the effects of fuel molecular structure on soot formation processes in laminar-diffusion flames were investigated. Particular attention was given to the particle inception and surface growth processes for a series of fuels. Studies of butane, 1-butene, and 1,3 butadiene have revealed that fuel structure strongly affects the soot-particle-inception process. However, subsequent surface-growth processes are largely determined by the available surface area. Thus, the surface growth process is independent of the fuel molecular structure following the initial particle-inception stage. Studies of the particle-inception region indicate that increased soot formation is strongly correlated with visible-fluorescence measurements attributed to large polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon species in the flame.

  9. Enantioselective hydrogenation of olefins with homogeneous Ziegler-Natta catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Waymouth, R. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA)); Pino, P. (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland))


    Styrene, 2-methyl-1-pentene, 2-phenyl-1-butene, and cis- and trans-2-hexene have been hydrogenated in the presence of catalysts derived from (Al(CH{sub 3})-O){sub n} and (-)-(ethylenebis(4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1(R)-indenyl))zirconium derivatives. {alpha}-Olefins are readily polymerized with this catalytic system; in the presence of hydrogen, hydrogenated monomers can be obtained depending on the hydrogen pressure. Terminal olefins substituted in the 2- or 3-positions and internal olefins are not polymerized but undergo hydrogenation. Styrene is hydrogenated at 12 turnovers/min at 20 atm of H{sub 2} at 25{degree}C with this catalytic system. The catalytic deuteriation of styrene with ((-)-(EBTHI)ZrX, X = (R)-1,1{prime}-bi-2-naphtholate) 2 yields (-)-(R)-1,2-dideuterioethylbenzene in 93% yield with an optical purity of 65%, indicating that the (Re) enantioface of styrene is deuterated preferentially.

  10. Modeling alkene chemistry using condensed mechanisms for conditions relevant to southeast Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Gookyoung; Kimura, Yosuke; McDonald-Buller, Elena; Carter, William P. L.; Yarwood, Greg; Allen, David T.


    Alkenes are important in photochemical smog formation in southeast Texas due to their high emissions, especially from industrial sources in and around Houston, and their high reactivities. Therefore, properly characterizing the chemistry of alkenes in condensed mechanisms used in regional photochemical models is important in understanding the formation of ozone and other photochemical air pollutants in Houston. The performance of three versions of the SAPRC condensed chemical mechanism family, for predicting ozone and radical formation, was compared. Simulations were compared to environmental chamber data and ambient data. The analyses showed that separately modeling individual alkenes reactions (especially propene for southeast Texas) has the potential to lead to more accurate simulations of alkene chemistry. Caution must be exercised in un-lumping, however. Testing with different formulations of the 1-butene + O 3 reaction demonstrated the complexity and interconnectedness in choices of stoichiometric parameters for un-lumped species and the extent to which lumped mechanisms are un-lumped.

  11. Thermal degradation of sulforaphane in aqueous solution.


    Jin, Y; Wang, M; Rosen, R T; Ho, C T


    Sulforaphane, a cancer chemopreventive agent identified from broccoli, was degraded in an aqueous solution at 50 and 100 degrees C. The reaction mixtures were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Dimethyl disulfide, S-methyl methylthiosulfinate, S-methyl methylthiosulfonate, methyl (methylthio)methyl disulfide, 1,2,4-trithiolane, 4-isothiocyanato-1-(methylthio)-1-butene, and 3-butenyl isothiocyanate were identified as volatile decomposition products. After methylene chloride extraction, the aqueous layer was dried and silica gel column chromatography was used to separate and purify the nonvolatile decomposition products. The major thermal degradation compound was determined by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and FAB-MS as N, N'-di(4-methylsulfinyl)butyl thiourea. A possible mechanism for the formation of these products is proposed. PMID:10552618

  12. Reaction mechanism studies of unsaturated molecules using photofragment translational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Longfellow, C.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.


    A number of molecules have been studied using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy. In Chapter One a brief introduction to the experimental technique is given. In Chapter Two the infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) of acetic acid is discussed. Carbon dioxide and methane were observed for the first time as products from dissociation under collisionless conditions. Chapter Three relates an IRMPD experiment of hexafluoropropene. The predominant channel produces CFCF{sub 3} or C{sub 2}F{sub 4} and CF{sub 2}, with the heavier species undergoing further dissociation to two CF{sub 2} fragments. In Chapter Four the ultraviolet (UV) dissociation of hexafluoropropene is investigated. Chapter Five explores the IRMPD of octafluoro-1-butene and octafluoro-2-butene.

  13. Shock tube study of the fuel structure effects on the chemical kinetic mechanisms responsible for soot formation, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenklach, M.; Clary, D. W.; Ramachandra, M. K.


    Soot formation in oxidation of allene, 1,3-butadiene, vinylacetylene and chlorobenzene and in pyrolysis of ethylene, vinylacetylene, 1-butene, chlorobenzene, acetylen-hydrogen, benzene-acetylene, benzene-butadiene and chlorobenzene-acetylene argon-diluted mixtures was studied behind reflected shock waves. The results are rationalized within the framework of the conceptual models. It is shown that vinylacetylene is much less sooty than allene, which indicates that conjugation by itself is not a sufficient factor for determining the sooting tendency of a molecule. Structural reactivity in the context of the chemical kinetics is the dominant factor in soot formation. Detailed chemical kinetic modeling of soot formation in pyrolysis of acetylene is reported. The main mass growth was found to proceed through a single dominant route composed of conventional radical reactions. The practically irreversible formation reactions of the fused polycyclic aromatics and the overshoot by hydrogen atom over its equilibrium concentration are the g-driving kinetic forces for soot formation.

  14. Characterization of Dispersed Heteropoly Acid on Mesoporous Zeolite Using Solid-State P-31 NMR Spin-Lattice Relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Kake; Hu, Jian Z.; She, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jun; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles HF; Kwak, Ja Hun


    Dispersion and quantitative characterization of supported catalysts is a grand challenge in catalytic science. In this paper, heteropoly acid H3PW12O40 (HPA) is dispersed on mesoporous zeolite silicalite-1 derived from hydrothermal synthesis using carbon black nanoparticle templates, and the catalytic activity is studied for 1-butene isomerization. The HPAs supported on conventional zeolite and on mesoporous zeolite exhibit very different activities and thus provide good model systems to investigate the structure dependence of the catalytic properties. The HPA on mesoporous silicalite-1 shows enhanced catalytic activity for 1-butene isomerization, while HPA on conventional silicalite-1 exhibits low activity. To elucidate the structural difference, supported HPA catalysts are characterized using a variety of techniques, including 31P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, and are shown to contain a range of species on both mesoporous and conventional zeolites. However, contrary to studies reported in the literature, conventional NMR techniques and chemical shifts alone do not provide sufficient information to distinguish the dispersed and aggregated surface species. The dispersed phase and the nondispersed phase can only be unambiguously and quantitatively characterized using spin-lattice relaxation NMR techniques. The HPA supported on mesoporous zeolite contains a fast relaxation component related to the dispersed catalyst, giving a much higher activity, while the HPA supported on conventional zeolite has essentially only the slow relaxation component with very low activity. The results obtained from this work demonstrate that the combination of spinning sideband fitting and spin-lattice relaxation techniques can provide detailed structural information on not only the Keggin structure for HPA but also the degree of dispersion on the support.

  15. Rearrangement as a probe for radical formation: bromomethylcyclopropane on oxygen-covered Mo(1 1 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, J. A.; Kretzschmar, I.; Sheehy, M. A.; Deiner, L. J.; Friend, C. M.


    The reactions of bromomethylcyclopropane on oxygen-covered Mo(1 1 0) were studied in order to investigate the lifetimes of radical intermediates, which are important in heterogeneous oxidation catalysis. The methylcyclopropyl radical is known to rearrange on the nanosecond time scale, providing us with a means of probing for radical formation. Surprisingly, no rearrangement occurs subsequent to C-Br bond dissociation, which commences at ˜220 K. Instead, displacement of bromine by oxygen occurs to yield adsorbed methylcyclopropoxide, which is identified using infrared spectroscopy. The C-O bond of methylcyclopropoxide is cleaved at ˜400 K to yield a transient methylcyclopropyl radical. As shown previously, the methylcyclopropyl radical rearranges and the ring-opened butenyl species is trapped on the surface. Addition to oxygen yields 3-buten-1-oxy and addition to the metal affords the butenyl-Mo moiety. Infrared spectroscopy is used to identify these intermediates. The same linear species are formed from the reaction of 4-bromo-1-butene. The 3-buten-1-oxy species is also formed from reactions of 3-buten-1-ol on O-covered Mo(1 1 0). Upon further heating, the 3-buten-1-oxy reacts to form 1,3-butadiene, 1-butene, water, and dihydrogen between 450 and 600 K. Ethene is also evolved at ˜560 K. The primary mechanism for ethene evolution is elimination from metal-bound butenyl. Carbon monoxide is also formed above 900 K, due to reaction of surface carbon and oxygen. The implications of our results for studies where alkyl halides are used as models for radical reactions on surfaces are discussed.

  16. Decarboxylative-coupling of allyl acetate catalyzed by group 10 organometallics, [(phen)M(CH3)]+.


    Woolley, Matthew; Ariafard, Alireza; Khairallah, George N; Kwan, Kim Hong-Yin; Donnelly, Paul S; White, Jonathan M; Canty, Allan J; Yates, Brian F; O'Hair, Richard A J


    Gas-phase carbon-carbon bond forming reactions, catalyzed by group 10 metal acetate cations [(phen)M(O2CCH3)](+) (where M = Ni, Pd or Pt) formed via electrospray ionization of metal acetate complexes [(phen)M(O2CCH3)2], were examined using an ion trap mass spectrometer and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In step 1 of the catalytic cycle, collision induced dissociation (CID) of [(phen)M(O2CCH3)](+) yields the organometallic complex, [(phen)M(CH3)](+), via decarboxylation. [(phen)M(CH3)](+) reacts with allyl acetate via three competing reactions, with reactivity orders (% reaction efficiencies) established via kinetic modeling. In step 2a, allylic alkylation occurs to give 1-butene and reform metal acetate, [(phen)M(O2CCH3)](+), with Ni (36%) > Pd (28%) > Pt (2%). Adduct formation, [(phen)M(C6H11O2)](+), occurs with Pt (24%) > Pd (21%) > Ni(11%). The major losses upon CID on the adduct, [(phen)M(C6H11O2)](+), are 1-butene for M = Ni and Pd and methane for Pt. Loss of methane only occurs for Pt (10%) to give [(phen)Pt(C5H7O2)](+). The sequences of steps 1 and 2a close a catalytic cycle for decarboxylative carbon-carbon bond coupling. DFT calculations suggest that carbon-carbon bond formation occurs via alkene insertion as the initial step for all three metals, without involving higher oxidation states for the metal centers. PMID:25329236

  17. Pressure and temperature dependence of the reaction of vinyl radical with alkenes III: measured rates and predicted product distributions for vinyl + butene.


    Goldsmith, C Franklin; Ismail, Huzeifa; Green, William H


    This work reports experimental and theoretical first-order rate constants for the reaction of vinyl radical with C(4)H(8) alkenes: 1-butene, 2-butene, and isobutene. The experiments are performed over a temperature range of 300 to 700 K at 100 Torr. Vinyl radicals (H(2)C horizontal lineCH) were generated by laser photolysis of vinyl iodide (C(2)H(3)I) at 266 nm, and time-resolved absorption spectroscopy was used to probe vinyl radicals at 423.2 and 475 nm. Weighted Arrhenius fits to the experimental rate coefficients for 1-butene (k(1)), 2-butene (k(2)), and isobutene (k(3)) yield k(1) = (1.3 +/- 0.3) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) exp[-(2200 +/- 120) K/T]; k(2) = (1.7 +/- 0.3) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) exp[-(2610 +/- 120) K/T]; and k(3) = (1.0 +/- 0.1) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) exp[-(2130 +/- 50) K/T], respectively. C(6)H(11) potential energy surfaces (PESs) for each system were calculated using the G3 method. RRKM/ME simulations were performed for each system to predict pressure-dependent rate coefficients and branching fractions for the major channels. A generic rate rule for vinyl addition to various alkenes is recommended; a similar rate rule for the abstraction of H atoms by vinyl from alkenes is also provided. Some of the vinyl addition reactions exhibit anomalous Evans-Polanyi plots similar to those reported for previous methyl addition reactions. PMID:19624112

  18. Stereospecific Conversion of 1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic Acid to Ethylene by Plant Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Neil E.; Yang, Shang Fa; Ichihara, Akitama; Sakamura, Sadao


    Inasmuch as the molecule of 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACC) possesses reflective symmetry but lacks rotational symmetry, the two chemically alike methylene groups can be distinguished by a stereospecific enzyme. To determine whether ACC conversion to ethylene by plant tissues proceeds in a stereospecific fashion, the four stereoisomers of 1-amino-2-ethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (AEC) were administered to postclimacteric apple (Malus sylvestris Mill., var. Golden Delicious), excised preclimacteric cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L., var. reticulatis Naud cv. PMR-45), and etiolated mung bean (Vigna radiata L., Wilczek, var. Berken) hypocotyls. In each case (1R,2S)-AEC was the preferred substrate yielding 1-butene. In contrast, all AEC isomers were converted equally well to butene by chemical oxidation using NaOCl. Both ACC and AEC appear to be substrates for the same enzyme since both reactions are inhibited in parallel by N2 or Co2+, both reactions are induced in parallel by excision, and when both substrates are present simultaneously each will act as an inhibitor with respect to the other. The aforementioned observations indicate that ACC is stereospecifically converted to ethylene. For AEC to be the most active precursor of 1-butene, the ethyl substituent should be trans to the carboxyl group and the pro-(S) methylene group should be unsubstituted. This observation leads to the suggestion that the enzyme interacts with amino, carboxyl, and pro-(S) methylene groups, a configuration corresponding to a l-amino acid. This view is consistent with the observation that the l-forms of alanine and methionine inhibit the conversion of ACC to ethylene more than the corresponding d-amino acids in the mung bean hypocotyl system. PMID:16662444

  19. Peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative damage of DNA and 2'-deoxyguanosine by model compounds of lipid hydroperoxides: involvement of peroxyl radicals.


    Adam, W; Kurz, A; Saha-Möller, C R


    The peroxidase-catalyzed decomposition of 3-hydroperoxy-1-butene (1), 2,3-dimethyl-3-hydroperoxy-1-butene (2), tert-butyl hydroperoxide (3), ethyl oleate hydroperoxide 4, and linoleic acid hydroperoxide 5 was applied as a chemical model system to assess whether lipid hydroperoxides may cause DNA damage under peroxidase catalysis. For this purpose, the Coprinus peroxidase (CIP), horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and the physiologically important lactoperoxidase (LP) were tested. Indeed, hydroperoxides 1-5 induce strand breaks in pBR 322 DNA upon peroxidase catalysis. For the nucleoside dG, the enzymatic decomposition of hydroperoxides 1-4 led to significant amounts of 4, 8-dihydro-4-hydroxy-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (4-HO-8-oxo-dG) and guanidine-releasing products (GRP), whereas 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) was not obtained. In isolated calf thymus DNA, the efficient conversion of the guanine base (Gua) was observed. Peroxyl radicals, which are generated in situ from the hydroperoxides by one-electron oxidation with the peroxidases, are proposed as the active oxidants on the basis of the following experimental facts. (i) Radical scavengers strongly inhibit the guanine oxidation in dG and DNA and strand-break formation in the latter. (ii) EPR spectral studies with 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) as a spin trap confirmed the formation of peroxyl radicals. (iii) The release of molecular oxygen was demonstrated, produced through the disproportionation of peroxyl radicals. The biological relevance of these findings should be seen in the potential role of the combined action of lipid hydroperoxides and peroxidases in damaging cellular DNA through peroxyl radicals. PMID:11123959

  20. VOCs Speciation From Steam Boiler Stacks of Industries Located in Naucalpan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia, G. M.; Tejeda, D. D.; Bremauntz, M. P.; Valdez, A.; Montufar, P. C.; Martinez, M. A.; Sierra, M. J.; Gonzalez, C. A.


    Results of VOCs speciation from industrial steam boiler stacks located in Naucalpan are presented and discussed. This municipality is located north of the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico (MZVM). Speciation of VOCs is important to generate information about sources of pollution, to update emission inventories, to study the dynamics of pollutants in the atmosphere, and to estimate possible risks of population exposure. This information is valuable for decision making on air pollution control strategies. Samples from 35 steam boilers form industries burning Diesel, LPG, or CNG were taken using the US-EPA Method 18. Selected samples from the use of different fuels were analyzed using gas chromatography and flame ionization detection (GC-FID) according to US-EPA protocol TO-14. The VOCs analyzed included alkanes of 9 carbons or less, alkenes of 7 carbons or less and aromatics (families of benzene). The results show consistency on the VOCs detected on Diesel samples. The main compounds found were 1- Butene+iButylene, m/p-Xylene, Ethane, Propene, Propane, Acetylene, 2Me-1Butene, and Toluene. The average concentrations of these compounds were in the range of 130 to 385 ppbC. The results of LPG samples did not show a definite pattern of VOCs, although light components predominate and, in some samples, Toluene and Xylene. These last components were not expected for industries reporting the use of LPG, perhaps due to the use of a combination of fuels and mistakes in the reports of fuel used at the time of sampling. The analysis of CNG samples show predominance of light VOCs, in the range of 90 to 300 ppbC. As in the case of LPG, some aromatics showed high concentrations in some samples analyzed perhaps due to the use of different fuels in the boiler. The results of this study are the first results of VOCs speciation obtained form exhaust gases from stacks of Mexican industries. The data reported are valuable to analyze emission inventories of VOCs and to better understand the dynamics of pollutants in the MZVM.

  1. Hemiterpene glucosides and other constituents from Spiraea canescens.


    Choudhary, M Iqbal; Naheed, Nadra; Abbaskhan, Ahmed; Ali, Sajjad; Atta-ur-Rahman


    Five glycosides, 2-(trans-cinnamoyloxy-methyl)-1-butene-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), 4-(6'-O-trans-cinnamoyl)-(2-hydroxymethyl-4-hydroxy-butenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), 6''-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), 6'-O-(4-methoxy-trans-cinnamoyl) alpha/beta-D-glucopyranose (4) 6'-O-(4''-methoxy-trans-cinnamoyl)-kaempferol-3-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7) along with six known compounds, (+)-isolariciresinol 3a-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8) (+)-lyoniresinol 3a-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (9), apigenin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (10), quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (11), 6'-O-cinnamoyl-alpha/beta-D-glucopyranose (6) 6'-O-p-coumaroyl-alpha/beta-D-glucopyranose (5) were isolated from the whole plant of Spiraea canescens. Some of these compounds showed potent radical scavenging activity in relevant non-physiological assays. Their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopic and CID mass spectrometric techniques. PMID:19747701

  2. New analytical method for the determination of styrene oligomers formed from polystyrene decomposition and its application at the coastlines of the North-West Pacific ocean.


    Saido, Katsuhiko; Koizumi, Koshiro; Sato, Hideto; Ogawa, Naoto; Kwon, Bum Gun; Chung, Seon-Yong; Kusui, Takashi; Nishimura, Masahiko; Kodera, Yoichi


    The pollution caused by plastic debris is an environmental problem with increasing concern in the oceans. Among the plastic polymers, polystyrene (PS) is one of the most problematic plastics due to the direct public health risk associated with their dispersion, as well as the numerous adverse environmental impacts which arise both directly from the plastics and from their degradation products. Little is known about their potential distribution characteristics throughout the oceans. For the first time, we report here on the regional distribution of styrene monomer (SM), styrene dimers (SD; 2,4-diphenyl-1-butene, SD1; 1,3-diphenyl propane, SD2), and styrene trimer (2,4,6-triphenyl-1-hexene: ST1), as products of PS decomposition determined from samples of sand and seawater from the shorelines of the North-West Pacific ocean. In order to quantitatively determine SM, SD (=SD1+SD2), and ST1, a new analytical method was developed. The detection limit was 3.3 ?g L(-1), based on a signal-to-noise ratio of three, which was well-suited to quantify levels of SM, SD, and ST1 in samples. Surprisingly, the concentrations of SM, SD, and ST1 in sand samples from the shorelines were consistently greater than those in seawater samples from the same location. The results of this study suggest that SM, SD, and ST1 can be widely dispersed throughout the North-West Pacific oceans. PMID:24394362

  3. First atmospheric observations of three chlorofluorocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, J. C.; Engel, A.


    We report the first atmospheric observations of the Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) trifluorochloroethene, 3-chloropentafluoropropene and 4,4-dichlorohexafluoro-1-butene by means of Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture and Mass Spectrometric detection (GC-ECD-MS) in air samples taken at the Taunus Observatory operated by the University of Frankfurt (Main) and the Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station in Switzerland. These substances belong to a class of CFCs containing a double bond and are suspected to originate from the production and thermal degradation of widely used fluoropolymers like polychlorotrifluoroethene (PCTFE). Their atmospheric lifetimes are expected to be rather short. As a quantitative calibration is not available for these species by now we use a relative sensitivity method to estimate the observed atmospheric abundances. Identification was possible because of an air plume containing high concentrations of these substances. We suggest that the abundances found on this occasion originated from a local source. However, we have also observed the novel CFCs in air masses representative of background conditions, though with much lower concentrations. These species and some of their degradation products are toxic and could also be relevant for stratospheric and tropospheric ozone depletion.

  4. First atmospheric observations of three chlorofluorocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, J. C.; Engel, A.


    We report the first atmospheric observations of the Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) trifluorochloroethene, 3-chloropentafluoropropene and 4,4-dichlorohexafluoro-1-butene by means of Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture and Mass Spectrometric detection (GC-ECD-MS) in air samples taken at the Taunus Observatory operated by the University of Frankfurt (Main) and the Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station in Switzerland. These substances belong to a class of CFCs containing a double bond and are suspected to originate from the production and thermal degradation of widely used fluoropolymers like polychlorotrifluoroethene (PCTFE). Their atmospheric lifetimes are expected to be rather short. A quantitative calibration could only be derived for trifluorochloroethene but not for the other species by now. Thus, we use a relative sensitivity method to get a first indication of the observed atmospheric abundances. Identification was possible because of an air plume containing high concentrations of these substances. We suggest that the abundances found on this occasion originated from a local source. However, we have also observed the novel CFCs in air masses representative of background conditions, though with much lower concentrations. These species and some of their degradation products are toxic and could also be relevant for stratospheric and tropospheric ozone depletion.

  5. The effect of rhenium, sulfur and alumina on the conversion of hydrocarbons over platinum single crystals: Surface science and catalytic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.


    Conversion reactions of hydrocarbons over Pt-Re model catalyst surfaces modified by sulfur and alumina have been studied. A plasma deposition source has been developed to deposit Pt, Re, and Al on metal substrates variable coverage in ultrahigh vacuum without excessive heating. Conversion of n-hexane was performed over the Re-covered Pt and Pt-covered Re surfaces. The presence of the second metal increased hydrogenolysis activity of both Pt-Re surfaces. Addition of sulfur on the model Catalyst surfaces suppressed hydrogenolysis activity and increased the cyclization rate of n-hexane to methylcyclopentane over Pt-Re surfaces. Sulfiding also increased the dehydrogenation rate of cyclohexane to benzene Over Pt-Re surfaces. It has been proposed that the PtRe bimetallic catalysts show unique properties when combined with sulfur, and electronic interactions exist between platinum, rhenium and sulfur. Decomposition of hydrocarbons on the sulfur-covered Pt-Re surfaces supported that argument. For the conversion of 1-butene over the planar Pt/AlO[sub x], the addition of Pt increased the selectivity of hydrogenation over isomerization.

  6. The effect of rhenium, sulfur and alumina on the conversion of hydrocarbons over platinum single crystals: Surface science and catalytic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.


    Conversion reactions of hydrocarbons over Pt-Re model catalyst surfaces modified by sulfur and alumina have been studied. A plasma deposition source has been developed to deposit Pt, Re, and Al on metal substrates variable coverage in ultrahigh vacuum without excessive heating. Conversion of n-hexane was performed over the Re-covered Pt and Pt-covered Re surfaces. The presence of the second metal increased hydrogenolysis activity of both Pt-Re surfaces. Addition of sulfur on the model Catalyst surfaces suppressed hydrogenolysis activity and increased the cyclization rate of n-hexane to methylcyclopentane over Pt-Re surfaces. Sulfiding also increased the dehydrogenation rate of cyclohexane to benzene Over Pt-Re surfaces. It has been proposed that the PtRe bimetallic catalysts show unique properties when combined with sulfur, and electronic interactions exist between platinum, rhenium and sulfur. Decomposition of hydrocarbons on the sulfur-covered Pt-Re surfaces supported that argument. For the conversion of 1-butene over the planar Pt/AlO{sub x}, the addition of Pt increased the selectivity of hydrogenation over isomerization.

  7. On the Radiolysis of Ethylene Ices by Energetic Electrons and Implications to the Extraterrestrial Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Li; Maity, Surajit; Abplanalp, Matt; Turner, Andrew; Kaiser, Ralf I.


    The chemical processing of ethylene ices (C2H4) by energetic electrons was investigated at 11 K to simulate the energy transfer processes and synthesis of new molecules induced by secondary electrons generated in the track of galactic cosmic ray particles. A combination of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (solid state) and quadrupole mass spectrometry (gas phase) resulted in the identification of six hydrocarbon molecules: methane (CH4), the C2 species acetylene (C2H2), ethane (C2H6), the ethyl radical (C2H5), and—for the very first time in ethylene irradiation experiments—the C4 hydrocarbons 1-butene (C4H8) and n-butane (C4H10). By tracing the temporal evolution of the newly formed molecules spectroscopically online and in situ, we were also able to fit the kinetic profiles with a system of coupled differential equations, eventually providing mechanistic information, reaction pathways, and rate constants on the radiolysis of ethylene ices and the inherent formation of smaller (C1) and more complex (C2, C4) hydrocarbons involving carbon-hydrogen bond ruptures, atomic hydrogen addition processes, and radical-radical recombination pathways. We also discuss the implications of these results on the hydrocarbon chemistry on Titan's surface and on ice-coated, methane-bearing interstellar grains as present in cold molecular clouds such as TMC-1.

  8. Ethers from ethanol. 2: Reaction equilibria of simultaneous tert-amyl ethyl ether synthesis and isoamylene isomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchaiya, P.; Datta, R. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering


    The recent requirements for blending oxygenates with gasoline for pollution abatement and octane improvement have opened up huge markets for ethers, synthesized by catalytically reacting an isoolefin with an alcohol. Consequently, alternatives to isobutylene-derived methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) obtained from methanol and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) obtained from ethanol are being explored. This paper provides a thermodynamic analysis of the liquid phase etherification of ethanol with 2-methyl-1-butene (2M1B) and 2-methyl-2-butene (2M2B), the two reactive isoamylene isomers. Both these isomers produce tert-amyl ethyl ether (TAEE) but also undergo isomerization. Theoretical and experimental results are provided here for the simultaneous TAEE synthesis and isoamylene isomerization. Expressions for the three thermodynamic equilibrium constants as a function of temperature are developed. Gibbs free energy and the enthalpy of formation of TAEE are also obtained. The equilibrium constants` correlations are utilized to compute the effect of the feed mole ratio of the isoamylenes and the inert solvent to ethanol as well as the reaction temperature on the equilibrium conversions and selectivities. Conditions that maximize etherification conversion and selectivity are explored.

  9. 1996 PAMS hydrocarbon QA studies in EPA Region II: Part II. Trends and insights

    SciTech Connect

    Teitz, A.; Kantz, M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States)


    Comparison of ambient air samples between EPA Region II and the PAMS monitoring organizations within the Region, and comparisons among EPA Regions I, II, and III, revealed the following analytical trends: (1) Agreement between laboratories was typically between 10-20% for many of the PAMS analytes found at higher concentrations, i.e., butane, isopentane, benzene, toluene, and m/p-xylene; (2) Nafion dryer systems tended to underestimate the amount of acetylene by 35-50%; (3) Isobutylene co-elution with 1-butene proved difficult to resolve unless a 100 meter DB-1 or a regular length PLOT GC column was used; (4) Organizations that monitor for polar compounds found that co-elution of ethanol/acetone can interfere with the analysis of 1-pentene; (5) Analytical systems capable of polar analyses can have co-elution and/or misidentification of these aldehydes, typically in the styrene/heptanal/o-xylene regions of the chromatogram; and (6) Tetrachloroethylene was found to interfere with octane quantitation in some analyses.

  10. Pyrolysis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). 2. Theoretical study of decomposition pathways.


    Zhang, Taichang; Zhang, Lidong; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Tao; Hong, Xin; Qi, Fei


    The thermal decomposition pathways of MTBE have been investigated using the G3B3 method. On the basis of the experimental observation and theoretical calculation, the pyrolysis channels are provided, especially for primary pyrolysis reactions. The primary decomposition pathways include formation of methanol and isobutene, CH4 elimination, H2 elimination and C-H, C-C, C-O bond cleavage reactions. Among them, the formation channel of methanol and isobutene is the lowest energy pathway, which is in accordance with experimental observation. Furthermore, the secondary pyrolysis pathways have been calculated as well, including decomposition of tert-butyl radical, isobutene, methanol and acetone. The radicals play an important role in the formation of pyrolysis products, for example, tert-butyl radical and allyl radical are major precursors for the formation of allene and propyne. Although some isomers (isobutene and 1-butene, allene and propyne, acetone and propanal) are identified in our experiment, these isomerization reaction pathways occur merely at the high temperature due to their high activation energies. The theoretical calculation can explain the experimental results reported in part 1 and shed further light on the thermal decomposition pathways. PMID:18823102

  11. Molecular products from the thermal degradation of glutamic acid.


    Kibet, Joshua K; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Dellinger, Barry


    The thermal behavior of glutamic acid was investigated in N2 and 4% O2 in N2 under flow reactor conditions at a constant residence time of 0.2 s, within a total pyrolysis time of 3 min at 1 atm. The identification of the main pyrolysis products has been reported. Accordingly, the principal products for pyrolysis in order of decreasing abundance were succinimide, pyrrole, acetonitrile, and 2-pyrrolidone. For oxidative pyrolysis, the main products were succinimide, propiolactone, ethanol, and hydrogen cyanide. Whereas benzene, toluene, and a few low molecular weight hydrocarbons (propene, propane, 1-butene, and 2-butene) were detected during pyrolysis, no polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected. Oxidative pyrolysis yielded low molecular weight hydrocarbon products in trace amounts. The mechanistic channels describing the formation of the major product succinimide have been explored. The detection of succinimide (major product) and maleimide (minor product) from the thermal decomposition of glutamic acid has been reported for the first time in this study. Toxicological implications of some reaction products (HCN, acetonitrile, and acyrolnitrile), which are believed to form during heat treatment of food, tobacco burning, and drug processing, have been discussed in relation to the thermal degradation of glutamic acid. PMID:23875713

  12. Effect of pretreatment with dehulling and microwaving on the flavor characteristics of cold-pressed rapeseed oil by GC-MS-PCA and electronic nose discrimination.


    Zhou, Qi; Yang, Mei; Huang, Fenghong; Zheng, Chang; Deng, Qianchun


    Raw and dehulled rapeseeds were treated with microwave energy (800 W) from 1 to 8 min with 1-min intervals at a frequency of 2450 MHz to investigate the influence of microwaving and dehulling pretreatment on the flavor characteristics of rapeseed oil extracted by pressing. Headspace solid phase microextraction was used to isolate the volatile compounds of rapeseed oil, which were then identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The results indicated that microwave and dehulling pretreatment of rapeseed can significantly influence the kinds and content of volatile compounds. The key flavor compounds in rapeseed oil were oxidized volatiles, heterocyclic compounds, and degradation products of glucosinolates. A pungent compound, 4-isothiocyanato-1-butene, was reduced by 97% in rapeseed treated for 3 min with microwaves energy when compared to the rapeseed oil without any treatment. The pyrazine compounds in the oil appeared after 6 min of microwave pretreatment and give a pleasant roasting flavor when compared to crude oils. Principal component analysis was able to differentiate between oils obtained using 4 pretreatment processes based on volatile compounds and electronic nose. The results showed that dehulling pretreatment could improve the flavor, yet microwaving had a greater effect on the flavor of rapeseed oils. PMID:23865448

  13. Rate coefficients at 298 K and 1 atm for the tropospheric degradation of a series of C6, C7 and C8 biogenic unsaturated alcohols initiated by Cl atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibilisco, Rodrigo G.; Bejan, Iustinian; Barnes, Ian; Wiesen, Peter; Teruel, Mariano A.


    Rate coefficients for the gas-phase reactions of Cl atoms with a series of unsaturated biogenic alcohols at 298 ± 3 K and 1 atm have been measured by the relative technique in an environmental chamber with in situ FTIR detection of reactants. The rate coefficients obtained using 1-butene and isobutene as reference compounds were (in units of 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1): k1((E)-2-hexen-1-ol) = (3.49 ± 0.82), k2((E)-3-hexen-1-ol) = (3.42 ± 0.79), k3 ((Z)-3-hexen-1-ol) = (2.94 ± 0.72), k4((Z)-3-hepten-1-ol) = (3.80 ± 0.86) and k5((Z)-3-octen-1-ol) = (4.13 ± 0.68). This work constitutes the first kinetic study of the reactions cited above. The rate coefficients are compared with those for other unsaturated alcohols and a correlation between the reactivity of unsaturated alcohols toward Cl atoms and the energy of the HOMO of the unsaturated alcohols is presented. Based on the obtained results, the atmospheric lifetimes of the unsaturated alcohols have been estimated and possible atmospheric implications assessed.

  14. [Aluminum coordination and active sites on aluminas, Y-zeolites and pillared layered silicates]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Fripiat, J.J.


    This report is organized in four sections. In the first the authors will outline structural features which are common to all fine grained alumina, as well as to non-framework alumina in zeolites. This section will be followed by a study of the surface vs. bulk coordination of aluminum. The third section will deal with measurement of the number of acid sites and the scaling of their strength. The fourth and last section will describe three model reactions: the isomerization of 1-butene and of 2 cis-butene; the isomerization and disproportionation of oxtho-xylene; and the transformation of trichloroethane into vinyl chloride followed by the polymerization of the vinyl chloride. The relationship between chemical activity and selectivity and what is known of the local structure of the active catalytic sites will be underlined. Other kinds of zeolites besides Y zeolite have been studied. Instead of the aluminum pillared silicates they found it more interesting to study the substitution of silicon by aluminum in a layered structure containing a permanent porosity (aluminated sepiolite).

  15. Enantioselective decomposition of chiral alkyl bromides on Cu(6 4 3) R&S: Effects of moving the chiral center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampulla, D. M.; Gellman, A. J.


    The enantioselective surface chemistry of two chiral alkyl halides, S-1-bromo-2-methylbutane and R-2-bromobutane, have been compared on the naturally chiral Cu(6 4 3) R&S surfaces. Temperature programmed reaction spectroscopy was used to quantify the yields of the various decomposition products during heating. A fraction of the adsorbed alkyl bromides desorb intact while the remainder decomposes by debromination to form either S-2-methyl-1-butyl or R-2-butyl groups on the surfaces. The S-2-methyl-1-butyl group then reacts by ?-hydride elimination to form 2-methyl-1-butene or by hydrogenation to form 2-methylbutane. The R-2-butyl group reacts by ?-hydride elimination to form butene or by hydrogenation to form butane. This surface chemistry on Cu(6 4 3) R&S is not enantioselective at low coverages but is enantioselective at high coverages. In R-2-bromobutane the chiral carbon atom coincides with the debromination reaction center while the ?-hydride elimination centers are achiral. In S-1-bromo-2-methylbutane the chiral carbon atom coincides with the ?-hydride elimination reaction center while the center for debromination is achiral. Results show that the enantioselectivities are influenced by the surface structure to a greater extent than they are by the adsorbate structure.

  16. VOC concentration profiles in an ozone non-attainment area: A case study in an urban and industrial complex metroplex in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung-Lung, Chiang; Jiun-Horng, Tsai; Shih-Yu, Chen; Kuo-Hsiung, Lin; Sen-Yi, Ma

    VOCs are important precursors of the atmospheric ozone formation species. This study investigated the airborne concentrations of 52 VOCs at two air quality monitoring stations, Daliao and Tzouying, during wintertime in southern Taiwan. Airborne VOCs samples were taken in stainless steel canisters four times per day and analyzed via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Maximum increment reactivity (MIR) was used to evaluate the ozone formation potential in this ozone non-attainment region. Toluene, propane, isopentane, propene, n-butane, n-pentane and isoprene contributed 78-79% of the 52 VOCs in Daliao. Toluene, 1-butene, isopentane, propene, propane, n-undecane, and n-butane contributed 71-77% of the 52 VOCs in Tzouying. The VOCs concentrations were higher in Daliao due to the high toluene emissions from a paint plant and a solvent plant in the nearby industrial district. The 24-h VOC concentrations averaged 25 ppb higher in Tzouying than in Daliao. The ozone formation potential of airborne VOCs was 1687-2730 and 1717-2261 ?g-O 3/g-VOCs in Daliao and Tzouying, respectively. Ozone concentrations in Tzouying were 44 ppb higher than in Daliao during the 1200-1600 sampling period.

  17. Pyrolytic product characteristics of biosludge from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry.


    Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Hsu, Hui-Tsung; Ko, Ya-Wen; Shieh, Zhu-Xin; Chiang, Hung-Lung


    Biosludge was produced from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry. The element compositions of pyrolytic residues, CO, CO(2), NOx, SOx, total hydrocarbons and detailed volatile organic compounds of pyrolytic gas, and C, H, N, S content and compositions in biofuel were determined in this study. Generally, 75-80% water content in sludge cakes and about 65-70% weight of water vapor and volatile compounds were volatilized during the drying process. Propene, propane, 1-butene, n-butane, isobutene, toluene and benzene were the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the pyrolytic gas, and the concentrations for most of the top 20 VOC species were greater than 5 ppm. C(5)-C(9) compounds contributed 60% by weight of biofuel; 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone was the highest species, accounting for 28-53% of biofuel at various pyrolytic temperatures. Based on the dried residues, there was 8.5-13% weight in pyrolytic residues, 62-82% weight in liquid products (water and crude oil) and 5.8-30% weight in the gas phase after pyrolytic processing at 500-800 degrees C. Finally, 1.5-2.5 wt% liquid fuel was produced after the distillation process. The pyrolytic residues could be reused, the pyrolytic liquid product could be used as a fuel after distillation, and the pyrolytic gas could be recycled in the pyrolytic process to achieve non-toxic discharge and reduce the cost of sludge disposal. PMID:19570608

  18. Hydrocarbon source signatures in Houston, Texas: Influence of the petrochemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobson, B. T.; Berkowitz, C. M.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Williams, E. J.; Fesenfeld, F. C.; Apel, E. C.; Karl, T.; Lonneman, W. A.; Riemer, D.


    Observations of C1-C10 hydrocarbon mixing ratios measured by in situ instrumentation at the La Porte super site during the TexAQS 2000 field experiment are reported. The La Porte data were compared to a roadway vehicle exhaust signature obtained from canister samples collected in the Houston Washburn tunnel during the same summer to better understand the impact of petrochemical emissions of hydrocarbons at the site. It is shown that the abundance of ethene, propene, 1-butene, C2-C4 alkanes, hexane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, isopropylbenzene, and styrene at La Porte were systematically affected by petrochemical industry emissions. Coherent power law relationships between frequency distribution widths of hydrocarbon mixing ratios and their local lifetimes clearly identify two major source groups, roadway vehicle emissions and industrial emissions. Distributions of most aromatics and long chain alkanes were consistent with roadway vehicle emissions as the dominant source. Air mass reactivity was generally dominated by C1-C3 aldehydes. Propene and ethene sometimes dominated air mass reactivity with HO loss frequencies often greater than 10 s-1. Ozone mixing ratios near 200 ppbv were observed on two separate occasions, and these air masses appear to have been affected by industrial emissions of alkenes from the Houston Ship Channel. The La Porte data provide evidence of the importance of industrial emissions of ethene and propene on air mass reactivity and ozone formation in Houston.

  19. Speciated VOC emission inventory and spatial patterns of ozone formation potential in the Pearl River Delta, China.


    Zheng, Junyu; Shao, Min; Che, Wenwei; Zhang, Lijun; Zhong, Liuju; Zhang, Yuanhang; Streets, David


    The Pearl River Delta region (PRD) of China has long suffered from severe ground-level ozone pollution. Knowledge of the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is essential for ozone chemistry. In this work, a speciated VOC emission inventory was established on the basis of updated emissions and local VOC source profiles. The top 10 species, in terms of ozone formation potentials (OFPs), consisted of isoprene, mp-xylene, toluene, ethylene, propene, o-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 2-methyl-2-butene, 1-butene, and alpha-pinene. These species contributed only 35.9% to VOCs emissions but accounted for 64.1% of the OFP in the region. The spatial patterns of the VOC source inventory agreed well with city-based source apportionment results, especially for vehicle emissions and industry plus VOC product-related emissions. Mapping of the OFPs and measured ozone concentrations indicated that the formation of higher ozone in the south and southeast of the PRD region differed from that in the Conghua area, a remote area in the north of the PRD. We recommend that the priorities for the control of VOC sources include motorcycles, gasoline vehicles, and solvent use because of their larger OFP contributions. PMID:20028055

  20. Characteristics of volatile organic compounds from motorcycle exhaust emission during real-world driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Chiang, Hung-Lung


    The number of motorcycles has increased significantly in Asia, Africa, Latin American and Europe in recent years due to their reasonable price, high mobility and low fuel consumption. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics of motorcycles are an important consideration for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. Results of this study indicate that most volatile organic compound (VOC) emission factors were in the range of several decades mg/km during on-road driving. Toluene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene were the most abundant VOCs in motorcycle exhaust, with emission factors of hundreds mg/km. Motorcycle exhaust was 15.4 mg/km for 15 carbonyl species. Acetaldehyde, acetone, formaldehyde and benzaldehyde were the major carbonyl species, and their emission factors ranged from 1.4 to 3.5 mg/km 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, 1-butene, toluene, o-xylene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, propene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, isoprene, m-diethylbenzene, and m-ethyltoluene were the main ozone formation potential (OFP) species, and their OFP was 200 mg-O3/km or higher.

  1. Combustion modeling and kinetic rate calculations for a stoichiometric cyclohexane flame. 1. Major reaction pathways.


    Zhang, Hongzhi R; Huynh, Lam K; Kungwan, Nawee; Yang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shaowen


    The Utah Surrogate Mechanism was extended in order to model a stoichiometric premixed cyclohexane flame (P = 30 Torr). Generic rates were assigned to reaction classes of hydrogen abstraction, beta scission, and isomerization, and the resulting mechanism was found to be adequate in describing the combustion chemistry of cyclohexane. Satisfactory results were obtained in comparison with the experimental data of oxygen, major products and important intermediates, which include major soot precursors of C2-C5 unsaturated species. Measured concentrations of immediate products of fuel decomposition were also successfully reproduced. For example, the maximum concentrations of benzene and 1,3-butadiene, two major fuel decomposition products via competing pathways, were predicted within 10% of the measured values. Ring-opening reactions compete with those of cascading dehydrogenation for the decomposition of the conjugate cyclohexyl radical. The major ring-opening pathways produce 1-buten-4-yl radical, molecular ethylene, and 1,3-butadiene. The butadiene species is formed via beta scission after a 1-4 internal hydrogen migration of 1-hexen-6-yl radical. Cascading dehydrogenation also makes an important contribution to the fuel decomposition and provides the exclusive formation pathway of benzene. Benzene formation routes via combination of C2-C4 hydrocarbon fragments were found to be insignificant under current flame conditions, inferred by the later concentration peak of fulvene, in comparison with benzene, because the analogous species series for benzene formation via dehydrogenation was found to be precursors with regard to parent species of fulvene. PMID:17388269

  2. Contribution of carbonyl photochemistry to aging of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol.


    Mang, Stephen A; Henricksen, Dana K; Bateman, Adam P; Andersen, Mads P Sulbaek; Blake, Donald R; Nizkorodov, Sergey A


    The photodegradation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material by actinic UV radiation was investigated. SOA was generated via the dark reaction of ozone and d-limonene, collected onto quartz-fiber filters, and exposed to wavelength-tunable radiation. Photochemical production of CO was monitored in situ by infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy. A number of additional gas-phase products of SOA photodegradation were observed by gas chromatography, including methane, ethene, acetaldehyde, acetone, methanol, and 1-butene. The absorption spectrum of SOA material collected onto CaF2 windows was measured and compared with the photolysis action spectrum for the release of CO, a marker for Norrish type-I photocleavage of carbonyls. Both spectra had a band at approximately 300 nm corresponding to the overlapping n --> pi* transitions in nonconjugated carbonyls. The effective extinction coefficient of freshly prepared SOA was estimated to be on the order of 15 L mol(-1) cm(-1) at 300 nm, implying one carbonyl group in every SOA constituent. The absorption by the SOA material slowly increased in the visible and near-UV during storage of SOA in open air in the dark, presumably as a result of condensation reactions that increased the degree of conjugation in the SOA constituents. These observations suggest that photolysis of carbonyl functional groups represents a significant sink for monoterpene SOA compounds in the troposphere, with an estimated lifetime of several hours over the continental United States. PMID:18700731

  3. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities


    Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano (Madison, WI); West, Ryan M. (Madison, WI)


    Described is a method to make liquid chemicals, such as functional intermediates, solvents, and liquid fuels from biomass-derived cellulose. The method is cascading; the product stream from an upstream reaction can be used as the feedstock in the next downstream reaction. The method includes the steps of deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be converted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid so formed can be further reacted to yield a host of valuable products. For example, the pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes. Alternatively, the nonene may be isomerized to yield a mixture of branched olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of branched alkanes. The mixture of n-butenes formed from .gamma.-valerolactone can also be subjected to isomerization and oligomerization to yield olefins in the gasoline, jet and Diesel fuel ranges.

  4. Effects of straw return on C2-C5 non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions from agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ran; Wu, Ting; Dai, Wanhong; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Juan; Wang, Xinming; Huang, Feiyu; Wang, Zhe; Shi, Chengfei


    The effect of crop straw return on C2-C5 non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions from agricultural soils is investigated using a laboratory-controlled incubation of agricultural soils amended with crop straw for a period of 56 days. The average emission fluxes of total C2-C5 NMHCs from amended agricultural soils are 304 and 173 ng kg-1 h-1 under non-flooded and flooded conditions, respectively. Alkenes are the principal emitted C2-C5 NMHCs from amended agricultural soils, where a predominance of ethene, propene and 1-butene together shared 65% and 59% of the total C2-C5 NMHCs under non-flooded and flooded conditions, respectively. The emissions rates of the above top three alkenes and the total C2-C5 alkenes from amended agricultural soils under non-flooded conditions are one to four times those under flooded conditions, and these average values are 14-89 and 5-34 times those in their corresponding control treatments, respectively. These results imply that straw return contributes substantially to the emissions of light alkenes from agricultural soils, particularly under non-flooded conditions. The high correlation between microorganisms and C2-C5 NMHC fluxes from amended agricultural soils suggest that microbes play an important role in C2-C5 NMHC emissions from straw-amended agricultural soils. A rough estimate indicates that crop straw return could contribute insignificantly to global C2-C5 hydrocarbon budgets.

  5. Calculational and Experimental Investigations of the Pressure Effects on Radical - Radical Cross Combinations Reactions: C2H5 + C2H3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahr, Askar; Halpern, Joshua B.; Tardy, Dwight C.


    Pressure-dependent product yields have been experimentally determined for the cross-radical reaction C2H5 + C2H3. These results have been extended by calculations. It is shown that the chemically activated combination adduct, 1-C4H8*, is either stabilized by bimolecular collisions or subject to a variety of unimolecular reactions including cyclizations and decompositions. Therefore the "apparent" combination/disproportionation ratio exhibits a complex pressure dependence. The experimental studies were performed at 298 K and at selected pressures between about 4 Torr (0.5 kPa) and 760 Torr (101 kPa). Ethyl and vinyl radicals were simultaneously produced by 193 nm excimer laser photolysis of C2H5COC2H3 or photolysis of C2H3Br and C2H5COC2H5. Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection (GC/MS/FID) were used to identify and quantify the final reaction products. The major combination reactions at pressures between 500 (66.5 kPa) and 760 Torr are (1c) C2H5 + C2H3 yields 1-butene, (2c) C2H5 + C2H5 yields n-butane, and (3c) C2H3 + C2H3 yields 1,3-butadiene. The major products of the disproportionation reactions are ethane, ethylene, and acetylene. At moderate and lower pressures, secondary products, including propene, propane, isobutene, 2-butene (cis and trans), 1-pentene, 1,4-pentadiene, and 1,5-hexadiene are also observed. Two isomers of C4H6, cyclobutene and/or 1,2-butadiene, were also among the likely products. The pressure-dependent yield of the cross-combination product, 1-butene, was compared to the yield of n-butane, the combination product of reaction (2c), which was found to be independent of pressure over the range of this study. The [ 1-C4H8]/[C4H10] ratio was reduced from approx.1.2 at 760 Torr (101 kPa) to approx.0.5 at 100 Torr (13.3 kPa) and approx.0.1 at pressures lower than about 5 Torr (approx.0.7 kPa). Electronic structure and RRKM calculations were used to simulate both unimolecular and bimolecular processes. The relative importance of C-C and C-H bond ruptures, cyclization, decyclization, and complex decompositions are discussed in terms of energetics and structural properties. The pressure dependence of the product yields were computed and dominant reaction paths in this chemically activated system were determined. Both modeling and experiment suggest that the observed pressure dependence of [1-C4H8]/[C4H10] is due to decomposition of the chemically activated combination adduct 1-C4H8* in which the weaker allylic C-C bond is broken: H2C=CHCH2CH3 yields C3H5 + CH3. This reaction occurs even at moderate pressures of approx.200 Torr (26 kPa) and becomes more significant at lower pressures. The additional products detected at lower pressures are formed from secondary radical-radical reactions involving allyl, methyl, ethyl, and vinyl radicals. The modeling studies have extended the predictions of product distributions to different temperatures (200-700 K) and a wider range of pressures (10(exp -3) - 10(exp 5) Torr). These calculations indicate that the high-pressure [1-C4H8]/[C4H10] yield ratio is 1.3 +/- 0.1.

  6. Polar organic marker compounds in atmospheric aerosols during the LBA-SMOCC 2002 biomass burning experiment in Rondônia, Brazil: sources and source processes, time series, diel variations and size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeys, M.; Kourtchev, I.; Pashynska, V.; Vas, G.; Vermeylen, R.; Wang, W.; Cafmeyer, J.; Chi, X.; Artaxo, P.; Andreae, M. O.; Maenhaut, W.


    Measurements of polar organic marker compounds were performed on aerosols that were collected at a pasture site in the Amazon basin (Rondônia, Brazil) using a High-Volume dichotomous sampler (HVDS) and a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI). The samplings were conducted within the framework of the LBA-SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazônia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate: Aerosols From Biomass Burning Perturb Global and Regional Climate) campaign, which took place from 9 September till 14 November 2002, spanning the late dry season (biomass burning), the transition period, and the onset of the wet season (clean conditions). In the present study a more detailed discussion is presented compared to previous reports on the behavior of selected polar marker compounds, including: (a) levoglucosan, a tracer for biomass burning, (b) malic acid, a tracer for the oxidation of semivolatile carboxylic acids, (c) tracers for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from isoprene, i.e., the 2-methyltetrols (2-methylthreitol and 2-methylerythritol) and the C5-alkene triols [2-methyl-1,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene (cis and trans) and 3-methyl-2,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene], and (d) sugar alcohols (arabitol, mannitol, and erythritol), tracers for fungal spores. The results obtained for levoglucosan are covered first with the aim to address its contrasting behavior with that of malic acid, the isoprene SOA tracers, and the fungal spore tracers. The tracer data are discussed taking into account new insights that recently became available into their stability and/or aerosol formation processes. During all three periods, levoglucosan was the most dominant identified organic species in the PM2.5 size fraction of the HVDS samples. In the dry period levoglucosan reached concentrations of up to 7.5 ?g m-3 and exhibited diel variations with a nighttime prevalence. It was closely associated with the PM mass in the size-segregated samples and was mainly present in the fine mode, except during the wet period where it peaked in the coarse mode. Isoprene SOA tracers showed an average concentration of 250 ng m-3 during the dry period versus 157 ng m-3 during the transition period and 52 ng m-3 during the wet period. Malic acid and the 2-methyltetrols exhibited a different size distribution pattern: while the 2-methyltetrols were mainly associated with the fine mode during all periods, malic acid was prevalent in the fine mode only during the dry and transition periods, while it was dominant in the coarse mode during the wet period, consistent with different formation processes. The sum of arabitol, mannitol, and erythritol in the PM2.5 fraction of the HVDS samples during the dry, transition, and wet periods was, on average, 54 ng m-3, 34 ng m-3, and 27 ng m-3, respectively, and revealed minor day/night variation. The mass size distributions of arabitol and mannitol during all periods showed similar patterns and an association with the coarse mode, consistent with their primary origin. The results show that even under the heavy smoke conditions of the dry period a natural background with contributions from bioaerosols and isoprene SOA can be revealed. The enhancement in isoprene SOA in the dry season is mainly attributed to an increased acidity of the aerosols and a decreased wet deposition.

  7. The adsorption of 1,3-butadiene on Pd/Ni multilayers: The interplay between spin polarization and chemisorption strength

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Guillermina [Grupo de Materiales y Sistemas Cataliticos, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, Bahia Blanca B8000CPB (Argentina); Belelli, Patricia G., E-mail: [CONICET (Argentina); Cabeza, Gabriela F.; Castellani, Norberto J. [CONICET (Argentina)


    The adsorption of 1,3-butadiene (BD) on the Pd/Ni(1 1 1) multilayers has been studied using the VASP method in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT). The adsorption on two different configurations of the Pd{sub n}/Ni{sub m}(1 1 1) systems were considered. The most stable adsorption sites are dependent on the substrate composition and on the inclusion or not of spin polarization. On Pd{sub 1}Ni{sub 3}(1 1 1) surface, di-{pi}-cis and 1,2,3,4-tetra-{sigma} adsorption structures are the most stable for non-spin polarized (NSP) and spin polarized (SP) levels of calculation, respectively. Conversely, on Pd{sub 3}Ni{sub 1}(1 1 1) surface, the 1,2,3,4-tetra-{sigma} adsorption structure is the most stable for both NSP and SP levels, respectively. The magnetization of the Pd atoms strongly modifies the adsorption energy of BD and its most stable adsorption mode. On the other hand, as a consequence of BD adsorption, the Pd magnetization decreases. The smaller adsorption energies of BD and 1-butene on the Pd{sub 1}Ni{sub 3}(1 1 1) surface than on Pd(1 1 1) can be associated to the strained Pd overlayer deposited on Ni(1 1 1). -- Graphical Abstract: The adsorption of 1,3-butadiene on Pd/Ni(1 1 1) multilayers was theoretically studied. The most stable adsorption site depends on the substrate composition and on the inclusion of spin polarization. Display Omitted

  8. Competitive Low Pressure Oxygen Plasma Interactions with Different= Carbon-Carbon Double Bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patiño, P.; Sifontes, A.; Gambús, G.


    Recently we have shown advances from reactions of O(^3P) with both, l ong-chain hydrocarbons and refinery residuum. The oxidation products of t he process, a mixture of alcohols, epoxides and carbonyl compounds, might have potential properties as additives in formulating fuels. This work s hows the results of the interactions of an oxygen plasma with double bond s, both olefin and aromatic, in the same compound. The reactions have bee n carried out by making the plasma, created by a high voltage glow discha rge, reach the low vapor pressure surface of liquid 4-phenyl-1-butene. Th is (3 mL) was cooled down to -45 ^oC in a glass reactor, applied power was 24 W, at an oxygen pressure of 20 Pa. Products were analyzed by IR, N MR and mass spectroscopies. Conversions were studied as a function of the reaction time, this ranging from 5 to 120 minutes. At short times the O( ^3P) atoms produced in the discharge only reacted with the alkene fra ction of the hydrocarbon, 4-phenyl-1,2-epoxibutane (52%) and 4-phenyl-bu tanal (48%) being the products. Reactions on the benzene ring were obser ved from about 30 minutes on, the corresponding phenols having being prod uced at ratios ortho:para:meta :: 4:1:0.7. At 120 minutes, the ol efin have been completely oxidized and a low fraction of the non-equivale nt two methylene groups have reacted to produce alcohols and ketones.

  9. Diphosphines with expandable bite angles: highly active ethylene dimerisation catalysts based on upper rim, distally diphosphinated calix[4]arenes.


    Lejeune, Manuel; Sémeril, David; Jeunesse, Catherine; Matt, Dominique; Peruch, Frédéric; Lutz, Pierre J; Ricard, Louis


    The binding properties of two large diphosphines, cone-5,17-dibromo-11,23-bis(diphenylphosphino)-25,26,27,28-tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene (1) and cone-5,17-bis(diphenylphosphino)-25,26,27,28-tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene (2) toward Ni(II) centres have been investigated. Whatever the starting complex, NiBr2 or [NiCp]BF4, quantitative formation of a chelate complex was observed, illustrating the preorganisation of the ligands. An X-ray structure determination was carried out for [NiCp1]BF4 which revealed that the nickel atom is positioned to one side of the calixarene axis, the PNiP plane being roughly parallel to the calixarene reference plane. The molecule has C(1) symmetry in the solid state, a feature which is also observed in solution at low temperature. As shown by variable-temperature 1H and 31P NMR studies, the complex undergoes two distinct motions: 1) a fan-like swinging of the coordination plane which displaces the metal from one side of the calixarene axis to the other, a motion during which the PNiP angle is likely to undergo a significant enlargement; 2) a rapid oscillation of each PPh2 unit about the corresponding Ni--P bond. In the latter dynamics the two endo-oriented PPh rings alternately occupy the calixarene entry. The two flexible ligands were assessed in ethylene oligomerisation. Activation with methylaluminoxane of the paramagnetic complexes [NiBr2.(1 or 2)] afforded highly active ethylene dimerisation catalysts, with turnover frequencies up to 10(6) (mol C2H4) (mol Ni)(-1) h(-1). The selective formation of 1-butene can be rationally controlled by using low catalyst concentrations. PMID:15472914

  10. Rich methane premixed laminar flames doped by light unsaturated hydrocarbons. III. Cyclopentene

    SciTech Connect

    Gueniche, H.A.; Glaude, P.A.; Fournet, R.; Battin-Leclerc, F. [Departement de Chimie-Physique des Reactions, UMR 7630 CNRS-INPL, Nancy-University, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France)


    In line with the studies presented in Parts I (methane flame seeded with allene and propyne) and II (methane flame seeded with 1,3-butadiene) of this paper, the structure of a laminar rich premixed methane flame doped with cyclopentene has been investigated. The gases of this flame contain 15.3% (molar) of methane, 26.7% of oxygen, and 2.4% cyclopentene, corresponding to an overall equivalence ratio of 1.79 and a C{sub 5}H{sub 8}/CH{sub 4} ratio of 15.7%. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa using argon as dilutant, with a gas velocity at the burner of 36 cm/s at 333 K. The measured temperature ranged from 627 K close to the burner up to 2027 K. Species quantified by gas chromatography included the usual methane C{sub 0}-C{sub 2} combustion products, but also propyne, allene, propene, propane, 1-butene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,2-butadiene, vinylacetylene, diacetylene, cyclopentadiene, 1,3-pentadiene, benzene, and toluene. A new mechanism for the oxidation of cyclopentene has been developed and added to the former model for the oxidation of small unsaturated hydrocarbons, benzene, and toluene described in Parts I and II. The whole mechanism involved 175 species in 1134 reactions. The main reaction pathways of consumption of cyclopentene and of formation of benzene and toluene are presented and discussed from flow rate analyses. (author)

  11. Use of ferric sulfate: acid media for the desulfurization of model compounds of coal. [Dibenzothiophene, diphenyl sulfide, di-n-butyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Clary, L.R.; Vermeulen, T.; Lynn, S.


    The objective of this work has been to investigate the ability of ferric sulfate-acid leach systems to oxidize the sulfur in model compounds of coal. Ferric iron-acid leach systems have been shown to be quite effective at removal of inorganic sulfur in coal. In this study, the oxidative effect of ferric iron in acid-leach systems was studied using dibenzothiophene, diphenyl sulfide, and di-n-butyl sulfide as models of organic sulfur groups in coal. Nitrogen and oxygen, as well as various transition metal catalysts and oxidants, were utilized in this investigation. Dibenzothiophene was found to be quite refractory to oxidation, except in the case where metavanadate was added, where it appears that 40% oxidation to sulfone could have occurred per hour at 150/sup 0/C and mild oxygen pressure. Diphenyl sulfide was selectively oxidized to sulfoxide and sulfone in an iron and oxygen system. Approximately 15% conversion to sulfone occurred per hour under these conditions. Some of the di-n-butyl sulfide was cracked to 1-butene and 1-butanethiol under similar conditions. Zinc chloride and ferric iron were used at 200/sup 0/C in an attempt to desulfonate dibenzothiophene sulfone, diphenyl sulfone, and di-n-butyl sulfone. Di-n-butyl sulfone was completely desulfurized on one hour and fragmented to oxidized parafins, while dibenzothiophene sulfone and diphenyl sulfone were unaffected. These results suggest that an iron-acid leach process could only selectively oxidize aryl sulfides under mild conditions, representing only 20% of the organic sulfur in coal (8% of the total sulfur). Removal through desulfonation once selective sulfur oxidation had occurred was only demonstrated for alkyl sulfones, with severe oxidation of the fragmented paraffins also occurring in one hour.


    SciTech Connect



    While several organic compounds were detected in the vapor samples used in the reenactment of the preparation of mounts from the extracts of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filter fiberglass samples, the most significant species present in the samples were methylene chloride, phenol, phenol-d6, and 2-fluorophenol. These species were all known to be present in the extracts, but were expected to have evaporated during the preparation of the mounts, as the mounts appeared to be dry before any vapor was collected. These species were present at the following percentages of their respective occupational exposure limits: methylene chloride, 2%; phenol, 0.4%; and phenol-d6, 0.6%. However, there is no established limit for 2-fluorophenol. Several other compounds were detected at low levels for which, as in the case of 2-fluorophenol, there are no established permissible exposure limits. These compounds include 2-chlorophenol; N-nitroso-1-propanamine; 2-fluoro-1,1{prime}-biphenyl; 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione,2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl); trimethyl oxirane; n-propylpropanamine; 2-(Propylamino)ethanol; 4-methoxy-1-butene; 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; and 3,4-dimethylpyridine. Some of these were among those added as surrogates or spike standards as part ofthe Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc. preparation ofthe extract of the HEPA filter media and are indicated as such in the data tables in Section 2, Results; other compounds found were not previously known to be present. The main inorganic species detected (sulfate, sodium, and sulfur) are also consistent with species added in the preparation of the methylene chloride extract of the high-efficiency particulate air sample.

  13. The oxidation of soot and carbon monoxide in hydrocarbon diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect

    Puri, R.; Santoro, R.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Smyth, K.C. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building and Fire Research Lab.)


    Quantitative hydroxyl radical concentrations and primary soot particle sizes have been determined in the soot oxidation regions of axisymmetric diffusion flames burning methane, methane/butane, and methane/1-butene in air at atmospheric pressure. The total carbon flow rate was held constant in these flames while the maximum amount of soot varied by a factor of seven along the centerline. Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of OH were placed on an absolute basis by calibration against earlier absorption results. The primary size measurements of the soot particles were made using thermophoretic sampling and transmission electron microscopy. OH concentrations are greatly reduced in the presence of soot particles. Whereas large super-equilibrium ratios are observed in the high-temperature reaction zones in the absence of soot, the OH concentrations approach equilibrium values when the soot loading is high. The diminished OH concentrations are found to arise from reactions with the soot particles and only to a minor degree from lower temperatures due to soot radiation losses. Analysis of the soot oxidation rates computed from the primary particle size profiles as a function of time along the flame centerlines shows that OH is the dominant oxidizer of soot, with O[sub 2] making only a small contribution. Higher collision efficiencies of OH reactions with soot particles are found for the flames containing larger soot concentrations at lower temperatures. A comparison of the soot and CO oxidation rates shows that although CO is inherently more reactive than soot, the soot successfully competes with CO for OH and hence suppresses CO oxidation for large soot concentrations.

  14. Characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from a petroleum refinery in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Guohao; Wang, Gang; Wang, Haiyan


    This study made a field VOCs (volatile organic compounds) measurement for a petroleum refinery in Beijing by determining 56 PAMS VOCs, which are demanded for photochemical assessment in US, and obtained the characteristics of VOCs emitted from the whole refinery and from its inner main devices. During the monitoring period, this refinery brought about an average increase of 61 ppbv in the ambient TVOCs (sum of the PAMS VOCs) at the refinery surrounding area, while the background of TVOCs there was only 10-30 ppbv. In chemical profile, the VOCs emitted from the whole refinery was characteristic by isobutane (8.7%), n-butane (7.9%), isopentane (6.3%), n-pentane (4.9%%), n-hexane (7.6%), C6 branched alkanes (6.0%), propene (12.7%), 1-butene (4.1%), benzene (7.8%), and toluene (5.9%). On the other hand, the measurement for the inner 5 devices, catalytic cracking units (CCU2 and CCU3), catalytic reforming unit (CRU), tank farm (TF), and wastewater treatment(WT), revealed the higher level of VOCs pollutions (about several hundred ppbv of TVOCs), and the individual differences in VOCs chemical profiles. Based on the measured speciated VOCs data at the surrounding downwind area, PMF receptor model was applied to identify the VOCs sources in the refinery. Then, coupling with the VOCs chemical profiles measured at the device areas, we concluded that CCU1/3 contributes to 25.9% of the TVOCs at the surrounding downwind area by volume, followed by CCU2 (24.7%), CRU (18.9%), TF (18.3%) and WT (12.0%), which was accordant with the research of US EPA (2008). Finally, ozone formation potentials of the 5 devices were also calculated by MIR technique, which showed that catalytic cracking units, accounting for about 55.6% to photochemical ozone formation, should be given the consideration of VOCs control firstly.

  15. Influence of relative humidity and ozone on the sampling of volatile organic compounds on carbotrap/carbosieve adsorbents.


    Palluau, Fabienne; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice


    By using a dynamic dilution system, the atmospheric measurement of 11 selected toxics VOCs (ethylene, acetylene, propene, 1-butene, 1,3-butadiene, 1-pentene, 1-hexene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m+p-xylene) from the list WHO of 1996 and TO-14 method of US EPA by preconcentration by thermal desorption (TD), analysis by gas chromatography (GC), identification and quantification with a flame ionisation detector (FID) was developed and validated in term of metrology, especially the techniques of sampling of these VOCs with adsorbents cartridges "Air Toxics" when used with an "UMEG sampler" equipped in the inlet with a nafion membrane. In particular the influence of climatic conditions (temperature and relative humidity) and the influence of chemical factors like ozone, on the representativity of sampling were studied. Experiments made with various humidities showed that the addition of a nafion membrane in the inlet of the sampling system was required. Without this membrane, losses of compounds were observed for RH >50%. With this membrane, storage for 2 weeks in a refrigerator, as for canisters, did not induce a loss of compounds. No significative decrease of concentrations of the studied VOCs after 14 days storage, which are known to react with ozone, were observed with an ozone concentrations of 55 ppb. One explanation is that nafion membrane, placed in the inlet of the sampler, will neutralize ozone before entering the sampling tubes. This observation is in accordance with literature which states that the sampling of VOCs on Carbotrap cartridges without ozone scrubber induce a loss of compounds. PMID:16897502

  16. Characterizations of volatile organic compounds during high ozone episodes in Beijing, China.


    An, Jun-lin; Wang, Yue-si; Wu, Fang-kun; Zhu, Bin


    Air samples were collected in Beijing from June through August 2008, and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in those samples are here discussed. This sampling was performed to increase understanding of the distributions of their compositions, illustrate the overall characteristics of different classes of VOCs, assess the ages of air masses, and apportion sources of VOCs using principal compound analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS). During the sampling periods, the relative abundance of the four classes of VOCs as determined by the concentration-based method was different from that determined by the reactivity approach. Alkanes were found to be most abundant (44.3-50.1%) by the concentration-based method, but aromatic compounds were most abundant (38.2-44.5%) by the reactivity approach. Aromatics and alkenes contributed most (73-84%) to the ozone formation potential. Toluene was the most abundant compound (11.8-12.7%) during every sampling period. When the maximum incremental reactivity approach was used, propene, toluene, m,p-xylene, 1-butene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were the five most abundant compounds during two sampling periods. X/B, T/B, and E/B ratios in this study were lower than those found in other cities, possibly due to the aging of the air mass at this site. Four components were extracted from application of PCA to the data. It was found that the contribution of vehicle exhaust to total VOCs accounted for 53% of VOCs, while emissions due to the solvent use contributed 33% of the total VOCs. Industrial sources contributed 3% and biogenic sources contributed 11%. The results showed that vehicle exhausts (i.e., unburned vehicle emissions + vehicle internal engine combustion) were dominant in VOC emissions during the experimental period. The solvent use made the second most significant contribution to ambient VOCs. PMID:21552987

  17. SmoXYB1C1Z of Mycobacterium sp. strain NBB4: a soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO)-like enzyme, active on C2 to C4 alkanes and alkenes.


    Martin, Kiri E; Ozsvar, Jazmin; Coleman, Nicholas V


    Monooxygenase (MO) enzymes initiate the aerobic oxidation of alkanes and alkenes in bacteria. A cluster of MO genes (smoXYB1C1Z) of thus-far-unknown function was found previously in the genomes of two Mycobacterium strains (NBB3 and NBB4) which grow on hydrocarbons. The predicted Smo enzymes have only moderate amino acid identity (30 to 60%) to their closest homologs, the soluble methane and butane MOs (sMMO and sBMO), and the smo gene cluster has a different organization from those of sMMO and sBMO. The smoXYB1C1Z genes of NBB4 were cloned into pMycoFos to make pSmo, which was transformed into Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2)-155. Cells of mc(2)-155(pSmo) metabolized C2 to C4 alkanes, alkenes, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The activities of mc(2)-155(pSmo) cells were 0.94, 0.57, 0.12, and 0.04 nmol/min/mg of protein with ethene, ethane, propane, and butane as substrates, respectively. The mc(2)-155(pSmo) cells made epoxides from ethene, propene, and 1-butene, confirming that Smo was an oxygenase. Epoxides were not produced from larger alkenes (1-octene and styrene). Vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane were biodegraded by cells expressing Smo, with production of inorganic chloride. This study shows that Smo is a functional oxygenase which is active against small hydrocarbons. M. smegmatis mc(2)-155(pSmo) provides a new model for studying sMMO-like monooxygenases. PMID:25015887

  18. Final report on EURAMET.QM-S6/1195: Bilateral comparison of liquefied hydrocarbon mixtures in constant pressure (piston) cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andrew S.; Downey, Michael L.; Milton, Martin J. T.; van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.; Zalewska, Ewelina T.; Li, Jianrong


    Traceable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures are required in order to underpin measurements of the composition and other physical properties of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and LNG (liquefied natural gas), thus meeting the needs of an increasingly large European industrial market. The development of traceable liquid hydrocarbon standards by National Measurement Institutes (NMIs) was still at a relatively early stage at the time this comparison was proposed in 2011. NPL and VSL, who were the only NMIs active in this area, had developed methods for the preparation and analysis of such standards in constant pressure (piston) cylinders, but neither laboratory had Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) for these mixtures. This report presents the results of EURAMET 1195, the first comparison of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures between NMIs, which assessed the preparation and analytical capabilities of NPL and VSL for these mixtures. The comparison operated between August 2011 and January 2012. Each laboratory prepared a liquid hydrocarbon standard with nominally the same composition and these standards were exchanged for analysis. The results of the comparison show a good agreement between the laboratories' results and the comparison reference values for the six components with amount fractions greater than 1.0 cmol/mol (propane, propene, iso-butene, n-butane, iso-butane and 1-butene). Measurement of the three components with lower amount fractions (1,3-butadiene, iso-pentane and n-pentane) proved more challenging. In all but one case, the differences from the comparison reference values for these three components were greater than the expanded measurement uncertainty. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  19. Homogeneous dehydrogenation of liquid organic hydrogen carriers catalyzed by an iridium PCP complex.


    Wang, Zhaohui; Belli, Jack; Jensen, Craig M


    The activity of the PCP pincer complex IrH2{C6H3-2,6-(OPBu(t)2)2)}, (3) as a catalyst for the dehydrogenation of the potential liquid organic hydrogen carriers: perhydro-dibenzofuran (4), perhydro-indole (5), N-methyl perhydro-indole (6), 4,4'-bipiperridine (7), 4-amino-methylpiperridine (8), and aminomethylcyclohexane (9) was investigated. Only low levels of dehydrogenation were achieved with 4 at 150 and 200 degrees C except in the presence a hydrogen acceptor, 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene (tbe). At temperatures above 150 degrees C, 3 showed high activity with 5 but only for the release of H2 across the C-N bond. Dehydrogenation of 6 at 150 degrees C was found to release up to 2.9 wt% H2, giving N-methyl tetrahydroindole in 92% yield, but only 7% N-methyl indole. However, efficient dehydrogenation of the aliphatic hydrogens occurred at 200 degrees C giving mixtures that approached a approximately 1:3 equilibrium between N-methyl indole and N-methyl tetrahydroindole at longer reaction times. The pincer catalyst was observed to be effective for the dehydrogenation of 7 and 8 at 200 degrees C but the products polymerize. The catalytic dehydrogenation of 9 was very efficient at 200 degrees C but gave primarily the undesired products dibenzylamine (68%), benzylidenebenzylamine (22%), ammonia and only minor amount of benzonitrile (10%). At 160 degrees C, 85% of the substrate was consumed after 24 h of heating but only a minor amount of cyclohexanecarbonitrile (2%) was detected with the major products being biscyclohexylmethylamine (45%) and cyclohexylmethyl-cyclohexylimine (38%). The nitrile yield is remarkably improved to 97% when the dehydrogenation was carried out at 160 degrees C in the presence of 10 mol% NaOBu(t) but heating the reaction mixtures containing the base to 200 degrees C resulted in the decomposition of the pincer catalyst. PMID:22455076

  20. Gas-phase chemistry of bare and oxo-ligated protactinium ions: a contribution to a systematic understanding of actinide chemistry.


    Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G


    Gas-phase chemistry of bare and oxo-ligated protactinium ions has been studied for the first time. Comparisons were made with thorium, uranium, and neptunium ion chemistry to further the systematic understanding of 5f elements. The rates of oxidation of Pa(+) and PaO(+) by ethylene oxide compared with those of the homologous uranium ions indicate that the first and second bond dissociation energies, BDE[Pa(+)-O] and BDE[OPa(+)-O], are approximately 800 kJ mol(-1). The relatively facile fluorination of Pa(+) to PaF(4)(+) by SF(6) is consistent with the high stability of the pentavalent oxidation state of Pa. Reactions with ethene, propene, 1-butene, and iso-butene revealed that Pa(+) is a very reactive metal ion. In analogy with U(+) chemistry, ethene was trimerized by Pa(+) to give PaC(6)H(6)(+). Reactions of Pa(+) with larger alkenes resulted in secondary and tertiary products not observed for U(+) or Np(+). The bare protactinium ion is significantly more reactive with organic substrates than are heavier actinide ions. The greatest difference between Pa and heavier actinide congeners was the exceptional dehydrogenation activity of PaO(+) with alkenes; UO(+) and NpO(+) were comparatively inert. The striking reactivity of PaO(+) is attributed to the distinctive electronic structure at the metal center in this oxide, which is considered to reflect the greater availability of the 5f electrons for participation in bonding, either directly or by promotion/hybridization with higher-energy valence orbitals. PMID:12401099

  1. Cl atom initiated oxidation of 1-alkenes under atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walavalkar, M.; Sharma, A.; Alwe, H. D.; Pushpa, K. K.; Dhanya, S.; Naik, P. D.; Bajaj, P. N.


    In view of the importance of the oxidation pathways of alkenes in the troposphere, and the significance of Cl atom as an oxidant in marine boundary layer (MBL) and polluted industrial atmosphere, the reactions of four 1-alkenes (C6-C9) with Cl atoms are investigated. The rate coefficients at 298 K are measured to be (4.0 ± 0.5), (4.4 ± 0.7), (5.5 ± 0.9) and (5.9 ± 1.7) × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for 1-hexene, 1-heptene, 1-octene and 1-nonene, respectively. The quoted errors include the experimental 2?, along with the error in the reference rate coefficients. From the systematic increase in the rate coefficients with the number of carbon atoms, an approximate value for the average rate coefficient for hydrogen abstraction per CH2 group in alkenes is estimated to be (4.9 ± 0.3) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Based on these rate coefficients, the contribution of Cl atom reactions towards the degradation of these molecules is found to be comparable to that of OH radical reactions, under MBL conditions. The products identified in gas phase indicate that Cl atom addition occurs mainly at the terminal carbon, leading to the formation of 1-chloro-2-ketones and 1-chloro-2-ols. The major gas phase products from the alkenyl radicals (formed by H atom abstraction) are different positional isomers of long chain enols and enones. A preference for dissociation leading to an allyl radical, resulting in aldehydes, lower by three carbon atoms, is indicated. The observed relative yields suggest that in general, the increased contribution of the reactions of Cl atoms towards degradation of 1-alkenes in NOx free air does not result in an increase in the generation of small aldehydes (carbon number < 4), including chloroethanal, as compared to that in the reaction of 1-butene.

  2. Hydroboration. 97. Synthesis of new exceptional chloroborane--Lewis base adducts for hydroboration. Dioxane--monochloroborane as a superior reagent for the selective hydroboration of terminal alkenes.


    Kanth, J V; Brown, H C


    Several less volatile oxygen-containing Lewis bases, such as tert-butyl methyl ether, dioxane, anisole, ethyl acetate, beta-chloroethyl ether, and monoglyme, were examined as prospective mono- and dichloroborane carriers. Dioxane, ethyl acetate, and beta-chloroethyl ether form relatively stable boron trichloride adducts, but the boron trichloride adduct of monoglyme is not very stable and must be used immediately. On the other hand, tert-butyl methyl ether and anisole fail to form stable boron trichloride adducts and the corresponding ether-cleaved products are obtained. Among the selected oxygen-containing Lewis bases, only dioxane forms stable and reactive mono- and dichloroborane adducts. Monoglyme and beta-chloroethyl ether give stable dichloroborane adducts requiring excess of diborane. Convenient methods for the preparation of mono- and dichloroborane adducts of dioxane from dioxane-BCl(3) and NaBH(4) in the presence of catalytic amounts of tri- or tetraglyme were developed. The dioxane--monochloroborane adduct hydroborates representative olefins cleanly and rapidly. The corresponding alcohols were obtained in quantitative yields after oxidation. Also, the hydroboration of several terminal olefins with dioxane--monochloroborane were highly regioselective and the primary alcohols were obtained almost exclusively (>99.5%), after oxidation. Accordingly, dioxane-monochloroborane should serve as a reagent of choice for such hydroborations. The dioxane--dichloroborane adduct showed remarkable selectivity toward 2-substituted terminal olefins, such as 2-methyl-1-butene and beta-pinene, when compared to simple terminal and hindered olefins, giving a unique tool for selective hydroborations. Dichloroborane adducts of monoglyme and beta-chloroethyl ether also showed high reactivity, even at room temperature, toward simple unhindered olefins. However, hydroboration of hindered olefins is slow and requires either higher temperatures or the addition of 1 equiv of boron trichloride to liberate free dichloroborane, as in the case of the previously known dichloroborane adducts of methyl sulfide and diethyl ether. PMID:11485456

  3. Experimental and modeling study of the thermal decomposition of methyl decanoate.


    Herbinet, Olivier; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Warth, Valérie; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique


    The experimental study of the thermal decomposition of methyl decanoate was performed in a jet-stirred reactor at temperatures ranging from 773 to 1123 K, at residence times between 1 and 4 s, at a pressure of 800 Torr (106.6 kPa) and at high dilution in helium (fuel inlet mole fraction of 0.0218). Species leaving the reactor were analyzed by gas chromatography. Main reaction products were hydrogen, carbon oxides, small hydrocarbons from C1 to C3, large 1-olefins from 1-butene to 1-nonene, and unsaturated esters with one double bond at the end of the alkyl chain from methyl-2-propenoate to methyl-8-nonenoate. At the highest temperatures, the formation of polyunsaturated species was observed: 1,3-butadiene, 1,3-cyclopentadiene, benzene, toluene, indene, and naphthalene. These results were compared with previous ones about the pyrolysis of n-dodecane, an n-alkane of similar size. The reactivity of both molecules was found to be very close. The alkane produces more olefins while the ester yields unsaturated oxygenated compounds. A detailed kinetic model for the thermal decomposition of methyl decanoate has been generated using the version of software EXGAS which was updated to take into account the specific chemistry involved in the oxidation of methyl esters. This model contains 324 species and 3231 reactions. It provided a very good prediction of the experimental data obtained in jet-stirred reactor. The formation of the major products was analyzed. The kinetic analysis showed that the retro-ene reactions of intermediate unsaturated methyl esters are of importance in low reactivity systems. PMID:23710078

  4. The carbon kinetic isotope effects of ozone-alkene reactions in the gas-phase and the impact of ozone reactions on the stable carbon isotope ratios of alkenes in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannone, R.; Anderson, R. S.; Rudolph, J.; Huang, L.; Ernst, D.


    The kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) for several ozone-alkene reactions in the gas phase were studied in a 30 L PTFE reaction chamber. The time dependence of the stable carbon isotope ratios and the concentrations were determined using a gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCC-IRMS) system. The following average KIE values were obtained: 18.9 +/- 2.8 (ethene), 9.5 +/- 2.5 (propene), 8.7 +/- 1 (1-butene), 8.1 +/- 0.4 (E-2-butene), 7.9 +/- 0.4 (1,3-butadiene), 6.7 +/- 0.9 (1-pentene), 7.3 +/- 0.2 (Z-2-pentene), 6.7 +/- 0.7 (cyclopentene), 6.1 +/- 1 (isoprene), 5.0 +/- 0.7 (1-hexene), 5.6 +/- 0.5 (cyclohexene), and 4.3 +/- 0.7 (1-heptene). These data are the first of their kind to be reported in the literature. The ozone-alkene KIE values show a systematic inverse dependence from alkene carbon number. Based on the observed KIEs, the contribution of ozone-alkene reactions to the isotopic fractionation of alkenes in the atmosphere can be estimated. On average this contribution is generally small compared to the impact of reaction with OH radicals. However, when OH-concentrations are very low, e.g. during nighttime and at high latitudes in winter, the contribution of the ozone reaction dominates and under these conditions the ozone-alkene reaction will have a clearly visible impact on the stable carbon isotope ratio of atmospheric alkenes.

  5. Polar organic marker compounds in atmospheric aerosols: Determination, time series, size distributions and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtchev, Ivan

    Terrestrial vegetation releases substantial amounts of reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs; e.g., isoprene, monoterpenes) into the atmosphere. The VOCs can be rapidly photooxidized under conditions of high solar radiation, yielding products that can participate in new particle formation and growth processes above forests. This thesis focuses on the characterization, identification and quantification of oxidation products of biogenic VOC (BVOCs) as well as other species (tracer compounds) that provide information on aerosol sources and source processes. Atmospheric aerosols from various forested sites (i.e., Hyytiala, southern Finland; Rondonia, Brazil; K-Puszta, Hungary and Julich, Germany) were analyzed with Gas Chromotography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) using analytical procedure that targets polar organic compounds. The study demonstrated that isoprene (i.e., 2-methyerythritol, 2-methylthreitol, 2-methylglyceric acid and C5-alkene triols (2-methyl-1,3,4-trihydroxy-l-butene (cis and trans) and 3 methyl-2,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene)) and monoterpene (pinic acid, norpinic acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid) oxidation products were present in substantial concentrations in atmospheric aerosols suggesting that oxidation of BVOC from the vegetation is an important process in all studied sites. On the other hand, presence of levoglucosan, biomass burning marker, especially in Amazonian rain forest site at Rondonia, Brazil, pointed that all sites were affected by anthropogenic activities, namely biomass burning. Other identified compounds included plyols, arabitol, mannitol and erythritol, which are marker compounds for fungal spores and monosacharides, glucose and fructose, markers for plant polens. Temporal variations as well as mass size distributions of the detected species confirmed the possible formation mechanisms of marker compounds.

  6. SmoXYB1C1Z of Mycobacterium sp. Strain NBB4: a Soluble Methane Monooxygenase (sMMO)-Like Enzyme, Active on C2 to C4 Alkanes and Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kiri E.; Ozsvar, Jazmin


    Monooxygenase (MO) enzymes initiate the aerobic oxidation of alkanes and alkenes in bacteria. A cluster of MO genes (smoXYB1C1Z) of thus-far-unknown function was found previously in the genomes of two Mycobacterium strains (NBB3 and NBB4) which grow on hydrocarbons. The predicted Smo enzymes have only moderate amino acid identity (30 to 60%) to their closest homologs, the soluble methane and butane MOs (sMMO and sBMO), and the smo gene cluster has a different organization from those of sMMO and sBMO. The smoXYB1C1Z genes of NBB4 were cloned into pMycoFos to make pSmo, which was transformed into Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2-155. Cells of mc2-155(pSmo) metabolized C2 to C4 alkanes, alkenes, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The activities of mc2-155(pSmo) cells were 0.94, 0.57, 0.12, and 0.04 nmol/min/mg of protein with ethene, ethane, propane, and butane as substrates, respectively. The mc2-155(pSmo) cells made epoxides from ethene, propene, and 1-butene, confirming that Smo was an oxygenase. Epoxides were not produced from larger alkenes (1-octene and styrene). Vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane were biodegraded by cells expressing Smo, with production of inorganic chloride. This study shows that Smo is a functional oxygenase which is active against small hydrocarbons. M. smegmatis mc2-155(pSmo) provides a new model for studying sMMO-like monooxygenases. PMID:25015887

  7. Characterization and Dynamics of Substituted Ruthenacyclobutanes Relevant to the Olefin Cross-Metathesis Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Garrett; VanderVelde, David G.; Grubbs, Robert H.


    The reaction of the phosphonium alkylidene [(H2IMes)RuCl2=CHP(Cy)3)]+ BF4– with propene, 1-butene, and 1-hexene at –45 °C affords various substituted, metathesis-active ruthenacycles. These metallacycles were found to equilibrate over extended reaction times in response to decreases in ethylene concentrations, which favored increased populations of ?-monosubstituted and ?,?’-disubstituted (both cis and trans) ruthenacycles. On an NMR timescale, rapid chemical exchange was found to preferentially occur between the ?-hydrogens of the cis and trans stereoisomers prior to olefin exchange. Exchange on an NMR timescale was also observed between the ?- and ?-methylene groups of the monosubstituted ruthenacycle (H2IMes)Cl2Ru(CHRCH2CH2) (R = CH3, CH2CH3, (CH2)3CH3). EXSY NMR experiments at –87 °C were used to determine the activation energies for both of these exchange processes. In addition, new methods have been developed for the direct preparation of metathesis-active ruthenacyclobutanes via the protonolysis of dichloro(1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-2-imidazolidinylidene)(benzylidene) bis(pyridine)ruthenium(II) and its 3-bromopyridine analog. Using either trifluoroacetic acid or silica-bound toluenesulfonic acid as the proton source, the ethylene-derived ruthenacyclobutane (H2IMes)Cl2Ru(CH2CH2CH2) was observed in up to 98% yield via NMR at –40 °C. On the basis of these studies, mechanisms accounting for the positional and stereochemical exchange within ruthenacyclobutanes are proposed, as well as the implications of these dynamics towards olefin metathesis catalyst and reaction design are described. PMID:21452876

  8. Quantitative analysis of trihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid, a urinary metabolite of 1, 3-butadiene, in humans

    PubMed Central

    Kotapati, Srikanth; Matter, Brock A.; Grant, Amy L.; Tretyakova, Natalia Y.


    1,3-butadiene (BD)* is a known human carcinogen present in cigarette smoke and in automobile exhaust, leading to widespread exposure of human populations. BD requires cytochrome P450-mediated metabolic activation to electrophilic species, e.g. 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), hydroxymethylvinylketone (HMVK), and 3,4-epoxy-1,2-diol (EBD), which form covalent adducts with DNA. EB, HMVK, and EBD can be conjugated with glutathione and ultimately excreted in urine as monohydroxybutenyl mercapturic acid (MHBMA), dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid (DHBMA), and trihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid (THBMA), respectively, which can serve as biomarkers of BD exposure and metabolic processing. While MHBMA and DHBMA have been found in smokers and non-smokers, THBMA has not been previously detected in humans. In the present work, an isotope dilution HPLC-ESI?-MS/MS methodology was developed and employed to quantify THBMA in urine of known smokers and non-smokers (19–27 per group). The new method has excellent sensitivity (LOQ, 1 ng/mL urine) and achieves accurate quantitation using a small sample volume (100 µl). Mean urinary THBMA concentrations in smokers and non-smokers were found to be 21.6 and 13.7 ng/mg creatinine, respectively, suggesting that there are sources of THBMA other than exposure to tobacco smoke in humans, as is also the case for DHBMA. However, THBMA concentrations are significantly greater in urine of smokers than that of non-smokers (p < 0.01). Furthermore, THBMA amounts in human urine declined 25–50 % following smoking cessation, suggesting that smoking is an important source of this metabolite in humans. The HPLC-ESI?-MS/MS methodology developed in the present work will be useful for future epidemiological studies of BD exposure and metabolism. PMID:21749114

  9. Epoxybutene-hemoglobin adducts in rats and mice: dose response for formation and persistence during and following long-term low-level exposure to butadiene.


    Osterman-Golkar, S M; Moss, O; James, A; Bryant, M S; Turner, M; Bond, J A


    Measurement of specific adducts to hemoglobin can be used to establish the dosimetry of electrophilic compounds and metabolites in experimental animals and in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose response for adduct formation and persistence in rats and mice during long-term low-level exposure to butadiene by inhalation. Adducts of 3,4-epoxy-1-butene, the primary metabolite of butadiene, with N-terminal valine in hemoglobin were determined in male B6C3F1 mice and male Sprague-Dawley rats following exposure to 0, 2, 10, or 100 ppm of 1,3-butadiene, 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected from groups of five mice and three rats at the end of each week during the 4 weeks of exposure and weekly for 3 weeks following the end of the 4-week exposure period. The increase and decrease, respectively, of the adduct levels during and following the end of the 4-week exposure followed closely the theoretical curve for adduct accumulation and removal for rats and mice, thereby demonstrating that the adducts are chemically stable in vivo and that the elimination follows the turnover of the red blood cells. The adduct level increased linearly with butadiene exposure concentration in the mice, whereas a deviation from linearity was observed in the rats. For example, after exposure to 100 ppm butadiene, the epoxybutene-hemoglobin adduct levels were about four times higher in mice than in rats; at lower concentrations of butadiene, the species difference was less pronounced. Blood concentrations of epoxybutene, estimated from hemoglobin adduct levels, were in general agreement with reported concentrations in mice and rats exposed by inhalation to 62.5 ppm. These studies show that adducts of epoxybutene with N-terminal valine in hemoglobin can be used to predict blood concentration of epoxybutene in experimental animals. PMID:9630466

  10. Long term hourly measurement of 62 non-methane hydrocarbons in an urban area: Main results and contribution of non-traffic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durana, N.; Navazo, M.; Gómez, M. C.; Alonso, L.; García, J. A.; Ilardia, J. L.; Gangoiti, G.; Iza, J.

    We present one of the largest and most complete databases of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons in the Iberian Peninsula, not only for its temporal resolution and seasonal extent, but for the number of species routinely measured. Results were obtained using an automatic gas chromatograph, during 1998-2001 (April-October) and 2004 (February-July), optimized for systematic, unattended measurement of 62 C 2-C 10 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) every hour, 24 times a day, with detection limits below 0.1 ppbv. Annual average concentrations for most of the NMHC show very little variations along the years. Benzene is an exception; during year 2000, its concentration on ambient air decreased down to a half, after the enforcement of environmental regulations reducing the benzene content on fuels. Significant correlations found among various hydrocarbons and the observed daily cycle indicate that traffic is their principal source. However, some compounds like acetylene and benzene, commonly used as tracers of vehicular emissions, show in our case other sources, during working days for acetylene, and continuous for benzene. This is now relevant, especially when considering that such measuring systems are now starting to be deployed around many cities, all over the world, because in urban areas where similar influences by industrial or commercial sources are to be expected, ratios like toluene/benzene or ethene/acetylene, cannot be used to characterize traffic polluted air masses. Isoprene has been found to have mostly an anthropogenic origin during winter, and a dual anthropogenic-biogenic origin during summer, when natural isoprene amounts 55% of the total. A method for the estimation of the anthropogenic fraction of isoprene in urban areas, based on a correlation with 1-butene, is also proposed.

  11. PANs measurements on board theNOAA P-3 during TexAQS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, W.; Flocke, F. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M. K.; Atlas, E. L.; Schauffler, S.; Donnelly, S.; Holloway, J. S.


    Measurements of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs, i.e. PAN, PPN, PiBN, APAN, MPAN, and MoPAN) were made using the NCAR PAN-CIGARette chemical ionization mass spectrometer on board the NOAA P-3 aircraft during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS-II). In this poster, we present the PANs measurements made during the flight on September 27th as a case study. Two separate plumes from Downtown Houston and the Houston Ship Channel were transported in parallel to the north on that day. The flight track crossed these plumes 8 times at increasing distances downwind, and according to the CO distribution, dilution with surrounding air masses was very slow. These conditions make this very nice case for a pollutant transport and chemistry study. The PAN/PPN ratio increased about 18% as the air mass moved away from the pollution source to the furthest leg which is about 130 km north of downtown Houston. As the photolysis rates for PAN and PPN are similar to each other and the thermal decomposition of PAN is faster than PPN, this ratio change is most likely owing to the difference in the chemistry of the source hydrocarbons for these two PAN species, and indicates a faster depletion of PPN precursors (mainly propanal and 1-butene) as the air masses get older. Also, the relative production of ozone and PANs for the Houston city plume and the ship channel plume are analyzed and compared for this flight, demonstrating the difference in the photochemical processes for urban pollution vs. petroleum industry emissions.

  12. Chemical dynamics in time and energy space

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.D.


    The development of a versatile picosecond ultraviolet/vacuum ultraviolet temporal spectrometer and its potential use for measuring internal energy redistribution in isolated molecules are described in detail. A detailed description of the double-pass Nd:YAG amplifier and the dye amplifiers is given with the pulse energies achieved in the visible, ultraviolet, and vacuum ultraviolet. The amplified visible pulses are shown to be of sub-picosecond duration and near transform limited. The instrument`s temporal response ({le}10 ps) is derived from an instrument limited measurement of the dissociation lifetime of methyl iodide at 266 nm. The methyl iodide experiment is used to discuss the various sources of noise and background signals that are intrinsic to this type of experiment. Non-time-resolved experiments measuring the branching ratio and kinetic energy distributions of products from the 193 nm photodissociation of cyclopentadiene and thiophene are presented. These studies were done using the molecular beam Photofragment Translational Spectroscopy (PTS) technique. The results from the cyclopentadiene experiment confirm that H atom elimination to yield the cyclopentadienyl radical is the dominant dissociation channel. A barrier of {ge}5 kcal/mol can be understood in terms of the delocalization of the radical electron of the cyclopentadienyl fragment. A concerted elimination yielding cyclopropene and acetylene was also observed and is proposed to occur via a bicyclo-[2.1.0]pent-2-ene intermediate. Two other channels, yielding acetylene plus the CH{sub 2}CHCH triplet carbene, and CH{sub 2} plus 1-buten-3-yne, are postulated to occur via ring opening. The implications of the experimental results for bulk thermal oxidation and pyrolysis models are discussed. The thiophene experiment shows six competing dissociation channels. The postulated intermediates for the various thiophene dissociation channels include bicyclo, ring opened, and possibly ring contracted forms.

  13. The chemistry of tributyl phosphate at elevated temperatures in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Process Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.; Cooper, T.D.


    Potentially violent chemical reactions of the tributyl phosphate solvent used by the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site were investigated. There is a small probability that a significant quantity of this solvent could be accidental transferred to heated process vessels and react there with nitric acid or plutonium nitrate also present in the solvent extraction process. The results of laboratory studies of the reactions show that exothermic oxidation of tributyl phosphate by either nitric acid or actinide nitrates is slow at temperatures expected in the heated vessels. Less than four percent of the tributyl phosphate will be oxidized in these vented vessels at temperatures between 125{degrees}C and 250{degrees}C because the oxidant will be lost from the vessels by vaporization or decomposition before the tributyl phosphate can be extensively oxidized. The net amounts of heat generated by oxidation with concentrated nitric acid and with thorium nitrate (a stand-in for plutonium nitrate) were determined to be about -150 and -220 joules per gram of tributyl phosphate initially present, respectively. This is not enough heat to cause violent reactions in the vessels. Pyrolysis of the tributyl phosphate occurred in these mixtures at temperatures of 110{degrees}C to 270{degrees}C and produced mainly 1-butene gas, water, and pyrophosphoric acid. Butene gas generation is slow at expected process vessel temperatures, but the rate is faster at higher temperatures. At 252{degrees}C the rate of butene gas generated was 0.33 g butene/min/g of tributyl phosphate present. The measured heat absorbed by the pyrolysis reaction was 228 J/g of tributyl phosphate initially present (or 14.5 kcal/mole of tributyl phosphate). Release of flammable butene gas into process areas where it could ignite appears to be the most serious safety consideration for the Plutonium Finishing Plant.

  14. Laser absorption diagnostic for measuring acetylene concentrations in shock tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranic, Ivo; Hanson, Ronald K.


    A fixed-wavelength direct absorption laser diagnostic for high-temperature measurements of acetylene concentration was developed. The diagnostic, based on a tunable continuous wave distributed feedback diode laser, was optimized primarily for studying chemical kinetics behind reflected shock waves. The center wavelength (3335.55 cm-1) of the tunable diagnostic was typically set at the peak of the 3300 cm-1 absorption band of acetylene at high temperatures. The absorption spectrum of acetylene diluted in argon was characterized using scanned-wavelength direct absorption measurements from 1070 to 1720 K and 0.8 to 4.0 atm. Line fitting of the measured absorption spectra was not possible due to the large number of transitions overlapped by pressure broadening that contribute to the spectrum. Instead, empirical fits for the peak absorption coefficient and its corresponding wavelength as a function of temperature and pressure were generated. Furthermore, in order to allow for characterization of interference absorption in kinetic studies, empirical fits for the acetylene absorption coefficient in the region around the primary absorption feature were developed. Absorption coefficient measurements of propyne and 1-butyne, which may be the primary interference candidates, reveal that their absorption coefficients are constant in the wavelength range of interest, and are much smaller than those of acetylene. Therefore, the acetylene concentration in the presence of these interfering species can be inferred using two-color techniques. The utility of the acetylene diagnostic was demonstrated by measuring acetylene mole fraction time-histories during the pyrolysis of propene and 1-butene.

  15. Single-channel properties of a stretch-sensitive chloride channel in the human mast cell line HMC-1.


    Wang, Lina; Ding, Guanghong; Gu, Quanbao; Schwarz, Wolfgang


    A stretch-activated (SA) Cl(-) channel in the plasma membrane of the human mast cell line HMC-1 was identified in outside-out patch-clamp experiments. SA currents, induced by pressure applied to the pipette, exhibited voltage dependence with strong outward rectification (55.1 pS at +100 mV and an about tenfold lower conductance at -100 mV). The probability of the SA channel being open (P (o)) also showed steep outward rectification and pressure dependence. The open-time distribution was fitted with three components with time constants of tau(1o) = 755.1 ms, tau(2o) = 166.4 ms, and tau(3o) = 16.5 ms at +60 mV. The closed-time distribution also required three components with time constants of tau(1c) = 661.6 ms, tau(2c) = 253.2 ms, and tau(3c) = 5.6 ms at +60 mV. Lowering extracellular Cl(-) concentration reduced the conductance, shifted the reversal potential toward chloride reversal potential, and decreased the P (o) at positive potentials. The SA Cl(-) currents were reversibly blocked by the chloride channel blocker 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) but not by (Z)-1-(p-dimethylaminoethoxyphenyl)-1,2-diphenyl-1-butene (tamoxifen). Furthermore, in HMC-1 cells swelling due to osmotic stress, DIDS could inhibit the increase in intracellular [Ca(2+)] and degranulation. We conclude that in the HMC-1 cell line, the SA outward currents are mediated by Cl(-) influx. The SA Cl(-) channel might contribute to mast cell degranulation caused by mechanical stimuli or accelerate membrane fusion during the degranulation process. PMID:19823818

  16. Photochemical cycloaddition reactions of cyanoacetylene and dicyanoacetylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Guillemin, J. C.


    Photolysis of cyanoacetylene with 185- or 206-nm light yields 1,3,5-tricyanobenzene while 254-nm radiation yields a mixture of tetracyanocyclooctatetraenes, 1,2,4- and 1,3,5-tricyanobenzene. A polymer of cyanoacetylene is the major photoproduct. 1,3,5-Tricarbomethoxybenzene was the only photoproduct identified from the irradiation of methyl propiolate at 254 nm. Mono-, di-, and tricyanobenzenes are formed by irradiation of mixtures of acetylene and cyanoacetylene at 185, 206, and 254 nm along with trace amounts of cyclooctatetraenes. No photoadducts were detected on photolysis of mixtures of cyanoacetylene and CO or HCN. The tetracyanocyclooctatetraene structures were established by UV, MS, and NMR analyses. The 1H NMR of the product mixture exhibited a singlet at delta 7.028 consistent with either 1 or 2 and two singlets at delta 6.85 and 6.91 assigned to 3. Photolysis of mixtures of dicyanoacetylene and acetylene with either 185- or 206-nm light yielded 1,2-dicyanobenzene and (E,Z)-1-buten-3-yne-1,4-dicarbonitrile. These products were also obtained using 254-nm light along with a mixture of tetracyanocyclooctatetraenes. The same three singlets were observed in this product mixture as were observed in the tetracyanocyclooctatetraenes obtained from cyanoacetylene. From this observation it was concluded that the delta 7.02 signal is due to 2 and not 1. The photolysis of cyanoacetylene and dicyanoacetylene in the presence of ethylene with 185-nm light yields 1-cyanocylobutene and 1,2-dicyanocyclobutene, respectively. 2-Cyanobutadiene and 2,3-dicyanobutadiene are the photoproducts with 254-nm light. Reaction pathways are proposed to explain these findings.

  17. Quantitation of DNA Adducts Induced by 1,3-Butadiene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangaraju, Dewakar; Villalta, Peter W.; Wickramaratne, Susith; Swenberg, James; Tretyakova, Natalia


    Human exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) present in automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and forest fires is of great concern because of its potent carcinogenicity. The adverse health effects of BD are mediated by its epoxide metabolites such as 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), which covalently modify genomic DNA to form promutagenic nucleobase adducts. Because of their direct role in cancer, BD-DNA adducts can be used as mechanism-based biomarkers of BD exposure. In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based methodology was developed for accurate, sensitive, and precise quantification of EB-induced N-7-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) guanine (EB-GII) DNA adducts in vivo. In our approach, EB-GII adducts are selectively released from DNA backbone by neutral thermal hydrolysis, followed by ultrafiltration, offline HPLC purification, and isotope dilution nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 analysis on an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. Following method validation, EB-GII lesions were quantified in human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells treated with micromolar concentrations of EB and in liver tissues of rats exposed to sub-ppm concentrations of BD (0.5-1.5 ppm). EB-GII concentrations increased linearly from 1.15 ± 0.23 to 10.11 ± 0.45 adducts per 106 nucleotides in HT1080 cells treated with 0.5-10 ?M DEB. EB-GII concentrations in DNA of laboratory rats exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm BD were 0.17 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08, and 0.50 ± 0.04 adducts per 106 nucleotides, respectively. We also used the new method to determine the in vivo half-life of EB-GII adducts in rat liver DNA (2.20 ± 0.12 d) and to detect EB-GII in human blood DNA. To our knowledge, this is the first application of nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 Orbitrap methodology to quantitative analysis of DNA adducts in vivo.

  18. Aqueous geochemistry of low molecular weight hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures and pressures: constraints from mineral buffered laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seewald, Jeffrey S.


    Organic matter, water, and minerals coexist at elevated temperatures and pressures in sedimentary basins and participate in a wide range of geochemical processes that includes the generation of oil and natural gas. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted at 300 to 350°C and 350 bars to examine chemical interactions involving low molecular weight aqueous hydrocarbons with water and Fe-bearing minerals under hydrothermal conditions. Mineral buffers composed of hematite-magnetite-pyrite, hematite-magnetite, and pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite were added to each experiment to fix the redox state of the fluid and the activity of reduced sulfur species. During each experiment the chemical system was externally modified by addition of ethene, ethane, propene, 1-butene, or n-heptane, and variations in the abundance of aqueous organic species were monitored as a function of time and temperature. Results of the experiments indicate that decomposition of aqueous n-alkanes proceeds through a series of oxidation and hydration reactions that sequentially produce alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and organic acids as reaction intermediaries. Organic acids subsequently undergo decarboxylation and/or oxidation reactions to form carbon dioxide and shorter chain saturated hydrocarbons. This alteration assemblage is compositionally distinct from that produced by thermal cracking under anhydrous conditions, indicating that the presence of water and minerals provide alternative reaction pathways for the decomposition of hydrocarbons. The rate of hydrocarbon oxidation decreases substantially under reducing conditions and in the absence of catalytically active aqueous sulfur species. These results represent compelling evidence that the stability of aqueous hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures in natural environments is not a simple function of time and temperature alone. Under the appropriate geochemical conditions, stepwise oxidation represents a mechanism for the decomposition of low molecular weight hydrocarbons and the production of methane-rich ("dry") natural gas. Evaluation of aqueous reaction products generated during the experiments within a thermodynamic framework indicates that alkane-alkene, alkene-ketone, and alkene-alcohol reactions attained metastable thermodynamic equilibrium states. This equilibrium included water and iron-bearing minerals, demonstrating the direct involvement of inorganic species as reactants during organic transformations. The high reactivity of water and iron-bearing minerals suggests that they represent abundant sources of hydrogen and oxygen available for the formation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated alteration products. Thus, variations in elemental kerogen composition may not accurately reflect the timing and extent of hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, and organic acid generation in sedimentary basins. This study demonstrates that the stabilities of aqueous hydrocarbons are strongly influenced by inorganic sediment composition at elevated temperatures. Incorporation of such interactions into geochemical models will greatly improve prediction of the occurrence of hydrocarbons in natural environments over geologic time.

  19. Pathway and Surface Mechanism Studies of 1,3-butadiene Selective Oxidation Over Vanadium-Molybdenum-Oxygen Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    William David Schroeder


    The partial oxidation of 1,3-butadiene has been investigated over VMoO catalysts synthesized by sol-gel techniques. Surface areas were 9-14 m{sup 2}/g, and compositions were within the solid solution regime, i.e. below 15.0 mol % MoO{sub 3}/(MoO{sub 3} + V{sub 2}O{sub 5}). Laser Raman Spectroscopy and XRD data indicated that solid solutions were formed, and pre- and post-reaction XPS data indicated that catalyst surfaces contained some V{sup +4} and were further reduced in 1,3-butadiene oxidation. A reaction pathway for 1,3-butadiene partial oxidation to maleic anhydride was shown to involve intermediates such as 3,4-epoxy-1-butene, crotonaldehyde, furan, and 2-butene-1,4-dial. The addition of water to the reaction stream substantially increased catalyst activity and improved selectivity to crotonaldehyde and furan at specific reaction temperatures. At higher water addition concentrations, furan selectivity increased from 12% to over 25%. The catalytic effects of water addition were related to competitive adsorption with various V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based surface sites, including the vanadyl V=O, corner sharing V-O-V and edge sharing V-O oxygen. Higher levels of water addition were proposed to impose acidic character by dissociative adsorption. In addition, a novel combinatorial synthesis technique for VMoO was used to investigate the phase transitions of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, solid solutions of Mo in V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, V{sub 9}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 40}, and other reduced VMoO compounds, characterized by laser Raman spectroscopy. The natural composition gradient imposed by the sputter deposition apparatus was used to create VMoO arrays containing 225 samples ranging from 7.0-42 mol% MoO{sub 3}/(V{sub 2}O{sub 5} + MoO{sub 3}), determined by EDS analysis.

  20. Development and application of FI catalysts for olefin polymerization: unique catalysis and distinctive polymer formation.


    Makio, Haruyuki; Fujita, Terunori


    Catalysts contribute to the efficient production of chemicals and materials in almost all processes in the chemical industry. The polyolefin industry is one prominent example of the importance of catalysts. The discovery of Ziegler-Natta catalysts in the 1950s resulted in the production of high-density polyethylenes (PEs) and isotactic polypropylenes (iPPs). Since then, further catalyst development has led to the production of a new series of polyolefins, including linear low-density PEs, amorphous ethylene/1-butene copolymers, ethylene/propylene/diene elastomers, and syndiotactic PPs (sPPs). Polyolefins are now the most important and the most produced synthetic polymers. This Account describes a family of next-generation olefin polymerization catalysts (FI catalysts) that are currently being used in the commercial production of value-added olefin-based materials. An FI catalyst is a heteroatom-coordinated early transition metal complex that combines a pair of nonsymmetric phenoxy-imine [O(-), N] chelating ligands with a group 4 transition metal. The catalytically active species derived from FI catalysts is highly electrophilic and can assume up to five isomeric structures based on the coordination of the phenoxy-imine ligand. In addition, the accessibility of the ligands of the FI catalysts and their amenability to modification offers an opportunity for the design of diverse catalytic structures. FI catalysts exhibit many unique chemical characteristics: precise control over chain transfers (including highly controlled living ethylene and propylene polymerizations), extremely high selectivity for ethylene, high functional group tolerance, MAO- and borate-free polymerization catalysis, significant morphology polymer formation, controlled multimodal behavior, high incorporation ability for higher alpha-olefins and norbornene, and highly syndiospecific and isospecific polymerizations of both propylene and styrene. These reactions also occur with very high catalyst efficiency. The reaction products include a wide variety of unique olefin-based materials, many of which were previously unavailable via other means of polymerization. We have produced selective vinyl- and Al-terminated PEs, ultrahigh molecular weight linear PEs, regio- and stereoirregular high molecular weight poly(higher alpha-olefin)s, ethylene- and propylene-based telechelic polymers, a wide array of polyolefinic block copolymers from ethylene, propylene, and higher alpha-olefins, and ultrafine noncoherent PE particles. FI catalysts are important from the organometallic, catalytic, and polymer science points of view, and the chemical industry is now using them for the production of value-added olefin-based materials. We anticipate that future research on FI catalysts will produce additional olefin-based materials with unique architectures and material properties and will offer scientists the chance to further study olefin polymerization catalysis and related reaction mechanisms. PMID:19588950

  1. Reaction dynamics of carbon-bearing radicals in circumstellar envelopes of carbon stars.


    Gu, Xibin; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Fangtong; Mebel, Alexander M; Kaiser, Ralf I


    Crossed molecular beams experiments on dicarbon molecules, C2(X1sigmag+/a3piu), with unsaturated hydrocarbons acetylene (C2H2(X1sigmag+), ethylene (C2H4(X1Ag)), methylacetylene (CH3CCH(X1A1)), and allene (H2CCCH2 (X1A1)) were carried out at 18 collision energies between 10.6 and 50.3 kJ mol(-1) utilizing a universal crossed beams machine to untangle the reaction dynamics forming hydrogen deficient hydrocarbon radicals in circumstellar envelopes of carbons stars and in cold molecular clouds. We find that all reactions proceed without the entrance barrier through indirect (complex forming) scattering dynamics. Each bimolecular collision is initiated by an addition of the dicarbon molecule to the pi bond of the unsaturated hydrocarbon molecule yielding initially acyclic (triplet) and three- or four-membered cyclic collision complexes (triplet and singlet surface). On the singlet surface, the cyclic structures isomerize to form eventually diacetylene (HCCCCH; C2/C2H2), butatriene (H2CCCCH2; C2/C2H4), methyldiacetylene (CH3CCCCH; C2/CH3CCH), and pentatetraene (H2CCCCCH2; C2/H2CCCH2) intermediates. The latter were found to decompose via atomic hydrogen loss yielding the buta-1,3-diynyl [C4H(X2sigma+) HCCCC], 1-butene-3-yne-2-yl [i-C4H3(X2A') H2CCCCH], penta-2,4-diynyl-1 [C5H3(X2B1) HCCCCCH2], and penta-1,4-diynyl-3 radical [C5H3(X2B1) HCCCHCCH] under single collision conditions. The underlying characteristics of these dicarbon versus atomic hydrogen replacement pathways (indirect scattering dynamics; no entrance barrier; isomerization barriers below the energy of the separated reactants; exoergic reactions) suggest the enormous potential of the dicarbon plus unsaturated hydrocarbon reaction class to form highly hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous molecules in cold molecular clouds and in circumstellar envelopes of carbon stars. The studies therefore present an important advancement in establishing a comprehensive database of reaction intermediates and products involved in bimolecular collisions of dicarbon molecules with unsaturated hydrocarbons which can be utilized in refined astrochemical models and also in future searches of hitherto unidentified interstellar molecules. Implications of these experiments to understand related combustion processes are also addressed. PMID:17191451

  2. Ab initio/RRKM-ME study on the mechanism and kinetics of the reaction of phenyl radical with 1,2-butadiene.


    Kislov, V V; Mebel, A M


    Ab initio G3(MP2,CC)//B3LYP/6-311G** calculations have been performed to investigate the potential energy surface and mechanism of the reaction of phenyl radical with 1,2-butadiene followed by kinetic RRKM-ME calculations of the reaction rate constants and product branching ratios at various temperatures and pressures. The results show that the reaction can proceed by direct hydrogen abstraction to produce benzene and C(4)H(5) radicals or by addition of phenyl to different carbon atoms in CH(2)CCHCH(3) followed by isomerizations of C(10)H(11) adducts and their dissociation by H or CH(3) losses. The H abstraction channels are found to be kinetically preferable and to contribute 70-90% to the total product yield in the 300-2500 K temperature range, with the products including C(6)H(6) + CH(2)CHCCH(2) (approximately 40%), C(6)H(6) + CH(3)CHCCH (5-31%), and C(6)H(6) + CH(2)CCCH(3) (24-20%). The phenyl addition channels are calculated to be responsible for 10-30% of the total product yield, with their contribution decreasing as the temperature increases. The products of the addition channels include collisionally stabilized C(10)H(11) adducts, 1-phenyl-2-buten-2-yl, 3-phenyl-2-buten-2-yl, and 2-phenyl-2-buten-1-yl/2-phenyl-1-buten-3-yl, which are favored under low temperatures, as well as their dissociation products, 1-phenyl-propyne + CH(3), phenylallene + CH(3), and 2-phenyl-1,3-butadiene + H, preferred at higher temperatures. Indene is predicted to be a very minor reaction product at the temperatures relevant to combustion, with the maximal calculated yield of only 2% at 700 K and 7.6 Torr. Our calculations showed that at typical combustion temperatures product branching ratios are practically independent of pressure, and collisional stabilization of reaction intermediates does not play a significant role. Three-parameter modified Arrhenius expressions have been generated for the total reaction rate constants and rate constants for the most important product channels, which can be utilized in future kinetic modeling of reaction networks related to the growth of hydrocarbons in combustion processes. PMID:20593856

  3. The pyrolysis of 2-methylfuran: a quantum chemical, statistical rate theory and kinetic modelling study.


    Somers, Kieran P; Simmie, John M; Metcalfe, Wayne K; Curran, Henry J


    Due to the rapidly growing interest in the use of biomass derived furanic compounds as potential platform chemicals and fossil fuel replacements, there is a simultaneous need to understand the pyrolysis and combustion properties of such molecules. To this end, the potential energy surfaces for the pyrolysis relevant reactions of the biofuel candidate 2-methylfuran have been characterized using quantum chemical methods (CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO and G3). Canonical transition state theory is employed to determine the high-pressure limiting kinetics, k(T), of elementary reactions. Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory with an energy grained master equation is used to compute pressure-dependent rate constants, k(T,p), and product branching fractions for the multiple-well, multiple-channel reaction pathways which typify the pyrolysis reactions of the title species. The unimolecular decomposition of 2-methylfuran is shown to proceed via hydrogen atom transfer reactions through singlet carbene intermediates which readily undergo ring opening to form collisionally stabilised acyclic C5H6O isomers before further decomposition to C1-C4 species. Rate constants for abstraction by the hydrogen atom and methyl radical are reported, with abstraction from the alkyl side chain calculated to dominate. The fate of the primary abstraction product, 2-furanylmethyl radical, is shown to be thermal decomposition to the n-butadienyl radical and carbon monoxide through a series of ring opening and hydrogen atom transfer reactions. The dominant bimolecular products of hydrogen atom addition reactions are found to be furan and methyl radical, 1-butene-1-yl radical and carbon monoxide and vinyl ketene and methyl radical. A kinetic mechanism is assembled with computer simulations in good agreement with shock tube speciation profiles taken from the literature. The kinetic mechanism developed herein can be used in future chemical kinetic modelling studies on the pyrolysis and oxidation of 2-methylfuran, or the larger molecular structures for which it is a known pyrolysis/combustion intermediate (e.g. cellulose, coals, 2,5-dimethylfuran). PMID:24496403

  4. Kinetics and characterization of bismuth molybdate catalysts. 2. Reaction studies over various bimolybdates

    SciTech Connect

    Burban, P.M.; Schuit, G.C.A.; Bischoff, K.B. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (USA)); Koch, T.A. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (USA) Du Pont Experimental Station, Wilmington, DE (USA))


    The model reaction, 1-butene to 1,3-butadiene, was studied over various compositions of unsupported bismuth molybdates to rank the catalysts' reactivities. The authors confirmed that {gamma}-Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} doped with bismuth to yield a surface Bi/Mo > 2.0 is unselective: selective catalyst species need a few mole% excess MoO{sub 3}. All catalysts with a surface Bi/Mo {le} 1.5 show selectivities to butadiene greater than 95%. As the amount of MoO{sub 3} increases, reducing the surface Bi/Mo ratio, the activity increases down to Bi/Mo = 1.5, then remains constant down to Bi/Mo = 1, and then decreases steadily down to Bi/Mo = 2/3. Characteristics of the partial oxidation catalysis change drastically going from {gamma}-Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} to {alpha}-Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 12}catalysts. For the model reaction, Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} + 4% MoO{sub 3}exhibits an E{alpha} = 40 kJ/mol(9.5 kcal/mol) at temperatures above 673 K. This catalyst is completely poisoned by its product butadiene below 673 K, while the inhibition is lifted above this temperature. The authors suggest that the pores of this catalyst, estimated to be 24 nm in diameter, become filled with polybutadiene; the heat of butadiene adsorption was estimated to be 375 kJ/mol. In contrast, {alpha}-Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 12} is not inhibited by butadiene, and has a lower activity (even calculated per unit surface) with an activation energy of 93 kJ/mol over the entire temperature range 660-713 K, studied. The authors propose models which describe two distinct ensemble effects operative in determining the kinetics over selective {gamma}-Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} and {alpha}-Bi{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12} catalysts.

  5. I. Synthesis, characterization, and base catalysis of novel zeolite supported super-basic materials II. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane over reduced heteropolyanion catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galownia, Jonathan M.

    This thesis is composed of two separate and unrelated projects. The first part of this thesis outlines an investigation into the synthesis and characterization of a novel zeolite supported super-base capable of carbon-carbon olefin addition to alkyl aromatics. A zeolite supported basic material capable of such reactions would benefit many fine chemical syntheses, as well as vastly improve the economics associated with production of the high performance thermoplastic polyester polyethylene naphthalate. The thermal decomposition of alkali---metal azides impregnated in zeolite X is investigated as a novel route to the synthesis of a zeolite supported super-base. Impregnation of the alkali---metal azide precursor is shown to result in azide species occluded within the pores of the zeolite support by using high speed, solid-state 23Na MAS and 2D MQMAS NMR, FTIR, and TGA characterization methods. Addition of alkali---metal azides to the zeolite results in redistribution of the extra-lattice cations in the zeolite framework. Thermal decomposition of impregnated azide species produces further cation redistribution, but no neutral metallic clusters are detected by high speed, solid-state 23Na MAS NMR following thermal activation of the materials. Instead, it is possible that inactive ionic clusters are formed. The thermally activated materials do not promote base catalysis for the isomerization of 1-butene, the ethylation of toluene and o-xylene, and the alkenylation of o-xylene with 1,3-butadiene to produce 5-ortho-tolyl-pent-2-ene (5-OTP). The lack of catalytic activity in the materials is attributed to failure of the materials to form neutral metallic clusters during thermal treatment, possibly due to preferential formation of NMR silent ionic clusters. The formation of neutral metallic clusters is found to be insensitive to synthesis technique and activation procedure. It is concluded that the impregnation of alkali---metal azides in zeolite X does not provide a reliable precursor for the formation of zeolite supported super-basic materials. The second part of this thesis describes the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane over partially reduced heteropolyanions. Niobium and pyridine exchanged salts of phosphomolybdic (NbPMo12Pyr) and phosphovanadomolybdic (NbPMo11VPyr) acids are investigated as catalyst precursors to prepare materials for catalyzing the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene and acetic acid at atmospheric pressure. The effects of feed composition, steam flow, temperature, and precursor composition on catalytic activity and selectivity are presented for both ethane and ethylene oxidation. Production of ethylene and acetic acid from ethane using the catalytic materials exceeds that reported in the literature for Mo-V-Nb-Ox systems under atmospheric or elevated pressure. Production of acetic acid from ethylene is also greater than that observed for Mo-V-Nb-Ox systems. Addition of vanadium reduces catalytic activity and selectivity to both ethylene and acetic acid while niobium is essential for the formation of acetic acid from ethane. Other metals such as antimony, iron, and gallium do not provide the same beneficial effect as niobium. Molybdenum in close proximity to niobium is the active site for ethane activation while niobium is directly involved in the transformation of ethylene to acetic acid. A balance of niobium and protonated pyridine is required to produce an active catalyst. Water is found to aid in desorption of acetic acid, thereby limiting deep oxidation to carbon oxides. A reaction scheme is proposed for the production of acetic acid from ethane over the catalytic materials.

  6. Laboratory Study of the Atmospheres of Outer Planets and Titan: Gas Phase Kinetics of C2H Reactions at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulay, Fabien; Nizamov, Boris; Leone, Stephen R.

    Photochemistry of acetylene (C2H2) and the subsequent reactions of the ethynyl radical (C2H) have been shown to play an important role in the formation of complex organic molecules in planetary atmospheres and especially in Titan's atmosphere. There have been relatively few kinetic investigations of reactions with the ethynyl radical at low temperature (down to 70 K) because of their experimental difficulty. We have developed (Lee et al. 2000) a pulsed Laval apparatus coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer to study experimentally the gas phase chemistry (reaction kinetics and product distributions) of the C2H radical with several molecules involved in Titan's Atmosphere. This apparatus generates a pulsed and uniform low temperature gas flow down to 70 K. Radiation from a 193 nm pulsed laser is used to generate the C2H radical coaxially down the length of the expansion by photolysis of acetylene. The reaction kinetics is followed in the flow by measuring the chemiluminescence of excited CH(A2?) formed in the reaction of C2H with O2. Our experiment has provided new kinetic rate coefficients for the C2H radical with four-carbon-atom neutral hydrocarbons (isobutane, 1-butene, isobutylene and 1,3-butadiene). These reactions are rapid (a rate coefficient greater than 1 × 10-10 cm3 s-1 at 104 K) and will soon be included into atmospheric models. Studies of the kinetics of reactions of the ethynyl radical with nitrogen-containing species (CH3CN, C2H5CN and C3H7CN) in Titan's atmospheric temperature range (Nizamov & Leone 2004a, Nizamov & Leone 2004b) indicate that the rate coefficients decrease monotonically as the temperature is lowered. The rate constant is small relative to the rate constants for C2H reactions with more abundant hydrocarbons, indicating that those reactions with nitrogen-containing species account for a very small fraction of the C2H removal by chemical reactions. Studies of the isotopic effects on the C2H + NH3/ND3, C2H/C2D + O2 and C2H/C2D + C2H2/C2D2 reactions were performed. Those results show a large kinetic isotope effect only for the reaction with NH3, confirming that the hydrogen abstraction channel is one of the possible mechanisms for this reaction. The study of expensive gases like deuterated species is permitted due to the very small gas quantities used during the pulsed injection of gas. New experiments will provide important information about the first chemical step in Titan's haze formation: in atmospheric models the reaction of benzene with ethynyl radical is one of the ways of promoting the propagation of PAH formation (Wilson & Atreya 2003). This reaction is studied in our experiment down to 100 K. The detection of the products is allowed for the first time at such low temperatures by sampling the gas stream and using a 118 nm ionization laser and time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

  7. A Unique Equation to Estimate Flash Points of Selected Pure Liquids Application to the Correction of Probably Erroneous Flash Point Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catoire, Laurent; Naudet, Valérie


    A simple empirical equation is presented for the estimation of closed-cup flash points for pure organic liquids. Data needed for the estimation of a flash point (FP) are the normal boiling point (Teb), the standard enthalpy of vaporization at 298.15 K [?vapH°(298.15 K)] of the compound, and the number of carbon atoms (n) in the molecule. The bounds for this equation are: -100?FP(°C)?+200; 250?Teb(K)?650; 20??vap H°(298.15 K)/(kJ mol-1)?110; 1?n?21. Compared to other methods (empirical equations, structural group contribution methods, and neural network quantitative structure-property relationships), this simple equation is shown to predict accurately the flash points for a variety of compounds, whatever their chemical groups (monofunctional compounds and polyfunctional compounds) and whatever their structure (linear, branched, cyclic). The same equation is shown to be valid for hydrocarbons, organic nitrogen compounds, organic oxygen compounds, organic sulfur compounds, organic halogen compounds, and organic silicone compounds. It seems that the flash points of organic deuterium compounds, organic tin compounds, organic nickel compounds, organic phosphorus compounds, organic boron compounds, and organic germanium compounds can also be predicted accurately by this equation. A mean absolute deviation of about 3 °C, a standard deviation of about 2 °C, and a maximum absolute deviation of 10 °C are obtained when predictions are compared to experimental data for more than 600 compounds. For all these compounds, the absolute deviation is equal or lower than the reproductibility expected at a 95% confidence level for closed-cup flash point measurement. This estimation technique has its limitations concerning the polyhalogenated compounds for which the equation should be used with caution. The mean absolute deviation and maximum absolute deviation observed and the fact that the equation provides unbiaised predictions lead to the conclusion that several flash points have been reported erroneously, whatever the reason, in one or several reference compilations. In the following lists, the currently accepted flash points for bold compounds err, or probably err, on the hazardous side by at least 10 °C and for the nonbolded compounds, the currently accepted flash points err, or probably err, on the nonhazardous side by at least 10 °C: bicyclohexyl, sec-butylamine, tert-butylamine, 2-cyclohexen-1-one, ethanethiol, 1,3-cyclohexadiene, 1,4-pentadiene, methyl formate, acetonitrile, cinnamaldehyde, 1-pentanol, diethylene glycol, diethyl fumarate, diethyl phthalate, trimethylamine, dimethylamine, 1,6-hexanediol, propylamine, methanethiol, ethylamine, bromoethane, 1-bromopropane, tert-butylbenzene, 1-chloro-2-methylpropane, diacetone alcohol, diethanolamine, 2-ethylbutanal, and formic acid. For some other compounds, no other data than the currently accepted flash points are available. Therefore, it cannot be assessed that these flash point data are erroneous but it can be stated that they are probably erroneous. At least, they need experimental re-examination. They are probably erroneous by at least 15 °C: 1,3-cyclopentadiene, di-tert-butyl sulfide, dimethyl ether, dipropyl ether, 4-heptanone, bis(2-chloroethyl)ether, 1-decanol, 1-phenyl-1-butanone, furan, ethylcyclopentane, 1-heptanethiol, 2,5-hexanediol, 3-hexanone, hexanoic acid methyl ester, 4-methyl-1,3-pentadiene, propanoyl chloride, tetramethylsilane, thiacyclopentane, 1-chloro-2-methyl-1-propene, trans-1,3-pentadiene, 2,3-dimethylheptane, triethylenetetramine, methylal, N-ethylisopropylamine, 3-methyl-2-pentene, and 2,3-dimethyl-1-butene.

  8. Chromatography and mass spectrometry of prebiological and biological molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navale, Vivek

    The detection and identification of prebiological and biological molecules are of importance for understanding chemical and biological processes occurring within the solar system. Molecular mass measurements, peptide mapping, and disulfide bond analysis of enzymes and recombinant proteins are important in the development of therapeutic drugs for human diseases. Separation of hydrocarbons (C1 to C6) and nitriles was achieved by 14%-cyanopropylphenyl-86%- dimethylpolysiloxane (CPPS-DMPS) stationary phase in a narrow bore metal capillary column. The calculation of modeling numbers enabled the differentiation of the C4 hydrocarbon isomers of 1-butene (cis and trans). The modeled retention time values for benzene, toluene, xylene, acetonitrile, propane, and propene nitriles were in good agreement with the measurements. The separation of C2 hydrocarbons (ethane and ethene) from predominantly N2 matrix was demonstrated for the first time on wall coated narrow bore low temperature glassy carbon column. Identification and accurate mass measurements of pepsin, an enzymatic protein with less number of basic amino acid residues were successfully demonstrated by matrix- assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The molecular mass of pepsin was found to be 34,787 Da. Several decomposition products of pepsin, in m/z range of 3,500 to 4,700 were identified. Trypsin, an important endopeptidase enzyme had a mass of 46829.7 Da. Lower mass components with m/z 8047.5, 7776.6, 5722, 5446.2 and 5185 Da were also observed in trypsin spectrum. Both chemokine and growth factor recombinant proteins were mass analyzed as 8848.1 ± 3.5 and 16178.52 ± 4.1 Da, respectively. The accuracy of the measurements was in the range of 0.01 to 0.02%. Reduction and alkylation experiments on the chemokine showed the presence of six cysteines and three disulfide bonds. The two cysteines of the growth factor contained the free sulfhydryl groups and the accurate average mass of the growth factor protein was 16175.6 Da. MALDI analysis of trypsin digest of Myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor chemokine verified the disulfide bridging among cysteine residues. Several partially digested trypsin and V8 peptides were detected that verified significant portions of the primary structure of the chemokine. Mass difference amounting to the loss of a single amino acid, serine was also identified. The cyanogen bromide (CNBr) treated chemokine produced three peptides 7051, 6910.1 and 1492 Da. The analysis of Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) peptide mixtures showed suppression effects during the MALDI ionization process. Several partially digested peptides with mass values 3214, 9980, 10325 and 10497 Da were identified. Direct MALDI-MS analysis of cyanogen bromide treated KGF molecule demonstrated the formation of peptides with mass 7567.3, 4992.6 and 3118.6 Da. The high sensitivity of MALDI-MS provided a rapid method for confirming the fidelity of gene expression in the host system. The present work showed that the combined methods of chromatography and mass spectrometry are efficient means for identification and characterization of prebiological and biological molecules.

  9. Tautomerism and metal complexation of 2-acylmethyl-2-oxazolines: a combined synthetic, spectroscopic, crystallographic and theoretical treatment.


    Jones, Roderick C; Herasymchuk, Khrystyna; Mahdi, Tayseer; Petrov, Anna; Resanovi?, Sanja; Vaughan, Douglas G; Lough, Alan J; Quail, J Wilson; Koivisto, Bryan D; Wylie, R Stephen; Gossage, Robert A


    A synthetic, structural and theoretical investigation into the solid-state, solution and gas phase structure(s) of six 2-acylmethyl-4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolines is reported. Four of these materials, viz.?-[(4,5-dihydro-4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolyl)methylene]benzenemethanol (3a), ?-[(4,5-dihydro-4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolyl)methylene]-(4-nitrobenzene)methanol (3b), 1-(4,5-dihydro-4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolyl)-3,3-dimethyl-1-buten-2-ol (3d) and (E)-1-phenyl-2-((3aR)-3,3a,8,8a-tetrahydro-2H-indeno[1,2-d]oxazol-2-ylidene)ethanone (3f) have been characterised in the solid-state by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These data represent the first solid-state structural studies of this class of compounds and details the first synthesis and full characterisation of chiral derivative 3f. All four of these materials are shown to exist in the solid phase in the enamine tautomeric form (e.g., 3a is best described as 2-[4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolidinylidene]-1-phenylethanone) and it is suggested (NMR, IR) that this isomeric form is likely also retained in solution (e.g., CDCl3) as the more stable isomer. An investigation of the relative gas phase stabilities of the three possible (i.e., the (Z)-enol, keto and enamine) isomers of all five compounds by DFT at the B3LYP/6-311G(d) level of theory confirms the latter as the most stable form. The energy differences between the enamine and keto tautomers have been calculated to be the lowest for derivative 3d. These results are compared and contrasted with the previously reported NMR studies of such compounds which have identified the keto form as being a minor (albeit solution) tautomer. Equilibrium solution tautomer distributions for 3d are found to be solvent dependent. The protonated form of 3a, isolated as the HSO4(-) salt (i.e.4a), has been further characterised in the solid state by single crystal X-ray diffraction. These data represent the first example of a protonated oxazoline to be structurally elucidated and confirms that upon protonation, the keto (oxazoline) tautomer is the energetically favoured form in the solid-state. This observation is further supported by DFT studies for the gas phase protonated forms of such materials. Further DFT (B3LYP/6-311G(d)) calculations employing the SM8 or SMD solvation models were then applied to address the observed solution isomeric distribution for 3d; these results corroborate the gas phase theoretical treatment and also yield values that predict the higher solution stability of the enamine form as observed, although they fail to account for the existence of the keto form as a minor solution state tautomer. To access the availability of an enol-form, via hypothetical de-protonation to the enolate, compound 3a was treated with hydrated Cu(NO3)2 in EtOH solution. The resulting isolated green-coloured product (5), the first metal derivative of this entire class of ligands, is best described (IR, X-ray diffraction) as a coordinated enolate complex, i.e., Cu(3a-H)2. Complex 5 crystallizes in the P21/c space group with four molecules in the unit cell. The coordination geometry around the formal Cu(2+) metal centre is determined to be highly distorted square planar in nature (?4 = 0.442). TD-DFT is used to give a reasonable explanation for the intensity of the absorbance band observed in the visible region for solutions of 5. These latter experiments strongly suggest that the title class of compounds may have considerable potential as ligands in coordination chemistry and/or metal-mediated catalysis. PMID:23591452