Brady 1D seismic velocity model ambient noise prelim
Mellors, Robert J.
2013-10-25
Preliminary 1D seismic velocity model derived from ambient noise correlation. 28 Green's functions filtered between 4-10 Hz for Vp, Vs, and Qs were calculated. 1D model estimated for each path. The final model is a median of the individual models. Resolution is best for the top 1 km. Poorly constrained with increasing depth.
A 1D P wave velocity model under the pacific region using multiply reflected P waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foundotos, M.; Nolet, G.
2012-12-01
In order to constrain the shallow structure of the Earth in global tomography, Love and Rayleigh waves are often used. However these waves are mostly sensitive to the S wave velocity structure. P-wave energy is either evanescent, or leaking away at every surface reflection that generates an S wave which travels much deeper into the mantle. For that reason, to study the shallow P velocity structure of the Earth, we need to study P-waves at regional distances if a good seismic station coverage is available. Otherwise we can use multiply reflected P waves at teleseismic distance when regional data are not available (as in the oceans for instance). We used 203 events of magnitude Mw > 6.0 recorded from the dense network of US ARRAY, which allows us to make a very large number of group arrival and slowness measurements of multiply reflected P waves . Our study shows that two times reflected PPP and three times reflected PPPP waves are very well observed despite the ray- theoretical prediction that at certain distances almost all of their compressional energy is converted to shear waves. We also observed Four times reflected 5P and five times reflected 6P which show a strong interference for epicentral distances larger than 80 degree. These observations of multiply reflected P waves allow us to inferred a 1D P wave model for the shallow structure under the pacific region.
Sabtaji, Agung E-mail: agung.sabtaji@bmkg.go.id; Nugraha, Andri Dian
2015-04-24
West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Seongryong; Rhie, Junkee; Kim, Geunyoung
2011-04-01
We propose a full-grid search procedure for broad-band waveform modelling to determine a 1-D crustal velocity model. The velocity model can be more constrained because of the use of broad-band waveforms instead of traveltimes for the crustal phases, although only a small number of event-station pairs were employed. Despite the time-consuming nature of the full-grid search method to search the whole model parameter space, the use of an empirical relationship between the P- and S-wave velocities can significantly reduce computation time. The proposed method was applied to a case in the southern Korean Peninsula. Broad-band waveforms obtained from two inland earthquakes that occurred on 2007 January 20 (Mw 4.6) and 2004 April 26 (Mw 3.6) were used to test the method. The three-layers over half-space crustal velocity model of the P- and S-wave velocities was estimated. Comparisons of waveform fitness between the final model and previously published models demonstrate advancements in the average value of waveform fitness for the inland earthquakes. In addition, 1-D velocity models were determined for three distinct tectonic regions, namely, the Gyonggi Massif, the Okcheon Belt and the Gyeongsang Basin, which are all located inside the study area. A comparison between the three models demonstrates that the crustal thickness of the southern Korean Peninsula increases from NW to SE and that the lower crustal composition of the Okcheon belt differs from that of the other tectonic regions.
Speed, Velocity, Acceleration, and 1D Physics 2010 Week 2
Smith, Nathanael J.
Speed, Velocity, Acceleration, and 1D Kinematics Physics 2010 Week 2 Spring 2015 1 / 34 #12;A-component of Velocity The what of the what now? 5 / 34 #12;Speed and Velocity Consider the following statements about and Velocity Consider the following statements about cars A and B: 1. Car A moves at 50 mi/h due north. 2. Car
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulligan, Brian W.; Wheeler, J. C.
2014-01-01
Observations of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) have shown the presence of Ca, Si, and Fe features with velocities of 8,000-14,000 km/s higher than that associated with the photosphere of the supernova ejecta. Some studies have suggested the high velocity lines could be explained by interaction of the ejecta with a circumstellar medium (CSM). Using FLASH, we perform 1-D hydrodynamic simulation of interaction between the ejecta and a 2×10^{-2} M_? circumstellar shell of solar abundance. We use the Sobolev approximation to estimate the line optical depths as a function of time and position. The results of our simulation show two line generating regions: within the ejecta, and within the fast moving shell. The velocity separation between the line generating regions are consistent with the values observed in actual SN Ia, lending credence to the CSM shell model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.
2013-01-01
Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…
Ion velocity distribution at the termination shock: 1-D PIC simulation
Lu Quanming; Yang Zhongwei; Lembege, Bertrand
2012-11-20
The Voyager 2 (V2) plasma observations of the proton temperature downstream of the quasi-perpendicular heliospheric termination shock (TS) showed that upstream thermal solar wind ions played little role in the shock dissipation mechanism and their downstream temperature is an order of magnitude smaller than predicted by MHD Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. While pickup ions (PUI) are generally expected to play an important role in energy dissipation at the shock, the details remain unclear. Here, one-dimensional (1-D) Particle-in-cell (PIC) code is used to examine kinetic properties and downstream velocity distribution functions of pickup ions (the hot supra-thermal component) and solar wind protons (SWs, the cold component) at the perpendicular heliospheric termination shock. The code treats the pickup ions self-consistently as a third component. Present results show that: (1) both of the incident SWs and PUIs can be separated into two parts: reflected (R) ions and directly transmitted (DT) ions, the energy gain of the R ions at the shock front is much larger than that of the DT ions; (2) the fraction of reflected SWs and their downstream temperature decrease with the relative percentage PUI%; (3) no matter how large the PUI% is, the downstream ion velocity distribution function always can be separated into three parts: 1. a high energy tail (i.e. the wings) dominated by the reflected PUIs, 2. a low energy core mainly contributed by the directly transmitted SWs, and 3. a middle energy part which is a complicated superposition of reflected SWs and directly transmitted PUIs. The significance of the presence of pickup ions on shock front micro-structure and nonstationarity is also discussed.
GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL
KALYANAPU, ALFRED; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N.; BURIAN, STEVEN J.
2007-01-17
This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.
3-D velocity model beneath Taal Volcano, Luzon Island Philippines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, S.; Konstantinou, K. I.; Gung, Y.; Lin, C.
2011-12-01
We derive a three dimensional velocity model of seismic waves beneath Taal Volcano, Philippines, from about 2300 local earthquakes recorded by the Taal Volcano seismic network during the time period from March 2008 to March 2010. In the early data processing stage, with the cross-correlation functions of continuous record of station pairs, unexpected linear drifting of clock time was clearly identified. The drifting rates of each problematic station were determined and the errors were corrected before further processing. With the corrected data, we first determined initial locations by using the program HYPO71 and the reference 1-D global model ak135. 749 well-located events with 3381 P-wave and 2896 S-wave arrivals were used to derive the 'minimum 1-D velocity model' with the program VELEST developed by Kissling to further improve the 1-D velocity model and event locations. With the robust 1-D velocity model and improved event locations, we inverted a high-resolution 3-D velocity model by using the program LOTOS-10 developed by Koulakov. We present the derived 3-D model and discuss its tectonic implications.
Examination of 1D Solar Cell Model Limitations Using 3D SPICE Modeling: Preprint
McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.
2012-06-01
To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell modeling, 3D SPICE-based modeling is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a model cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this modeling give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and 3D models.
A simple quasi-1D model of Fibonacci anyons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aasen, David; Mong, Roger; Clarke, David; Alicea, Jason; Fendley, Paul
2015-03-01
There exists various ways of understanding the topological properties of Ising anyons--from simple free-fermion toy models to formal topological quantum field theory. For other types of anyons simple toy models rarely exist; their properties have to be obtained using formal self-consistency relations. We explore a family of gapped 1D local bosonic models that in a certain limit become trivial to solve and provide an intuitive picture for Fibonacci anyons. One can interpret this model as a quasi-1D wire that forms the building block of a 2D topological phase with Fibonacci anyons. With this interpretation all topological properties of the Fibonacci anyons become manifest including ground state degeneracy and braid relations. We conjecture that the structure of the model is protected by an emergent symmetry analogous to fermion parity. 1) NSF Grant DMR-1341822 2) Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, an NSF physics frontier center with support from the Moore Foundation. 3) NSERC-PGSD.
Flooding flows in city crossroads: experiments and 1-D modelling.
Rivière, N; Perkins, R J; Chocat, B; Lecus, A
2006-01-01
This study focuses on the discharge distribution in an intersection of four channels, similar to a city crossroad. The channels and the intersection are all horizontal. Flow enters through two of the channels, and leaves through the other two. The flow is subcritical everywhere, and flow depths are controlled by vertical weirs at the exits of the outlet channels. The main variables that are measured are the flow rates in the four channels. When the weir heights in the outlet channels are the same, the ratio of flow rates in the outlet channels depends only on the ratio of flow rates in the inlet channels; if the outlet conditions are different, other parameters, such as the total flow rate also become important. The flow has also been simulated numerically using a solution of the 1-D Saint Venant equations, with a simple model to predict flow distribution in the intersection. A comparison with the experimental data shows that this model works well for the limited range of experimental conditions studied here. However, further work is needed on a wider range of conditions, closer to real conditions, before the model can be considered valid for practical applications. PMID:17120636
Bechtel, S.E.; Forest, M.G.; Holm, D.D.; Lin, K.J.
1988-01-01
In this paper we derive one space dimensional, reduced systems of equations (1-D closure models) for viscoelastic free jets. We begin with the three-dimensional system of conservation laws and a Maxwell-Jeffreys constitutive law for an incompressible viscoelastic fluid. First, we exhibit exact truncations to a finite, closed system of 1-D equations based on classical velocity assumptions of von Karman. Next, we demonstrate that the 3-D free surface boundary conditions overconstrain these truncated systems, so that only a very limited class of solutions exist. We then proceed to derive approximate 1-D closure theories through a slender jet asymptotic scaling, combined with appropriate definitions of velocity, pressure and stress unknowns. Our nonaxisymmetric 1-D slender jet models incorporate the physical effects of inertia, viscoelasticity (viscosity, relaxation and retardation), gravity, surface tension, and properties of the ambient fluid, and include shear stresses and time dependence. Previous special 1-D slender jet models correspond to the lowest order equations in the present asymptotic theory by an a posteriori suppression to leading order of some of these effects, and a reduction to axisymmetry. Solutions of the lowest order system of equations in this asymptotic analysis are presented: For the special cases of elliptical inviscid and Newtonian free jets, subject to the effects of surface tension and gravity, our model predicts oscillation of the major axis of the free surface elliptical cross section between perpendicular directions with distance down the jet, and drawdown of the cross section, in agreement with observed behavior. 15 refs.
Numerical Modeling of Imploding Plasma liners Using the 1D Radiation-Hydrodynamics Code HELIOS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, J. S.; Hanna, D. S.; Awe, T. J.; Hsu, S. C.; Stanic, M.; Cassibry, J. T.; Macfarlane, J. J.
2010-11-01
The Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is attempting to form imploding plasma liners to reach 0.1 Mbar upon stagnation, via 30--60 spherically convergent plasma jets. PLX is partly motivated by the desire to develop a standoff driver for magneto-inertial fusion. The liner density, atomic makeup, and implosion velocity will help determine the maximum pressure that can be achieved. This work focuses on exploring the effects of atomic physics and radiation on the 1D liner implosion and stagnation dynamics. For this reason, we are using Prism Computational Science's 1D Lagrangian rad-hydro code HELIOS, which has both equation of state (EOS) table-lookup and detailed configuration accounting (DCA) atomic physics modeling. By comparing a series of PLX-relevant cases proceeding from ideal gas, to EOS tables, to DCA treatments, we aim to identify how and when atomic physics effects are important for determining the peak achievable stagnation pressures. In addition, we present verification test results as well as brief comparisons to results obtained with RAVEN (1D radiation-MHD) and SPHC (smoothed particle hydrodynamics).
Survey of Multi-Material Closure Models in 1D Lagrangian Hydrodynamics
Maeng, Jungyeoul Brad; Hyde, David Andrew Bulloch
2015-07-28
Accurately treating the coupled sub-cell thermodynamics of computational cells containing multiple materials is an inevitable problem in hydrodynamics simulations, whether due to initial configurations or evolutions of the materials and computational mesh. When solving the hydrodynamics equations within a multi-material cell, we make the assumption of a single velocity field for the entire computational domain, which necessitates the addition of a closure model to attempt to resolve the behavior of the multi-material cells’ constituents. In conjunction with a 1D Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, we present a variety of both the popular as well as more recently proposed multi-material closure models and survey their performances across a spectrum of examples. We consider standard verification tests as well as practical examples using combinations of fluid, solid, and composite constituents within multi-material mixtures. Our survey provides insights into the advantages and disadvantages of various multi-material closure models in different problem configurations.
A One-Dimensional (1-D) Three-Region Model for a Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Adsorber
Lee, Andrew; Miller, David C.
2012-01-01
A general one-dimensional (1-D), three-region model for a bubbling fluidized-bed adsorber with internal heat exchangers has been developed. The model can predict the hydrodynamics of the bed and provides axial profiles for all temperatures, concentrations, and velocities. The model is computationally fast and flexible and allows for any system of adsorption and desorption reactions to be modeled, making the model applicable to any adsorption process. The model has been implemented in both gPROMS and Aspen Custom Modeler, and the behavior of the model has been verified.
Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Liu, J.; Xu, Y.; Liu, Q.
2008-01-01
Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves utilizes a multichannel recording system to estimate near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities from high-frequency Rayleigh waves. A pseudo-2D S-wave velocity (vS) section is constructed by aligning 1D models at the midpoint of each receiver spread and using a spatial interpolation scheme. The horizontal resolution of the section is therefore most influenced by the receiver spread length and the source interval. The receiver spread length sets the theoretical lower limit and any vS structure with its lateral dimension smaller than this length will not be properly resolved in the final vS section. A source interval smaller than the spread length will not improve the horizontal resolution because spatial smearing has already been introduced by the receiver spread. In this paper, we first analyze the horizontal resolution of a pair of synthetic traces. Resolution analysis shows that (1) a pair of traces with a smaller receiver spacing achieves higher horizontal resolution of inverted S-wave velocities but results in a larger relative error; (2) the relative error of the phase velocity at a high frequency is smaller than at a low frequency; and (3) a relative error of the inverted S-wave velocity is affected by the signal-to-noise ratio of data. These results provide us with a guideline to balance the trade-off between receiver spacing (horizontal resolution) and accuracy of the inverted S-wave velocity. We then present a scheme to generate a pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section with high horizontal resolution using multichannel records by inverting high-frequency surface-wave dispersion curves calculated through cross-correlation combined with a phase-shift scanning method. This method chooses only a pair of consecutive traces within a shot gather to calculate a dispersion curve. We finally invert surface-wave dispersion curves of synthetic and real-world data. Inversion results of both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate that inverting high-frequency surface-wave dispersion curves - by a pair of traces through cross-correlation with phase-shift scanning method and with the damped least-square method and the singular-value decomposition technique - can feasibly achieve a reliable pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section with relatively high horizontal resolution. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Newberry EGS Seismic Velocity Model
Templeton, Dennise
2013-10-01
We use ambient noise correlation (ANC) to create a detailed image of the subsurface seismic velocity at the Newberry EGS site down to 5 km. We collected continuous data for the 22 stations in the Newberry network, together with 12 additional stations from the nearby CC, UO and UW networks. The data were instrument corrected, whitened and converted to single bit traces before cross correlation according to the methodology in Benson (2007). There are 231 unique paths connecting the 22 stations of the Newberry network. The additional networks extended that to 402 unique paths crossing beneath the Newberry site.
A preliminary one-dimensional crustal velocity model for Himachal Pradesh, India
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parija, Mahesh Prasad; Kumar, Sushil; Biswal, Shubhasmita; Kumar, Narendra; Mishra, Saurabh Kumar
2015-10-01
A preliminary one-dimensional (1D) velocity model for Himachal Pradesh, India has been developed by utilising the P and S wave travel time data. A very steady and narrow velocity model was obtained with travel time inversion, and a range of velocity models were tested with earthquake locations to derive the best-fit velocity model. The 1D velocity model proposed for the study region has seven uniform layers with interfaces at depths of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 km with P wave velocity of 5.219, 5.314, 5.391, 5.392, 5.964, 6.071 and 6.073 km/s and S wave velocity of 2.998, 3.015, 3.134, 3.135, 3.441, 3.482 and 3.647 km/s, respectively. According to the proposed model, the Moho in this part of the Himalaya lies at 60 km depth on an average. For P and S waves, the station correction ranges from -0.88 to 1.50 and -0.58 to 3.59 s, respectively. This low variation in station residuals indicates small lateral velocity changes that confirm the accuracy and stability of the proposed 1D velocity model. Using the new derived 1D velocity model, the earthquake epicentres were relocated and we observe a shallow seismic activity in the region at <30 km depth that clearly describes the ongoing convergence of the India-Eurasia plates in the study region. This study also infers a new, highly active seismic window in the latitude range of 31.8 °N to 32.8 °N and longitude range of 76.8 °E to 78.8 °E in the study region across the Kaurik-Chango fault, a causative fault for the 1975 Kinnaur earthquake.
1D numerical model of muddy subaqueous and subaerial debris flows
Imran, J.; Parker, G.; Locat, J.; Lee, H.
2001-01-01
A 1D numerical model of the downslope flow and deposition of muddy subaerial and subaqueous debris flows is presented. The model incorporates the Herschel-Bulkley and bilinear rheologies of viscoplastic fluid. The more familiar Bingham model is integrated into the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model. The conservation equations of mass and momentum of single-phase laminar debris flow are layer-integrated using the slender flow approximation. They are then expressed in a Lagrangian framework and solved numerically using an explicit finite difference scheme. Starting from a given initial shape, a debris flow is allowed to collapse and propagate over a specified topography. Comparison between the model predictions and laboratory experiments shows reasonable agreement. The model is used to study the effect of the ambient fluid density, initial shape of the failed mass, and rheological model on the simulated propagation of the front and runout characteristics of muddy debris flows. It is found that initial failure shape influence the front velocity but has little bearing on the final deposit shape. In the Bingham model, the excess of shear stress above the yield strength is proportional to the strain rate to the first power. This exponent is free to vary in the Herschel-Bulkley model. When it is set at a value lower than unity, the resulting final deposits are thicker and shorter than in the case of the Bingham rheology. The final deposit resulting from the bilinear model is longer and thinner than that from the Bingham model due to the fact that the debris flow is allowed to act as a Newtonian fluid at low shear rate in the bilinear model.
Rattling and freezing in a 1-D transport model Jean-Pierre Eckmann1
Rattling and freezing in a 1-D transport model Jean-Pierre Eckmann1 and Lai-Sang Young2 1 D energy and fluxes as functions of (and time) . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4 Freezing 16 4.1 Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4.2 Why this system freezes: a theoretical discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4.3 Numerical
GaAs solar cell photoresponse modeling using PC-1D V2.1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, D. A.; Olsen, L. C.; Dunham, G.; Addis, F. W.
1991-01-01
Photoresponse data of high efficiency GaAs solar cells were analyzed using PC-1D V2.1. The approach required to use PC-1D for photoresponse data analysis, and the physical insights gained from performing the analysis are discussed. In particular, the effect of Al(x)Ga(1-x)As heteroface quality was modeled. Photoresponse or spectral quantum efficiency is an important tool in characterizing material quality and predicting cell performance. The strength of the photoresponse measurement lies in the ability to precisely fit the experimental data with a physical model. PC-1D provides a flexible platform for calculations based on these physical models.
Quasi 1D Modeling of Mixed Compression Supersonic Inlets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Woolwine, Kyle J.
2012-01-01
The AeroServoElasticity task under the NASA Supersonics Project is developing dynamic models of the propulsion system and the vehicle in order to conduct research for integrated vehicle dynamic performance. As part of this effort, a nonlinear quasi 1-dimensional model of the 2-dimensional bifurcated mixed compression supersonic inlet is being developed. The model utilizes computational fluid dynamics for both the supersonic and subsonic diffusers. The oblique shocks are modeled utilizing compressible flow equations. This model also implements variable geometry required to control the normal shock position. The model is flexible and can also be utilized to simulate other mixed compression supersonic inlet designs. The model was validated both in time and in the frequency domain against the legacy LArge Perturbation INlet code, which has been previously verified using test data. This legacy code written in FORTRAN is quite extensive and complex in terms of the amount of software and number of subroutines. Further, the legacy code is not suitable for closed loop feedback controls design, and the simulation environment is not amenable to systems integration. Therefore, a solution is to develop an innovative, more simplified, mixed compression inlet model with the same steady state and dynamic performance as the legacy code that also can be used for controls design. The new nonlinear dynamic model is implemented in MATLAB Simulink. This environment allows easier development of linear models for controls design for shock positioning. The new model is also well suited for integration with a propulsion system model to study inlet/propulsion system performance, and integration with an aero-servo-elastic system model to study integrated vehicle ride quality, vehicle stability, and efficiency.
Potent neutralizing anti-CD1d antibody reduces lung cytokine release in primate asthma model.
Nambiar, Jonathan; Clarke, Adam W; Shim, Doris; Mabon, David; Tian, Chen; Windloch, Karolina; Buhmann, Chris; Corazon, Beau; Lindgren, Matilda; Pollard, Matthew; Domagala, Teresa; Poulton, Lynn; Doyle, Anthony G
2015-01-01
CD1d is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells involved in triggering cell populations, particularly natural killer T (NKT) cells, to release high levels of cytokines. NKT cells are implicated in asthma pathology and blockade of the CD1d/NKT cell pathway may have therapeutic potential. We developed a potent anti-human CD1d antibody (NIB.2) that possesses high affinity for human and cynomolgus macaque CD1d (KD ?100 pM) and strong neutralizing activity in human primary cell-based assays (IC50 typically <100 pM). By epitope mapping experiments, we showed that NIB.2 binds to CD1d in close proximity to the interface of CD1d and the Type 1 NKT cell receptor ?-chain. Together with data showing that NIB.2 inhibited stimulation via CD1d loaded with different glycolipids, this supports a mechanism whereby NIB.2 inhibits NKT cell activation by inhibiting Type 1 NKT cell receptor ?-chain interactions with CD1d, independent of the lipid antigen in the CD1d antigen-binding cleft. The strong in vitro potency of NIB.2 was reflected in vivo in an Ascaris suum cynomolgus macaque asthma model. Compared with vehicle control, NIB.2 treatment significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) levels of Ascaris-induced cytokines IL-5, IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonist, and significantly reduced baseline levels of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-15, IL-12/23p40, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, and VEGF. At a cellular population level NIB.2 also reduced numbers of BAL lymphocytes and macrophages, and blood eosinophils and basophils. We demonstrate that anti-CD1d antibody blockade of the CD1d/NKT pathway modulates inflammatory parameters in vivo in a primate inflammation model, with therapeutic potential for diseases where the local cytokine milieu is critical. PMID:25751125
Validation of 1-D transport and sawtooth models for ITER
Connor, J.W.; Turner, M.F.; Attenberger, S.E.; Houlberg, W.A.
1996-12-31
In this paper the authors describe progress on validating a number of local transport models by comparing their predictions with relevant experimental data from a range of tokamaks in the ITER profile database. This database, the testing procedure and results are discussed. In addition a model for sawtooth oscillations is used to investigate their effect in an ITER plasma with alpha-particles.
Seismic velocity analysis and the convolutional model
Robinson, E.A.
1984-01-01
Robinson gives treatment to a major segment of seismic exploration, both theory and application. The book provides a general understanding of the history and techniques of seismic velocity analysis and relates this to the convolutional model of the seismogram. The chapters contain exercises and detailed answers plus abundant line illustrations. Contents: Preface. 1. The reflection seismic method. 2. Velocity analysis and stacking. 3. Seismic wavelets and reflectivity. 4. Correlation and synthetic seismograms.
Kinetic and Stochastic Models of 1D yeast ``prions"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunes, Kay
2005-03-01
Mammalian prion proteins (PrP) are of public health interest because of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. Yeasts have proteins, which can undergo similar reconformation and aggregation processes to PrP; yeast ``prions" are simpler to experimentally study and model. Recent in vitro studies of the SUP35 protein (1), showed long aggregates and pure exponential growth of the misfolded form. To explain this data, we have extended a previous model of aggregation kinetics along with our own stochastic approach (2). Both models assume reconformation only upon aggregation, and include aggregate fissioning and an initial nucleation barrier. We find for sufficiently small nucleation rates or seeding by small dimer concentrations that we can achieve the requisite exponential growth and long aggregates.
Kinetic Model for 1D aggregation of yeast ``prions''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunes, Kay; Cox, Daniel; Singh, Rajiv
2004-03-01
Mammalian prion proteins (PrP) are of public health interest because of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. Yeast have proteins which can undergo similar reconformation and aggregation processes to PrP; yeast forms are simpler to experimentally study and model. Recent in vitro studies of the SUP35 protein(1), showed long aggregates and pure exponential growth of the misfolded form. To explain this data, we have extended a previous model of aggregation kinetics(2). The model assumes reconformation only upon aggregation, and includes aggregate fissioning and an initial nucleation barrier. We find for sufficiently small nucleation rates or seeding by small dimer concentrations that we can achieve the requisite exponential growth and long aggregates. We will compare to a more realistic stochastic kinetics model and present prelimary attempts to describe recent experiments on SUP35 strains. *-Supported by U.S. Army Congressionally Mandated Research Fund. 1) P. Chien and J.S. Weissman, Nature 410, 223 (2001); http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/bionet03/collins/. 2) J. Masel, V.A.> Jansen, M.A. Nowak, Biophys. Chem. 77, 139 (1999).
Rattling and freezing in a 1-D transport model
Jean-Pierre Eckmann; Lai-Sang Young
2010-07-04
We consider a heat conduction model introduced in \\cite{Collet-Eckmann 2009}. This is an open system in which particles exchange momentum with a row of (fixed) scatterers. We assume simplified bath conditions throughout, and give a qualitative description of the dynamics extrapolating from the case of a single particle for which we have a fairly clear understanding. The main phenomenon discussed is {\\it freezing}, or the slowing down of particles with time. As particle number is conserved, this means fewer collisions per unit time, and less contact with the baths; in other words, the conductor becomes less effective. Careful numerical documentation of freezing is provided, and a theoretical explanation is proposed. Freezing being an extremely slow process, however, the system behaves as though it is in a steady state for long durations. Quantities such as energy and fluxes are studied, and are found to have curious relationships with particle density.
Deconvolution of Complex 1D NMR Spectra Using Objective Model Selection
Hughes, Travis S.; Wilson, Henry D.; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S.; Kojetin, Douglas J.
2015-01-01
Fluorine (19F) NMR has emerged as a useful tool for characterization of slow dynamics in 19F-labeled proteins. One-dimensional (1D) 19F NMR spectra of proteins can be broad, irregular and complex, due to exchange of probe nuclei between distinct electrostatic environments; and therefore cannot be deconvoluted and analyzed in an objective way using currently available software. We have developed a Python-based deconvolution program, decon1d, which uses Bayesian information criteria (BIC) to objectively determine which model (number of peaks) would most likely produce the experimentally obtained data. The method also allows for fitting of intermediate exchange spectra, which is not supported by current software in the absence of a specific kinetic model. In current methods, determination of the deconvolution model best supported by the data is done manually through comparison of residual error values, which can be time consuming and requires model selection by the user. In contrast, the BIC method used by decond1d provides a quantitative method for model comparison that penalizes for model complexity helping to prevent over-fitting of the data and allows identification of the most parsimonious model. The decon1d program is freely available as a downloadable Python script at the project website (https://github.com/hughests/decon1d/). PMID:26241959
Comparison of 1D and 2D modelling with soil erosion model SMODERP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kavka, Petr; Weyskrabova, Lenka; Zajicek, Jan
2013-04-01
The contribution presents a comparison of a runoff simulated by profile method (1D) and spatially distributed method (2D). Simulation model SMODERP is used for calculation and prediction of soil erosion and surface runoff from agricultural land. SMODERP is physically based model that includes the processes of infiltration (Phillips equation), surface runoff (kinematic wave based equation), surface retention, surface roughness and vegetation impact on runoff. 1D model was developed in past, new 2D model was developed in last two years. The model is being developed at the Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, CTU in Prague. 2D model was developed as a tool for widespread GIS software ArcGIS. The physical relations were implemented through Python script. This script uses ArcGIS system tools for raster and vectors treatment of the inputs. Flow direction is calculated by Steepest Descent algorithm in the preliminary version of 2D model. More advanced multiple flow algorithm is planned in the next version. Spatially distributed models enable to estimate not only surface runoff but also flow in the rills. Surface runoff is described in the model by kinematic wave equation. Equation uses Manning roughness coefficient for surface runoff. Parameters for five different soil textures were calibrated on the set of forty measurements performed on the laboratory rainfall simulator. For modelling of the rills a specific sub model was created. This sub model uses Manning formula for flow estimation. Numerical stability of the model is solved by Courant criterion. Spatial scale is fixed. Time step is dynamically changed depending on how flow is generated and developed. SMODERP is meant to be used not only for the research purposes, but mainly for the engineering practice. We also present how the input data can be obtained based on available resources (soil maps and data, land use, terrain models, field research, etc.) and how can the model be used in the assessments of soil erosion risk and in designing of erosion control measures. The research has been supported by the research grants SGS SGS11/148/OHK1/3T/11 "Experimental Research on Rainfall-runoff and Erosion Processes" and by Project No. TA02020647 " Atlas EROZE - a modern tool for soil erosion assessment".
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haji Mohammadi, M.; Kang, S.; Sotiropoulos, F.
2011-12-01
It is well-known that meander bends impose local losses of energy to the flow in rivers. These local losses should be added together with friction loss to get the total loss of energy. In this work, we strive to develop a framework that considers the effect of bends in meandering rivers for one-dimensional (1-D) homogenous equations of flow. Our objective is to develop a simple, yet physically sound, and efficient model for carrying out engineering computations of flow through meander bends. We consider several approaches for calculating 1-D hydraulic properties of meandering rivers such as friction factor and Manning coefficient. The method of Kasper et al. (2005), which is based on channel top width, aspect ratio and radius of curvature, is adopted for further calculations. In this method, a correction is implemented in terms of local energy loss, due to helical motion and secondary currents of fluid particles driven by centrifugal force, in meanders. To validate the model, several test cases are simulated and the computed results are compared with the reported data in the literature in terms of water surface elevation, shear velocity, etc. For all cases the computed results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. 3-D RANS turbulent flow simulations are also carried out, using the method of Kang et al. (Adv. In Water Res., vol. 34, 2011), for different geometrical parameters of Kinoshita Rivers to determine the spatial distribution of shear stress on river bed and banks, which is the key factor in scour/deposition patterns. The 3-D solutions are then cross-sectionally averaged and compared with the respective solutions from the 1-D model. The comparisons show that the improved 1D model, which incorporates the effect of local bend loss, captures key flow parameters with reasonable accuracy. Our results also underscore the range of validity and limitations of 1D models for meander bend simulations. This work was supported by NSF Grants (as part of the National Center for Earth-Surface Dynamics). Computational resources were provided by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.
HYDRUS-1D Modeling of an Irrigated Agricultural Plot with Application to Aquifer Recharge Estimation
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A variety of methods are available for estimating aquifer recharge in semi-arid regions, each with advantages and disadvantages. We are investigating a procedure for estimating recharge in an irrigated basin. The method involves computing irrigation return flows based on HYDRUS-1D modeling of root z...
Ensemble Kalman Filter Data Assimilation in a 1D Numerical Model Used for Fog Forecasting
Ensemble Kalman Filter Data Assimilation in a 1D Numerical Model Used for Fog Forecasting SAMUEL RE significant. This led to the implementation of an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) within COBEL-ISBA. The new by using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF; Evensen 1994, 2003). Theoreti- cally, ensemble filters
Discrete Kernel Preserving Model for 1D Electron-Optical Phonon Scattering
Lu, Tiao
Discrete Kernel Preserving Model for 1D Electron-Optical Phonon Scattering Ruo Li , Tiao Lu , Wenqi Yao Abstract We investigate the discretization of of an electron-optical phonon scattering using point of view. This results in a discrete scattering system with elegant mathematical features, which
DISCRETE VELOCITY MODEL AND IMPLICIT SCHEME FOR THE BGK EQUATION
Mieussens, Luc
DISCRETE VELOCITY MODEL AND IMPLICIT SCHEME FOR THE BGK EQUATION OF RAREFIED GAS DYNAMICS LUC a discrete equilibrium function, a discrete velocity model of this equation is proposed. This model, like. The discrete velocity model is then discretized in space and time by an explicit finite volume scheme which
Review of Zero-D and 1-D Models of Blood Flow in the Cardiovascular System
2011-01-01
Background Zero-dimensional (lumped parameter) and one dimensional models, based on simplified representations of the components of the cardiovascular system, can contribute strongly to our understanding of circulatory physiology. Zero-D models provide a concise way to evaluate the haemodynamic interactions among the cardiovascular organs, whilst one-D (distributed parameter) models add the facility to represent efficiently the effects of pulse wave transmission in the arterial network at greatly reduced computational expense compared to higher dimensional computational fluid dynamics studies. There is extensive literature on both types of models. Method and Results The purpose of this review article is to summarise published 0D and 1D models of the cardiovascular system, to explore their limitations and range of application, and to provide an indication of the physiological phenomena that can be included in these representations. The review on 0D models collects together in one place a description of the range of models that have been used to describe the various characteristics of cardiovascular response, together with the factors that influence it. Such models generally feature the major components of the system, such as the heart, the heart valves and the vasculature. The models are categorised in terms of the features of the system that they are able to represent, their complexity and range of application: representations of effects including pressure-dependent vessel properties, interaction between the heart chambers, neuro-regulation and auto-regulation are explored. The examination on 1D models covers various methods for the assembly, discretisation and solution of the governing equations, in conjunction with a report of the definition and treatment of boundary conditions. Increasingly, 0D and 1D models are used in multi-scale models, in which their primary role is to provide boundary conditions for sophisticate, and often patient-specific, 2D and 3D models, and this application is also addressed. As an example of 0D cardiovascular modelling, a small selection of simple models have been represented in the CellML mark-up language and uploaded to the CellML model repository http://models.cellml.org/. They are freely available to the research and education communities. Conclusion Each published cardiovascular model has merit for particular applications. This review categorises 0D and 1D models, highlights their advantages and disadvantages, and thus provides guidance on the selection of models to assist various cardiovascular modelling studies. It also identifies directions for further development, as well as current challenges in the wider use of these models including service to represent boundary conditions for local 3D models and translation to clinical application. PMID:21521508
Locating earthquakes in west Texas oil fields using 3-D anisotropic velocity models
Hua, Fa; Doser, D.; Baker, M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)
1993-02-01
Earthquakes within the War-Wink gas field, Ward County, Texas, that have been located with a 1-D velocity model occur near the edges and top of a naturally occurring overpressured zone. Because the War-Wink field is a structurally controlled anticline with significant velocity anisotropy associated with the overpressured zone and finely layered evaporites, the authors have attempted to re-locate earthquakes using a 3-D anisotropic velocity model. Preliminary results with this model give the unsatisfactory result that many earthquakes previously located at the top of the overpressured zone (3-3.5 km) moved into the evaporites (1-1.5 km) above the field. They believe that this result could be caused by: (1) aliasing the velocity model; or (2) problems in determining the correct location minima when several minima exist. They are currently attempting to determine which of these causes is more likely for the unsatisfactory result observed.
Behavioral Responses in Animal Model of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy 1D.
Comim, Clarissa M; Schactae, Aryadnne L; Soares, Jaime A; Ventura, Letícia; Freiberger, Viviane; Mina, Francielle; Dominguini, Diogo; Vainzof, Mariz; Quevedo, João
2016-01-01
Congenital muscular dystrophies 1D (CMD1D) present a mutation on the LARGE gene and are characterized by an abnormal glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan (?-DG), strongly implicated as having a causative role in the development of central nervous system abnormalities such as cognitive impairment seen in patients. However, in the animal model of CMD1D, the brain involvement remains unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the cognitive involvement in the Large(myd) mice. To this aim, we used adult homozygous, heterozygous, and wild-type mice. The mice underwent six behavioral tasks: habituation to an open field, step-down inhibitory avoidance, continuous multiple trials step-down inhibitory avoidance task, object recognition, elevated plus-maze, and forced swimming test. It was observed that Large(myd) individuals presented deficits on the habituation to the open field, step down inhibitory avoidance, continuous multiple-trials step-down inhibitory avoidance, object recognition, and forced swimming. This study shows the first evidence that abnormal glycosylation of ?-DG may be affecting memory storage and restoring process in an animal model of CMD1D. PMID:25465243
Predicting plate velocities with mantle circulation models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, Thorsten W.; O'Connell, Richard J.
2001-12-01
We predict plate motions from a comprehensive inversion of theoretical estimates of tectonic forces in order to evaluate the relative importance of these and the uncertainties of such models. Plate-driving forces from the mantle are calculated using global flow models that are driven by tomography and subduction-derived density fields. Observed and predicted plate velocities agree well for a variety of models, leading to varied conclusions about the relative importance of forces. The dominance of the subduction related density pattern in the mantle is confirmed; it appears that P wave models do not satisfactorily image all of the slab-associated anomalies in the upper mantle. Furthermore, lower mantle structure always improves the plate motion fit with respect to models that are based on upper mantle anomalies and lithospheric thickening only. We show that the average torques from the lower mantle scale with the radial flow through the 660-km phase transition; the amplitude of the lower mantle torques will be significant for a range of models if there is mass flux through 660 km. We also evaluate parameterized edge forces and find that the additional inclusion of such torques does not significantly improve the model fit. The main reason for the nonuniqueness of the inversions is plate boundary geometry since all plate motions are dominated by the trench-ridge system, and plates move from ridges to trenches.
SILVA: EDF two-phase 1D annular model of a CFB boiler furnace
Montat, D.; Fauquet, P.; Lafanechere, L.; Bursi, J.M.
1997-12-31
Aiming to improve its knowledge of CFB boilers, EDF has initiated a R and D program including: laboratory work on mock-ups, numerical modelling and on-site tests in CFB power plants. One of the objectives of this program is the development of a comprehensive steady-state 1D model of the solid circulation loop, named SILVA, for plant operation and design evaluation purposes. This paper describes its mathematical and physical modelling. Promising validation of the model on cold mock-up and industrial CFB is presented.
Zero finite-temperature charge stiffness within the half-filled 1D Hubbard model
Carmelo, J.M.P.; Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084; Institut für Theoretische Physik III, Universität Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart ; Gu, Shi-Jian; Department of Physics and ITP, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong ; Sacramento, P.D.; Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084
2013-12-15
Even though the one-dimensional (1D) Hubbard model is solvable by the Bethe ansatz, at half-filling its finite-temperature T>0 transport properties remain poorly understood. In this paper we combine that solution with symmetry to show that within that prominent T=0 1D insulator the charge stiffness D(T) vanishes for T>0 and finite values of the on-site repulsion U in the thermodynamic limit. This result is exact and clarifies a long-standing open problem. It rules out that at half-filling the model is an ideal conductor in the thermodynamic limit. Whether at finite T and U>0 it is an ideal insulator or a normal resistor remains an open question. That at half-filling the charge stiffness is finite at U=0 and vanishes for U>0 is found to result from a general transition from a conductor to an insulator or resistor occurring at U=U{sub c}=0 for all finite temperatures T>0. (At T=0 such a transition is the quantum metal to Mott–Hubbard-insulator transition.) The interplay of the ?-spin SU(2) symmetry with the hidden U(1) symmetry beyond SO(4) is found to play a central role in the unusual finite-temperature charge transport properties of the 1D half-filled Hubbard model. -- Highlights: •The charge stiffness of the half-filled 1D Hubbard model is evaluated. •Its value is controlled by the model symmetry operator algebras. •We find that there is no charge ballistic transport at finite temperatures T>0. •The hidden U(1) symmetry controls the U=0 phase transition for T>0.
Pitchfork-Hopf bifurcations in 1D neural field models with transmission delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dijkstra, K.; Gils, S. A. van; Janssens, S. G.; Kuznetsov, Yu. A.; Visser, S.
2015-03-01
Recently, local bifurcation theory for delayed neural fields was developed. In this paper, we show how symmetry arguments and residue calculus can be used to simplify the computation of the spectrum in special cases and the evaluation of the normal form coefficients, respectively. This is done hand in hand with an extensive study of two pitchfork-Hopf bifurcations for a 1D neural field model with 'Wizard hat' type connectivity.
Discussion on accuracy degree evaluation of accident velocity reconstruction model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Tiefang; Dai, Yingbiao; Cai, Ming; Liu, Jike
In order to investigate the applicability of accident velocity reconstruction model in different cases, a method used to evaluate accuracy degree of accident velocity reconstruction model is given. Based on pre-crash velocity in theory and calculation, an accuracy degree evaluation formula is obtained. With a numerical simulation case, Accuracy degrees and applicability of two accident velocity reconstruction models are analyzed; results show that this method is feasible in practice.
Comparing plasma fluid models of different order for 1D streamer ionization fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markosyan, Aram H.; Teunissen, Jannis; Dujko, Saša; Ebert, Ute
2015-12-01
We evaluate the performance of three plasma fluid models: the first order reaction-drift-diffusion model based on the local field approximation; the second order reaction-drift-diffusion model based on the local energy approximation and a recently developed high order fluid model by Dujko et al (2013 J. Phys. D 46 475202) We first review the fluid models: we briefly discuss their derivation, their underlying assumptions and the type of transport data they require. Then we compare these models to a particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo (PIC/MC) code, using a 1D test problem. The tests are performed in neon and nitrogen at standard temperature and pressure, over a wide range of reduced electric fields. For the fluid models, transport data generated by a multi-term Boltzmann solver are used. We analyze the observed differences in the model predictions and address some of the practical aspects when using these plasma fluid models.
A Systematic Comparison between 1-D and 3-D Hemodynamics in Compliant Arterial Models
Xiao, Nan; Alastruey, Jordi; Figueroa, C. Alberto
2015-01-01
SUMMARY In this article, we present a systematic comparison of computational hemodynamics in arterial models with deformable vessel walls using a one-dimensional (1-D) and a three-dimensional (3-D) method. The simulations were performed using a series of idealized compliant arterial models representing the common carotid artery, thoracic aorta, aortic bifurcation, and full aorta from the arch to the iliac bifurcation. The formulations share identical outflow boundary conditions and have compatible material laws. We also present an iterative algorithm to select the parameters for the outflow boundary conditions using the 1-D theory to achieve a desired systolic and diastolic pressure at a particular vessel. This 1-D/3-D framework can be used to efficiently determine material and boundary condition parameters for 3-D subject-specific arterial models with deformable vessel walls. Finally, we explore the impact of different anatomical features and hemodynamic conditions on the numerical predictions. The results show good agreement between the two schemes, especially during the diastolic phase of the cycle. PMID:24115509
Compressed simulation of thermal and excited states of the 1-D XY-model
Walter León Boyajian; Barbara Kraus
2015-06-23
Since several years the preparation and manipulation of a small number of quantum systems in a controlled and coherent way is feasible in many experiments. In fact, these experiments are nowadays commonly used for quantum simulation and quantum computation. As recently shown, such a system can, however, also be utilized to simulate specific behaviors of exponentially larger systems. That is, certain quantum computations can be performed by an exponentially smaller quantum computer. This compressed quantum computation can be employed to observe for instance the quantum phase transition of the 1D XY-model using very few qubits. We extend here this notion to simulate the behavior of thermal as well as excited states of the 1D XY-model. In particular, we consider the 1D XY-model of a spin chain of n qubits and derive a quantum circuit processing only $\\mathrm{log}(n)$ qubits which simulates the original system. We demonstrate how the behavior of thermal as well as any eigenstate of the system can be efficiently simulated in this compressed fashion and present a quantum circuit on $\\mathrm{log}(n)$ qubits to measure the magnetization, the number of kinks, and correlations occurring in the thermal as well as any excited state of the original systems. Moreover we derive compressed circuits to study time evolutions.
Box model and 1D longitudinal model of flow and transport in Bosten Lake, China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ning; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Li, WenPeng; Dong, XinGuang
2015-05-01
Bosten Lake in the southeast of Yanqi Catchment, China, supports the downstream agricultural and natural environments. Over the last few decades the intensive agricultural activities in Yanqi Catchment resulted in decreased lake levels and deteriorated lake water quality. A two-box model is constructed to understand the evolution of lake level and salinity between 1958 and 2008. The two-box model of the lake indicates that the evaporation does have the same trend as the observed lake area and the annual average evaporation agrees with the value obtained from the Penman-Monteith approach. To achieve a correct salt balance, the ratio of outflow concentration and average lake concentration has to be around 0.7. This is due to the incomplete mixing of the lake caused by short-circuiting between tributary inflow and the main outflow via the pump stations abstracting water from the lake. This short-circuiting is investigated in more detail by a 1D numerical flow and transport model of the lake calibrated with observations of lake level and lake concentrations. The distributed model reproduces the correct time-varying outflow concentration. It is used for the assessment of two basic management options: increasing river discharge (by water saving irrigation, reduction of phreatic evaporation or reduction of agricultural area) and diverting saline drainage water to the desert. Increasing river discharge to the lake by 20% reduces the east basin salt concentration by 0.55 kg/m3, while capturing all the drainage water and discharging it to depressions instead of the lake reduces the east basin salt concentration by 0.63 kg/m3. A combination of increasing river inflow and decreasing drainage salt flux is sufficient to bring future lake TDS below the required 1 kg/m3, to keep a lake level that sustains the lake ecosystem, and to supply more water for downstream development and ecosystem rehabilitation.
Crosswell born inversion for heterogeneous velocity models
Hegge, R.F.; Herman, G.C.; Sevink, A.G.J.
1994-12-31
The application of high-frequency asymptotic Born inverse scattering methods to cross-well imaging is discussed and illustrated with a number of model studies for synthetic data. In particular, attention is given to imaging problems that are associated with typical cross-well geometries. A severe problem is the existence of multiple travel paths between sources and receivers that are particularly apparent if low-velocity layers are present. When this occurs, the high-frequency asymptotic imaging method is no longer valid and large artifacts in the images can result. However, it is concluded that, even in the case of multiple travel paths, good images can be obtained by omitting the singularities in the imaging formula and by combining the results for different source locations.
This technical report describes the new one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and sediment transport model EFDC1D. This model that can be applied to stream networks. The model code and two sample data sets are included on the distribution CD. EFDC1D can simulate bi-directional unstea...
Emergent 1d Ising Behavior in AN Elementary Cellular Automaton Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kassebaum, Paul G.; Iannacchione, Germano S.
The fundamental nature of an evolving one-dimensional (1D) Ising model is investigated with an elementary cellular automaton (CA) simulation. The emergent CA simulation employs an ensemble of cells in one spatial dimension, each cell capable of two microstates interacting with simple nearest-neighbor rules and incorporating an external field. The behavior of the CA model provides insight into the dynamics of coupled two-state systems not expressible by exact analytical solutions. For instance, state progression graphs show the causal dynamics of a system through time in relation to the system's entropy. Unique graphical analysis techniques are introduced through difference patterns, diffusion patterns, and state progression graphs of the 1D ensemble visualizing the evolution. All analyses are consistent with the known behavior of the 1D Ising system. The CA simulation and new pattern recognition techniques are scalable (in both dimension, complexity, and size) and have many potential applications such as complex design of materials, control of agent systems, and evolutionary mechanism design.
Evaluation of 2 1-D cloud models for the analysis of VAS soundings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Emmitt, G. D.
1984-01-01
Evaluation of the satellite Visual Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VISSR) has begun to document several of its critical shortcomings as far as numerical cloud models are concerned: excessive smoothing of thermal inversions; imprecise measurement of boundary layer moisture; and tendency to exaggerate atmospheric stability. The sensitivity of 1-D cloud models to their required inputs is stressed with special attention to those parameters obtained from atmospheric soundings taken by the VAS or rawinsonde. In addition to performing model experiments using temperature and moisture profiles having the general characteristics of VAS soundings, standard input sensitivity tests were made and 1-D model performance was compared with observations and the results of a 2-D model experiment using AVE/VAS data (Atmospheric Variability Experiment). Although very encouraging, the results are not sufficient to make any specific conclusions. In general, the VAS soundings are likely to be inadequate to provide the cloud base (and subcloud layer) information needed for inputs to current cumulus models. Above cloud base, the tendency to exaggerate the stability of the atmosphere requires solution before meaningful model experiments are run.
Nested 1D-2D approach for urban surface flood modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murla, Damian; Willems, Patrick
2015-04-01
Floods in urban areas as a consequence of sewer capacity exceedance receive increased attention because of trends in urbanization (increased population density and impermeability of the surface) and climate change. Despite the strong recent developments in numerical modeling of water systems, urban surface flood modeling is still a major challenge. Whereas very advanced and accurate flood modeling systems are in place and operation by many river authorities in support of flood management along rivers, this is not yet the case in urban water management. Reasons include the small scale of the urban inundation processes, the need to have very high resolution topographical information available, and the huge computational demands. Urban drainage related inundation modeling requires a 1D full hydrodynamic model of the sewer network to be coupled with a 2D surface flood model. To reduce the computational times, 0D (flood cones), 1D/quasi-2D surface flood modeling approaches have been developed and applied in some case studies. In this research, a nested 1D/2D hydraulic model has been developed for an urban catchment at the city of Gent (Belgium), linking the underground sewer (minor system) with the overland surface (major system). For the overland surface flood modelling, comparison was made of 0D, 1D/quasi-2D and full 2D approaches. The approaches are advanced by considering nested 1D-2D approaches, including infiltration in the green city areas, and allowing the effects of surface storm water storage to be simulated. An optimal nested combination of three different mesh resolutions was identified; based on a compromise between precision and simulation time for further real-time flood forecasting, warning and control applications. Main streets as mesh zones together with buildings as void regions constitute one of these mesh resolution (3.75m2 - 15m2); they have been included since they channel most of the flood water from the manholes and they improve the accuracy of interactions within the 1D sewer network. Other areas that recorded flooding outside the main streets have been also included with the second mesh resolution for an accurate determination of flood maps (12.5m2 - 50m2). Permeable areas have been identified and used as infiltration zones using the Horton infiltration model. A mesh sensitivity analysis has been performed for the low flood risk areas for a proper model optimization. As outcome of that analysis, the third mesh resolution has been chosen (75m2 - 300m2). Performance tests have been applied for several synthetic design storms as well as historical storm events displaying satisfactory results upon comparing the flood mapping outcomes produced by the different approaches. Accounting for the infiltration in the green city spaces reduces the flood extents in the range 39% - 68%, while the average reduction in flood volume equals 86%. Acknowledgement: Funding for this research was provided by the Interreg IVB NWE programme (project RainGain) and the Belgian Science Policy Office (project PLURISK). The high resolution topographical information data were obtained from the geographical information service AGIV; the original full hydrodynamic sewer network model from the service company Farys, and the InfoWorks licence from Innovyze.
A crustal seismic velocity model for the UK, Ireland and surrounding seas
Kelly, A.; England, R.W.; Maguire, Peter K.H.
2007-01-01
A regional model of the 3-D variation in seismic P-wave velocity structure in the crust of NW Europe has been compiled from wide-angle reflection/refraction profiles. Along each 2-D profile a velocity-depth function has been digitised at 5 km intervals. These 1-D velocity functions were mapped into three dimensions using ordinary kriging with weights determined to minimise the difference between digitised and interpolated values. An analysis of variograms of the digitised data suggested a radial isotropic weighting scheme was most appropriate. Horizontal dimensions of the model cells are optimised at 40 ?? 40 km and the vertical dimension at 1 km. The resulting model provides a higher resolution image of the 3-D variation in seismic velocity structure of the UK, Ireland and surrounding areas than existing models. The construction of the model through kriging allows the uncertainty in the velocity structure to be assessed. This uncertainty indicates the high density of data required to confidently interpolate the crustal velocity structure, and shows that for this region the velocity is poorly constrained for large areas away from the input data. ?? 2007 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2007 RAS.
Hillslope Hydrographs Analyzed Using 1D and 2D Numerical Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dusek, J.; Vogel, T. N.; Dohnal, M.; Sanda, M.
2014-12-01
Stable isotopes of water naturally occurring in rainwater have the potential to reveal principal transport mechanisms at multiple scales - from soil profile to hillslope and catchment scale. In this contribution, we study transport processes at the hillslope scale by combining field observations of hillslope discharge and the associated oxygen-18 contents with detailed process-based numerical modeling. In the one-dimensional (1D) approach, 1D dual-continuum vertical flow and transport model (based on Richards and advection-dispersion equations) is coupled with 1D single-continuum lateral flow and transport model (based on diffusion wave equation for saturated subsurface flow and advection-dispersion equation for isotope transport). In the two-dimensional (2D) approach, the movement of water in a variably saturated hillslope segment is modeled as vertical planar flow (i.e., the vertical and lateral flow components are fully integrated into one flow system). Both modeling approaches, taking into account flow and transport through the soil matrix and the system of preferential pathways, were used to simulate the subsurface processes during observed rainfall-runoff episodes. The observed subsurface runoff and its oxygen-18 composition were compared with the model predictions. In addition, contributions of pre-event and event water to hillslope runoff during major rainfall-runoff episodes were evaluated by means of numerical experiments involving synthetic oxygen-18 rainfall signatures. The simulated hillslope responses showed a reasonable agreement with the experimental data in terms of subsurface runoff and oxygen-18 transport dynamics. Pre-event water was found to be the significant runoff component in most major rainfall-runoff events, though preferential flow played an important role in the hillslope runoff formation.
A world-line framework for 1D topological conformal ?-models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baulieu, L.; Holanda, N. L.; Toppan, F.
2015-11-01
We use world-line methods for pseudo-supersymmetry to construct sl(2|1)-invariant actions for the (2, 2, 0) chiral and (1, 2, 1) real supermultiplets of the twisted D-module representations of the sl(2|1) superalgebra. The derived one-dimensional topological conformal ?-models are invariant under nilpotent operators. The actions are constructed for both parabolic and hyperbolic/trigonometric realizations (with extra potential terms in the latter case). The scaling dimension ? of the supermultiplets defines a coupling constant, 2? + 1, the free theories being recovered at ? = - /1 2 . We also present, generalizing previous works, the D-module representations of one-dimensional superconformal algebras induced by N = ( p , q ) pseudo-supersymmetry acting on (k, n, n - k) supermultiplets. Besides sl(2|1), we obtain the superalgebras A(1, 1), D(2, 1; ?), D(3, 1), D(4, 1), A(2, 1) from (p, q) = (1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (5, 1), at given k, n and critical values of ?.
Assessing the impact of different sources of topographic data on 1-D hydraulic modelling of floods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, A. Md; Solomatine, D. P.; Di Baldassarre, G.
2015-01-01
Topographic data, such as digital elevation models (DEMs), are essential input in flood inundation modelling. DEMs can be derived from several sources either through remote sensing techniques (spaceborne or airborne imagery) or from traditional methods (ground survey). The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the light detection and ranging (lidar), and topographic contour maps are some of the most commonly used sources of data for DEMs. These DEMs are characterized by different precision and accuracy. On the one hand, the spatial resolution of low-cost DEMs from satellite imagery, such as ASTER and SRTM, is rather coarse (around 30 to 90 m). On the other hand, the lidar technique is able to produce high-resolution DEMs (at around 1 m), but at a much higher cost. Lastly, contour mapping based on ground survey is time consuming, particularly for higher scales, and may not be possible for some remote areas. The use of these different sources of DEM obviously affects the results of flood inundation models. This paper shows and compares a number of 1-D hydraulic models developed using HEC-RAS as model code and the aforementioned sources of DEM as geometric input. To test model selection, the outcomes of the 1-D models were also compared, in terms of flood water levels, to the results of 2-D models (LISFLOOD-FP). The study was carried out on a reach of the Johor River, in Malaysia. The effect of the different sources of DEMs (and different resolutions) was investigated by considering the performance of the hydraulic models in simulating flood water levels as well as inundation maps. The outcomes of our study show that the use of different DEMs has serious implications to the results of hydraulic models. The outcomes also indicate that the loss of model accuracy due to re-sampling the highest resolution DEM (i.e. lidar 1 m) to lower resolution is much less than the loss of model accuracy due to the use of low-cost DEM that have not only a lower resolution, but also a lower quality. Lastly, to better explore the sensitivity of the 1-D hydraulic models to different DEMs, we performed an uncertainty analysis based on the GLUE methodology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milbrandt, J. A.; Thériault, J.; Mo, R.
2014-01-01
A simple 1D kinematic cloud model coupled to a two-moment bulk microphysics scheme is used to perform quasi-idealized simulations of snow, with a prescribed upper boundary snow field based on observed radar reflectivity and temperature, falling into a low-level melting layer. The model realistically simulates the formation of a nearly isothermal layer below the melting level, the surface precipitation rate, and the phase transition from liquid to solid, consistent with observations for this case. A series of test runs is performed to examine the sensitivity of modeling the timing and duration of the phase transition period to details of specific parameterization aspects related to snow in the microphysics scheme. The sensitivity tests include varying the number of prognostic moments, the mass-diameter relation, the fall velocity-diameter relation, the treatment of aggregation, and the lower limit for the slope of the size distribution. It is shown that the simulated transition period, for such a case with the initial melting level being close to the surface, can be quite sensitive to model parameters specified within realistic ranges and/or ranges within our physical understanding.
Modeling students' conceptual understanding of force, velocity, and acceleration
Heckler, Andrew F.
Modeling students' conceptual understanding of force, velocity, and acceleration Rebecca Rosenblatt, velocity, and acceleration. The test was administered to more than 800 students enrolled in standard incorrect response that velocity must be in the direction of the acceleration or net force, up to 30
Front velocity in models with quadratic autocatalysis Vladimir K. Vanaga)
Epstein, Irving R.
Front velocity in models with quadratic autocatalysis Vladimir K. Vanaga) and Irving R. Epstein the dependence of the front velocity on the diffusion coefficients of X and R, the interconversion rates diffusion coef- ficients of X and R, DX and DR , respectively, raise the ques- tion of how the velocity
Evaluation of a Revised Interplanetary Shock Prediction Model: 1D CESE-HD-2 Solar-Wind Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y.; Du, A. M.; Du, D.; Sun, W.
2014-08-01
We modified the one-dimensional conservation element and solution element (CESE) hydrodynamic (HD) model into a new version [ 1D CESE-HD-2], by considering the direction of the shock propagation. The real-time performance of the 1D CESE-HD-2 model during Solar Cycle 23 (February 1997 - December 2006) is investigated and compared with those of the Shock Time of Arrival Model ( STOA), the Interplanetary-Shock-Propagation Model ( ISPM), and the Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry version 2 ( HAFv.2). Of the total of 584 flare events, 173 occurred during the rising phase, 166 events during the maximum phase, and 245 events during the declining phase. The statistical results show that the success rates of the predictions by the 1D CESE-HD-2 model for the rising, maximum, declining, and composite periods are 64 %, 62 %, 57 %, and 61 %, respectively, with a hit window of ± 24 hours. The results demonstrate that the 1D CESE-HD-2 model shows the highest success rates when the background solar-wind speed is relatively fast. Thus, when the background solar-wind speed at the time of shock initiation is enhanced, the forecasts will provide potential values to the customers. A high value (27.08) of ? 2 and low p-value (< 0.0001) for the 1D CESE-HD-2 model give considerable confidence for real-time forecasts by using this new model. Furthermore, the effects of various shock characteristics (initial speed, shock duration, background solar wind, longitude, etc.) and background solar wind on the forecast are also investigated statistically.
Optimal modeling of 1D azimuth correlations in the context of Bayesian inference
Michiel B. De Kock; Hans C. Eggers; Thomas A. Trainor
2015-02-16
Analysis and interpretation of spectrum and correlation data from high-energy nuclear collisions is currently controversial because two opposing physics narratives derive contradictory implications from the same data-one narrative claiming collision dynamics is dominated by dijet production and projectile-nucleon fragmentation, the other claiming collision dynamics is dominated by a dense, flowing QCD medium. Opposing interpretations seem to be supported by alternative data models, and current model-comparison schemes are unable to distinguish between them. There is clearly need for a convincing new methodology to break the deadlock. In this study we introduce Bayesian Inference (BI) methods applied to angular correlation data as a basis to evaluate competing data models. For simplicity the data considered are projections of 2D angular correlations onto 1D azimuth from three centrality classes of 200 GeV Au-Au collisions. We consider several data models typical of current model choices, including Fourier series (FS) and a Gaussian plus various combinations of individual cosine components. We evaluate model performance with BI methods and with power-spectrum (PS) analysis. We find that the FS-only model is rejected in all cases by Bayesian analysis which always prefers a Gaussian. A cylindrical quadrupole cos(2\\phi) is required in some cases but rejected for most-central Au-Au collisions. Given a Gaussian centered at the azimuth origin "higher harmonics" cos(m\\phi) for m > 2 are rejected. A model consisting of Gaussian + dipole cos(\\phi) + quadrupole cos(2\\phi) provides good 1D data descriptions in all cases.
Optimal modeling of 1D azimuth correlations in the context of Bayesian inference
Michiel B. De Kock; Hans C. Eggers; Thomas A. Trainor
2015-12-10
Analysis and interpretation of spectrum and correlation data from high-energy nuclear collisions is currently controversial because two opposing physics narratives derive contradictory implications from the same data---one narrative claiming collision dynamics is dominated by dijet production and projectile-nucleon fragmentation, the other claiming collision dynamics is dominated by a dense, flowing QCD medium. Opposing interpretations seem to be supported by alternative data models, and current model-comparison schemes are unable to distinguish between them. There is clearly need for a convincing new methodology to break the deadlock. In this study we introduce Bayesian Inference (BI) methods applied to angular correlation data as a basis to evaluate competing data models. For simplicity the data considered are projections of 2D angular correlations onto 1D azimuth from three centrality classes of 200 GeV AuAu collisions. We consider several data models typical of current model choices, including Fourier series (FS) and a Gaussian plus various combinations of individual cosine components. We evaluate model performance with BI methods and with power-spectrum (PS) analysis. We find that the FS-only model is rejected in all cases by Bayesian analysis which always prefers a Gaussian. A cylindrical quadrupole cos(2\\phi) is required in some cases but rejected for 0-5%-central AuAu collisions. Given a Gaussian centered at the azimuth origin "higher harmonics" cos(m\\phi) for m > 2 are rejected. A model consisting of Gaussian + dipole cos(\\phi) + quadrupole cos(2\\phi) provides good 1D data descriptions in all cases.
Optimal modeling of 1D azimuth correlations in the context of Bayesian inference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Kock, Michiel B.; Eggers, Hans C.; Trainor, Thomas A.
2015-09-01
Analysis and interpretation of spectrum and correlation data from high-energy nuclear collisions is currently controversial because two opposing physics narratives derive contradictory implications from the same data, one narrative claiming collision dynamics is dominated by dijet production and projectile-nucleon fragmentation, the other claiming collision dynamics is dominated by a dense, flowing QCD medium. Opposing interpretations seem to be supported by alternative data models, and current model-comparison schemes are unable to distinguish between them. There is clearly need for a convincing new methodology to break the deadlock. In this study we introduce Bayesian inference (BI) methods applied to angular correlation data as a basis to evaluate competing data models. For simplicity the data considered are projections of two-dimensional (2D) angular correlations onto a 1D azimuth from three centrality classes of 200-GeV Au-Au collisions. We consider several data models typical of current model choices, including Fourier series (FS) and a Gaussian plus various combinations of individual cosine components. We evaluate model performance with BI methods and with power-spectrum analysis. We find that FS-only models are rejected in all cases by Bayesian analysis, which always prefers a Gaussian. A cylindrical quadrupole cos(2 ? ) is required in some cases but rejected for 0%-5%-central Au-Au collisions. Given a Gaussian centered at the azimuth origin, "higher harmonics" cos(m ? ) for m >2 are rejected. A model consisting of Gaussian +dipole cos(? )+quadrupole cos(2 ? ) provides good 1D data descriptions in all cases.
Modeling velocity dispersion In Gypsy site, Oklahoma
Alsaadan, Sami Ibrahim
2010-01-01
Discrepancies in interval velocities estimated from vertical well measurements made with different source central frequencies at Gypsy site could be primarily explained in terms of intrinsic attenuation. Four intervals ...
Microscopic approach to a class of 1D quantum critical models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozlowski, Karol K.; Maillet, Jean Michel
2015-12-01
Starting from the finite volume form factors of local operators, we show how and under which hypothesis the c = 1 free boson conformal field theory in two-dimensions emerges as an effective theory governing the large-distance regime of multi-point correlation functions for a large class of one-dimensional massless quantum Hamiltonians. In our approach, in the large-distance critical regime, the local operators of the initial model are represented by well suited vertex operators associated to the free boson model. This provides an effective field theoretic description of the large distance behaviour of correlation functions in 1D quantum critical models. We develop this description starting from the first principles and directly at the microscopic level, namely in terms of the properties of the finite volume matrix elements of local operators.
A 1-D evolutionary model for icy satellites, applied to Enceladus
Prialnik, Uri Malamud Dina
2015-01-01
We develop a long-term 1-D evolution model for icy satellites that couples multiple processes: water migration and differentiation, geochemical reactions and silicate phase transitions, compaction by self-gravity, and ablation. The model further considers the following energy sources and sinks: tidal heating, radiogenic heating, geochemical energy released by serpentinization or absorbed by mineral dehydration, gravitational energy and insolation, and heat transport by conduction, convection, and advection. We apply the model to Enceladus, by guessing the initial conditions that would render a structure compatible with present-day observations, assuming the initial structure to have been homogeneous. Assuming the satellite has been losing water continually along its evolution, we postulate that it was formed as a more massive, more icy and more porous satellite, and gradually transformed into its present day state due to sustained long-term tidal heating. We consider several initial compositions and evolution...
Pool Formation in Boulder-Bed Streams: Implications From 1-D and 2-D Numerical Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrison, L. R.; Keller, E. A.
2003-12-01
In mountain rivers of Southern California, boulder-large roughness elements strongly influence flow hydraulics and pool formation and maintenance. In these systems, boulders appear to control the stream morphology by converging flow and producing deep pools during channel forming discharges. Our research goal is to develop quantitative relationships between boulder roughness elements, temporal patterns of scour and fill, and geomorphic processes that are important in producing pool habitat. The longitudinal distribution of shear stress, unit stream power and velocity were estimated along a 48 m reach on Rattlesnake Creek, using the HEC-RAS v 3.0 and River 2-D numerical models. The reach has an average slope of 0.02 and consists of a pool-riffle sequence with a large boulder constriction directly above the pool. Model runs were performed for a range of stream discharges to test if scour and fill thresholds for pool and riffle environments could be identified. Results from the HEC-RAS simulations identified that thresholds in shear stress, unit stream power and mean velocity occur above a discharge of 5.0 cms. Results from the one-dimensional analysis suggest that the reversal in competency is likely due to changes in cross-sectional width at varying flows. River 2-D predictions indicated that strong transverse velocity gradients were present through the pool at higher modeled discharges. At a flow of 0.5 cms (roughly 1/10th bankfull discharge), velocities are estimated at 0.6 m/s and 1.3 m/s for the pool and riffle, respectively. During discharges of 5.15 cms (approximate bankfull discharge), the maximum velocity in the pool center increased to nearly 3.0 m/s, while the maximum velocity over the riffle is estimated at approximately 2.5 cms. These results are consistent with those predicted by HEC-RAS, though the reversal appears to be limited to a narrow jet that occurs through the pool head and pool center. Model predictions suggest that the velocity reversal is produced by a boulder-bedrock constriction that rapidly decreases the channel width above the pool by roughly 25 percent. The width constriction creates highly turbulent flow capable of scouring bed material through the pool. The high velocity core that is produced through the pool center appears to be enhanced by the formation of a large eddy directly below the boulder. Values of unit stream power and shear stress indicate that the pool exit is an area of deposition of bed material due to a decrease in tractive force. The presence of a strong transverse velocity gradient suggests that only a portion of the flow is responsible for scouring bed material. After we eliminate the dead water zone, the lowest five percent of the velocity range, patterns of effective width between pools and riffles begin to emerge. The ratio of flow width between adjacent pools and riffles is one measure of flow convergence. At a discharge of 0.5 cms, the ratio of effective width between pools and riffles is roughly 1:1, implying that there is uniform flow with little flow convergence. At a discharge of 5.15 cms the width ratio between the pool and riffle is about 1:3, demonstrating the strong convergent flow patterns at the pool head. The observed effective width relationship suggests that when considering restoration designs, boulders should be placed in areas that replicate natural convergence and divergence patterns in order to maximize pool area and depth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xuebing; Chen, Ting; Zou, Yongtao; Liebermann, Robert C.; Li, Baosheng
2015-05-01
Compressional (VP) and shear (VS) wave velocities of a synthetic KLB-1 peridotite were measured for the first time up to 10 GPa using ultrasonic interferometry. Analysis of the P and S wave velocities yielded K0 = 123(1) GPa, K0' = 5.1(2), G0 = 75(1) GPa, and G0'= 1.3(1) for the bulk and shear moduli and their pressure derivatives. Comparison with Voigt-Reuss-Hill (VRH) calculations based on literature elasticity data for its constituent minerals indicates that the experimentally measured P and S wave velocities, densities, bulk sound velocities, and VP/VS ratios fall close to the lower limit of VRH averages associated with the uncertainties of the mineral elasticity data. A comparison with previous modeling of mantle compositions implies that the velocities for an aggregate with the pyrolitic composition of KLB-1 are in close agreement with seismic data at the depths of the Earth's upper mantle.
Fluid friction and wall viscosity of the 1D blood flow model
Wang, Xiao-Fei; Matsukawa, Mami; Ghigo, Arthur; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria
2015-01-01
We study the behavior of the pulse waves of water into a flexible tube for application to blood flow simulations. In pulse waves both fluid friction and wall viscosity are damping factors, and difficult to evaluate separately. In this paper, the coefficients of fluid friction and wall viscosity are estimated by fitting a nonlinear 1D flow model to experimental data. In the experimental setup, a distensible tube is connected to a piston pump at one end and closed at another end. The pressure and wall displacements are measured simultaneously. A good agreement between model predictions and experiments was achieved. For amplitude decrease, the effect of wall viscosity on the pulse wave has been shown as important as that of fluid viscosity.
Fluid friction and wall viscosity of the 1D blood flow model
Xiao-Fei Wang; Shohei Nishi; Mami Matsukawa; Arthur Ghigo; Pierre-Yves Lagrée; Jose-Maria Fullana
2015-11-15
We study the behavior of the pulse waves of water into a flexible tube for application to blood flow simulations. In pulse waves both fluid friction and wall viscosity are damping factors, and difficult to evaluate separately. In this paper, the coefficients of fluid friction and wall viscosity are estimated by fitting a nonlinear 1D flow model to experimental data. In the experimental setup, a distensible tube is connected to a piston pump at one end and closed at another end. The pressure and wall displacements are measured simultaneously. A good agreement between model predictions and experiments was achieved. For amplitude decrease, the effect of wall viscosity on the pulse wave has been shown as important as that of fluid viscosity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimeck, Gerhard
2001-03-01
The quantum mechanical functionality of commercially pursued heterostructure devices such as resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), quantum well infrared photodetectors, and quantum well lasers are enabled by material variations on an atomic scale. The creation of these heterostructure devices is realized in a vast design space of material compositions, layer thicknesses and doping profiles. The full experimental exploration of this design space is unfeasible and a reliable design tool is needed. The Nanoelectronic Modeling tool (NEMO) is one of the first commercial grade attempts for such a modeling tool. NEMO was developed as a general-purpose quantum mechanics-based 1-D device design and analysis tool from 1993-97 by the Central Research Laboratory of Texas Instruments (later Raytheon Systems). NEMO enables(R. Lake, G. Klimeck, R. C. Bowen, and D. Jovanovic, J. Appl. Phys. 81), 7845 (1997). the fundamentally sound inclusion of the required(G. Klimeck et al.), in the 1997 55th Annual Device Research Conference Digest, (IEEE, NJ, 1997), p. 92^,(R. C. Bowen et al.), J. Appl. Phys 81, 3207 (1997). physics: bandstructure, scattering, and charge self-consistency based on the non-equilibrium Green function approach. A new class of devices which require full 3-D quantum mechanics based models is starting to emerge: quantum dots, or in general semiconductor based deca-nano devices. We are currently building a 3-D modeling tool based on NEMO to include the important physics to understand electronic stated in such superscaled structures. This presentation will overview various facets of the NEMO 1-D tool such electron transport physics in RTDs, numerical technology, software engineering and graphical user interface. The lessons learned from that work are now entering the NEMO 3-D development and first results using the NEMO 3-D prototype will be shown. More information about the publically available NEMO 1-D executables can be found at http://hpc.jpl.nasa.gov/ PEP/gekco/nemo
High-Velocity Rain: The Terminal Velocity Model of Galactic Infall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benjamin, Robert A.; Danly, Laura
1997-05-01
A model is proposed for determining the distances to falling interstellar clouds in the galactic halo by measuring the cloud velocity and column density and assuming a model for the vertical density distribution of the Galactic interstellar medium. It is shown that falling clouds with N(H I) <~ 1019 cm-2 may be decelerated to a terminal velocity which increases with increasing height above the Galactic plane. This terminal velocity model correctly predicts the distance to high-velocity cloud Complex M and several other interstellar structures of previously determined distance. It is demonstrated how interstellar absorption spectra alone may be used to predict the distances of the clouds producing the absorption. If the distance, velocities, and column densities of enough interstellar clouds are known independently, the procedure can be reversed, and the terminal velocity model can be used to estimate the vertical density structure (both the mean density and the porosity) of the interstellar medium. Using the data of Danly and assuming a drag coefficient of CD ? 1, the derived density distribution is consistent with the expected density distribution of the warm ionized medium, characterized by Reynolds. There is also evidence that for z >~ 0.4 kpc one or more of the following occurs: (1) the neutral fraction of the cloud decreases to ~31 +/- 14%, (2) the density drops off faster than characterized by Reynolds, or (3) there is a systematic decrease in CD with increasing z. Current data do not place strong constraints on the porosity of the interstellar medium.
UCVM: Open Source Software for Understanding and Delivering 3D Velocity Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.
2014-12-01
Physics-based ground motion simulations can calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through 3D velocity models of the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) framework to help researchers build structured or unstructured velocity meshes from 3D velocity models for use in wave propagation simulations. The UCVM software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Currently, the platform supports multiple California models, including SCEC CVM-S4 and CVM-H 11.9.1, and has been designed to support models from any region on earth. UCVM is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. In this presentation, we describe improvements to the UCVM software. The current version, UCVM 14.3.0, released in March of 2014, supports the newest Southern California velocity model, CVM-S4.26, which was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations using CVM-S4 as the starting model (Lee et al., this meeting), and the Broadband 1D velocity model used in the CyberShake 14.2 study. We have ported UCVM to multiple Linux distributions and OS X. Also included in this release is the ability to add small-scale stochastic heterogeneities to extract Cartesian meshes for use in high-frequency ground motion simulations. This tool was built using the C language open-source FFT library, FFTW. The stochastic parameters (Hurst exponent, correlation length, and the horizontal/vertical aspect ratio) can be customized by the user. UCVM v14.3.0 also provides visualization scripts for constructing cross-sections, horizontal slices, basin depths, and Vs30 maps. The interface allows researchers to visually review velocity models . Also, UCVM v14.3.0 can extract isosurfaces of shear-wave velocities equal to 1 km/s (Z1.0) and 2.5 km/s (Z2.5) for any of the registered velocity models. We have also improved our open source distribution by including a user's guide, an advanced user's guide, and a developer's guide so that users of all levels can get started using and extending the UCVM platform.
Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Fan, Jiwen; Luo, Tao
2014-10-01
Measurement of ice number concentration in clouds is important but still challenging. Stratiform mixed-phase clouds (SMCs) provide a simple scenario for retrieving ice number concentration from remote sensing measurements. The simple ice generation and growth pattern in SMCs offers opportunities to use cloud radar reflectivity (Ze) measurements and other cloud properties to infer ice number concentration quantitatively. To understand the strong temperature dependency of ice habit and growth rate quantitatively, we develop a 1-D ice growth model to calculate the ice diffusional growth along its falling trajectory in SMCs. The radar reflectivity and fall velocity profiles of ice crystals calculated from the 1-D ice growth model are evaluated with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) ground-based high vertical resolution radar measurements. Combining Ze measurements and 1-D ice growth model simulations, we develop a method to retrieve the ice number concentrations in SMCs at given cloud top temperature (CTT) and liquid water path (LWP). The retrieved ice concentrations in SMCs are evaluated with in situ measurements and with a three-dimensional cloud-resolving model simulation with a bin microphysical scheme. These comparisons show that the retrieved ice number concentrations are within an uncertainty of a factor of 2, statistically.
Entanglement properties of the nontrivial Haldane insulator in the 1D extended Bose-Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ejima, Satoshi; Fehske, Holger
2015-03-01
We investigate the entanglement properties of a nontrivial topological phase in the one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Hubbard model with additional nearest-neighbor repulsion. Employing the large-scale density-matrix renormalization group technique we show that a gapped insulating phase protected by lattice inversion symmetry, the so-called Haldane insulator, appears between the Mott and density wave phases in the intermediate-coupling regime. The phase boundaries were determined from the central charge via the von Neumann entropy. The Haldane insulator reveals a characteristic degeneracy in the entanglement spectra. Breaking the lattice inversion symmetry strongly affects the distinctive gapped dispersion of the dynamical charge response of the bosonic Haldane insulator.
Application of HYDRUS 1D model for assessment of phenol-soil adsorption dynamics.
Pal, Supriya; Mukherjee, Somnath; Ghosh, Sudipta
2014-04-01
Laboratory-scale batch, vertical, and horizontal column experiments were conducted to investigate the attenuative capacity of a fine-grained clayey soil of local origin in the surrounding of a steel plant wastewater discharge site in West Bengal, India, for removal of phenol. Linear, Langmuir, and Freundlich isotherm plots from batch experimental data revealed that Freundlich isotherm model was reasonably fitted (R (2) = 0.94). The breakthrough column experiments were also carried out with different soil bed heights (5, 10, and 15 cm) under uniform flow to study the hydraulic movements of phenol by evaluating time concentration flow behavior using bromide as a tracer. The horizontal migration test was also conducted in the laboratory using adsorptive phenol and nonreactive bromide tracer to explore the movement of solute in a horizontal distance. The hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients (D) in the vertical and horizontal directions in the soil were estimated using nonlinear least-square parameter optimization method in CXTFIT model. In addition, the equilibrium convection dispersion model in HYDRUS 1D was also examined to simulate the fate and transport of phenol in vertical and horizontal directions using Freundlich isotherm constants and estimated hydrodynamic parameters as input in the model. The model efficacy and validation were examined through statistical parameters such as the coefficient of determination (R (2)), root mean square error and design of index (d). PMID:24407784
Finite element modeling and experimental characterization of crosstalk in 1-D CMUT arrays.
Bayram, Baris; Kupnik, Mario; Yaralioglu, Goksen G; Oralkan, Omer; Ergun, Arif Sanli; Lin, Der-Song; Wong, Serena H; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T
2007-02-01
Crosstalk is the coupling of energy between the elements of an ultrasonic transducer array. This coupling degrades the performance of transducers in applications such as medical imaging and therapeutics. In this paper, we present an experimental demonstration of guided interface waves in capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs). We compare the experimental results to finite element calculations using a commercial package (LS-DYNA) for a 1-D CMUT array operating in the conventional and collapsed modes. An element in the middle of the array was excited with a unipolar voltage pulse, and the displacements were measured using a laser interferometer along the center line of the array elements immersed in soybean oil. We repeated the measurements for an identical CMUT array covered with a 4.5-microm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer. The main crosstalk mechanism is the dispersive guided modes propagating in the fluid-solid interface. Although the transmitter element had a center frequency of 5.8 MHz with a 130% fractional bandwidth in the conventional operation, the dispersive guided mode was observed with the maximum amplitude at a frequency of 2.1 MHz, and had a cut-off frequency of 4 MHz. In the collapsed operation, the dispersive guided mode was observed with the maximum amplitude at a frequency of 4.0 MHz, and had a cut-off frequency of 10 MHz. Crosstalk level was lower in the collapsed operation (-39 dB) than in the conventional operation (-24.4 dB). The coverage of the PDMS did not significantly affect the crosstalk level, but reduced the phase velocity for both operation modes. Lamb wave modes, A0 and S0, were also observed with crosstalk levels of -40 dB and -65 dB, respectively. We observed excellent agreement between the finite element and the experimental results. PMID:17328339
Dynamic and steady state 1-D model of mediated electron transfer in a porous enzymatic electrode.
Do, T Q N; Varni?i?, M; Flassig, R J; Vidakovi?-Koch, T; Sundmacher, K
2015-12-01
A 1-D mathematical model of a porous enzymatic electrode exhibiting the mediated electron transfer (MET) mechanism has been developed. As a model system, glucose oxidation catalyzed by immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) in the presence of a co-immobilized tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) mediator in the porous electrode matrix has been selected. The balance equations for potential fields in the electron- and ion-conducting phases as well as concentration field have been formulated, solved numerically and validated experimentally under steady state conditions. The relevant kinetic parameters of the lumped reaction kinetics have been obtained by global optimization. The confidence intervals (CIs) of each parameter have been extracted from the respective likelihood. The parameter study has shown that the parameters related to mediator consumption/regeneration steps can be responsible for the shift of the reaction onset potential. Additionally, the model has shown that diffusion of the oxidized mediator out of the catalyst layer (CL) plays a significant role only at more positive potentials and low glucose concentrations. Only concentration profiles in different layers influence the electrode performance while other state fields like potential distributions in different phases have no impact on the performance. The concentration profiles reveal that all electrodes work through; the observed limiting currents are diffusion-reaction limiting. The normalized electrode activity decreases with an increase of enzyme loading. According to the model, the reason for this observation is glucose depletion along the CL at higher enzyme loadings. Comparison with experiments advices a decrease of enzyme utilization at higher enzyme loadings. PMID:26257008
Uncertainty assessment of 3D instantaneous velocity model from stack velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emanuele Maesano, Francesco; D'Ambrogi, Chiara
2015-04-01
3D modelling is a powerful tool that is experiencing increasing applications in data analysis and dissemination. At the same time the need of quantitative uncertainty evaluation is strongly requested in many aspects of the geological sciences and by the stakeholders. In many cases the starting point for 3D model building is the interpretation of seismic profiles that provide indirect information about the geology of the subsurface in the domain of time. The most problematic step in the 3D modelling construction is the conversion of the horizons and faults interpreted in time domain to the depth domain. In this step the dominant variable that could lead to significantly different results is the velocity. The knowledge of the subsurface velocities is related mainly to punctual data (sonic logs) that are often sparsely distributed in the areas covered by the seismic interpretation. The extrapolation of velocity information to wide extended horizons is thus a critical step to obtain a 3D model in depth that can be used for predictive purpose. In the EU-funded GeoMol Project, the availability of a dense network of seismic lines (confidentially provided by ENI S.p.A.) in the Central Po Plain, is paired with the presence of 136 well logs, but few of them have sonic logs and in some portion of the area the wells are very widely spaced. The depth conversion of the 3D model in time domain has been performed testing different strategies for the use and the interpolation of velocity data. The final model has been obtained using a 4 layer cake 3D instantaneous velocity model that considers both the initial velocity (v0) in every reference horizon and the gradient of velocity variation with depth (k). Using this method it is possible to consider the geological constraint given by the geometries of the horizons and the geo-statistical approach to the interpolation of velocities and gradient. Here we present an experiment based on the use of set of pseudo-wells obtained from the stack velocities available inside the area, interpolated using the kriging geo-statistical method. The stack velocities are intersected with the position of the horizons in time domain and from this information we build a pseudo-well to calculate the initial velocity and the gradient of increase (or decrease) of velocity with depth inside the considered rock volume. The experiment is aimed to obtain estimation and a representation of the uncertainty related to the geo-statistical interpolation of velocity data in a 3D model and to have an independent control of the final results using the well markers available inside the test area as constraints. The project GeoMol is co-funded by the Alpine Space Program as part of the European Territorial Cooperation 2007-2013. The project integrates partners from Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland and runs from September 2012 to June 2015. Further information on www.geomol.eu
A 1-D evolutionary model for icy satellites, applied to Enceladus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prialnik, Dina; Malamud, Uri
2015-11-01
A 1-D long-term evolution code for icy satellites is presented, which couples multiple processes: water migration, geochemical reactions, water and silicate phase transitions, crystallization, compaction by self-gravity, and ablation. The code takes into account various energy sources: tidal heating, radiogenic heating, geochemical energy released by serpentinization or absorbed by mineral dehydration, gravitational energy, and insolation. It includes heat transport by conduction, convection, and advection.The code is applied to Enceladus, by guessing the initial conditions that would render a structure compatible with present-day observations, and adopting a homogeneous initial structure. Assuming that the satellite has been losing water continually along its evolution, it follows that it was formed as a more massive, more ice-rich and more porous object, and gradually transformed into its present day state, due to sustained tidal heating. Several initial compositions and evolution scenarios are considered, and the evolution is simulated for the age of the Solar System. The results corresponding to the present configuration are confronted with the available observational constraints. The present configuration is shown to be differentiated into a pure icy mantle, several tens of km thick, overlying a rocky core, composed of dehydrated rock in the central part and hydrated rock in the outer part. Such a differentiated structure is obtained not only for Enceladus, but for other medium size ice-rich bodies as well.Predictions for Enceladus are a higher rock/ice mass ratio than previously assumed, and a thinner ice mantle, compatible with recent estimates based on gravity field measurements. Although, obviously, the 1-D model cannot be used to explain local phenomena, it sheds light on the internal structure invoked in explanations of localized features and activities.
Tuning a physically-based model of the air-sea gas transfer velocity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeffery, C. D.; Robinson, I. S.; Woolf, D. K.
Air-sea gas transfer velocities are estimated for one year using a 1-D upper-ocean model (GOTM) and a modified version of the NOAA-COARE transfer velocity parameterization. Tuning parameters are evaluated with the aim of bringing the physically based NOAA-COARE parameterization in line with current estimates, based on simple wind-speed dependent models derived from bomb-radiocarbon inventories and deliberate tracer release experiments. We suggest that A = 1.3 and B = 1.0, for the sub-layer scaling parameter and the bubble mediated exchange, respectively, are consistent with the global average CO 2 transfer velocity k. Using these parameters and a simple 2nd order polynomial approximation, with respect to wind speed, we estimate a global annual average k for CO 2 of 16.4 ± 5.6 cm h -1 when using global mean winds of 6.89 m s -1 from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 1954-2000. The tuned model can be used to predict the transfer velocity of any gas, with appropriate treatment of the dependence on molecular properties including the strong solubility dependence of bubble-mediated transfer. For example, an initial estimate of the global average transfer velocity of DMS (a relatively soluble gas) is only 11.9 cm h -1 whilst for less soluble methane the estimate is 18.0 cm h -1.
Epstein, Sally; Willemet, Marie; Chowienczyk, Phil J; Alastruey, Jordi
2015-07-01
Patient-specific one-dimensional (1D) blood flow modeling requires estimating model parameters from available clinical data, ideally acquired noninvasively. The larger the number of arterial segments in a distributed 1D model, the greater the number of input parameters that need to be estimated. We investigated the effect of a reduction in the number of arterial segments in a given distributed 1D model on the shape of the simulated pressure and flow waveforms. This is achieved by systematically lumping peripheral 1D model branches into windkessel models that preserve the net resistance and total compliance of the original model. We applied our methodology to a model of the 55 larger systemic arteries in the human and to an extended 67-artery model that contains the digital arteries that perfuse the fingers. Results show good agreement in the shape of the aortic and digital waveforms between the original 55-artery (67-artery) and reduced 21-artery (37-artery) models. Reducing the number of segments also enables us to investigate the effect of arterial network topology (and hence reflection sites) on the shape of waveforms. Results show that wave reflections in the thoracic aorta and renal arteries play an important role in shaping the aortic pressure and flow waves and in generating the second peak of the digital pressure and flow waves. Our novel methodology is important to simplify the computational domain while maintaining the precision of the numerical predictions and to assess the effect of wave reflections. PMID:25888513
van der Lee, Suzan
A new P-velocity model for the Tethyan margin from a scaled S-velocity model and the inversion of P online 31 August 2012 Edited by George Helffrich Keywords: P-velocity model 3D reference model Tethyan margin Seismic tomography Empirical scaling a b s t r a c t We estimate a 3D P-velocity model
1D Tight-Binding Models Render Quantum First Passage Time "Speakable"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranjith, V.; Kumar, N.
2015-12-01
The calculation of First Passage Time (moreover, even its probability density in time) has so far been generally viewed as an ill-posed problem in the domain of quantum mechanics. The reasons can be summarily seen in the fact that the quantum probabilities in general do not satisfy the Kolmogorov sum rule: the probabilities for entering and non-entering of Feynman paths into a given region of space-time do not in general add up to unity, much owing to the interference of alternative paths. In the present work, it is pointed out that a special case exists (within quantum framework), in which, by design, there exists one and only one available path (i.e., door-way) to mediate the (first) passage -no alternative path to interfere with. Further, it is identified that a popular family of quantum systems - namely the 1d tight binding Hamiltonian systems - falls under this special category. For these model quantum systems, the first passage time distributions are obtained analytically by suitably applying a method originally devised for classical (stochastic) mechanics (by Schroedinger in 1915). This result is interesting especially given the fact that the tight binding models are extensively used in describing everyday phenomena in condense matter physics.
Julia, J; Nyblade, A; Hansen, S; Rodgers, A; Matzel, E
2009-07-06
In this project, we are developing models of lithospheric structure for a wide variety of tectonic regions throughout Eurasia and the Middle East by regionalizing 1D velocity models obtained by jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities. We expect the regionalized velocity models will improve our ability to predict travel-times for local and regional phases, such as Pg, Pn, Sn and Lg, as well as travel-times for body-waves at upper mantle triplication distances in both seismic and aseismic regions of Eurasia and the Middle East. We anticipate the models will help inform and strengthen ongoing and future efforts within the NNSA labs to develop 3D velocity models for Eurasia and the Middle East, and will assist in obtaining model-based predictions where no empirical data are available and for improving locations from sparse networks using kriging. The codes needed to conduct the joint inversion of P-wave receiver functions (PRFs), S-wave receiver functions (SRFs), and dispersion velocities have already been assembled as part of ongoing research on lithospheric structure in Africa. The methodology has been tested with synthetic 'data' and case studies have been investigated with data collected at an open broadband stations in South Africa. PRFs constrain the size and S-P travel-time of seismic discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle, SRFs constrain the size and P-S travel-time of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and dispersion velocities constrain average S-wave velocity within frequency-dependent depth-ranges. Preliminary results show that the combination yields integrated 1D velocity models local to the recording station, where the discontinuities constrained by the receiver functions are superimposed to a background velocity model constrained by the dispersion velocities. In our first year of this project we will (i) generate 1D velocity models for open broadband seismic stations in the western half of the study area (Eurasia and the Middle East) and (ii) identify well located seismic events with event-station paths isolated to individual tectonic provinces within the study area and collect broadband waveforms and source parameters for the selected events. The 1D models obtained from the joint inversion will then be combined with published geologic terrain maps to produce regionalized models for distinctive tectonic areas within the study area, and the models will be validated through full waveform modeling of well-located seismic events recorded at local and regional distances.
Modeling Low Velocity Impacts: Predicting Crater Depth on Pluto
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bray, V. J.; Schenk, P.
2014-12-01
The New Horizons mission is due to fly-by the Pluto system in Summer 2015 and provides the first opportunity to image the Pluto surface in detail, allowing both the appearance and number of its crater population to be studied for the first time. Bray and Schenk (2014) combined previous cratering studies and numerical modeling of the impact process to predict crater morphology on Pluto based on current understanding of Pluto's composition, structure and surrounding impactor population. Predictions of how the low mean impact velocity (~2km/s) of the Pluto system will influence crater formation is a complex issue. Observations of secondary cratering (low velocity, high angle) and laboratory experiments of impact at low velocity are at odds regarding how velocity controls depth-diameter ratios: Observations of secondary craters show that these low velocity craters are shallower than would be expected for a hyper-velocity primary. Conversely, gas gun work has shown that relative crater depth increases as impact velocity decreases. We have investigated the influence of impact velocity further with iSALE hydrocode modeling of comet impact into Pluto. With increasing impact velocity, a projectile will produce wider and deeper craters. The depth-diameter ratio (d/D) however has a more complex progression with increasing impact velocity: impacts faster than 2km/s lead to smaller d/D ratios as impact velocity increases, in agreement with gas-gun studies. However, decreasing impact velocity from 2km/s to 300 m/s produced smaller d/D as impact velocity was decreased. This suggests that on Pluto the deepest craters would be produced by ~ 2km/s impacts, with shallower craters produced by velocities either side of this critical point. Further simulations to investigate whether this effect is connected to the sound speed of the target material are ongoing. The complex relationship between impact velocity and crater depth for impacts occurring between 300m/s and 10 km/s suggests that there might be a larger range of 'pristine' crater depths on Pluto than on bodies with higher mean impact velocity. This might affect our ability to define a pristine crater depth as a starting point for crater infill and relaxation studies.
Modeling non-Fickian dispersion by use of the velocity PDF on the pore scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kooshapur, Sheema; Manhart, Michael
2015-04-01
For obtaining a description of reactive flows in porous media, apart from the geometrical complications of resolving the velocities and scalar values, one has to deal with the additional reactive term in the transport equation. An accurate description of the interface of the reacting fluids - which is strongly influenced by dispersion- is essential for resolving this term. In REV-based simulations the reactive term needs to be modeled taking sub-REV fluctuations and possibly non-Fickian dispersion into account. Non-Fickian dispersion has been observed in strongly heterogeneous domains and in early phases of transport. A fully resolved solution of the Navier-Stokes and transport equations which yields a detailed description of the flow properties, dispersion, interfaces of fluids, etc. however, is not practical for domains containing more than a few thousand grains, due to the huge computational effort required. Through Probability Density Function (PDF) based methods, the velocity distribution in the pore space can facilitate the understanding and modelling of non-Fickian dispersion [1,2]. Our aim is to model the transition between non-Fickian and Fickian dispersion in a random sphere pack within the framework of a PDF based transport model proposed by Meyer and Tchelepi [1,3]. They proposed a stochastic transport model where velocity components of tracer particles are represented by a continuous Markovian stochastic process. In addition to [3], we consider the effects of pore scale diffusion and formulate a different stochastic equation for the increments in velocity space from first principles. To assess the terms in this equation, we performed Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) for solving the Navier-Stokes equation on a random sphere pack. We extracted the PDFs and statistical moments (up to the 4th moment) of the stream-wise velocity, u, and first and second order velocity derivatives both independent and conditioned on velocity. By using this data and combining the Taylor expansion of velocity increments, du, and the Langevin equation for point particles we obtained the components of velocity fluxes which point to a drift and diffusion behavior in the velocity space. Thus a partial differential equation for the velocity PDF has been formulated that constitutes an advection-diffusion equation in velocity space (a Fokker-Planck equation) in which the drift and diffusion coefficients are obtained using the velocity conditioned statistics of the derivatives of the pore scale velocity field. This has been solved by both a Random Walk (RW) model and a Finite Volume method. We conclude that both, these methods are able to simulate the velocity PDF obtained by DNS. References [1] D. W. Meyer, P. Jenny, H.A.Tschelepi, A joint velocity-concentration PDF method for traqcer flow in heterogeneous porous media, Water Resour.Res., 46, W12522, (2010). [2] Nowak, W., R. L. Schwede, O. A. Cirpka, and I. Neuweiler, Probability density functions of hydraulic head and velocity in three-dimensional heterogeneous porous media, Water Resour.Res., 44, W08452, (2008) [3] D. W. Meyer, H. A. Tchelepi, Particle-based transport model with Markovian velocity processes for tracer dispersion in highly heterogeneous porous media, Water Resour. Res., 46, W11552, (2010)
P. A. Knight; T. J. Ponman
1997-04-08
We report the results of 1-D hydrodynamical modelling of the evolution of gas in galaxy clusters. We have incorporated many of the effects missing from earlier 1-D treatments: improved modelling of the dark matter and galaxy distributions, cosmologically realistic evolution of the cluster potential, and the effects of a multiphase cooling flow. The model utilises a fairly standard 1-D Lagrangian hydrodynamical code to calculate the evolution of the intracluster gas. This is coupled to a theoretical model for the growth of dark matter density perturbations. The main advantages of this treatment over 3-D codes are (1) improved spatial resolution within the cooling flow region, (2) much faster execution time, allowing a fuller exploration of parameter space, and (3) the inclusion of additional physics. In the present paper, we explore the development of infall models -- in which gas relaxes into a deepening potential well -- covering a wide range of cluster mass scales. We find that such simple models reproduce many of the global properties of observed clusters. Very strong cooling flows develop in these 1-D cluster models. In practice, disruption by major mergers probably reduces the cooling rate in most clusters. The models overpredict the gas fraction in low mass systems, indicating the need for additional physical processes, such as preheating or galaxy winds, which become important on small mass scales.
Gravimetric and 1D fullwave modelling results across the Donbas Foldbelt, Ukrania
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyngsie, S. B.; Thybo, H.; Dobrefraction Workinggroup
2003-04-01
The Donbas Foldbelt, the uplifted and deformed part of the up to 20 km thick Dniepr-Donets Basin (Southeast Ukraine), formed as the result of intra-cratonic rifting. Rifting is believed to have affected large parts of the East European Craton in the Late Devonian. Numerous reflection- and refraction seismic studies have been carried out in the Dniepr-Donets basin, but only a few have targeted the Donbas Foldbelt. A seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection survey (DOBRE’99) was carried out during 1999. The seismic profile has a strike almost perpendicular to the rift axis. The profile has a length of 360 km, reaching from the shores of the Azov sea in the southwest, across the Azov Massif and the Donbas Foldbelt, ending at the Ukraine-Russia border in the Voronezh Massif to the northeast. Complimentary to the refraction survey, a reflection survey (DOBRE 2000) was carried out during 2000. The reflection profile covers the central and southern part of the Donbas Foldbelt, and is coincident to the refraction profile. Gravity modelling by joint inversion indicates high-density syn-rift deposits, possibly alkali-basaltic extrusives in the central part of the basin, and a high-density lower crust beneath the basin. The gravity model supports the results from the raytracing models (DOBREfraction Workinggroup), which divide the crust in the massifs, adjacent to the basin, into upper-, middle- and lower parts. A distinction between the upper- and middle parts cannot be made under the basin in either the raytracing models or the gravity model. Comparison between the reflection seismic profile (DOBREflection Workinggroup) and the gravity model reveals that the high-densities are coincident with high reflectivity. One-dimensional full wave reflectivity modelling yields detailed information on the lower crustal properties beneath the basin. The results indicate that the high-density and reflectivity of the lower curst is likely caused by inhomogeneties (sills). The inhomogeneties have a vertical scale between 400 and 700 m with Vp fluctuations between 4 &8% of the background P-wave velocity. Fractional crystallization of an originally peridotic melt is likely to be the cause of these high velocity fluctuations. The ultramafic intrusions related to tectonic rifting in a ductile lower crust have increased the lower crustal thickness. The Moho displays only a slight relief and has an average depth of 39 km. Intense magmatic activity coincident with a period of maximum lithospheric extension indicates a thermal anomaly during the main rift stage. The anomaly is likely to have been caused by back-arc convection in the Asthenospheric mantle, weakening the lower lithosphere at the onset of tectonic rifting.
1D and 2D urban dam-break flood modelling in Istanbul, Turkey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozdemir, Hasan; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Döker, Fatih
2014-05-01
Urban flood events are increasing in frequency and severity as a consequence of several factors such as reduced infiltration capacities due to continued watershed development, increased construction in flood prone areas due to population growth, the possible amplification of rainfall intensity due to climate change, sea level rise which threatens coastal development, and poorly engineered flood control infrastructure (Gallegos et al., 2009). These factors will contribute to increased urban flood risk in the future, and as a result improved modelling of urban flooding according to different causative factor has been identified as a research priority (Gallegos et al., 2009; Ozdemir et al. 2013). The flooding disaster caused by dam failures is always a threat against lives and properties especially in urban environments. Therefore, the prediction of dynamics of dam-break flows plays a vital role in the forecast and evaluation of flooding disasters, and is of long-standing interest for researchers. Flooding occurred on the Ayamama River (Istanbul-Turkey) due to high intensity rainfall and dam-breaching of Ata Pond in 9th September 2009. The settlements, industrial areas and transportation system on the floodplain of the Ayamama River were inundated. Therefore, 32 people were dead and millions of Euros economic loses were occurred. The aim of this study is 1 and 2-Dimensional flood modelling of the Ata Pond breaching using HEC-RAS and LISFLOOD-Roe models and comparison of the model results using the real flood extent. The HEC-RAS model solves the full 1-D Saint Venant equations for unsteady open channel flow whereas LISFLOOD-Roe is the 2-D shallow water model which calculates the flow according to the complete Saint Venant formulation (Villanueva and Wright, 2006; Neal et al., 2011). The model consists a shock capturing Godunov-type scheme based on the Roe Riemann solver (Roe, 1981). 3 m high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM), natural characteristics of the pond and its breaching such as depth, wide, length, volume and breaching shape and daily total rainfall data were used in the models. The simulated flooding in the both models were compared with the real flood extent which gathered from photos taken after the flood event, high satellite images acquired after 20 days from the flood event, and field works. The results show that LISFLOOD-Roe hydraulic model gives more than 80% fit to the extent of real flood event. Also both modelling results show that the embankment breaching of the Ata Pond directly affected the flood magnitude and intensity on the area. This study reveals that modelling of the probable flooding in urban areas is necessary and very important in urban planning. References Gallegos, H. A., Schubert, J. E., and Sanders, B. F.: Two dimensional, high-resolution modeling of urban dam-break flooding: A case study of Baldwin Hills California, Adv. Water Resour., 32, 1323-1335, 2009. Neal, J., Villanueva, I., Wright, N., Willis, T., Fewtrell, T. and Bates, P.: How mush physical complexity is needed to model flood inundation? Hydrological Processes, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8339. Ozdemir H., Sampson C., De Almeida G., Bates P.D.: Evaluating scale and roughness effects in urban flood modelling using terrestrial LiDAR data, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol.17, pp.4015-4030, 2013. Roe P.: Approximate Riemann solvers, parameter vectors, and difference-schemes. Journal of Computational Physics 43(2): 357-372, 1981. Villanueva I, Wright NG.: Linking Riemann and storage cell models for flood prediction. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Journal of Water Management 159: 27-33, 2006.
1-D/3-D geologic model of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin
Higley, D.K.; Henry, M.; Roberts, L.N.R.; Steinshouer, D.W.
2005-01-01
The 3-D geologic model of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin comprises 18 stacked intervals from the base of the Devonian Woodbend Group and age equivalent formations to ground surface; it includes an estimated thickness of eroded sediments based on 1-D burial history reconstructions for 33 wells across the study area. Each interval for the construction of the 3-D model was chosen on the basis of whether it is primarily composed of petroleum system elements of reservoir, hydrocarbon source, seal, overburden, or underburden strata, as well as the quality and areal distribution of well and other data. Preliminary results of the modeling support the following interpretations. Long-distance migration of hydrocarbons east of the Rocky Mountains is indicated by oil and gas accumulations in areas within which source rocks are thermally immature for oil and (or) gas. Petroleum systems in the basin are segmented by the northeast-trending Sweetgrass Arch; hydrocarbons west of the arch were from source rocks lying near or beneath the Rocky Mountains, whereas oil and gas east of the arch were sourced from the Williston Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and migration are primarily due to increased burial associated with the Laramide Orogeny. Hydrocarbon sources and migration were also influenced by the Lower Cretaceous sub-Mannville unconformity. In the Peace River Arch area of northern Alberta, Jurassic and older formations exhibit high-angle truncations against the unconformity. Potential Paleozoic though Mesozoic hydrocarbon source rocks are in contact with overlying Mannville Group reservoir facies. In contrast, in Saskatchewan and southern Alberta the contacts are parallel to sub-parallel, with the result that hydrocarbon source rocks are separated from the Mannville Group by seal-forming strata within the Jurassic. Vertical and lateral movement of hydrocarbons along the faults in the Rocky Mountains deformed belt probably also resulted in mixing of oil and gas from numerous source rocks in Alberta.
Modelling Hydrology of a Single Bioretention System with HYDRUS-1D
Meng, Yingying; Wang, Huixiao; Chen, Jiangang; Zhang, Shuhan
2014-01-01
A study was carried out on the effectiveness of bioretention systems to abate stormwater using computer simulation. The hydrologic performance was simulated for two bioretention cells using HYDRUS-1D, and the simulation results were verified by field data of nearly four years. Using the validated model, the optimization of design parameters of rainfall return period, filter media depth and type, and surface area was discussed. And the annual hydrologic performance of bioretention systems was further analyzed under the optimized parameters. The study reveals that bioretention systems with underdrains and impervious boundaries do have some detention capability, while their total water retention capability is extremely limited. Better detention capability is noted for smaller rainfall events, deeper filter media, and design storms with a return period smaller than 2 years, and a cost-effective filter media depth is recommended in bioretention design. Better hydrologic effectiveness is achieved with a higher hydraulic conductivity and ratio of the bioretention surface area to the catchment area, and filter media whose conductivity is between the conductivity of loamy sand and sandy loam, and a surface area of 10% of the catchment area is recommended. In the long-term simulation, both infiltration volume and evapotranspiration are critical for the total rainfall treatment in bioretention systems. PMID:25133240
Modelling hydrology of a single bioretention system with HYDRUS-1D.
Meng, Yingying; Wang, Huixiao; Chen, Jiangang; Zhang, Shuhan
2014-01-01
A study was carried out on the effectiveness of bioretention systems to abate stormwater using computer simulation. The hydrologic performance was simulated for two bioretention cells using HYDRUS-1D, and the simulation results were verified by field data of nearly four years. Using the validated model, the optimization of design parameters of rainfall return period, filter media depth and type, and surface area was discussed. And the annual hydrologic performance of bioretention systems was further analyzed under the optimized parameters. The study reveals that bioretention systems with underdrains and impervious boundaries do have some detention capability, while their total water retention capability is extremely limited. Better detention capability is noted for smaller rainfall events, deeper filter media, and design storms with a return period smaller than 2 years, and a cost-effective filter media depth is recommended in bioretention design. Better hydrologic effectiveness is achieved with a higher hydraulic conductivity and ratio of the bioretention surface area to the catchment area, and filter media whose conductivity is between the conductivity of loamy sand and sandy loam, and a surface area of 10% of the catchment area is recommended. In the long-term simulation, both infiltration volume and evapotranspiration are critical for the total rainfall treatment in bioretention systems. PMID:25133240
Simulating Helium abundances in the Martian upper atmosphere using 1-D and 3-D models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bell, Jared M.; Bougher, S. W.; Mahaffy, Paul; Elrod, Meredith
2015-11-01
Chemically inert species, such as Helium, serve as an excellent tracer for the interplay between turbulent eddy diffusive processes and molecular diffusive processes. Using species such as Helium, we can effectively constrain the altitude of the homopause—or the transition from the well-mixed lower atmosphere to the mass-separation characteristic of the upper atmosphere. In this study, we will use the Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (M-GITM) to examine the impacts of altering the turbulent diffusion coefficient (eddy diffusion coefficient) on the simulated abundances of Helium. Using data obtained by the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) onboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission as a benchmark, we can examine what possible values for eddy diffusion in the thermosphere are most likely present in Mars’s upper atmosphere—in other words, we can assess where the mean homopause altitude is most likely located during the MAVEN mission. Furthermore, we will compare and contrast the results obtained when using a strictly classical, 1-D treatment of the problem with a more complete coupled, global 3-D treatment of the Martian atmosphere.
Testing the Early Mars H2-CO2 Greenhouse Hypothesis with a 1-D Photochemical Model
Batalha, Natasha; Ramirez, Ramses; Kasting, James
2015-01-01
A recent study by Ramirez et al. (2014) demonstrated that an atmosphere with 1.3-4 bar of CO2 and H2O, in addition to 5-20% H2, could have raised the mean annual and global surface temperature of early Mars above the freezing point of water. Such warm temperatures appear necessary to generate the rainfall (or snowfall) amounts required to carve the ancient martian valleys. Here, we use our best estimates for early martian outgassing rates, along with a 1-D photochemical model, to assess the conversion efficiency of CO, CH4, and H2S to CO2, SO2, and H2. Our outgassing estimates assume that Mars was actively recycling volatiles between its crust and interior, as Earth does today. H2 production from serpentinization and deposition of banded iron-formations is also considered. Under these assumptions, maintaining an H2 concentration of ~1-2% by volume is achievable, but reaching 5% H2 requires additional H2 sources or a slowing of the hydrogen escape rate below the diffusion limit. If the early martian atmosphere...
Predicting plate velocities with mantle circulation models
Becker, Thorsten W.
;driving forces and resulting tractions are cal- culated first and model quality is subsequently judged the relative importance of these and the uncertainties of such models. Plate-driving forces from the mantle, and plates move from ridges to trenches. Keywords: Plate motions; driving forces; edge forces; subduction
A 1-D radiative conductive model to study the SOIR/VEx thermal profiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahieux, Arnaud; Erwin, Justin T.; Chamberlain, Sarah; Robert, Séverine; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Wilquet, Valérie; Thomas, Ian; Yelle, Roger V.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup
2015-04-01
SOIR is an infrared spectrometer on board Venus Express that probes the Venus terminator region since 2006. The measurements are taken on the morning and evening sides of the terminator, covering all latitudes from the North Pole to the South Pole. Its wavelength range - 2.2 to 4.3 ?m - allows a detailed chemical inventory of the Venus atmosphere [1-5], such as CO2, CO, H2O, HCl, HF, SO2 and aerosols. CO2 is detected from 70 km up to 165 km, CO from 70 km to 140 km, and the minor species typically below 110 km down to 70 km. Number density profiles of these species are computed from the measured spectra. Temperature profiles are obtained while computing the spectral inversion of the CO2 spectra combined with the hydrostatic law [6]. These temperature measurements show a striking permanent temperature minimum (at 125 km) and a weaker temperature maximum (over 100-115 km). The time variability of the CO2 density profiles spans over two orders of magnitude, and a clear trend is seen with latitude. The temperature variations are also important, of the order of 35 K for a given pressure level, but the latitude variation are small. Miss-RT, a 1D radiative transfer model has been developed to reproduce the SOIR terminator profiles, derived from the Mars thermosphere code presented in [7]. This model has been expanded to better account for the CO2, CO, and O non-LTE radiative heating and cooling processes which have to be considered in the dense atmosphere of Venus. Radiative cooling by minor species detected by SOIR (e.g. HCl, SO2, and H2O) are found to be small in comparison to the 15 ?m CO2 cooling. Aerosol cooling in the 60-90km altitude range may be important to the thermal balance. There is a good agreement between the 1D model temperature profile and the mean SOIR temperature profile. Further we can suggest parameters that can be adjusted to improve the agreement between the model and measurements. The remaining differences can be attributed to the atmosphere dynamics at the terminator. 1. Bertaux, J.L., et al., A warm layer in Venus' cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO. Nature, 2007. 450(29 November): p. 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974. 2. Vandaele, A.C., et al., Carbon monoxide short term variability observed on Venus with SOIR/VEX. Planet. Space Sci., 2014. (in press). 3. Mahieux, A., et al., Venus mesospheric sulfur dioxide measurement retrieved from SOIR on board Venus Express. Planet. Space Sci., 2014. (in press). 4. Mahieux, A., et al., Hydrogen Halides measurements in the Venus upper atmosphere retrieved from SOIR on board Venus Express. Planet. Space Sci., 2014. (in press). 5. Wilquet, V., et al., Optical extinction due to aerosols in the upper haze of Venus: Four years of SOIR/VEX observations from 2006 to 2010. Icarus, 2012. 217(2): p. 875-881. 6. Mahieux, A., et al., Update of the Venus density and temperature profiles at high altitude measured by SOIR on board Venus Express. Planet. Space Sci., 2014. (submitted). 7. Yelle, R., et al., Perturbation of the Mars Atmosphere by the Near-Collision with Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring). Icarus, 2014. 237: p. 202-210.
ABSTRACTION OF INFORMATION FROM 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL PORFLOW MODELS INTO A 1-D GOLDSIM MODEL - 11404
Taylor, G.; Hiergesell, R.
2010-11-16
The Savannah River National Laboratory has developed a 'hybrid' approach to Performance Assessment modeling which has been used for a number of Performance Assessments. This hybrid approach uses a multi-dimensional modeling platform (PorFlow) to develop deterministic flow fields and perform contaminant transport. The GoldSim modeling platform is used to develop the Sensitivity and Uncertainty analyses. Because these codes are performing complementary tasks, it is incumbent upon them that for the deterministic cases they produce very similar results. This paper discusses two very different waste forms, one with no engineered barriers and one with engineered barriers, each of which present different challenges to the abstraction of data. The hybrid approach to Performance Assessment modeling used at the SRNL uses a 2-D unsaturated zone (UZ) and a 3-D saturated zone (SZ) model in the PorFlow modeling platform. The UZ model consists of the waste zone and the unsaturated zoned between the waste zone and the water table. The SZ model consists of source cells beneath the waste form to the points of interest. Both models contain 'buffer' cells so that modeling domain boundaries do not adversely affect the calculation. The information pipeline between the two models is the contaminant flux. The domain contaminant flux, typically in units of moles (or Curies) per year from the UZ model is used as a boundary condition for the source cells in the SZ. The GoldSim modeling component of the hybrid approach is an integrated UZ-SZ model. The model is a 1-D representation of the SZ, typically 1-D in the UZ, but as discussed below, depending on the waste form being analyzed may contain pseudo-2-D elements. A waste form at the Savannah River Site (SRS) which has no engineered barriers is commonly referred to as a slit trench. A slit trench, as its name implies, is an unlined trench, typically 6 m deep, 6 m wide, and 200 m long. Low level waste consisting of soil, debris, rubble, wood, etc. is disposed within the trench which is then covered with soil and a cap. The filled trench resembles the surrounding soil, albeit with a higher porosity. As a result, the flow field through the trench is essentially 1-dimensional. This dimensionality makes the abstraction of information from this waste form fairly simple. Engineered waste forms present challenges not seen in the slit trench because of their higher dimensionality. Flow fields must conform to the barriers and are therefore subject to changes in direction. This paper will examine one case and show how this multidimensional flow field can be abstracted into a 1-dimensional flow field while retaining characteristics important to the transport of radioactive contaminants. One complication not addressed by the two preceding examples is that of multiple sources. This presents quite a challenge to the benchmarking exercise, but a fairly robust method has been developed to deal with it. While the PorFlow analyses can treat all sources as independent in space, this is not possible with a 1-D model. This problem has been addressed by constructing multiple 1-D models of the waste forms and using plume overlaps at the assessment points to address the multiple sources which can contribute to a distinct assessment point.
Abstract A coupled 1D physical-biological model of Crater Lake is presented. The model
Boss, Emmanuel S.
at Crater Lake, Oregon K. Fennel (&) Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences and Department of Geological nutrient and plankton dynamics in a physical-biological model of Crater Lake Katja Fennel Æ Robert Collier
Asymmetric optimal-velocity car-following model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xihua; Pang, John; Monterola, Christopher
2015-10-01
Taking the asymmetric characteristic of the velocity differences of vehicles into account, we present an asymmetric optimal velocity model for a car-following theory. The asymmetry between the acceleration and the deceleration is represented by the exponential function with an asymmetrical factor, which agrees with the published experiment. This model avoids the disadvantage of the unrealistically high acceleration appearing in previous models when the velocity difference becomes large. This model is simple and only has two independent parameters. The linear stability condition is derived and the phase transition of the traffic flow appears beyond the critical density. The strength of interaction between clusters is shown to increase with the asymmetry factor in our model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subin, Z. M.; Riley, W. J.
2009-12-01
Compared to solid ground, lakes tend to have decreased albedo, increased ground heat conductance, and increased effective ground heat capacity. These features alter local surface fluxes compared to nearby vegetation, which in turn alter the climate of the nearby atmosphere and surrounding land areas. Interest in feedbacks between lake behavior and climate change provides motivation for including lakes in global climate models, as does the desire to do effective regional downscaling of climate model predictions over regions with large lake area fraction, like the Great Lakes region. Finally, the initiation, warming, and expansion of Arctic thermokarst lakes could provide an important geophysical and biogeochemical feedback to climate warming. The Community Land Model (CLM) 3.5 currently uses a 1D Hostetler lake scheme. We have updated this model to improve the characterization of surface fluxes, eddy diffusivity, and convective mixing. We also link the lake model with the full snow physics found over other land surface types (including 5 snow layers, aerosol deposition, partial transparency of snow layers, and snow aging), add phase change & ice physics to the lake model, and include soil layers beneath lakes. These soil layers will be an important component of future thermokarst lake modeling, as thermokarst lakes tend to form regions of unfrozen soil (talik) beneath them that become active sites for anaerobic decomposition of pre-modern peat. We have also integrated the updated lake model into a modified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model 3.0. We will present comparisons between predicted and observed thermal conditions, snow and ice depths, and surface energy fluxes at several lake sites, using local meteorological forcing or integrated regional atmospheric coupling. The thermal predictions are generally reasonable and show a marked improvement from runs performed with the baseline CLM 3.5 version of the lake model. Over Sparkling Lake, the lake model simulates the hourly lake water temperatures from 2002-2005 in very good agreement (<3 K error) with observations at all depths when the model is forced with the observed climatology. Over other relatively shallow (2 m - 50 m) lakes, thermal depth profiles are generally well reproduced, with maximum summer surface temperatures generally within ~3 K of the observations and mixing depths accurate to about 20% of lake depth. Snow depths, ice depths, and freezing duration are evaluated. Over very deep lakes like Lake Geneva, the model predicts insufficient mixing below about 30 m depth, which is a known deficiency of the Hostetler Lake Model, although the surface temperature is well replicated. We conclude that the model is suitable for inclusion into regional and global climate models for evaluating climate feedbacks, particularly for shallow thermokarst lakes. Finally, we present a comparison of the simulated historical surface climatology to observations for the Great Lakes region in WRF, both with and without the new lake model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corliss, Jason B.; Harris, Walt M.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Roesler, Frederick L.
2015-11-01
Thorough analysis of narrow bandpass high spectral resolution (R ?100,000) observations of [O 1 D] 630nm emission from comet 9P/Tempel 1 taken over a ~1’ FOV both before and after the Deep Impact event provides evidence for a long-lived high velocity jet-like feature. The observations were obtained with an all-reflective spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) coupled to the McMath-Pierce Main telescope. Several spectra centered on Tempel 1 were acquired during the period of 07/04/2005-07/06/2005 UT. We report here on the presence and evolution of a cometary emission feature that appears consistently and exclusively in the post-impact narrow-band spectra centered near the telluric [O 1 D] 630nm emission line. This cometary emission feature shows substantial and distinct Doppler shifts over consecutive post-impact observational nights and if the feature is the anticipated [O 1 D], the corresponding line of sight velocities are -13.4 to -6.5 km/s, relative to the comet’s rest frame.
Velocity-density twin transforms in the thin disc model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bratek, ?ukasz; Sikora, Szymon; Ja?ocha, Joanna; Kutschera, Marek
2015-08-01
Ring mass density and the corresponding circular velocity in thin disc model are known to be integral transforms of one another. But it may be less familiar that the transforms can be reduced to one-fold integrals with identical weight functions. It may be of practical value that the integral for the surface density does not involve the velocity derivative, unlike the equivalent and widely known Toomre's formula.
Testing the early Mars H2-CO2 greenhouse hypothesis with a 1-D photochemical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batalha, Natasha; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Ramirez, Ramses; Kasting, James F.
2015-09-01
A recent study by Ramirez et al. (Ramirez, R.M. et al. [2014]. Nat. Geosci. 7(1), 59-63.) demonstrated that an atmosphere with 1.3-4 bar of CO2 and H2O, in addition to 5-20% H2, could have raised the mean annual and global surface temperature of early Mars above the freezing point of water. Such warm temperatures appear necessary to generate the rainfall (or snowfall) amounts required to carve the ancient martian valleys. Here, we use our best estimates for early martian outgassing rates, along with a 1-D photochemical model, to assess the conversion efficiency of CO, CH4, and H2S to CO2, SO2, and H2. Our outgassing estimates assume that Mars was actively recycling volatiles between its crust and interior, as Earth does today. H2 production from serpentinization and deposition of banded iron-formations is also considered. Under these assumptions, maintaining an H2 concentration of ˜1-2% by volume is achievable, but reaching 5% H2 requires additional H2 sources or a slowing of the hydrogen escape rate below the diffusion limit. If the early martian atmosphere was indeed H2-rich, we might be able to see evidence of this in the rock record. The hypothesis proposed here is consistent with new data from the Curiosity Rover, which show evidence for a long-lived lake in Gale Crater near Mt. Sharp. It is also consistent with measured oxygen fugacities of martian meteorites, which show evidence for progressive mantle oxidation over time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ponsar, Stephanie; Luyten, Patrick; Ozer, Jose
2011-11-01
The combined estimation of model state and parameters is investigated by using an ensemble Kalman filter in a 1-D numerical study of the temperature profile at a North Sea station located at 55°30' North and 0°55' East. This simplified model implementation allows to test many configurations for the sampling of the model error for the model state as well as for the parameters. Temperature profiles from thermistor data are assimilated. The influence of a vertically or non-vertically correlated model error is examined through the computation of correlation coefficients, root mean square errors, and model bias. As the CS station is located in the North Sea region stratified in summer, vertically non-correlated model error terms have a slight positive impact on the assimilative runs. The benefit of the combined estimation of the model state and parameters is examined by comparison of a simulation where the model parameters are not adjusted to simulations with the combined estimation of the model state either with one parameter or with a set of parameters related to the surface heat exchange. The optical attenuation coefficient, the sensible, and latent heat exchange coefficients are considered. The best results are obtained when a set of parameters are simultaneously adjusted.
SCEC CVM-Toolkit (CVM-T) -- High Performance Meshing Tools for SCEC Community Velocity Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Ely, G. P.; Olsen, K. B.; Withers, K.; Graves, R. W.; Jordan, T. H.; Plesch, A.; Shaw, J. H.
2010-12-01
The SCEC Community Velocity Model Toolkit (CVM-T) enables earthquake modelers to quickly build, visualize, and validate large-scale 3D velocity meshes using SCEC CVM-H or CVM-4. CVM-T is comprised of three main components: (1) a current SCEC community velocity model for Southern California, (2) tools for extracting meshes from this model and visualizing them, and (3) an automated test framework for evaluating new releases of CVMs using SCEC’s AWP-ODC forward wave propagation software and one, or more, ground motion goodness of fit (GoF) algorithms. CVM-T is designed to help SCEC modelers build large-scale velocity meshes by extracting material properties from the most current version of Community Velocity Model H (CVM-H) and to provide a consistent interface as new CVM-H versions are developed. The CVM-T software provides a highly-scalable interface to CVM-H 6.2 (and later) voxets. Along with an improved interface to CVM-H material properties, the CVM-T software adds a geotechnical layer (GTL) to CVM-H 6.2+ based on Ely’s Vs30-derived GTL. The initial release of CVM-T also extends the coverage region for CVM-H 6.2 with a Hadley-Kanamori 1D background. Smoothing is performed within the transition boundary between the core model and the 1D background. The user interface now includes a C API that allows applications to query the model either by elevation or depth. The Extraction and Visualization Tools (EVT) include a parallelized 3D mesh generator which can quickly generate meshes (consisting of Vp, Vs, and density) from either CVM-H or CVM-4 with over 100 billion points. Python plotting scripts can be employed to plot horizontal or profile slices from existing meshes or directly from either CVM. The Automated Test Framework (ATF) is a system for quantitatively evaluating new versions of CVM-H and ensuring that the model improves against prior versions. The ATF employs the CruiseControl build and test framework to run an AWP-ODC simulation for the 2008 Chino Hills event (Mw = 5.39) and perform a goodness of fit statistics calculation on the generated synthetic and recorded observed seismograms using the GoF algorithm, based on comparison of synthetic peak amplitudes to observed peak amplitudes, used in the SCEC Broadband platform. CVM-T produced plots include comparisons of synthetic and observed seismograms, plots of bias versus period, and spatial plots of the pseudo-AA bias over the entire region.
Modeling of general 1-D periodic leaky-wave antennas in layered media using EIGER.
Wilton, Donald R.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Celepcikay, Ferhat T.; Johnson, William Arthur; Baccarelli, Paolo; Valerio, Guido; Paulotto, Simone; Langston, William L.; Jackson, David R.
2010-09-01
This paper presents a mixed-potential integral-equation formulation for analyzing 1-D periodic leaky-wave antennas in layered media. The structures are periodic in one dimension and finite in the other two dimensions. The unit cell consists of an arbitrary-shaped metallic/dielectric structure. The formulation has been implemented in the EIGER{trademark} code in order to obtain the real and complex propagation wavenumbers of the bound and leaky modes of such structures. Validation results presented here include a 1-D periodic planar leaky-wave antenna and a fully 3-D waveguide test case.
Modeling of general 1-D periodic leaky-wave antennas in layered media with EIGER.
Wilton, Donald R.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Celepcikay, F. T.; Johnson, William Arthur; Baccarelli, Paolo; Valerio, G.; Paulotto, Simone; Langston, William L.; Jackson, David R.
2010-06-01
This paper presents a mixed-potential integral-equation formulation for analyzing 1-D periodic leaky-wave antennas in layered media. The structures are periodic in one dimension and finite in the other two dimensions. The unit cell consists of an arbitrary-shaped metallic/dielectric structure. The formulation has been implemented in the EIGER{trademark} code in order to obtain the real and complex propagation wavenumbers of the bound and leaky modes of such structures. Validation results presented here include a 1-D periodic planar leaky-wave antenna and a fully 3-D waveguide test case.
Bengoechea, Rocio; Pittman, Sara K; Tuck, Elizabeth P; True, Heather L; Weihl, Conrad C
2015-12-01
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1D (LGMD1D) is caused by dominantly inherited missense mutations in DNAJB6, an Hsp40 co-chaperone. LGMD1D muscle has rimmed vacuoles and inclusion bodies containing DNAJB6, Z-disc proteins and TDP-43. DNAJB6 is expressed as two isoforms; DNAJB6a and DNAJB6b. Both isoforms contain LGMD1D mutant residues and are expressed in human muscle. To identify which mutant isoform confers disease pathogenesis and generate a mouse model of LGMD1D, we evaluated DNAJB6 expression and localization in skeletal muscle as well as generating DNAJB6 isoform specific expressing transgenic mice. DNAJB6a localized to myonuclei while DNAJB6b was sarcoplasmic. LGMD1D mutations in DNAJB6a or DNAJB6b did not alter this localization in mouse muscle. Transgenic mice expressing the LGMD1D mutant, F93L, in DNAJB6b under a muscle-specific promoter became weak, had early lethality and developed muscle pathology consistent with myopathy after 2 months; whereas mice expressing the same F93L mutation in DNAJB6a or overexpressing DNAJB6a or DNAJB6b wild-type transgenes remained unaffected after 1 year. DNAJB6b localized to the Z-disc and DNAJB6b-F93L expressing mouse muscle had myofibrillar disorganization and desmin inclusions. Consistent with DNAJB6 dysfunction, keratin 8/18, a DNAJB6 client also accumulated in DNAJB6b-F93L expressing mouse muscle. The RNA-binding proteins hnRNPA1 and hnRNPA2/B1 accumulated and co-localized with DNAJB6 at sarcoplasmic stress granules suggesting that these proteins maybe novel DNAJB6b clients. Similarly, hnRNPA1 and hnRNPA2/B1 formed sarcoplasmic aggregates in patients with LGMD1D. Our data support that LGMD1D mutations in DNAJB6 disrupt its sarcoplasmic function suggesting a role for DNAJB6b in Z-disc organization and stress granule kinetics. PMID:26362252
Numerical Simulation Modelling for Velocity Measurement of Electromagnetic Flow Meter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, J. Z.; Gong, C. L.; Tian, G. Y.; Lucas, G. P.
2006-10-01
An induced voltage EMF in the area of measuring single-phase flow rate in pipes has been used in many industrial areas. To measure the continuous phase velocity profile in multiphase flows where the continuous phase is an electrical conductor, Electrical capacitance and resistance tomography has been comprehensively investigated, except for continuous phase velocity profile measurement. This paper tries to design the numerical simulation model according to the basic electromagnetic induction law and to investigate the relationship between induced electric potential or potential drop and the velocity distribution of the conductive continuous phase in the flow. First, the 3-Dimenssion simulating module for EMF is built. Given the most simple velocity profile of the fluid in the pipe, the value of the induced potential difference between electrodes is obtained by simulation and theoretical computation according to J A Shercliff's weight function. The relative error is 6.066 . This proves that the simulation model is accurate enough to investigate the characteristic of the induced potential difference of EMF. Finally, the relationship between induced potential difference and the velocity profile is analysed in detail where the complicated velocity profile is expressed as vz = 1m/s when 0.022
High Velocity Rain: The Terminal Velocity of Model of Galactic Infall
Robert A. Benjamin; Laura Danly
1996-12-18
A model is proposed for determining the distances to falling interstellar clouds in the galactic halo by measuring the cloud velocity and column density and assuming a model for the vertical density distribution of the Galactic interstellar medium. It is shown that falling clouds with $N(H I) \\sim 0.4 kpc$ one or more of the following occurs: (1) the neutral fraction of the cloud decreases to $\\sim 31 \\pm 14%$, (2) the density drops off faster than characterized by Reynolds, or (3) there is a systematic decrease in drag coefficient with increasing z.
1D Runoff-runon stochastic model in the light of queueing theory : heterogeneity and connectivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harel, M.-A.; Mouche, E.; Ledoux, E.
2012-04-01
Runoff production on a hillslope during a rainfall event may be simplified as follows. Given a soil of constant infiltrability I, which is the maximum amount of water that the soil can infiltrate, and a constant rainfall intensity R, runoff is observed where R is greater than I. The infiltration rate equals the infiltrability when runoff is produced, R otherwise. When ponding time, topography, and overall spatial and temporal variations of physical parameters, such as R and I, are neglected, the runoff equation remains simple. In this study, we consider soils of spatially variable infiltrability. As runoff can re-infiltrate on down-slope areas of higher infiltrabilities (runon), the resulting process is highly non-linear. The stationary runoff equation is: Qn+1 = max(Qn + (R - In)*?x , 0) where Qn is the runoff arriving on pixel n of size ?x [L2/T], R and In the rainfall intensity and infiltrability on that same pixel [L/T]. The non-linearity is due to the dependence of infiltration on R and Qn, that is runon. This re-infiltration process generates patterns of runoff along the slope, patterns that organise and connect to each other differently depending on the rainfall intensity and the nature of the soil heterogeneity. The runoff connectivity, assessed using the connectivity function of Allard (1993), affects greatly the dynamics of the runoff hillslope. Our aim is to assess, in a stochastic framework, the runoff organization on 1D slopes with random infiltrabilities (log-normal, exponential, bimodal and uniform distributions) by means of theoretical developments and numerical simulations. This means linking the nature of soil heterogeneity with the resulting runoff organisation. In term of connectivity, we investigate the relations between structural (infiltrability) and functional (runoff) connectivity. A theoretical framework based on the queueing theory is developed. We implement the idea of Jones et al. (2009), who remarked that the above formulation is identical to the waiting time equation in a single server queue. Thanks to this theory, it is possible to accurately describe some outputs of our numerical model, notably the runoff repartition over the slope for uncorrelated exponential infiltrability distributions. Alternative formulations for the connectivity function of Allard (which cannot be predicted theoretically to our knowledge) are discussed with regard to predictability, efficiency in computation and qualification of the "near-connectedness" state of the system.
Mass modelling of galaxy clusters via velocity moments
Ewa L. Lokas; Radoslaw Wojtak; Gary A. Mamon; Stefan Gottloeber
2007-12-14
We summarize the method of mass modelling of galaxy clusters based on reproducing the dispersion and kurtosis of the projected velocity distribution of galaxies. The models are parametrized within the framework of the NFW density profile, characterized by the virial mass and concentration, together with the constant anisotropy of galaxy orbits. The use of velocity dispersion alone does not allow to constrain all the three parameters from kinematic data due to the mass-anisotropy degeneracy. The degeneracy is broken by introducing the fourth velocity moment, the kurtosis. We tested the method based on fitting both moments on mock data sets drawn from simulated dark matter haloes and showed it to reproduce reliably the properties of the haloes. The method has been applied to estimate the mass, concentration and anisotropy of more than 20 clusters which allowed us to confirm, for the first time using kinematic data, the mass-concentration relation found in N-body simulations.
Three-dimensional seismic velocity model of the West Bohemia/Vogtland seismoactive region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
R?žek, Bohuslav; Horálek, Josef
2013-11-01
In this paper, we present a smooth 3-D seismic model WB2012 for the West Bohemia/Vogtland earthquake swarm region derived by means of seismic tomography. Inverted data were represented by a set of 2920 P-wave traveltimes from controlled shots fired in a framework of different experiments and a set of 11339 P- and S-wave arrival times from 661 local earthquakes between 1991 December and 2010 March. We used a standard tomographic approach for independent calculation of P- and S-wave velocity fields in a rectangular grid whose size was 1 km in all coordinates. The traveltimes and rays were calculated by a numerical solution of the eiconal equation. While locating seismic events, our new WB2012 model yielded arrival time residuals on average by 13 per cent lower and hypocentre depths by 0.95 km shallower compared to the locations of the foci in the standard 1-D vertically inhomogeneous isotropic velocity model of the West Bohemia swarm region WB2005. Further, we converted the P- and S-wave velocities to the bulk modulus K and Poisson's ratio ?. The bulk modulus (˜40-70 GPa) correlates acceptably with the tectonic and geological structure of the area. The anomalously low values of the Poisson's ratio (˜0.15) are typical for the most active focal zones of Nový Kostel and Lazy in West Bohemia.
A new settling velocity model to describe secondary sedimentation.
Ramin, Elham; Wágner, Dorottya S; Yde, Lars; Binning, Philip J; Rasmussen, Michael R; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Plósz, Benedek Gy
2014-12-01
Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in biological wastewater treatment plants. The maximum permissible inflow to the plant depends on the efficiency of SSTs in separating and thickening the activated sludge. The flow conditions and solids distribution in SSTs can be predicted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. Despite extensive studies on the compression settling behaviour of activated sludge and the development of advanced settling velocity models for use in SST simulations, these models are not often used, due to the challenges associated with their calibration. In this study, we developed a new settling velocity model, including hindered, transient and compression settling, and showed that it can be calibrated to data from a simple, novel settling column experimental set-up using the Bayesian optimization method DREAM(ZS). In addition, correlations between the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model parameters and sludge concentration were identified with data from batch rheological experiments. A 2-D axisymmetric CFD model of a circular SST containing the new settling velocity and rheological model was validated with full-scale measurements. Finally, it was shown that the representation of compression settling in the CFD model can significantly influence the prediction of sludge distribution in the SSTs under dry- and wet-weather flow conditions. PMID:25243657
Sidorov, K. A.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Tikhonov, N. V.
2013-02-15
It is shown that the canonical partition function in the 1D Hubbard model with U = {infinity} in the nearest neighbor approximation is determined by the product of canonical partition functions of spinons and holons. In this approximation, the concentration and temperature dependences of the free and internal energies, as well as of the chemical potential, entropy, and heat capacity, are calculated for electron concentrations of 0 {<=} n{sub e} < 1.
Analytic solutions for seismic travel time and ray path geometry through simple velocity models.
Ballard, Sanford
2007-12-01
The geometry of ray paths through realistic Earth models can be extremely complex due to the vertical and lateral heterogeneity of the velocity distribution within the models. Calculation of high fidelity ray paths and travel times through these models generally involves sophisticated algorithms that require significant assumptions and approximations. To test such algorithms it is desirable to have available analytic solutions for the geometry and travel time of rays through simpler velocity distributions against which the more complex algorithms can be compared. Also, in situations where computational performance requirements prohibit implementation of full 3D algorithms, it may be necessary to accept the accuracy limitations of analytic solutions in order to compute solutions that satisfy those requirements. Analytic solutions are described for the geometry and travel time of infinite frequency rays through radially symmetric 1D Earth models characterized by an inner sphere where the velocity distribution is given by the function V (r) = A-Br{sup 2}, optionally surrounded by some number of spherical shells of constant velocity. The mathematical basis of the calculations is described, sample calculations are presented, and results are compared to the Taup Toolkit of Crotwell et al. (1999). These solutions are useful for evaluating the fidelity of sophisticated 3D travel time calculators and in situations where performance requirements preclude the use of more computationally intensive calculators. It should be noted that most of the solutions presented are only quasi-analytic. Exact, closed form equations are derived but computation of solutions to specific problems generally require application of numerical integration or root finding techniques, which, while approximations, can be calculated to very high accuracy. Tolerances are set in the numerical algorithms such that computed travel time accuracies are better than 1 microsecond.
Intraglottal velocity and pressure measurements in a hemilarynx model.
Oren, Liran; Gutmark, Ephraim; Khosla, Sid
2015-02-01
Determining the mechanisms of self-sustained oscillation of the vocal folds requires characterization of the pressures produced by intraglottal aerodynamics. Because most of the intraglottal aerodynamic forces cannot be measured in a tissue model of the larynx, current understanding of vocal fold vibration mechanism is derived from mechanical, analytical, and computational models. Previous studies have computed intraglottal pressures from measured intraglottal velocity fields and intraglottal geometry; however, this technique for determining pressures is not yet validated. In this study, intraglottal pressure measurements taken in a hemilarynx model are compared with pressure values that are computed from simultaneous velocity measurements. The results showed that significant negative pressure formed near the superior aspect of the folds during closing, which agrees with previous measurements in other hemilarynx models. Intraglottal velocity measurements show that the flow near the superior aspect separates from the glottal wall during closing and may develop into a vortex, which further augments the magnitude of negative pressure. Intraglottal pressure distributions, computed by solving the pressure Poisson equation, showed good agreement with pressure measurements. The match between the pressure computations and its measurements validates the current technique, which was previously used to estimate intraglottal pressure distribution in a full larynx model. PMID:25698025
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mackenzie, G. D.; Maguire, P. K. H.; Denton, P.; Morgan, J.; Warner, M.
2001-08-01
A 20 element seismic array was deployed onshore across the 65 Ma. Chicxulub impact crater, Yucatan, Mexico as part of an integrated onshore-offshore seismic experiment. Fundamental and higher mode group velocity dispersion curves have been calculated through the application of multiple filter and phase match techniques to high frequency (0.2-5 Hz) Rayleigh waves recorded on the array and originating from local quarry blasts. Several 1-D shear wave velocity-depth models across the crater have been produced through the optimisation of these dispersion curves using a genetic algorithm. These models are resolved to a depth of circa 3.5 km and provide information on the velocity structure of the upper crater sequences and post-impact sedimentation, placing constraints on crater morphology and post impact sedimentation patterns. Shear wave velocities of 0.8-2.2 km s -1 are modelled within the interpreted Tertiary sedimentary sequence. An inverted velocity gradient is observed over the upper 300 m of the sediments with the exception of a circular region across the crater centre, suggesting the crater influenced sedimentation throughout the Tertiary. The base of the Tertiary sequence is modelled at circa 1-1.5 km depth where a thin layer with velocities up to 30% higher than the overlying sediments is observed. Immediately below this high velocity layer a circa 200 m thick low velocity zone with velocities of 1.0-2.3 km s -1 is interpreted as a layer of suevitic impact breccia. A shallowing to the base of this layer to circa 1.3 km depth between 30 and 40 km radius from the crater centre would be consistent with the existence of a peak ring occurring as a topographic high above the crater floor.
Quantum correlations in the 1D spin-1/2 Ising model with added Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction
M. R. Soltani; J. Vahedi; S. Mahdavifar
2015-01-23
We have considered the 1D spin-1/2 Ising model with added Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction and presence of a uniform magnetic field. Using the mean-field fermionization approach the energy spectrum in an infinite chain is obtained. The quantum discord (QD) and concurrence between nearest neighbor (NN) spins at finite temperature are specified as a function of mean-field order parameters. A comparison between concurrence and QD is done and differences are obtained. The macroscopic thermodynamical witness is also used to detect quantum entanglement region in solids within our model. We believe our results are useful in the field of the quantum information processing.
2D MHD and 1D HD models of a solar flare -- a comprehensive comparison of the results
Falewicz, R; Murawski, K; Srivastava, A K
2015-01-01
Without any doubt solar flaring loops possess a multi-thread internal structure that is poorly resolved and there are no means to observe heating episodes and thermodynamic evolution of the individual threads. These limitations cause fundamental problems in numerical modelling of flaring loops, such as selection of a structure and a number of threads, and an implementation of a proper model of the energy deposition process. A set of 1D hydrodynamic and 2D magnetohydrodynamic models of a flaring loop are developed to compare energy redistribution and plasma dynamics in the course of a prototypical solar flare. Basic parameters of the modeled loop are set according to the progenitor M1.8 flare recorded in the AR10126 on September 20, 2002 between 09:21 UT and 09:50 UT. The non-ideal 1D models include thermal conduction and radiative losses of the optically thin plasma as energy loss mechanisms, while the non-ideal 2D models take into account viscosity and thermal conduction as energy loss mechanisms only. The 2...
REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELLING IN THE VADOSE ZONE WITH COUPLED PHREEQC-HYDRUS 1D CODE
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
To model multicomponent transport during transient variably-saturated flow in the vadose zone, complex models are needed. Ideally such models should incorporate simultaneous solutions for the water flow equation, solute transport and equilibrium or kinetically homogeneous and heterogeneous geochemic...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lianxin; Zhang, Xuefeng; Han, Guijun; Wu, Xinrong; Cui, Xiaojian; Shao, Caixia; Sun, Chunjian; Zhang, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Xidong; Fu, Hongli
2015-09-01
At the interface between the lower atmosphere and sea surface, sea spray might significantly influence air-sea heat fluxes and subsequently, modulate upper ocean temperature during a typhoon passage. The effects of sea spray were introduced into the parameterization of sea surface roughness in a 1-D turbulent model, to investigate the effects of sea spray on upper ocean temperature in the Kuroshio Extension area, for the cases of two real typhoons from 2006, Yagi and Soulik. Model output was compared with data from the Kuroshio Extension Observatory (KEO), and Reynolds and AMSRE satellite remote sensing sea surface temperatures. The results indicate drag coefficients that include the spray effect are closer to observations than those without, and that sea spray can enhance the heat fluxes (especially latent heat flux) considerably during a typhoon passage. Consequently, the model results with heat fluxes enhanced by sea spray simulate better the cooling process of the SST and upper-layer temperature profiles. Additionally, results from the simulation of the passage of typhoon Soulik (that passed KEO quickly), which included the sea spray effect, were better than for the simulated passage of typhoon Yagi (that crossed KEO slowly). These promising 1-D results could provide insight into the application of sea spray in general circulation models for typhoon studies.
Kachroo, Pushkin
ITS Evacuation and Economic Controls Conservation Traffic Models: 1D Traffic Models: 2D and Visiting professor, U.C. BerkeleyTransportation Feedback Control Problems #12;ITS Evacuation and Economic professor, U.C. BerkeleyTransportation Feedback Control Problems #12;ITS Evacuation and Economic Controls
2D MHD and 1D HD Models of a Solar Flare—a Comprehensive Comparison of the Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falewicz, R.; Rudawy, P.; Murawski, K.; Srivastava, A. K.
2015-11-01
Without any doubt, solar flaring loops possess a multithread internal structure that is poorly resolved, and there are no means to observe heating episodes and thermodynamic evolution of the individual threads. These limitations cause fundamental problems in numerical modeling of flaring loops, such as selection of a structure and a number of threads, and an implementation of a proper model of the energy deposition process. A set of one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic models of a flaring loop are developed to compare energy redistribution and plasma dynamics in the course of a prototypical solar flare. Basic parameters of the modeled loop are set according to the progenitor M1.8 flare recorded in AR 10126 on 2002 September 20 between 09:21 UT and 09:50 UT. The nonideal 1D models include thermal conduction and radiative losses of the optically thin plasma as energy-loss mechanisms, while the nonideal 2D models take into account viscosity and thermal conduction as energy-loss mechanisms only. The 2D models have a continuous distribution of the parameters of the plasma across the loop and are powered by varying in time and space along and across the loop heating flux. We show that such 2D models are an extreme borderline case of a multithread internal structure of the flaring loop, with a filling factor equal to 1. Nevertheless, these simple models ensure the general correctness of the obtained results and can be adopted as a correct approximation of the real flaring structures.
Velocity Fields with Power-Law Spectra for Modeling Turbulent Mine Caglar
Caglar, Mine
Velocity Fields with Power-Law Spectra for Modeling Turbulent Flows Mine CÂ¸aglar KoÂ¸c UniversityÂ¸inlar velocity fields to capture power-law spectra. The random velocity field is non be generated by varying the stochastic parameters of the model. The velocity field being a functional version
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauer, Wesley; Viparelli, Enrica; Piegay, Herve
2014-05-01
Sedimentary deposits adjacent to rivers can represent important sources and sinks for bed material sediment, particularly on decadal and longer timescales. The Morphodynamics and Sediment Tracers in 1-D model (MAST-1D) is a size-specific sediment transport model that allows for active exchange between channel and floodplain sediment on river reaches of tens to hundreds of kilometers in length. The model is intended to provide a mechanism for performing a first-order assessment of the likely importance of off-channel sediment exchange in controlling decadal-scale geomorphic trends, thereby helping plan and/or prioritize field data collection and higher resolution modeling work. The model develops a sediment budget for short segments of an alluvial valley. Each segment encompasses several active river bends. In each segment, a sediment transport capacity computation is performed to determine the downstream flux of bed material sediment, following the approach of most other 1-D sediment transport models. However, the model differs from most other bed evolution models in that sediment can be exchanged with the floodplain in each segment, and mass conservation is applied to both the active layer and floodplain sediment storage reservoirs. The potential for net imbalances in overall exchange as well as the size specific nature of the computations allows the model to simulate reach-scale aggradation/degradation and/or changes in bed texture. The inclusion of fine sediment in the model allows it to track geochemical tracer material and also provides a mechanism to simulate, to first order, the effects of changes in the supply of silt and clay on overall channel hydraulic capacity. The model is applied to a ~40 km reach of the Ain River, a tributary of the Rhône River in eastern France that has experienced a significant sediment deficit as a result of the construction of several dams between 1920 and 1970. MAST-1D simulations result in both incision and the formation of a bed armor near the upstream end of the study reach, where sediment load has been disrupted. The inclusion of active exchange with the floodplain allows the floodplain evolve into a net source of bed material sediment as the channel incises. This effect prevents the sediment deficit from reaching the confluence with the Rhone for several simulated decades. When spatially variable migration rates similar to those measured from aerial photography are used to drive sediment exchange, the model shows complex interaction between bed and bank sediment, with the relatively fine-grained bank sediment supply mobilizing the coarser fraction of the active layer within rapidly shifting portions of the channel. This increases overall transport rates and leads to additional channel incision relative to what is simulated without bank sediment supply in these rapidly shifting reaches. The model is also helpful for evaluating the potential reach-scale effects of gravel augmentation downstream of the dams.
Hiergesell, R.; Taylor, G.
2010-11-17
An investigation was conducted to compare and evaluate contaminant transport results of two model codes, GoldSim and Porflow, using a simple 1-D string of elements in each code. Model domains were constructed to be identical with respect to cell numbers and dimensions, matrix material, flow boundary and saturation conditions. One of the codes, GoldSim, does not simulate advective movement of water; therefore the water flux term was specified as a boundary condition. In the other code, Porflow, a steady-state flow field was computed and contaminant transport was simulated within that flow-field. The comparisons were made solely in terms of the ability of each code to perform contaminant transport. The purpose of the investigation was to establish a basis for, and to validate follow-on work that was conducted in which a 1-D GoldSim model developed by abstracting information from Porflow 2-D and 3-D unsaturated and saturated zone models and then benchmarked to produce equivalent contaminant transport results. A handful of contaminants were selected for the code-to-code comparison simulations, including a non-sorbing tracer and several long- and short-lived radionuclides exhibiting both non-sorbing to strongly-sorbing characteristics with respect to the matrix material, including several requiring the simulation of in-growth of daughter radionuclides. The same diffusion and partitioning coefficients associated with each contaminant and the half-lives associated with each radionuclide were incorporated into each model. A string of 10-elements, having identical spatial dimensions and properties, were constructed within each code. GoldSim's basic contaminant transport elements, Mixing cells, were utilized in this construction. Sand was established as the matrix material and was assigned identical properties (e.g. bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity) in both codes. Boundary conditions applied included an influx of water at the rate of 40 cm/yr at one end of the string and no-flow lateral flow boundaries. A unit quantity of each contaminant was introduced at the influx boundaries and the rate of outflux at the opposite end of the 10-element string was recorded to make the comparisons. Saturated conditions were assumed in this evaluation. Under these carefully controlled conditions the two codes produced essentially identical results, demonstrating that both codes appear to be accurately implementing the contaminant transport mechanisms. The conclusion is that a satisfactory basis was established to justify the exercise in which 1-D GoldSim model was benchmarked against the 2-D unsaturated zone and 3-D saturated zone Porflow models used at the Savannah River Site (SRS).
Towards improved 1-D settler modelling: impact on control strategies using the
Bürger, Raimund
, right) Problem statement · Intense rain events cause extreme hydraulic peaks in inflow of WWTPs model recommended for controller design and evaluation of control strategies Bürger-Diehl model A new 1. Manipulation in underflow rate (left) and MLSS concentration in the first activated sludge tank (right) under
Numerical Simulation of Pulse-Tube Refrigerators: 1D model I.A. Lyulina1
Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit
and numerical mod- els have been developed. Thermodynamical models [3], [4] use the laws of thermodynamics.S. Tijsseling1 , A.T.A.M. de Waele2 1 Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, 2 Department of Applied of mass and energy. Using our numerical model, we can study the temperature dynamics in the pulse tube
The 1D Ising model and the topological phase of the Kitaev chain
Greiter, Martin Schnells, Vera Thomale, Ronny
2014-12-15
It has been noted that the Kitaev chain, a p-wave superconductor with nearest-neighbor pairing amplitude equal to the hopping term ?=t, and chemical potential ?=0, can be mapped into a nearest neighbor Ising model via a Jordan–Wigner transformation. Starting from the explicit eigenstates of the open Kitaev chain in terms of the original fermion operators, we elaborate that despite this formal equivalence the models are physically inequivalent, and show how the topological phase in the Kitaev chain maps into conventional order in the Ising model.
Jones, Alan G.
The lithosphereasthenosphere system beneath Ireland from integrated geophysical Square, Dublin 2, Ireland b Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid 2013 Available online 7 November 2013 Keywords: Lithosphere Ireland Integrated modeling Petrology
Analysis, simulation and visualization of 1D tapping via reduced dynamical models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blackmore, Denis; Rosato, Anthony; Tricoche, Xavier; Urban, Kevin; Zou, Luo
2014-04-01
A low-dimensional center-of-mass dynamical model is devised as a simplified means of approximately predicting some important aspects of the motion of a vertical column comprised of a large number of particles subjected to gravity and periodic vertical tapping. This model is investigated first as a continuous dynamical system using analytical, simulation and visualization techniques. Then, by employing an approach analogous to that used to approximate the dynamics of a bouncing ball on an oscillating flat plate, it is modeled as a discrete dynamical system and analyzed to determine bifurcations and transitions to chaotic motion along with other properties. The predictions of the analysis are then compared-primarily qualitatively-with visualization and simulation results of the reduced continuous model, and ultimately with simulations of the complete system dynamics.
An Extended Global Sensitivity Analysis Implemented on a 1D Land Biosphere Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ioannou-Katidis, Pavlos; Petropoulos, George; Griffiths, Hywel; Bevan, Rhodri
2014-05-01
The implementation of sophisticated mathematical models is undoubtedly becoming increasingly widely used in a variety of fields in geosciences. SimSphere belongs to a special category of land biosphere models called Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) models. Those provide representations, in a vertical profile, of the physical mechanisms controlling the physical interactions occurring in the soil/vegetation/atmosphere continuum at a temporal resolution that is in good agreement with the dynamic timescale of the atmospheric and surface processes. This study builds on previous works conducted by the authors and aims at extending our understanding of this model structure and further establishing its coherence. Herein we present the results from a thorough sensitivity analysis (SA) performed on SimSphere using a cutting edge and robust Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) approach, based on the use of the Gaussian Emulation Machine for Sensitivity Analysis (GEM-SA) tool. In particular, the sensitivity of selected key variables characterising land surface interactions simulated by SimSphere were evaluated at different times of model output. All model inputs were assumed to be normally distributed with their probability distribution functions (PDFs) defined using mean and variance taken from the entire theoretical range that these inputs can take in SimSphere. The sensitivity of the following SimSphere outputs was evaluated: Daily Average Net Radiation, Daily Average Latent Heat flux, Daily Average Sensible Heat flux, Daily Average Air Temperature , Daily Average Radiometric Temperature, Daily Average Surface Moisture Availability, Daily Average Evaporative Fraction and Daily Average Non-Evaporative Fraction. Our results showed largely comparable trends in terms of identifying the most sensitive model inputs in respect to the model outputs examined. In addition, a high percentage of first order interactions between the model inputs were reported, suggesting strong model coherence between inputs and outputs. Among the most sensitive model inputs for the outputs examined were the Fractional Vegetation Cover, Soil Moisture and topographically-related parameters (i.e. slope, aspect). Our study represents a significant step forward in the global efforts towards SimSphere verification given that its use is progressively expanding including present efforts to explore its synergy with Earth Observation for operationally deriving key land surface parameters at a global scale from space. KEYWORDS: Global Sensitivity Analysis, BACCO method, GEM-SA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hooshyar, M.; Hagen, S. C.; Wang, D.
2014-12-01
Hydrodynamic models are widely applied to coastal areas in order to predict water levels and flood inundation and typically involve solving a form of the Shallow Water Equations (SWE). The SWE are routinely discretized by applying numerical methods, such as the finite element method. Like other numerical models, hydrodynamic models include uncertainty. Uncertainties are generated due to errors in the discrete approximation of coastal geometry, bathymetry, bottom friction and forcing functions such as tides and wind fields. Methods to counteract these uncertainties should always begin with improvements to physical characterization of: the geometric description through increased resolution, parameters that describe land cover variations in the natural and urban environment, parameters that enhance transfer of surface forcings to the water surface, open boundary forcings, and the wetting/drying brought upon by flood and ebb cycles. When the best possible physical representation is achieved, we are left with calibration and data assimilation to reduce model uncertainty. Data assimilation has been applied to coastal hydrodynamic models to better estimate system states and/or system parameters by incorporating observed data into the model. Kalman Filter is one of the most studied data assimilation methods that minimizes the mean square errors between model state estimations and the observed data in linear systems (Kalman , 1960). For nonlinear systems, as with hydrodynamic models, a variation of Kalman filter called Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), is applied to update the system state according to error statistics in the context of Monte Carlo simulations (Evensen , 2003) & (Hitoshi et. al, 2014). In this research, Kalman Filter is incorporated to simultaneously estimate an influential parameter used in the shallow water equations, bottom roughness, and to adjust the physical feature of bathymetry. Starting from an initial estimate of bottom roughness and bathymetry, and applying EnKF, more accurate bottom roughness and bathymetry are obtained by utilizing measurements available in a limited number of gages. The procedure is examined along five typical near shore transects located in Gulf of Mexico.
Space-based Observational Constraints for 1-D Plume Rise Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Maria Val; Kahn, Ralph A.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Paguam, Ronan; Wooster, Martin; Ichoku, Charles
2012-01-01
We use a space-based plume height climatology derived from observations made by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard the NASA Terra satellite to evaluate the ability of a plume-rise model currently embedded in several atmospheric chemical transport models (CTMs) to produce accurate smoke injection heights. We initialize the plume-rise model with assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System and estimated fuel moisture content at the location and time of the MISR measurements. Fire properties that drive the plume-rise model are difficult to estimate and we test the model with four estimates for active fire area and four for total heat flux, obtained using empirical data and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) re radiative power (FRP) thermal anomalies available for each MISR plume. We show that the model is not able to reproduce the plume heights observed by MISR over the range of conditions studied (maximum r2 obtained in all configurations is 0.3). The model also fails to determine which plumes are in the free troposphere (according to MISR), key information needed for atmospheric models to simulate properly smoke dispersion. We conclude that embedding a plume-rise model using currently available re constraints in large-scale atmospheric studies remains a difficult proposition. However, we demonstrate the degree to which the fire dynamical heat flux (related to active fire area and sensible heat flux), and atmospheric stability structure influence plume rise, although other factors less well constrained (e.g., entrainment) may also be significant. Using atmospheric stability conditions, MODIS FRP, and MISR plume heights, we offer some constraints on the main physical factors that drive smoke plume rise. We find that smoke plumes reaching high altitudes are characterized by higher FRP and weaker atmospheric stability conditions than those at low altitude, which tend to remain confined below the BL, consistent with earlier results. We propose two simplified parameterizations for computing injection heights for fires in CTMs and discuss current challenges to representing plume injection heights in large scale atmospheric models.
Assessing the impact of different sources of topographic data on 1-D hydraulic modelling of floods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, A. Md; Solomatine, D. P.; Di Baldassarre, G.
2014-07-01
Topographic data, such as digital elevation models (DEMs), are essential input in flood inundation modelling. DEMs can be derived from several sources either through remote sensing techniques (space-borne or air-borne imagery) or from traditional methods (ground survey). The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), and topographic contour maps are some of the most commonly used sources of data for DEMs. These DEMs are characterized by different precision and accuracy. On the one hand, the spatial resolution of low-cost DEMs from satellite imagery, such as ASTER and SRTM, is rather coarse (around 30-90 m). On the other hand, LiDAR technique is able to produce a high resolution DEMs (around 1m), but at a much higher cost. Lastly, contour mapping based on ground survey is time consuming, particularly for higher scales, and may not be possible for some remote areas. The use of these different sources of DEM obviously affects the results of flood inundation models. This paper shows and compares a number of hydraulic models developed using HEC-RAS as model code and the aforementioned sources of DEM as geometric input. The study was carried out on a reach of the Johor River, in Malaysia. The effect of the different sources of DEMs (and different resolutions) was investigated by considering the performance of the hydraulic models in simulating flood water levels as well as inundation maps. The outcomes of our study show that the use of different DEMs has serious implications to the results of hydraulic models. The outcomes also indicates the loss of model accuracy due to re-sampling the highest resolution DEM (i.e. LiDAR 1 m) to lower resolution are much less compared to the loss of model accuracy due to the use of low-cost DEM that have not only a lower resolution, but also a lower quality. Lastly, to better explore the sensitivity of the hydraulic models to different DEMs, we performed an uncertainty analysis based on the GLUE methodology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chalise, Roshan; Khanal, Raju
2015-11-01
We have developed a self-consistent 1d3v (one dimension in space and three dimension in velocity) Kinetic Trajectory Simulation (KTS) model, which can be used for modeling various situations of interest and yields results of high accuracy. Exact ion trajectories are followed, to calculate along them the ion distribution function, assuming an arbitrary injection ion distribution. The electrons, on the other hand, are assumed to have a cut-off Maxwellian velocity distribution at injection and their density distribution is obtained analytically. Starting from an initial guess, the potential profile is iterated towards the final time-independent self-consistent state. We have used it to study plasma sheath region formed in presence of an oblique magnetic field. Our results agree well with previous works from other models, and hence, we expect our 1d3v KTS model to provide a basis for the studying of all types of magnetized plasmas, yielding more accurate results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kauczok, S.; Maul, C.; Chichinin, A. I.; Gericke, K.-H.
2010-06-01
In order to measure the state selective double differential cross section of a reactive collision, the preparation of the reactants with defined initial velocities and quantum states in number densities high enough to achieve an acceptable count rate is most important. At the same time, secondary collisions have to be prevented in order to ensure that the nascent products are not thermalized. Usually, the best way to control the initial conditions is to use crossed molecular beams, but the number density decreases quadratically with the distance from the nozzle orifice which can be a problem, especially if a molecular product with a large number of populated states is to be analyzed state specifically by REMPI spectroscopy. In this contribution we would like to present a method for measuring the quantum state selective differential cross section of a photoinitiated reaction that combines the advantages of the PHOTOLOC technique (high reactant densities) and the parallel beams technique used by the groups of Kitsopoulos, Orr-Ewing, and Suits (defined relative velocity of the reactants). Moreover, an algorithm based on a Bayesian backward reconstruction developed by W. H. Richardson [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 55 (1972)] has been derived. Both, one reactant and the precursor of the other reactant, are present in the same molecular beam and the center of mass velocity is selected by shifting the dissociation and the detection laser in time and space. Like in comparable methods, this produces a bias in the measured velocity distribution due to the fact that the reaction takes place in the whole volume surrounding the laser beams. This has been also reported by Toomes et al. in the case of the parallel beams technique and presents a general problem of probing reaction products by REMPI spectroscopy. To account for this, we develop a general approach that can be easily adapted to other conditions. The bias is removed in addition to deconvolution from the spread in reactant velocities. Using the benchmark system O(D1)+D2 with N2O as the precursor, we demonstrate that the technique is also applicable in a very general sense (i.e., also with a large spread in reactant velocities, products much faster than reactants) and therefore can be used also if such unfortunate conditions cannot be avoided. Since the resulting distribution of velocities in the laboratory frame is not cylindrically symmetric, three dimensional velocity mapping is the method of choice for the detection of the ionized products. For the reconstruction, the distance between the two laser beams is an important parameter. We have measured this distance using the photodissociation of HBr at 193 nm, detecting the H atoms near 243 nm. The collision energy resulting from the 193 nm photodissociation of N2O is 5.2±1.9 kcal/mol. Our results show a preference for backward scattered D atoms with the OH partner fragment in the high vibrational states (v =4-6), in accord with previously published results claiming the growing importance of a linear abstraction mechanism for collision energies higher than 2.4 kcal/mol.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahieux, A.; Erwin, J. T.; Chamberlain, S.; Robert, S.; Thomas, I.; Vandaele, A. C.; Trompet, L.; Wilquet, V.; Yelle, R. V.
2015-10-01
The SOIR instrument on board Venus Express routinely measures the CO2 number density profiles in the mesosphere and thermosphere region at the Venus terminator using the solar occultation technique. Assuming the hydrostatic equilibrium, we derive temperature profiles, which show a permanent cold layer at 125 km, surrounded by two warmer layers at 100 km and 140 km. We developed a 1D conductive radiative transfer model to study the mean SOIR thermal profile, considering the main species, and carefully modelling the radiative terms. In order to correctly reproduce the thermal profile, aerosols cooling and heating terms are added. We describe how aerosols number density profiles can be calculated to have a good match of the thermal profiles.
An explicit model for the adiabatic evolution of quantum observables driven by 1D shape resonances
A. Faraj; A. Mantile; F. Nier
2010-06-16
This paper is concerned with a linearized version of the transport problem where the Schr\\"{o}dinger-Poisson operator is replaced by a non-autonomous Hamiltonian, slowly varying in time. We consider an explicitly solvable model where a semiclassical island is described by a flat potential barrier, while a time dependent 'delta' interaction is used as a model for a single quantum well. Introducing, in addition to the complex deformation, a further modification formed by artificial interface conditions, we give a reduced equation for the adiabatic evolution of the sheet density of charges accumulating around the interaction point.
A 1D Model for N-level Atoms Coupled to an EM Field
Z. S. Bassi; A. LeClair
1997-03-28
We construct a model for n-level atoms coupled to quantized electromagnetic fields in a fibrillar geometry. In the slowly varying envelope and rotating wave approximations, the equations of motion are shown to satisfy a zero curvature representation, implying integrability of the quantum system.
A 1D mechanistic model for the evolution of earthflowprone hillslopes
Roering, Joshua J.
on hillslopes, exerting a dominant control on erosion rates and landscape form. Here, we develop a mathematical landscape evolution model to explore interactions between deepseated earthflows, soil creep, and gully erosion rate and therefore a landscape's topographic form. Especially where uplift rates are high
ORIGINAL PAPER 1D Model of Precursors to Frictional Stick-Slip Motion Allowing
Scheibert, Julien
precursors to frictional sliding in the stick-slip regime. By successively adding an (i) internal viscosity of advancement which, in many instances, enables quantitative reproduction of global [2, 37] or local [13, 30, 31 implications for e.g. the study of earthquakes, have triggered an active modelling activity. Braun et al. [9
Adhikari, K; Pal, S; Chakraborty, B; Mukherjee, S N; Gangopadhyay, A
2014-10-01
The movement of contaminants through soil imparts a variety of geo-environmental problem inclusive of lithospheric pollution. Near-surface aquifers are often vulnerable to contamination from surface source if overlying soil possesses poor resilience or contaminant attenuation capacity. The prediction of contaminant transport through soil is urged to protect groundwater from sources of pollutants. Using field simulation through column experiments and mathematical modeling like HYDRUS-1D, assessment of soil resilience and movement of contaminants through the subsurface to reach aquifers can be predicted. An outfall site of effluents of a coke oven plant comprising of alarming concentration of phenol (4-12.2 mg/L) have been considered for studying groundwater condition and quality, in situ soil characterization, and effluent characterization. Hydrogeological feature suggests the presence of near-surface aquifers at the effluent discharge site. Analysis of groundwater of nearby locality reveals the phenol concentration (0.11-0.75 mg/L) exceeded the prescribed limit of WHO specification (0.002 mg/L). The in situ soil, used in column experiment, possess higher saturated hydraulic conductivity (KS ?=?5.25?×?10(-4) cm/s). The soil containing 47 % silt, 11 % clay, and 1.54% organic carbon content was found to be a poor absorber of phenol (24 mg/kg). The linear phenol adsorption isotherm model showed the best fit (R(2)?=?0.977, RMSE?=?1.057) to the test results. Column experiments revealed that the phenol removal percent and the length of the mass transfer zone increased with increasing bed heights. The overall phenol adsorption efficiency was found to be 42-49%. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) predicted by HYDRUS-1D model appears to be close fitting with the BTCs derived from the column experiments. The phenol BTC predicted by the HYDRUS-1D model for 1.2 m depth subsurface soil, i.e., up to the depth of groundwater in the study area, showed that the exhaustion point was reached within 12 days of elapsed time. This clearly demonstrated poor attenuation capacity of the soil to retard migration of phenol to the groundwater from the surface outfall site. Suitable liner, based on these data, may be designed to inhibit subsurface transport of phenol and thereby to protect precious groundwater from contamination. PMID:24929358
Traveling waves in an optimal velocity model of freeway traffic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berg, Peter; Woods, Andrew
2001-03-01
Car-following models provide both a tool to describe traffic flow and algorithms for autonomous cruise control systems. Recently developed optimal velocity models contain a relaxation term that assigns a desirable speed to each headway and a response time over which drivers adjust to optimal velocity conditions. These models predict traffic breakdown phenomena analogous to real traffic instabilities. In order to deepen our understanding of these models, in this paper, we examine the transition from a linear stable stream of cars of one headway into a linear stable stream of a second headway. Numerical results of the governing equations identify a range of transition phenomena, including monotonic and oscillating travelling waves and a time- dependent dispersive adjustment wave. However, for certain conditions, we find that the adjustment takes the form of a nonlinear traveling wave from the upstream headway to a third, intermediate headway, followed by either another traveling wave or a dispersive wave further downstream matching the downstream headway. This intermediate value of the headway is selected such that the nonlinear traveling wave is the fastest stable traveling wave which is observed to develop in the numerical calculations. The development of these nonlinear waves, connecting linear stable flows of two different headways, is somewhat reminiscent of stop-start waves in congested flow on freeways. The different types of adjustments are classified in a phase diagram depending on the upstream and downstream headway and the response time of the model. The results have profound consequences for autonomous cruise control systems. For an autocade of both identical and different vehicles, the control system itself may trigger formations of nonlinear, steep wave transitions. Further information is available [Y. Sugiyama, Traffic and Granular Flow (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), p. 137].
Traveling waves in an optimal velocity model of freeway traffic.
Berg, P; Woods, A
2001-03-01
Car-following models provide both a tool to describe traffic flow and algorithms for autonomous cruise control systems. Recently developed optimal velocity models contain a relaxation term that assigns a desirable speed to each headway and a response time over which drivers adjust to optimal velocity conditions. These models predict traffic breakdown phenomena analogous to real traffic instabilities. In order to deepen our understanding of these models, in this paper, we examine the transition from a linear stable stream of cars of one headway into a linear stable stream of a second headway. Numerical results of the governing equations identify a range of transition phenomena, including monotonic and oscillating travelling waves and a time- dependent dispersive adjustment wave. However, for certain conditions, we find that the adjustment takes the form of a nonlinear traveling wave from the upstream headway to a third, intermediate headway, followed by either another traveling wave or a dispersive wave further downstream matching the downstream headway. This intermediate value of the headway is selected such that the nonlinear traveling wave is the fastest stable traveling wave which is observed to develop in the numerical calculations. The development of these nonlinear waves, connecting linear stable flows of two different headways, is somewhat reminiscent of stop-start waves in congested flow on freeways. The different types of adjustments are classified in a phase diagram depending on the upstream and downstream headway and the response time of the model. The results have profound consequences for autonomous cruise control systems. For an autocade of both identical and different vehicles, the control system itself may trigger formations of nonlinear, steep wave transitions. Further information is available [Y. Sugiyama, Traffic and Granular Flow (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), p. 137]. PMID:11308709
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minárik, Stanislav
2015-08-01
In this paper, we propose theoretical basis for investigation of dynamics of acoustic phonons in a thin layers containing nano-scale structural inhomogeneities. One-dimensional (1D) model of a crystal lattice was considered to reveal specific features of the processes arising in such system of phonons in equilibrium state. Standard quantization of energy of 1D ionic chain vibrating by acoustic frequencies was carried out while the presence of foreign ions in this chain was taken into account. Since only two dimensions are dominant in thin layers, only longitudinal vibrations of the chain in the plane of the layer were considered. Results showed that foreign ions affect the energy quantization. Phonon-phonon interaction between two phonon`s modes can be expected if the mass of foreign ions implanted by ion-beam differs from the mass of ions in the initial layer. We believe that the obtained results will help to understand the character of phonon systems in nanostructured thin layers prepared by ion-bem technology, and will allow better explain some thermal and electrical phenomena associated with lattice dynamics in such layers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raybaud, V.; Nival, P.; Prieur, L.
2011-01-01
Modelling was used as a tool to better understand the physical and biological processes observed during the multidisciplinary cruise DYNAPROC 2 (DYNAmic of rapid PROCesses in the water column), which took place in the Ligurian Sea in September-October 2004. The aim of the cruise was to study the short time-scale physical and biological processes that occur when the ecosystem switches from summer oligotrophy to autumnal mesotrophy. In this study, we have tested two 1D physical-biological coupled models. The first was a classical model in which surface layer dynamics were obtained using the turbulent kinetic energy model of Gaspar [Gaspar et al., 1990]. The simulated food-web took into account ten state variables: three nutrients, three classes of phytoplankton, two classes of zooplankton and two types of detritus. The second model (called IDA, Isopycnals Depth Adjustment) was based on the initial one but it took into account the measured variations of isopycnals depths. The results showed that the IDA model most efficiently reproduced the observed ecosystem dynamics. We have therefore used the IDA model to show that physical processes observed during the cruise had a major effect on biological compartment, mainly on nano- and picophytoplankton.
A 1-D Model of the 4 Bed Molecular Sieve of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coker, Robert; Knox, Jim
2015-01-01
Developments to improve system efficiency and reliability for water and carbon dioxide separation systems on crewed vehicles combine sub-scale systems testing and multi-physics simulations. This paper describes the development of COMSOL simulations in support of the Life Support Systems (LSS) project within NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. Specifically, we model the 4 Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) operating on the International Space Station (ISS).
TESTS OF 1-D TRANSPORT MODELS, AND THEIR PREDICTIONS FOR ITER
Vlad, Gregorio
, H. SHIRAI 13 , P. M. STUBBERFIELD 14 , M. F. TURNER 4 , G. VLAD 11 , R. E. WALTZ 10 , J. WEILAND 15 to establish how well each model represents the wide range of existing tokamak data we have developed the ITER to electron temperatures in a standard dataset of 75 L- and H-mode discharges from C-mod, DIII-D, JET, JT-60U
A Simplified 1-D Model for Calculating CO2 Leakage through Conduits
Zhang, Y.; Oldenburg, C.M.
2011-02-15
In geological CO{sub 2} storage projects, a cap rock is generally needed to prevent CO{sub 2} from leaking out of the storage formation. However, the injected CO{sub 2} may still encounter some discrete flow paths such as a conductive well or fault (here referred to as conduits) through the cap rock allowing escape of CO{sub 2} from the storage formation. As CO{sub 2} migrates upward, it may migrate into the surrounding formations. The amount of mass that is lost to the formation is called attenuation. This report describes a simplified model to calculate the CO{sub 2} mass flux at different locations of the conduit and the amount of attenuation to the surrounding formations. From the comparison among the three model results, we can conclude that the steady-state conduit model (SSCM) provides a more accurate solution than the PMC at a given discretization. When there is not a large difference between the permeability of the surrounding formation and the permeability of the conduits, and there is leak-off at the bottom formation (the formation immediately above the CO{sub 2} plume), a fine discretization is needed for an accurate solution. Based on this comparison, we propose to use the SSCM in the rapid prototype for now given it does not produce spurious oscillations, and is already in FORTRAN and therefore can be easily made into a dll for use in GoldSim.
Fuentes, Olac
to produce a velocity model of the Earth's crust using evolutionary and seismic tomography algorithms of an iterative three-dimensional seismic tomog- raphy technique to generate a model of the Earth's crustal finds a three- dimensional velocity model with constant lateral velocity layers that minimizes the root
Dynamical correlation functions of the 1D Bose gas (Lieb Liniger model)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caux, Jean-Sebastien; Calabrese, Pasquale
2007-03-01
The momentum- and frequency-dependent correlation functions (one-body and density-density) of the one-dimensional interacting Bose gas (Lieb-Liniger model) are obtained for any value (repulsive or attractive) of the interaction parameter. In the repulsive regime, we use the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz and the ABACUS method to reconstruct the correlators to high accuracy for systems with finite but large numbers of particles. For attractive interactions, the correlations are computed analytically. Our results are discussed, with particular emphasis on their applications to quasi-one-dimensional atomic gases.
Data assimilation with the EnKF in a 1-D numerical model of a North Sea station
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ponsar, Stéphanie; Luyten, Patrick
2009-12-01
A series of numerical experiments for data assimilation with the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) in a shallow water model are reported. Temperature profiles measured at a North Sea location, 55°30? North and 0°55? East (referred to as the CS station of the NERC North Sea project), are assimilated in 1-D simulations. Comparison of simulations without assimilation to model results obtained when assimilating data with the EnKF allows us to assess the filter performance in reproducing features of the observations not accounted for by the model. The quality of the model error sampling is tested as well as the validity of the Gaussian hypothesis underlying the analysis scheme of the EnKF. The influence of the model error parameters and the frequency of the data assimilation are investigated and discussed. From these experiments, a set of optimal parameters for the model error sampling are deduced and used to test the behavior of the EnKF when propagating surface information into the water column.
Exploring phase transitions by finite-entanglement scaling of MPS in the 1D ANNNI model
Adam Nagy
2011-02-21
We use the finite-entanglement scaling of infinite matrix product states (iMPS) to explore supposedly infinite order transitions. This universal method may have lower computational costs than finite-size scaling. To this end, we study possible MPS-based algorithms to find the ground states of the transverse axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model in a spin chain with first and second neighbor interactions and frustration. The ground state has four distinct phases with transitions of second order and one of supposedly infinite order, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. To explore phase transitions in the model, we study general quantities such as the correlation length, entanglement entropy and the second derivative of the energy with respect to the external field, and test the finite-entanglement scaling. We propose a scaling ansatz for the correlation length of a non-critical system in order to explore infinite order transitions. This method provides considerably less computational costs compared to the finite-size scaling method in [8], and quantities obtained by applying fixed boundary conditions (such as domain wall energy in [8]) are omitted. The results show good agreement with previous studies of finite-size scaling using DMRG.
Hyperbolic reformulation of a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model and ADER finite volume schemes
Montecinos, Gino I.; Müller, Lucas O.; Toro, Eleuterio F.
2014-06-01
The applicability of ADER finite volume methods to solve hyperbolic balance laws with stiff source terms in the context of well-balanced and non-conservative schemes is extended to solve a one-dimensional blood flow model for viscoelastic vessels, reformulated as a hyperbolic system, via a relaxation time. A criterion for selecting relaxation times is found and an empirical convergence rate assessment is carried out to support this result. The proposed methodology is validated by applying it to a network of viscoelastic vessels for which experimental and numerical results are available. The agreement between the results obtained in the present paper and those available in the literature is satisfactory. Key features of the present formulation and numerical methodologies, such as accuracy, efficiency and robustness, are fully discussed in the paper.
Features of phase ordering in (2+1)D-O(3) models
G. Holzwarth; J. Klomfass
2000-09-06
Numerical simulations of phase ordering under dissipative dynamics in a (2+1)-dimensional 3-vector model with O(3) symmetry are reported. The energy functional includes terms which stabilize the size of extended topological defects. They emerge at the end of the coarsening process as particle- or antiparticle-like structures floating in the globally aligned vacuum. Approximate power-law growth of disoriented domains (with an exponent near 0.4) is found to be rather insensitive to the size of the defects. An optional filter for conservation of winding number allows to study phase ordering in high defect-density environment which leads to large clusters of particles surrounded by the aligned field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, Catalina; Mechie, James
2015-04-01
Using active and passive seismology data from project TIPTEQ (from The Incoming Plate to mega-Thrust EarthQuake processes) we derive a shear (S) wave velocity and a Poisson's ratio (?) model across the Chilean convergent margin along 38°15'S, where the Mw 9.5 Valdivia earthquake is believed to have occurred. The obtained S-wave velocity model consists of three different tomographic images that were merged together. In the upper part (0 - 5 km depth), controlled source data from explosions were used to obtain a S-wave travel-time tomography. In the middle part (5 - 20 km depth) a dispersion analysis and then a noise tomography were carried out in two different ways: one used the dispersion curves to obtain a 3D S-wave velocity model in one step and the other used the dispersion curves to obtain surface-wave velocity tomographic images for different periods and then used the surface-wave velocity values every 10 km along the profile to obtain 1D S-wave velocity profiles every 10 km that were then interpolated to obtain a 2D S-wave tomography. Both methods produce similar S-wave travel-times. In the lower part (20 - 75 km depth, depending on the longitude) an already existent S-wave velocity model from local earthquake tomography was merged with the other two sections. The final S-wave velocity model and already existent compressional (P) wave velocity models along the same transect allowed us to obtain a Poisson's ratio model. The results show that the velocities and Poisson's ratios in this part of the Chilean convergent margin can all be explained in terms of normal rock types. There is no requirement to call on the existence of significant amounts of present-day fluids in the continental lithosphere above the plate interface in this part of the Chilean convergent margin, to explain the derived velocities and Poisson's ratios.
Vlasov dynamics of 1D models with long-range interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Druken, Kelsey A.
Subduction zones, mid-ocean spreading centers and mantle plumes are three of the largest sources for volcanism on Earth. With subduction as the driving tectonic force, these systems are responsible for the evolution of both the crust and mantle and as a result are important processes in our understanding of the solid Earth. Mantle plume processes, however, are still strongly debated within the community, particularly when occurring near subduction zones. Using both laboratory (i.e. analog) and numerical modeling techniques, we examine the dynamic interaction between subduction-driven and plume-driven flow. Results highlight the weak nature of buoyant plumes in comparison to the dominant slab-induced circulation. As a consequence of the subduction-induced flow, surface expressions differ significantly from traditional plume expectations. Variations in slab sinking style and plume position lead to a range in plume head and conduit melting signatures, as well as migrating hotspots. Motivated by the debated origin of recent (< 20 Ma) volcanism in the Northwest U.S., we also report results of the evolution of finite strain within rollback-induced as well as plume-driven flow fields. If the patterns differ between background subduction and plume structures, seismic anisotropy observations could help distinguish the plume and non plume models that are suggested for the region. We find rollback-induced horizontal shear causes predominantly trench-normal strain alignment in the backarc mantle wedge in contrast to longitudinal subduction which, despite the simple flow field, results in complex and variable orientations from the lack of strong horizontal shear. Splitting observations from the High Lava Plains region with the Northwest U.S. are in good agreement with the trench-normal laboratory predictions of strain alignment. Alignment within plume heads are found to exhibit striking tangential patterns that are perpendicular to the plume-driven flow. While we show that alignment does not reflect the direction of plume-driven flow, the study does show strong patterns of alignment that can be used as new guidelines for seismic interpretations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daehne, A.; van Asch, Th. W. J.; Corsini, A.; Spickerman, A.; Bégueria-Portuguès, S.
2010-05-01
Understanding the behavior of landslides often starts with a numerical simulation that accurately accounts for observed physical processes. This research proposes a method for the implementation of the dynamic SLOWMOVE model to a high-mobility, moderate velocity earth flow located in the northern Apennines. The Valoria landslide is 3.5 km long earth slide- earth flow that resumed activity in 2001. Landslide materials comprised of disaggregated Flysch, Marl and Claystones are mainly transported as earth slides in the upper slope, and as earth flows in the main track. Repeated acceleration events lasting several weeks occur seasonally since 2001 reactivation. During events it can reach velocities of about 10 m per hour with a cumulative displacement of hundreds of meters. Through this intermittent activity, more than ten million cubic meters have been transferred down-slope since 2001, changing significantly and several times the morphology of the slope. The SLOWMOVE model postulates that landslide materials can be represented as a homogeneous material with rheological properties and constant density. The approach is based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Under the assumptions that the inertia of the moving mass can be neglected, the behavior of the landslide depends solely on the balance between driving forces and resisting forces which contain a Coulomb-viscous component. Excess pore pressure due to undrained loading and lateral force form the main parameters that control the acceleration. The effects of lateral force and excess pore pressure allow a numerical simulation of landslide reactivation by coupling of two landslide bodies. A numerical scheme based on a finite difference solution (2D Eulerian space with Cartesian coordinates) was implemented in Microsoft Excel and used to compute propagation of the mass in 1D. The model allows coupling between mass movements having different geotechnical characteristic. In practice, it allows simulating the reactivation of dormant landslide parts as an effect of undrained loading and changed pressure conditions caused by active movements approaching from upslope. A representative landslide cross-section of the Valoria landslide, stretching from the main track zone down to the toe zone, was analyzed in SLOWMOVE. A large set of surface displacement data obtained since March 2008 through continuous total-station monitoring allowed for evaluation and calibration of the numerical implementations in terms of velocity. Multi-temporal Lidar surveys allowed for calibration of the model in terms of event-induced morphological changes along the selected cross section. Model parameters were defined, on such basis, via a trial and error approach starting from laboratory and literature data. The model was able to reproduce realistic velocities and morphological changes. The specific function of coupling between interacting portion of the mass movement, allowed for simulation of landslide toe reactivation, that was observed during major acceleration events as a result of the domino effect caused by active flows in the main flow track. Further development is needed in order to integrate in the model transient pore pressure conditions. Nevertheless, results are promising, as they point to a possible application of the model in quantitative hazard and risk assessment.
A 1D pulse wave propagation model of the hemodynamics of calf muscle pump function
Keijsers, J M T; Leguy, C A D; Huberts, W; Narracott, A J; Rittweger, J; van?de Vosse, F N
2015-01-01
The calf muscle pump is a mechanism which increases venous return and thereby compensates for the fluid shift towards the lower body during standing. During a muscle contraction, the embedded deep veins collapse and venous return increases. In the subsequent relaxation phase, muscle perfusion increases due to increased perfusion pressure, as the proximal venous valves temporarily reduce the distal venous pressure (shielding). The superficial and deep veins are connected via perforators, which contain valves allowing flow in the superficial-to-deep direction. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify the physiological mechanisms of the calf muscle pump, including the effect of venous valves, hydrostatic pressure, and the superficial venous system. Using a one-dimensional pulse wave propagation model, a muscle contraction is simulated by increasing the extravascular pressure in the deep venous segments. The hemodynamics are studied in three different configurations: a single artery–vein configuration with and without valves and a more detailed configuration including a superficial vein. Proximal venous valves increase effective venous return by 53% by preventing reflux. Furthermore, the proximal valves shielding function increases perfusion following contraction. Finally, the superficial system aids in maintaining the perfusion during the contraction phase and reduces the refilling time by 37%. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25766693
Determination of soil hydraulic parameters with an inverse model for 1D and 2D infiltration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soria, J. M.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Haverkamp, R.; Leij, F. J.
2003-04-01
Determination of soil hydraulic parameters is important for modelling of hydrological transfer processes in the unsaturated zone of a watershed. However, assessment of these parameters at a great number of grid locations with traditional methods requires considerable time and resources. In this work, a simple method is developed to determine the hydraulic conductivity at saturation (Ks) and the normalisation parameter of the water retention curve (hg which equals 1/alfa for the van Genuchten water retention curve) for the cases of vertical and axisymmetrical infiltration subject to a constant pressure head at the soil surface. While the method is based on the optimisation of a dimensionless solution of the Richards equation, the data requirements are: i) a cumulative infiltration-time curve (e.g., obtained with a disk permeameter); ii) the pressure shape parameters of the soil characteristic curves (e.g., m, n) which can easily be obtained from textural information; and iii) the initial volumetric water content and the surface boundary condition hs < 0. The method is tested for synthetic data generated with the Hydrus-2D code for the Mualem-van Genuchten soil characteristic functions. Obviously, the method can be applied for any other set of functions. The results show that the parameters Ks and hg can be accurately predicted independent of the number of points and the time span of infiltration. However, further research is necessary to test the sensitivity of other variables.
An analytical 1-D model for vertical momentum and energy flux through a fully developed wind farm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2014-05-01
Wind farms capture momentum from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) both at the leading edge and from the atmosphere above. Momentum is advected into the wind farm and wake turbulence draws excess momentum in from between turbines until momentum is only available from above the wind farm. This distance can be described by the so-called drag development length scale, which arises from the canopy drag force term in the momentum equation. At this point the flow can be considered fully developed. The horizontally-averaged velocity profile for a fully developed wind farm flow exhibits a characteristic inflection point near the top of the wind farm, similar to that of sparse canopy-type flows (Markfort et al., JoT, 2012). The inflected vertical velocity profile is associated with the presence of a dominant characteristic turbulence scale, which may be responsible for a significant portion of the vertical momentum flux. We evaluate an analytical canopy-type flow model for wind farm-atmosphere interaction by testing it against wind-tunnel experimental data of flow through a model wind farm. The model is adapted to predict the mean flow, vertical momentum flux, and the mean kinetic energy flux as well as kinetic energy dissipation within the wind farm. This model is particularly useful for wind farm configuration optimization, considering wind turbine spacing and surface roughness and can also be useful to represent wind farms in regional scale atmospheric simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayek, W.; Sing, D.; Pont, F.; Asplund, M.
2012-03-01
We compare limb darkening laws derived from 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres and 1D hydrostatic MARCS models for the host stars of two well-studied transiting exoplanet systems, the late-type dwarfs HD 209458 and HD 189733. The surface brightness distribution of the stellar disks is calculated for a wide spectral range using 3D LTE spectrum formation and opacity sampling?. We test our theoretical predictions using least-squares fits of model light curves to wavelength-integrated primary eclipses that were observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The limb darkening law derived from the 3D model of HD 209458 in the spectral region between 2900 Å and 5700 Å produces significantly better fits to the HST data, removing systematic residuals that were previously observed for model light curves based on 1D limb darkening predictions. This difference arises mainly from the shallower mean temperature structure of the 3D model, which is a consequence of the explicit simulation of stellar surface granulation where 1D models need to rely on simplified recipes. In the case of HD 189733, the model atmospheres produce practically equivalent limb darkening curves between 2900 Å and 5700 Å, partly due to obstruction by spectral lines, and the data are not sufficient to distinguish between the light curves. We also analyze HST observations between 5350 Å and 10 500 Å for this star; the 3D model leads to a better fit compared to 1D limb darkening predictions. The significant improvement of fit quality for the HD 209458 system demonstrates the higher degree of realism of 3D hydrodynamical models and the importance of surface granulation for the formation of the atmospheric radiation field of late-type stars. This result agrees well with recent investigations of limb darkening in the solar continuum and other observational tests of the 3D models. The case of HD 189733 is no contradiction as the model light curves are less sensitive to the temperature stratification of the stellar atmosphere and the observed data in the 2900-5700 Å region are not sufficient to distinguish more clearly between the 3D and 1D limb darkening predictions. Full theoretical spectra for both stars are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/539/A102, as well as at www.astro.ex.ac.uk/people/sing.
A linear radio wave velocity model on polythermal glaciers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ai, Songtao; Wang, Zemin; Geng, Hong
2015-04-01
The glaciers in Svalbard are mostly polythermal type. On these polythermal glaciers, the radio wave velocity (RWV) of ground penetrating radar (GPR) is variable, and the RWV is an important parameter for the ice volume estimation. But the ice volume estimation usually uses a single RWV for one whole glacier in order to simplify the calculation. How about the difference between the actual volume and the estimated result? We used a linear RWV model, derived from common mid-point (CMP) profiles of GPR measurement, to simulate the RWV for each GPR trace on Pedersenbreen in Svalbard. Then a relative accurate volume of glacier Pedersenbreen was acquired. From which we found the difference among those volumes calculated from a single RWV, three RWVs and our RWV model. Our RWV model for polythermal glaciers refined the volume estimation and enhanced the precision in mass change study. And the difference between different models could raise an error up to 10% of the volume results. Moreover, the fixed RWV usually used was probably larger than the actual one in those polythermal glaciers. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(41476162) and the Chinese Polar Environment Comprehensive Investigation & Assessment Programmes.
Physical Model of Low Velocity Detonation in Plasticized HMX.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grebenkin, Konstantin; Taranik, Michail; Tsarenkova, Svetlana; Shnitko, Alexander
2007-06-01
Phenomenon of low velocity detonation (LVD) is known many years, but its physical mechanism has not been understood in details, yet. A physical model of LVD is presented in the given report. The main idea of the model is that LVD in dense plasticized explosives may take place only when due to the lateral unloading the pressure at the leading shock front is reduced as compared to that at normal detonation (ND). As a result, the chemical reaction rate and, hence, the energy released between the leading shock front and the sound surface must be lesser as compared to that at ND. But, from other side, this may be enough to sustain the stationary regime of the LVD propagation. The model has been implemented in 2-D hydrocode and verified by means of computer modeling of the experiments (Leuret e.a., 1998) where LVD was observed in plasticized HMX. The results of our calculations supports the suggestion that LVD wave in plasticized HMX is a complex of the leading shock wave having pressure near 1 GPa and the compression wave following the front. Stationary propagation of such structure is possible only when some specific combination of the energy release rate and the lateral unloading intensity takes place.
Unsteady velocity measurements in a realistic intracranial aneurysm model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ugron, Ádám; Farinas, Marie-Isabelle; Kiss, László; Paál, György
2012-01-01
The initiation, growth and rupture of intracranial aneurysms are intensively studied by computational fluid dynamics. To gain confidence in the results of numerical simulations, validation of the results is necessary. To this end the unsteady flow was measured in a silicone phantom of a realistic intracranial aneurysm. A flow circuit was built with a novel unsteady flow rate generating method, used to model the idealised shape of the heartbeat. This allowed the measurement of the complex three-dimensional velocity distribution by means of laser-optical methods such as laser doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV measurements, available with high temporal and spatial distribution, were found to have good agreement with the control LDA measurements. Furthermore, excellent agreement was found with the numerical results.
Modeling the velocity field during Haines jumps in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armstrong, Ryan T.; Evseev, Nikolay; Koroteev, Dmitry; Berg, Steffen
2015-03-01
When nonwetting fluid displaces wetting fluid in a porous rock many rapid pore-scale displacement events occur. These events are often referred to as Haines jumps and any drainage process in porous media is an ensemble of such events. However, the relevance of Haines jumps for larger scale models is often questioned. A common counter argument is that the high fluid velocities caused by a Haines jump would average-out when a bulk representative volume is considered. In this work, we examine this counter argument in detail and investigate the transient dynamics that occur during a Haines jump. In order to obtain fluid-fluid displacement data in a porous geometry, we use a micromodel system equipped with a high speed camera and couple the results to a pore-scale modeling tool called the Direct HydroDynamic (DHD) simulator. We measure the duration of a Haines jump and the distance over which fluid velocities are influenced because this sets characteristic time and length scales for fluid-fluid displacement. The simulation results are validated against experimental data and then used to explore the influence of interfacial tension and nonwetting phase viscosity on the speed of a Haines jump. We find that the speed decreases with increasing nonwetting phase viscosity or decreasing interfacial tension; however, for the same capillary number the reduction in speed can differ by an order of magnitude or more depending on whether viscosity is increased or interfacial tension is reduced. Therefore, the results suggest that capillary number alone cannot explain pore-scale displacement. One reason for this is that the interfacial and viscous forces associated with fluid-fluid displacement act over different length scales, which are not accounted for in the pore-scale definition of capillary number. We also find by analyzing different pore morphologies that the characteristic time scale of a Haines jump is dependent on the spatial configuration of fluid prior to an event. Simulation results are then used to measure the velocity field surrounding a Haines jump and thus, measure the zone of influence, which extends over a distance greater than a single pore. Overall, we find that the time and length scales of a Haines jump are inversely proportional, which is important to consider when calculating the spatial and temporal averages of pore-scale parameters during fluid-fluid displacement.
Modelling nonstationary Doppler noise in exoplanetary radial velocity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baluev, Roman V.
2015-08-01
We construct a new class of analytic nonstationary noise models for exoplanetary Doppler data. The observable correlated noise is represented as a convolution of a parent activity process with a given memory function. The model honours the casuality principle, meaning that only past values of the activity may affect the observable value. This model does not approximate detailedly any real stellar activity phenomena, but it becomes mathematically simple, simultaneously satisfying the basic natural principles of physical sensibility and self-consistency.Additionally, we develop a new type of periodograms that can be used to detect periodic modulations in the Doppler noise characteristics, rather than in the observed radial velocity curve itself. We present first results of applying this technique to public Doppler time series available for a set of planet-hosting stars.This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 14-02-92615 KO_a), the UK Royal Society International Exchange grant IE140055, by the President of Russia grant for young scientists (No. MK-733.2014.2), by the programme of the Presidium of Russian Academy of Sciences P21, and by the Saint Petersburg State University research grant 6.37.341.2015.
Modeling Normal Shock Velocity Curvature Relation for Heterogeneous Explosives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoo, Sunhee; Crochet, Michael; Pemberton, Steve
2015-06-01
The normal shock velocity and curvature, Dn(?) , relation on a detonation shock surface has been an important functional quantity to measure to understand the shock strength exerted against the material interface between a main explosive charge and the case of an explosive munition. The Dn(?) relation is considered an intrinsic property of an explosive, and can be experimentally deduced by rate stick tests at various charge diameters. However, experimental measurements of the Dn(?) relation for heterogeneous explosives such as PBXN-111 are challenging due to the non-smoothness and asymmetry usually observed in the experimental streak records of explosion fronts. Out of the many possibilities, the asymmetric character may be attributed to the heterogeneity of the explosives, a hypothesis which begs two questions: (1) is there any simple hydrodynamic model that can explain such an asymmetric shock evolution, and (2) what statistics can be derived for the asymmetry using simulations with defined structural heterogeneity in the unreacted explosive? Saenz, Taylor and Stewart studied constitutive models for derivation of the Dn(?) relation on porous `homogeneous' explosives and carried out simulations in a spherical coordinate frame. In this paper, we extend their model to account for `heterogeneity' and present shock evolutions in heterogeneous explosives using 2-D hydrodynamic simulations with some statistical examination. (96TW-2015-0004)
Authentication Based on Pole-zero Models of Signature Velocity.
Rashidi, Saeid; Fallah, Ali; Towhidkhah, Farzad
2013-10-01
With the increase of communication and financial transaction through internet, on-line signature verification is an accepted biometric technology for access control and plays a significant role in authenticity and authorization in modernized society. Therefore, fast and precise algorithms for the signature verification are very attractive. The goal of this paper is modeling of velocity signal that pattern and properties is stable for persons. With using pole-zero models based on discrete cosine transform, precise method is proposed for modeling and then features is founded from strokes. With using linear, parzen window and support vector machine classifiers, the signature verification technique was tested with a large number of authentic and forgery signatures and has demonstrated the good potential of this technique. The signatures are collected from three different database include a proprietary database, the SVC2004 and the Sabanci University signature database benchmark databases. Experimental results based on Persian, SVC2004 and SUSIG databases show that our method achieves an equal error rate of 5.91%, 5.62% and 3.91% in the skilled forgeries, respectively. PMID:24696797
Jacinto, J; Kim, P J; Singh, R R
2012-04-01
Some T cells react with lipid antigens bound to antigen-presenting molecule CD1d. Numbers and functions of a subset of such lipid-reactive T cells are reduced in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and their relatives, as well as in genetically susceptible and chemically induced animal models of lupus-like disease. We have reported that the germline deletion of CD1d exacerbates lupus, suggesting a protective role of these cells in the development of lupus. The use of a knockout mouse model in this study, however, did not allow examination of the role of these cells at different stages of disease. Here, we describe an approach to deplete CD1d-dependent T cells, which allowed us to investigate the role of these cells at different stages of disease in genetically lupus-prone NZB/NZW F1 (BWF1) mice. Repeated intravenous injections of large numbers of CD1d-transfected cells resulted in ?50-75% reduction in these cells, as defined by the expression of CD4, NK1.1 and CD122, and lack of expression of CD62 ligand. TCR ?? (+)NK1.1(+) cells were also reduced in the recipients of CD1d-transfected cells as compared with control recipients. Such depletion of CD1d-reactive T cells in preclinical BWF1 mice resulted in disease acceleration with a significant increase in proteinuria and mortality. In older BWF1 mice having advanced nephritis, however, such depletion of CD1d-reactive T cells resulted in some disease improvement. Taken together, these data as well as our published studies suggest that CD1d-reactive T cells protect against the development of lupus in animal models. However, these cells appear to be unable to suppress established lupus nephritis in these animals, and might even play a disease aggravating role in late stages of disease. PMID:22065098
Comparison of CME radial velocities from a flux rope model and an ice cream cone model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, T.; Moon, Y.; Na, H.
2011-12-01
Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest energy release process in the solar system and act as the primary driver of geomagnetic storms and other space weather phenomena on the Earth. So it is very important to infer their directions, velocities and three-dimensional structures. In this study, we choose two different models to infer radial velocities of halo CMEs since 2008 : (1) an ice cream cone model by Xue et al (2005) using SOHO/LASCO data, (2) a flux rope model by Thernisien et al. (2009) using the STEREO/SECCHI data. In addition, we use another flux rope model in which the separation angle of flux rope is zero, which is morphologically similar to the ice cream cone model. The comparison shows that the CME radial velocities from among each model have very good correlations (R>0.9). We will extending this comparison to other partial CMEs observed by STEREO and SOHO.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashworth, K.; Chung, S. H.; Griffin, R. J.; Chen, J.; Forkel, R.; Bryan, A. M.; Steiner, A. L.
2015-11-01
Biosphere-atmosphere interactions play a critical role in governing atmospheric composition, mediating the concentrations of key species such as ozone and aerosol, thereby influencing air quality and climate. The exchange of reactive trace gases and their oxidation products (both gas and particle phase) is of particular importance in this process. The FORCAsT (FORest Canopy Atmosphere Transfer) 1-D model is developed to study the emission, deposition, chemistry and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their oxidation products in the atmosphere within and above the forest canopy. We include an equilibrium partitioning scheme, making FORCAsT one of the few canopy models currently capable of simulating the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) from VOC oxidation in a forest environment. We evaluate the capability of FORCAsT to reproduce observed concentrations of key gas-phase species and report modeled SOA concentrations within and above a mixed forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) during the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiment (CABINEX) field campaign in the summer of 2009. We examine the impact of two different gas-phase chemical mechanisms on modelled concentrations of short-lived primary emissions, such as isoprene and monoterpenes, and their oxidation products. While the two chemistry schemes perform similarly under high-NOx conditions, they diverge at the low levels of NOx at UMBS. We identify peroxy radical and alkyl nitrate chemistry as the key causes of the differences, highlighting the importance of this chemistry in understanding the fate of biogenic VOCs (bVOCs) for both the modelling and measurement communities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joyce, Michael; Sicard, François
2011-05-01
Studies of a class of infinite 1D self-gravitating systems have highlighted that, on one hand, the spatial clustering which develops may have scale-invariant (fractal) properties and, on the other hand, they display ‘self-similar’ properties in their temporal evolution. The relevance of these results to 3D cosmological simulations has remained unclear. We show here that the measured exponents characterizing the scale-invariant non-linear clustering are in excellent agreement with those derived from an appropriately generalized ‘stable-clustering’ hypothesis. Further an analysis in terms of ‘haloes’ selected with a friend-of-friend algorithm reveals that such structures are, statistically, virialized across the range of scales corresponding to scale invariance. Thus the strongly non-linear clustering in these models is accurately described as a virialized fractal structure, very much in line with the ‘clustering hierarchy’ which Peebles originally envisaged qualitatively as associated with stable clustering. If transposed to 3Ds these results would imply, notably, that cold dark matter haloes (or even subhaloes) are (1) not well modelled as smooth objects and (2) that the supposed ‘universality’ of their profiles is, like apparent smoothness, an artefact of poor numerical resolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Aijun; Wang, Xiaohua; Rong, Mingzhe; Liu, Dingxin; Iza, Felipe; Kong, Michael G.
2011-11-01
In this paper atmospheric-pressure rf He+O2 cold plasmas are studied by means of a 1-D fluid model. 17 species and 60 key reactions selected from a study of 250+ reactions are incorporated in the model. O2+, O3-, and O are the dominant positive ion, negative ion, and reactive oxygen species, respectively. Ground state O is mainly generated by electron induced reactions and quenching of atomic and molecular oxygen metastables, while three-body reactions leading to the formation of O2 and O3 are the main mechanisms responsible for O destruction. The fraction of input power dissipated by ions is ˜20%. For the conditions considered in the study ˜6% of the input power is coupled to ions in the bulk and this amount will increase with increasing electronegativity. Radial and electrode losses of neutral species are in most cases negligible when compared to gas phase processes as these losses are diffusion limited due to the large collisionality of the plasma. The electrode loss rate of neutral species is found to be nearly independent of the surface adsorption probability p for p > 0.001 and therefore plasma dosage can be quantified even if p is not known precisely.
Wen, Lianxing
SH velocity and compositional models near the 660-km discontinuity beneath South America March 2006; accepted 11 April 2006; published 25 July 2006. [1] We constrain SH wave velocity structures the two regions. SH velocity structures near the 660-km discontinuity are found to be different in the two
The Candy Wrapper Velocity Model for the Earth's Inner Core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mattesini, M.
2014-12-01
Recent global expansion of seismic data motivated a number of seismological studies of the Earth's inner core that proposed the existence of increasingly complex structure and anisotropy. In the meantime, new hypotheses of dynamic mechanisms have been put forward to interpret seismological results. Here, the nature of hemispherical dichotomy and anisotropy is re-investigated by bridging the observations of PKP(bc-df) differential travel-times with the iron bcc/hcp elastic properties computed from first-principles methods.The Candy Wrapper velocity model introduced here accounts for a dynamic picture of the inner core (i.e., the eastward drift of material), where different iron crystal shapes can be stabilized at the two hemispheres. We show that seismological data are best explained by a rather complicated, mosaic-like, structure of the inner core, where well-separated patches of different iron crystals compose the anisotropic western hemispherical region, and a conglomerate of almost indistinguishable iron phases builds-up the weakly anisotropic eastern side.
Novel phase-space Monte-Carlo method for quench dynamics in 1D and 2D spin models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pikovski, Alexander; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Rey, Ana Maria
2015-05-01
An important outstanding problem is the effcient numerical computation of quench dynamics in large spin systems. We propose a semiclassical method to study many-body spin dynamics in generic spin lattice models. The method, named DTWA, is based on a novel type of discrete Monte-Carlo sampling in phase-space. We demonstare the power of the technique by comparisons with analytical and numerically exact calculations. It is shown that DTWA captures the dynamics of one- and two-point correlations 1D systems. We also use DTWA to study the dynamics of correlations in 2D systems with many spins and different types of long-range couplings, in regimes where other numerical methods are generally unreliable. Computing spatial and time-dependent correlations, we find a sharp change in the speed of propagation of correlations at a critical range of interactions determined by the system dimension. The investigations are relevant for a broad range of systems including solids, atom-photon systems and ultracold gases of polar molecules, trapped ions, Rydberg, and magnetic atoms. This work has been financially supported by JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF-1211914, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI.
Modeling seismic wave propagation and amplification in 1D/2D/3D linear and nonlinear unbounded media
Semblat, Jean-François
2011-01-01
To analyze seismic wave propagation in geological structures, it is possible to consider various numerical approaches: the finite difference method, the spectral element method, the boundary element method, the finite element method, the finite volume method, etc. All these methods have various advantages and drawbacks. The amplification of seismic waves in surface soil layers is mainly due to the velocity contrast between these layers and, possibly, to topographic effects around crests and hills. The influence of the geometry of alluvial basins on the amplification process is also know to be large. Nevertheless, strong heterogeneities and complex geometries are not easy to take into account with all numerical methods. 2D/3D models are needed in many situations and the efficiency/accuracy of the numerical methods in such cases is in question. Furthermore, the radiation conditions at infinity are not easy to handle with finite differences or finite/spectral elements whereas it is explicitely accounted in the B...
An empirical model to forecast solar wind velocity through statistical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Y.; Ridley, A. J.
2013-12-01
The accurate prediction of the solar wind velocity has been a major challenge in the space weather community. Previous studies proposed many empirical and semi-empirical models to forecast the solar wind velocity based on either the historical observations, e.g. the persistence model, or the instantaneous observations of the sun, e.g. the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model. In this study, we use the one-minute WIND data from January 1995 to August 2012 to investigate and compare the performances of 4 models often used in literature, here referred to as the null model, the persistence model, the one-solar-rotation-ago model, and the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model. It is found that, measured by root mean square error, the persistence model gives the most accurate predictions within two days. Beyond two days, the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model serves as the best model, though it only slightly outperforms the null model and the one-solar-rotation-ago model. Finally, we apply the least-square regression to linearly combine the null model, the persistence model, and the one-solar-rotation-ago model to propose a 'general persistence model'. By comparing its performance against the 4 aforementioned models, it is found that the accuracy of the general persistence model outperforms the other 4 models within five days. Due to its great simplicity and superb performance, we believe that the general persistence model can serve as a benchmark in the forecast of solar wind velocity and has the potential to be modified to arrive at better models.
Key elements of regional seismic velocity models for long period ground motion simulations
Brocher, T.M.
2008-01-01
Regional 3-D seismic velocity models used for broadband strong motion simulations must include compressional-wave velocity (Vp), shear-wave velocity (Vs), intrinsic attenuation (Qp, Qs), and density. Vs and Qs are the most important of these parameters because the strongest ground motions are generated chiefly by shear- and surface-wave arrivals. Because Vp data are more common than Vs data, many researchers first develop a Vp model and convert it to a Vs model. I describe recent empirical relations between Vs, Vp, Qs, Qp, and density that allow velocity models to be rapidly and accurately calculated. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.
27 The DNA12 Seismic Velocity Model Robert Porritt, Richard Allen, and Fred Pollitz
Allen, Richard M.
27 The DNA12 Seismic Velocity Model Robert Porritt, Richard Allen, and Fred Pollitz 27.1 Introduction The DNA velocity models have been following the rolling USArray from west to east. The initial model, DNA07 (Xue and Allen, 2010), used data from the earli- est USArray deployment, the BDSN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manful, D. Y.; Kaule, G.; Wieprecht, S.; Rees, J.; Hu, W.
2009-12-01
Hydroelectric Power (HEP) is proving to be a good alternative to carbon based energy. In the past hydropower especially large scale hydro attracted significant criticism as a result of its impact on the environment. A new breed of hydroelectric dam is in the offing. The aim is to have as little a footprint as possible on the environment in both pre and post construction phases and thus minimize impact on biodiversity whilst producing clean renewable energy. The Bui dam is 400 MW scheme currently under development on the Black Volta River in the Bui national park in Ghana. The reservoir created by the Bui barrage is expected to impact (through inundation) the habitat of two species of hippos know to exist in the park, the Hippopotamus amphibius and the Choeropsis liberiensis. Computer-based models present a unique opportunity to assess quantitatively the impact of the new reservoir on the habitat of the target species in this case the H. amphibious. Until this undertaking, there were very few studies documenting the habitat of the H. amphibious let alone model it. The work and subsequent presentation will show the development of a habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The Habitat Information retrieval Program based on Streamflow Analysis, in short HIPStrA, is a one dimensional (1D) in-stream, spatially explicit hybrid construct that combines physico-chemical evidence and expert knowledge to forecast river habitat suitability (Hs) for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The version of the model presented is specifically developed to assess the impact of a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam on potential dwelling areas in the Bui gorge for hippos. Accordingly, this version of HIPStrA simulates a special reservoir suitability index (Rsi), a metric that captures the”hippo friendliness” of any lake or reservoir. The impact of measured and simulated flood events as well as low flows, representing extreme events is also assessed. Recommendations are made for the operating rules of the reservoir in the post-construction phase of the dam. A great deal of work has been done on the effects of stream flow changes on fish especially salmonids. Very little work however has been done assessing the impact of hydropower schemes on aquatic mammals especially in Africa. HIPStrA is the first attempt at developing a computer-based habitat model for a large aquatic megaherbivore. The need for energy for development, the availability of large rivers and a rich biodiversity base in Africa makes a case for careful and ecological smart exploitation. The overarching aim of the study is the sustainable development of hydroelectric power through the use of methodologies and tools to rigorously assess changes in instream conditions that impact aquatic mammals.
1D-Var multilayer assimilation of X-band SAR data into a detailed snowpack model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phan, X. V.; Ferro-Famil, L.; Gay, M.; Durand, Y.; Dumont, M.; Morin, S.; Allain, S.; D'Urso, G.; Girard, A.
2014-10-01
The structure and physical properties of a snowpack and their temporal evolution may be simulated using meteorological data and a snow metamorphism model. Such an approach may meet limitations related to potential divergences and accumulated errors, to a limited spatial resolution, to wind or topography-induced local modulations of the physical properties of a snow cover, etc. Exogenous data are then required in order to constrain the simulator and improve its performance over time. Synthetic-aperture radars (SARs) and, in particular, recent sensors provide reflectivity maps of snow-covered environments with high temporal and spatial resolutions. The radiometric properties of a snowpack measured at sufficiently high carrier frequencies are known to be tightly related to some of its main physical parameters, like its depth, snow grain size and density. SAR acquisitions may then be used, together with an electromagnetic backscattering model (EBM) able to simulate the reflectivity of a snowpack from a set of physical descriptors, in order to constrain a physical snowpack model. In this study, we introduce a variational data assimilation scheme coupling TerraSAR-X radiometric data into the snowpack evolution model Crocus. The physical properties of a snowpack, such as snow density and optical diameter of each layer, are simulated by Crocus, fed by the local reanalysis of meteorological data (SAFRAN) at a French Alpine location. These snowpack properties are used as inputs of an EBM based on dense media radiative transfer (DMRT) theory, which simulates the total backscattering coefficient of a dry snow medium at X and higher frequency bands. After evaluating the sensitivity of the EBM to snowpack parameters, a 1D-Var data assimilation scheme is implemented in order to minimize the discrepancies between EBM simulations and observations obtained from TerraSAR-X acquisitions by modifying the physical parameters of the Crocus-simulated snowpack. The algorithm then re-initializes Crocus with the modified snowpack physical parameters, allowing it to continue the simulation of snowpack evolution, with adjustments based on remote sensing information. This method is evaluated using multi-temporal TerraSAR-X images acquired over the specific site of the Argentière glacier (Mont-Blanc massif, French Alps) to constrain the evolution of Crocus. Results indicate that X-band SAR data can be taken into account to modify the evolution of snowpack simulated by Crocus.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suszy?ski, Z.; Duer, R.; Arsoba, R.
2004-10-01
Thermal-wave methods are magnificent tool for visualisation and analysis of thermal non-uniformity in solids. Special case of thermal non-uniformity is lack of adhesion in multilayer structures. This very important parameter effects on efficiency of draining of the heat and the reliability of many of semiconductor devices. This paper presents possibility of detection of exfoliation in high-power thyristor structure with the help of photoacoustic microscope. Values of temperature contrasts were evaluated from thermal-wave images, which were registered in harmonic modulation and pulse modulation modes. Both methods are characterised by similar sensitiveness for lack of adhesion, however pulse modulation mode makes the time of investigation significantly shorter. Comparison of experimental data with 1-D modelling results shows differences between theoretical and experimental values of temperature contrast in range of low frequencies (harmonic modulation mode) and long times of registration (pulse modulation mode). These differences appear because the 1-D model does not take limited lateral dimensions of excitation and thermal non-uniformity into consideration. Therefore 2-D modelling process was performed in order to explain the influence of geometrical factors on temperature contrasts. On the other hand, analysis of results of 2-D modelling makes the estimation of real delamination more accurate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooke, William; Donner, Leo
2015-04-01
Microphysical and aerosol processes determine the magnitude of climate forcing by aerosol-cloud interactions, are central aspects of cloud-climate feedback, and are important elements in weather systems for which accurate forecasting is a major goal of numerical weather prediction. Realistic simulation of these processes demands not only accurate microphysical and aerosol process representations but also realistic simulation of the vertical motions in which the aerosols and microphysics act. Aerosol activation, for example, is a strong function of vertical velocity. Cumulus parameterizations for climate and numerical weather prediction models have recently begun to include vertical velocities among the statistics they predict. These vertical velocities have been subject to only limited evaluation using observed vertical velocities. Deployments of multi-Doppler radars and dual-frequency profilers in recent field campaigns have substantially increased the observational base of cumulus vertical velocities, which for decades had been restricted mostly to GATE observations. Observations from TWP-ICE (Darwin, Australia) and MC3E (central United States) provide previously unavailable information on the vertical structure of cumulus vertical velocities and observations in differing synoptic contexts from those available in the past. They also provide an opportunity to independently evaluate cumulus parameterizations with vertical velocities tuned to earlier GATE observations. This presentation will compare vertical velocities observed in TWP-ICE and MC3E with cumulus vertical velocities using the parameterization in the GFDL CM3 climate model. Single-column results indicate parameterized vertical velocities are frequently greater than observed. Errors in parameterized vertical velocities exhibit similarities to vertical velocities explicitly simulated by cloud-system resolving models, and underlying issues in the treatment of microphysics may be important for both. The dependence of convective microphysical properties on vertical velocities and consequences for microphysics of simulation errors will be illustrated. Underlying limitations in the parameterization and model resolution will be discussed as explanations for differences between observed and simulated vertical velocities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Udodov, Vladimir; Katanov Khakas State Univ Team
2014-03-01
Symmetry breaking transitions. The phenomenological (L.D.Landau, USSR, 1937) way to describe phase transitions (PT's). Order parameter and loss of the symmetry. The second derivative of the free energy changes jump wise at the transition, i.e. we have a mathematical singularity and second order PT (TC>0). Extremes of free energy. A point of loss of stability of the symmetrical phase. The eigenfrequency of PT and soft mode behavior. The conditions of applicability of the Landau theory (A.Levanyuk, 1959, V.Ginzburg, 1960). 1D Ising model and exact solution by a transfer matrix method. Critical exponents in the L.Landau PT's theory and for 1D Ising model. Scaling hypothesis (1965) for 1D Ising model with zero critical temperature. The order of PT in 1D Ising model in the framework of the R.Baxter approach. The anthropic principle and the dimension of the space. Why do we have a three-dimensional space? Big bang, the cosmic vacuum, inflation and PT's. Higgs boson and symmetry breaking transitions. Author acknowledges the support of Katanov Khakas State University.
Tullos, Desiree
Simulating dam removal with a 1D hydraulic model: Accuracy and techniques for reservoir erosion and downstream deposition at the Chiloquin Dam removal Desiree Tullos1 , Matt Cox1 , Cara Walter1 1 Department are often used to reduce uncertainty regarding the outcomes of dam removal, though the accuracy
Yakovlev, Vadim
-thermal 1-D Model of Combined Microwave-convective Heating with Pulsing Microwave Energy Erin M. Kiley1, 2, MA 01609, USA Abstract-- As a result of the well-known tendency of microwave (MW) heating to develop to be sufficiently heated is more effective than microwave pulsing alone, because during periods when the microwave
Two-Particle Dispersion in Model Velocity Fields
I. M. Sokolov
1999-11-02
We consider two-particle dispersion in a velocity field, where the relative two-point velocity scales according to $v^{2}(r)\\propto r^{\\alpha}$ and the corresponding correlation time scales as $\\tau (r)\\propto r^{\\beta}$, and fix $\\alpha =2/3$, as typical for turbulent flows. We show that two generic types of dispersion behavior arize: For $\\alpha /2+\\beta 1$, the relative motion is strongly correlated. The case of Kolmogorov flows corresponds to a marginal, nongeneric situation.
Code package MAG c user tool for numerical modeling of 1D shock wave and dynamic processes in solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudenko, Vladimir; Shaburov, Michail
1999-06-01
Design and theoretical and numerical preparation of shock wave experiments require, as a rule, conduction of a large amount of calculations. Usually preparation of a problem for numerical solution, calculation and processing of the results is done be programmers c mathematicians. The appearance of powerful personal computers and interface tools allows to develop such user-oriented programs that a researcher can handle them without the help of a mathematician, even if he does not have special programming background. Code package MAG for numerical solution of 1D system of equations of hydrodynamics, elastoplastics, heat conduction and magnetic hydrodynamic. A number of modern models of elastoplastics and kinetics of power materials is implemented in it. The package includes libraries of equations of state, thermal physical and electromagnetic properties of substances. The code package is an interactive visual medium providing a user with the following capabilities: ? Input and edit initial data for a problem; ? Calculate separate problems, as well as series of problems with a possibility of automatic variation of parameters; ? View the modeled phenomena dynamically using the means of visualization; ? Control the process of calculation: terminate the calculation, change parameters, make express-processing of the results, continue the calculation etc.; ? Process the numerical results producing final plots and tables; ? Record and store numerical results in databases, including the formats supported by Microsoft Word, Acces, Exel; ? Make dynamic visual comparison of the results of several simultaneous calculations; ? Carry out automatic numerical optimization of a selected experimental scheme. The package is easy in use, allows prompt input and convenient information processing. The validity of numerical results obtained with the package MAG has been proved by numerous hydrodynamic experiments and comparisons with numerical results from similar programs. The package was developed using the means of the integrated medium of visual development of applications Delphi-4 and contains about 50000 lines of initial code in Object Pascal programming language. An executable file runs on IBM-compatible personal computers under operation systems Windows-NT, Windows-95,-98.The code package MAG is under constant improvement and development. A tutorial package on physics of solids for high institutions and scientific research centers is developed on its basis. The package may be adjusted and improved in collaboration with interested users.
Velocity models, material balance and solution convergence in streamline-based simulation
Sabir, Kamran
2002-01-01
This thesis addresses two important issues related to streamline-based flow simulation. The first issue deals with velocity models, specifically, how to determine the velocity models in various geometries in 2D and 3D space, and how to draw...
Anisotropic-ray-theory rays in velocity model SC1 II with a split intersection singularity
Cerveny, Vlastislav
Anisotropic-ray-theory rays in velocity model SC1 II with a split intersection singularity Ludek.cz/staff/bulant.htm Summary We show the behaviour of the anisotropicÂrayÂtheory SÂwave rays in a velocity model with a split intersection singularity. The rays crossing the split intersection singularity are smoothly but very sharply
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Augustins, L.; Billardon, R.; Hild, F.
2015-06-01
One of the critical points of the thermomechanical fatigue design process is the correct description of the cyclic behavior of the material. This work focuses on the material of automotive brake discs, namely flake graphite cast iron. The specificity of this material is its asymmetric behavior under tensile and compressive loadings, which is due to the shape of graphite that acts as small cracks. Multiscale models inspired from the literature are first presented. They lead to a good description of the material behavior under cyclic loadings. An elastoviscoplastic constitutive model is then proposed in a one-dimensional setting in order to accurately describe cyclic tests from room temperature up to 600° C.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ammirati, J. B.; Alvarado, P. M.; Beck, S. L.
2014-12-01
Receiver Function (RF) analyses using teleseismic P waveforms is a technique to isolate P to S conversions from seismic discontinuities in the lithosphere. Using earthquakes with a good azimuthal distribution, RFs recorded at a three-component seismic station can be inverted to obtain detailed lithospheric velocity structures. The technique, however presents a velocity-depth trade-off, which results in a non-unique model because RFs do not depend on the absolute seismic velocities but rather on relative velocity contrasts. Unlike RF, surface wave dispersion is sensitive to the average shear-wave velocity which makes it well suited for studying long period variations of the lithospheric seismic velocities. We performed a joint inversion of RF and Rayleigh-wave phase velocity dispersion to investigate the structure beneath the SIEMBRA network, a 43-broadband-seismic-station array deployed in the Pampean flat slab region of Argentina. Our results indicate: 1) The presence of several mid-crustal discontinuities probably related with terrane accretion; 2) A high seismic velocity in the lower crust suggesting partial eclogitization; 3) A thicker crust (> 50 km) beneath the western Sierras Pampeanas with an abrupt change in the relative timing of the Moho signal indicating a thinner crust to the east; 4) The presence of the subducting oceanic crust lying at ~100 km depth. We then built a 1D regional velocity model for the flat slab region of Argentina and used it for regional moment tensor inversions for local earthquakes. This technique is notably dependent on small-scale variations of Earth structure when modeling higher frequency seismic waveforms. Eighteen regional focal mechanisms have been determined. Our solutions are in good agreement with GCMT source estimations although our solutions for deep earthquakes systematically resulted in shallower focal depths suggesting that the slab seismicity could be concentrated at the top of the subducting Nazca plate. Solutions corresponding to crustal events match well the geological observations from other studies.
Kinematic and diabatic vertical velocity climatologies from a chemistry climate model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoppe, C. M.; Ploeger, F.; Konopka, P.; Müller, R.
2015-11-01
The representation of vertical velocity in chemistry climate models is a key element for the representation of the large scale Brewer-Dobson-Circulation in the stratosphere. Here, we diagnose and compare the kinematic and diabatic vertical velocities in the ECHAM/Messy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. The calculation of kinematic vertical velocity is based on the continuity equation, whereas diabatic vertical velocity is computed using diabatic heating rates. Annual and monthly zonal mean climatologies of vertical velocity from a 10 year simulation are provided for both, kinematic and diabatic vertical velocity representations. In general, both vertical velocity patterns show the main features of the stratospheric circulation, namely upwelling at low latitudes and downwelling at high latitudes. The main difference in the vertical velocity pattern is a more uniform structure for diabatic and a noisier structure for kinematic vertical velocity. Diabatic vertical velocities show higher absolute values both in the upwelling branch in the inner tropics and in the downwelling regions in the polar vortices. Further, there is a latitudinal shift of the tropical upwelling branch in boreal summer between the two vertical velocity representations with the tropical upwelling region in the diabatic representation shifted southward compared to the kinematic case. Furthermore, we present mean age of air climatologies from two transport schemes in EMAC using these different vertical velocities. The age of air distributions show a hemispheric difference pattern in the stratosphere with younger air in the Southern Hemisphere and older air in the Northern Hemisphere using the transport scheme with diabatic vertical velocities. Further, the age of air climatology from the transport scheme using diabatic vertical velocities shows younger mean age of air in the inner tropical upwelling branch and older mean age in the extratopical tropopause region.
Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Gregor, Jens; Bingham, Philip R
2014-01-01
At the present, neutron sources cannot be fabricated small and powerful enough in order to achieve high resolution radiography while maintaining an adequate flux. One solution is to employ computational imaging techniques such as a Magnified Coded Source Imaging (CSI) system. A coded-mask is placed between the neutron source and the object. The system resolution is increased by reducing the size of the mask holes and the flux is increased by increasing the size of the coded-mask and/or the number of holes. One limitation of such system is that the resolution of current state-of-the-art scintillator-based detectors caps around 50um. To overcome this challenge, the coded-mask and object are magnified by making the distance from the coded-mask to the object much smaller than the distance from object to detector. In previous work, we have shown via synthetic experiments that our least squares method outperforms other methods in image quality and reconstruction precision because of the modeling of the CSI system components. However, the validation experiments were limited to simplistic neutron sources. In this work, we aim to model the flux distribution of a real neutron source and incorporate such a model in our least squares computational system. We provide a full description of the methodology used to characterize the neutron source and validate the method with synthetic experiments.
Velocity mapping and models of the elliptical galaxies NGC 720, NGC 1052, and NGC 4697
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Binney, J. J.; Davies, Roger L.; Illingworth, Garth D.
1990-01-01
CCD surface photometry and extensive long-slit spectroscopy are used to construct detailed models of the flattened ellipticals NGC 720, 1052, and 4697. The models are combined with the Jeans equations to yield predicted fields of line-of-sight velocity dispersion and streaming velocity. By comparing these fields with observed velocities, it is concluded that none of these systems can have isotropic velocity dispersion tensors, and diminishing the assumed inclination of any given galaxy tends to decrease the line-of-sight velocity dispersion and, counterintuitively, to increase the line-of-sight rotation speeds. The ratio of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion along the minor axis to that along the major axis is found to be a sensitive diagnostic of the importance of a third integral for the galaxy's structure.
Velocity mapping and models of the elliptical galaxies NGC 720, NGC 1052, and NGC 4697
Binney, J.J.; Davies, R.L.; Illingworth, G.D. Oxford Univ. National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ California Univ., Santa Cruz )
1990-09-01
CCD surface photometry and extensive long-slit spectroscopy are used to construct detailed models of the flattened ellipticals NGC 720, 1052, and 4697. The models are combined with the Jeans equations to yield predicted fields of line-of-sight velocity dispersion and streaming velocity. By comparing these fields with observed velocities, it is concluded that none of these systems can have isotropic velocity dispersion tensors, and diminishing the assumed inclination of any given galaxy tends to decrease the line-of-sight velocity dispersion and, counterintuitively, to increase the line-of-sight rotation speeds. The ratio of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion along the minor axis to that along the major axis is found to be a sensitive diagnostic of the importance of a third integral for the galaxy's structure. 48 refs.
A Velocity Distribution Model for Steady State Heat Transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Eric B.
1996-01-01
Consider a box that is filled with an ideal gas and that is aligned along Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) having until length in the 'y' direction and unspecified length in the 'x' and 'z' directions. Heat is applied uniformly over the 'hot' end of the box (y = 1) and is removed uniformly over the 'cold' end (y = O) at a constant rate such that the ends of the box are maintained at temperatures T(sub 0) at y = O and T(sub 1) at y = 1. Let U, V, and W denote the respective velocity components of a molecule inside the box selected at some random time and at some location (x, y, z). If T(sub 0) = T(sub 1), then U, Y, and W are mutually independent and Gaussian, each with mean zero and variance RT(sub 0), where R is the gas constant. When T(sub 0) does not equal T(sub 1) the velocity components are not independent and are not Gaussian. Our objective is to characterize the joint distribution of the velocity components U, Y, and W as a function of y, and, in particular, to characterize the distribution of V given y. It is hoped that this research will lead to an increased physical understanding of the nature of turbulence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcq, E.
2012-01-01
In order to understand the early history of telluric interiors and atmospheres during the ocean magma stage, a coupled interior-atmosphere-escape model is being developed. This paper describes the atmospheric part and its first preliminary results. A unidimensional, radiative-convective, H2O-CO2 atmosphere is modeled following a vertical T(z) profile similar to Kasting (1988) and Abe and Matsui (1988). Opacities in the thermal IR are then computed using a k-correlated code (KSPECTRUM), tabulated continuum opacities for H2O-H2O and CO2-CO2 absorption, and water or sulphuric acid clouds in the moist convective zone (whenever present). The first results show the existence of two regimes depending on the relative value of the surface temperature Ts compared to a threshold temperature Tc depending on the total gaseous inventory. For Ts < Tc, efficient blanketing results in a cool upper atmosphere, a cloud cover, and a long lifetime for the underneath magma ocean with a net thermal IR flux between 160 and 200 Wm-2. For Ts > Tc, the blanketing is not efficient enough to prevent large radiative heat loss to space through a hot, cloudless atmosphere. Our current calculations may underestimate the thermal flux in the case of hot surfaces with little gaseous content in the atmosphere.
Vorontsov, Sergei V
2013-01-01
We describe a global parametric model for the observed power spectra of solar oscillations of intermediate and low degree. A physically motivated parameterization is used as a substitute for a direct description of mode excitation and damping as these mechanisms remain poorly understood. The model is targeted at the accurate fitting of power spectra coming from Doppler velocity measurements and uses an adaptive response function that accounts for both the vertical and horizontal components of the velocity field on the solar surface and for possible instrumental and observational distortions. The model is continuous in frequency, can easily be adapted to intensity measurements and extends naturally to the analysis of high-frequency pseudo modes (interference peaks at frequencies above the atmospheric acoustic cutoff).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spica, Zack J.; Caudron, Corentin; Piña-Flores, José; Perton, Mathieu; Thomas, Lecocq; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Legrand, Denis
2015-04-01
It is now well accepted that the average autocorrelation of seismic noise at a single station is proportional to the imaginary part of the Green's function when both source and receiver are the same. More recently, it has been established that the horizontal and vertical imaginary parts of the Green's function, i.e. the horizontal and vertical transfer functions, should be used to calculate the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio of ambient noise (HVSR). The HVSR is a popular technique that only requires a short-term (20 minutes) 3 components recording of seismic noise. Assuming an unbounded multi-layer model for the computation of the Green function, one can conduct the HVSR inversions to assess the 1D velocity structure of the subsurface. This approach was used to constrain several 1D velocity models (certain up to 3 km deep) of the Ijen caldera (Java, Indonesia) already established by the inversion of dispersion curves. Additionally, 84 HVSR measurements were also performed on Kawah Ijen volcano and allowed to provide a map of the local site effects. The velocity models obtained and the great outcrop of the crater rim allow robust and direct interpretation of the underground geology. Using a first order approximation, some mechanical proprieties of the shallower layers can be derived and the depth of an important lithological interface can be followed all around the Kawah Ijen crater.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maher Abourabia, Aly; Hassan, Kawsar Mohammad; Abo-Elghar, Eman Mohammad
2015-02-01
We investigate a bio-system composed of a shape memory alloy (SMA) immersed and subjected to heat convection in a blood vessel, affected by heart beats that create a wave motion of long wavelength. The tackled model in (2+1)-D is based on the continuity and momentum equations for the fluid phase, besides; the state of the SMA are described via previous works in the form of statistical distributions of energy for both Martensite and Austenite phases. The solution based on the reductive perturbation technique gives a thermal diffusion-like equation as a key for expressing the temperature and velocity components of the blood. In terms of two cases concerning the difference between the wave numbers in the perpendicular directions, it is found that the system's temperature increases nonlinearly from a minimum initial temperature 293 K (20 °C) up to a maximum value about 316.68 K (43.68 °C), then tends to decrease along the blood flow (anisotropy of K and L) direction. In both cases it is observed that the SMA acquires most of this temperature raising not the blood because of its conventional biological limits (37-40 °C). The range of the heart beats wave numbers characteristic for each person plays an important role in realizing phase changes in the anisotropic case leading to the formation of the hysteresis loops Martensite-Austenite-Martensite or vice versa, according to the energy variation. The entropy generation ? is investigated for the system (Blood + SMA), it predicts that along the flow direction the system gains energy convectively up to a maximum value, then reverses his tendency to gradually loosing energy passing by the equilibrium state, then the system looses energy to the surroundings by the same amount which was gained beforehand. The loss diminishes but stops before arriving to equilibrium again. For certain differences in wave numbers the system starts to store energy again after it passes by the state of equilibrium for the second time. In the curves of ? the common points of intersections can be looked for as the positions where the phase changes take place. It is observed that the effect of heat transfer is dominated over the viscous dissipation substantially; this is illustrated by the irreversibility distribution ratio ? and the Bejan number. On the other hand this is assured by the smallness of the ratio between the initial effect of shear viscosity to the initial thermal effect in the alloy (? ? 10-8). Furthermore, this allows the SMA to reveal the properties of phase change in order, for instance, to prevent the passage of large clots from reaching the lungs.
An Innovative Model-Based Velocity Integration Procedure with an Application in Eastern Saudi Arabia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Moqbel, Abdulaziz Mohammed Saleh
During the workflow of seismic data processing, approximately one third of the processing time is allocated to estimate initial stacking velocity functions. The precision of the current available methods of estimating stacking velocity is limited in vertical and horizontal velocity resolution, especially in cases involving multiples and limited-offset data sets. A new procedure is proposed in this study to effectively build initial stacking velocity functions for processing new seismic lines with improved productivity, increased accuracy and interpretation consistency. The procedure builds a 3-D velocity model from previous surface and borehole seismic surveys as well as interpretation data for seven key horizons. A common-model platform has been used to allow for integration of otherwise independent data types. Results show that using the estimated integrated velocity model has allowed velocity picking in seismic data sets with poor signal-to-noise ratio due to excessive ambient noise or karsting. The model also helped in discriminating stacking velocities in areas with stretched or poor semblance peaks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nugroho, Hendro; Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian
2013-09-01
Determination of earthquake hypocenter in Indonesia conducted by the Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (MCGA) has still used a 1-D seismic velocity model. In this research, we have applied a Fast Grid Search (FGM) method and a 3-D velocity model resulting from tomographic imaging to relocate earthquakes in the Sumatran region. The data were taken from the MCGA data catalog from 2009 to 2011 comprising of subduction zone and on land fault earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4 Mw. Our preliminary results show some significant changes in the depths of the relocated earthquakes which are in general deeper than the depths of hypocenters from the MCGA data catalog. The residual times resulting from the relocation process are smaller than those prior to the relocation. Encouraged by these results, we will continue to conduct hypocenter relocation for all events from the MCGA data catalog periodically in order to produce a new data catalog with good quality. We hope that the new data catalog will be useful for further studies.
Nugroho, Hendro; Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian
2013-09-09
Determination of earthquake hypocenter in Indonesia conducted by the Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (MCGA) has still used a 1-D seismic velocity model. In this research, we have applied a Fast Grid Search (FGM) method and a 3-D velocity model resulting from tomographic imaging to relocate earthquakes in the Sumatran region. The data were taken from the MCGA data catalog from 2009 to 2011 comprising of subduction zone and on land fault earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4 Mw. Our preliminary results show some significant changes in the depths of the relocated earthquakes which are in general deeper than the depths of hypocenters from the MCGA data catalog. The residual times resulting from the relocation process are smaller than those prior to the relocation. Encouraged by these results, we will continue to conduct hypocenter relocation for all events from the MCGA data catalog periodically in order to produce a new data catalog with good quality. We hope that the new data catalog will be useful for further studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pujol, J. M.; Chiu, J. M.
2014-12-01
When applying seismic tomography to local arrival times from an area with a low-velocity sedimentary cover, the effect of the sediments on travel times should be taken into account. If that is not done, the resulting velocity model(s) cannot be assumed to be correct. This fairly obvious statement has been challenged recently by Powell et al. (JGR, 2010), who claimed that the sediments that cover the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ, central United States) can be ignored. This claim is examined here and shown to be incorrect. The NMSZ is covered by low-velocity, poorly consolidated sediments (Vp=1.8 km/s, Vs=3), which are underlain by Paleozoic rocks of much higher velocity. In the central NMSZ the sediment thickness varies between about 0.1 and 0.7 km. The JHD analysis of the data collected in that area by a portable network (PANDA) showed that the P- and S-wave station corrections spanned large ranges (0.35 and 0.63 s, respectively, Pujol et al., Eng. Geol., 1997). This study also showed that a Vp/Vs of 3 for the sediments would be too high if the lateral velocity variations were confined to the sedimentary cover. Here we generate synthetic traveltimes for a model with a sedimentary cover having variable depth (as determined from boreholes) underlain by the high-velocity layers in the 1-D model used for the JHD analysis. The synthetic data were generated for the station and event distributions corresponding to the Panda data. The tomographic inversion of the synthetic times produces spurious anomalies in Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs, from the surface to a depth of 10 km. In addition, the events are mislocated in depth, with errors between 0 and 1 km for most of them. These results should dispel the notion that the effect of the unconsolidated sediments can be ignored. On the other hand, the inversion of the actual Panda data results in velocity anomalies similar to the synthetic anomalies, although larger, which is consistent with the conclusions of Pujol et al. (1997). Unfortunately, extricating the effects of the sediments from those of deeper velocity anomalies will not be possible with seismic tomography unless in-situ determinations of Vp/Vs for the sediments in the network area become available. Alternatively, analysis techniques that make use of more than just P- and S-wave arrivals (such as S-to-P converted waves) may have to be designed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasternack, Gregory B.; Gilbert, Andrew T.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Buckland, Evan M.
2006-08-01
SummaryResource managers, scientists, government regulators, and stakeholders are considering sophisticated numerical models for managing complex environmental problems. In this study, observations from a river-rehabilitation experiment involving gravel augmentation and spawning habitat enhancement were used to assess sources and magnitudes of error in depth, velocity, and shear velocity predictions made at the 1-m scale with a commercial two-dimensional (depth-averaged) model. Error in 2D model depth prediction averaged 21%. This error was attributable to topographic survey resolution, which at 1 pt per 1.14 m 2, was inadequate to resolve small humps and depressions influencing point measurements. Error in 2D model velocity prediction averaged 29%. More than half of this error was attributable to depth prediction error. Despite depth and velocity error, 56% of tested 2D model predictions of shear velocity were within the 95% confidence limit of the best field-based estimation method. Ninety percent of the error in shear velocity prediction was explained by velocity prediction error. Multiple field-based estimates of shear velocity differed by up to 160%, so the lower error for the 2D model's predictions suggests such models are at least as accurate as field measurement. 2D models enable detailed, spatially distributed estimates compared to the small number measurable in a field campaign of comparable cost. They also can be used for design evaluation. Although such numerical models are limited to channel types adhering to model assumptions and yield predictions only accurate to ˜20-30%, they can provide a useful tool for river-rehabilitation design and assessment, including spatially diverse habitat heterogeneity as well as for pre- and post-project appraisal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Q.; Shimeld, J.; Dickie, K.; Dehler, S. A.; Desroches, K.
2013-12-01
Sediment thickness determinations play a key role in positioning the most seaward fixed points of the outer limits of continental shelves for coastal states. Seismic reflection surveying is an invaluable technique for estimating the sediment thickness required for the positioning. However, such seismic reflection surveying records the two way travel time (twtt) of vertically incident seismic waves. An accurate seismic velocity model is required for the conversion between twtt and sediment thickness. In this approach, a velocity model is constructed, its uncertainty is evaluated, and twtt is converted to sediment thickness. All of these procedures are programmed for batch and script processing. First, a slowness (the inverse of velocity) function, which is based on the solid sediment compaction theory, is selected and it is fitted using all available velocity observations using the reduced major axis (RMA) method, which can minimize errors from both velocity and depth observations. Second, the velocity uncertainty is estimated using a bootstrapping method by simulating a non-replace re-sampling procedure; thus it is also used in the estimation of sediment thickness uncertainty that is caused by velocity model errors. Moreover, with the constructed velocity model, conversion from sediment depth to twtt is resolved analytically and the conversion from twtt to depth is completed by solving a nonlinear equation with Newton iteration method, having approved convergence efficiency and a predefined accuracy (0.1 m). Finally, all these processes have been implemented in C# and JavaScript for integration with GeoFrame file format (seismic horizon interpretation) or embedded in any document with power batch processing and flexible verification facilities. As an example, publicly available velocity observations in the Labrador Sea region are used in the construction of a velocity model and the evaluation of velocity and sediment thickness uncertainty. The conversion between twtt and sediment thickness, based on the constructed velocity model, is derived and their excellent performance is demonstrated by simulating and comparing with published velocity models in the deep water region of the global oceans.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, G.
2010-12-01
We present preliminary results of a recent development of three-dimensional (3D) P-wave velocity and attenuation models for the Salton Trough, California. We obtain first arrival times and waveform data for all the local events in our study area recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network. Over 1000 master events are selected for the tomographic inversions. Arrival times from explosions and quarry blasts are also included to improve constraints on the shallow crustal structure. The simul2000 algorithm is applied to solve for both the velocity and attenuation models. We start with a one-dimensional velocity model with uniform 5 km horizontal and variable (2 to 5 km) vertical gridding. Our velocity model shows strong velocity contrast across the Southern San Andreas Fault (SSAF) through all the depth layers. Preliminary 3D relocated seismicity shows ~2 km shift towards the surface trace of the SSAF compared to the starting catalog locations, indicating that part of the separations between the seismicity and the fault surface may be due to the velocity anomalies in the local structure. A checkerboard test is also performed to evaluate the resolution of our results. Seismic attenuations can also provide important constraints on Earth properties. We determine the 3D attenuation structure using the t* values computed from the velocity spectra for vertical component seismograms from each event recorded by each station. Our 3D velocity model is used to trace the ray paths along which the t* values are accumulated. The resulting attenuation model generally agrees with the previous studies, but we also observe some new features, such as the locally low Q at shallow depths north of the Salton Sea. Our high-resolution velocity and attenuation studies may reveal fine-scale structures that are not resolved in the previous regional-scale studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oc?o?, Pawe?; ?opata, Stanis?aw; Nowak, Marzena
2015-04-01
This study presents a novel, simplified model for the time-efficient simulation of transient conjugate heat transfer in round tubes. The flow domain and the tube wall are modeled in 1D and 2D, respectively and empirical correlations are used to model the flow domain in 1D. The model is particularly useful when dealing with complex physics, such as flow boiling, which is the main focus of this study. The tube wall is assumed to have external fins. The flow is vertical upwards. Note that straightforward computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of conjugate heat transfer in a system of tubes, leads to 3D modeling of fluid and solid domains. Because correlation is used and dimensionality reduced, the model is numerically more stable and computationally more time-efficient compared to the CFD approach. The benefit of the proposed approach is that it can be applied to large systems of tubes as encountered in many practical applications. The modeled equations are discretized in space using the finite volume method, with central differencing for the heat conduction equation in the solid domain, and upwind differencing of the convective term of the enthalpy transport equation in the flow domain. An explicit time discretization with forward differencing was applied to the enthalpy transport equation in the fluid domain. The conduction equation in the solid domain was time discretized using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The model is applied in different boundary conditions and the predicted boiling patterns and temperature fields are discussed.
Conductivity in 1D Models Having Zero Lyapunov Exponents Baowen Li,1,* Lei Wang,2 and Bambi Hu2,3 1 Department) Heat conduction in three types of 1D channels is studied. The channels consist of two parallel walls. The Lyapunov exponents in all three models are zero because of the flatness of triangle sides. It is found
Gripp, A.E.; Gordon, R.G. )
1990-07-01
NUVEL-1 is a new global model of current relative plate velocities which differ significantly from those of prior models. Here the authors incorporate NUVEL-1 into HS2-NUVEL1, a new global model of plate velocities relative to the hotspots. HS2-NUVEL1 was determined from the hotspot data and errors used by Minster and Jordan (1978) to determine AM1-2, which is their model of plate velocities relative to the hotspots. AM1-2 is consistent with Minster and Jordan's relative plate velocity model RM2. Here the authors compare HS2-NUVEL1 with AM1-2 and examine how their differences relate to differences between NUVEL-1 and RM2. HS2-NUVEL1 plate velocities relative to the hotspots are mainly similar to those of AM1-2. Minor differences between the two models include the following: (1) in HS2-NUVEL1 the speed of the partly continental, apparently non-subducting Indian plate is greater than that of the purely oceanic, subducting Nazca plate; (2) in places the direction of motion of the African, Antarctic, Arabian, Australian, Caribbean, Cocos, Eurasian, North American, and South American plates differs between models by more than 10{degree}; (3) in places the speed of the Australian, Caribbean, Cocos, Indian, and Nazca plates differs between models by more than 8 mm/yr. Although 27 of the 30 RM2 Euler vectors differ with 95% confidence from those of NUVEL-1, only the AM1-2 Arabia-hotspot and India-hotspot Euler vectors differ with 95% confidence from those of HS2-NUVEL1. Thus, substituting NUVEL-1 for RM2 in the inversion for plate velocities relative to the hotspots changes few Euler vectors significantly, presumably because the uncertainty in the velocity of a plate relative to the hotspots is much greater than the uncertainty in its velocity relative to other plates.
Quantifying Uncertainty in Velocity Models using Bayesian Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hobbs, R.; Caiado, C.; Majda?ski, M.
2008-12-01
Quanitifying uncertainty in models derived from observed data is a major issue. Public and political understanding of uncertainty is poor and for industry inadequate assessment of risk costs money. In this talk we will examine the geological structure of the subsurface, however our principal exploration tool, controlled source seismology, gives its data in time. Inversion tools exist to map these data into a depth model but a full exploration of the uncertainty of the model is rarely done because robust strategies do not exist for large non-linear complex systems. There are two principal sources of uncertainty: the first comes from the input data which is noisy and bandlimited; the second, and more sinister, is from the model parameterisation and forward algorithms themselves, which approximate to the physics to make the problem tractable. To address these issues we propose a Bayesian approach. One philosophy is to estimate the uncertainty in a possible model derived using standard inversion tools. During the inversion stage we can use our geological prejudice to derive an acceptable model. Then we use a local random walk using the Metropolis- Hastings algorithm to explore the model space immediately around a possible solution. For models with a limited number of parameters we can use the forward modeling step from the inversion code. However as the number of parameters increase and/or the cost of the forward modeling step becomes significant, we need to use fast emulators to act as proxies so a sufficient number of iterations can be performed on which to base our statistical measures of uncertainty. In this presentation we show examples of uncertainty estimation using both pre- and post-critical seismic data. In particular, we will demonstrate uncertainty introduced by the approximation of the physics by using a tomographic inversion of bandlimited data and show that uncertainty increases as the central frequency of the data decreases. This is consistent with the infinite frequency approximation in the tomographic modeling step becoming increasing compromised.
Subgrid scale updraft velocity in km-scale models: implication for the aerosol indirect effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malavelle, F.; Haywood, J.; Field, P.; Hill, A.; Abel, S.; Lock, A.; Shipway, B.; McBeath, K.
2013-12-01
Aerosol-cloud-interactions (ACI) span a large range of spatial and temporal scales. The coarse resolution used in Global Circulation Models and Earth System models is unable to resolve the fine scale processes (e.g. vertical velocity, turbulent mixing) or the microphysical and dynamic feedbacks that are important for ACI, which leads to important uncertainties. The microphysical link between aerosols and clouds is activation, which is a strong function of the cloud-scale updraft velocity. To bridge the gap between the cloud scale and the global scale, a potential approach is using high-resolution large-scale models such as those from operational Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). However, even for non-hydrostatic km-scale NWP models, vertical velocities are only partially resolved. This work focuses on the parameterisation of the sub-grid vertical velocity and aerosol activation in such models. In order to estimate the contribution of the unresolved sub-grid variability, we analyse the updraft velocity at cloud resolving scales. Our strategy relies on running Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models and analysing hi-resolution aircraft observations of stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds to devise the scale-linking partition function of the total updraft velocity variability. To construct such a function, the resolved and sub-grid parts of the variables at coarser grid sizes are deduced after coarse graining the initial high resolution datasets. On this basis, we have developed and tested a framework for a parameterization that represents the sub-grid variability of updraft velocity in UK-Met Office NWP model, the Unified Model (UM), which is applicable to resolutions up to a few km. We show that without correction, the variability of updraft velocity decreases with decreasing model resolution. Applying our parameterization leads to consistent estimates of vertical velocity variability across the different resolutions. The contribution of the sub-grid variability to the vertical velocity standard deviation is factor of ~4-8 increase in simulations at a 1 km horizontal grid resolution. Offline calculations of CCN activated fraction using two activation schemes have been performed to investigate the sensitivity of the activation processes when the sub-grid scale vertical velocity variability is accounted for. These tests show significant increases in the CCN activated fraction, from +20% up to +100% depending on CCN concentration and the scheme considered. This highlights important implications for future ACI simulations at km-scale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mastin, L. G.; Sherrod, D. R.; Vallance, J. W.; Thornber, C. T.; Ewert, J. W.
2005-12-01
The dome-building eruption at Mount St. Helens has occurred through glacial ice and snow that would be expected to substantially affect the character of the eruption. Nevertheless, the role of water in the eruption to date has not always been clear. For example, on March 8, 2005, a half-hour-long tephra blast sent a plume to a maximum of ~9 km above the vent (based on pilot reports); seismicity and plume heights were greatest during the first ~10 minutes, then persisted for another ~15 minutes at a lower level before the eruption stopped. Tephra volume within 5 km2 downwind of the vent was ~5x104 m3 DRE, but trace amounts were reported at least to Ellensburg, WA (150 km NE), suggesting a total areal coverage >5,000 km2 and total volume >1x105 m3. Assuming that most of this material was expelled in the first ten minutes and had a density of 2500 kg/m3, the mass flow rate (M) during the vigorous phase was >~4x105 kg/s. The tephra, composed primarily of non-pumiceous broken and decrepitated dome rock, could have been expelled either by groundwater and steam at relatively modest (boiling-point) temperatures, or by magmatic gas at much higher temperatures. The high plume, however, suggested significant buoyancy, perhaps driven by temperatures closer to magmatic. To assess the effect of magmatic heat on plume height, we employ a 1-D steady volcanic plume model that uses specified vent diameter, exit velocity, eruption temperature, mass fractions of gas and added external water, and profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity, to calculate plume height and plume properties as a function of elevation. The model considers the enthalpy of equilibrium water condensation and of ice formation. Model results show that, under atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles measured near Mount St. Helens on the afternoon of March 8, 2005, a plume height (h) of 7-9 km could have developed with eruption temperatures (T) as low as 100° C, provided the mass fraction of water vapor in the plume (n) exceeded ~0.25 (mixtures containing less gas at this temperature would collapse before reaching 7-9 km height). At T=100° C and n=0.25, however, a mass flux of 0.6-1x105 kg/s will generate the observed 7-9km plume height, whereas a mass flow rate >~4x105 kg/s, in line with observations, results in h>~11 km. Under more typical magmatic temperatures (900° C) and gas mass fractions (0.02-0.03), plume heights of 7-9 km require M=4-6x105 kg/s -- nearly an order of magnitude greater than the vapor-rich, boiling point mixture, but more in line with the estimated mass flow rate of this eruption. These results, though not definitive, suggest that magmatic heat may have been important in driving the March 8 eruption. Relationships between mass flow rate and plume height may be useful in assessing the roles of magmatic and phreatic sources during other small eruptions.
Measurements and a model for convective velocities in the turbulent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cliff, W. C.; Sandborn, V. A.
1973-01-01
A physical model is presented which describes convective velocities within a flat plate turbulent boundary layer. A production zone concept is used as a basis for the physical model. The production zone concept employs the idea that packets of turbulent fluid are generated near the viscous sublayer. These packets are found to be discernible from the mean motion and may move either outward from the production zone or inward depending on their circulation relative to the fluid surrounding the packet. The packets are predicted to travel with a convective velocity different from the local mean velocity throughout most of the boundary layer. The model also predicts that the convective velocities will be functions of wave number outside the production zone.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gripp, Alice E.; Gordon, Richard G.
1990-01-01
The NUVEL-1 model of current global relative plate velocities is presently incorporated into HS2-NUVEL1, a global model for plate velocities relative to hotspots; the results thus obtained are compared with those of the AM1-2 model of hotspot-relative plate velocities. While there are places in which plate velocities relative to the hotspots differ between HS2-NUVEL1 and AM1-2 by tens of degrees in direction and 15 mm/yr in speed, the hotspot Euler vectors differ with 95 percent confidence only for the Arabian and Indian plates. Plates attached to subducting slabs move faster relative to the hotspots than do plates without slabs.
A comprehensive dispersion model of surface wave phase and group velocity for the globe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Zhitu; Masters, Guy; Laske, Gabi; Pasyanos, Michael
2014-10-01
A new method is developed to measure Rayleigh- and Love-wave phase velocities globally using a cluster analysis technique. This method clusters similar waveforms recorded at different stations from a single event and allows users to make measurements on hundreds of waveforms, which are filtered at a series of frequency ranges, at the same time. It also requires minimal amount of user interaction and allows easy assessment of the data quality. This method produces a large amount of phase delay measurements in a manageable time frame. Because there is a strong trade-off between the isotropic part of the Rayleigh-wave phase velocity and azimuthal anisotropy, we include the effect of azimuthal anisotropy in our inversions in order to obtain reliable isotropic phase velocity. We use b-splines to combine these isotropic phase velocity maps with our previous group velocity maps to produce an internally consistent global surface wave dispersion model.
A subgrid-scale model based on the second-order velocity structure function
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Comte, P.; Lee, Sangsan; Cabot, William H.
1990-01-01
A series of tests were performed to help extend the use of a subgrid-scale model to compressible and wall-bounded flows. A priori tests were done in the case of the incompressible turbulent channel flow. They showed that a 1-D formulation of the structure-function model is more appropriate, leading to a satisfactory behavior of the model at the walls without requiring any damping function. This model is consistent with the original formulation of Metais & Lesieur (1990). In large-eddy simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence, both models performed well up to an initial rms Mach number of 0.6.
Meteor velocity distribution and an optimum monitoring mathematical model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Volkov, N. G.; Salimov, O. N.
1987-01-01
At present, there are a great number of radio meteor, ionosphere and rocket observation data for the altitude range of 80 to 100 km which indicate the existence of large scale circulation systems in the mesopause to low thermosphere range which change regularly with season and latitude. But the existing observation network and observation programs are not optimal for revealing the main factors forming the circulation mode at these altitudes. A generalized optimum monitoring mathematical model is offered for consideration. The model input data are distribution density, response function, individual measurement root mean square uncertainty and detection effectiveness function. The model makes it possible to obtain the observation distribution density, the minimal possible dispersion and optimized system effectiveness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, L.; Sletten, R. S.; Hallet, B.; Waddington, E. D.; Wood, S. E.
2013-12-01
An ancient massive ice body buried under several decimeters of debris in Beacon Valley, Antarctica is believed to be over one million years old, making it older than any known glacier or ice cap. It is fundamentally important as a reservoir of water, proxy for climatic information, and an expression of the periglacial landscape. It is also one of Earth's closest analog for widespread, near-surface ice found in Martian soils and ice-cored landforms. We are interested in understanding controls on how long this ice may persist since our physical model of sublimation suggests it should not be stable. In these models, the soil temperatures and the gradient are important because it determines the direction and magnitude of the vapor flux, and thus sublimation rates. To better understand the heat transfer processes and constrain the rates of processes governing ground ice stability, a model of the thermal behavior of the permafrost is applied to Beacon Valley, Antarctica. It calculates soil temperatures based on a 1-D thermal diffusion equation using a fully implicit finite volume method (FVM). This model is constrained by soil physical properties and boundary conditions of in-situ ground surface temperature measurements (with an average of -23.6oC, a maximum of 20.5oC and a minimum of -54.3oC) and ice-core temperature record at ~30 m. Model results are compared to in-situ temperature measurements at depths of 0.10 m, 0.20 m, 0.30 m, and 0.45 m to assess the model's ability to reproduce the temperature profile for given thermal properties of the debris cover and ice. The model's sensitivity to the thermal diffusivity of the permafrost and the overlaying debris is also examined. Furthermore, we incorporate the role of ice condensation/sublimation which is calculated using our vapor diffusion model in the 1-D thermal diffusion model to assess potential latent heat effects that in turn affect ground ice sublimation rates. In general, the model simulates the ground thermal regime well. Detailed temperature comparison suggests that the 1-D thermal diffusion model results closely approximate the measured temperature at all depths with the average square root of the mean squared error (SRMSE) of 0.15oC; a linear correlation between modeled and measured temperatures yields an average R2 value of 0.9997. Prominent seasonal temperature variations diminish with depth, and it equilibrates to mean annual temperature at about 21.5 m depth. The amount of heat generated/consumed by ice condensation/sublimation is insufficient to significantly impact the thermal regime.
Modeling the effect of varying swim speeds on fish passage through velocity barriers
Castro-Santos, T.
2006-01-01
The distance fish can swim through zones of high-velocity flow is an important factor limiting the distribution and conservation of riverine and diadromous fishes. Often, these barriers are characterized by nonuniform flow conditions, and it is likely that fish will swim at varying speeds to traverse them. Existing models used to predict passage success, however, typically include the unrealistic assumption that fish swim at a constant speed regardless of the speed of flow. This paper demonstrates how the maximum distance of ascent through velocity barriers can be estimated from the swim speed-fatigue time relationship, allowing for variation in both swim speed and water velocity.
Measurement of velocity deficit at the downstream of a 1:10 axial hydrokinetic turbine model
Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S; Hill, Craig; Chamorro, Leonardo
2012-01-01
Wake recovery constrains the downstream spacing and density of turbines that can be deployed in turbine farms and limits the amount of energy that can be produced at a hydrokinetic energy site. This study investigates the wake recovery at the downstream of a 1:10 axial flow turbine model using a pulse-to-pulse coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP). In addition, turbine inflow and outflow velocities were measured for calculating the thrust on the turbine. The result shows that the depth-averaged longitudinal velocity recovers to 97% of the inflow velocity at 35 turbine diameter (D) downstream of the turbine.
a Modified Cellular Automaton Model for Ring Road Traffic with Velocity Guidance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, C. Q.; Huang, H. J.; Tang, T. Q.
We present a modified cellular automaton model to study the traffic flow on a signal controlled ring road with velocity guidance. The velocity guidance is such a strategy that when vehicles approach the traffic light, suggested velocities are provided for avoiding the vehicles' sharp brakes in front of red light. Simulation results show that this strategy may significantly reduce the vehicles' stopping rate and the effect size is dependent upon the traffic density, the detector position, the signal's cycle time and the obedience rate of vehicles to the guidance.
Site-Specific Velocity and Density Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington.
Rohay, Alan C.; Brouns, Thomas M.
2007-06-27
This report documents the work conducted under the SBP to develop a shear wave and compressional wave velocity and density model specific to the WTP site. Section 2 provides detailed background information on the WTP site and its underlying geology as well as on the Seismic Boreholes Project activities leading up to the Vs and Vp measurements. In Section 3, methods employed and results obtained are documented for measurements of Vs and Vp velocities in basalts and interbeds. Section 4 provides details on velocity measurements in the sediments underlying the WTP. Borehole gravity measurements of density of the subsurface basalt and sediments are described in Section 5. Section 6 describes the analysis of data presented in section 3-5, and presents the overall velocity and density model for the WTP site.
Direct Measurement of Internal Flow Velocities in a Star-Slot Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foster, Winfred A., Jr.; Jenkins, Rhonald M.; Hengel, John E.; Smith, Andrew W.
1997-01-01
This paper presents the results of a cold flow experiment to make direct measurements of the velocity distribution in a model of a solid rocket motor star grain propellant slot. The experimental procedure utilizes a multi-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) and an apparatus for seeding the flow with aluminum particles to determine the velocity components at various discrete locations within the star slot. The test article used in this investigation was a one-tenth scale, cold flow model based on the geometry of the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor head-end section. The results obtained for the direct measurements of velocity are compared to velocities calculated from measured pressure distributions to data obtained from oil smear experiments and flow visualization videos, and to heat transfer calorimeter data.
A distributed, dynamic, parallel computational model: the role of noise in velocity storage
Merfeld, Daniel M.
2012-01-01
Networks of neurons perform complex calculations using distributed, parallel computation, including dynamic “real-time” calculations required for motion control. The brain must combine sensory signals to estimate the motion of body parts using imperfect information from noisy neurons. Models and experiments suggest that the brain sometimes optimally minimizes the influence of noise, although it remains unclear when and precisely how neurons perform such optimal computations. To investigate, we created a model of velocity storage based on a relatively new technique–“particle filtering”–that is both distributed and parallel. It extends existing observer and Kalman filter models of vestibular processing by simulating the observer model many times in parallel with noise added. During simulation, the variance of the particles defining the estimator state is used to compute the particle filter gain. We applied our model to estimate one-dimensional angular velocity during yaw rotation, which yielded estimates for the velocity storage time constant, afferent noise, and perceptual noise that matched experimental data. We also found that the velocity storage time constant was Bayesian optimal by comparing the estimate of our particle filter with the estimate of the Kalman filter, which is optimal. The particle filter demonstrated a reduced velocity storage time constant when afferent noise increased, which mimics what is known about aminoglycoside ablation of semicircular canal hair cells. This model helps bridge the gap between parallel distributed neural computation and systems-level behavioral responses like the vestibuloocular response and perception. PMID:22514288
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmitt, G. A.; Abreu, V. J.; Hays, P. B.
1981-01-01
Thermal and nonthermal O(1D) number density profiles are calculated. The two populations are assumed to be coupled by a thermalization cross-section which determines the loss and production in the nonthermal and thermal populations, respectively. The sources, sinks and transport of the two populations are used to model volume emission rate profiles at 6300 A. The 6300 A brightness measured by the Visible Airglow Experiment is then used to establish the presence of the nonthermal population and to determine the thermalization cross-section.
No-net-rotation model of current plate velocities incorporating plate motion model NUVEL-1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Argus, Donald F.; Gordon, Richard G.
1991-01-01
NNR-NUVEL1 is presented which is a model of plate velocities relative to the unique reference frame defined by requiring no-net-rotation of the lithosphere while constraining relative plate velocities to equal those in global plate motion model NUVEL-1 (DeMets et al., 1990). In NNR-NUVEL1, the Pacific plate rotates in a right-handed sense relative to the no-net-rotation reference frame at 0.67 deg/m.y. about 63 deg S, 107 deg E. At Hawaii the Pacific plate moves relative to the no-net-rotation reference frame at 70 mm/yr, which is 25 mm/yr slower than the Pacific plate moves relative to the hotspots. Differences between NNR-NUVEL1 and HS2-NUVEL1 are described. The no-net-rotation reference frame differs significantly from the hotspot reference frame. If the difference between reference frames is caused by motion of the hotspots relative to a mean-mantle reference frame, then hotspots beneath the Pacific plate move with coherent motion towards the east-southeast. Alternatively, the difference between reference frames can show that the uniform drag, no-net-torque reference frame, which is kinematically equivalent to the no-net-rotation reference frame, is based on a dynamically incorrect premise.
Curing the acausal behavior of the sound velocity in an excluded volume hadron resonance gas model
Kadam, Guru Prakash
2015-01-01
We improve the excluded volume hadron resonances gas model (EHRG) to cure the acausal behavior of the sound velocity which is typical of excluded volume models. We achieve this by including temperature (T) and density ({\\mu}) dependent hadron masses in the partition function of EHRG. The temperature and density dependent masses of the constituent quarks (u,d,s) and the light mesons are obtained within Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model while for the heavy hadrons we use linear scaling rule in terms of constituent quarks. With this improvement, we observe that the velocity of sound flattens at high temperature unlike old EHRG models where the sound velocity rises very rapidly at high temperatures which is the indication of its super-luminal behavior.
A math model for high velocity sensoring with a focal plane shuttered camera.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, P.
1971-01-01
A new mathematical model is presented which describes the image produced by a focal plane shutter-equipped camera. The model is based upon the well-known collinearity condition equations and incorporates both the translational and rotational motion of the camera during the exposure interval. The first differentials of the model with respect to exposure interval, delta t, yield the general matrix expressions for image velocities which may be simplified to known cases. The exposure interval, delta t, may be replaced under certain circumstances with a function incorporating blind velocity and image position if desired. The model is tested using simulated Lunar Orbiter data and found to be computationally stable as well as providing excellent results, provided that some external information is available on the velocity parameters.
Curing the acausal behavior of the sound velocity in an excluded volume hadron resonance gas model
Guru Prakash Kadam
2015-10-15
We improve the excluded volume hadron resonances gas model (EHRG) to cure the acausal behavior of the sound velocity which is typical of excluded volume models. We achieve this by including temperature (T) and density ({\\mu}) dependent hadron masses in the partition function of EHRG. The temperature and density dependent masses of the constituent quarks (u,d,s) and the light mesons are obtained within Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model while for the heavy hadrons we use linear scaling rule in terms of constituent quarks. With this improvement, we observe that the velocity of sound flattens at high temperature unlike old EHRG models where the sound velocity rises very rapidly at high temperatures which is the indication of its super-luminal behavior.
High Resolution Interseismic Velocity Model of the San Andreas Fault From GPS and InSAR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, X.; Sandwell, D. T.; Smith-Konter, B. R.
2011-12-01
We recover the interseismic deformation along the entire San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) at a spatial resolution of 200 meters by combining InSAR and GPS observations using a dislocation model. Previous efforts to compare 17 different GPS-derived strain rate models of the SAFS shows that GPS data alone cannot uniquely resolve the rapid velocity gradients near faults, which are critical for understanding the along-strike variations in stress accumulation rate and associated earthquake hazard. To improve the near-fault velocity resolution, we integrate new GPS observations with InSAR observations, initially from ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite launched by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) ascending data (spanning 2006.5-2010), using a remove/restore approach. More than 1100 interferograms were processed with the newly developed InSAR processing software GMTSAR. The integration uses a dislocation-based velocity model to interpolate the Line-Of-Sight (LOS) velocity at the full resolution of the InSAR data in radar coordinates. The residual between the model and InSAR LOS velocity are stacked and high-pass filtered, then added back to the model. This LOS velocity map covers almost entire San Andreas Fault System (see Figure 1) from Maacama Fault to the north to the Superstition Hills Fault to the south. The average standard deviation of the LOS velocity model ranges from 2 to 4 mm/yr. Our initial results show previously unknown details in along-strike variations in surface fault creep. Moreover, the high resolution velocity field can resolve asperities in these "creeping" sections that are important for understanding moment accumulation rates and seismic hazards. We find that much of the high resolution velocity signal is related to non-tectonic processes (e.g., ground subsidence and uplift) sometimes very close to the fault zone. The near-fault deformation signal extracted from this velocity map can provide tighter constraints on fault slip rates and locking depths of the major fault segments along the SAFS.
UCVM: An Open Source Framework for 3D Velocity Model Research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gill, D.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Plesch, A.; Taborda, R.; Callaghan, S.; Small, P.
2013-12-01
Three-dimensional (3D) seismic velocity models provide fundamental input data to ground motion simulations, in the form of structured or unstructured meshes or grids. Numerous models are available for California, as well as for other parts of the United States and Europe, but models do not share a common interface. Being able to interact with these models in a standardized way is critical in order to configure and run 3D ground motion simulations. The Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) software, developed by researchers at the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), is an open source framework designed to provide a cohesive way to interact with seismic velocity models. We describe the several ways in which we have improved the UCVM software over the last year. We have simplified the UCVM installation process by automating the installation of various community codebases, improving the ease of use.. We discuss how UCVM software was used to build velocity meshes for high-frequency (4Hz) deterministic 3D wave propagation simulations, and how the UCVM framework interacts with other open source resources, such as NetCDF file formats for visualization. The UCVM software uses a layered software architecture that transparently converts geographic coordinates to the coordinate systems used by the underlying velocity models and supports inclusion of a configurable near-surface geotechnical layer, while interacting with the velocity model codes through their existing software interfaces. No changes to the velocity model codes are required. Our recent UCVM installation improvements bundle UCVM with a setup script, written in Python, which guides users through the process that installs the UCVM software along with all the user-selectable velocity models. Each velocity model is converted into a standardized (configure, make, make install) format that is easily downloaded and installed via the script. UCVM is often run in specialized high performance computing (HPC) environments, so we have included checks during the installation process to alert users about potential conflicts. We also describe how UCVM can create an octree-based database representation of a velocity model which can be directly queried by 3D wave propagation simulation codes using the open source etree library. We will discuss how this approach was used to create an etree for a 4-Hz Chino Hills simulation. Finally, we show how the UCVM software can integrate NetCDF utility code to produce 3D velocity model files compatible with open source NetCDF data viewers. This demonstrates that UCVM can generate meshes from any compatible community velocity model and that the resulting models can be visualized without the need for complex secondary tools. This illustrates how developers can easily write tools that can convert data from one format to another using the UCVM API.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotani, Hajime; Tatekawa, Takayuki
2006-01-01
For the evolution of density fluctuation in nonlinear cosmological dynamics, adhesion approximation (AA) is proposed as a phenomenological model, which is especially useful for describing nonlinear evolution. However, the origin of the artificial viscosity in AA is not clarified. Recently, Buchert and Domínguez report if the velocity dispersion of the dust fluid is regarded as isotropic, it works on a principle similar to viscosity or effective pressure, and they consider isotropic velocity dispersion as the origin of the artificial viscosity in AA. They name their model the Euler-Jeans-Newton (EJN) model. In this paper, we focus on the velocity distribution in AA and the EJN model and examine the time evolution in both models. We find the behavior of AA differs from that of the EJN model, i.e., although the peculiar velocity in the EJN model oscillates, that in AA is monotonically decelerated due to viscosity without oscillation. Therefore it is hard to regard viscosity in AA as effective pressure in the EJN model.
HIGH-RESOLUTION SEISMIC VELOCITY AND ATTENUATION MODELS OF THE CAUCASUS-CASPIAN REGION
Mellors, R; Gok, R; Sandvol, E
2007-07-10
The southwest edge of Eurasia is a tectonically and structurally complex region that includes the Caspian and Black Sea basins, the Caucasus Mountains, and the high plateaus south of the Caucasus. Crustal and upper mantle velocities show great heterogeneity in this region and regional phases display variations in both amplitudes and travel time. Furthermore, due to a lack of quality data, the region has largely been unexplored in terms of the detailed lithospheric seismic structure. A unified high-resolution 3D velocity and attenuation model of the crust and upper mantle will be developed and calibrated. This model will use new data from 23 new broadband stations in the region analyzed with a comprehensive set of techniques. Velocity models of the crust and upper mantle will be developed using a joint inversion of receiver functions and surface waves. The surface wave modeling will use both event-based methods and ambient noise tomography. Regional phase (Pg, Pn, Sn, and Lg) Q model(s) will be constructed using the new data in combination with existing data sets. The results of the analysis (both attenuation and velocity modeling) will be validated using modeling of regional phases, calibration with selected events, and comparison with previous work. Preliminary analyses of receiver functions show considerable variability across the region. All results will be integrated into the KnowledgeBase.
Lin, Guoqing
A California Statewide Three-Dimensional Seismic Velocity Model from Both Absolute of the California crust and uppermost mantle using a regional-scale double-difference tomography algorithm. We begin using S picks from both the Southern California Seismic Network and USArray, assuming a starting model
Verley, Jason C.; Axness, Carl L.; Hembree, Charles Edward; Keiter, Eric Richard; Kerr, Bert
2012-04-01
Photocurrent generated by ionizing radiation represents a threat to microelectronics in radiation environments. Circuit simulation tools such as SPICE [1] can be used to analyze these threats, and typically rely on compact models for individual electrical components such as transistors and diodes. Compact models consist of a handful of differential and/or algebraic equations, and are derived by making simplifying assumptions to any of the many semiconductor transport equations. Historically, many photocurrent compact models have suffered from accuracy issues due to the use of qualitative approximation, rather than mathematically correct solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation. A practical consequence of this inaccuracy is that a given model calibration is trustworthy over only a narrow range of operating conditions. This report describes work to produce improved compact models for photocurrent. Specifically, an analytic model is developed for epitaxial diode structures that have a highly doped subcollector. The analytic model is compared with both numerical TCAD calculations, as well as the compact model described in reference [2]. The new analytic model compares well against TCAD over a wide range of operating conditions, and is shown to be superior to the compact model from reference [2].
Low velocity impact experiments on the explosive LX-10 with modeling of reaction violence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chidester, Steven; Garcia, Frank; Vandersall, Kevin S.; Tarver, Craig M.; Ferranti, Louis
2012-03-01
A new gas gun capability designed for the velocity range of ~20-400 m/s was used to study the mechanisms of low-velocity impact ignition and reaction violence of explosive targets in safety studies. Hemispherical charges of the HMX-based explosive LX-10 (95% HMX, 5% Viton binder) assembled in a polycarbonate target ring were impacted by a 6.35 mm diameter hardened steel rod protruding from a projectile at velocities ranging from 36 to 374 m/s. Digital high-speed (Phantom v12) cameras were utilized to capture the times of first ignition and a Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probe placed at the rear of the target was used to measure the free surface velocity histories of an aluminum foil on the LX-10 surface to quantify the resulting reaction violence. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for LX-10 was used to compare the relative violence of these reactions to the intentional detonation of an equivalent LX-10 charge. It was found that comparing the model results to that of the experiment using this impactor geometry within the tested velocity range, the reaction violence increased with velocity from 45-374 m/s and only a small fraction of material appears to react during the impact.
Wisconsin at Madison, University of
This is a 1D model of an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) that was developed in MATLAB. The model uses cycle inputs such as the fluid mass flow and magnetic field profiles, fluid define the number of time steps in each cycle and the number of nodes in the axial direction
Velocity imaging of triangulate cells in Marmousi Model based on 2-D inverse rays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tai, F.; Wang, T.
2006-12-01
Inverse-ray method is implemented to calculate the ray directions shooting from a source and a receiver by considering the slopes of refracted times, respectively, from common-receiver and common-source gathers. If the upper model is assumed to be known, then refracted rays propagating in triangulate cells of the upper model are calculated according to the Hamiltonian eikonal equation for which the square of the slowness is linearly varied. By layer-stripping imaging from shallow to deep layers, we determine the velocities in three triangulate cells in the lowest layer from the intersection of this inverse ray and triangulate boundaries. A smooth Marmousi Model is used to test the capability of inverse-ray imaging. We find five inverse refracted rays propagating through three triangles in the lowest layers. Two inverse rays through the region with strong velocity variation and the other inverse rays through deep area. Errors of velocity imaging based on five inverse refracted rays in the lowest layer are less than 5%. Inverse-ray method is superior to the travel-time inversion due to its rapid computation and no initial velocity model required. However, since velocity imaging is restricted within three triangulated cells in our research. We shall expand the imaging region greater than three triangulated cells from inverse refracted rays propagating through multiple cells.
Quasilinear model for energetic particle diffusion in radial and velocity space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waltz, R. E.; Bass, E. M.; Staebler, G. M.
2013-04-01
A quasilinear model for passive energetic particle (EP) turbulent diffusion in radial and velocity space is fitted and tested against nonlinear gyrokinetic tokamak simulations with the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 045001 (2003)]. Off diagonal elements of a symmetric positive definite 2×2 EP diffusion matrix account for fluxes up radial (energy) gradients driven by energy (radial) gradients of the EP velocity space distribution function. The quasilinear ratio kernel of the model is provided by a simple analytic formula for the EP radial and velocity space EP diffusivity relative to radial thermal ion energy diffusivity at each linear mode of the turbulence driven by the thermal plasma. The TGLF [G. M. Staebler, J. E. Kinsey, and R. E. Waltz, Phys. Plasmas 14, 0055909 (2007); ibid. 15, 0055908 (2008)] tokamak transport model provides the linear mode frequency and growth rates to the kernel as well as the nonlinear spectral weight for each mode.
Quasilinear model for energetic particle diffusion in radial and velocity space
Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Bass, E. M.
2013-04-15
A quasilinear model for passive energetic particle (EP) turbulent diffusion in radial and velocity space is fitted and tested against nonlinear gyrokinetic tokamak simulations with the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 045001 (2003)]. Off diagonal elements of a symmetric positive definite 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 EP diffusion matrix account for fluxes up radial (energy) gradients driven by energy (radial) gradients of the EP velocity space distribution function. The quasilinear ratio kernel of the model is provided by a simple analytic formula for the EP radial and velocity space EP diffusivity relative to radial thermal ion energy diffusivity at each linear mode of the turbulence driven by the thermal plasma. The TGLF [G. M. Staebler, J. E. Kinsey, and R. E. Waltz, Phys. Plasmas 14, 0055909 (2007); ibid. 15, 0055908 (2008)] tokamak transport model provides the linear mode frequency and growth rates to the kernel as well as the nonlinear spectral weight for each mode.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Watershed modeling is a key component of watershed management that involves the simulation of hydrological and fluvial processes for predicting flow and sediment transport within a watershed. For practical purposes, most numerical models have been developed to simulate either runoff and soil erosion...
Willsky, Alan S.
. Fisher, III. Parallel sampling of DP mixture models using sub-clusters splits. NIPS 2013. [4] D. B. Dahl. An improved merge-split sampler for conjugate Dirichlet process mixture models. Technical report, University. Blei. Hierarchical Dirichlet processes. JASA, 2006. Parallel Sampling of HDPs using Sub-Cluster Splits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, E.; Bertino, L.; Samuelsen, A.
2011-12-01
Combined state-parameter estimation in ocean biogeochemical models with ensemble-based Kalman filters is a challenging task due to the non-linearity of the models, the constraints of positiveness that apply to the variables and parameters, and the non-Gaussian distribution of the variables in which they result. Furthermore, these models are sensitive to numerous parameters that are poorly known. Previous works [1] demonstrated that the Gaussian anamorphosis extensions of ensemble-based Kalman filters were relevant tools to perform combined state-parameter estimation in such non-Gaussian framework. In this study, we focus on the estimation of the grazing preferences parameters of zooplankton species. These parameters are introduced to model the diet of zooplankton species among phytoplankton species and detritus. They are positive values and their sum is equal to one. Because the sum-to-one constraint cannot be handled by ensemble-based Kalman filters, a reformulation of the parameterization is proposed. We investigate two types of changes of variables for the estimation of sum-to-one constrained parameters. The first one is based on Gelman [2] and leads to the estimation of normal distributed parameters. The second one is based on the representation of the unit sphere in spherical coordinates and leads to the estimation of parameters with bounded distributions (triangular or uniform). These formulations are illustrated and discussed in the framework of twin experiments realized in the 1D coupled model GOTM-NORWECOM with Gaussian anamorphosis extensions of the deterministic ensemble Kalman filter (DEnKF). [1] Simon E., Bertino L. : Gaussian anamorphosis extension of the DEnKF for combined state and parameter estimation : application to a 1D ocean ecosystem model. Journal of Marine Systems, 2011. doi :10.1016/j.jmarsys.2011.07.007 [2] Gelman A. : Method of Moments Using Monte Carlo Simulation. Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics, 4, 1, 36-54, 1995.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballard, S.; Begnaud, M. L.; Hipp, J. R.; Chael, E. P.; Encarnacao, A.; Maceira, M.; Yang, X.; Young, C. J.; Phillips, W.
2013-12-01
SALSA3D is a global 3D P wave velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle developed specifically to provide seismic event locations that are more accurate and more precise than are locations from 1D and 2.5D models. In this paper, we present the most recent version of our model, for the first time jointly derived from multiple types of data: body wave travel times, surface wave group velocities, and gravity. The latter two are added to provide information in areas with poor body wave coverage, and are down-weighted in areas where body wave coverage is good. To constrain the inversions, we invoked empirical relations among the density, S velocity, and P velocity. We demonstrate the ability of the new SALSA3D model to reduce mislocations and generate statistically robust uncertainty estimates for a large set of realizations derived from a carefully chosen set of globally-distributed ground truth events. We obtain path-dependent travel time prediction uncertainties for our model by computing the full 3D model covariance matrix of our tomographic system and integrating the model slowness variance and covariance along paths of interest. This approach yields very low travel time prediction uncertainties for well-sampled paths through the Earth and higher uncertainties for paths that are poorly represented in the data set used to develop the model. While the calculation of path-dependent prediction uncertainties with this approach is computationally expensive, uncertainties can be pre-computed for a network of stations and stored in 3D lookup tables that can be quickly and efficiently interrogated using GeoTess software.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parisi, L.; Calo, M.; Luzio, D.; Sulli, A.
2011-12-01
In this work we present Vp and Vs velocity models of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Sicilian-Tyrrhenian region (Southern Italy). We applied the double-difference tomography of Zhang and Thurber (2003) further optimized by the post-processing Weighted Average Model method (Calò et al., 2009; Calò, 2009). The tomographic method was applied to three datasets. The first dataset contains 31270 P- and 13588 S- absolute data and 73022 P- and 27893 S- differential times regarding earthquakes occurred from 1981 to 2005 and recorded by 192 stations. The second dataset is composed by 27668 P- and 11183 S- absolute data and 63296 P- and 29683 S- differential times of earthquakes occurred between January 2006 and December 2009 and recorded by 140 stations. The third dataset results as a merging of the two datasets above described. After an assessment of the results obtained after the inversion of the three datasets, we constructed the final Vp and Vs models as syntheses of all results using the WAM method. Checkerboard tests indicate that horizontal resolution allow to recovery velocity structures 20 km wide in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea and north-eastern Sicily area whereas anomalies of from 40 to 70 km are restored in the southern part of Sicily, Ionian Sea and Sicily Channel. Vertical resolution is 3 km in the shallower parts of the models (down to about 20 km) and 8 -10 km in the deeper ones (down to 50 km). Furthermore, a Vp- Vs correlation analysis was performed in order to assess the minimum threshold of DWS (Toomey and Foulger, 1986) that ensures a sufficient reliability of the seismic velocity distributions. These preliminary results show highly resolved Vp and Vs models and provide new constrains on the lithospheric structures of the study area.
Loya, Sudarshan Kedarnath
2011-12-31
these postulations have been effective in the past, they might not work with new versions of catalytic converters and the architectures being proposed. In particular, classical models neglect viscosity, conductivity and diffusion in the bulk gas phase. However...
An extension of the Savage-Hutter gravity driven granular flow model on arbitrary topography in 1D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fellin, Wolfgang; Ostermann, Alexander; Staggl, Gregor
2015-04-01
In an implementation of the Savage-Hutter model in a GIS (geographic information system, e.g. GRASS GIS) curvature terms must be accounted for. We extend the work of Bouchut et al. (2003) to include friction between flowing mass and bed, as well as the active/passive earth pressure coefficient to model the behavior of the granular flow according to the original Savage-Hutter idea. Conservation of mass and momentum in curvilinear coordinates are integrated over the flow height yielding a shallow water model. This work is part of the project avaflow: http://www.avaflow.org/ References: F. Bouchut, A. Mangeney-Castelnau, B. Perthame, J.-P. Vilotte, A new model of Saint Venant and Savage-Hutter type for gravity driven shallow water flows, C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, série I 336 (2003), 531-536.
Smith, R; Taha, T; Cui, Z F
2005-01-01
Tubular membrane ultrafiltration and microfiltration are important industrial separation and concentration processes. Process optimisation requires reduction of membrane build-up. Gas slug introduction has been shown to be a useful approach for flux enhancement. However, process quantification is required for design and optimisation. In this work we employ a non-porous wall CFD model to quantify hydrodynamics in the two-phase slug flow process. Mass transfer is subsequently quantified from wall shear stress, which was determined from the CFD. The mass transfer model is an improved one-dimensional boundary layer model, which empirically incorporates effects of wall suction and analytically includes edge effects for circular conduits. Predicted shear stress profiles are in agreement with experimental results and flux estimates prove more reliable than that from previous models. Previous models ignored suction effects and employed less rigorous fluid property inclusion, which ultimately led to under-predictive flux estimates. The presented model offers reliable process design and optimisation criteria for gas-sparged tubular membrane ultrafiltration. PMID:16003963
Boukazouha, F; Poulin-Vittrant, G; Tran-Huu-Hue, L P; Bavencoffe, M; Boubenider, F; Rguiti, M; Lethiecq, M
2015-07-01
This article is dedicated to the study of Piezoelectric Transformers (PTs), which offer promising solutions to the increasing need for integrated power electronics modules within autonomous systems. The advantages offered by such transformers include: immunity to electromagnetic disturbances; ease of miniaturisation for example, using conventional micro fabrication processes; and enhanced performance in terms of voltage gain and power efficiency. Central to the adequate description of such transformers is the need for complex analytical modeling tools, especially if one is attempting to include combined contributions due to (i) mechanical phenomena owing to the different propagation modes which differ at the primary and secondary sides of the PT; and (ii) electrical phenomena such as the voltage gain and power efficiency, which depend on the electrical load. The present work demonstrates an original one-dimensional (1D) analytical model, dedicated to a Rosen-type PT and simulation results are successively compared against that of a three-dimensional (3D) Finite Element Analysis (COMSOL Multiphysics software) and experimental results. The Rosen-type PT studied here is based on a single layer soft PZT (P191) with corresponding dimensions 18 mm × 3 mm × 1.5 mm, which operated at the second harmonic of 176 kHz. Detailed simulational and experimental results show that the presented 1D model predicts experimental measurements to within less than 10% error of the voltage gain at the second and third resonance frequency modes. Adjustment of the analytical model parameters is found to decrease errors relative to experimental voltage gain to within 1%, whilst a 2.5% error on the output admittance magnitude at the second resonance mode were obtained. Relying on the unique assumption of one-dimensionality, the present analytical model appears as a useful tool for Rosen-type PT design and behavior understanding. PMID:25753623
Lin, G.; Thurber, C.H.; Zhang, H.; Hauksson, E.; Shearer, P.M.; Waldhauser, F.; Brocher, T.M.; Hardebeck, J.
2010-01-01
We obtain a seismic velocity model of the California crust and uppermost mantle using a regional-scale double-difference tomography algorithm. We begin by using absolute arrival-time picks to solve for a coarse three-dimensional (3D) P velocity (VP) model with a uniform 30 km horizontal node spacing, which we then use as the starting model for a finer-scale inversion using double-difference tomography applied to absolute and differential pick times. For computational reasons, we split the state into 5 subregions with a grid spacing of 10 to 20 km and assemble our final statewide VP model by stitching together these local models. We also solve for a statewide S-wave model using S picks from both the Southern California Seismic Network and USArray, assuming a starting model based on the VP results and a VP=VS ratio of 1.732. Our new model has improved areal coverage compared with previous models, extending 570 km in the SW-NE directionand 1320 km in the NW-SE direction. It also extends to greater depth due to the inclusion of substantial data at large epicentral distances. Our VP model generally agrees with previous separate regional models for northern and southern California, but we also observe some new features, such as high-velocity anomalies at shallow depths in the Klamath Mountains and Mount Shasta area, somewhat slow velocities in the northern Coast Ranges, and slow anomalies beneath the Sierra Nevada at midcrustal and greater depths. This model can be applied to a variety of regional-scale studies in California, such as developing a unified statewide earthquake location catalog and performing regional waveform modeling.
Polar versus Cartesian velocity models for maneuvering target tracking with IMM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laneuville, Dann
This paper compares various model sets in different IMM filters for the maneuvering target tracking problem. The aim is to see whether we can improve the tracking performance of what is certainly the most widely used model set in the literature for the maneuvering target tracking problem: a Nearly Constant Velocity model and a Nearly Coordinated Turn model. Our new challenger set consists of a mixed Cartesian position and polar velocity state vector to describe the uniform motion segments and is augmented with the turn rate to obtain the second model for the maneuvering segments. This paper also gives a general procedure to discretize up to second order any non-linear continuous time model with linear diffusion. Comparative simulations on an air defence scenario with a 2D radar, show that this new approach improves significantly the tracking performance in this case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morozova, Viktoriya S.; Ahmedov, Bobomurat J.; Zanotti, Olindo
2014-10-01
We try to explain the subpulse drift phenomena adopting the space-charge limited flow model and comparing the plasma drift velocity in the inner region of pulsar magnetospheres with the observed velocity of drifting subpulses. We apply the approach described in a recent paper of van Leeuwen & Timokhin, where it was shown that the standard estimation of the subpulse drift velocity through the total value of the scalar potential drop in the inner gap gives inaccurate results, while the exact expression relating the drift velocity to the gradient of the scalar potential should be used instead. After considering a selected sample of sources taken from the catalogue of Weltevrede et al. with coherently drifting subpulses and reasonably known observing geometry, we show that their subpulse drift velocities would correspond to the drift of the plasma located very close or above the pair formation front. Moreover, a detailed analysis of PSR B0826-34 and PSR B0818-41 reveals that the variation of the subpulse separation with the pulse longitude can be successfully explained by the dependence of the plasma drift velocity on the angular coordinates.
Subpulse drift velocity of pulsar magnetosphere within the space-charge limited flow model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Morozova, Viktoriya; Zanotti, Olindo
We attempt to explain the subpulse drift phenomena adopting the space-charge limited flow (SCLF) model and comparing the plasma drift velocity in the inner region of pulsar magnetospheres with the observed velocity of drifting subpulses. We apply the approach described in a recent paper of van Leeuwen & Timokhin (2012), where it was shown that the standard estimation of the subpulse drift velocity through the total value of the scalar potential drop in the inner gap gives inaccurate results, while the exact expression relating the drift velocity to the gradient of the scalar potential should be used instead. After considering a selected sample of sources taken from the catalog of Weltevrede, Edwards & Stappers (2006) with coherently drifting subpulses and reasonably known observing geometry, we show that their subpulse drift velocities would correspond to the drift of the plasma located very close or above the pair formation front. Moreover, a detailed analysis of PSR B0826-34 and PSR B0818-41 reveals that the variation of the subpulse separation with the pulse longitude can be successfully explained by the dependence of the plasma drift velocity on the angular coordinates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friesen, W. J.; Moore, J. A.
1973-01-01
Velocity-profile, pitot-pressure, and supplemental probe measurements were made at the nozzle exist of an expansion tunnel (a modification to the Langley pilot model expansion tube) for a nozzle net condition of a nitrogen test sample with a velocity of 4.5 km/sec and a density 0.005 times the density of nitrogen at standard conditions, both with the nozzle initially immersed in a helium atmosphere and with the nozzle initially evacuated. The purpose of the report is to present the results of these measurements and some of the physical properties of the nitrogen test sample which can be inferred from the measured results. The main conclusions reached are that: the velocity profiles differ for two nozzle conditions; regions of the flow field can be found where the velocity is uniform to within 5 percent and constant for several hundred microseconds; the velocity of the nitrogen test sample is reduced due to passage through the nozzle; and the velocity profiles do not significantly reflect the large variations which occur in the inferred density profiles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Y.; Hasumi, H.
2009-04-01
The temporal residual-mean (TRM) velocity, rather than the usual Eulerian time-mean velocity, represents transport of water mass in an eddy-rich ocean. The TRM velocity is the sum of an eddy-induced and the time-mean velocity. It is important to evaluate a vertical component of the TRM velocity to investigate subduction of water masses in an eddy-rich ocean. By using output of an eddy resolving ocean model with 9 km horizontal resolution, the vertical component of the TRM velocity in the Southern Ocean is evaluated. The obtained TRM velocity shows strong downward transport at the Brazil-Malvinas Current confluence. The eddy-induced velocity dominates the TRM velocity. This downward transport seems to explain the injection of low salinity water into the Atlantic subtropical gyre and the formation of the low salinity tongue of Antarctic Intermediate Water in the Atlantic Ocean.
Invariant methods for indexing and relative reconstruction of 3D models using 1D HRR and 2D SAR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Payton, Paul M.; Barrett, Eamon B.; Kober, Wolfgang; Thomas, John K.; Johnson, Steven E.
1998-10-01
We describe a geometric model of high-resolution radar (HRR), where objects being imaged by the sensor are assumed to consists of a collection of isotropic scattering centers distributed in three dimensions. Three, four, five and six point pure HRR invariant quantities for non-coplanar reflecting centers are presented. New work showing invariants combining HRR and SAR measurements are then presented. All these techniques require matching corresponding features in multiple HRR and/or SAR views. These features are represented using analytic scattering models. Multiple features within the same HRR resolution cell can be individually detected and separated using interference-suppression filters. These features can then be individually tracked to maintain correspondence as the object poise changes. We validate our HRR/SAR invariants using the XPATCH simulation system. Finally, a view-based method for 3D model reconstruction is developed and demonstrated.
L. A. Corona; R. Salgado-Garcia
2015-08-17
In this note we study a class of one-dimensional Ising chain having a highly degenerated set of ground-state configurations. The model consists of spin chain having infinite-range pair interactions with a given structure. We show that the set of ground-state configurations of such a model can be fully characterized by means of symbolic dynamics. Particularly we found that the set ground- state configurations defines what in symbolic dynamics is called sofic shift space. Finally we prove that this system has a non-vanishing residual entropy (the topological entropy of the shift space), which can be exactly calculated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ireland, Gareth; Petropoulos, George P.; Carlson, Toby N.; Purdy, Sarah
2015-04-01
Sensitivity analysis (SA) consists of an integral and important validatory check of a computer simulation model before it is used to perform any kind of analysis. In the present work, we present the results from a SA performed on the SimSphere Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) model utilising a cutting edge and robust Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) approach, based on the use of the Gaussian Emulation Machine for Sensitivity Analysis (GEM-SA) tool. The sensitivity of the following model outputs was evaluated: the ambient CO2 concentration and the rate of CO2 uptake by the plant, the ambient O3 concentration, the flux of O3 from the air to the plant/soil boundary, and the flux of O3 taken up by the plant alone. The most sensitive model inputs for the majority of model outputs were related to the structural properties of vegetation, namely, the Leaf Area Index, Fractional Vegetation Cover, Cuticle Resistance and Vegetation Height. External CO2 in the leaf and the O3 concentration in the air input parameters also exhibited significant influence on model outputs. This work presents a very important step towards an all-inclusive evaluation of SimSphere. Indeed, results from this study contribute decisively towards establishing its capability as a useful teaching and research tool in modelling Earth's land surface interactions. This is of considerable importance in the light of the rapidly expanding use of this model worldwide, which also includes research conducted by various Space Agencies examining its synergistic use with Earth Observation data towards the development of operational products at a global scale. This research was supported by the European Commission Marie Curie Re-Integration Grant "TRANSFORM-EO". SimSphere is currently maintained and freely distributed by the Department of Geography and Earth Sciences at Aberystwyth University (http://www.aber.ac.uk/simsphere). Keywords: CO2 flux, ambient CO2, O3 flux, SimSphere, Gaussian process emulators, BACCO GEM-SA, TRANSFORM-EO.
Modeling continuous seismic velocity changes due to ground shaking in Chile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gassenmeier, Martina; Richter, Tom; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Korn, Michael; Tilmann, Frederik
2015-04-01
In order to investigate temporal seismic velocity changes due to earthquake related processes and environmental forcing, we analyze 8 years of ambient seismic noise recorded by the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) network in northern Chile between 18° and 25° S. The Mw 7.7 Tocopilla earthquake in 2007 and the Mw 8.1 Iquique earthquake in 2014 as well as numerous smaller events occurred in this area. By autocorrelation of the ambient seismic noise field, approximations of the Green's functions are retrieved. The recovered function represents backscattered or multiply scattered energy from the immediate neighborhood of the station. To detect relative changes of the seismic velocities we apply the stretching method, which compares individual autocorrelation functions to stretched or compressed versions of a long term averaged reference autocorrelation function. We use time windows in the coda of the autocorrelations, that contain scattered waves which are highly sensitive to minute changes in the velocity. At station PATCX we observe seasonal changes in seismic velocity as well as temporary velocity reductions in the frequency range of 4-6 Hz. The seasonal changes can be attributed to thermal stress changes in the subsurface related to variations of the atmospheric temperature. This effect can be modeled well by a sine curve and is subtracted for further analysis of short term variations. Temporary velocity reductions occur at the time of ground shaking usually caused by earthquakes and are followed by a recovery. We present an empirical model that describes the seismic velocity variations based on continuous observations of the local ground acceleration. Our hypothesis is that not only the shaking of earthquakes provokes velocity drops, but any small vibrations continuously induce minor velocity variations that are immediately compensated by healing in the steady state. We show that the shaking effect is accumulated over time and best described by the integrated envelope of the ground acceleration over 1 day which is the discretization interval of the velocity measurements. In our model the amplitude of the velocity reduction as well as the recovery time are proportional to the size of the excitation. This model with the two free scaling parameters for the shaking induced velocity variation fits the data in remarkable detail. Additionally, a linear trend is observed that might be related to a recovery process from one or more earthquakes before our measurement period. For the Tocopilla earthquake in 2007 and the Iquique earthquake in 2014 velocity reductions are also observed at other stations of the IPOC network. However, a clear relationship between the ground shaking and the induced velocity reductions is not visible at other stations. We attribute the outstanding sensitivity of PATCX to ground shaking to the special geological setting of the station, where the material consists of relatively loose conglomerate with high pore volume.
Combined migration velocity model-building and its application in tunnel seismic prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Xiang-Bo; Han, Li-Guo; Niu, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Pei; Wang, De-Li; Du, Li-Zhi
2010-09-01
We propose a combined migration velocity analysis and imaging method based on Kirchhoff integral migration and reverse time migration, using the residual curvature analysis and layer stripping strategy to build the velocity model. This method improves the image resolution of Kirchhoff integral migration and reduces the computations of the reverse time migration. It combines the advantages of efficiency and accuracy of the two migration methods. Its application in tunnel seismic prediction shows good results. Numerical experiments show that the imaging results of reverse time migration are better than the imaging results of Kirchhoff integral migration in many aspects of tunnel prediction. Field data show that this method has efficient computations and can establish a reasonable velocity model and a high quality imaging section. Combination with geological information can make an accurate prediction of the front of the tunnel geological structure.
Mench, Matthew M.
-5,11-16 To determine the root cause of freeze/thaw dam- age, a frost heave thermal model has been developed layer CL , which would typically not cause dam- age upon shutdown to freezing in an unconstrained. In soils, frost heaved sur- faces are cracked and elevated. Specifically, an ice lens can continue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carling, Paul; Villanueva, Ignacio; Herget, Juergen; Wright, Nigel; Borodavko, Pavel; Morvan, Hervé
2010-02-01
One of the largest known floods occurred during the Late Quaternary, emanating from an ice-dammed lake in Asia. Glacial lake Kuray-Chuja was formed by a 600-m-high ice dam converging in the Chuja River valley of the Altai Mountains in southern Siberia. The dam impounded up to 594 km 3 of water in the Kuray and Chuja basins. At least three floods from lake Kuray-Chuja occurred, but only the largest, or the most recent, is modelled herein. The discharge, through an ice dam breach by tunnelling or over-topping, is analysed using dam breach equations including one specifically developed for ice dam failures. From these calculations it is concluded that the ice dam need not have failed when the water was at a maximum depth (i.e. 600 m deep) but, in consideration with flood routing models, it is probable that the lake emptied by over-topping under conditions of maximum water level. Although an over-topping model is favoured, a collapse of the ice dam due to initial tunnel development in the ice body cannot be precluded. The resultant flood wave ran down the Chuja River valley to the confluence with the Katun River and beyond. One-dimensional and two-dimensional unsteady and non-uniform flow modelling of the flood wave routed down the river valleys is presented that includes modelling a channel bifurcation at the confluence and backwater effects. The depth of the flood model is constrained by the altitudes of the tops of giant bars deposited by the palaeoflood, which indicate maximum flood stage. The results of the ice dam failure calculations and the flow modelling are independent of each other and are consistent, indicating in each case a flood of the order of 10 M m 3 s - 1 , with best-fit solutions providing estimated peak flood discharges of 9 to 11 M m 3 s - 1 . A breach, 1 km wide and 250 m deep, developed in the ice dam in as little as 11.6 h whereas the flood duration required to evacuate the total lake volume was around 1 day.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashworth, K.; Chung, S. H.; Griffin, R. J.; Chen, J.; Forkel, R.; Bryan, A. M.; Steiner, A. L.
2015-07-01
Biosphere-atmosphere interactions play a critical role in governing atmospheric composition, mediating the concentration of key species such as ozone and aerosol, thereby influencing air quality and climate. The exchange of reactive trace gases and their oxidation products (both gas and particle phase) is of particular importance in this process. The FORCAsT (FORest Canopy AtmoSphere Transfer) one-dimensional model is developed to study the emission, deposition, chemistry and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their oxidation products in the atmosphere within and above the forest canopy. We include an equilibrium partitioning scheme, making FORCAsT one of the few canopy models currently capable of simulating the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from VOC oxidation in a forest environment. We evaluate the capability of FORCAsT to reproduce observed concentrations of key gas-phase species and report modeled SOA concentrations within and above a mixed forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) during the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiment (CABINEX) field campaign in summer 2009. We examine the impact of two different gas-phase chemical mechanisms on modelled concentrations of short-lived primary emissions, such as isoprene and monoterpenes, and their oxidation products. While the two chemistry schemes perform similarly under high-NOx conditions, they diverge at the low levels of NOx at UMBS. We identify peroxy radical and alkyl nitrate chemistry as the key causes of the differences, highlighting the importance of this chemistry in understanding the fate of biogenic VOCs (bVOCs) for both the modelling and measurement communities.
Macgregor-Scott, N.; Walter, A.
1988-01-01
Crustal velocity structure for the region near Coalinga, California, has been derived from both earthquake and explosion seismic phase data recorded along a NW-SE seismic-refraction profile on the western flank of the Great Valley east of the Diablo Range. Comparison of the two data sets reveals P-wave phases in common which can be correlated with changes in the velocity structure below the earthquake hypocenters. In addition, the earthquake records reveal secondary phases at station ranges of less than 20 km that could be the result of S- to P-wave conversions at velocity interfaces above the earthquake hypocenters. Two-dimensional ray-trace modeling of the P-wave travel times resulted in a P-wave velocity model for the western flank of the Great Valley comprised of: 1) a 7- to 9-km thick section of sedimentary strata with velocities similar to those found elsewhere in the Great Valley (1.6 to 5.2 km s-1); 2) a middle crust extending to about 14 km depth with velocities comparable to those reported for the Franciscan assemblage in the Diablo Range (5.6 to 5.9 km s-1); and 3) a 13- to 14-km thick lower crust with velocities similar to those reported beneath the Diablo Range and the Great Valley (6.5 to 7.30 km s-1). This lower crust may have been derived from subducted oceanic crust that was thickened by accretionary underplating or crustal shortening. -Authors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egert, A.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Bell, J. M.; Goldstein, J.
2014-12-01
As part of the Jupiter Auroral Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (J-AITM) construction in support of the Juno mission, we present benchmarks of the Electric Field Model (EFM) and the Ion Velocity Model (IVM). IVM uses the published results from Krupp et al., 2001, to constrain estimated velocities, and it is found that a modified Gaussian distribution gives a first-order approximation to the velocity flow profile. EFM calculates the magnetospheric electric fields using IVM and a magnetic field model, and then assumes magnetic flux conservation to map the electric fields into the ionosphere. These ionospheric electric fields are then used to estimate ionospheric drift velocities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saleh, F.; Ducharne, A.; Flipo, N.; Oudin, L.; Ledoux, E.
2013-01-01
SummaryRiver cross-sections data are required to represent channel geometry in hydrodynamic models. In the absence of accurate data at regional scale, simplified or parameterized cross sections are often used, which might affect the performance of the hydrodynamic model. In this study we assess the sensitivity of a 1D Saint-Venant hydraulic model to different types of river morphological data. The question is addressed using a 1D unsteady hydraulic model (HEC-RAS), with lateral inflows provided by the hydro(geo)logical model Eau-Dyssée, to explore a wide spectrum of river geometry scenarios, regarding river bed slopes and cross-sectional shapes. The target scale is the one of the Seine River (France). As a gateway for larger and more complex regional hydro(geo)logical applications, our case-study covers a well-described 89-km reach in a sub-tributary of the Seine River. River morphology is described by high-resolution cross-sections, and Manning's roughness coefficient (n) is used for calibration against observed discharges and river stages in a mid-reach control point, with satisfactory performances over the 8-year simulation period. The resulting model still simulates realistic discharge hydrographs when forced with degraded channel geometry data, using either fewer cross-sections or approximated ones. In such cases, however, the hydraulic model does not always satisfactorily predict the associated water levels when compared to observations. In certain geometry scenarios, the RMSE between simulated water levels using degraded geometry and observations may go up to 0.3 m. The study confirms that the accuracy of predicted water levels and maximum water depths simulated by a Saint-Venant model relies on an accurate representation of channel geometry and bed level slopes along the river reach. From the various scenarios, it appears that the longitudinal description of the bed level profiles has a larger impact on the simulation of water levels than the cross-sectional shapes. This offers interesting implications for flood forecast mapping applications and regional scale models that often use simplified river geometry and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) built by remote sensing technologies to simulate the water levels.
Solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding in the Au–In system: experimental study and 1D modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deillon, Léa; Hessler-Wyser, Aïcha; Hessler, Thierry; Rappaz, Michel
2015-12-01
Au–In bonds with a nominal composition of about 60 at.% In were fabricated for use in wafer-level packaging of MEMS. The microstructure of the bonds was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The bond hermeticity was then assessed using oxidation of Cu thin discs predeposited within the sealed packages. The three intermetallic compounds AuIn2, AuIn and Au7In3 were observed. Their thickness evolution during bonding and after subsequent heat treatment was successfully modelled using a finite difference model of diffusion, thermodynamic data and diffusion coefficients calibrated from isothermal diffusion couples. 17% of the packages were hermetic and, although the origin of the leaks could not be clearly identified, it appeared that hermeticity was correlated with the unevenness of the metallisation and/or wafer and the fact that the bonds shrink due to density differences as the relative fractions of the various phases gradually evolve.
A velocity-dependent anomalous radial transport model for (2-D, 2-V) kinetic transport codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodi, Kowsik; Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Cohen, Ron; Rognlien, Tom
2008-11-01
Plasma turbulence constitutes a significant part of radial plasma transport in magnetically confined plasmas. This turbulent transport is modeled in the form of anomalous convection and diffusion coefficients in fluid transport codes. There is a need to model the same in continuum kinetic edge codes [such as the (2-D, 2-V) transport version of TEMPEST, NEO, and the code being developed by the Edge Simulation Laboratory] with non-Maxwellian distributions. We present an anomalous transport model with velocity-dependent convection and diffusion coefficients leading to a diagonal transport matrix similar to that used in contemporary fluid transport models (e.g., UEDGE). Also presented are results of simulations corresponding to radial transport due to long-wavelength ExB turbulence using a velocity-independent diffusion coefficient. A BGK collision model is used to enable comparison with fluid transport codes.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Multi-Layer Model (NOAA-MLM) is used by several operational dry deposition networks for estimating the deposition velocity of O , SO , HNO , and particles. The NOAA-MLM requires hourly values of meteorological variables and...
Modeling the Coupled Effects of Pore Space Geometry and Velocity on Colloid Transport and Retention
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Recent experimental and theoretical work has demonstrated that pore space geometry and hydrodynamics can play an important role in colloid retention under unfavorable attachment conditions. Computer models that only consider the average pore-water velocity and a single attachment rate coefficient a...
Testing Community Velocity Models for Southern California Using the Ambient Seismic Field
Prieto, Germán A.
Testing Community Velocity Models for Southern California Using the Ambient Seismic Field by Shuo that diffuse seismic wave fields, such as the seismic coda and ambient seismic noise, contain useful). The waveforms of the diffuse seismic wave field are, however, difficult to interpret due to both the random
Evaluation of an Imputed Pitch Velocity Model of the Auditory Kappa Effect
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henry, Molly J.; McAuley, J. Devin
2009-01-01
Three experiments evaluated an imputed pitch velocity model of the auditory kappa effect. Listeners heard 3-tone sequences and judged the timing of the middle (target) tone relative to the timing of the 1st and 3rd (bounding) tones. Experiment 1 held pitch constant but varied the time (T) interval between bounding tones (T = 728, 1,000, or 1,600…
Models for Gas Hydrate-Bearing Sediments Inferred from Hydraulic Permeability and Elastic Velocities
Lee, Myung W.
2008-01-01
Elastic velocities and hydraulic permeability of gas hydrate-bearing sediments strongly depend on how gas hydrate accumulates in pore spaces and various gas hydrate accumulation models are proposed to predict physical property changes due to gas hydrate concentrations. Elastic velocities and permeability predicted from a cementation model differ noticeably from those from a pore-filling model. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log provides in-situ water-filled porosity and hydraulic permeability of gas hydrate-bearing sediments. To test the two competing models, the NMR log along with conventional logs such as velocity and resistivity logs acquired at the Mallik 5L-38 well, Mackenzie Delta, Canada, were analyzed. When the clay content is less than about 12 percent, the NMR porosity is 'accurate' and the gas hydrate concentrations from the NMR log are comparable to those estimated from an electrical resistivity log. The variation of elastic velocities and relative permeability with respect to the gas hydrate concentration indicates that the dominant effect of gas hydrate in the pore space is the pore-filling characteristic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harel, Marie-Alice; Mouche, Emmanuel
2015-04-01
Despite the recent research focused on runoff pattern connectivity in hydrology, there is a surprising lack of theoretical knowledge regarding hillslope runoff generation and dynamics during a rainfall event. The transient problem is especially unaddressed. In this paper we propose a model based on queueing theory formalism for the infiltration-excess overland flow generation on soils with random infiltration properties. The influence of rainfall intensity and duration on runoff dynamics and connectivity is studied thanks to this model, numerical simulation and available steady-state results. We limit our study to a rainfall intensity that is a rectangular function of time. Exact solutions for the case of spatially random exponential distributions of soil infiltrability and rainfall intensity are developed. Simulations validate these analytical results and allow for the study the rising and recession limbs of the hydrograph for different rainfall characteristics. The case of a deterministic uniform rainfall rate and different infiltrability distributions is also discussed in light of runoff connectivity. We show that the connectivity framework contributes to a better understanding and prediction of runoff pattern formation and evolution with time. A fragmented overland flow is shown to have shorter charge and discharge periods after the onset and offset of rainfall compared to well connected runoff fields. These results demonstrate that the transient regime characteristics are linked with connectivity parameters, rainstorm properties and scale issues.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Parker, Linda N.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.
2007-01-01
The NUMIT 1-dimensional bulk charging model is used as a screening to ol for evaluating time-dependent bulk internal or deep dielectric) ch arging of dielectrics exposed to penetrating electron environments. T he code is modified to accept time dependent electron flux time serie s along satellite orbits for the electron environment inputs instead of using the static electron flux environment input originally used b y the code and widely adopted in bulk charging models. Application of the screening technique ts demonstrated for three cases of spacecraf t exposure within the Earth's radiation belts including a geostationa ry transfer orbit and an Earth-Moon transit trajectory for a range of orbit inclinations. Electric fields and charge densities are compute d for dielectric materials with varying electrical properties exposed to relativistic electron environments along the orbits. Our objectiv e is to demonstrate a preliminary application of the time-dependent e nvironments input to the NUMIT code for evaluating charging risks to exposed dielectrics used on spacecraft when exposed to the Earth's ra diation belts. The results demonstrate that the NUMIT electric field values in GTO orbits with multiple encounters with the Earth's radiat ion belts are consistent with previous studies of charging in GTO orb its and that potential threat conditions for electrostatic discharge exist on lunar transit trajectories depending on the electrical proper ties of the materials exposed to the radiation environment.
Joyce, M
2010-01-01
Studies of a class of infinite one dimensional self-gravitating systems have highlighted that, on the one hand, the spatial clustering which develops may have scale invariant (fractal) properties, and, on the other, that they display "self-similar" properties in their temporal evolution. The relevance of these results to three dimensional cosmological simulations has remained unclear. We show here that the measured exponents characterizing the scale-invariant non-linear clustering are in excellent agreement with those derived from an appropriately generalized "stable-clustering" hypothesis. Further an analysis in terms of "halos" selected with a friend-of-friend algorithm reveals that such structures are, statistically, virialized across the range of scales corresponding to scale-invariance. Thus the strongly non-linear clustering in these models is accurately described as a virialized fractal structure, very much in line with the "clustering hierarchy" which Peebles originally envisaged qualitatively as asso...
Elastic-wave velocity in marine sediments with gas hydrates: Effective medium modeling
Helgerud, M.B.; Dvorkin, J.; Nur, A.; Sakai, A.; Collett, T.
1999-01-01
We offer a first-principle-based effective medium model for elastic-wave velocity in unconsolidated, high porosity, ocean bottom sediments containing gas hydrate. The dry sediment frame elastic constants depend on porosity, elastic moduli of the solid phase, and effective pressure. Elastic moduli of saturated sediment are calculated from those of the dry frame using Gassmann's equation. To model the effect of gas hydrate on sediment elastic moduli we use two separate assumptions: (a) hydrate modifies the pore fluid elastic properties without affecting the frame; (b) hydrate becomes a component of the solid phase, modifying the elasticity of the frame. The goal of the modeling is to predict the amount of hydrate in sediments from sonic or seismic velocity data. We apply the model to sonic and VSP data from ODP Hole 995 and obtain hydrate concentration estimates from assumption (b) consistent with estimates obtained from resistivity, chlorinity and evolved gas data. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.
Effects of geometry and jet velocity on noise associated with an upper-surface-blowing model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, L. R.; Yu, J. C.
1977-01-01
The noise characteristics associated with various upper surface blowing configurations were investigated using a small model consisting of a plate and flap assembly (simulated wing with flap) attached to a rectangular nozzle. Nozzle aspect ratio, flow-run length, and flap-deflection angle were the experimental parameters studied. Three nozzle-exit velocities were used. The normalized noise spectra obtained for different nozzle aspect ratios proved to be similar in terms of Strouhal number based on jet velocity and flow-run length. Consequently, the need for knowing local flow velocity and length scales (for example, at the flap trailing edge) as required in some of the existing noise prediction schemes is eliminated. Data are compared with results computed from three different noise prediction schemes, and the validity of each scheme is assessed. A simple method is proposed to evaluate the frequency dependence of acoustic shielding obtained with the simulated wing flap.
Low Velocity Impact Experiments plus Modeling of the Resulting Reaction Violence in LX-10 Charges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chidester, Steven; Garcia, Frank; Vandersall, Kevin; Tarver, Craig
2011-06-01
A new gas gun facility and improved instrumentation were used to study the mechanisms of low velocity impact ignition and growth of violent reaction. Cylindrical charges of the HMX based explosive LX-10 (95% HMX, 5% Viton binder) encased by lexan were impacted by 6.35 mm diameter hardened steel projectiles at velocities ranging from 47 to 500 m/s. Fast Phantom v12 cameras were employed to capture the times of first ignition. The degrees of resulting reaction violence were determined using Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes to measure the free surface velocity histories of attached aluminum foils. Analytical and hydrodynamic reactive flow models were used to estimate the relative violence of these LX-10 reactions compared to the intentional detonation of an equivalent LX-10 charge. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Velocity Measurements Near the Empennage of a SmallScale Helicopter Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gorton, Susan Althoff; Meyers, James F.; Berry, John D.
1996-01-01
A test program was conducted in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to measure the flow near the empennage of a small-scale powered helicopter model with an operating tail fan. Three-component velocity profiles were measured with Laser Velocimetry (LV) one chord forward of the horizontal tail for four advance ratios to evaluate the effect of the rotor wake impingement on the horizontal tail angle of attack. These velocity data indicate the horizontal tail can experience unsteady downwash angle variations of over 30 degrees due to the rotor wake influence. The horizontal tail is most affected by the rotor wake above advance ratios of 0.10. Velocity measurements of the flow on the inlet side of the fan were made for a low-speed flight condition using both conventional LV techniques and a promising, non-intrusive, global, three-component velocity measurement technique called Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV). The velocity data show an accelerated flow near the fan duct, and vorticity calculations track the passage of main rotor wake vortices through the measurement plane. DGV shows promise as an evolving tool for rotor flowfield diagnostics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaelle, Gibert; Riad, Hassani; Emmanuel, Tric; Tony, Monfret
2010-05-01
Recent analogical models of Heuret et al (2007) and Guillaume et al (2009) showed that the kinematical and mechanical role of the overriding plate is crucial for the slab geometry. We used Hassani et al (1997) 2D finite element numerical code to model subduction with parameters close to analogue models conditions. Our results are coherent with considered previous analogue models. As shown by Heuret et al (2007), after the subducting plate reaches the 660 km discontinuity modeled by a rigid foundation, we obtained two different styles of subduction depending on the overriding plate velocity vop: if vop >0, the slab lays forward on the 660km discontinuity (style 1) if vop ?0, the slab lays backward on the discontinuity (style 2). We also light up two different processes: the subduction evolves in a steady-state regime when vsp ?0 or 2vop + vop ?0 (where vsp stands for the subducting plate velocity) and in non steady-state regime when one of these two conditions is not fulfilled. This result is coherent with Guillaume et al (2009) non steady-state models at vop=0. We checked these conditions by conducting several simulations varying subduction velocities (relative velocity), absolute plates velocities and plate viscosities. When the process is not steady-state, the slab is periodically folding on the 660 km discontinuity leading to episodes of slab flattening (minimal dip of 13° ) followed by slab steepening phases (maximal value of 65° ). The folding period is essentially controlled by slab viscosity and subduction velocity. We then compared our models with the natural case of the Chilean flat slab. Fukao et al (2001) show that the Andean slab does not penetrate the 660 km discontinuity which make possible comparison between our models and nature. For the Andean case, actual velocities are vop? 4.3 cm.an-1 and vsp? 2.9 cm.an-1 for a relative velocity close to vs = vop + vsp? 7.2 cm.an-1, which places us in the case of style 1 with cycles. If we model those velocities with a viscosity of ?=2×1024 Pa.s, we obtain cycle duration of ca. 26 Ma with a period of ca. 3.6 Ma of low dip, with a minimal value of ca. 15° . Haschke et al (2002) work on Andean flat slab region magmatic rocks suggest that evolutionary cycles occurred during the Andean orogeny. Episodes of slab steepening and shallowing with a duration of 30-40 Ma might have occurred, explaining magmatic gaps of ca 5-10. Simplifications imposed by numerical modeling could explain the difference between our values and Andean values. Still, our values are in the range of Haschke et al (2002) estimation of the Andean case. Our models are coherent with Kay et al (2002) results on South American overriding plate: when the Nazca plate slab was steep, the South American margin underwent extension, and that when shallowing occurred, compression occurred in the margin. Therefore, style 1 with cycle may be considered as a possible answer for this natural speacial case.
Acoustic velocity and attenuation of unconsolidated sands: An experimental and modeling study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhuping
I have developed a sonic frequency apparatus (1--10 kHz) that utilizes resonance to measure the acoustic velocities and attenuation of both extensional and torsional waves in unconsolidated materials (e.g., sands, clays and sediments) under hydrostatic confinement. The basic equations and methodology for correcting these effects are given and applied to a dry Monterey sand to determine the shear and Young's moduli and attenuation over an effective pressure range of 0--9 MPa. Comparison of my measured data with theoretical granular contact models gives insight into the seismic wave propagation in unconsolidated sands. The effects of water saturation and pressure on the velocity and attenuation of seismic waves in unconsolidated sands are investigated using the newly-designed apparatus and methodology in the laboratory. Two kinds of pore fluid distribution are achieved with water injection and de-gassing methods, and an X-ray CT scanner is used to obtain the images of pore fluid distribution. There is not significant difference in velocities for the different pore fluid distributions. Measured velocities are in favorable agreement with theoretical predictions based on Gassmann's equations. At all effective pressures, V P of the fully-water-saturated sand is larger than that of the dry sand, implying that water in pore space stiffens the rock, causing an increase in the rock's bulk modulus. For the partially-saturated sand, the attenuation of compressional wave is larger than that of torsional wave, and both of them increase with water saturation. The effects of pore fluid saturation and distribution on seismic velocities are further studied based on numerical simulations of seismic wave propagation in fluid-saturated porous media. The calculated results indicate that numerical modeling based on Biot theory gives the same compressional velocity VP as Gassmann's equations if the pore fluids are mixed in such a fine scale that the induced pore pressure increments can equilibrate with each other. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Towards an improved model of the secular velocities in the western US
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearson, C. F.; Snay, R. A.; McCaffrey, R.
2009-12-01
Deformation in the western United States, due to tectonic forces associated with the Pacific-North American plate boundary, causes ongoing changes of the positions of points on the Earth’s surface relative to a prescribed reference frame. As a result, accurate surveying in the western US requires an equally accurate description of this deformation to allow survey measurements conducted at different epochs to be corrected for such movement. NOAA’s National Geodetic Survey (NGS) has developed the HTDP (horizontal time dependent positioning) software that enables its users to make these corrections. HTDP contains a model of the secular (continuous) velocity field for the contiguous United States (from 125W to 100W longitude and 31-36N latitude) which is determined using linear interpolation from a series of grid files. The model also contains separate models for the displacements associated with 28 earthquakes. In the contiguous United States, the catalogue of earthquakes is complete since 1984 with the exception of the M 6.7 Nisqually earthquake although in Alaska several major earthquakes are missing. The software is updated periodically to address the displacements associated with new earthquakes, most recently in June 2008 with the release version 3.0. This paper focuses on our model of the secular velocity field. The model of the secular velocities included in HTDP is based on a DEFNODE model containing over 50 blocks in the contiguous US which is later sampled to produce the grid files mentioned above. The model was created in 2007 and has been updated twice to accommodate recent Plate Boundary Observatory velocity solutions. The model contains explicit models of the major faults in the western US and a uniform strain rate tensor for each block. The model currently neglects deformation near major volcanoes in the west or post-seismic effects after great earthquakes. Slip rates on the faults range from over 30 mm/yr for the Juan de Fuca subduction interface and parts of the San Andreas system to near zero (generally sub 1 mm/yr) for faults located in the eastern side of the model. The intra block strain rate tensors are consistent with contraction perpendicular to the coast in blocks immediately adjacent to the west coast and extension further east. NGS is reviewing this model and will update it once reliable velocity vectors are available from an ongoing effort to re-process all existing CORS data back to 1994. The major enhancement that we plan to make to HTDP is the introduction of a vertical velocity field allowing HTDP to map three dimensional positional changes for the first time. In addition we hope to add models of volcanic inflation possibly by adding a Mogi source model. We also plan to add a new grid for the creeping section of the San Andreas fault which will allow for more accurate interpolation of velocities in an area where the velocities often change discontinuously across the fault.
Development of a State-Wide 3-D Seismic Tomography Velocity Model for California
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thurber, C. H.; Lin, G.; Zhang, H.; Hauksson, E.; Shearer, P.; Waldhauser, F.; Hardebeck, J.; Brocher, T.
2007-12-01
We report on progress towards the development of a state-wide tomographic model of the P-wave velocity for the crust and uppermost mantle of California. The dataset combines first arrival times from earthquakes and quarry blasts recorded on regional network stations and travel times of first arrivals from explosions and airguns recorded on profile receivers and network stations. The principal active-source datasets are Geysers-San Pablo Bay, Imperial Valley, Livermore, W. Mojave, Gilroy-Coyote Lake, Shasta region, Great Valley, Morro Bay, Mono Craters-Long Valley, PACE, S. Sierras, LARSE 1 and 2, Loma Prieta, BASIX, San Francisco Peninsula and Parkfield. Our beta-version model is coarse (uniform 30 km horizontal and variable vertical gridding) but is able to image the principal features in previous separate regional models for northern and southern California, such as the high-velocity subducting Gorda Plate, upper to middle crustal velocity highs beneath the Sierra Nevada and much of the Coast Ranges, the deep low-velocity basins of the Great Valley, Ventura, and Los Angeles, and a high- velocity body in the lower crust underlying the Great Valley. The new state-wide model has improved areal coverage compared to the previous models, and extends to greater depth due to the data at large epicentral distances. We plan a series of steps to improve the model. We are enlarging and calibrating the active-source dataset as we obtain additional picks from investigators and perform quality control analyses on the existing and new picks. We will also be adding data from more quarry blasts, mainly in northern California, following an identification and calibration procedure similar to Lin et al. (2006). Composite event construction (Lin et al., in press) will be carried out for northern California for use in conventional tomography. A major contribution of the state-wide model is the identification of earthquakes yielding arrival times at both the Northern California Seismic Network and the Southern California Seismic Network. These events are critical to the determination of the seismic velocity model in central California, in the former `no-mans-land' between the Northern and Southern California networks. Ultimately, a combination of active-source datasets, composite events, original catalog picks, and differential times from both waveform cross-correlation and catalog picks will be used in a double-difference tomography inversion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Persson, O. P.; Solomon, A.
2013-12-01
Though leads only represent a small portion of the Arctic sea-ice area, their contribution to the surface turbulent energy and momentum fluxes can be significant. Numerous modeling studies presented in the literature have been conducted examining these effects. The results of such studies have indicated the importance of the environmental large-scale stability, the environmental humidity, the lead width, the ice (lead) concentration, the lead size distribution, the character of the leads (open water, refrozen), etc. Because global climate models (GCMs) show significant sensitivity to the large-scale net energy flux from the heterogeneous sea-ice surface, and because thinner ice in the projected future Arctic climate will likely result in increasing lead fractions, the appropriate GCM representation of this complex system is important. This study presents modeling results based on observations from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment, for which the mid-winter sea-ice was greatly heterogeneous. In mid-January, the 100x100 km region surrounding the SHEBA ice camp consisted of a lead fraction of ~16-33% as revealed by SAR data. This included primarily older refrozen lead areas that were generated at least a month earlier (~16-25% areal coverage), with a smaller fraction of newly opened leads (~4-9% areal coverage). Utilizing the sequence of SAR images, the atmospheric observations at the SHEBA site, and a 1-D snow and ice model, the spatial distribution of sea-ice thickness, snow depth, and surface temperatures within this domain were estimated over a 6-week period, revealing the significant impact of leads in all stages on GCM-scale temperatures and fluxes. This combined observational/model data series is used to evaluate a variety of one-dimensional turbulent flux aggregation techniques (e.g., mosaic) that use different assumptions. Furthermore, by using the spatial distribution of these surface characteristics, three-dimensional large eddy simulations (LES) have been done to a) validate the 1D aggregation techniques and b) to assess how mesoscale circulations generated by the surface heterogeneity impact net surface fluxes. Initially, the LES modeling uses very simple idealized surface conditions and progressively moves towards the much more complex conditions revealed by the SHEBA observations. Our LES studies both validate previous results and address issues not covered in the previous studies in an effort to understand and represent the SHEBA surface fluxes on scales from local point measurements to the GCM grid-box size.
Arcos, M E M
2014-01-01
The ability to measure, predict, and compute tsunami flow velocities is of importance in risk assessment and hazard mitigation. Substantial damage can be done by high velocity flows, particularly in harbors and bays, even when the wave height is small. Moreover, advancing the study of sediment transport and tsunami deposits depends on the accurate interpretation and modeling of tsunami flow velocities and accelerations. Until recently, few direct measurements of tsunami velocities existed to compare with model results. During the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Tsunami 328 current meters were in place around the Hawaiian Islands, USA, that captured time series of water velocity in 18 locations, in both harbors and deep channels, at a series of depths. We compare several of these velocity records against numerical simulations performed using the GeoClaw numerical tsunami model, based on solving the depth-averaged shallow water equations with adaptive mesh refinement, to confirm that this model can accurately predict velo...
Mapping high Pn velocity beneath the Colorado Plateau constrains uplift models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beghoul, Noureddine; Barazangi, Muawia
1989-06-01
The massive International Seismological Centre data set of the past 20 years and the two-station method are used to determine Pn velocities in the mantle lid beneath the Colorado plateau. In this method the event is located at distances where Pn is the first arrival (2°-16°) and the path is in or very near the azimuth of the two-station pair and crosses the plateau. This technique to a large extent minimizes the hypocenter mislocation effect and possible errors due to variations in the crustal structure near the source, since only the difference in travel times at the two stations is used. However, this technique has a few underlying assumptions and possible sources of errors (such as the quality of the Pn data base and station delays caused by varying crustal structure) that require an extremely careful application of the method. A detailed study of the source of errors and a methodology of selection of the data are presented. Application of this method to the Colorado plateau using all possible two-station pairs from 53 stations located within or along the margin of the plateau yields an average high Pn velocity of 8.12±0.09 km/s. This value is considerably larger than the average value of 7.83 km/s based on available but very limited seismic refraction profiles but is remarkably similar to the average value of 8.1 km/s for the relatively stable midcontinent region. Our new Pn velocity for the Colorado plateau eliminates the paradox in the literature that emphasizes the rather close similarity between average Pn velocities beneath the Colorado plateau and the Basin and Range Province while their tectonic and magmatic Cenozoic history is dramatically different. Previous models for the structure and evolution of the plateau have used the low Pn velocity as an important constraint on density and thermal state of the lithosphere. Hence such models should be reexamined on the basis of this new uppermost mantle Pn velocity determination. There are two main models that have been proposed to explain the 2-km uplift of the Colorado plateau. One is based on a combination of thermal thinning of the lithosphere and crustal thickening, and the other involves a combination of the delamination of the subducted, subhorizontal Farallon oceanic plate from the overriding North American plate and crustal thickening. We show that the delamination model is more readily consistent not only with our velocity determination and the elevation of the plateau but also with varied geological observations reported in the literature that concern the Cenozoic evolution of western North America.
Cheng, Z; Juli, C; Wood, N B; Gibbs, R G J; Xu, X Y
2014-09-01
Aortic dissection is a life-threatening process in which the weakened wall develops a tear, causing separation of wall layers. The dissected layers separate the original true aortic lumen and a newly created false lumen. If untreated, the condition can be fatal. Flow rate in the false lumen is a key feature for false lumen patency, which has been regarded as one of the most important predictors of adverse early and later outcomes. Detailed flow analysis in the dissected aorta may assist vascular surgeons in making treatment decisions, but computational models to simulate flow in aortic dissections often involve several assumptions. The purpose of this study is to assess the computational models adopted in previous studies by comparison with in vivo velocity data obtained by means of phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI). Aortic dissection geometry was reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) images, while PC-MRI velocity data were used to define inflow conditions and to provide distal velocity components for comparison with the simulation results. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation incorporated a laminar-turbulent transition model, which is necessary for adequate flow simulation in aortic conditions. Velocity contours from PC-MRI and CFD in the two lumens at the distal plane were compared at four representative time points in the pulse cycle. The computational model successfully captured the complex regions of flow reversal and recirculation qualitatively, although quantitative differences exist. With a rigid wall assumption and exclusion of arch branches, the CFD model over-predicted the false lumen flow rate by 25% at peak systole. Nevertheless, an overall good agreement was achieved, confirming the physiological relevance and validity of the computational model for type B aortic dissection with a relatively stiff dissection flap. PMID:25070022
A comparison of measured and modeled velocity fields for a laminar flow in a porous medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wood, B. D.; Apte, S. V.; Liburdy, J. A.; Ziazi, R. M.; He, X.; Finn, J. R.; Patil, V. A.
2015-11-01
Obtaining highly-resolved velocity data from experimental measurements in porous media is a significant challenge. The goal of this work is to compare the velocity fields measured in a randomly-packed porous medium obtained from particle image velocimetry (PIV) with corresponding fields predicted from direct numerical simulation (DNS). Experimentally, the porous medium was comprised of 15 mm diameter spherical beads made of optical glass placed in a glass flow cell to create the packed bed. A solution of ammonium thiocyanate was refractive-index matched to the glass creating a medium that could be illuminated with a laser sheet without distortion. The bead center locations were quantified using the imaging system so that the geometry of the porous medium was known very accurately. Two-dimensional PIV data were collected and processed to provide high-resolution velocity fields at a single plane within the porous medium. A Cartesian-grid-based fictitious domain approach was adopted for the direct numerical simulation of flow through the same geometry as the experimental measurements and without any adjustable parameters. The uncertainties associated with characterization of the pore geometry, PIV measurements, and DNS predictions were all systematically quantified. Although uncertainties in bead position measurements led to minor discrepancies in the comparison of the velocity fields, the axial and normal velocity deviations exhibited normalized root mean squared deviations (NRMSD) of only 11.32% and 4.74%, respectively. The high fidelity of both the experimental and numerical methods have significant implications for understanding and even for engineering the micro-macro relationship in porous materials. The ability to measure and model sub-pore-scale flow features also has relevance to the development of upscaled models for flow in porous media, where physically reasonable closure models must be developed at the sub-pore scale. These results provide valuable data in support of that goal.
Assessment of crustal velocity models using seismic refraction and reflection tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zelt, Colin A.; Sain, Kalachand; Naumenko, Julia V.; Sawyer, Dale S.
2003-06-01
Two tomographic methods for assessing velocity models obtained from wide-angle seismic traveltime data are presented through four case studies. The modelling/inversion of wide-angle traveltimes usually involves some aspects that are quite subjective. For example: (1) identifying and including later phases that are often difficult to pick within the seismic coda, (2) assigning specific layers to arrivals, (3) incorporating pre-conceived structure not specifically required by the data and (4) selecting a model parametrization. These steps are applied to maximize model constraint and minimize model non-uniqueness. However, these steps may cause the overall approach to appear ad hoc, and thereby diminish the credibility of the final model. The effect of these subjective choices can largely be addressed by estimating the minimum model structure required by the least subjective portion of the wide-angle data set: the first-arrival times. For data sets with Moho reflections, the tomographic velocity model can be used to invert the PmP times for a minimum-structure Moho. In this way, crustal velocity and Moho models can be obtained that require the least amount of subjective input, and the model structure that is required by the wide-angle data with a high degree of certainty can be differentiated from structure that is merely consistent with the data. The tomographic models are not intended to supersede the preferred models, since the latter model is typically better resolved and more interpretable. This form of tomographic assessment is intended to lend credibility to model features common to the tomographic and preferred models. Four case studies are presented in which a preferred model was derived using one or more of the subjective steps described above. This was followed by conventional first-arrival and reflection traveltime tomography using a finely gridded model parametrization to derive smooth, minimum-structure models. The case studies are from the SE Canadian Cordillera across the Rocky Mountain Trench, central India across the Narmada-Son lineament, the Iberia margin across the Galicia Bank, and the central Chilean margin across the Valparaiso Basin and a subducting seamount. These case studies span the range of modern wide-angle experiments and data sets in terms of shot-receiver spacing, marine and land acquisition, lateral heterogeneity of the study area, and availability of wide-angle reflections and coincident near-vertical reflection data. The results are surprising given the amount of structure in the smooth, tomographically derived models that is consistent with the more subjectively derived models. The results show that exploiting the complementary nature of the subjective and tomographic approaches is an effective strategy for the analysis of wide-angle traveltime data.
Sénégond, Nicolas; Boulmé, Audren; Plag, Camille; Teston, Franck; Certon, Dominique
2013-07-01
We report a fast time-domain model of fluid-coupled cMUTs developed to predict the transient response-i.e., the impulse pressure response--of an element of a linear 1-D array. Mechanical equations of the cMUT diaphragm are solved with 2-D finite-difference schemes. The time-domain solving method is a fourth--order Runge-Kutta algorithm. The model takes into account the electrostatic nonlinearity and the contact with the bottom electrode when the membrane is collapsed. Mutual acoustic coupling between cells is introduced through the numerical implementation of analytical solutions of the impulse diffraction theory established in the case of acoustic sources with rectangular geometry. Processing times are very short: they vary from a few minutes for a single cell to a maximum of 30 min for one element of an array. After a description of the model, the impact of the nonlinearity and the pull-in/pull-out phenomena on the dynamic behavior of the cMUT diaphragm is discussed. Experimental results of mechanical displacements obtained by interferometric measurements and the acoustic pressure field are compared with simulations. Different excitation signals-high-frequency bandwidth pulses and toneburst excitations of varying central frequency-were chosen to compare theory with experimental results. PMID:25004518
Janus, Christopher; Flores, Abigail Y; Xu, Guilian; Borchelt, David R
2015-09-01
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by dysfunction in cognitive and noncognitive domains with clinical diagnosis based on multiple neuropsychological tests. Here, we evaluated cognitive and noncognitive behaviors in 2 age cohorts (8 and 14 months at the start of the study) of APPSwe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice that model AD-like amyloidosis. We used a battery of tests that included fear-conditioned context and tone memories, swimming activity, and orientation to a proximal cue in a visible platform water maze test and burrowing and nest building activity. To compare the performance of mice across all tests, we used z-score normalization of data. The analyses revealed that the behavior of the transgenic mice was significantly compromised in cognitive as well as in noncognitive domains. Combining scores across multiple behavioral tests produced an integrated index characterizing the overall phenotypic abnormality in this model of AD-like amyloidosis. Assessing multiple behavioral domains provides a broader view of the breadth of impairments in multiple behavioral systems. Greater implementation of such approaches could enable reliable and clinically predictive evaluation of therapeutics in mouse models of amyloidosis. PMID:26089165
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angus, D. A.; Aljaafari, A.; Usher, P.; Verdon, J. P.
2014-12-01
Seismic forward modeling is an integral component of microseismic location algorithms, yet there is generally no one correct approach, but rather a range of acceptable approaches that can be used. Since seismic signals are band limited, the length scale of heterogeneities can significantly influence the seismic wavefronts and waveforms. This can be especially important for borehole microseismic monitoring, where subsurface heterogeneity can be strong and/or vary on length scales equivalent to or less than the dominant source wavelength. In this paper, we show that ray-based approaches are not ubiquitously suitable for all borehole microseismic applications. For unconventional reservoir settings, ray-based algorithms may not be suitably accurate for advanced microseismic imaging. Here we focus on exploring the feasibility of using one-way wave equations as forward propagators for full waveform event location techniques. As a feasibility study, we implement an acoustic wide-angle wave equation and use a velocity model interpolation approach to explore the computational efficiency and accuracy of the solution. We compare the results with an exact solution to evaluate travel-time and amplitude errors. The results show that accurate travel-times can be predicted to within 2 ms of the true solution for modest velocity model interpolation. However, for accurate amplitude prediction or for higher dominant source frequencies, a larger number of velocity model interpolations is required.
Towards a Rational Model for the Triple Velocity Correlations of Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Younis, B. A.; Gatski, T. B.; Speziale, C. G.
1999-01-01
This paper presents a rational approach to modelling the triple velocity correlations that appear in the transport equations for the Reynolds stresses. All existing models of these correlations have largely been formulated on phenomenological grounds and are defective in one important aspect: they all neglect to allow for the dependence of these correlations on the local gradients of mean velocity. The mathematical necessity for this dependence will be demonstrated in the paper. The present contribution lies in the novel use of Group Representation Theory to determine the most general tensorial form of these correlations in terms of all the second- and third-order tensor quantities that appear in the exact equations that govern their evolution. The requisite representation did not exist in the literature and therefore had to be developed specifically for this purpose by Professor G. F. Smith. The outcome of this work is a mathematical framework for the construction of algebraic, explicit, and rational models for the triple velocity correlations that are theoretically consistent and include all the correct dependencies. Previous models are reviewed, and all are shown to be an incomplete subset of this new representation, even to lowest order.
The H_2O(+) Velocity Field in Comet Hale-Bopp, Observations and MHD Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, C. M.; Combi, M. R.; Gombosi, T.; Hansen, K. C.
1998-09-01
The 3.5-meter WIYN Telescope and its Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS)obtained simultaneous spectra at many points in the coma of Comet Hale-Bopp between 1996 October and 1997 April. The "Hydra" fiber positioner was used to sample a ring pattern of points about the nucleus with a minimum spacing of 40 arc seconds and a maximum radius of 22.5 arc minutes. A integral field device called "Densepak" was also used to sample a 7 x 13 rectangular pattern of 91, 3 arc second fibers on 4 arc second centers. The bench spectrograph was used in the echelle mode with an interference filter to isolate a single order and covered the wavelength range from 6100 Angstroms to 6400 Angstroms with resolution of approximately 15,000. This spectral region contains the emission features of H_2O(+) . From these data we have extracted the radial velocity of the H_2O(+) . We find the acceleration in the anit-sun direction to be of the order of 20 cm sec(-) (2) . The measured velocity fields have been compared to full 3D MAUS-MHD models. The models suggest that the degree ofconfinement of the coma and the velocities attained in the anti-sun direction depend sensitively upon the velocity of the ambient solar wind. The observed velocity fields are consistent with the confinement of the near coma by a relatively slow solar wind while the speeds attained at distances of the order of a million kilometers in the anti-sun direction are more like those produced by a fast solar wind. The observations were obtained at a time when Hale-Bopp was at intermediate heliocentric latitudes where the solar wind speed is known to change rapidly from slow to fast modes. This situation is under further investigation.
Metastable fluid flow described via a discrete-velocity coagulation-fragmentation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slemrod, M.
1996-06-01
A discrete-velocity Boltzmann model is introduced. It is based on two principles: (i) clusters of particles move in ?3 with seven fixed momenta; (ii) clusters may gain or lose particles according to the rules of Becker-Döring cluster equations. The model provides a kinetic representation of evaporation and condensation. The model is used to obtain macroscopic fluid equations which are valid into the metastable fluid regime,0 ?slant ?< ? _s + O(? ^? ), where ? is any positive number, ? is the inelastic Knudsen number, and ? s is the saturation density.
First observation of a ?(1D) state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Dubrovin, M.; Bornheim, A.; Lipeles, E.; Pappas, S. P.; Shapiro, A.; Weinstein, A. J.; Briere, R. A.; Chen, G. P.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Adam, N. E.; Alexander, J. P.; Berkelman, K.; Boisvert, V.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ecklund, K. M.; Ehrlich, R.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hsu, L.; Jones, C. D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Magerkurth, A.; Mahlke-Krüger, H.; Meyer, T. O.; Patterson, J. R.; Pedlar, T. K.; Peterson, D.; Pivarski, J.; Riley, D.; Rosner, J. L.; Sadoff, A. J.; Schwarthoff, H.; Shepherd, M. R.; Sun, W. M.; Thayer, J. G.; Urner, D.; Wilksen, T.; Weinberger, M.; Athar, S. B.; Avery, P.; Breva-Newell, L.; Potlia, V.; Stoeck, H.; Yelton, J.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Gollin, G. D.; Karliner, I.; Lowrey, N.; Naik, P.; Sedlack, C.; Selen, M.; Thaler, J. J.; Williams, J.; Edwards, K. W.; Besson, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Gong, D. T.; Kubota, Y.; Li, S. Z.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Smith, A.; Stepaniak, C. J.; Urheim, J.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tomaradze, A.; Zweber, P.; Ernst, J.; Arms, K.; Eckhart, E.; Gan, K. K.; Gwon, C.; Severini, H.; Skubic, P.; Asner, D. M.; Dytman, S. A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mueller, J. A.; Nam, S.; Savinov, V.; Huang, G. S.; Miller, D. H.; Pavlunin, V.; Sanghi, B.; Shibata, E. I.; Shipsey, I. P.; Adams, G. S.; Chasse, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Napolitano, J.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Park, C. S.; Park, W.; Thayer, J. B.; Thorndike, E. H.; Coan, T. E.; Gao, Y. S.; Liu, F.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; Boulahouache, C.; Blusk, S.; Butt, J.; Dambasuren, E.; Dorjkhaidav, O.; Haynes, J.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Muramatsu, H.; Nandakumar, R.; Redjimi, R.; Sia, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, Kevin; Mahmood, A. H.; Csorna, S. E.
2004-08-01
We present the first evidence for the production of ?(1D) states in the four-photon cascade, ?(3S)???b(2P), ?b(2P)???(1D), ?(1D)???b(1P), ?b(1P)???(1S), followed by the ?(1S) annihilation into e+e- or ?+?-. The signal has a significance of 10.2 standard deviations. The measured product branching ratio for these five decays, (2.5±0.5±0.5)×10-5, is consistent with the theoretical estimates. The data are dominated by the production of one ?(1D) state consistent with the J=2 assignment. Its mass is determined to be (10161.1±0.6±1.6) MeV, which is consistent with the predictions from potential models and lattice QCD calculations. We also searched for ?(3S)???b(2P), ?b(2P)???(1D), followed by either ?(1D)???(1S) or ?(1D)??+?-?(1S). We find no evidence for such decays and set upper limits on the product branching ratios.
Improved reflectivity and velocity model for aluminum gratings on YZ LiNbO3.
Saldanha, Nancy; Malocha, Donald C
2011-04-01
Lithium niobate has recently been used for SAW tags and temperature sensors because of its high coupling coefficient and high reflectivity. To increase the device operating frequency for a given electrode line resolution, harmonic operation of the reflector is a very attractive option. When used in conjunction with harmonically operated transducers, the device operating frequency can be increased for a given photolithographic line width resolution. To design and accurately predict the behavior of these devices, it is necessary to model the electrode reflectivity and velocity for both fundamental and second-harmonic operation. The coupling of modes (COM) model has been used to model these devices, however the COM model uses empirically determined coefficients to model reflectivity. In this paper, the reflectivity and velocity of aluminum electrodes is extracted experimentally for fundamental and second-harmonic operation versus metalization ratios ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 and versus normalized metal thickness ranging from 0.4% to 4%. A least-squares fit is then performed on the data using physical terms in the transmission line model to yield equations that can be used in the COM model to predict device behavior over varying metallization ratios and normalized metal thicknesses. Orthogonal frequency-coded (OFC) SAW tags were designed and fabricated and experimentally obtained data are compared with the COM modeled responses for the tags at fundamental and second-harmonic operation to verify the predictions. PMID:21507757
A dynamic model for the turbulent burning velocity for large eddy simulation of premixed combustion
Knudsen, E.; Pitsch, H.
2008-09-15
Turbulent premixed combustion is particularly difficult to describe using large eddy simulation (LES). In LES, premixed flame structures typically exist on subfilter length scales. Consequently, premixed LES models must be capable of describing how completely unresolved flame structures propagate under the influence of completely unresolved eddies. This description is usually accomplished through the implementation of a model for the turbulent burning velocity. Here, a dynamic model for describing the turbulent burning velocity in the context of LES is presented. This model uses a new surface filtering procedure that is consistent with standard LES filtering. Additionally, it only uses information that comes directly from the flame front. This latter attribute is important for two reasons. First, it guarantees that the model can be consistently applied when level set methods, where arbitrary constraints can be imposed on field variables away from fronts, are used to track the flame. Second, it forces the model to recognize that the physics governing flame front propagation are only valid locally at the front. Results showing model validation in the context of direct numerical simulation (DNS), and model application in the context of LES, are presented. (author)
Numerical Modelling of Glass Fibre Reinforced Laminates Subjected to a Low Velocity Impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, J. Y.; Guana, Z. W.; Cantwell, W. J.
2010-05-01
This paper presents a series of numerical predictions of the perforation behaviour of glass fibre laminates subjected to quasi-static and low-velocity impact loading. Both shear and tensile failure criteria were used in the finite element models to simulate the post-failure processes via an automatic element removal procedure. The appropriate material properties, obtained through a series of uniaxial tension and bending tests on the composites, were used in the numerical models. Four, eight and sixteen ply glass fibre laminates panels were perforated at quasi-static rates and under low-velocity impact loading. Reasonably good correlation was obtained between the numerical simulations and the experimental results, both in terms of the failure modes and the load-deflection relationships before and during the penetration phase. The predicted impact energies of the GFRP panels were compared with the experimental data and reasonable agreement was observed.
A Gaussian process framework for modelling stellar activity signals in radial velocity data
Rajpaul, Vinesh; Osborne, Michael A; Reece, Steven; Roberts, Stephen J
2015-01-01
To date, the radial velocity (RV) method has been one of the most productive techniques for detecting and confirming extrasolar planetary candidates. Unfortunately, stellar activity can induce RV variations which can drown out or even mimic planetary signals - and it is notoriously difficult to model and thus mitigate the effects of these activity-induced nuisance signals. This is expected to be a major obstacle to using next-generation spectrographs to detect lower mass planets, planets with longer periods, and planets around more active stars. Enter Gaussian processes (GPs) which, we note, have a number of attractive features that make them very well suited to disentangling stellar activity signals from planetary signals. We present here a GP framework we developed to model RV time series jointly with ancillary activity indicators (e.g. bisector velocity spans, line widths, chromospheric activity indices), allowing the activity component of RV time series to be constrained and disentangled from e.g. planeta...
Analytical modeling of helicopter static and dynamic induced velocity in GRASP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kunz, Donald L.; Hodges, Dewey H.
1988-01-01
The methodology used by the General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP) to model the characteristics of the flow through a helicopter rotor in hovering or axial flight is described. Since the induced flow plays a significant role in determining the aeroelastic properties of rotorcraft, the computation of the induced flow is an important aspect of the program. Because of the combined finite-element/multibody methodology used as the basis for GRASP, the implementation of induced velocity calculations presented an unusual challenge to the developers. To preserve the modelling flexibility and generality of the code, it was necessary to depart from the traditional methods of computing the induced velocity. This is accomplished by calculating the actuator disk contributions to the rotor loads in a separate element called the air mass element, and then performing the calculations of the aerodynamic forces on individual blade elements within the aeroelastic beam element.
Analytical modeling of helicopter static and dynamic induced velocity in GRASP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kunz, Donald L.; Hodges, Dewey H.
1987-01-01
The methodology used by the General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP) to model the characteristics of the flow through a helicopter rotor in hovering or axial flight is described. Since the induced flow plays a significant role in determining the aeroelastic properties of rotorcraft, the computation of the induced flow is an important aspect of the program. Because of the combined finite-element/multibody methodology used as the basis for GRASP, the implementation of induced velocity calculations presented an unusual challenge to the developers. To preserve the modelling flexibility and generality of the code, it was necessary to depart from the traditional methods of computing the induced velocity. This is accomplished by calculating the actuator disc contributions to the rotor loads in a separate element called the air mass element, and then performing the calculations of the aerodynamic forces on individual blade elements within the aeroelastic beam element.
Velocity selection at large undercooling in a two-dimensional nonlocal model of solidification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barbieri, Angelo
1987-01-01
The formation of needle-crystal dendrites from an undercooled melt is investigated analytically, applying the method of Caroli et al. (1986) to Langer's (1980) symmetric two-dimensional nonlocal model of solidification with finite anisotropy in the limit of large undercooling. A solution based on the WKB approximation is obtained, and a saddle-point evaluation is performed. It is shown that needle-crystal solutions exist only if the capillary anisotropy is nonzero, in which case a particular value of the growth velocity can be selected. This finding and the expression for the dependence of the selected velocity on the singular perturbation parameter and the strength of the anisotropy are found to be in complete agreement with the results of a boundary-layer model (Langer and Hong, 1986).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Wei; Brossier, Romain; Operto, Stéphane; Virieux, Jean
2015-09-01
Full waveform inversion (FWI) aims to reconstruct high-resolution subsurface models from the full wavefield, which includes diving waves, post-critical reflections and short-spread reflections. Most successful applications of FWI are driven by the information carried by diving waves and post-critical reflections to build the long-to-intermediate wavelengths of the velocity structure. Alternative approaches, referred to as reflection waveform inversion (RWI), have been recently revisited to retrieve these long-to-intermediate wavelengths from short-spread reflections by using some prior knowledge of the reflectivity and a scale separation between the velocity macromodel and the reflectivity. This study presents a unified formalism of FWI, named as Joint FWI, whose aim is to efficiently combine the diving and reflected waves for velocity model building. The two key ingredients of Joint FWI are, on the data side, the explicit separation between the short-spread reflections and the wide-angle arrivals and, on the model side, the scale separation between the velocity macromodel and the short-scale impedance model. The velocity model and the impedance model are updated in an alternate way by Joint FWI and waveform inversion of the reflection data (least-squares migration), respectively. Starting from a crude velocity model, Joint FWI is applied to the streamer seismic data computed in the synthetic Valhall model. While the conventional FWI is stuck into a local minimum due to cycle skipping, Joint FWI succeeds in building a reliable velocity macromodel. Compared with RWI, the use of diving waves in Joint FWI improves the reconstruction of shallow velocities, which translates into an improved imaging at deeper depths. The smooth velocity model built by Joint FWI can be subsequently used as a reliable initial model for conventional FWI to increase the high-wavenumber content of the velocity model.
Velocity and pressure characteristics of a model SSME high pressure fuel turbopump
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tse, D. G-N.; Sabnis, J. S.; Mcdonald, H.
1991-01-01
Under the present effort an experiment rig has been constructed, an instrumentation package developed and a series of mean and rms velocity and pressure measurements made in a turbopump which modelled the first stage of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump. The rig was designed so as to allow initial experiments with a single configuration consisting of a bell-mouth inlet, a flight impeller, a vaneless diffuser and a volute. Allowance was made for components such as inlet guide vanes, exit guide vanes, downstream pumps, etc. to be added in future experiments. This flexibility will provide a clear baseline set of experiments and allow evaluation in later experiments of the effect of adding specific components upon the pump performance properties. The rotational speed of the impeller was varied between 4260 and 7680 rpm which covered the range of scaled SSME rotation speeds when due allowance is made for the differing stagnation temperature, model to full scale. The results at the inlet obtained with rotational speeds of 4260, 6084 and 7680 rpm showed that the axial velocity at the bell-mouth inlet remained roughly constant at 2.2 of the bulk velocity at the exit of the turbopump near the center of the inlet, but it decreased rapidly with increasing radius at all three speeds. Reverse flow occurred at a radius greater than 0.9 R for all three speeds and the maximum negative velocity reduced from 1.3 of the bulk velocity at the exit of the turbopump at 4260 rpm to 0.35 at 7680 rpm, suggesting that operating at a speed closer to the design condition of 8700 rpm improved the inlet characteristics. The reverse flow caused positive prerotation at the impeller inlet which was negligibly small near the center but reached 0.7 of the impeller speed at the outer annulus. The results in the diffuser and the volute obtained at 7680 rpm show that the hub and shroud walls of the diffuser were characterized by regions of transient reverse flow with negative revolution-averaged velocity of 8 percent of the maximum forward revolution-averaged velocity at the center of the diffuser passage near the shroud wall.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Praveen Kumar, K. A.; Mohan, G.
2014-01-01
The Saurashtra peninsula in the northwestern segment of the Deccan volcanic province of India, is characterized by several high gravity and magnetic anomalies, which correspond to mafic crustal intrusions. This study attempts to quantify the alterations to the crust caused by the Deccan volcanism, by estimating the crustal Poisson's ratio, shear wave velocity (Vs) structure and the shear velocity contrast across the Moho, through teleseismic waveform modeling. The P receiver functions (RFs) for six broadband seismic stations were constructed using about 575 high quality (S/N ? 2.5) teleseismic waveforms of earthquakes (M ? 5.5) recorded during the period 2004-2010. The moveout corrected RF summation stacks were inverted using the Neighborhood algorithm (NA) to estimate the shear velocity structure beneath each station. The crustal thickness is estimated to range from 38 km in western Saurashtra to 33 km close to the southern extension of the Cambay rift. A low velocity zone possibly corresponding to sub-basaltic sediments is detected beneath all the stations. The average crustal Vs and Poisson's ratio are estimated to be 3.68 km/s and 0.276 respectively. The crustal Poisson's ratio indicates an intermediate to mafic composition for the crust. Modeling reveals a relatively high velocity lower crust with an average Vs ? 3.88 ± 0.1 km/s which is consistent with the high Vp ? 7.1 km/s reported for this region through seismic refraction and wide angle reflection studies, overlying a relatively low velocity (Vs ? 4.4 ± 0.1 km/s) upper mantle. The shear velocity contrasts across the Moho, derived from the amplitudes of the P-to-s (Pms) conversions from the Moho range from 0.08 to 0.17 which are much smaller than those (>0.20) observed across the Indian shield, implying a gradational Moho due to underplating. This study reveals that the crust beneath Saurashtra is distinctly different from that of the Archean Indian shield largely due to significant alterations by the Deccan volcanism.
HIGH-RESOLUTION SEISMIC VELOCITY AND ATTENUATION MODELS OF THE CAUCASUS-CASPIAN REGION
Mellors, R; Gok, R; Pasyanos, M; Skobeltsyn, G; Teoman, U; Godoladze, T; Sandvol, E
2008-07-01
The southwest edge of Eurasia is a tectonically and structurally complex region that includes the Caspian and Black Sea basins, the Caucasus Mountains, and the high plateaus south of the Caucasus. Using data from 25 broadband stations located in the region, new estimates of crustal and upper mantle thickness, velocity structure, and attenuation are being developed. Receiver functions have been determined for all stations. Depth to Moho is estimated using slant stacking of the receiver functions, forward modeling, and inversion. Moho depths along the Caspian and in the Kura Depression are in general poorly constrained using only receiver functions due to thick sedimentary basin sediments. The best fitting models suggest a low velocity upper crust with Moho depths ranging from 30 to 40 km. Crustal thicknesses increase in the Greater Caucasus with Moho depths of 40 to 50 km. Pronounced variations with azimuth of source are observed indicating 3D structural complexity and upper crustal velocities are higher than in the Kura Depression to the south. In the Lesser Caucasus, south and west of the Kura Depression, the crust is thicker (40 to 50 km) and upper crustal velocities are higher. Work is underway to refine these models with the event based surface wave dispersion and ambient noise correlation measurements from continuous data. Regional phase (Lg and Pg) attenuation models as well as blockage maps for Pn and Sn are being developed. Two methods are used to estimate Q: the two-station method to estimate inter-station Q and the reversed, two-station, two event method. The results are then inverted to create Lg and Pg Q maps. Initial results suggest substantial variations in both Pg and Lg Q in the region. A zone of higher Pg Q extends west from the Caspian between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus and a narrow area of higher Lg Q is observed.
Julio Chanamé; Jan Kleyna; Roeland van der Marel
2008-04-21
(ABRIDGED) We present a new Schwarzschild orbit-superposition code designed to model discrete datasets composed of velocities of individual kinematic tracers in a dynamical system. This constitutes an extension of previous implementations that can only address continuous data in the form of (the moments of) velocity distributions, thus avoiding potentially important losses of information due to data binning. Furthermore, the code can handle any combination of available velocity components, i.e., only line-of-sight velocities, only proper motions, or a combination of both. It can also handle a combination of discrete and continuous data. The code finds the distribution function (DF, a function of the three integrals of motion E, Lz, and I3) that best reproduces the available kinematic and photometric observations in a given axisymmetric gravitational potential. The fully numerical approach ensures considerable freedom on the form of the DF f(E,Lz,I3). This allows a very general modeling of the orbital structure, thus avoiding restrictive assumptions about the degree of (an)isotropy of the orbits. We describe the implementation of the discrete code and present a series of tests of its performance based on the modeling of simulated datasets generated from a known DF. We find that the discrete Schwarzschild code recovers the original orbital structure, M/L ratios, and inclination of the input datasets to satisfactory accuracy, as quantified by various statistics. The code will be valuable, e.g., for modeling stellar motions in Galactic globular clusters, and those of individual stars, planetary nebulae, or globular clusters in nearby galaxies. This can shed new light on the total mass distributions of these systems, with central black holes and dark matter halos being of particular interest.
Unsteady Velocity Measurements Taken Behind a Model Helicopter Rotor Hub in Forward Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, John D.
1997-01-01
Drag caused by separated flow behind the hub of a helicopter has an adverse effect on aerodynamic performance of the aircraft. To determine the effect of separated flow on a configuration used extensively for helicopter aerodynamic investigations, an experiment was conducted using a laser velocimeter to measure velocities in the wake of a model helicopter hub operating at Mach-scaled conditions in forward flight. Velocity measurements were taken using a laser velocimeter with components in the vertical and downstream directions. Measurements were taken at 13 stations downstream from the rotor hub. At each station, measurements were taken in both a horizontal and vertical row of locations. These measurements were analyzed for harmonic content based on the rotor period of revolution. After accounting for these periodic velocities, the remaining unsteady velocities were treated as turbulence. Turbulence intensity distributions are presented. Average turbulent intensities ranged from approximately 2 percent of free stream to over 15 percent of free stream at specific locations and azimuths. The maximum average value of turbulence was located near the rear-facing region of the fuselage.
Darvesh, Sultan; Cash, Meghan K.; Reid, G. Andrew; Martin, Earl; Mitnitski, Arnold; Geula, Changiz
2011-01-01
Histochemical analysis of Alzheimer disease (AD) brain tissues indicates that butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) is present in ?-amyloid (A?) plaques. The role of BuChE in AD pathology is unknown but an animal model developing similar BuChE-associated A? plaques could provide insights. The APPSWE/PSEN1dE9 mouse (ADTg), which develops A? plaques, was examined to determine if BuChE associates with these plaques, as in AD. We found that in mature ADTg mice, BuChE activity associated with A? plaques. A?-, thioflavin-S- and BuChE-positive plaques mainly accumulated in olfactory structures, cerebral cortex, hippocampal formation, amygdala and cerebellum. No plaques were stained for acetylcholinesterase activity. The distribution and abundance of plaque staining in ADTg closely resembled many aspects of plaque staining in AD. BuChE staining consistently showed fewer plaques than were detected with A? immunostaining but a greater number of plaques than were visualized with thioflavin-S. Double-labelling experiments demonstrated that all BuChE-positive plaques were A?-positive while only some BuChE-positive plaques were thioflavin-S-positive. These observations suggest that BuChE is associated with a subpopulation of A? plaques and may play a role in AD plaque maturation. Further study of this animal model could clarify the role of BuChE in AD pathology. PMID:22157615
Yang Aijun; Wang Xiaohua; Rong Mingzhe; Liu Dingxin; Iza, Felipe; Kong, Michael G.
2011-11-15
In this paper atmospheric-pressure rf He+O{sub 2} cold plasmas are studied by means of a 1-D fluid model. 17 species and 60 key reactions selected from a study of 250+ reactions are incorporated in the model. O{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sub 3}{sup -}, and O are the dominant positive ion, negative ion, and reactive oxygen species, respectively. Ground state O is mainly generated by electron induced reactions and quenching of atomic and molecular oxygen metastables, while three-body reactions leading to the formation of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} are the main mechanisms responsible for O destruction. The fraction of input power dissipated by ions is {approx}20%. For the conditions considered in the study {approx}6% of the input power is coupled to ions in the bulk and this amount will increase with increasing electronegativity. Radial and electrode losses of neutral species are in most cases negligible when compared to gas phase processes as these losses are diffusion limited due to the large collisionality of the plasma. The electrode loss rate of neutral species is found to be nearly independent of the surface adsorption probability p for p > 0.001 and therefore plasma dosage can be quantified even if p is not known precisely.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bryan, Alexander M.; Cheng, Susan J.; Ashworth, Kirsti; Guenther, Alex B.; Hardiman, Brady S.; Bohrer, Gil; Steiner, Allison L.
2015-11-01
Foliar emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC)-important precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols-vary widely by vegetation type. Modeling studies to date typically represent the canopy as a single dominant tree type or a blend of tree types, yet many forests are diverse with trees of varying height. To assess the sensitivity of biogenic emissions to tree height variation, we compare two 1-D canopy model simulations in which BVOC emission potentials are homogeneous or heterogeneous with canopy depth. The heterogeneous canopy emulates the mid-successional forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). In this case, high-isoprene-emitting foliage (e.g., aspen and oak) is constrained to the upper canopy, where higher sunlight availability increases the light-dependent isoprene emission, leading to 34% more isoprene and its oxidation products as compared to the homogeneous simulation. Isoprene declines from aspen mortality are 10% larger when heterogeneity is considered. Overall, our results highlight the importance of adequately representing complexities of forest canopy structure when simulating light-dependent BVOC emissions and chemistry.
Block modeling of crustal deformation in Tierra del Fuego from GNSS velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendoza, L.; Richter, A.; Fritsche, M.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Perdomo, R.; Dietrich, R.
2015-05-01
The Tierra del Fuego (TDF) main island is divided by a major transform boundary between the South America and Scotia tectonic plates. Using a block model, we infer slip rates, locking depths and inclinations of active faults in TDF from inversion of site velocities derived from Global Navigation Satellite System observations. We use interseismic velocities from 48 sites, obtained from field measurements spanning 20 years. Euler vectors consistent with a simple seismic cycle are estimated for each block. In addition, we introduce far-field information into the modeling by applying constraints on Euler vectors of major tectonic plates. The difference between model and observed surface deformation near the Magallanes Fagnano Fault System (MFS) is reduced by considering finite dip in the forward model. For this tectonic boundary global plate circuits models predict relative movements between 7 and 9 mm yr- 1, while our regional model indicates that a strike-slip rate of 5.9 ± 0.2 mm yr- 1 is accommodated across the MFS. Our results indicate faults dipping 66- 4+ 6° southward, locked to a depth of 11- 5+ 5 km, which are consistent with geological models for the MFS. However, normal slip also dominates the fault perpendicular motion throughout the eastern MFS, with a maximum rate along the Fagnano Lake.
Accounting for uncertainty in the analysis of overlap layer mean velocity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliver, Todd A.; Moser, Robert D.
2012-07-01
When assessing the veracity of mathematical models, it is important to consider the uncertainties in the data used for the assessment. In this paper, we study the impact of data uncertainties on the analysis of overlap layer models for the mean velocity in wall-bounded turbulent flows. Specifically, the tools of Bayesian statistics are used to calibrate and compare six competing models of the mean velocity profile, including multiple logarithmic and power law forms, using velocity profile measurements from a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer and fully developed turbulent pipe flow. The calibration problem is formulated as a Bayesian update of the joint probability density function for the calibration parameters, which are treated as random variables to characterize incomplete knowledge about their values. This probabilistic formulation provides a natural treatment of uncertainty and gives insight into the quality of the fit, features that are not easily obtained in deterministic calibration procedures. The model comparison also relies on a Bayesian update. In particular, the relative probabilities of the competing models are updated using the calibration data. The resulting posterior probabilities quantify the relative plausibility of the competing models given the data. For the boundary layer, results are shown for five subsets of the turbulent boundary layer data due to Österlund, including different Reynolds number and wall distance ranges, and multiple assumptions regarding the magnitude of the uncertainty in the velocity measurements. For most choices, multiple models have relatively high posterior probability, indicating that it is difficult to distinguish between the models. For the most inclusive data sets—i.e., the largest ranges of Reynolds number and wall distance—the first-order logarithmic law due to Buschmann and Gad-el-Hak is significantly more probable, given the data, than the other models evaluated. For the pipe flow, data from the Princeton Superpipe is analyzed for the region where McKeon et al. find a logarithmic layer (600 ? y+ ? 0.12?+). As in the boundary layer case, the first-order logarithmic law by Buschmann and Gad-el-Hak is most probable. However, the parameter values required to fit the data are different from those necessary for the boundary layer. Thus, the present analysis confirms the differences between the boundary layer and pipe flow results observed elsewhere in the literature, casting serious doubt on the universality of overlap layer model parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arcos, M. E. M.; LeVeque, Randall J.
2015-03-01
The ability to measure, predict, and compute tsunami flow velocities is of importance in risk assessment and hazard mitigation. Substantial damage can be done by high velocity flows, particularly in harbors and bays, even when the wave height is small. Moreover, advancing the study of sediment transport and tsunami deposits depends on the accurate interpretation and modeling of tsunami flow velocities and accelerations. Until recently, few direct measurements of tsunami velocities existed to compare with model results. During the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Tsunami, 328 current meters were in place around the Hawaiian Islands, USA, that captured time series of water velocity in 18 locations, in both harbors and deep channels, at a series of depths. We compare several of these velocity records against numerical simulations performed using the GeoClaw numerical tsunami model, based on solving the depth-averaged shallow water equations with adaptive mesh refinement, to confirm that this model can accurately predict velocities at nearshore locations. Model results demonstrate tsunami current velocity is more spatially variable than waveform or height and, therefore, may be a more sensitive variable for model validation.
Iwamoto, Masami; Nakahira, Yuko
2015-11-01
Accurate prediction of occupant head kinematics is critical for better understanding of head/face injury mechanisms in side impacts, especially far-side occupants. In light of the fact that researchers have demonstrated that muscle activations, especially in neck muscles, can affect occupant head kinematics, a human body finite element (FE) model that considers muscle activation is useful for predicting occupant head kinematics in real-world automotive accidents. In this study, we developed a human body FE model called the THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) Version 5 that contains 262 one-dimensional (1D) Hill-type muscle models over the entire body. The THUMS was validated against 36 series of PMHS (Post Mortem Human Surrogate) and volunteer test data in this study, and 16 series of PMHS and volunteer test data on side impacts are presented. Validation results with force-time curves were also evaluated quantitatively using the CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) method. The validation results suggest that the THUMS has good biofidelity in the responses of the regional or full body for side impacts, but relatively poor biofidelity in its local level of responses such as brain displacements. Occupant kinematics predicted by the THUMS with a muscle controller using 22 PID (Proportional-Integral- Derivative) controllers were compared with those of volunteer test data on low-speed lateral impacts. The THUMS with muscle controller reproduced the head kinematics of the volunteer data more accurately than that without muscle activation, although further studies on validation of torso kinematics are needed for more accurate predictions of occupant head kinematics. PMID:26660740
Wardaya, P. D. Noh, K. A. B. M. Yusoff, W. I. B. W.; Ridha, S.; Nurhandoko, B. E. B.
2014-09-25
This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic wave velocity of rock.
Stephenson, William J.
2007-01-01
INTRODUCTION In support of earthquake hazards and ground motion studies in the Pacific Northwest, three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity (3D Vp and Vs) and density (3D rho) models incorporating the Cascadia subduction zone have been developed for the region encompassed from about 40.2?N to 50?N latitude, and from about -122?W to -129?W longitude. The model volume includes elevations from 0 km to 60 km (elevation is opposite of depth in model coordinates). Stephenson and Frankel (2003) presented preliminary ground motion simulations valid up to 0.1 Hz using an earlier version of these models. The version of the model volume described here includes more structural and geophysical detail, particularly in the Puget Lowland as required for scenario earthquake simulations in the development of the Seattle Urban Hazards Maps (Frankel and others, 2007). Olsen and others (in press) used the model volume discussed here to perform a Cascadia simulation up to 0.5 Hz using a Sumatra-Andaman Islands rupture history. As research from the EarthScope Program (http://www.earthscope.org) is published, a wealth of important detail can be added to these model volumes, particularly to depths of the upper-mantle. However, at the time of development for this model version, no EarthScope-specific results were incorporated. This report is intended to be a reference for colleagues and associates who have used or are planning to use this preliminary model in their research. To this end, it is intended that these models will be considered a beginning template for a community velocity model of the Cascadia region as more data and results become available.
Rock physics model-based prediction of shear wave velocity in the Barnett Shale formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zhiqi; Li, Xiang-Yang
2015-06-01
Predicting S-wave velocity is important for reservoir characterization and fluid identification in unconventional resources. A rock physics model-based method is developed for estimating pore aspect ratio and predicting shear wave velocity Vs from the information of P-wave velocity, porosity and mineralogy in a borehole. Statistical distribution of pore geometry is considered in the rock physics models. In the application to the Barnett formation, we compare the high frequency self-consistent approximation (SCA) method that corresponds to isolated pore spaces, and the low frequency SCA-Gassmann method that describes well-connected pore spaces. Inversion results indicate that compared to the surroundings, the Barnett Shale shows less fluctuation in the pore aspect ratio in spite of complex constituents in the shale. The high frequency method provides a more robust and accurate prediction of Vs for all the three intervals in the Barnett formation, while the low frequency method collapses for the Barnett Shale interval. Possible causes for this discrepancy can be explained by the fact that poor in situ pore connectivity and low permeability make well-log sonic frequencies act as high frequencies and thus invalidate the low frequency assumption of the Gassmann theory. In comparison, for the overlying Marble Falls and underlying Ellenburger carbonates, both the high and low frequency methods predict Vs with reasonable accuracy, which may reveal that sonic frequencies are within the transition frequencies zone due to higher pore connectivity in the surroundings.
Jiang, Beihan; Yang, Kejun; Cao, Shuyou
2015-01-01
Based on the momentum transfer theory, an analytical model is proposed for the velocity and discharge distributions in compound channels with submerged vegetation on the floodplain. The partially vegetated channel was divided into three sub-regions, i.e. the main channel region, the floodplain region with submerged vegetation and the floodplain region without vegetation. For each region, the force balance relationship was established, and the momentum transfer between different regions was presented. Verification by the experimental data and comparison with the traditional method shows that the proposed method is capable of predicting for the velocity and discharge distributions in compound channels with submerged vegetation and is superior to the conventional method. The results also show that when the momentum transfer between different regions is ignored, the computed discharge will be much lager than the measured data, and the error increases with the discharge, especially in the floodplain region. PMID:26161661
A Wiener-Laguerre model of VIV forces given recent cylinder velocities
Maincon, Philippe
2010-01-01
Slender structures immersed in a cross flow can experience vibrations induced by vortex shedding (VIV), which cause fatigue damage and other problems. VIV models in engineering use today tend to operate in the frequency domain. A time domain model would allow to capture the chaotic nature of VIV and to model interactions with other loads and non-linearities. Such a model was developed in the present work: for each cross section, recent velocity history is compressed using Laguerre polynomials. The compressed information is used to enter an interpolation function to predict the instantaneous force, allowing to step the dynamic analysis. An offshore riser was modeled in this way: Some analyses provided an unusually fine level of realism, while in other analyses, the riser fell into an unphysical pattern of vibration. It is concluded that the concept is promissing, yet that more work is needed to understand orbit stability and related issues, in order to further progress towards an engineering tool.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dobson, Chris C.; Hrbud, Ivana
2004-01-01
Electron density measurements have been made in steady-state plasmas in a spherical inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) discharge using microwave interferometry. Plasma cores interior to two cathodes, having diameters of 15 and 23 cm, respectively, were probed over a transverse range of 10 cm with a spatial resolution of about 1.4 cm for buffer gas pressures from 0.2 to 6 Pa in argon and deuterium. The transverse profiles are generally flat, in some cases with eccentric symmetric minima, and give mean densities of from approx. = 0.4 to 7x 10(exp 10)/cu cm, the density generally increasing with the neutral gas pressure. Numerical solutions of the 1-D Poisson equation for EC plasmas are reviewed and energy distribution functions are identified which give flat transverse profiles. These functions are used with the plasma approximation to obtain solutions which also give densities consistent with the measurements, and a double potential well solution is obtained which has minima qualitatively similar to those observed. Explicit consideration is given to the compatibility of the solutions interior and exterior to the cathode, and to grid transparency. Deuterium fusion neutron emission rates were also measured and found to be isotropic, to within the measurement error, over two simultaneous directions. Anisotropy was observed in residual emissions during operation with non-fusing hydrogen-1. The deuterium rates are consistent with predictions from the model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, J. E.; Dentener, F. J.; van den Berg, A. R.
2002-02-01
A 1-D marine stratocumulus cloud model has been supplemented with a comprehensive and up-to-date aqueous phase chemical mechanism for the purpose of assessing the impact that the presence of clouds has on gas phaseHOx, NOx and O3 budgets in the marine boundary layer. The simulations presented here indicate that cloud may act as a heterogeneous source of HONOg. The conversion of HNO4(g) at moderate pH (~ 4.5) is responsible for this, and, to a lesser extent, the photolysis of nitrate (NO3-). The effect of introducing deliquescent aerosol on the simulated increase of HONOg is negligible. The most important consequences of this elevation in HONOg are that, in the presence of cloud, gas phase concentrations of NOx species increase by a factor of 2, which minimises the simulated decrease in O3(g), and results in a regeneration of OHg. This partly compensates for the removal of OHg by direct phase transfer into the cloud and may have important implications regarding the oxidising capacity of the marine boundary layer.
Modeling the exit velocity of a compressed air cannon Z. J. Rohrbach, T. R. Buresh, and M. J. Madsen
Madsen, Martin John
Modeling the exit velocity of a compressed air cannon Z. J. Rohrbach, T. R. Buresh, and M. J; accepted 8 September 2011) The use of compressed air cannons in an undergraduate laboratory provides a way elementary Newtonian kinematics.5 We constructed a compressed air cannon to measure the exit velocity
PLUME-MoM 1.0: a new 1-D model of volcanic plumes based on the method of moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Neri, A.; Barsotti, S.
2015-05-01
In this paper a new mathematical model for volcanic plumes, named PlumeMoM, is presented. The model describes the steady-state 1-D dynamics of the plume in a 3-D coordinate system, accounting for continuous variability in particle distribution of the pyroclastic mixture ejected at the vent. Volcanic plumes are composed of pyroclastic particles of many different sizes ranging from a few microns up to several centimeters and more. Proper description of such a multiparticle nature is crucial when quantifying changes in grain-size distribution along the plume and, therefore, for better characterization of source conditions of ash dispersal models. The new model is based on the method of moments, which allows description of the pyroclastic mixture dynamics not only in the spatial domain but also in the space of properties of the continuous size-distribution of the particles. This is achieved by formulation of fundamental transport equations for the multiparticle mixture with respect to the different moments of the grain-size distribution. Different formulations, in terms of the distribution of the particle number, as well as of the mass distribution expressed in terms of the Krumbein log scale, are also derived. Comparison between the new moments-based formulation and the classical approach, based on the discretization of the mixture in N discrete phases, shows that the new model allows the same results to be obtained with a significantly lower computational cost (particularly when a large number of discrete phases is adopted). Application of the new model, coupled with uncertainty quantification and global sensitivity analyses, enables investigation of the response of four key output variables (mean and standard deviation (SD) of the grain-size distribution at the top of the plume, plume height and amount of mass lost by the plume during the ascent) to changes in the main input parameters (mean and SD) characterizing the pyroclastic mixture at the base of the plume. Results show that, for the range of parameters investigated, the grain-size distribution at the top of the plume is remarkably similar to that at the base and that the plume height is only weakly affected by the parameters of the grain distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Driba, D. L.; De Lucia, M.; Peiffer, S.
2014-12-01
Fluid-rock interactions in geothermal reservoirs are driven by the state of disequilibrium that persists among solid and solutes due to changing temperature and pressure. During operation of enhanced geothermal systems, injection of cooled water back into the reservoir disturbs the initial thermodynamic equilibrium between the reservoir and its geothermal fluid, which may induce modifications in permeability through changes in porosity and pore space geometry, consequently bringing about several impairments to the overall system.Modeling of fluid-rock interactions induced by injection of cold brine into Groß Schönebeck geothermal reservoir system situated in the Rotliegend sandstone at 4200m depth have been done by coupling geochemical modeling Code Phreeqc with OpenGeoSys. Through batch modeling the re-evaluation of the measured hydrochemical composition of the brine has been done using Quintessa databases, the results from the calculation indicate that a mineral phases comprising of K-feldspar, hematite, Barite, Calcite and Dolomite was found to match the hypothesis of equilibrium with the formation fluid, Reducing conditions are presumed in the model (pe = -3.5) in order to match the amount of observed dissolved Fe and thus considered as initial state for the reactive transport modeling. based on a measured composition of formation fluids and the predominant mineralogical assemblage of the host rock, a preliminary 1D Reactive transport modeling (RTM) was run with total time set to 30 years; results obtained for the initial simulation revealed that during this period, no significant change is evident for K-feldspar. Furthermore, the precipitation of calcite along the flow path in the brine results in a drop of pH from 6.2 to a value of 5.2 noticed over the simulated period. The circulation of cooled fluid in the reservoir is predicted to affect the temperature of the reservoir within the first 100 -150m from the injection well. Examination of porosity change in this simulation reveals that, porosity and permeability near the wellbore are enhanced after injection. This is chiefly due to the dissolution of calcite near the injection well and less extent by dolomite The porosity is improved by more than 14% at the injection well, but then decreases away from the well.
A GLOBAL MODEL OF THE LIGHT CURVES AND EXPANSION VELOCITIES OF TYPE II-PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE
Pejcha, Ond?ej; Prieto, Jose L.
2015-02-01
We present a new self-consistent and versatile method that derives photospheric radius and temperature variations of Type II-Plateau supernovae based on their expansion velocities and photometric measurements. We apply the method to a sample of 26 well-observed, nearby supernovae with published light curves and velocities. We simultaneously fit ?230 velocity and ?6800 mag measurements distributed over 21 photometric passbands spanning wavelengths from 0.19 to 2.2 ?m. The light-curve differences among the Type II-Plateau supernovae are well modeled by assuming different rates of photospheric radius expansion, which we explain as different density profiles of the ejecta, and we argue that steeper density profiles result in flatter plateaus, if everything else remains unchanged. The steep luminosity decline of Type II-Linear supernovae is due to fast evolution of the photospheric temperature, which we verify with a successful fit of SN 1980K. Eliminating the need for theoretical supernova atmosphere models, we obtain self-consistent relative distances, reddenings, and nickel masses fully accounting for all internal model uncertainties and covariances. We use our global fit to estimate the time evolution of any missing band tailored specifically for each supernova, and we construct spectral energy distributions and bolometric light curves. We produce bolometric corrections for all filter combinations in our sample. We compare our model to the theoretical dilution factors and find good agreement for the B and V filters. Our results differ from the theory when the I, J, H, or K bands are included. We investigate the reddening law toward our supernovae and find reasonable agreement with standard R{sub V}?3.1 reddening law in UBVRI bands. Results for other bands are inconclusive. We make our fitting code publicly available.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsaoussi, Lucia S.; Koblinsky, Chester J.
1994-01-01
In order to facilitate the use of satellite-derived sea surface topography and velocity oceanographic models, methodology is presented for deriving the total error covariance and its geographic distribution from TOPEX/POSEIDON measurements. The model is formulated using a parametric model fit to the altimeter range observations. The topography and velocity modeled with spherical harmonic expansions whose coefficients are found through optimal adjustment to the altimeter range residuals using Bayesian statistics. All other parameters, including the orbit, geoid, surface models, and range corrections are provided as unadjusted parameters. The maximum likelihood estimates and errors are derived from the probability density function of the altimeter range residuals conditioned with a priori information. Estimates of model errors for the unadjusted parameters are obtained from the TOPEX/POSEIDON postlaunch verification results and the error covariances for the orbit and the geoid, except for the ocean tides. The error in the ocean tides is modeled, first, as the difference between two global tide models and, second, as the correction to the present tide model, the correction derived from the TOPEX/POSEIDON data. A formal error covariance propagation scheme is used to derive the total error. Our global total error estimate for the TOPEX/POSEIDON topography relative to the geoid for one 10-day period is found tio be 11 cm RMS. When the error in the geoid is removed, thereby providing an estimate of the time dependent error, the uncertainty in the topography is 3.5 cm root mean square (RMS). This level of accuracy is consistent with direct comparisons of TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter heights with tide gauge measurements at 28 stations. In addition, the error correlation length scales are derived globally in both east-west and north-south directions, which should prove useful for data assimilation. The largest error correlation length scales are found in the tropics. Errors in the velocity field are smallest in midlatitude regions. For both variables the largest errors caused by uncertainty in the geoid. More accurate representations of the geoid await a dedicated geopotential satellite mission. Substantial improvements in the accuracy of ocean tide models are expected in the very near future from research with TOPEX/POSEIDON data.
Shiddiqi, Hasbi Ash E-mail: h.a.shiddiqi@gmail.com; Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Ramdhan, Mohamad; Wandono,; Sutiyono,; Handayani, Titi; Nugroho, Hendro
2015-04-24
We have relocated hypocenters of earthquakes occurring in the Molucca collision zone and surrounding region taken from the BMKG catalog using teleseismic double-difference relocation algorithm (teletomoDD). We used P-wave arrival times of local, regional, and teleseismic events recorded at 304 recording stations. Over 7,000 earthquakes were recorded by the BMKG seismographicnetworkin the study region from April, 2009 toJune, 2014. We used a 3D regional-global nested velocity modelresulting fromprevious global tomographystudy. In this study, the3D seismic velocity model was appliedto theIndonesian region, whilethe1D seismicvelocity model (ak135)wasused for regions outside of Indonesia. Our relocation results show a better improvement in travel-time RMS residuals comparedto those of the BMKG catalog.Ourresultsalso show that relocation shifts were dominated intheeast-west direction, whichmaybeinfluenced by theexistingvelocity anomaly related to the reversed V-shaped slabbeneaththestudy region. Our eventrelocation results refine the geometry of slabs beneath the Halmahera and Sangihe arcs.
Vorontsov, Sergei V.; Jefferies, Stuart M. E-mail: stuartj@ifa.hawaii.edu
2013-11-20
We describe a global parametric model for the observed power spectra of solar oscillations of intermediate and low degree. A physically motivated parameterization is used as a substitute for a direct description of mode excitation and damping as these mechanisms remain poorly understood. The model is targeted at the accurate fitting of power spectra coming from Doppler-velocity measurements and uses an adaptive response function that accounts for both the vertical and horizontal components of the velocity field on the solar surface and for possible instrumental and observational distortions. The model is continuous in frequency, can easily be adapted to intensity measurements, and extends naturally to the analysis of high-frequency pseudomodes (interference peaks at frequencies above the atmospheric acoustic cutoff).
Modelled and observed dry deposition velocity of O 3 above a deciduous forest in the winter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padro, J.; Neumann, H. H.; Den Hartog, G.
Meteorological and air quality data were collected within and above a leafless deciduous forest during March and April of 1990. Included were measurements of O 3 fluxes, using the eddy correlation technique, to obtain dry deposition velocities. These observations were used to investigate the capability of the dry deposition module that forms part of an existing Eulerian air quality model, known as ADOM (Acid Deposition and Oxidant Model). The observed dry deposition velocities of O 3 ( Vd) had an average daytime value of 0.3 cm s -1, compared to the summer value of 1.0 cm s -1, reported by Padro et al. (1991, Atmospheric Environment25A, 1689-1704). For the diurnal cycle, the model overestimated Vd by about 215% in the nighttime and 75% in the daytime. After making adjustments to canopy parameters and formulating the canopy resistance in terms of surface aie temperature the errors reduced to 115% in the nighttime and 34% in the daytime. A further modification to ADOM, incorporating Wesely's (1989, Atmospheric Environment23, 1293-1304) canopy resistance model, yielded V d values for the diurnal cycle that were smaller than the observations by about 24% in the nighttime and 25% in the daytime. The possible influences of the solar radiation, the surface air temperature, the ground temperature and the canopy wetness on Vd are discussed by analysing their time-averaged diurnal cycles and their temporal variations for some days that are classified by sky and ground conditions.
Huang, Tao; Wu, Xinyuan; Song, Xiao; Xu, Hao; Smirnova, Tatyana I; Weare, Walter W; Sommer, Roger D
2015-10-27
Convenient strategies have been developed to synthesize heterobi/trimetallic oxido complexes containing V(iv)-O-Cr(iii), V(iv)-O-Cr(iii)-O-Ti(iv) and V(iv)-O-Cr(iii)-O-V(iv) cores. These compounds can serve as ground state models for probing the magnetic properties of metal-to-metal charge transfer excited states. Each of these complexes represents the first experimental demonstration of ferromagnetic coupling in a d(1)-d(3) oxido bridged compound, which confirms a long standing theoretical prediction for such a linkage. Structural characterization reveals a similar structure for each of the bi/trimetallic complexes with identical V[double bond, length as m-dash]O bond lengths (?1.644 Å) and a linear V-O-Cr geometry. The Cr-O distances (1.943-1.964 Å) are significantly influenced by the ligands in the trans axial positions. Ferromagnetic coupling between the V(iv) and Cr(iii) of V-O-Cr is measured by temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, showing J = +42.5 to +50.7 cm(-1) (H = -2J?V?Cr). This is further supported by variable temperature X-band EPR. The values of J are found to be consistent with the function J = Ae(?r) (A = 9.221 × 10(8) and ? = 8.607 Å(-1)), where r is the Cr-O bond distance. We propose a model that links either ferromagnetic or antiferromagentic exchange coupling with long excited state lifetimes in metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) chromophores. PMID:26466862
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janssen, Ruud H. H.; Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Karydis, Vlassis A.; Lelieveld, Jos
2014-05-01
In spite of rapid developments in our understanding of organic aerosol (OA) physicochemical properties, representing the OA composition and evolution over urban areas remains a challenge. This study addresses the diurnal evolution of OA over Paris during the MEGAPOLI campaign. We analyze the observations with a model that aims at a balanced representation of the various processes that contribute to the diurnal variation of the organic aerosol budget. It is a 1D Eulerian model of the atmospheric boundary layer that contains advanced modules for gas-phase chemistry, gas/particle partitioning, and dry deposition. The model represents a computationally efficient framework for the accurate description of OA formation and photochemical evolution in the boundary layer. Semi-volatile organic components are distributed into volatility bins based on their saturation concentration and are allowed to partition into the aerosol phase. Furthermore, the semi-volatile organics in the gas phase continue to react with OH radical leading to compounds with lower volatility and hence continued OA formation. Model results are evaluated against available observations of OA, gas-phase chemistry and boundary layer dynamics. The model results are used along with the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) dataset from the MEGAPOLI campaign to give new insights into the sources and diurnal production of OA over Paris. Furthermore, budget calculations are performed to show the contribution of the various processes (i.e., photochemistry, aerosol thermodynamics, boundary layer dynamics, etc.) to the calculated OA mass. Finally, the influence of uncertainties in several processes that determine the OA budget on the calculated OA properties is systematically analyzed through a series of sensitivity analyses. These include emission fractions of semivolatile and intermediate volatile compounds (SVOC/IVOC), secondary OA yields for the various gas-phase precursors, gas-phase aging of SVOC and IVOC during several generations of oxidation, dry deposition of OA and its gas-phase precursors, the temperature dependence of gas/particle partitioning, and assumptions on the volatility and entrainment of the background OA concentration.
An Improved Parameterization of Dust Dry Deposition Velocity for Climate Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamecki, M.; Souza Freire, L.
2014-12-01
The parameterization of dry deposition fluxes in climate models is an important component of the dust model, since it is one of the main processes responsible for the removal of aerosol particles from the atmosphere. The parameterization currently used in most climate models is obtained from a two-layer approach in which the physical domain between the first grid point and the ground surface is divided into an upper and a lower layer. The lower layer is the region where Brownian diffusion is relevant, and where particles interact with the surface roughness elements. In this layer important processes such as impaction, interception, and rebound of particles on the surface are parameterized. In the upper layer turbulent transport and gravitational settling determine the particle flux, and the effects of atmospheric stability become relevant. In the usual two-layer model, mean vertical gradients of particle concentration are approximated using a first order finite-difference approach, resulting in a set of two algebraic equations. The solution of these equations yields the desired parameterization for the deposition velocity. We argue that in the upper model, the finite-difference approximation is the largest source of error. In addition, the error introduced by this approximation is grid-dependent, increasing with increasing distance between the first grid point and the ground. We develop a new model in which the finite-difference approximation is not invoked. Instead, the analytical solution for the differential equation is obtained. This solution can be seen as a generalization of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory to concentration of settling particles. We use large-eddy simulations to show the validity of the analytical solution for a range of particle sizes. The final expression obtained for the deposition velocity is as simple as the one currently used, and the parameterizations of impaction, interception, and rebound in the lower layer can be introduced in the same way. Compared to the proposed model, the deposition velocity parameterization currently used in climate models over predicts fluxes by as much as 30%. The errors tend to be largest in the range of particle sizes between one and ten micrometers, a range of critical importance for dust modeling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ammirati, Jean-Baptiste; Alvarado, Patricia; Beck, Susan
2015-07-01
In the central Andes, the Nazca plate displays large along strike variations in dip with a near horizontal subduction angle between 28 and 32°S referred to the Pampean flat slab segment. The upper plate above the Pampean flat slab has high rates of crustal seismicity and active basement cored uplifts. The SIEMBRA experiment, a 43-broad-band-seismic-station array was deployed to better characterize the Pampean flat slab region around 31°S. In this study, we explore the lithospheric structure above the flat slab as a whole and its relation to seismicity. We use the SIEMBRA data to perform a joint inversion of teleseismic receiver functions and Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion to constrain the shear wave velocity variations in the lithosphere. Our joint inversion results show: (1) the presence of several upper-plate mid-crustal discontinuities and their lateral extent that are probably related to the terrane accretion history; (2) zones of high shear wave velocity in the upper-plate lower crust associated with a weak Moho signal consistent with the hypothesis of partial eclogitization in the lower crust; (3) the presence of low shear-wave velocities at ˜100 km depth interpreted as the subducting oceanic crust. Finally, in order to investigate the relation of the lithospheric structure to seismicity, we determine an optimal velocity-depth model based on the joint inversion results and use it to perform regional moment tensor inversions (SMTI) of crustal and slab earthquakes. The SMTI for 18 earthquakes that occurred between 2007 and 2009 in the flat slab region below Argentina, indicates systematically shallower focal depths for slab earthquakes (compared with inversions using previous velocity models). This suggests that the slab seismicity is concentrated mostly between 90 and 110 km depths within the subducting Nazca plate's oceanic crust and likely related to dehydration. In addition, the slab earthquakes exhibit extensional focal mechanisms suggesting new faulting at the edges of the flat portion of the slab. SMTI solutions for upper-plate crustal earthquakes match well the geological observations of reactivated structures and agree with crustal shortening. Our new constraints on flat slab structure can aid earthquake characterization for regional seismic hazard assessment and efforts to help understand the mechanisms for slab flattening in the central Andes.
Two-dimensional airflow modeling underpredicts the wind velocity over dunes.
Michelsen, Britt; Strobl, Severin; Parteli, Eric J R; Pöschel, Thorsten
2015-01-01
We investigate the average turbulent wind field over a barchan dune by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. We find that the fractional speed-up ratio of the wind velocity over the three-dimensional barchan shape differs from the one obtained from two-dimensional calculations of the airflow over the longitudinal cut along the dune's symmetry axis - that is, over the equivalent transverse dune of same size. This finding suggests that the modeling of the airflow over the central slice of barchan dunes is insufficient for the purpose of the quantitative description of barchan dune dynamics as three-dimensional flow effects cannot be neglected. PMID:26572966
Two-dimensional airflow modeling underpredicts the wind velocity over dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michelsen, Britt; Strobl, Severin; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Pöschel, Thorsten
2015-11-01
We investigate the average turbulent wind field over a barchan dune by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. We find that the fractional speed-up ratio of the wind velocity over the three-dimensional barchan shape differs from the one obtained from two-dimensional calculations of the airflow over the longitudinal cut along the dune’s symmetry axis — that is, over the equivalent transverse dune of same size. This finding suggests that the modeling of the airflow over the central slice of barchan dunes is insufficient for the purpose of the quantitative description of barchan dune dynamics as three-dimensional flow effects cannot be neglected.
Sterile neutrinos, dark matter, and the pulsar velocities in models with a Higgs singlet
Alexander Kusenko
2006-12-06
We identify the range of parameters for which the sterile neutrinos can simultaneously explain the cosmological dark matter and the observed velocities of pulsars. To satisfy all cosmological bounds, the relic sterile neutrinos must be produced sufficiently cold. This is possible in a class of models with a gauge-singlet Higgs boson coupled to the neutrinos. Sterile dark matter can be detected by the x-ray telescopes. The presence of the singlet in the Higgs sector can be tested at the Large Hadron Collider.
Two-dimensional airflow modeling underpredicts the wind velocity over dunes
Michelsen, Britt; Strobl, Severin; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Pöschel, Thorsten
2015-01-01
We investigate the average turbulent wind field over a barchan dune by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. We find that the fractional speed-up ratio of the wind velocity over the three-dimensional barchan shape differs from the one obtained from two-dimensional calculations of the airflow over the longitudinal cut along the dune’s symmetry axis — that is, over the equivalent transverse dune of same size. This finding suggests that the modeling of the airflow over the central slice of barchan dunes is insufficient for the purpose of the quantitative description of barchan dune dynamics as three-dimensional flow effects cannot be neglected. PMID:26572966
Remote Sensing Data in Wind Velocity Field Modelling: a Case Study from the Sudetes (SW Poland)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jancewicz, Kacper
2014-06-01
The phenomena of wind-field deformation above complex (mountainous) terrain is a popular subject of research related to numerical modelling using GIS techniques. This type of modelling requires, as input data, information on terrain roughness and a digital terrain/elevation model. This information may be provided by remote sensing data. Consequently, its accuracy and spatial resolution may affect the results of modelling. This paper represents an attempt to conduct wind-field modelling in the area of the ?nie?nik Massif (Eastern Sudetes). The modelling process was conducted in WindStation 2.0.10 software (using the computable fluid dynamics solver Canyon). Two different elevation models were used: the Global Land Survey Digital Elevation Model (GLS DEM) and Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) Level 2. The terrain roughness raster was generated on the basis of Corine Land Cover 2006 (CLC 2006) data. The output data were post-processed in ArcInfo 9.3.1 software to achieve a high-quality cartographic presentation. Experimental modelling was conducted for situations from 26 November 2011, 25 May 2012, and 26 May 2012, based on a limited number of field measurements and using parameters of the atmosphere boundary layer derived from the aerological surveys provided by the closest meteorological stations. The model was run in a 100-m and 250-m spatial resolution. In order to verify the model's performance, leave-one-out cross-validation was used. The calculated indices allowed for a comparison with results of former studies pertaining to WindStation's performance. The experiment demonstrated very subtle differences between results in using DTED or GLS DEM elevation data. Additionally, CLC 2006 roughness data provided more noticeable improvements in the model's performance, but only in the resolution corresponding to the original roughness data. The best input data configuration resulted in the following mean values of error measure: root mean squared error of velocity = 1.0 m/s and mean absolute error of direction = 30°. The author concludes that, within specific meteorological conditions (relatively strong and constant synoptic forcing) and using the aforementioned input data, the Canyon model provides fairly acceptable results. Similarly, the quality of the presented remote sensing data is suitable for wind velocity modelling in the proposed resolution. However, CLC 2006 land use data should be first verified with a higher-resolution satellite or aerial imagery.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mogensen, Ditte; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Gierens, Rosa; Smolander, Sampo; Kulmala, Markku; Boy, Michael
2015-04-01
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted from the biosphere and can work as precursor gases for aerosol particles that can affect the climate (e.g. Makkonen et al., ACP, 2012). VOC emissions from needles and leaves have gained the most attention, however other parts of the ecosystem also have the ability to emit a vast amount of VOCs. This, often neglected, source can be important e.g. at periods where leaves are absent. Both sources and drivers related to forest floor emission of VOCs are currently limited. It is thought that the sources are mainly due to degradation of organic matter (Isidorov and Jdanova, Chemosphere, 2002), living roots (Asensio et al., Soil Biol. Biochem., 2008) and ground vegetation. The drivers are biotic (e.g. microbes) and abiotic (e.g. temperature and moisture). However, the relative importance of the sources and the drivers individually are currently poorly understood. Further, the relative importance of these factors is highly dependent on the tree species occupying the area of interest. The emission of isoprene and monoterpenes where measured from the boreal forest floor at the SMEAR II station in Southern Finland (Hari and Kulmala, Boreal Env. Res., 2005) during the snow-free period in 2010-2012. We used a dynamic method with 3 automated chambers analyzed by Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometer (Aaltonen et al., Plant Soil, 2013). Using this data, we have developed empirical parameterizations for the emission of isoprene and monoterpenes from the forest floor. These parameterizations depends on abiotic factors, however, since the parameterizations are based on field measurements, biotic features are captured. Further, we have used the 1D chemistry-transport model SOSAA (Boy et al., ACP, 2011) to test the seasonal relative importance of inclusion of these parameterizations of the forest floor compared to the canopy crown emissions, on the atmospheric reactivity throughout the canopy.
Gilligan, Amy; Roecker, Steven W.; Priestley, Keith F.; Nunn, Ceri
2014-07-09
model shows a variation in crustal thickness across the range. We ?nd that crustal velocities extend to ? 75 km beneath the Kokshaal Range, which we attribute to underthrusting of the Tarim Basin beneath the southern Tien Shan. This result supports...
Thorat, Manish R.
2010-07-14
Rotordynamic coefficients of a gas labyrinth seal are assumed to be frequency independent. However, this assumption loses its validity as rotor surface velocity approaches Mach 1. The solution procedure of 1CV model by ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, A.; Kim, K. Y.
2014-12-01
To determine the near-surface shear wave velocities (Vs) and seismic site characteristics in densely populated areas in Gangneung on the eastern coast of Korea, passive and active surface waves were recorded at 117 sites of low altitude using twelve or twenty four 4.5-Hz geophones and a 24-channel engineering seismograph during this year. An 8-kg wooden hammer was used as an active source. The seismic waves were recorded for 8 to 30 s and digitized at 125 to 500 Hz sample rates. Dispersion images of the Rayleigh waves were obtained by the extended spatial autocorrelation (ESPAC) method. At 46 recording sites, the overburden layer was too thick to investigate bedrock with this shallow geophysical method. Shear-wave velocity models were derived from the estimated dispersion curves using the damped least-squares inversion scheme. From these 1-D velocity models, estimated mean values of Vs at the top of bedrock, depth to the bedrock, average Vs of the overburden layer, and average Vs of the top 30-m depth (Vs30) are 672±37 m/s, 17±0.5 m, 253±9 m/s, and 343±15 m/s, respectively, in the 95% confidence range. The estimated values from the inverted profiles were interpolated to yield maps for the entire low altitude area. Most of the investigated areas in Gangneung belong to NEHRP site class D (58%), C (34%), E (4%), and B (4%). In downtown area, both the lower estimates of Vs30 and thick overburden layer make it more prone to significant ground amplifications. The computed correlation coefficients (r) of Vs30 with elevation and topographic gradient, on linear scales, are 0.7 and 0.6, respectively.
A Gaussian process framework for modelling stellar activity signals in radial velocity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajpaul, V.; Aigrain, S.; Osborne, M. A.; Reece, S.; Roberts, S.
2015-09-01
To date, the radial velocity (RV) method has been one of the most productive techniques for detecting and confirming extrasolar planetary candidates. Unfortunately, stellar activity can induce RV variations which can drown out or even mimic planetary signals - and it is notoriously difficult to model and thus mitigate the effects of these activity-induced nuisance signals. This is expected to be a major obstacle to using next-generation spectrographs to detect lower mass planets, planets with longer periods, and planets around more active stars. Enter Gaussian processes (GPs) which, we note, have a number of attractive features that make them very well suited to disentangling stellar activity signals from planetary signals. We present here a GP framework we developed to model RV time series jointly with ancillary activity indicators (e.g. bisector velocity spans, line widths, chromospheric activity indices), allowing the activity component of RV time series to be constrained and disentangled from e.g. planetary components. We discuss the mathematical details of our GP framework, and present results illustrating its encouraging performance on both synthetic and real RV data sets, including the publicly available Alpha Centauri B data set.
AN UNBIASED METHOD OF MODELING THE LOCAL PECULIAR VELOCITY FIELD WITH TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
Weyant, Anja; Wood-Vasey, Michael; Wasserman, Larry; Freeman, Peter E-mail: wmwv@pitt.edu E-mail: pfreeman@cmu.edu
2011-05-10
We apply statistically rigorous methods of nonparametric risk estimation to the problem of inferring the local peculiar velocity field from nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNIa). We use two nonparametric methods-weighted least squares (WLS) and coefficient unbiased (CU)-both of which employ spherical harmonics to model the field and use the estimated risk to determine at which multipole to truncate the series. We show that if the data are not drawn from a uniform distribution or if there is power beyond the maximum multipole in the regression, a bias is introduced on the coefficients using WLS. CU estimates the coefficients without this bias by including the sampling density making the coefficients more accurate but not necessarily modeling the velocity field more accurately. After applying nonparametric risk estimation to SNIa data, we find that there are not enough data at this time to measure power beyond the dipole. The WLS Local Group bulk flow is moving at 538 {+-} 86 km s{sup -1} toward (l, b) = (258 deg. {+-} 10 deg., 36 deg. {+-} 11 deg.) and the CU bulk flow is moving at 446 {+-} 101 km s{sup -1} toward (l, b) = (273 deg. {+-} 11 deg., 46 deg. {+-} 8 deg.). We find that the magnitude and direction of these measurements are in agreement with each other and previous results in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menzel, Andreas M.
2015-11-01
Diffusion of colloidal particles in a complex environment such as polymer networks or biological cells is a topic of high complexity with significant biological and medical relevance. In such situations, the interaction between the surroundings and the particle motion has to be taken into account. We analyze a simplified diffusion model that includes some aspects of a complex environment in the framework of a nonlinear friction process: at low particle speeds, friction grows linearly with the particle velocity as for regular viscous friction; it grows more than linearly at higher particle speeds; finally, at a maximum of the possible particle speed, the friction diverges. In addition to bare diffusion, we study the influence of a constant drift force acting on the diffusing particle. While the corresponding stationary velocity distributions can be derived analytically, the displacement statistics generally must be determined numerically. However, as a benefit of our model, analytical progress can be made in one case of a special maximum particle speed. The effect of a drift force in this case is analytically determined by perturbation theory. It will be interesting in the future to compare our results to real experimental systems. One realization could be magnetic colloidal particles diffusing through a shear-thickening environment such as starch suspensions, possibly exposed to an external magnetic field gradient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murray, Keenan A.; Kramer, Louisa J.; Doskey, Paul V.; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Seok, Brian; Van Dam, Brie; Helmig, Detlev
2015-09-01
Observed depth profiles of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) in snowpack interstitial air at Summit, Greenland were best replicated by a 1-D process-scale model, which included (1) geometrical representation of snow grains as spheres, (2) aqueous-phase chemistry confined to a quasi-liquid layer (QLL) on the surface of snow grains, and (3) initialization of the species concentrations in the QLL through equilibrium partitioning with mixing ratios in snowpack interstitial air. A comprehensive suite of measurements in and above snowpack during a high O3 event facilitated analysis of the relationship between the chemistry of snowpack and the overlying atmosphere. The model successfully reproduced 2 maxima (i.e., a peak near the surface of the snowpack at solar noon and a larger peak occurring in the evening that extended down from 0.5 to 2 m) in the diurnal profile of NO2 within snowpack interstitial air. The maximum production rate of NO2 by photolysis of nitrate (NO3-) was approximately 108 molec cm-3 s-1, which explained daily observations of maxima in NO2 mixing ratios near solar noon. Mixing ratios of NO2 in snowpack interstitial air were greatest in the deepest layers of the snowpack at night and were attributed to thermal decomposition of peroxynitric acid, which produced up to 106 molec NO2 cm-3 s-1. Highest levels of NO in snowpack interstitial air were confined to upper layers of the snowpack and observed profiles were consistent with photolysis of NO2. Production of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from NO3- photolysis was estimated to be two orders of magnitude larger than NO production and supports the hypothesis that NO3- photolysis is the primary source of NOx within sunlit snowpack in the Arctic. Aqueous-phase oxidation of formic acid by O3 resulted in a maximum consumption rate of ?106-107 molec cm-3 s-1 and was the primary removal mechanism for O3.
An extended optimal velocity difference model in a cooperative driving system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Jinliang; Shi, Zhongke; Zhou, Jie
2015-10-01
An extended optimal velocity (OV) difference model is proposed in a cooperative driving system by considering multiple OV differences. The stability condition of the proposed model is obtained by applying the linear stability theory. The results show that the increase in number of cars that precede and their OV differences lead to the more stable traffic flow. The Burgers, Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equations are derived to describe the density waves in the stable, metastable and unstable regions, respectively. To verify these theoretical results, the numerical simulation is carried out. The theoretical and numerical results show that the stabilization of traffic flow is enhanced by considering multiple OV differences. The traffic jams can be suppressed by taking more information of cars ahead.
EFFICIENT FITTING OF MULTIPLANET KEPLERIAN MODELS TO RADIAL VELOCITY AND ASTROMETRY DATA
Wright, J. T.; Howard, A. W.
2009-05-15
We describe a technique for solving for the orbital elements of multiple planets from radial velocity (RV) and/or astrometric data taken with 1 m s{sup -1} and {mu}as precision, appropriate for efforts to detect Earth-massed planets in their stars' habitable zones, such as NASA's proposed Space Interferometry Mission. We include details of calculating analytic derivatives for use in the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm for the problems of fitting RV and astrometric data separately and jointly. We also explicate the general method of separating the linear and nonlinear components of a model fit in the context of an LM fit, show how explicit derivatives can be calculated in such a model, and demonstrate the speed up and convergence improvements of such a scheme in the case of a five-planet fit to published RV data for 55 Cnc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonora, Nicola; Testa, Gabriel; Ruggiero, Andrew; Iannitti, Gianluca; Hörnqvist, Magnus; Mortazavi, Nooshin
2015-06-01
In the Dynamic Tensile Extrusion (DTE) test, the material is subjected to very large strain, high strain rate and elevated temperature. Numerical simulation, validated comparing with measurements obtained on soft-recovered extruded fragments, can be used to probe material response under such extreme conditions and to assess constitutive models. In this work, the results of a parametric investigation on the simulation of DTE test of annealed OFHC copper - at impact velocity ranging from 350 up to 420 m/s - using phenomenological and physically based models (Johnson-Cook, Zerilli-Armstrong and Rusinek-Klepaczko), are presented. Preliminary simulation of microstructure evolution was performed using crystal plasticity package CPFEM, providing, as input, the strain history obtained with FEM at selected locations along the extruded fragments. Results were compared with EBSD investigation.
Cluster/Peace Electrons Velocity Distribution Function: Modeling the Strahl in the Solar Wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Figueroa-Vinas, Adolfo; Gurgiolo, Chris; Goldstein, Melvyn L.
2008-01-01
We present a study of kinetic properties of the strahl electron velocity distribution functions (VDF's) in the solar wind. These are used to investigate the pitch-angle scattering and stability of the population to interactions with electromagnetic (whistler) fluctuations. The study is based on high time resolution data from the Cluster/PEACE electron spectrometer. Our study focuses on the mechanisms that control and regulate the pitch-angle and stability of strahl electrons in the solar wind; mechanisms that are not yet well understood. Various parameters are investigated such as the electron heat-flux and temperature anisotropy. The goal is to check whether the strahl electrons are constrained by some instability (e.g., the whistler instability), or are maintained by other types of processes. The electron heat-flux and temperature anisotropy are determined by fitting the VDF's to a spectral spherical harmonic model from which the moments are derived directly from the model coefficients.
Aftershock Seismicity of the Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake of 27 February 2010 Using a 2D Velocity Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rietbrock, A.; Ryder, I. M.; Haberland, C. A.; Nippress, S.; Agurto, H.; Barrientos, S. E.; Bataille, K.; Beck, S. L.; Bernard, P.; Campos, J. A.; Comte, D.; Heit, B.; Lange, D.; Miller, M. R.; Peyrat, S.; Roecker, S.; Schurr, B.; Tilmann, F. J.; Vilotte, J.
2010-12-01
On 27 February 2010 a magnitude 8.8 earthquake occurred along the subduction zone in central Chile, rupturing a 350 km long section of the dipping fault interface. The southern part ruptured previously in 1835 during the M 8.5 Concepcion earthquake and the northern part ruptured in 1906 during the Mw 8.5 Valparaiso event. Immediately after the earthquake struck, a coordinated multinational effort took place to capture in great detail the aftershock activity. In total 142 seismic stations were deployed by Chilean, French, USA, UK and German institutions, making this one of the best-observed aftershock sequences of a megathrust earthquake until now. We will present earthquake locations based on different optimized automatic arrival time picking algorithms (STA/LTA, Kurtosis, TpD, Akaike) and a newly-developed event association algorithm based on a backward time migration approach. So far we have carried out a preliminary analysis of the IRIS dataset, which covers the first two deployment months (end of March to beginning of June).. In total 34,192 seismic events could be identified which were associated with at least 6 P wave arrivals (51,947 for 5 P wave arrivals). Since most of the seismicity is located offshore, automatic locations based solely on P wave arrival times have very poorly-constrained depth estimates. We therefore used an iterative approach to increase the number of arrival time picks, to obtain S wave arrival times and also to increase the accuracy of the automatic picks. Using the preliminary locations, we calculated expectation time windows for both P and S wave arrivals at all stations based on a 1D velocity model for the region. Inside these time windows the sensitivity of the picking algorithm was raised, increasing significantly the amount and accuracy of P and S wave pciks. Random manual checks were carried out to optimize the parameters. Finally, events were relocated in a 2D velocity model based on a tomographic model developed for the southern end of the rupture in a previous study. Seismicity is distributed both along the subduction interface and in the overriding South American crust. Seismicity rates are considerably higher in the northern rupture area as compared with the southern one. Crustal seismicity is most intense in the region of Pichilemu, where the largest aftershock (Mw 6.9) took place. Most of the seismicity associated with the plate interface is located in a depth range between 15 km and 35 km. Deeper seismicity can be seen between 40 km and 50 km but seems to be separated from the upper region. Along the active volcanic chain distinct clusters of seismicity can be associated with Planchan volcano and along a line comprising Nevado, Blancas and Resago volcanoes. Sparse seismicity is also located close to Antuco volcano. The relocated seismicity distribution will also be compared to currently developed co-seismic slip models.
Sawa Manoff
2003-09-09
The notions of centrifugal (centripetal) and Coriolis velocities and accelerations are introduced and considered in spaces with affine connections and metrics used as models of space or of space-time. It is shown that these types of velocities and accelerations are generated by the relative motions between mass elements in a continuous media or of particles. The velocities and accelerations are closely related to the kinematic characteristics of the relative velocity and of the relative acceleration. The relation between the centrifugal (centripetal) velocity and the Hubble law is found. The centrifugal (centripetal) acceleration could be interpreted as gravitational acceleration as it has been done in the Einstein theory of gravitation. This fact could be used as a basis for working out of new gravitational theories in spaces with affine connections and metrics.
Manoff, S
2003-01-01
The notions of centrifugal (centripetal) and Coriolis velocities and accelerations are introduced and considered in spaces with affine connections and metrics used as models of space or of space-time. It is shown that these types of velocities and accelerations are generated by the relative motions between mass elements in a continuous media or of particles. The velocities and accelerations are closely related to the kinematic characteristics of the relative velocity and of the relative acceleration. The relation between the centrifugal (centripetal) velocity and the Hubble law is found. The centrifugal (centripetal) acceleration could be interpreted as gravitational acceleration as it has been done in the Einstein theory of gravitation. This fact could be used as a basis for working out of new gravitational theories in spaces with affine connections and metrics.
Stellar velocity dispersions to z=2 and tests of stellar population models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franx, Marijn
2015-08-01
We have measured stellar velocity dispersions of non-starforming galaxies to a redshift of 2, and we augment our sample with values from literature. We find that the galaxies lie on a well-defined mass Fundamental Plane. We establish a simple relation between restframe colors and mass-to-light ratio, and we show that the M/L can be estimated to 0.25 dex from a single restframe color. In addition, we compare the relation between color with predictions from stellar population models. The galaxies span a wide range in restframe colors, and produce a stringest test of the models. Whereas this test is a classic test of the shape of the IMF, we find thatpopulation models from different authors show substantial differences, comparable to the variations between the predictions due to a different IMF. No single model reproduces the mass-to-light variations in the visual and near-infrared satisfactorily, and a broken IMF models produces the best results. Either the stellar populations are complex, or the models need modification.
Modeling of Sediment Bed Behavior for Critical Velocity in Horizontal Piping
Rector, David R.; Stewart, Mark L.; Poloski, Adam P.
2009-10-01
This paper compares results from a predictive tool for modeling transport of a multiphase mixture (solids in a liquid) in a pipeline, (up to and including plugging) with experiments performed to support the Hanford site’s Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The treatment of high-level waste at the DOE Office of River Protection’s WTP will involve the transfer of high solid content suspensions through pipelines. Pipeline plugging was identified as a significant potential issue by a panel of external experts. In response to their concerns an experimental effort was initiated at PNNL to determine the critical velocities for a variety of operating conditions. A computational method has been developed to predict the dynamic behavior of a sediment bed in response to the surrounding suspension flow. The flow field is modeled using a lattice kinetics method, similar to the lattice Boltzmann method, which scales very well on highly parallel computers. Turbulent quantities are calculated using a k-epsilon RANS model. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a process simulation capability for a wide range of applications. Solids are represented using two different continuum fields. The suspended solids are treated as passive scalars in the flow field, including terms for hindered settling and Brownian diffusion. Normal stresses created by the irreversible collisions of particles during shearing are added to the pressure tensor. The sediment bed interface is represented using a continuum phase field with a diffuse interface. The bed may change with time due to settling, erosion and deposition through convection. The erosion rates are calculated using the local shear stress obtained from the turbulence model. The method is compared with data from the PNNL pipeline experiments conducted at PNNL (Poloski et al. 2008). The experimental flow loop consists of 3-inch schedule 40 piping with instrumentation for determining flow rate and pressure gradient. The simulant test particles ranged in density from 2.5 to 8 g/cc while the nominal particle size ranged from 10 to 100 ?m. At the beginning of each test, the slurry flow velocity was nominally set to 8 ft/sec. The flow was incrementally ramped down, and a steady-state pressure gradient was obtained at each flow condition. A rise in pressure gradient as the flow rate drops indicates that the pipe cross-sectional area is beginning to fill with sediment. This point is referred to as the “critical velocity”. Visualization information is provided using Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT). The paper will show favorable comparison of results with data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henke, D.; Schubert, A.; Small, D.; Meier, E.; Lüthi, M. P.; Vieli, A.
2014-12-01
A new method for glacier surface velocity (GSV) estimates is proposed here which combines ground- and space-based measurements with hidden state space modeling (HSSM). Examples of such a fusion of physical models with remote sensing (RS) observations were described in (Henke & Meier, Hidden State Space Models for Improved Remote Sensing Applications, ITISE 2014, p. 1242-1255) and are currently adapted for GSV estimation. GSV can be estimated using in situ measurements, RS methods or numerical simulations based on ice-flow models. In situ measurements ensure high accuracy but limited coverage and time consuming field work, while RS methods offer regular observations with high spatial coverage generally not possible with in situ methods. In particular, spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can obtain useful images independent of daytime and cloud cover. A ground portable radar interferometer (GPRI) is useful for investigating a particular area in more detail than is possible from space, but provides local coverage only. Several processing methods for deriving GSV from radar sensors have been established, including interferometry and offset tracking (Schubert et al, Glacier surface velocity estimation using repeat TerraSAR-X images. ISPRS Journal of P&RS, p. 49-62, 2013). On the other hand, it is also possible to derive glacier parameters from numerical ice-flow modeling alone. Given a well-parameterized model, GSV can in theory be derived and propagated continuously in time. However, uncertainties in the glacier flow dynamics and model errors increase with excessive propagation. All of these methods have been studied independently, but attempts to combine them have only rarely been made. The HSSM we propose recursively estimates the GSV based on 1) a process model making use of temporal and spatial interdependencies between adjacent states, and 2) observations (RS and optional in situ). The in situ and GPRI images currently being processed were acquired in the Swiss Alps (Jungfrau-Aletsch) and Greenland (Eqip Sermia). TerraSAR-X satellite images were acquired and processed over the Aletsch Glacier during the same period. For the Eqip Sermia glacier, data from the new Sentinel-1 satellite will be available soon, providing a high revisit time near the pole, increasing the expected accuracy of GSV estimates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grad, M.; Gryn', D.; Guterch, A.; Janik, T.; Keller, R.; Lang, R.; Lyngsie, S. B.; Omelchenko, V.; Starostenko, V. I.; Stephenson, R. A.; Stovba, S. M.; Thybo, H.; Tolkunov, A.; Dobrefraction'99 Working Group
2003-08-01
The Donbas Foldbelt (DF) is the uplifted and deformed part of the up to 20-km-thick Dniepr-Donets Basin (DDB) that formed as the result of rifting of the East European Craton (EEC) in the Late Devonian. Uplift, especially of the southern margin of the basin, occurred in Early Permian times, in a (trans)tensional tectonic stress regime while folding and reverse faulting mainly occurred later—mainly during the Late Cretaceous. A seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection survey was carried out in 1999 (DOBREfraction'99) to complement existing Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) data from the area that did not record significant Pn phase arrivals because of insufficient maximum offset. DOBREfraction'99 comprised some 245 recording stations along a line of 360 km length with 11 in-line shot points as well as a 100 km away, parallel 190 km long subsidiary fan profile. The main profile runs between the shores of the Azov Sea in the south to the Ukraine-Russia border in the north, across the Azov Massif (Ukrainian Shield), the Foldbelt, and the Voronezh Massif. Particular scientific targets include the nature of the crust-mantle transition and the geometry of crustal-upper mantle structures related to rifting and subsequent basin inversion. Tomographic inversion as well as ray-trace based velocity modelling has been carried out. The velocity signature of the sedimentary basin itself is well resolved, indicating an asymmetric form, with a steeper basement surface in the south than in the north, and a total thickness of about 20 km. A thick (>10 km) high velocity (>6.9 km/s) lower crustal body lies beneath the rift basin itself, offset slightly to the north compared to the main basin depocentre, likely related to the rifting processes. Velocities in the crust below the Ukrainian Shield, south of the Foldbelt, are in general higher than beneath the Voronezh Massif to the north. The Moho displays only slight topography around a depth of 40 km along the profile.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omelchenko, V.; Starostenko, V. I.; Stephenson, R. A.; Guterch, A.; Janik, T.; Grad, M.; Stovba, S. M.; Tolkunov, A.; Thybo, H.; Lang, R.; Lyngsie, S. B.; Keller, G. R.
2001-12-01
The East European Craton (EEC) contains a classic example of the tectonic inversion of a continental rift zone. The Donbas Foldbelt (DF) is the uplifted and deformed part of the up to 20-km thick Dniepr-Donets Basin that formed as the result of rifting of the EEC in the Late Devonian. The DF, especially its southern margin, was uplifted in Early Permian times, in a (trans)tensional tectonic stress regime while folding and reverse faulting mainly occurred later primarily during the Late Cretaceous. A seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection survey was carried out in 1999 to complement existing Deep Seismic Sounding data from the area that, because maximum offsets were generally not greater than about 150 km, did not record significant Pn phase arrivals. The 1999 main survey comprised some 245 recording stations along a line of 360 km length, with 11 in-line shotpoints, extending from the shores of the Azov Sea in the south, across the Azov Massif of the Ukrainian Shield and the DF, ending at the Ukraine-Russia border in the Voronezh Massif of the EEC. Particular scientific targets included the nature of the crust-mantle transition and the geometry of crustal/upper mantle structures related to rifting and subsequent basin inversion. Tomographic inversion as well as ray-trace based velocity modeling has been carried out. The velocity signature of the sedimentary basin itself is well resolved, indicating an asymmetric form (basement surface dipping more gently towards the center of the basin from the north than from the south) and a total thickness of about 20-km, comparable to estimates derived from previous seismic studies and geological interpretations. A thick ( more 10-km), high velocity (more than 6.9 km/s) lower crustal body lies beneath the rift basin itself (DF) but is offset slightly to the north compared to the main basin depocenter. This layer is most likely related to the earlier rifting processes and may represent magmatic underplating. Velocities in the crust below the Azov Massif, south of the DF, are in general higher than beneath the Voronezh Massif to the north. The Moho displays some topography but lies at about a depth of about all 40 km along the profile.
Shallow low-velocity zone of the San Jacinto fault from local earthquake waveform modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Hongfeng; Zhu, Lupei
2010-10-01
We developed a method to determine the depth extent of low-velocity zone (LVZ) associated with a fault zone (FZ) using S-wave precursors from local earthquakes. The precursors are diffracted S waves around the edges of LVZ and their relative amplitudes to the direct S waves are sensitive to the LVZ depth. We applied the method to data recorded by three temporary arrays across three branches of the San Jacinto FZ. The FZ dip was constrained by differential traveltimes of P waves between stations at two side of the FZ. Other FZ parameters (width and velocity contrast) were determined by modelling waveforms of direct and FZ-reflected P and S waves. We found that the LVZ of the Buck Ridge fault branch has a width of ~150 m with a 30-40 per cent reduction in Vp and a 50-60 per cent reduction in Vs. The fault dips 70 +/- 5° to southwest and its LVZ extends only to 2 +/- 1 km in depth. The LVZ of the Clark Valley fault branch has a width of ~200 m with 40 per cent reduction in Vp and 50 per cent reduction in Vs. The Coyote Creek branch is nearly vertical and has a LVZ of ~150 m in width and of 25 per cent reduction in Vp and 50 per cent reduction in Vs. The LVZs of these three branches are not centred at the surface fault trace but are located to their northeast, indicating asymmetric damage during earthquakes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavlov, V. P.
2014-03-01
Faddeev and Vershik proposed the Hamiltonian and Lagrangian formulations of constrained mechanical systems that are invariant from the differential geometry standpoint. In both formulations, the description is based on a nondegenerate symplectic 2-form defined on a cotangent bundle T*Q (in the Hamiltonian formulation) or on a tangent bundle TQ (in the Lagrangian formulation), and constraints are sets of functions in involution on these manifolds. We demonstrate that this technique does not allow "invariantization" of the Dirac procedure of constraint "proliferation." We show this in an example of a typical quantum field model in which the original Lagrange function is a quadratic form in velocities with a degenerate coefficient matrix. We postulate that the initial phase space is a manifold where all arguments of the action functional including the Lagrange multipliers are defined. The Lagrange multipliers can then be naturally interpreted physically as velocities (in the Hamiltonian formulation) or momenta (in the Lagrangian formulation) related to "nonphysical" degrees of freedom. A quasisymplectic 2-form invariantly defined on such a manifold is degenerate. We propose new differential-geometric structures that allow formulating the Dirac procedure invariantly.
Rantamäki, Tomi; Kemppainen, Susanna; Autio, Henri; Stavén, Saara; Koivisto, Hennariikka; Kojima, Masami; Antila, Hanna; Miettinen, Pasi O; Kärkkäinen, Elisa; Karpova, Nina; Vesa, Liisa; Lindemann, Lothar; Hoener, Marius C; Tanila, Heikki; Castrén, Eero
2013-01-01
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) importantly regulates learning and memory and supports the survival of injured neurons. Reduced BDNF levels have been detected in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients but the exact role of BDNF in the pathophysiology of the disorder remains obscure. We have recently shown that reduced signaling of BDNF receptor TrkB aggravates memory impairment in APPswe/PS1dE9 (APdE9) mice, a model of AD. The present study examined the influence of Bdnf gene deficiency (heterozygous knockout) on spatial learning, spontaneous exploratory activity and motor coordination/balance in middle-aged male and female APdE9 mice. We also studied brain BDNF protein levels in APdE9 mice in different ages showing progressive amyloid pathology. Both APdE9 and Bdnf mutations impaired spatial learning in males and showed a similar trend in females. Importantly, the effect was additive, so that double mutant mice performed the worst. However, APdE9 and Bdnf mutations influenced spontaneous locomotion in contrasting ways, such that locomotor hyperactivity observed in APdE9 mice was normalized by Bdnf deficiency. Obesity associated with Bdnf deficiency did not account for the reduced hyperactivity in double mutant mice. Bdnf deficiency did not alter amyloid plaque formation in APdE9 mice. Before plaque formation (3 months), BDNF protein levels where either reduced (female) or unaltered (male) in the APdE9 mouse cortex. Unexpectedly, this was followed by an age-dependent increase in mature BDNF protein. Bdnf mRNA and phospho-TrkB levels remained unaltered in the cortical tissue samples of middle-aged APdE9 mice. Immunohistological studies revealed increased BDNF immunoreactivity around amyloid plaques indicating that the plaques may sequester BDNF protein and prevent it from activating TrkB. If similar BDNF accumulation happens in human AD brains, it would suggest that functional BDNF levels in the AD brains are even lower than reported, which could partially contribute to learning and memory problems of AD patients. PMID:23844236
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaite, B.; Villaseñor, A.; Iglesias, A.; Herraiz, M.; Jiménez-Munt, I.
2015-02-01
We use group velocities from earthquake tomography together with group and phase velocities from ambient noise tomography (ANT) of Rayleigh waves to invert for the 3-D shear-wave velocity structure (5-70 km) of the Caribbean (CAR) and southern North American (NAM) plates. The lithospheric model proposed offers a complete image of the crust and uppermost-mantle with imprints of the tectonic evolution. One of the most striking features inferred is the main role of the Ouachita-Marathon-Sonora orogeny front on the crustal seismic structure of the NAM plate. A new imaged feature is the low crustal velocities along the USA-Mexico border. The model also shows a break of the east-west mantle velocity dichotomy of the NAM and CAR plates beneath the Isthmus of the Tehuantepec and the Yucatan Block. High upper-mantle velocities along the Mesoamerican Subduction Zone coincide with inactive volcanic areas while the lowest velocities correspond to active volcanic arcs and thin lithospheric mantle regions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dash, R.
1979-01-01
A theoretical model is presented of the effects of forward velocity of an aircraft at arbitrary subsonic speed on sound radiated from convecting monopole and dipole sources embedded in the jet flow. It is found that with increasing forward velocity there is a steadily increasing amplification (over the static case) of the sound radiated into the forward arc and a large reduction of the sound which is radiated into the rearward arc. The same trend is also shown to result when there is a reduction in the exhaust velocity, with, however, a further rise in amplification in the forward quadrant and a drop in attenuation in the aft quadrant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fosdick, J. C.; Hilley, G. E.; Graham, S. A.
2011-12-01
This study investigates the effects of inelastic bending of attenuated lithosphere on foreland flexure and basin geometry in the Upper Cretaceous Magallanes Basin of southern South America. The lack of correlation between topographic load from the present-day Patagonian Andes and the distribution of total sediment thickness in the adjacent Magallanes Basin suggests that that foreland lithosphere has accumulated irrecoverable strain and thus, inelastic flexure should be considered. We present a 1-D numerical analysis using an elastic-plastic model for plate bending and explore the effects of yield stress, spatially-variable flexural rigidity, and size of the tapered topographic load. The Upper Cretaceous Magallanes retroforeland basin formed during Andean orogenesis after closure of a Late Jurassic quasi-oceanic backarc basin. The unusually thick (>5 km) succession of Cenomanian-Maastrichtian sedimentary rocks were deposited in a deep-marine axial foredeep. Sediment thickness profiles across the Cenomanian-Turonian basin fill define a curve with high amplitude and long-wavelength deflection and a substantially suppressed forebulge. Secondly, observed thicknesses across the basin show a distinct inflection point, located ~200 km east of the palinspastically-restored thrust front, that separates a deep (>2.5 km thick) depocenter that thins abruptly toward the craton. Linear elastic models using a range of flexural rigidities (3.6 x 1022 to 2.8 x 1023 N-m) corresponding to elastic thicknesses of 20-40 km for both line loads and distributed loads do not fit observed sediment thicknesses. We explore the effects of obducted high-density oceanic blocks in the thrust belt, spatial variations in elastic thickness of attenuated lithosphere, and permanent strain on foreland flexure. In elastic-plastic models, the plate deforms elastically when the fiber stress is less than the maximum yield stress. When the bending stress in the plate reaches the yield stress, the outer portions of the plate behaves plastically. We compare the observed sedimentary thickness with derived deflection curves. Preliminary results show that spatial variations in elastic thickness (Te) strongly affect the geometry of flexural profiles. Increasing Te toward the foreland transmits deflection farther toward the craton. A higher contrast in Te between the foredeep and craton region amplifies this effect. Plasticity also affects the overall geometry of the deflection profile. As the yield stress decreases, maximum deflection increases, the forebulge increases in height, and the backbulge basin shallows considerably. Lastly, we find that the position of the transition point between mechanical properties exerts a control on the location and height of the forebulge but does not affect the amplitude of the maximum foredeep deflection. The inclusion of inelastic strain significantly changes the basin geometry and mechanical strength of the lithosphere. Our preliminary work has important implications for predicting the distribution and character of sedimentary infill and rates of basin depocenter migration in foreland basins that evolve on narrow plates and attenuated lithosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Rongzong; Wu, Huiying
2015-03-01
A lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for the convection-diffusion equation (CDE) with divergence-free velocity field is proposed, and the Chapman-Enskog analysis shows that the CDE can be recovered correctly. In the present model, the convection term is treated as a source term in the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) rather than being directly recovered by LBE; thus the CDE is intrinsically solved as a pure diffusion equation with a corresponding source term. To avoid the adoption of a nonlocal finite-difference scheme for computing the convection term, a local scheme is developed based on the Chapman-Enskog analysis. Most importantly, by properly specifying the discrete source term in the moment space, the local scheme can reach the same order (?2) at which the CDE is recovered by a LB model. Numerical tests, including a one-dimensional periodic problem, diffusion of a Gaussian hill, diffusion of a rectangular pulse, and natural convection in a square cavity, are carried out to verify the present model. Numerical results are satisfactorily consistent with analytical solutions or previous numerical results, and show higher accuracy due to the correct recovery of CDE.
Markov random field modeling for mapping geofluid distributions from seismic velocity structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuwatani, Tatsu; Nagata, Kenji; Okada, Masato; Toriumi, Mitsuhiro
2014-12-01
We applied the Markov random field model, which is a kind of a Bayesian probabilistic method, to the spatial inversion of the porosity and pore shape in rocks from an observed seismic structure. Gaussian Markov chains were used to incorporate the spatial continuity of the porosity and the aspect ratio of the pore shape. Synthetic inversion tests were able to show the effectiveness and validity of the proposed model by appropriately reducing the statistical noise from the observations. The proposed model was also applied to natural data sets of the seismic velocity structures in the mantle wedge beneath northeastern Japan, under the assumptions that the fluid was melted and the temperature and petrologic structures were uniformly distributed. The result shows a significant difference between the volcanic front and the forearc regions, at a depth of 40 km. Although the parameters and material properties will need to be determined more precisely, the Markov random field model presented here can serve as a basic inversion framework for mapping geofluids.
A geodynamic and mineral physics model of a solid-state ultralow-velocity zone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bower, Dan J.; Wicks, June K.; Gurnis, Michael; Jackson, Jennifer M.
2011-03-01
Recent results (Wicks et al., 2010) suggest that a mixture of iron-enriched (Mg,Fe)O and ambient mantle is consistent with wavespeed reductions and density increases inferred for ultralow-velocity zones (ULVZs). We explore this hypothesis by simulating convection to deduce the stability and morphology of such chemically-distinct structures. The buoyancy number, or chemical density anomaly, largely dictates ULVZ shape, and the prescribed initial thickness (proxy for volume) of the chemically-distinct layer controls its size. We synthesize our dynamic results with a Voigt-Reuss-Hill mixing model to provide insight into the inherent seismic tradeoff between ULVZ thickness and wavespeed reduction. Seismic data are compatible with a solid-state origin for ULVZs, and a suite of these structures may scatter seismic energy to produce broadband PKP precursors.
Balreira, Andrea; Lacerda, Lúcia; Miranda, Clara Sá; Arosa, Fernando A
2005-06-01
Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive inherited defect of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GluCerase) that leads to glucosylceramide (GluCer) accumulation. We previously demonstrated the existence of imbalances in certain lymphocyte populations in GD patients. We now show that GluCerase-deficient monocytes from GD patients or monocytes from healthy subjects treated with conduritol-B-epoxide (CBE), an irreversible inhibitor of GluCerase activity, display high levels of surface expression of the lipid-binding molecule CD1d. GluCerase-deficient monocytes from GD patients also showed increased surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-class II, but not of other lysosomal trafficking molecules, such as CD63 and MHC-class I. However, CD1d and MHC-class II mRNA levels were not increased. GluCerase-deficient monocytes from GD patients undergoing enzyme replacement therapy also exhibited increased levels of CD1d and MHC-class II and imbalances in the percentage of CD4+, CD8+, and Valpha24+ T cells. Interestingly, follow-up studies revealed that enzyme replacement therapy induced a decrease in MHC-class II expression and partial correction of the CD4+ T cell imbalances. These results reveal a new link between sphingolipid accumulation in monocytes and the expression of certain MHC molecules that may result in imbalances of regulatory T cell subsets. These immunological anomalies may contribute to the clinical heterogeneity in GD patients. PMID:15916690
Ren, Hao; Zhou, Rui-Ling; Zhou, Chong-Tan
2012-08-25
The aim of the present study was to establish a minimally invasive H reflex model in mice for the benefit of the research of clinical spinal cord injury and related diseases. Minimally invasive surgery was performed in hind limb of Kunming mouse under light anesthesia. The skin was incised at the point of one-third of the distance from greater trochanter to the base of the cauda. A pair of fine copper conductors were inserted into the shallow muscle using a syringe needle. After the needles were withdrawed, the retained conductors were ligated and fixed with the tissues surrounding the sciatic nerve as the first pair of stimulating electrodes. Another pair of conductors were inserted and fixed in medial malleolus close to the tibial nerve as the second stimulating electrodes. Copper conductor was inserted passing the skin above the proximal end of the metatarsal and fixed as the recording electrode. The reference electrode was placed at the walking pad in the base of the big toe using the same method. Electromyography (EMG) was used to record M and H waves in planta pedis muscles. The stimulus was a square wave with a width of 0.2 ms and frequency of 0.3 Hz. The latency time of the M and H waves which were induced from the two pairs of stimulating electrodes was recorded. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) was then calculated from the distance between the cathodes of the stimulating electrodes and the latency time difference of M or H waves. The result showed the achievement ratios of H reflex induction were 92.73% and 81.82% in sciatic and tibial nerves, respectively. The latency time of H wave was about 7~10 ms. Motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) obtained was (25.84 ± 4.70) m/s (n = 35), while sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) was (31.45 ± 7.30) m/s (n = 35). The method established in the present paper is simple to practice, does slight harm to the animal, and can produce waveforms with little interference. With these advantages, the method can be applied for the study of the latency of H reflex, and it is suitable for the researches which demands good physical condition of experimental animal during H reflex study. This model can also be applied to the detection of SNCV and MNCV. PMID:22907309
Improved Pulse Wave Velocity Estimation Using an Arterial Tube-Load Model
Gao, Mingwu; Zhang, Guanqun; Olivier, N. Bari; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna
2015-01-01
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the most important index of arterial stiffness. It is conventionally estimated by non-invasively measuring central and peripheral blood pressure (BP) and/or velocity (BV) waveforms and then detecting the foot-to-foot time delay between the waveforms wherein wave reflection is presumed absent. We developed techniques for improved estimation of PWV from the same waveforms. The techniques effectively estimate PWV from the entire waveforms, rather than just their feet, by mathematically eliminating the reflected wave via an arterial tube-load model. In this way, the techniques may be more robust to artifact while revealing the true PWV in absence of wave reflection. We applied the techniques to estimate aortic PWV from simultaneously and sequentially measured central and peripheral BP waveforms and simultaneously measured central BV and peripheral BP waveforms from 17 anesthetized animals during diverse interventions that perturbed BP widely. Since BP is the major acute determinant of aortic PWV, especially under anesthesia wherein vasomotor tone changes are minimal, we evaluated the techniques in terms of the ability of their PWV estimates to track the acute BP changes in each subject. Overall, the PWV estimates of the techniques tracked the BP changes better than those of the conventional technique (e.g., diastolic BP root-mean-squared-errors of 3.4 vs. 5.2 mmHg for the simultaneous BP waveforms and 7.0 vs. 12.2 mmHg for the BV and BP waveforms (p < 0.02)). With further testing, the arterial tube-load model-based PWV estimation techniques may afford more accurate arterial stiffness monitoring in hypertensive and other patients. PMID:24263016
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michelioudakis, Dimitrios; Hobbs, Richard; Caiado, Camila
2015-04-01
Determining the depths of key horizons from seismic reflection data is one of the most important aspects of exploration geophysics. Here, we present Bayesian methods based on an elicitation tool and Gaussian processes to build a detailed and robust velocity model of the Mentelle Basin, located south west of Australia, with the ultimate goal to identify possible drilling targets for the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). The Mentelle Basin is a deep water sedimentary basin located between the Naturaliste Plateau and the southern part of the Western Australian Shelf. It is among the few regions of the world where we can investigate the effects of the Cretaceous hot-house and its collapse at high latitude. The Mentelle Basin hosts a continuous shale sequence for this period that it is over a kilometer thick, the study of which, is crucial for the correlation between the paleoclimate conditions and the tectonic history of the region. By reprocessing 2D multichannel seismic reflection profiles around the proposed drill - sites, we create a detailed subsurface velocity model which is used as a priori input to the Bayesian approach. The final goal is to build a multi-layered model to estimate the depth and the root mean square velocity of each layer, both for the isotropic and anisotropic cases in terms of a multivariate posterior distribution. Having determined the RMS velocities for each layer, we can calculate, by inference, their interval velocities and finally estimate the depth of each sequence of interest with improved accuracy. The key advantage of the Bayesian approach and the major difference compared to the traditional semblance spectrum velocity analysis procedure is the calculation of uncertainty of the output model. As a result, our statistical approach can construct a robust velocity model which encompasses the noise and the band-limited nature of the data as an error function. We use this model to control the depth migration of the seismic data and estimate the depths and its uncertainty to the drilling targets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouillot, Vincent R.; Alimi, Jean-Michel; Corasaniti, Pier-Stefano; Rasera, Yann
2015-06-01
Observations of colliding galaxy clusters with high relative velocity probe the tail of the halo pairwise velocity distribution with the potential of providing a powerful test of cosmology. As an example it has been argued that the discovery of the Bullet Cluster challenges standard ? cold dark matter (?CDM) model predictions. Halo catalogues from N-body simulations have been used to estimate the probability of Bullet-like clusters. However, due to simulation volume effects previous studies had to rely on a Gaussian extrapolation of the pairwise velocity distribution to high velocities. Here, we perform a detail analysis using the halo catalogues from the Dark Energy Universe Simulation Full Universe Runs (DEUS-FUR), which enables us to resolve the high-velocity tail of the distribution and study its dependence on the halo mass definition, redshift and cosmology. Building upon these results, we estimate the probability of Bullet-like systems in the framework of Extreme Value Statistics. We show that the tail of extreme pairwise velocities significantly deviates from that of a Gaussian, moreover it carries an imprint of the underlying cosmology. We find the Bullet Cluster probability to be two orders of magnitude larger than previous estimates, thus easing the tension with the ?CDM model. Finally, the comparison of the inferred probabilities for the different DEUS-FUR cosmologies suggests that observations of extreme interacting clusters can provide constraints on dark energy models complementary to standard cosmological tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roche, Olivier
2015-05-01
Deposits of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) often contain accidental lithic clasts of typical size of 0.1-1 m captured from an underlying substrate by the parent flows at distances up to several tens of kilometers from the eruptive vent. In order to gain insights into the nature of PDCs, this study investigates the conditions required for entrainment of particles from a granular substrate by a gas-particle density current, with special emphasis to ignimbrite-forming currents whose dynamics are controversial. The two types of physics of emplacement of PDCs proposed in literature are considered. The first model deals with a hydraulically rough, dilute turbulent PDC of bulk density of ?1-10 kg/m3 and considers that entrainment through both traction and saltation is controlled by a Shield criterion at high (>104) particle Reynolds number. The second model considers entrainment by a PDC consisting of a dense basal flow of bulk density of the order of 103 kg /m3 and with high interstitial gas pore pressure. This model involves uplift of substrate particles, caused by an upward pressure gradient at the flow-substrate interface, and then transport and deposition on the aggrading basal deposit of the flow as demonstrated by recent laboratory experiments. Results show that a dilute PDC can entrain blocks of maximum size of ?10-15 cm (for a block density of 2000-3000 kg/m3) if maximum current velocities up to ?100 m/s are taken into account. This, in turn, suggests that larger (heavier) blocks found in deposits were captured by PDCs if these had a dense basal flow. The dense flow model predicts that PDCs have the potential to entrain metric blocks, whose maximum size (up to ?2-5 m) decreases with decreasing atmospheric pressure (i.e. increasing altitude). Application of the model considering published data on the characteristics of accidental blocks in several well-studied ignimbrites indicates that the velocity of the parent dense PDCs was up to ?25-30 m/s.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stephenson, R. A.; Dobrefraction'00 Working Group,.
2002-12-01
The Pripyat-Dniepr-Donets basin (PDD) is a Late Devonian rift basin located on the southwestern part of the East-European Craton (EEC). This rift basin strikes in a southeasterly direction and extends from Belarus through Ukraine, where it connects with the Donbas foldbelt and its continuation as the deformed southern margin of the craton (Karpinsky Swell) in southern Russia. The Pripyat and Dniepr-Donets basins are important hydrocarbon provinces. The Donbas foldbelt (DF) is the uplifted and deformed part of the 20-km thick Dniepr-Donets basin. In 1999, an international cooperative deep seismic sounding (DSS) experiment (DOBREfraction'99) was undertaken. This effort involved 11 in-line shotpoints and deployment of some 245 recording stations along a northeast-trending, 360 km long profile extending from the shores of the Azov Sea in the south, across the Azov Massif (Ukrainian Shield), the DF, ending at the Ukraine-Russia border in the Voronezh Massif of the EEC. Particular scientific targets included the nature of the crust-mantle transition and the geometry of crustal/upper mantle structures related to rifting and subsequent basin inversion. Tomographic inversion, as well as, ray-trace based velocity modelling has been carried out. The velocity signature of the sedimentary basin itself is well resolved, indicating an asymmetric form (basement surface dipping more gently towards the center of the basin from the north than from the south) and a total thickness of about 20-km, comparable to estimates derived from previous seismic studies and geological interpretations. A thick (>10-km), high-velocity (>6.9 km/s), lower crustal body lies beneath the rift basin itself. This layer forms a domal structure that is offset slightly to the north compared to the main basin depocenter. A thinner (~5-km) high velocity layer is inferred beneath the southern margin of the Donbas foldbelt and Azov Massif. The former could be related to Permian uplift with the latter being due to the earlier rifting processes. Velocities in the crust below the Azov Massif, south of the DF, are in general higher than beneath the Voronezh Massif to the north. The Moho displays some topography but lies at a depth of about 40-km along the profile. *The DOBREfraction'99 Working Group, alphabetically: M. Grad, Institute of Geophysics, University of Warsaw, Poland; D. Gryn, Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine; A. Guterch, Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; T. Janik, Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland, G. R. Keller, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, USA; R. Lang, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, USA; S.B. Lyngsie, Geological Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen K, Denmark; V. Omelchenko(2), V.I. Starostenko, Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine; R.A. Stephenson, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands; S.M. Stovba, Ukrgeofisika, Technology Centre, Kyiv, Ukraine; H. Thybo, Geological Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen K, Denmark; A. Tolkunov, Ukrgeofisika, Technology Centre, Kyiv, Ukraine.
Kinematic modeling of Neotectonic velocity field of the Persia-Tibet-Burma Orogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Z.; Bird, P.
2003-12-01
New kinematic finite-element program NeoKinema has been applied to compute the long-term-average velocity field and fault slip rates in the Persia-Tibet-Burma orogen using the Maximum-likelihood criterion. The orogen extends from east Turkey on the west, to Burma and Laos on the south, to east and southeast China on the east, and to Mongolia on the north. We use three data sets in our modeling: 1497 GPS benchmark solutions compiled from published sources, 366 geologic slip rates with standard deviations, 876 most compressive horizontal principal stress directions from the World Stress Map 2003 [Mueller et al., 2003]. Faults and potentially active faults are included. But faults of less constrained slip rates, e.g., faults in Iran, are assigned with large uncertainty. An iterative procedure is used to correct for transient fault locking effects on geodetic data. We use an updated plate model PB2002 to approximate the velocity boundary conditions from surrounding rigid plates (Anatolia, Arabia, India, Burma, Sunda, Yangtze, Amur) and the rigid part of the Eurasia plate in a Eurasia-fixed reference frame [Bird, 2003]. We also test various Sunda-Eurasia Euler poles and their effects on our modeling results. The F-E grid has 1564 nodes and 1964 triangular elements. So far 26 models have been computed with various background strain rates and weighting of GPS data. Initial results show a good correspondence between predicted strain rate and Harvard CMT earthquake catalogue with m>5.5. The preferred fault slip rates in central and southeast Asia are generally less than the geologic estimates but within +/-2? error bounds. The strain rate field and optimal fault slip rate estimates suggest that crustal deformation in the Persia-Tibet-Burma orogen is a mixture of distributed and quasi-rigid block deformation. A few such blocks are central Iran and southern Caspian basin, Tarim basin and Gobi platform, Qaidam basin, Ordos block and north of Tienshan in central Asia.
Measuring and modelling the frictional velocity u*, turbulence and heat fluxes above the North Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tambke, Jens; Bye, John A. T.; Schmidt, Michael; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf
2014-05-01
In this study, we analyse the frictional velocity u*, drag coefficient, vertical wind speed and turbulence profiles observed at different met-masts in the German North and Baltic Sea. We present an analysis of different models for the frictional velocity u* in convective, neutral and stable thermal stratification of the atmosphere. Atmospheric turbulent momentum and heat flux measurements performed with ultra-sonic anemometers are compared to profile-derived values and a bulk Richardson number formulation of the atmospheric thermal stability. Modelling: An improved approach to model the vertical wind speed profile is presented and compared against meso-scale model results (WRF, COSMO): Bye-Ekman-Coupling (BEC) describes the flux of momentum from the Ekman layer of the atmosphere through the Prandtl layer down to the air-sea interface by a modified wave boundary layer with enhanced Charnock dynamics (Bye et al. 2010). The BEC model is based on the coupled pair of similarity relations for "aerodynamically rough flow" in both fluids (air and sea). The derived drag law is of Charnock form, almost independent of the wave age and consistent with the transfer of momentum to the wave spectrum - which takes place in the smaller rather than the dominant wavelengths. Measurements: It was found that the frictional velocity u* is considerably smaller than predicted by conventional approaches using the Charnock relation: For wind speeds between 10 m/s and 15 m/s at 40 m height above the sea surface, u*(observed) is 14% smaller than u*(Charnock). Most important, we found unexpected, strong and obviously artificial distortions concerning the three wind speed components in the 10Hz data of the three ultra-sonic anemometers at the offshore met-mast FINO1 at 40 m, 60 m and 80 m height. The pattern of these distortions is independent from different post-processing procedures (planar-fit etc.). We anticipate that these artefacts imply severe problems for the eddy covariance technique. Moreover, these artefacts may be relevant in other (previous and on-going) ultra-sonic measurement campaigns where turbulent parameters such as u* and heat fluxes are derived. A simple, but innovative analysis is proposed to check ultra-sonic measurements with respect to these artefacts, using the original temporal 10Hz resolution of the data: The instantaneous vertical wind speed component w is analysed versus the instantaneous wind direction (called wind.dir in the following), computed from the instantaneous horizontal components u and v. The observational density is then plotted in the (w; wind.dir)-space. We found a pattern of stripes of very strong densities for specific wind direction bins, which are thinner than 1° and which cannot be attributed directly to the geometry of the anemometer (transducers, physical structure etc.). The source of this artificial pattern is still unclear and open for discussion. References: Bye JAT, Ghantous M, Wolff J-O (2010) On the variability of the Charnock constant and the functional dependence of the drag coefficient on wind speed. Ocean Dynamics 60(4) 851-860
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonangeli, Daniele; Ohtani, Eiji
2015-12-01
Determining the sound velocity of iron under extreme thermodynamic conditions is essential for a proper interpretation of seismic observations of the Earth's core but is experimentally challenging. Here, we review techniques and methodologies used to measure sound velocities in metals at megabar pressures, with specific focus on the compressional sound velocity of hexagonal close-packed iron. A critical comparison of literature results, coherently analyzed using consistent metrology (pressure scale, equation of state), allows us to propose reference relations for the pressure and density dependence of the compressional velocity of hexagonal close-packed iron at ambient temperature. This provides a key base line upon which to add complexity, including high-temperature effects, pre-melting effects, effects of nickel and/or light element incorporation, necessary for an accurate comparison with seismic models, and ultimately to constrain Earth's inner core composition.
Modelling and Simulation of Tensile Fracture in High Velocity Compacted Metal Powder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jonsén, P.; Häggblad, H.-A.?.
2007-05-01
In cold uniaxial powder compaction, powder is formed into a desired shape with rigid tools and a die. After pressing, but before sintering, the compacted powder is called green body. A critical property in the metal powder pressing process is the mechanical properties of the green body. Beyond a green body free from defects, desired properties are high strength and uniform density. High velocity compaction (HVC) using a hydraulic operated hammer is a production method to form powder utilizing a shock wave. Pre-alloyed water atomised iron powder has been HVC-formed into circular discs with high densities. The diametral compression test also called the Brazilian disc test is an established method to measure tensile strength in low strength material like e.g. rock, concrete, polymers and ceramics. During the test a thin disc is compressed across the diameter to failure. The compression induces a tensile stress perpendicular to the compressed diameter. In this study the test have been used to study crack initiation and the tensile fracture process of HVC-formed metal powder discs with a relative density of 99%. A fictitious crack model controlled by a stress versus crack-width relationship is utilized to model green body cracking. Tensile strength is used as a failure condition and limits the stress in the fracture interface. The softening rate of the model is obtained from the corresponding rate of the dissipated energy. The deformation of the powder material is modelled with an elastic-plastic Cap model. The characteristics of the tensile fracture development of the central crack in a diametrically loaded specimen is numerically studied with a three dimensional finite element simulation. Results from the finite element simulation of the diametral compression test shows that it is possible to simulate fracturing of HVC-formed powder. Results from the simulation agree reasonably with experiments.
Modelling and Simulation of Tensile Fracture in High Velocity Compacted Metal Powder
Jonsen, P.; Haeggblad, H.-A.
2007-05-17
In cold uniaxial powder compaction, powder is formed into a desired shape with rigid tools and a die. After pressing, but before sintering, the compacted powder is called green body. A critical property in the metal powder pressing process is the mechanical properties of the green body. Beyond a green body free from defects, desired properties are high strength and uniform density. High velocity compaction (HVC) using a hydraulic operated hammer is a production method to form powder utilizing a shock wave. Pre-alloyed water atomised iron powder has been HVC-formed into circular discs with high densities. The diametral compression test also called the Brazilian disc test is an established method to measure tensile strength in low strength material like e.g. rock, concrete, polymers and ceramics. During the test a thin disc is compressed across the diameter to failure. The compression induces a tensile stress perpendicular to the compressed diameter. In this study the test have been used to study crack initiation and the tensile fracture process of HVC-formed metal powder discs with a relative density of 99%. A fictitious crack model controlled by a stress versus crack-width relationship is utilized to model green body cracking. Tensile strength is used as a failure condition and limits the stress in the fracture interface. The softening rate of the model is obtained from the corresponding rate of the dissipated energy. The deformation of the powder material is modelled with an elastic-plastic Cap model. The characteristics of the tensile fracture development of the central crack in a diametrically loaded specimen is numerically studied with a three dimensional finite element simulation. Results from the finite element simulation of the diametral compression test shows that it is possible to simulate fracturing of HVC-formed powder. Results from the simulation agree reasonably with experiments.
Messias, Leonardo H. D.; Ferrari, Homero G.; Reis, Ivan G. M.; Scariot, Pedro P. M.; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia B.
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to analyze if different combinations of trials as well as mathematical models can modify the aerobic and anaerobic estimates from critical velocity protocol applied in canoe slalom. Fourteen male elite slalom kayakers from Brazilian canoe slalom team (K1) were evaluated. Athletes were submitted to four predictive trials of 150, 300, 450 and 600 meters in a lake and the time to complete each trial was recorded. Critical velocity (CV-aerobic parameter) and anaerobic paddling capacity (APC-anaerobic parameter) were obtained by three mathematical models (Linear1=distance-time; Linear 2=velocity-1/time and Non-Linear = time-velocity). Linear 1 was chosen for comparison of predictive trials combinations. Standard combination (SC) was considered as the four trials (150, 300, 450 and 600 m). High fits of regression were obtained from all mathematical models (range - R² = 0.96-1.00). Repeated measures ANOVA pointed out differences of all mathematical models for CV (p = 0.006) and APC (p = 0.016) as well as R² (p = 0.033). Estimates obtained from the first (1) and the fourth (4) predictive trials (150 m = lowest; and 600 m = highest, respectively) were similar and highly correlated (r=0.98 for CV and r = 0.96 for APC) with the SC. In summary, methodological aspects must be considered in critical velocity application in canoe slalom, since different combinations of trials as well as mathematical models resulted in different aerobic and anaerobic estimates. Key points Great attention must be given for methodological concerns regarding critical velocity protocol applied on canoe slalom, since different estimates were obtained depending on the mathematical model and the predictive trials used. Linear 1 showed the best fits of regression. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge and considering practical applications, this model is the easiest one to calculate the estimates from critical velocity protocol. Considering this, the abyss between science and practice may be decreased. Coaches of canoe slalom may simply apply critical velocity protocol and calculate by themselves the aerobic and anaerobic estimates. Still considering practical application, the results of this study showed the possibility of calculating the critical velocity estimates by using just two trials. These results are extremely relevant regarding saving time and easy applicability of this protocol for canoe slalom. PMID:25729307
Microseismic monitoring and velocity model building at the Longyearbyen CO2-Lab, Svalbard
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oye, V.; Zhao, P.; Lecomte, I.; Braathen, A.; Olaussen, S.
2012-04-01
The Longyearbyen CO2 storage lab project addresses the problem to turn Svalbard into a CO2 neutral community. The project has now confirmed that an injective reservoir (800-1000 m depth) and a sealing cap rock section exist around Longyearbyen, and will proceed towards demonstration and monitoring studies of sub surface CO2 storage over time. The progressive construction of the Longyearbyen CO2 storage lab is currently addressing detailed properties and geometry of the reservoir. Liquids other than CO2 have been used in this initial phase (water, brine, gel). The reservoir below Longyearbyen is considered physically open, and, therefore, will likely experience drift of the injected CO2 towards the Northeast, through gradual mixing and expulsion of saline groundwater. This offers a unique opportunity for studying the behavior of CO2 in subsurface saline aquifers. Four wells have been drilled so far and several new monitoring wells are planned for this purpose. In this study, we try to use induced seismicity to monitor the injection fluid in the test site. A precise estimation of the location and magnitude of the microearthquake will be important to investigate the link between the injection and the sudden stress release as a microearthquake. In August 2010 a fluid injection experiment was carried out at the CO2 lab. In parallel, a microseismic monitoring network was deployed close to the injection well. The network consists of a 5-level string of 3-component geophones in a vertical observation well, with 50m distance between the instruments and a maximum depth of 294 meters. In addition, three shallow boreholes of 12 m depth have been drilled at about 500 m distance to the injection well. These additional surface stations are intended to provide more accurate locations for microearthquakes that are large enough to be recorded at the surface. Approximately 17 hours after the 5-days water injection test (from 20th to 25th August, 2010), a relatively strong microseismic event has been recorded at all 8 geophones and is located close to the injection well. An accurate location of this seismic event was not possible yet, due to high uncertainties in our velocity model, affecting mainly the depth of the location. In addition, we use the waveforms of this event as a template (i.e., the "master" event) and search for other events with similar waveforms at lower signal-to-noise ratios based on the matched filter method. After scanning through 78-days of continuous data (10th August to 26th October, 2010), we have detected seven events, with a statistically high correlation coefficient from network average. In order to record any potential seismicity during new injection tests, additional two surface geophones are deployed near the injection well to improve constraining the microearthquake locations. Further improvements on the velocity model are also ongoing, using 2D seismic lines, well logs, VSP and additional explosions at the surface observed with the vertical array. Most improvement of the velocity model is expected in the shallow part of the model, directly enhancing the location accuracy and help to track fluid injection interpreted from microseismicity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Marel, R. P.
1994-09-01
We report on high-S/N subarcsec resolution spectra of M87, obtained with the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope in the spectral regions around the blue G-band and the IR Ca II triplet. From the spectra we determine the line strengths, the mean and dispersion of the best-fitting Gaussian velocity profiles (i.e. the line-of-sight velocity distributions) and the Gauss-Hermite moments h_3_,...h_6_ that measure deviations from a Gaussian. We find that the main results derived from the two spectral regions agree, in contradiction to recent measurements by Jarvis & Melnick. The observed line strengths have a central minimum in both spectral regions and are consistent with the central luminosity `spike' of M87 being completely non-thermal. The coefficients h_3_,...h_6_ are close to zero at all radii. The velocity dispersion rises from ~270 km s^-1^ at ~15 arcsec to ~305 km s^-1^ at ~5 arcsec, and then to ~400 km s^-1^ at 0.5 arcsec. We model the observed velocity dispersions by solving the Jeans equation for hydrostatic equilibrium. Radial anisotropy (? ~ 0.5) is required in the outer parts to fit the observed velocity dispersion gradient. Near the centre, the data can still be fitted equally well with radially anisotropic models without a central black hole as they can be with less anisotropic models with a central black hole of mass M_BH_ <~ 5 x 10^9^ M_sun_. However, the radially anisotropic Jeans models without a central black hole need not necessarily correspond to a positive and stable distribution function. We study the central velocity profile of isotropic dynamical models with a central black hole. The wings of the velocity profile are more extended than those of a Gaussian. This is due to the stars that orbit close to the hole at high velocities. The wings contribute significantly to the normalization and the dispersion of the velocity profile. A Gaussian fit to the velocity profile is insensitive to the wings, and thus underestimates both the line strength ? and the velocity dispersion ?. In the analysis of real data, this effect is even more pronounced, since low-frequency information is lost due to continuum subtraction. If M87 has a 5 X 10^9^ M_sun_ black hole, we show that for our observational setup, the central line strength will be underestimated by ~2 per cent and the central velocity dispersion by ~8 per cent. Our blue data show two puzzling features, seen also in the data of other authors: the central line strength is too small to be accounted for solely by the dilution from non-thermal light, and the velocity dispersion in the centre is ~30 km s^-1^ smaller than that at R ~ 0.5 arcsec. The presence of a central black hole can provide a qualitative explanation for both features. In addition to the stellar kinematics, we also determine the ionized gas kinematics from the data, by analysing the H? emission line. The central velocity dispersion of the ionized gas is very high at ~516 km s^-1^, and drops steeply to ~125 km s^-1^ at R = 2 arcsec. Interpretation of the ionized gas kinematics in terms of a naive isotropic hydrostatic equilibrium model implies the presence of a central black hole of mass M_BH_ = 3 x 10^9^ M_sun_.
Modeling of Geodetic Crustal Motion Velocities in Southern California: Undergraduate Research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGill, S. F.; Barley, M. E.; Hams, J. E.; Hobart, K.; Ramirez, J.; Fryxell, J. E.; Lyzenga, G. A.; McGill, J. D.
2003-12-01
With funding from the National Science Foundation's Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences, we have undertaken a project with two primary goals: (1) to introduce undergraduate students and K-14 educators to research in geology/geophysics, and (2) to use GPS to monitor deformation across the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates in southern California, and to model the slip on specific faults that could be responsible for that deformation. Starting in July 2002, we collected campaign-style GPS data twice a year from 13 sites along a line across the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults from Norco through San Bernardino to Lucerne Valley. We are also modeling data from the SCEC Crustal Deformation Velocity Map 2.0 [http://www.scecdc.scec.org/group_e/release.v2/]. Our initial approach has been to use a one-dimensional model of dislocations in an elastic half-space. We are studying the portion of the plate boundary from San Bernardino southward to the U.S.-Mexico border. We have divided this region into seven transects that are perpendicular to the plate boundary. We used a spreadsheet macro to systematically model a range of slip rates and locking depths for each fault. Out of hundreds or thousands of possible combinations for each transect, we sorted the models according to their goodness of fit, using the sum of the squares of the residuals as a criterion. We are also beginning to use the program Simplex (G. Lyzenga. J. Parker) to model the velocity data from all transects simultaneously. This will allow us to take into account the complex fault geometry of the region. Our preliminary results from the one-dimensional modeling suggest that the best-fitting slip rate of the San Andreas fault is 26 mm/yr for the section from Indio to Durmid. However, slip rates in the range of 20-30 mm/yr also fit the geodetic data relatively well. Slip rates of 15 or 35 mm/yr do not fit well. For the San Jacinto fault, the best-fitting slip rate is 13 mm/yr for the section from Anza to Borrego Mountain and 15 mm/yr for the section farther south, which ruptured in 1968. However, slip rates within the range 10-20 mm/yr also fit these data relatively well. The best-fitting rate for the Superstition Hills fault is 15 mm/yr, with rates of 10-15 mm/yr fitting reasonably well, whereas a rate of 20 mm/yr does not fit well. The best-fitting slip rate for the Elsinore fault was 5 mm/yr for the section near Julian, but rates ranging from 2-8 mm/yr also fit relatively well. For the southernmost section of the Elsinore fault, from Agua Caliente Springs to the Coyote Mountains, the best-fitting slip rate was 2 mm/yr, but rates from 2-4 mm/yr fit relatively well. The best-fitting rate for the Laguna Salada fault was 4 mm/yr, with rates from 2-6 mm/yr also fitting fairly well. These results generally agree with geologic estimates of the Holocene slip rates for these faults. There has been considerable debate as to whether the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults contribute approximately equally to the plate boundary deformation in southern California or whether the San Andreas fault contributes substantially more than the San Jacinto fault. Our preliminary results suggest that the San Andreas fault most likely is contributing more to the plate boundary deformation than is the San Jacinto fault, but we cannot rule out the possibility that they are equal contributors.
Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Williams, R.A.; Carver, D.; Frankel, A.; Choy, G.; Liu, P.-C.; Jachens, R.C.; Brocher, T.M.; Wentworth, C.M.
2006-01-01
A 3D seismic velocity and attenuation model is developed for Santa Clara Valley, California, and its surrounding uplands to predict ground motions from scenario earthquakes. The model is developed using a variety of geologic and geophysical data. Our starting point is a 3D geologic model developed primarily from geologic mapping and gravity and magnetic surveys. An initial velocity model is constructed by using seismic velocities from boreholes, reflection/refraction lines, and spatial autocorrelation microtremor surveys. This model is further refined and the seismic attenuation is estimated through waveform modeling of weak motions from small local events and strong-ground motion from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Waveforms are calculated to an upper frequency of 1 Hz using a parallelized finite-difference code that utilizes two regions with a factor of 3 difference in grid spacing to reduce memory requirements. Cenozoic basins trap and strongly amplify ground motions. This effect is particularly strong in the Evergreen Basin on the northeastern side of the Santa Clara Valley, where the steeply dipping Silver Creek fault forms the southwestern boundary of the basin. In comparison, the Cupertino Basin on the southwestern side of the valley has a more moderate response, which is attributed to a greater age and velocity of the Cenozoic fill. Surface waves play a major role in the ground motion of sedimentary basins, and they are seen to strongly develop along the western margins of the Santa Clara Valley for our simulation of the Loma Prieta earthquake.
A consistent geodynamic model for predicting the velocity and plate-internal deformation of Eurasia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govers, Rob; Garcia-Sancho, Candela; Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin; van der Burgt, Janneke; Wortel, Rinus
2015-04-01
The motion and deformation of tectonic plates is driven by gravity and resisted by frictional forces. In principle it should thus be possible to build mechanical models that reproduce plate velocities and surface deformation. Here we present a new approach that overcomes many of the previous obstacles to achieving this goal. Our approach to quantify the forces is based on mechanical equilibrium of the whole Eurasian plate, meaning that an increase in, for instance collision, forces must be matched by other plate tectonic forces. We first focus on present-day Eurasia. We include basal tractions from a global convection model, lithospheric body forces, and edge forces resulting from the interaction of the Eurasian plate with neighboring plates. The resulting force distribution is constrained by observed plate motion and by stress observations. Eurasia's stress field turns out to be most sensitive to the distribution of collision forces on the plate's southern margin and, to a lesser extent, to lithospheric density structure and normal pressure from mantle flow. Stress observations require collision forces on the India-Eurasia boundary of 7.0 - 10.5 TN/m. A similar analysis is performed for Eurasia at 20 Ma and 40 Ma. Plate geometry is taken from the global Lausanne (Stampfli) reconstruction, as are plate velocities and oceanic ages. Lithospheric body forces are accounted for in a simplified way because we lack detailed enough information on the plate scale topography. For the Miocene, we find ˜1.2 TN/m for the collision force on the India-Eurasia boundary. In the Eocene, the collision force we find is ˜0.4 TN/m. We conclude that the magnitude of the collision force on Tibet increased significantly after 20 Ma: from 40-20 Ma, the plate contact force on the India/Tibet plate boundary segment was of the same order of magnitude as resistive forces on subduction plate boundaries elsewhere. Our timing of the collision force on Eurasia, is substantially younger than the often quoted collision age of ˜50Ma. Forces (and the corresponding stresses) drive permanent deformation on both geological time scales and short time scales, e.g., earthquakes. Low stress magnitudes may result in strain if the material is weak, high stresses may give no strain in strong materials. Our next step therefore is to use geological information on the strength of the lithosphere. We show new results of our work on using estimates of the mechanical properties of the lithosphere to predict surface deformation.
Positive and negative streamers in ambient air: modeling evolution and velocities
Luque, Alejandro; Ebert, Ute
2008-01-01
We simulate short positive and negative streamers in air at standard temperature and pressure. They evolve in homogeneous electric fields or emerge from needle electrodes with voltages of 10 to 20 kV. The streamer velocity at given streamer length depends only weakly on the initial ionization seed, except in the case of negative streamers in homogeneous fields. We characterize the streamers by length, head radius, head charge and field enhancement. We show that the velocity of positive streamers is mainly determined by their radius and in quantitative agreement with recent experimental results both for radius and velocity. The velocity of negative streamers is dominated by electron drift in the enhanced field; in the low local fields of the present simulations, it is little influenced by photo-ionization. Though negative streamer fronts always move at least with the electron drift velocity in the local field, this drift motion broadens the streamer head, decreases the field enhancement and ultimately leads to...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yegorova, T. P.; Pavlenkova, G. A.
2015-03-01
The unique deep seismic studies carried out in Russia with the use of nuclear explosions provided the possibility to identify the detailed structure of the Earth's crust, upper mantle, and transition zone to the lower mantle to a depth of 700 km in a huge territory of North Eurasia. It is shown that seismic velocities in the upper mantle mainly reflect its temperature regime. The gravity modeling along these profiles showed the absence of a direct relationship between seismic velocity and density. The Siberian Craton, which is marked with a low heat flow and high-velocity mantle, has lower density. The upper mantle of the East European Platform, with almost the same heat flow, is characterized by the highest densities and seismic velocities. Within the West Siberian Plate, high heat flow, lower seismic velocities, and increased density in the upper mantle are revealed. This combination of seismic velocities and densities suggests different composition of the upper mantle beneath the studied structures with the depleted upper mantle beneath the Siberian Craton.
Parragh, Stephanie; Mayer, Christopher; Weber, Thomas; Van Bortel, Luc; De Buyzere, Marc; Segers, Patrick; Rietzschel, Ernst
2015-01-01
Objectives Arterial stiffness and wave reflection parameters assessed from both invasive and non-invasive pressure and flow readings are used as surrogates for ventricular and vascular load. They have been reported to predict adverse cardiovascular events, but clinical assessment is laborious and may limit widespread use. This study aims to investigate measures of arterial stiffness and central hemodynamics provided by arterial tonometry alone and in combination with aortic root flows derived by echocardiography against surrogates derived by a mathematical pressure and flow model in a healthy middle-aged cohort. Methods Measurements of carotid artery tonometry and echocardiography were performed on 2226 ASKLEPIOS study participants and parameters of systemic hemodynamics, arterial stiffness and wave reflection based on pressure and flow were measured. In a second step, the analysis was repeated but echocardiography derived flows were substituted by flows provided by a novel mathematical model. This was followed by a quantitative method comparison. Results All investigated parameters showed a significant association between the methods. Overall agreement was acceptable for all parameters (mean differences: -0.0102 (0.033 SD) mmHg*s/ml for characteristic impedance, 0.36 (4.21 SD) mmHg for forward pressure amplitude, 2.26 (3.51 SD) mmHg for backward pressure amplitude and 0.717 (1.25 SD) m/s for pulse wave velocity). Conclusion The results indicate that the use of model-based surrogates in a healthy middle aged cohort is feasible and deserves further attention. PMID:26513463
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Chang-Beom; Lim, Jaeho; Hong, Hyobong; Kresh, J. Yasha; Wootton, David M.
2015-07-01
Detailed knowledge of the blood velocity distribution over the cross-sectional area of a microvessel is important for several reasons: (1) Information about the flow field velocity gradients can suggest an adequate description of blood flow. (2) Transport of blood components is determined by the velocity profiles and the concentration of the cells over the cross-sectional area. (3) The velocity profile is required to investigate volume flow rate as well as wall shear rate and shear stress which are important parameters in describing the interaction between blood cells and the vessel wall. The present study shows the accurate measurement of non-Newtonian blood velocity profiles at different shear rates in a microchannel using a novel translating-stage optical method. Newtonian fluid velocity profile has been well known to be a parabola, but blood is a non-Newtonian fluid which has a plug flow region at the centerline due to yield shear stress and has different viscosities depending on shear rates. The experimental results were compared at the same flow conditions with the theoretical flow equations derived from Casson non-Newtonian viscosity model in a rectangular capillary tube. And accurate wall shear rate and shear stress were estimated for different flow rates based on these velocity profiles. Also the velocity profiles were modeled and compared with parabolic profiles, concluding that the wall shear rates were at least 1.46-3.94 times higher than parabolic distribution for the same volume flow rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pratt, R. G.
2006-12-01
In many controlled source applications in seismology the potential exists to formally "invert" the recorded data. While the inverse problem is computationally demanding, non-unique and subject to convergence problems, much can be done to achieve meaningful solutions with real data. This requires careful regard for the limitations of theoretical models, and appropriate selection and pre-processing of input datasets. Velocity models are of critical importance in surface reflection profiling (such as that widely used in the Oil and Gas Industry). Without these models, traditional processing methods fail to provide useful images. However, velocity is poorly resolved by backscattered data. Forward scattered data are fundamentally sensitive to seismic velocity variations, and Born scattering theory predicts that only forward scattering can yield information on the low wavenumbers of the velocity model. Waveform inversion can be treated in theory with a variety of non-linear inverse methods. One feasible approach that has achieved some recent success is the frequency-domain implementation of the theory to seismic refraction data examples. A key common factor in these examples is the emphasis on the optimization of models that correctly predict the early (transmitted) arrival waveforms from large offset data. Due to the similarity to other tomographic schemes, we refer to this approach as "Waveform Tomography". Ultimately surveys should be specifically designed for waveform tomography. Such designs will need to recognize the importance of the refracted wavefield and the equal importance of low frequencies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barker, J. R.; Pasternack, G. B.; Bratovich, P.; Massa, D.; Reedy, G.; Johnson, T.
2010-12-01
Two-dimensional (depth-averaged) hydrodynamic models have existed for decades and are used to study a variety of hydrogeomorphic processes as well as to design river rehabilitation projects. Rapid computer and coding advances are revolutionizing the size and detail of 2D models. Meanwhile, advances in topo mapping and environmental informatics are providing the data inputs to drive large, detailed simulations. Million-element computational meshes are in hand. With simulations of this size and detail, the primary challenge has shifted to finding rapid and inexpensive means for testing model predictions against observations. Standard methods for collecting velocity data include boat-mounted ADCP and point-based sensors on boats or wading rods. These methods are labor intensive and often limited to a narrow flow range. Also, they generate small datasets at a few cross-sections, which is inadequate to characterize the statistical structure of the relation between predictions and observations. Drawing on the long-standing oceanographic method of using drogues to track water currents, previous studies have demonstrated the potential of small dGPS units to obtain surface velocity in rivers. However, dGPS is too inaccurate to test 2D models. Also, there is financial risk in losing drogues in rough currents. In this study, an RTK GPS unit was mounted onto a manned whitewater kayak. The boater positioned himself into the current and used floating debris to maintain a speed and heading consistent with the ambient surface flow field. RTK GPS measurements were taken ever 5 sec. From these positions, a 2D velocity vector was obtained. The method was tested over ~20 km of the lower Yuba River in California in flows ranging from 500-5000 cfs, yielding 5816 observations. To compare velocity magnitude against the 2D model-predicted depth-averaged value, kayak-based surface values were scaled down by an optimized constant (0.72), which had no negative effect on regression analysis. The r2 value for speed was 0.78 by this method, compared with 0.57 based on 199 points from traditional measurements. The r2 value for velocity direction was 0.77. Although it is not ideal to rely on observed surface velocity to evaluate depth-average velocity predictions, all available velocity-measurement methods have a suite of assumptions and complications. Using this method, the availability of 10-100x more data was so beneficial that the outcome was among the highest model performance outcomes reported in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jenkins, James Stewart
2015-12-01
The search for rocky planets orbiting the nearest stars to the Sun is a quest that, at the present time, is well suited to the search for planets by precision radial velocity measurements. However, recent studies have shown how the presence of correlated noise in the data can mask low-amplitude Doppler signals or introduce false-positives. We have been searching for these elusive low-amplitude signals by applying correlated noise models and studying ways to limit the impact of this noise on the Doppler measurements. I will discuss some of the outcomes of this work, including recent results for some Doppler interesting stars that exhibit evidence for very low amplitude signals at the few m/s level e.g. HD41248. The combined analysis of data from the instruments HARPS, PFS, HiRES, UCLES, and CHIRON was employed in this analysis, and I will elaborate on how each of these data sets complement the presence or not of the detected signals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campo, Antonio
2012-09-01
Estimates of spatio-temporal temperatures and total heat transfer in simple bodies (large plate, long cylinder and sphere) have been done in the past with the help of charts and recently by way of algebraic correlation equations; both avenues are valid for large times mostly, i.e., dimensionless times or Fourier numbers ? ? 0.2. The imposing time restriction comes from the utilization of the truncated `one-term series' because the Fourier infinite series diverge for very short times approaching zero. The central goal of this technical paper is to predict the mean, surface and center temperatures, as well as the total heat transfer in those simple bodies by implementing a 1-D composite lumped analysis united to a sound physics-based computational procedure. The effortless combined methodology is new. It brings forth a handful of compact algebraic equations covering the full gamma of Biot numbers (0 < Bi < 100) and all dimensionless times, 0 < ? < ?.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hongliang; Agrusta, Roberto; Hunen, Jeroen
2015-06-01
The particle-in-cell method is generally considered a flexible and robust method to model the geodynamic problems with chemical heterogeneity. However, velocity interpolation from grid points to particle locations is often performed without considering the divergence of the velocity field, which can lead to significant particle dispersion or clustering if those particles move through regions of strong velocity gradients. This may ultimately result in cells void of particles, which, if left untreated, may, in turn, lead to numerical inaccuracies. Here we apply a two-dimensional conservative velocity interpolation (CVI) scheme to steady state and time-dependent flow fields with strong velocity gradients (e.g., due to large local viscosity variation) and derive and apply the three-dimensional equivalent. We show that the introduction of CVI significantly reduces the dispersion and clustering of particles in both steady state and time-dependent flow problems and maintains a locally steady number of particles, without the need for ad hoc remedies such as very high initial particle densities or reseeding during the calculation. We illustrate that this method provides a significant improvement to particle distributions in common geodynamic modeling problems such as subduction zones or lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary dynamics.
Karen L. Masters
2008-03-27
We only see a small fraction of the matter in the universe, but the rest gives itself away by the impact of its gravity. The distortions from pure Hubble flow (or peculiar velocities) that this matter creates have the potential to be a powerful cosmological tool, but are also a nuisance for extragalactic astronomers who wish to use redshifts to estimate distances to local galaxies. We provide a quick overview of work on the local peculiar velocity field, discussing both simple spherical infall models, non-parametric modeling using redshifts surveys, and full velocity and density field reconstruction from peculiar velocities. We discuss results from a multiattractor model fit to data from the SFI++ sample of peculiar velocities - the best peculiar velocity data currently available. We also talk about the future of samples for the study of the local velocity field, especially the 2MASS Tully-Fisher (2MTF) survey.
The Asperity-deformation Model Improvements and Its Applications to Velocity Inversion
Bui, Hoa Q.
2010-01-16
Quantifying the influence of pressure on the effective elastic rock properties is important for applications in rock physics and reservoir characterization. Here I investigate the relationship between effective pressure and seismic velocities...
Zelt, Colin A.; Haines, Seth; Powers, Michael H.; Sheehan, Jacob; Rohdewald, Siegfried; Link, Curtis; Hayashi, Koichi; Zhao, Don; Zhou, Hua-wei; Burton, Bethany L.; Petersen, Uni K.; Bonal, Nedra D.; Doll, William E.
2013-01-01
Seismic refraction methods are used in environmental and engineering studies to image the shallow subsurface. We present a blind test of inversion and tomographic refraction analysis methods using a synthetic first-arrival-time dataset that was made available to the community in 2010. The data are realistic in terms of the near-surface velocity model, shot-receiver geometry and the data's frequency and added noise. Fourteen estimated models were determined by ten participants using eight different inversion algorithms, with the true model unknown to the participants until it was revealed at a session at the 2011 SAGEEP meeting. The estimated models are generally consistent in terms of their large-scale features, demonstrating the robustness of refraction data inversion in general, and the eight inversion algorithms in particular. When compared to the true model, all of the estimated models contain a smooth expression of its two main features: a large offset in the bedrock and the top of a steeply dipping low-velocity fault zone. The estimated models do not contain a subtle low-velocity zone and other fine-scale features, in accord with conventional wisdom. Together, the results support confidence in the reliability and robustness of modern refraction inversion and tomographic methods.
Genova Barazarte, Ezequiel
2009-05-15
. The dependence of permeability and velocity on effective pressure has previously been modeled using the Bed-of-Nails asperity-deformation model. The main objective of this research was to explore the sensitivity of the Bed-of-Nails and effective-pressure models...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Fei; Gao, Yanwei; Sun, Yuanyuan; Shi, Xiaoqing; Xu, Hongxia; Wu, Jichun
2015-09-01
Understanding the migration of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in complex subsurface systems is important for evaluating contamination source zones and designing remediation schemes after spill events. Six sandbox experiments were performed to explore the individual effect of flow velocity, and the combined effect of flow velocity and layered lenses on a DNAPL (PCE) migration in porous media. DNAPL saturation was measured using a light transmission system, and saturation distribution was quantified by spatial moments. The experimental results show that large flow velocity significantly promotes lateral and vertical migration of the low-viscosity DNAPL, while when layered lenses exist, the infiltration rate decreases and horizontal spread increases. Migration processes were numerically simulated, and the modelling results tested against experimental results. Furthermore, migration of DNAPLs with different viscosities was simulated to explore the combined effects of flow velocity and geological heterogeneity. Simulation results show that enhanced heterogeneity makes low-viscosity DNAPLs migrate along preferential pathways, resulting in irregular DNAPL morphology. Layered lenses combined with heterogeneity complicate the effect of flow velocity on the migration of low-viscosity DNAPLs by changing percolation paths. Results also demonstrate that flow velocity exhibits relatively little influence on the migration of medium/high-viscosity DNAPLs, which is predominantly controlled by viscosity and heterogeneity. Enhanced heterogeneity has a larger effect on migration behavior. Findings indicate that the migration paths and position of the source zone could change significantly, due to the combined effect of groundwater flow velocity and geological heterogeneity; thus, comprehensive hydrogeological investigation is needed to characterize the source zone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palomeras, I.; Villasenor, A.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; Harnafi, M.
2014-12-01
The westernmost Mediterranean comprises the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, separated by the Alboran Sea and the Algerian Basin. From north to south this region consists of the Pyrenees, resulting from Iberia-Eurasia collision; the Iberian Massif, which has been undeformed since the end of the Paleozoic; the Central System and Iberian Chain, regions with intracontinental Oligocene-Miocene deformation; the Gibraltar Arc (Betics, Rif and Alboran terranes), resulting from post-Oligocene subduction roll-back; and the Atlas Mountains. We analyzed data from recent broad-band array deployments and permanent stations in the area (IberArray and Siberia arrays, the PICASSO array, the University of Munster array, and the Spanish, Portuguese and Moroccan National Networks) to characterize its lithospheric structure. The combined array of 350 stations has an average interstation spacing of ~60 km. We calculated the Rayleigh waves phase velocities from ambient noise (periods 4 to 40 s) and teleseismic events (periods 20 to 167 s). We inverted the phase velocities to obtain a shear velocity model for the lithosphere to ~200 km depth. Our results correlate well with the surface expression of the main structural units with higher crustal velocity for the Iberian Massif than for the Alpine Iberia and Atlas Mountains. The Gibraltar Arc has lower crustal shear velocities than the regional average at all crustal depths. It also shows an arc shaped anomaly with high upper mantle velocities (>4.6 km/s) at shallow depths (<65 km) interpreted as the subducting Alboran slab. The hanging slab is depressing the crust of the Gibraltar arc to ~55 km depth, as seen in receiver function data and active source seismic profiles. Low upper mantle velocities (<4.2 km/s) are observed beneath the Atlas, the northeastern end of the Betic Mountains and the Late Cenozoic volcanic fields in Iberia and Morocco, indicative of high temperatures at relatively shallow depths, and suggesting that the lithosphere has been removed beneath these areas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Floriane, Provost; Jean-Philippe, Malet; Cécile, Doubre; Julien, Gance; Alessia, Maggi; Agnès, Helmstetter
2015-04-01
Characterizing the micro-seismic activity of landslides is an important parameter for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling landslide behaviour. However, the location of the seismic sources on landslides is a challenging task mostly because of (a) the recording system geometry, (b) the lack of clear P-wave arrivals and clear wave differentiation, (c) the heterogeneous velocities of the ground. The objective of this work is therefore to test whether the integration of a 3D velocity model in probabilistic seismic source location codes improves the quality of the determination especially in depth. We studied the clay-rich landslide of Super-Sauze (French Alps). Most of the seismic events (rockfalls, slidequakes, tremors...) are generated in the upper part of the landslide near the main scarp. The seismic recording system is composed of two antennas with four vertical seismometers each located on the east and west sides of the seismically active part of the landslide. A refraction seismic campaign was conducted in August 2014 and a 3D P-wave model has been estimated using the Quasi-Newton tomography inversion algorithm. The shots of the seismic campaign are used as calibration shots to test the performance of the different location methods and to further update the 3D velocity model. Natural seismic events are detected with a semi-automatic technique using a frequency threshold. The first arrivals are picked using a kurtosis-based method and compared to the manual picking. Several location methods were finally tested. We compared a non-linear probabilistic method coupled with the 3D P-wave model and a beam-forming method inverted for an apparent velocity. We found that the Quasi-Newton tomography inversion algorithm provides results coherent with the original underlaying topography. The velocity ranges from 500 m.s-1 at the surface to 3000 m.s-1 in the bedrock. For the majority of the calibration shots, the use of a 3D velocity model significantly improve the results of the location procedure using P-wave arrivals. All the shots were made 50 centimeters below the surface and hence the vertical error could not be determined with the seismic campaign. We further discriminate the rockfalls and the slidequakes occurring on the landslide with the depth computed thanks to the 3D velocity model. This could be an additional criteria to automatically classify the events.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaviani, A.; Sandvol, E. A.; Bao, X.; Gok, R.; Rumpker, G.
2014-12-01
We present an approach for understanding the origin and nature of seismic anomalies in the continental crust of the Northern Middle East. We have constructed detailed models of crustal attenuation and velocity structure for the Northern Middle East based on the analysis of waveforms of the regional seismic phases Lg and Pg from regional earthquakes recorded at more than 550 stations in Turkish and Iranian Plateaus and the surrounding regions. The attenuation and velocity models are assumed to serve as proxies for the bulk average effective crustal P-wave and S-wave attenuation (Qa and Qb) and velocities (Vp and Vs). About 30000 reliable spectra were collected for both Lg and Pg phases and used to measure the Two-Station Method (TSM) and Reverse Two-station/event Method (RTM) Lg and Pg Q at 1 Hz (QLg0 and QPg0) and their frequency dependence factor (?). The QLg0 and QPg0 and ? values measured over the individual TSM and RTM paths are then used to perform an LSQR tomographic inversion for lateral variations in Q0 and ?. We observe a strong correlation between the effective Q and velocity models. Our models show lateral variations that coincide with the major tectonic boundaries in the region. The tomographic models as well as the individual TSM and RTM measurements show lower values of QLg0 and QPg0 over the Turkish-Anatolian Plateau (QLg0<150 and QPg0<200) than those observed over the Iranian Plateau (150< QLg0<300 and 150< QPg0<400). Furthermore, we obtained the Lg and Pg group velocity models (VLg and VPg) by inverting the time of the first arrival of the Lg and Pg envelopes. Our QLg0 and QPg0 models are strongly correlated with the VLg and VPg models suggesting that the source of many of the low Q and velocity anomalies is likely the same. Our Q models have implication for any hazard assessment in different regions of the northern Middle-East and can also be used for the magnitude determination of the local and regional seismic events. A combined knowledge about the attenuation of Pg and Lg waves has also application in developing reliable seismic discriminants.
Cerveny, Vlastislav
, to SEG/EAGE Salt Model, and to model Pluto 1.5 Petr Bulant Department of Geophysics, Charles University description of smoothing the SEG/EAGE Salt Model and with description of smoothing model Pluto 1
Janji?, NataŠa J; Kapor, Darko V; Doder, Dragan V; Doder, Radoslava Z; Savi?, Biljana V
2014-12-01
Temporal patterns of running velocity is of profound interest for coaches and researchers involved in sprint racing. In this study, we applied a nonhomogeneous differential equation for the motion with resistance force proportional to the velocity for the determination of the instantaneous velocity and instantaneous and average acceleration in the sprinter discipline at 100 m. Results obtained for the instantaneous velocity in this study using the presented model indicate good agreement with values measured directly, which is a good verification of the proposed procedure. To perform a comprehensive analysis of the applicability of the results obtained, the harmonic canon of running for the 100-m sprint discipline was formed. Using the data obtained by the measurement of split times for segments of 100-m run of the sprinters K. Lewis (1988), M. Green (2001), and U. Bolt (2009), the method described yielded results that enable comparative analysis of the kinematical parameters for each sprinter. Further treatment allowed the derivation of the ideal harmonic velocity canon of running, which can be helpful to any coach in evaluating the results achieved at particular distances in this and other disciplines. The method described can be applied for the analysis of any race. PMID:24983854
Bouillot, Vincent R; Corasaniti, Pier-Stefano; Rasera, Yann
2015-01-01
Observations of colliding galaxy clusters with high relative velocity probe the tail of the halo pairwise velocity distribution with the potential of providing a powerful test of cosmology. As an example it has been argued that the discovery of the Bullet Cluster challenges standard $\\Lambda$CDM model predictions. Halo catalogs from N-body simulations have been used to estimate the probability of Bullet-like clusters. However, due to simulation volume effects previous studies had to rely on a Gaussian extrapolation of the pairwise velocity distribution to high velocities. Here, we perform a detail analysis using the halo catalogs from the Dark Energy Universe Simulation Full Universe Runs (DEUS-FUR), which enables us to resolve the high-velocity tail of the distribution and study its dependence on the halo mass definition, redshift and cosmology. Building upon these results we estimate the probability of Bullet-like systems in the framework of Extreme Value Statistics. We show that the tail of extreme pairwis...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calo, M.; Bodin, T.; Yuan, H.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Larmat, C. S.; Maceira, M.
2013-12-01
Seismic tomography is currently evolving towards 3D earth models that satisfy full seismic waveforms at increasingly high frequencies. This evolution is possible thanks to the advent of powerful numerical methods such as the Spectral Element Method (SEM) that allow accurate computation of the seismic wavefield in complex media, and the drastic increase of computational resources. However, the production of such models requires handling complex misfit functions with more than one local minimum. Standard linearized inversion methods (such as gradient methods) have two main drawbacks: 1) they produce solution models highly dependent on the starting model; 2) they do not provide a means of estimating true model uncertainties. However, these issues can be addressed with stochastic methods that can sample the space of possible solutions efficiently. Such methods are prohibitively challenging computationally in 3D, but increasingly accessible in 1D. In previous work (Yuan and Romanowicz, 2010; Yuan et al., 2011) we developed a continental scale anisotropic upper mantle model of north America based on a combination of long period seismic waveforms and SKS splitting measurements, showing the pervasive presence of layering of anisotropy in the cratonic lithosphere with significant variations in depth of the mid-lithospheric boundary. The radial anisotropy part of the model has been recently updated using the spectral element method for forward wavefield computations and waveform data from the latest deployments of USarray (Yuan and Romanowicz, 2013). However, the long period waveforms (periods > 40s) themselves only provide a relatively smooth view of the mantle if the starting model is smooth, and the mantle discontinuities necessary for geodynamical interpretation are not imaged. Increasing the frequency of the computations to constrain smaller scale features is possible, but challenging computationally, and at the risk of falling in local minima of the misfit function. In this work we propose instead to directly tackle the non-linearity of the inverse problem by using stochastic methods to construct a 3D starting model with a good estimate of the depths of the main layering interfaces. We present preliminary results of the construction of such a starting 3D model based on: (1) Regionalizing the study area to define provinces within which lateral variations are smooth; (2) Applying trans-dimensional stochastic inversion (Bodin et al., 2012) to obtain accurate 1D models in each province as well as the corresponding error distribution, constrained by receiver function and surface wave dispersion data as well as the previously constructed 3D model (name), and (3) connecting these models laterally using data-driven smoothing operators to obtain a starting 3D model with errors. References Bodin, T.,et al. 2012, Transdimensional inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion, J. Geophys. Res., 117, B02301, doi:10.1029/2011JB008560. Yuan and Romanowicz, 2013, in revison. Yuan, H., et al. 2011, 3-D shear wave radially and azimuthally anisotropic velocity model of the North American upper mantle. Geophysical Journal International, 184: 1237-1260. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04901.x Yuan, H. & Romanowicz, B., 2010. Lithospheric layering in the North American Craton, Nature, 466, 1063-1068.
Ruetz, C. R., III; Jennings, C.A.
2000-01-01
The robust redhorse Moxostoma robustum occurs in an 85-km stretch of the Oconee River, Georgia, downstream of a hydropower dam. The population consists primarily of older individuals and recruitment in recent years has been minimal. Operation of the hydropower dam may have affected recruitment negatively by displacing newly hatched larvae downstream and away from nursery habitats. Our null hypothesis was that larval robust redhorse can tolerate water velocities that occur in the Oconee River during peak river discharge related to hydropower generation. We measured swimming speeds for three size-classes of larvae (means: 13.1, 16.2, and 20.4 mm total length) and modeled low-velocity habitat (i.e., as defined by larval swimming speeds) in the Oconee River. We used logistic regression to calculate prolonged swimming speeds (i.e., water velocity at which 50% of fish failed to swim for 1 h) for each size-class and to predict the proportion of larvae in the water column that could maintain their position in the river. Prolonged swimming speeds were 6.9, 10.6, and 11.7 cm/s for 13.1-, 16.2-, and 20.4-mm fish, respectively. Habitat modeling suggested that low-velocity areas were present in the river and that there was not a strong relationship between low-velocity habitat and discharge. However, low-velocity habitats were dynamic during fluctuating discharge, and the ability of larval robust redhorse to access these dynamic areas is unknown. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2000.
Long-period GPS waveforms. What can GPS bring to Earth seismic velocity models?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelevitz, Krisztina; Houlié, Nicolas; Boschi, Lapo; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Giardini, Domenico
2014-05-01
It is now commonly admitted that high rate GPS observations can provide reliable surface displacement waveforms (Cervelli, et al., 2001; Langbein, et al., 2006; Houlié, et al., 2006; Houlié et al., 2011). For long-period (T>5s) transients, it was shown that GPS and seismometer (STS-1) displacements are in agreement at least for vertical component (Houlié, et al., Sci. Rep. 2011). We propose here to supplement existing long-period seismic networks with high rate (>= 1Hz) GPS data in order to improve the resolution of global seismic velocity models. GPS measurements are providing a wide range of frequencies, going beyond the range of STS-1 in the low frequency end. Nowadays, almost 10.000 GPS receivers would be able to record data at 1 Hz with 3000+ stations already streaming data in Real-Time (RT). The reasons for this quick expansion are the price of receivers, their low maintenance, and the wide range of activities they can be used for (transport, science, public apps, navigation, etc.). We are presenting work completed on the 1Hz GPS records of the Hokkaido earthquake (25th of September, 2003, Mw=8.3). 3D Waveforms have been computed with an improved, stabilised inversion algorithm in order to constrain the ground motion history. Through the better resolution of inversion of the GPS phase observations, we determine displacement waveforms of frequencies ranging from 0.77 mHz to 330 mHz for a selection of sites. We compare inverted GPS waveforms with STS-1 waveforms and synthetic waveforms computed using 3D global wave propagation with SPECFEM. At co-located sites (STS-1 and GPS located within 10km) the agreement is good for the vertical component between seismic (both real and synthetic) and GPS waveforms.
Surface Wave/Dispersion Curves For A Velocity Model Of The Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fletcher, J. B.; Seats, K.; Lawrence, J. F.; Teel, A.
2012-12-01
Using ambient noise tomography we have obtained Rayleigh wave dispersion curves to determine the velocity structure of the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta. The velocity structure is a first step in using simulations to better estimate of seismic hazard for the Delta. We have combined ray paths for stations from the Earthscope/Transportable array, Berkeley Digital Seismic Network, and the USGS portable network in the Delta to determine dispersion curves for ray paths that travel through the western Central Valley near the Delta. Ground motion from broad band velocity sensors, originally sampled at 100 Hz, was decimated to 20 Hz and filtered to provide data between about 3 and 20s. Coherence was determined between stations from the three networks using hour-long records and then stacked over two or three months. We recovered 134 paths over a maximum dimension of about 250 km, but most paths are concentrated near the Delta. For travel paths that travel through the Delta north of the Lower Jones tract, the group velocities are usually lower than 1 km/s at periods of 3 to 8s. At longer periods (or deeper depths) the velocities are still low, but usually reach 2 km/s at a period of 18s. This compared with travel paths in the Sierra foothills that are more scattered, but have velocities exceeding 3 km/s at periods of 10 to 18s. Preliminary images show basin-like patches of slow velocities near the Delta, that when strung together, are roughly shaped like an L with one arm pointing back into the Central Valley and one arm pointing south southeast along the western margin of the Central Valley. The basins in these images have dimensions of about 20 to 40 km. More stations are being deployed to increase the resolution and stability of these images.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malavelle, Florent F.; Haywood, Jim M.; Field, Paul R.; Hill, Adrian A.; Abel, Steven J.; Lock, Adrian P.; Shipway, Ben J.; McBeath, Kirsty
2014-04-01
Updraft velocities strongly control the activation of aerosol particles or that component that act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For kilometer-scale models, vertical motions are partially resolved but the subgrid-scale (SGS) contribution needs to be parametrized or constrained to properly represent the activation of CCNs. This study presents a method to estimate the missing SGS (or unresolved) contribution to vertical velocity variability in models with horizontal grid sizes up to ˜2 km. A framework based on Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and high-resolution aircraft observations of stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds has been developed and applied to output from the United Kingdom Met Office Unified Model (UM) operating at kilometer-scale resolutions in numerical weather prediction configuration. For a stratocumulus deck simulation, we show that the UM 1 km model underestimates significantly the variability of updraft velocity with an averaged cloud base standard deviation between 0.04 and 0.05 m s-1 compared to LES and aircraft estimates of 0.38 and 0.54 m s-1, respectively. Once the SGS variability is considered, the UM corrected averages are between 0.34 and 0.44 m s-1. Off-line calculations of CCN-activated fraction using an activation scheme have been performed to illustrate the implication of including the SGS vertical velocity. It suggests increased CCN-activated fraction from 0.52 to 0.89 (respectively, 0.10 to 0.54) for a clean (respectively, polluted) aerosol environment for simulations with a 1 km horizontal grid size. Our results highlight the importance of representing the SGS vertical velocity in kilometer-scale simulations of aerosol-cloud interactions.
An evaluation of 3-D velocity models of the Kanto basin for long-period ground motion simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhakal, Yadab P.; Yamanaka, Hiroaki
2013-07-01
We performed three-dimensional (3-D) finite difference simulations of long-period ground motions (2-10 s) in the Kanto basin using the Japan Seismic Hazard Information Station (J-SHIS 2009), Yamada and Yamanaka (Exploration Geophysics 65(3):139-150, 2012) (YY), and Head Quarter for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP 2012) velocity models for two intermediate depth (68-80 km) moderate earthquakes (Mw 5.8-5.9), which occurred beneath the Kanto basin. The models primarily differ in the basic data set used in the construction of the velocity models. The J-SHIS and HERP models are the results of integration of mainly geological, geophysical, and earthquake data. On the other hand, the YY model is oriented towards the microtremor-array-observation data. We obtained a goodness of fit between the observed and synthetic data based on three parameters, peak ground velocities (PGVs), smoothed Fourier spectra (FFT), and cross-correlations, using an algorithm proposed by Olsen and Mayhew (Seism Res Lett 81:715-723, 2010). We found that the three models reproduced the PGVs and FFT satisfactorily at most sites. However, the models performed poorly in terms of cross-correlations especially at the basin edges. We found that the synthetics using the YY model overestimate the observed waveforms at several sites located in the areas having V s 0.3 km/s in the top layer; on the other hand, the J-SHIS and HERP models explain the waveforms better at the sites and perform similarly at most sites. We also found that the J-SHIS and HERP models consist of thick sediments beneath some sites, where the YY model is preferable. Thus, we have concluded that the models require revisions for the reliable prediction of long-period ground motions from future large earthquakes.
Modeling of GPS velocities across the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta - Burma Arc oblique subduction system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steckler, M. S.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Feng, L.; Gale, J.; Howe, M.; Masson, F.; Maurin, T.; Rangin, C.
2014-12-01
The Burma Arc is the northward continuation of the Sumatra-Anadaman subduction zone that gave rise to the 2004 M9.3 earthquake and tsunami. Near its northern end, it is colliding with the thick sediments of the Bengal Basin. The sediments of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta are folded and faulted, creating a subaerial 250-km wide accretionary prism. The deformation front is blind and reaches ½ way across the delta. Whether subduction is still occurring at this highly oblique plate boundary has been hotly debated. To investigate this, we combined our 25 continuous GPS receivers in Bangladesh with the campaign network in Myanmar, processing them together with GAMIT/GLOBK. We combined this data with 28 mostly campaign GPS sites in India (Gahalaut et al., 2012) by processing using the same IGS sites and performing a Helmert transformation to place all the data in same reference frame within ITRF2008. Published Indian plate poles yield a systematic residual for Bangladeshi sites believed to be on stable India. We estimated a new pole by combining 13 Indian stations (Mahesh et al., 2013) with 2 of our stations. Due to the rapid growth of the accretionary prism and the overthrusting by the Shillong Plateau, the Burma Arc changes shape from the backstop to the front folds. To project the GPS velocities into a profile, we have experimented with several projections that vary across the foldbelt, using the arc of the earthquakes and the topography as a guide. Strike-slip is mostly absorbed by the Sagaing and CMF faults, and some additional shear is distributed over the region. The best fitting suite of models for the shortening component yield 13-15 mm/y of shortening across the arc on a shallow-dipping megathrust. Additional shortening of ~4 mm/y is absorbed in the vicinity of the Kabaw Fault, where coverage is sparse. The dip of the megathrust and the depth of its downdip end trade off with one another in the different projections. The low range of dips of 6-10° is consistent with local intraplate seismicity. The downdip end of the locked zone of the megathrust is just east of Bangladesh-India border around ~92.5°E and is a very stable feature in all the models. The broad locked zone of ~250km suggests that the segment between Shillong and the coast, which has no historical record of a large earthquake, is capable of a M8.2-M8.8 earthquake.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, X.; Wang, H.; Hou, G.; Zha, B.
2006-09-01
An analysis of a low temperature high velocity air fuel (LTHVAF) thermal spray process is presented using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The originality of the process lies in the injection of liquid (water) upstream of the powder injection to control to gas temperature and, therefore, the heat transfer to the injected particles. First, computation fluid dynamic techniques are implemented to solve the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations in the gas phase. A turbulence model based on the renormalized group theory (RNG) is used for the turbulent flow field. The gas dynamic data are, then, used to model the behavior of the liquid droplets and particles in the gas flow field. The calculated results show that the liquid flow rate should range between 20 and 30 kg/h to achieve the optimal gas characteristics for particle treatment. They also show that particle velocity and temperature are strongly affected by particle size. At the gun exit, the particle velocity and temperature range between 700 and 300 m/s and between 900 and 400 K, respectively, for Cu and Ni particles with size distributions of 1 to 50 ?m. As expected, the smaller particles have higher velocity and temperature. The metal coatings (Nickel and copper) produced by the LTHVAF spray process are characterized by low oxide content, low residual stresses, high deposition rates, and good bonding to the substrate.
The Enhanced-model Ladar Wind Sensor and Its Application in Planetary Wind Velocity Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soreide, D. C.; Mcgann, R. L.; Erwin, L. L.; Morris, D. J.
1993-01-01
For several years we have been developing an optical air-speed sensor that has a clear application as a meteorological wind-speed sensor for the Mars landers. This sensor has been developed for aircraft use to replace the familiar, pressure-based Pitot probe. Our approach utilizes a new concept in the laser-based optical measurement of air velocity (the Enhanced-Mode Ladar), which allows us to make velocity measurements with significantly lower laser power than conventional methods. The application of the Enhanced-Mode Ladar to measuring wind speeds in the martian atmosphere is discussed.
High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey
Pasyanos, M; Gok, R; Zor, E; Walter, W
2004-09-03
We investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet and form a complex tectonic structure. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provided a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure. Zor et al. found an average 46 km thick crust in Anatolian plateau using six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver function alone with many-layered parameterization may result in an apparent depth-velocity tradeoff. In order to improve previous velocity model, we employed the joint inversion method with many layered parameterization of Julia et al. (2000) to the ETSE receiver functions. In this technique, the receiver function and surface-wave observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. We consider azimuthal changes of receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups. We calculated the receiver functions using iterative time-domain deconvolution technique and surface wave group velocity dispersion curves between 10-100 sec. We are making surface wave dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and have incorporated them into a regional group velocity model. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocity in the northeast. This indicates slow upper mantle velocities in the region consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. We started with both the 1-D model that is obtained with the 12 tones dam explosion shot data recorded by ETSE network and the existing receiver function inversion results. In fact, we observe that the inversion results are independent at the starting model and converges well to the same final model. We don't observe a significant change at the first order discontinuities of model (e.g. Moho depth), but we obtain better defined depths to low velocity layers.
Random motion with gamma-distributed alternating velocities in biological modeling
Di Crescenzo, Antonio
2008-01-01
Motivated by applications in mathematical biology concerning randomly alternating motion of micro-organisms, we analyze a generalized integrated telegraph process. The random times between consecutive velocity reversals are gamma-distributed, and perform an alternating renewal process. We obtain the probability law and the mean of the process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biciu?c?, Tonino; Horga, Adrian; Sofonea, Victor
2015-10-01
We use a two-dimensional Lattice Boltzmann model to investigate the liquid-vapour phase separation in an isothermal van der Waals fluid. The model is based on the expansion of the distribution function up to the third order in terms of Hermite polynomials. In two dimensions, this model is an off-lattice one and has 16 velocities. The Corner Transport Upwind Scheme is used to evolve the corresponding distribution functions on a square lattice. The resulting code allows one to follow the liquid-vapour phase separation on lattices up to 4096 × 4096 nodes using a Tesla M2090 Graphics Processing Unit.
Cerveny, Vlastislav
Comparison of ray--matrix and finite--difference methods in a simple 1ÂD model LudÅ¸ek KlimeÅ¸s \\Lambda , Department of Geophysics, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic Summary Ray--matrix synthetic seismograms are compared with finite--difference synthetic seismograms in a simple 1ÂD model
der Lee, S v; Flanagan, M P; Rodgers, A J; Pasyanos, M E; Marone, F; Romanowicz, B
2005-07-13
We report on progress towards a new, comprehensive three-dimensional model of seismic velocity in a broad region encompassing the Middle East, northern Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, the Turkish-Iranian Plateau, Indus Valley, and the Hindu Kush. Our model will be based on regional waveform fits, surface wave group velocity measurements, teleseismic arrival times of S and P waves, receiver functions, and published results from active source experiments. We are in the process of assembling each of these data sets and testing the joint inversion for subsets of the data. Seismograms come from a variety of permanent and temporary seismic stations in the region. Some of the data is easily accessible through, for example, IRIS, while collection of other data is more involved. This work builds on ongoing work by Schmid et al. (GJI, 2004, and manuscript in preparation). In these proceedings we highlight our data sets and their inferences, demonstrate the proposed new data-inversion modeling methodology, discuss results from preliminary inversions of subsets of the data, and demonstrate the prediction of arrival times with three-dimensional velocity models. We compare our preliminary inversion results to the results of Schmid et al., and the predicted arrival times to ground-truth data from the NNSA Knowledge Base. Our data sets are simultaneously redundant and highly complementary. The combined data coverage will ensure that our three-dimensional model comprises the crust, the upper mantle, including the transition zone, and the top of the lower mantle, with spatially varying, but useful resolution. The region of interest is one of the most structurally heterogeneous in the world. Continental collision, rifting and sea-floor spreading, back-arc spreading, oceanic subduction, rotating micro plates, continental shelf, and stable platforms, are just some of the region's characteristics. Seismicity and the distribution of seismic stations are also geographically heterogeneous. The crustal thickness ranges from near 20 to near 45 km under dry places in the Mediterranean region alone, which contains at least seven of the fourteen types of crust defined globally by Mooney et al. (1998). The S-velocity varies laterally by an entire 1 km/s over 1000 km within the uppermost mantle. On average the S-velocity is 50 to 150 m/s slower, between a depth of 150 km and the Moho, than global model iasp91. These lowered S velocities reflect the high amount of tectonic activity in the study region. In the transition zone the S-velocity is roughly 150 m/s higher than iasp91. These heightened S velocities likely reflect the numerous fragments of oceanic lithosphere that subducted in the study region during geologically relatively recent times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, X.; Sun, X.; Xu, Z.; Zheng, S.; Ritzwoller, M.
2008-12-01
The question of how the Tibetan Plateau (TP) grows and deforms after the India-Eurasia collision is both a fundamental one and one that has direct implications for seismic hazards in the eastern and southeastern margin with a large population. One model is the growth by deep crustal channel flow in which the upper crust deformation is decoupled from deformation at depth. The crustal channel flow coupled with ductile extrusion and surface denudation was also proposed to explain the exhumation of high-grade metamorphic sequence observed in the Himalaya. Studies in the last decade have shown evidence for mid-lower crust melting in some parts of the TP. However, the idea has been hotly debated with inconsistent observations and the seismic observations have been made only along certain profiles or small areas. Here we show evidence for wide spread mid-lower crust slow anomalies in the central and eastern parts of the TP (The western part is not well sampled). We have recently obtained a new 3D shear-wave velocity model of China from inverting surface wave dispersion maps obtained from ambient noise tomography. One of the most remarkable features in our 3D model is the extremely slow S velocities in the mid-crust in much of the TP (central, eastern, and southeastern regions). These slow velocities are generally connected and seem to reach to the surface at certain localities in western, southern, and southeastern margins. In a separate inversion with P travel times, we found that mid and lower crust in eastern TP has slow P velocities compared with Sichuan basin and Yangtze block. However, P velocities are not as anomalous as the S velocities in the eastern TP, suggesting anomalous Poisson's ratios in the mid-lower crust. These observations are consistent with the crustal channel flow throughout much of the TP. However, the deformation in the upper crust may not be decoupled from the mantle as the patterns of surface deformation and anisotropy from S splitting and Pn waves in eastern and southern TP seem to be coherent.
In vivo ?PIV measurements of blood velocity in small vessels of a rat model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leong, Chia Min; Russell, John; Connor, Nadine; Honkanen, Markus; Wei, Timothy
2009-11-01
Aging-related muscular changes have been shown to affect voice production. There is correlation between muscular changes and changes in capillary hemodynamics and structure with aging. Alterations in oxygen transport to cells and tissues at the capillary level has been hypothesized as one of the key factors that causes muscular changes thus voice production. Since oxygen transport is related to hemodynamics, we start by measuring blood velocity in capillaries of cremaster muscle of a living rat. The ?PIV technique is adapted for measuring blood velocity where red blood cells are used as `seeding particles'. The accuracy of the ?PIV measurements are determined by comparison with results obtained using other techniques such as particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). Finally, challenges in measuring flow through three-dimensional larynx geometry will be discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, A. H.; Wu, S. T.; Liu, Yang; Hathaway, D.
2008-01-01
We introduce a numerical simulation method for recovering the photospheric velocity field from the vector magnetograms. The traditional method is local correlation tracking (LCT) which is based on measuring the relative displacements of features in blocks of pixels between successive white-light images or magnetograms. Within this method, there are a variety of implementations. One of recently developed implementations is induction local correlation tracking (ILCT) as described by Welsch et al. (2004). They employ the normal component of magnetic induction equation as a constraint to assure consistent solutions. Our numerical method uses the fully three-dimensional MHD equations to recover the photospheric velocity field with individual vector magnetograms. We compare our method to the ILCT method using NOAA AR8210 as an example. The differences and similarities are discussed in detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossi, M. J.; Ares, J. O.
2012-09-01
Water infiltration and overland flow are relevant in considering water partition among plant life forms, the sustainability of vegetation and the design of sustainable hydrological models and management. In arid and semi-arid regions, these processes present characteristic trends imposed by the prevailing physical conditions of the upper soil as evolved under water-limited climate. A set of plot-scale field experiments at the semi-arid Patagonian Monte (Argentina) were performed in order to estimate the effect of depression storage areas and infiltration rates on depths, velocities and friction of overland flows. The micro-relief of undisturbed field plots was characterized at z-scale 1 mm through close-range stereo-photogrammetry and geo-statistical tools. The overland flow areas produced by controlled water inflows were video-recorded and the flow velocities were measured with image processing software. Antecedent and post-inflow moisture were measured, and texture, bulk density and physical properties of the upper soil were estimated based on soil core analyses. Field data were used to calibrate a physically-based, mass balanced, time explicit model of infiltration and overland flows. Modelling results reproduced the time series of observed flow areas, velocities and infiltration depths. Estimates of hydrodynamic parameters of overland flow (Reynolds-Froude numbers) are informed. To our knowledge, the study here presented is novel in combining several aspects that previous studies do not address simultaneously: (1) overland flow and infiltration parameters were obtained in undisturbed field conditions; (2) field measurements of overland flow movement were coupled to a detailed analysis of soil microtopography at 1 mm depth scale; (3) the effect of depression storage areas in infiltration rates and depth-velocity friction of overland flows is addressed. Relevance of the results to other similar desert areas is justified by the accompanying biogeography analysis of similarity of the environment where this study was performed with other desert areas of the world.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ehsan, Siddique Akhtar; Carbonell, Ramon; Ayarza, Puy; Martí, David; Martínez Poyatos, David; Simancas, José Fernando; Azor, Antonio; Ayala, Concepción; Torné, Montserrat; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés.
2015-03-01
A P wave seismic velocity model has been obtained for the Central Iberian Zone, the largest continental fragment of the Iberian Variscan Belt. The spatially dense, high-resolution, wide-angle seismic reflection experiment, ALCUDIA-WA, was acquired in 2012 across central Iberia, aiming to constrain the lithospheric structure and resolve the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle. The seismic transect, ~310 km long, crossed the Central Iberian Zone from its suture with the Ossa-Morena Zone to the southern limit of the Central System mountain range. The energy generated by five shots was recorded by ~900 seismic stations. High-amplitude phases were identified in every shot gather for the upper crust (Pg and PiP) and Moho (PmP and Pn). In the upper crust, the P wave velocities increase beneath the Cenozoic Tajo Basin. The base of the upper crust varies from ~13 km to ~20 km between the southernmost Central Iberian Zone and the Tajo Basin. Lower crustal velocities are more homogeneous. From SW-NE, the traveltime of PmP arrivals varies from ~10.5 s to ~11.8 s, indicating lateral variations in the P wave velocity and the crustal thickness, reflecting an increase toward the north related with alpine tectonics and the isostatic response of the crust to the orogenic load. The results suggest that the high velocities of the upper crust near the Central System might correspond to igneous rocks and/or high-grade metamorphic rocks. The contrasting lithologies and the increase in the Moho depth to the north evidence differences in the Variscan evolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petropoulos, G. P.; North, M. R.; Ireland, G.; Srivastava, P. K.; Rendall, D. V.
2015-03-01
This paper describes the validation of the SimSphere SVAT model conducted at different ecosystem types in the USA and Australia. Specific focus was given to examining the models' ability in predicting Shortwave Incoming Solar Radiation (Rg), Net Radiation (Rnet), Latent Heat (LE), Sensible Heat (H), Air Temperature at 1.3 m (Tair 1.3 m) and Air Temperature at 50 m (Tair 50 m). Model predictions were compared against corresponding in situ measurements acquired for a total of 72 selected days of the year 2011 obtained from 8 sites belonging to the AmeriFlux (USA) and OzFlux (Australia) monitoring networks. Selected sites were representative of a variety of environmental, biome and climatic conditions, to allow for the inclusion of contrasting conditions in the model evaluation. The application of the model confirmed its high capability in representing the multifarious and complex interactions of the Earth system. Comparisons showed a good agreement between modelled and measured fluxes, especially for the days with smoothed daily flux trends. A good to excellent agreement between the model predictions and the in situ measurements was reported, particularly so for the LE, H, T1.3 m and T 50 m parameters (RMSD = 39.47, 55.06 W m-2, 3.23, 3.77 °C respectively). A systematic underestimation of Rg and Rnet (RMSD = 67.83, 58.69 W m-2, MBE = 67.83, 58.69 W m-2 respectively) was also found. Highest simulation accuracies were obtained for the open woodland savannah and mulga woodland sites for most of the compared parameters. Very high values of the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index were also reported for all parameters ranging from 0.720 to 0.998, suggesting a very good model representation of the observations. To our knowledge, this study presents the first comprehensive validation of SimSphere, particularly so in USA and Australian ecosystem types. Findings are important and timely, given the rapidly expanding use of this model worldwide both as an educational and research tool. This includes ongoing research by different Space Agencies examining its synergistic use with Earth Observation data towards the development of global operational products.
Jeffrey A. Willick; Puneet Batra
2001-02-28
We present a measurement of the Hubble Constant based on Cepheid distances to 27 galaxies within 20 Mpc. We take the Cepheid data from published measurements by the Hubble Telescope Key Project on the Distance Scale (H0KP). We calibrate the Cepheid Period-Luminosity (PL) relation with data from over 700 Cepheids in the LMC obtained by the OGLE collaboration; we assume an LMC distance modulus of 18.50 mag (d=50.1 kpc). Using this PL calibration we obtain new distances to the H0KP galaxies. We correct the redshifts of these galaxies for peculiar velocities using two distinct velocity field models: the phenomenological model of Tonry et al. and a model based on the IRAS density field and linear gravitational instability theory. We combine the Cepheid distances with the corrected redshifts for the 27 galaxies to derive H_0, the Hubble constant. The results are H_0 = 85 +/- 5 km/s/Mpc (random error) at 95% confidence when the IRAS model is used, and 92 +/- 5 km/s/Mpc when the phenomenological model is used. The IRAS model is a better fit to the data and the Hubble constant it returns is more reliable. Systematic error stems mainly from LMC distance uncertainty which is not directly addressed by this paper. Our value of H_0 is significantly larger than that quoted by the H0KP, H_0 = 71 +/- 6 km/s/Mpc. Cepheid recalibration explains ~30% of this difference, velocity field analysis accounts for ~70%. We discuss in detail possible reasons for this discrepancy and future study needed to resolve it.
Barbosa, Disterfano L M; Vaz, Jerson R P; Figueiredo, Sávio W O; De Oliveira e Silva, Marcelo; Lins, Erb F; Mesquita, André L A
2015-01-01
The Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbines (DAWTs) have been widely studied, since the diffusers improve the power coefficient of the wind turbine, particularly of small systems. The diffuser is a device which has the function of causing an increase on the flow velocity through the wind rotor plane due to pressure drop downstream, therefore resulting in an increase of the rotor power coefficient. This technology aids the turbine to exceed the Betz limit, which states that the maximum kinetic energy extracted from the flow is 59.26%. Thus, the present study proposes a mathematical model describing the behavior of the internal velocity for three conical diffusers, taking into account the characteristics of flow around them. The proposed model is based on the Biot-Savart's Law, in which the vortex filament induces a velocity field at an arbitrary point on the axis of symmetry of the diffusers. The results are compared with experimental data obtained for the three diffusers, and present good agreement. PMID:25923169
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gangi, A. F.
1978-01-01
The data from the Apollo-14 and Apollo-16 Active Seismic Experiments were reanalyzed and show that a power-law velocity variation with depth is consistent with both the traveltimes and amplitudes of the first arrivals for source-to-geophone separations up to 32m. The data were improved by removing spurious glithches, flickering and stacking. While this improved the signal-to-noise ratios, it was not possible to measure the arrivals beyond 32m. The physical evidence that the shallow lunar regolith is made up of fine particles adds weight to the 1/6-power velocity model. The 1/6-power law predicts the traveltime t(x), varies with separation, x, as t(x) = t sub 0 (x/x sub 0) to the 5/6 power and, using a first-order theory, the amplitude, A(x), varies as A(x) = A sub 0 (x/x sub 0) to the (13-m)/12, M 1; the layer-velocity model predicts t(x) = t sub 0 (x/xsub 0) and A(x) = A sub 0 (x/x sub 0) to the 2nd power.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
One of the major problems in watershed hydrology is to accurately simulate the transport of water and sediment from their sources to the watershed outlet. Current numerical models have been extensively used to determine upland erosion, but their application is primarily limited to the field/hillslop...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czapiga, M. J.; Li, C.; Viparelli, E.; Eke, E.; Parker, G.
2013-12-01
We consider the case of a river with delta terminus into standing water in which the river channel and floodplain are bounded by well-defined valley walls. In previous analyses of the problem, self-formed channel geometry has been defined in terms of a formative bankfull Shields number that is a prescribed constant. Here we show that a) the condition of constant formative Shields number leads to a channel that over-narrows downstream, b) bankfull Shields number increases with the square root of slope, and c) the inclusion of this variation provides a more realistic model that overcomes the problem of over-narrowing. Our model includes backwater effects and can handle conditions for which the channel bottom is both above and below the basement onto which the delta progrades. We outline model performance under bankfull conditions where the channel and floodplain interact as the delta progrades. Our model represents the first step toward a 2D implementation for axisymmetric deltas such as the Selenga Delta of Lake Baikal, Russia.
Steady-state propagation speed of rupture fronts along 1D frictional interfaces
Amundsen, David Skålid; Thøgersen, Kjetil; Katzav, Eytan; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Scheibert, Julien
2015-01-01
The rupture of dry frictional interfaces occurs through the propagation of fronts breaking the contacts at the interface. Recent experiments have shown that the velocities of these rupture fronts range from quasi-static velocities proportional to the external loading rate to velocities larger than the shear wave speed. The way system parameters influence front speed is still poorly understood. Here we study steady-state rupture propagation in a 1D spring-block model of an extended frictional interface, for various friction laws. With the classical Amontons--Coulomb friction law, we derive a closed-form expression for the steady-state rupture velocity as a function of the interfacial shear stress just prior to rupture. We then consider an additional shear stiffness of the interface and show that the softer the interface, the slower the rupture fronts. We provide an approximate closed form expression for this effect. We finally show that adding a bulk viscosity on the relative motion of blocks accelerates stead...
Griffith, Brent; Turler, Daniel; Goudey, Howdy; Arasteh, Dariush
1998-04-01
When modeling thermal performance of building components and envelopes, researchers have traditionally relied on average surface heat-transfer coefficients that often do not accurately represent surface heat-transfer phenomena at any specific point on the component being evaluated. The authors have developed new experimental techniques that measure localized surface heat-flow phenomena resulting from convection. The data gathered using these new experimental procedures can be used to calculate local film coefficients and validate complex models of room and building envelope heat flows. These new techniques use a computer-controlled traversing system to measure both temperatures and air velocities in the boundary layer near the surface of a building component, in conjunction with current methods that rely on infrared (IR) thermography to measure surface temperatures. Measured data gathered using these new experimental procedures are presented here for two specimens: (1) a Calibrated Transfer Standard (CTS) that approximates a constant-heat-flux, flat plate; and (2) a dual-glazed, low-emittance (low-e), wood-frame window. The specimens were tested under steady-state heat flow conditions in laboratory thermal chambers. Air temperature and mean velocity data are presented with high spatial resolution (0.25- to 25-mm density). Local surface heat-transfer film coefficients are derived from the experimental data by means of a method that calculates heat flux using a linear equation for air temperature in the inner region of the boundary layer. Local values for convection surface heat-transfer rate vary from 1 to 4.5 W/m{sup 2} {center_dot} K. Data for air velocity show that convection in the warm-side thermal chamber is mixed forced/natural, but local velocity maximums occur from 4 to 8 mm from the window glazing.
Toward Understanding and Modeling Compressibility Effects on Velocity Gradients in Turbulence
Suman, Sawan
2011-02-22
to these two parts of the dissertation are presented. 1. E ects of compressibility on velocity gradient invariants and local topology Motivated by the need for a general classi cation methodology to categorize ow topology, Chong et al. [11] proposed a scheme... space and the values of the invariants P, Q and R. Chong et al. [11] explain that the P Q R space is partitioned into di erent spatial regions by a set of surfaces. Each of these regions corresponds to a particular category of the solution...
1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen
2008-01-01
Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.
differential travel-time and attenuation data sets. By comparing similarly resolved VS and Qµ models. In the upper mantle the highest attenuation is observed near subduction, presumably related to back arc al. [2000] compared anomalous bulk sound velocity relative to compressional and shear velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tessitore, S.; Fernández-Merodo, J. A.; Herrera, G.; Tomás, R.; Ramondini, M.; Sanabria, M.; Duro, J.; Mulas, J.; Calcaterra, D.
2015-11-01
Subsidence is a hazard that may have natural or anthropogenic origin causing important economic losses. The area of Murcia city (SE Spain) has been affected by subsidence due to groundwater overexploitation since the year 1992. The main observed historical piezometric level declines occurred in the periods 1982-1984, 1992-1995 and 2004-2008 and showed a close correlation with the temporal evolution of ground displacements. Since 2008, the pressure recovery in the aquifer has led to an uplift of the ground surface that has been detected by the extensometers. In the present work an elastic hydro-mechanical finite element code has been used to compute the subsidence time series for 24 geotechnical boreholes, prescribing the measured groundwater table evolution. The achieved results have been compared with the displacements estimated through an advanced DInSAR technique and measured by the extensometers. These spatio-temporal comparisons have showed that, in spite of the limited geomechanical data available, the model has turned out to satisfactorily reproduce the subsidence phenomenon affecting Murcia City. The model will allow the prediction of future induced deformations and the consequences of any piezometric level variation in the study area.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Hangilro; Kim, Hee Joon
2015-12-01
In transient electromagnetic (TEM) measurements, secondary fields that contain information on conductive targets such as hydrothermal mineral deposits in the seafloor can be measured in the absence of strong primary fields. A TEM system using a loop source is useful to the development of compact, autonomous instruments, which are well suited to submersible-based surveys. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of applying an in-loop TEM system to the detection of marine hydrothermal deposits through a one-dimensional modeling and inversion study. We examine step-off responses for a layered model and compare the characteristics of horizontal and vertical loop systems for detecting hydrothermal deposits. The feasibility study shows that TEM responses are very sensitive to a highly conductive layer. Time-domain target responses are larger and appear earlier in horizontal magnetic fields than in vertical ones, although the vertical field has 2-3 times larger magnitude than the horizontal one. An inverse problem is formulated with the Gauss-Newton method and solved with the damped and smoothness-constrained least-squares approach. The test example for a marine hydrothermal TEM survey demonstrated that the depth extent, conductivity and thickness of the highly conductive layer are well resolved.
The complex velocity distribution of galaxies in Abell 1689: implications for mass modelling
Ewa L. Lokas; Francisco Prada; Radoslaw Wojtak; Mariano Moles; Stefan Gottloeber
2005-11-14
The Abell 1689 galaxy cluster has recently become a subject of intensive study. Thanks to its intermediate redshift (z=0.183) its mass distribution can be reconstructed using numerous methods including gravitational lensing, galaxy kinematics and X-ray imaging. The methods used to yield conflicting mass estimates in the past and recently the cluster mass distribution has been claimed to be in conflict with standard CDM scenarios due to rather large concentration and steep mass profile obtained from detailed studies of Broadhurst et al. using lensing. By studying in detail the kinematics of about 200 galaxies with measured redshifts in the vicinity of the cluster we show that the cluster is probably surrounded by a few structures, quite distant from each other, but aligned along the line of sight. We support our arguments by referring to cosmological N-body simulations and showing explicitly that d