Science.gov

Sample records for 1-d velocity model

  1. Brady 1D seismic velocity model ambient noise prelim

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mellors, Robert J.

    2013-10-25

    Preliminary 1D seismic velocity model derived from ambient noise correlation. 28 Green's functions filtered between 4-10 Hz for Vp, Vs, and Qs were calculated. 1D model estimated for each path. The final model is a median of the individual models. Resolution is best for the top 1 km. Poorly constrained with increasing depth.

  2. Minimum 1D P- and S- Velocity Models for Montenegro and Vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucic, Ljiljana; Kissling, Edi; Spakman, Wim; Glavatovic, Branislav

    2015-04-01

    The territory of Montenegro and its vicinity are characterized by high-seismicity rate and very complex tectonics. Namely, southern Adria microplate subducts beneath Eurasia, forming the Dinarides fold-and-thrust belt which spreads through whole Montenegro and the western Balkans. Present-day lithosphere structure of the Adria-Dinarides collision zone in general is not constrained very well and, consequently, there is a lack of three-dimensional (3D) velocity models in this region. For these reasons, high resolution 3D tomography modeling of this area is considered to be of great importance. As part of preparatory phase for conducting a 3D local earthquake tomography study, a substantial amount of waveform data was collected, from all surroundings national seismic networks including 130 seismic stations from 11 countries. The data set comprises waveforms from 1452 earthquakes in the region recorded during time period 1990 - 2014. The collected data were obtained in different formats and the data base was harmonized by converting and integrating all data to miniseed format. The potential resolution of collected data for seismic tomography purpose was analyzed by ray density testing, using specially developed software for this specific purpose. The result is expressed as the number of rays between selected group of earthquake hypocenters and seismic stations, penetrating through the 3D model of the Earth crust and it documents the great potential of the data set for 3D seismic tomography. As a prerequisite to 3D tomography and for consistent high-precision earthquake locations, a minimum 1D velocity model has been calculated. The data set of around 400 earthquakes was selected from the main database and consistent wave onsets picking was performed, including seismic phase interpretation and its quality assessment. This highly consistent travel time data set is used for calculation of 1D velocity models for the region under study. The minimum 1D models were derived through the iterative inversion procedure using VELEST software. Comparison of the results between previous routinely processed seismic data at the studied area and the earthquake relocation results by applying the new 1D models, shows a significant improvement in quality of hypocenter parameters of all earthquakes used in the experiment. Since a minimum 1D model represents a solution to the coupled hypocenter-velocity problem, the resulting velocity information will be used as a suitable velocity model for further routine earthquake location in the region, and also as the appropriate initial reference model for 3D tomography modeling, applying the full seismic database. Keywords: minimum 1D model, seismic tomography, Velest, Montenegro

  3. Periodic solutions for a 1D-model with nonlocal velocity via mass transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Lucas C. F.; Valencia-Guevara, Julio C.

    2016-05-01

    This paper concerns periodic solutions for a 1D-model with nonlocal velocity given by the periodic Hilbert transform. There is a rich literature showing, via numerics and rigorous analysis, that this model presents singular behavior of solutions. For instance, they can blow up by forming mass-concentration. We develop a global well-posedness theory for periodic measure initial data that allows, in particular, to analyze how the model evolves from those singularities. Our results are based on periodic mass transport theory and the abstract gradient flow theory in metric spaces developed by Ambrosio et al. (2005). A viscous version of the model is also analyzed and inviscid limit properties are obtained.

  4. Hypocenter determination using simulated annealing, updated 1D seismic velocity model and focal mechanism analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Akhmad Fanani; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Sule, Rachmat; Juanda, Aditya Abdurrahman

    2013-09-01

    Hypocenter determination of micro-earthquakes of Mount "X-1" geothermal field has been conducted using simulated annealing and guided error search method using a 1D seismic velocity model. In order to speed up the hypocenter determination process a three-circle intersection method has been used to guide the simulated annealing and guided error search process. We used P and S arrival time's microseismic data. In the simulated annealing and guided error search processes, the minimum travel time from a source to a receiver has been calculated by employing ray tracing with shooting method. The resulting hypocenters from the above process occurred at depths of 3-4 km below mean sea level. These hypocenter distributions are correlated with previous study which was concluded that the most active microseismic area in which the site of many fractures and also vertical circulation place. Later on, resulting hypocenters location was used as input to determine 1-D seismic velocity using joint hypocenter determination method. The results of VELEST indicate show low Vp/Vs ratio value at depths of 3-4 km. Our interpretation is this anomaly may be related to a rock layer which is saturated by vapor (gas or steam). Another feature is high Vp/Vs ratio value at depths of 1-3 km that may related to a rock layer which is saturated by fluid or partial melting. We also analyze the focal mechanism of microseismic using ISOLA method to determine the source characteristic of this event.

  5. 1-D seismic velocity model and hypocenter relocation using double difference method around West Papua region

    SciTech Connect

    Sabtaji, Agung E-mail: agung.sabtaji@bmkg.go.id; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.

  6. Forward waveform modelling procedure for 1-D crustal velocity structure and its application to the southern Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seongryong; Rhie, Junkee; Kim, Geunyoung

    2011-04-01

    We propose a full-grid search procedure for broad-band waveform modelling to determine a 1-D crustal velocity model. The velocity model can be more constrained because of the use of broad-band waveforms instead of traveltimes for the crustal phases, although only a small number of event-station pairs were employed. Despite the time-consuming nature of the full-grid search method to search the whole model parameter space, the use of an empirical relationship between the P- and S-wave velocities can significantly reduce computation time. The proposed method was applied to a case in the southern Korean Peninsula. Broad-band waveforms obtained from two inland earthquakes that occurred on 2007 January 20 (Mw 4.6) and 2004 April 26 (Mw 3.6) were used to test the method. The three-layers over half-space crustal velocity model of the P- and S-wave velocities was estimated. Comparisons of waveform fitness between the final model and previously published models demonstrate advancements in the average value of waveform fitness for the inland earthquakes. In addition, 1-D velocity models were determined for three distinct tectonic regions, namely, the Gyonggi Massif, the Okcheon Belt and the Gyeongsang Basin, which are all located inside the study area. A comparison between the three models demonstrates that the crustal thickness of the southern Korean Peninsula increases from NW to SE and that the lower crustal composition of the Okcheon belt differs from that of the other tectonic regions.

  7. Calibration of a 1D Crustal Velocity and Q Model for Ground Motion Simulations in Central and Eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    I have performed low frequency (f < 1 Hz) ground motion simulations for the 2008 Mw 5.23 Mt. Carmel, Illinois and 2011 Mw 5.74 Mineral, Virginia earthquakes to calibrate a rock-site 1D crustal velocity and Q structure model for central and eastern US (CEUS). For each earthquake, the observed ground motions were simulated at sites extending out to about 900 km from the epicenter. Sites within the Mississippi embayment are not included in the modeling. The initial 1D velocity model was developed by averaging profiles extracted from the CUS V1.3 3D velocity model (Ramirez-Guzman et al, 2012) at each of the recording sites, with the surface shear wave velocity set at 2200 m/s. The Mt. Carmel earthquake is represented as a point double couple (strike=25, dip=90, rake=-175) at a depth of 14 km and a slip-rate function having a Brune corner frequency of 0.89 Hz (Hartzell and Mendoza, 2011). The Mineral earthquake is represented as a point double couple (strike=26, dip=55, rake=108) at a depth of 6 km and a slip-rate function having a corner frequency of 0.50 Hz. Full waveform Green's functions were computed using the FK method of Zhu and Rivera (2002). The initial model does well at reproducing the median level of observed response spectral acceleration (Sa) for most sites out to 300 km at periods of 2 to 5 sec, including the observed flattening in distance attenuation between 70 and 150 km. However, this model under predicts the motions beyond about 400 km distance. Increasing Q in the mid- and lower crust from the original value of 700 to 5000 removes this under prediction of the larger distance motions. Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) estimates have been computed from the simulations using the ground motion-intensity conversion equations of Atkinson and Kaka (2007; AK2007) and Dangkua and Cramer (2011; DC2011-ENA) for comparison against the observed "Did You Feel It" intensity estimates. Given the bandwidth limitations of the simulations, I use the conversion relations for 2 sec Sa. For both earthquakes, the MMI values obtained from DC2011-ENA are systematical higher than the AK2007 values for all distances and over predict the median level of the observed values by roughly 1 MMI unit, whereas the AK2007 values provide a close match to the observed median levels.bserved and simulated spectral acceleration levels at 2 second period (left) and MMI (right) for the Mt. Carmel earthquake.

  8. Relocation of the Waldkirch seismic event, December 5, 2004, with regional 1D- and 3D-velocity models in the presence of upper mantle anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muench, Thomas; Koch, Manfred; Schlittenhard, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    On December 5, 2004 a strong earthquake occurred near the city of Waldkirch, about 30 km's north of Freiburg, with a local magnitude of ML = 5.4. This seismic event was one of the strongest observed since the ML = 5.7 'Schwäbische Alb' event of September 3, 1978, 30 years before. In the aftermath of the event several institutions (Bens, BGR, LGBR, LED, SED and NEIC) have attempted to relocate this earthquake that came up with a hypocentral depth range of 9 - 12 km which. In fact, as the exact hypocentral location of the Waldkirch - and other events in the area - namely, the seismic depths, are of utmost importance for the further understanding of the seismotectonics as well as of the seismic hazard in the upper Rhinegraben area, one cannot over stress the necessity for a hypocenter relocation as best as possible. This requires a careful analysis of all factors that may impede an unbiased relocation of such an event. In the present talk we put forward the question whether the Waldkirch seismic event can be relocated with sufficient accuracy by a regional network when, additionally, improved regional 1D- and 3D seismic velocity models for the crust and upper mantle that take into consideration Pn-anisotropy of the upper mantle beneath Germany are employed in the hypocentral determination process. The seismological work starts with a comprehensive analysis of the dataset available for the relocation of the event. By means of traveltime curves a reevaluation of the observed phases is done and it is shown that some of the big observed traveltime residuals are most likely the consequence of wrongly associated phases as well as of the neglect of the anisotropic Pn traveltime correction for the region. Then hypcocenter relocations are done for 1D vertically inhomogeneous and 3D laterally inhomogeneous seismic velocity models, without and with the anisotropic Pn-traveltime correction included. The effects of the - often not well-known - Moho depth and of the VP/VS-ratio across the study area are investigated. Finally a thorough statistical analysis of the hypocentral relocation accuracy and its sensitivity to various observational and model errors is carried out by (1) the classical calculation of covariances and confidence ellipses for the hypocenter and (2) Monte Carlo relocations with random perturbations of the observed arrivaltimes as well as of the choice of the initial hypocenter in the relocation process. The correction of the original phase-data leads to a shift of the hypocenter to about 10 to 15 km depth instead of 0 - 5 km for the uncorrected phases.The importance of the phase correction is also supported by the final RMS which is reduced from 2.22 s to 1.00 s for the isotropic case and, even more so, from 2.29 s to 0.75 s for the anisotropic. The reduced traveltime plots indicate also that a common VP /VS-ratio of 1.72 for both the crust and the upper mantle does not fit the crustal Sg-phases well. From subsequent hypocentral relocations with separate VP/VS-ratio for the crust and the upper mantle optimal values of VP /VS = 1.70 former, respective 1.66 for the latter, are obtained. In a subsequent set of relocations of the Waldkirch event the recently established isotropic and anisotropic 3D- crustal and upper mantle seismic velocity models of (Muench, 2009; Muench et al., 2010) are employed. Compared with the previous 1D hypocentral relocations where the optimal depth range found is 14 to 15 km, those of the 3D models lie about one km higher. The slightly lower depth of the 3D-models is most likely a consequence of traveltime effects of the structural velocity inhomogeneities.

  9. Effects of 1-D versus 3-D velocity models on moment tensor inversion in the Dobrá Voda area in the Little Carpathians region, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jechumtálová, Zuzana; Bulant, Petr

    2014-07-01

    Retrieving the parameters of a seismic source from seismograms involves deconvolving the response of the medium from seismic records. Thus, in general, source parameters are determined from both seismograms and the Green functions describing the properties of the medium in which the earthquake focus is buried. The quality of each of these two datasets is equally significant for the successful determination of source characteristics. As a rule, both sets are subject to contamination by effects that decrease the resolution of the source parameters. Seismic records are generally contaminated by noise that appears as a spurious signal unrelated to the source. Since an improper model of the medium is quite often employed, due to poor knowledge of the seismic velocity of the area under study, and since the hypocentre may be mislocated, the Green functions are not without fault. Thus, structures not modelled by Green functions are assigned to the source, distorting the source mechanism. To demonstrate these effects, we performed a synthetic case study by simulating seismic observations in the Dobrá Voda area of the Little Carpathians region of Slovakia. Simplified 1-D and 3-D laterally inhomogeneous structural models were constructed, and synthetic data were calculated using the 3-D model. Both models were employed during a moment tensor inversion. The synthetic data were contaminated by random noise up to 10 and 20 % of the maximum signal amplitude. We compared the influence of these two effects on retrieving moment tensors, and determined that a poor structural model can be compensated for by high-quality data; and that, in a similar manner, a lack of data can be compensated for by a detailed model of the medium. For examples, five local events from the Dobrá Voda area were processed.

  10. Investigation of 1-D crustal velocity structure beneath Izmir Gulf and surroundings by using local earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, Orhan; Özer, Ćaglar

    2016-04-01

    In this study; we examined one dimensional crustal velocity structure of Izmir gulf and surroundings. We used nearly one thousand high quality (A and B class) earthquake data which recorded by Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) [1], Bogazici University (BU-KOERI) [2] and National Observatory of Athens (NOA) [3,4]. We tried several synthetic tests to understand power of new velocity structure, and examined phase residuals, RMS values and shifting tests. After evaluating these tests; we decided one dimensional velocity structure and minimum 1-D P wave velocities, hypocentral parameter and earthquake locations from VELEST algorithm. Distribution of earthquakes was visibly improved by using new minimum velocity structure.

  11. Evaluating 1d Seismic Models of the Lunar Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Y.; Thorne, M. S.; Weber, R. C.; Schmerr, N. C.

    2012-12-01

    A four station seismic network was established on the Moon from 1969 to 1977 as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP). A total of nine 1D seismic velocity models were generated using a variety of different techniques. In spite of the fact that these models were generated from the same data set, significant differences exist between them. We evaluate these models by comparing predicted travel-times to published catalogs of lunar events. We generate synthetic waveform predictions for 1D lunar models using a modified version of the Green's Function of the Earth by Minor Integration (GEMINI) technique. Our results demonstrate that the mean square errors between predicted and measured P-wave travel times are smaller than those for S-wave travel times in all cases. Moreover, models fit travel times for artificial and meteoroid impacts better than for shallow and deep moonquakes. Overall, models presented by Nakamura [Nakamura, 1983] and Garcia et al. [Garcia et al., 2011] predicted the observed travel times better than all other models and were comparable in their explanation of travel-times. Nevertheless, significant waveform differences exist between these models. In particular, the seismic velocity structure of the lunar crust and regolith strongly affect the waveform characteristics predicted by these models. Further complexity is added by possible mantle discontinuity structure that exists in a subset of these models. We show synthetic waveform predictions for these models demonstrating the role that crustal structure has in generating long duration seismic coda inherent in the lunar waveforms.

  12. Modeling an electric motor in 1-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    Quite often the dynamicist will be faced with having an electric drive motor as a link in the elastic path of a structure such that the motor's characteristics must be taken into account to properly represent the dynamics of the primary structure. He does not want to model it so accurately that he could get detailed stress and displacements in the motor proper, but just sufficiently to represent its inertia loading and elastic behavior from its mounting bolts to its drive coupling. Described here is how the rotor and stator of such a motor can be adequately modeled as a colinear pair of beams.

  13. GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    KALYANAPU, ALFRED; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N.; BURIAN, STEVEN J.

    2007-01-17

    This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.

  14. Effective-range signatures in quasi-1D matter waves: sound velocity and solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgarlata, F.; Mazzarella, G.; Salasnich, L.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate ultracold and dilute bosonic atoms under strong transverse harmonic confinement using a 1D modified Gross-Pitaevskii equation (1D MGPE), which accounts for the energy dependence of the two-body scattering amplitude within an effective-range expansion. We study sound waves and solitons of the quasi-1D system, comparing the 1D MGPE results with the 1D GPE ones. We find that when the finite-size nature of the interaction is taken into account, the speed of sound and the density profiles of both dark and bright solitons show relevant quantitative changes with respect to predictions given by the standard 1D GPE.

  15. Ion velocity distribution at the termination shock: 1-D PIC simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Quanming; Yang Zhongwei; Lembege, Bertrand

    2012-11-20

    The Voyager 2 (V2) plasma observations of the proton temperature downstream of the quasi-perpendicular heliospheric termination shock (TS) showed that upstream thermal solar wind ions played little role in the shock dissipation mechanism and their downstream temperature is an order of magnitude smaller than predicted by MHD Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. While pickup ions (PUI) are generally expected to play an important role in energy dissipation at the shock, the details remain unclear. Here, one-dimensional (1-D) Particle-in-cell (PIC) code is used to examine kinetic properties and downstream velocity distribution functions of pickup ions (the hot supra-thermal component) and solar wind protons (SWs, the cold component) at the perpendicular heliospheric termination shock. The code treats the pickup ions self-consistently as a third component. Present results show that: (1) both of the incident SWs and PUIs can be separated into two parts: reflected (R) ions and directly transmitted (DT) ions, the energy gain of the R ions at the shock front is much larger than that of the DT ions; (2) the fraction of reflected SWs and their downstream temperature decrease with the relative percentage PUI%; (3) no matter how large the PUI% is, the downstream ion velocity distribution function always can be separated into three parts: 1. a high energy tail (i.e. the wings) dominated by the reflected PUIs, 2. a low energy core mainly contributed by the directly transmitted SWs, and 3. a middle energy part which is a complicated superposition of reflected SWs and directly transmitted PUIs. The significance of the presence of pickup ions on shock front micro-structure and nonstationarity is also discussed.

  16. Modeling Terminal Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…

  17. Non-cooperative Brownian donkeys: A solvable 1D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez de Cisneros, B.; Reimann, P.; Parrondo, J. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    A paradigmatic 1D model for Brownian motion in a spatially symmetric, periodic system is tackled analytically. Upon application of an external static force F the system's response is an average current which is positive for F < 0 and negative for F > 0 (absolute negative mobility). Under suitable conditions, the system approaches 100% efficiency when working against the external force F.

  18. An approach to jointly invert hypocenters and 1D velocity structure and its application to the Lushan earthquake series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hui; Mechie, James; Li, Haibing; Xue, Guangqi; Su, Heping; Cui, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Earthquake location is essential when defining fault systems and other geological structures. Many methods have been developed to locate hypocenters within a 1D velocity model. In this study, a new approach, named MatLoc, has been developed which can simultaneously invert for the locations and origin times of the hypocenters and the velocity structure, from the arrival times of local earthquakes. Moreover, it can invert for layer boundary depths, such as Moho depths, which can be well constrained by the Pm and Pn phases. For this purpose, the package was developed to take into account reflected phases, e.g., the Pm phase. The speed of the inversion is acceptable due to the use of optimized matrix calculations. The package has been used to re-locate the Lushan earthquake series which occurred in Sichuan, China, from April 20 to April 22, 2013. The results obtained with the package show that the Lushan earthquake series defines the dip of the Guankou fault, on which most of the series occurred, to be 39° toward the NW. Further, the surface projection of the Lushan earthquake series is consistent with the regional tectonic strike which is about N45° E.

  19. Velocity-dependent quantum phase slips in 1D atomic superfluids.

    PubMed

    Tanzi, Luca; Scaffidi Abbate, Simona; Cataldini, Federica; Gori, Lorenzo; Lucioni, Eleonora; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni; D'Errico, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Quantum phase slips are the primary excitations in one-dimensional superfluids and superconductors at low temperatures but their existence in ultracold quantum gases has not been demonstrated yet. We now study experimentally the nucleation rate of phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids realized with ultracold quantum gases, flowing along a periodic potential. We observe a crossover between a regime of temperature-dependent dissipation at small velocity and interaction and a second regime of velocity-dependent dissipation at larger velocity and interaction. This behavior is consistent with the predicted crossover from thermally-assisted quantum phase slips to purely quantum phase slips. PMID:27188334

  20. A 1-D morphodynamic model of postglacial valley incision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunnicliffe, Jon F.; Church, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Chilliwack River is typical of many Cordilleran valley river systems that have undergone dramatic Holocene degradation of valley fills that built up over the course of Pleistocene glaciation. Downstream controls on base level, mainly blockage of valleys by glaciers, led to aggradation of significant glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine valley fills and fan deposits, subsequently incised by fluvial action. Models of such large-scale, long-term degradation present a number of important challenges since the evolution of model parameters, such as the rate of bedload transport and grain size characteristics, are governed by the nature of the deposit. Sediment sampling in the Chilliwack Valley reveals a complex sequence of very coarse to fine textural modes. We present a 1-D numerical morphodynamic model for the river-floodplain system tailored to conditions in the valley. The model is adapted to dynamically adjust channel width to optimize sediment transporting capacity and to integrate relict valley fill material as the channel incises through valley deposits. Sensitivity to model parameters is studied using four principal criteria: profile concavity, rate of downstream grain size fining, bed surface sand content, and the timescale to equilibrium. Model results indicate that rates of abrasion and coarsening of the grain size distributions exert the strongest controls on all of the interrelated model performance criteria. While there are a number of difficulties in satisfying all model criteria simultaneously, results indicate that 1-D models of valley bottom sedimentary systems can provide a suitable framework for integrating results from sediment budget studies and chronologies of sediment evacuation established from dating.

  1. A scattering model of 1D quantum wire regular polygons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estarellas, Cristian; Serra, Llorenç

    2015-07-01

    We calculate the quantum states of regular polygons made of 1D quantum wires treating each polygon vertex as a scatterer. The vertex scattering matrix is analytically obtained from the model of a circular bend of a given angle of a 2D nanowire. In the single mode limit the spectrum is classified in doublets of vanishing circulation, twofold split by the small vertex reflection, and singlets with circulation degeneracy. Simple analytic expressions of the energy eigenvalues are given. It is shown how each polygon is characterized by a specific spectrum.

  2. A computationally efficient steady-state electrode-level and 1D + 1D cell-level fuel cell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Cheng; Bessler, Wolfgang G.

    2012-07-01

    Computational efficiency is highly important for upscaling detailed electrode-level and cell-level models to the system level required for the design and control of fuel cells. We present a computationally efficient 1D + 1D fuel cell model based on a combination of analytical and numerical approaches. On the electrode level, we develop approximate analytical solutions for the 1D current/potential distribution via a hybrid algorithm of power-law approach and perturbation method. Compared to the conventional perturbation method, this work keeps the intrinsic nonlinearity of electrochemical kinetics, while providing clearer physical meaning than some purely mathematical methods like the Adomian decomposition method. By integrating the resulting overpotential profile into mass transfer models, concentration overpotentials are obtained and the thermodynamic framework is then used for analyzing the H2/CO electrochemical co-oxidation kinetics. A novel expression is also presented to interconvert volume- and area-specific exchange current densities. On the cell level, a linear relationship between local current density and solid temperature is further developed for efficient 1D + 1D thermal along-the-channel numerical simulations without requiring computational iterations. Both the electrode-level and cell-level macroscopic fuel cell models are validated against full numerical solutions available in the open literatures over a wide range of operating conditions. With the hybrid analytical/numerical approximation in two dimensions, the computational framework is predicted to be sufficiently efficient for real-time simulations.

  3. Examination of 1D Solar Cell Model Limitations Using 3D SPICE Modeling: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.

    2012-06-01

    To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell modeling, 3D SPICE-based modeling is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a model cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this modeling give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and 3D models.

  4. Flooding flows in city crossroads: experiments and 1-D modelling.

    PubMed

    Rivière, N; Perkins, R J; Chocat, B; Lecus, A

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the discharge distribution in an intersection of four channels, similar to a city crossroad. The channels and the intersection are all horizontal. Flow enters through two of the channels, and leaves through the other two. The flow is subcritical everywhere, and flow depths are controlled by vertical weirs at the exits of the outlet channels. The main variables that are measured are the flow rates in the four channels. When the weir heights in the outlet channels are the same, the ratio of flow rates in the outlet channels depends only on the ratio of flow rates in the inlet channels; if the outlet conditions are different, other parameters, such as the total flow rate also become important. The flow has also been simulated numerically using a solution of the 1-D Saint Venant equations, with a simple model to predict flow distribution in the intersection. A comparison with the experimental data shows that this model works well for the limited range of experimental conditions studied here. However, further work is needed on a wider range of conditions, closer to real conditions, before the model can be considered valid for practical applications. PMID:17120636

  5. On the mixture model of two-phase proppant transport in 1D fracturing flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiming

    2012-11-01

    A mixture model of two-phase fluid flow is derived for proppant transport in 1D hydraulic fracturing. The governing equations of the model consists of the mass balance equations for the mixture and the proppant phase, the momentum equation for the mixture and the constitutive equation between proppant average velocity and fluid average velocity. Mass loss and momentum loss due to proppant settling are considered. One dimensional numerical simulations based on discontinuous Galerkin finite element method in space are performed. Both steady cases and transient cases are compared with available analytical solutions or manufactured solutions. Predicted numerical results agree well with exact solutions. This one dimensional two-phase model captures necessary proppant flow phenomena in hydraulic fracturing and also provides numerical efficiency and accuracy.

  6. A 1D model of the arterial circulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Aslanidou, Lydia; Trachet, Bram; Reymond, Philippe; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Segers, Patrick; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    At a time of growing concern over the ethics of animal experimentation, mouse models are still an indispensable source of insight into the cardiovascular system and its most frequent pathologies. Nevertheless, reference data on the murine cardiovascular anatomy and physiology are lacking. In this work, we developed and validated an in silico, one dimensional model of the murine systemic arterial tree consisting of 85 arterial segments. Detailed aortic dimensions were obtained in vivo from contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography in 3 male, C57BL/6J anesthetized mice and 3 male ApoE(-/-) mice, all 12-weeks old. Physiological input data were gathered from a wide range of literature data. The integrated form of the Navier-Stokes equations was solved numerically to yield pressures and flows throughout the arterial network. The resulting model predictions have been validated against invasive pressure waveforms and non-invasive velocity and diameter waveforms that were measured in vivo on an independent set of 47 mice. In conclusion, we present a validated one-dimensional model of the anesthetized murine cardiovascular system that can serve as a versatile tool in the field of preclinical cardiovascular research. PMID:26555250

  7. Geostatistical Modeling of Pore Velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Devary, J.L.; Doctor, P.G.

    1981-06-01

    A significant part of evaluating a geologic formation as a nuclear waste repository involves the modeling of contaminant transport in the surrounding media in the event the repository is breached. The commonly used contaminant transport models are deterministic. However, the spatial variability of hydrologic field parameters introduces uncertainties into contaminant transport predictions. This paper discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to the modeling of spatially varying hydrologic field parameters required as input to contaminant transport analyses. Kriging estimation techniques were applied to Hanford Reservation field data to calculate hydraulic conductivity and the ground-water potential gradients. These quantities were statistically combined to estimate the groundwater pore velocity and to characterize the pore velocity estimation error. Combining geostatistical modeling techniques with product error propagation techniques results in an effective stochastic characterization of groundwater pore velocity, a hydrologic parameter required for contaminant transport analyses.

  8. Survey of Multi-Material Closure Models in 1D Lagrangian Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Maeng, Jungyeoul Brad; Hyde, David Andrew Bulloch

    2015-07-28

    Accurately treating the coupled sub-cell thermodynamics of computational cells containing multiple materials is an inevitable problem in hydrodynamics simulations, whether due to initial configurations or evolutions of the materials and computational mesh. When solving the hydrodynamics equations within a multi-material cell, we make the assumption of a single velocity field for the entire computational domain, which necessitates the addition of a closure model to attempt to resolve the behavior of the multi-material cells’ constituents. In conjunction with a 1D Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, we present a variety of both the popular as well as more recently proposed multi-material closure models and survey their performances across a spectrum of examples. We consider standard verification tests as well as practical examples using combinations of fluid, solid, and composite constituents within multi-material mixtures. Our survey provides insights into the advantages and disadvantages of various multi-material closure models in different problem configurations.

  9. A One-Dimensional (1-D) Three-Region Model for a Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Adsorber

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Andrew; Miller, David C.

    2012-01-01

    A general one-dimensional (1-D), three-region model for a bubbling fluidized-bed adsorber with internal heat exchangers has been developed. The model can predict the hydrodynamics of the bed and provides axial profiles for all temperatures, concentrations, and velocities. The model is computationally fast and flexible and allows for any system of adsorption and desorption reactions to be modeled, making the model applicable to any adsorption process. The model has been implemented in both gPROMS and Aspen Custom Modeler, and the behavior of the model has been verified.

  10. Uniform Contractivity in Wasserstein Metric for the Original 1D Kac's Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauray, Maxime

    2016-03-01

    We study here a very popular 1D jump model introduced by Kac: it consists of N velocities encountering random binary collisions at which they randomly exchange energy. We show the uniform (in N) exponential contractivity of the dynamics in a non-standard Monge-Kantorovich-Wasserstein: precisely the MKW metric of order 2 on the energy. The result is optimal in the sense that for each N, the contractivity constant is equal to the L^2 spectral gap of the generator associated to Kac's dynamic. As a corollary, we get an uniform but non optimal contractivity in the MKW metric of order 4. We use a simple coupling that works better that the parallel one. The estimates are simple and new (to the best of our knowledge).

  11. Quasi 1D Modeling of Mixed Compression Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Woolwine, Kyle J.

    2012-01-01

    The AeroServoElasticity task under the NASA Supersonics Project is developing dynamic models of the propulsion system and the vehicle in order to conduct research for integrated vehicle dynamic performance. As part of this effort, a nonlinear quasi 1-dimensional model of the 2-dimensional bifurcated mixed compression supersonic inlet is being developed. The model utilizes computational fluid dynamics for both the supersonic and subsonic diffusers. The oblique shocks are modeled utilizing compressible flow equations. This model also implements variable geometry required to control the normal shock position. The model is flexible and can also be utilized to simulate other mixed compression supersonic inlet designs. The model was validated both in time and in the frequency domain against the legacy LArge Perturbation INlet code, which has been previously verified using test data. This legacy code written in FORTRAN is quite extensive and complex in terms of the amount of software and number of subroutines. Further, the legacy code is not suitable for closed loop feedback controls design, and the simulation environment is not amenable to systems integration. Therefore, a solution is to develop an innovative, more simplified, mixed compression inlet model with the same steady state and dynamic performance as the legacy code that also can be used for controls design. The new nonlinear dynamic model is implemented in MATLAB Simulink. This environment allows easier development of linear models for controls design for shock positioning. The new model is also well suited for integration with a propulsion system model to study inlet/propulsion system performance, and integration with an aero-servo-elastic system model to study integrated vehicle ride quality, vehicle stability, and efficiency.

  12. Inversion of DC profiles using 1D piecewise continuous models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo Silva, Hugo; Gomez-Trevino, Enrique; Marroquin Zaleta, Jose L.

    2000-11-01

    This paper presents a method for constructing couples, one dimensional electrical conductivity models of the Earth from surface geoelectric measurements. The construction of the individual models is a nonlinear inverse problem that can be approached by linearization techniques combined with iterative methods and Tikhonov's regularization. The standard application of these techniques usually leads to smooth models that represent a continuous variation of conductivity with depth. In a previous work, we described how these methods can be modified to incorporate what is known in the Computer Vision as the line process (LP) decoupling technique, which has the ability to include discontinuities in the models. This results in piecewise smooth models which are often more adequate for representing stratified media. In this work, the case of several resistivity soundings located along a line transect is considered. For every sounding site, a one dimensional model is developed, and the models are horizontally coupled in order to include information from neighboring sites. Numerical experiments and application to field data are presented. In both cases, it is assumed that the data are contaminated by static shift effects. The algorithm automatically takes these effects into account. The examples illustrate the performance of the combined LP and Tikhonov's regularization method in the solution of difficult practical problems.

  13. Analyzing and modeling /1+1d markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challet, Damien; Stinchcombe, Robin

    2001-11-01

    We report on a statistical analysis of the Island ECN (NASDAQ) order book. We determine the static and dynamic properties of this system, and then analyze them from a physicist's viewpoint using an equivalent particle system obtained by treating orders as massive particles and price as position. We identify the fundamental dynamical processes, test existing particles models of such markets against our findings, and introduce a new model of limit order markets.

  14. Potential and limitations of 1D modelling of urban flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Ole; Weesakul, Sutat; Apirumanekul, Chusit; Aroonnet, Surajate Boonya; Djordjevi?, Slobodan

    2004-12-01

    Urban flooding is an inevitable problem for many cities around the world. In the present paper, modelling approaches and principles for analyses of urban flooding are outlined. The paper shows how urban flooding can be simulated by one-dimensional hydrodynamic modelling incorporating the interaction between (i) the buried pipe system, (ii) the streets (with open channel flow) and (iii) the areas flooded with stagnant water. The modelling approach is generic in the sense that it handles both urban flooding with and without flood water entry into houses. In order to visualize flood extent and impact, the modelling results are presented in the form of flood inundation maps produced in GIS. In this paper, only flooding from local rainfall is considered together with the impact in terms of flood extent, flood depth and flood duration. Finally, the paper discusses the data requirement for verification of urban flood models together with an outline of a simple cost function for estimation of the cost of the flood damages.

  15. Kinetic and Stochastic Models of 1D yeast ``prions"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunes, Kay

    2005-03-01

    Mammalian prion proteins (PrP) are of public health interest because of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. Yeasts have proteins, which can undergo similar reconformation and aggregation processes to PrP; yeast ``prions" are simpler to experimentally study and model. Recent in vitro studies of the SUP35 protein (1), showed long aggregates and pure exponential growth of the misfolded form. To explain this data, we have extended a previous model of aggregation kinetics along with our own stochastic approach (2). Both models assume reconformation only upon aggregation, and include aggregate fissioning and an initial nucleation barrier. We find for sufficiently small nucleation rates or seeding by small dimer concentrations that we can achieve the requisite exponential growth and long aggregates.

  16. Kinetic Model for 1D aggregation of yeast ``prions''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunes, Kay; Cox, Daniel; Singh, Rajiv

    2004-03-01

    Mammalian prion proteins (PrP) are of public health interest because of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. Yeast have proteins which can undergo similar reconformation and aggregation processes to PrP; yeast forms are simpler to experimentally study and model. Recent in vitro studies of the SUP35 protein(1), showed long aggregates and pure exponential growth of the misfolded form. To explain this data, we have extended a previous model of aggregation kinetics(2). The model assumes reconformation only upon aggregation, and includes aggregate fissioning and an initial nucleation barrier. We find for sufficiently small nucleation rates or seeding by small dimer concentrations that we can achieve the requisite exponential growth and long aggregates. We will compare to a more realistic stochastic kinetics model and present prelimary attempts to describe recent experiments on SUP35 strains. *-Supported by U.S. Army Congressionally Mandated Research Fund. 1) P. Chien and J.S. Weissman, Nature 410, 223 (2001); http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/bionet03/collins/. 2) J. Masel, V.A.> Jansen, M.A. Nowak, Biophys. Chem. 77, 139 (1999).

  17. 1D internal structure models of the Moon: the best way to the core?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, R. F.; Urvoy, M.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Chevrot, S.; Lognonne, P.; Mimoun, D.

    2011-12-01

    Despite recent attempts, the size, state and internal structure of the lunar core remains poorly constrained. The most successful approach to constraint the deep interior structure of the planets is to fit both geodetic and seismic data with consistent 1D internal structure models including seismic velocities and density. We demonstrate that for such models, global geodetic parameters, such as mass, moment of inertia and love numbers, constrain poorly the core size and state. Moreover, the mass and moment of inertia budgets create correlations betwen crust and core density structures. Another source of information comes from the deviations from cassini spin state and the magnetic induction of the lunar core that provides independent constraints on the lunar core size and state. However, seismology remains the best tool to constrain the deep internal structure of the planets. In a previous study, Birch law and adiabaticity physical constraints were used to construct internal structure models of the lunar mantle linking seismic velocities to density. The detection of core reflected seismic phases allowed to obtain a reference model (VPREMOON) including the core. An updated version of this model is presented, in which the P and S propagation times have been more precisely measured, and latest versions of the average crust/mantle density models has been included. Synthetic waveforms of Apollo records are compared to real ones, suggesting that additional core reflected phases may be detected for some deep moonquake events. An analysis of these additional core reflected phases allows to reduce the error bars on the deep internal structure of the Moon. However, the data set is limited by its size, space sampling and frequency bandwidth. Such that, only additional deployments of broad band seismic sensors, through space missions similar to SELENE2 (JAXA) or GEMS (NASA), will precise the deep internal structure at a level allowing unambiguous geochemical interpretations.

  18. 1D numerical model of muddy subaqueous and subaerial debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imran, J.; Parker, G.; Locat, J.; Lee, H.

    2001-01-01

    A 1D numerical model of the downslope flow and deposition of muddy subaerial and subaqueous debris flows is presented. The model incorporates the Herschel-Bulkley and bilinear rheologies of viscoplastic fluid. The more familiar Bingham model is integrated into the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model. The conservation equations of mass and momentum of single-phase laminar debris flow are layer-integrated using the slender flow approximation. They are then expressed in a Lagrangian framework and solved numerically using an explicit finite difference scheme. Starting from a given initial shape, a debris flow is allowed to collapse and propagate over a specified topography. Comparison between the model predictions and laboratory experiments shows reasonable agreement. The model is used to study the effect of the ambient fluid density, initial shape of the failed mass, and rheological model on the simulated propagation of the front and runout characteristics of muddy debris flows. It is found that initial failure shape influence the front velocity but has little bearing on the final deposit shape. In the Bingham model, the excess of shear stress above the yield strength is proportional to the strain rate to the first power. This exponent is free to vary in the Herschel-Bulkley model. When it is set at a value lower than unity, the resulting final deposits are thicker and shorter than in the case of the Bingham rheology. The final deposit resulting from the bilinear model is longer and thinner than that from the Bingham model due to the fact that the debris flow is allowed to act as a Newtonian fluid at low shear rate in the bilinear model.

  19. Potent neutralizing anti-CD1d antibody reduces lung cytokine release in primate asthma model

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Jonathan; Clarke, Adam W; Shim, Doris; Mabon, David; Tian, Chen; Windloch, Karolina; Buhmann, Chris; Corazon, Beau; Lindgren, Matilda; Pollard, Matthew; Domagala, Teresa; Poulton, Lynn; Doyle, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    CD1d is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells involved in triggering cell populations, particularly natural killer T (NKT) cells, to release high levels of cytokines. NKT cells are implicated in asthma pathology and blockade of the CD1d/NKT cell pathway may have therapeutic potential. We developed a potent anti-human CD1d antibody (NIB.2) that possesses high affinity for human and cynomolgus macaque CD1d (KD ∼100 pM) and strong neutralizing activity in human primary cell-based assays (IC50 typically <100 pM). By epitope mapping experiments, we showed that NIB.2 binds to CD1d in close proximity to the interface of CD1d and the Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain. Together with data showing that NIB.2 inhibited stimulation via CD1d loaded with different glycolipids, this supports a mechanism whereby NIB.2 inhibits NKT cell activation by inhibiting Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain interactions with CD1d, independent of the lipid antigen in the CD1d antigen-binding cleft. The strong in vitro potency of NIB.2 was reflected in vivo in an Ascaris suum cynomolgus macaque asthma model. Compared with vehicle control, NIB.2 treatment significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) levels of Ascaris-induced cytokines IL-5, IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonist, and significantly reduced baseline levels of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-15, IL-12/23p40, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and VEGF. At a cellular population level NIB.2 also reduced numbers of BAL lymphocytes and macrophages, and blood eosinophils and basophils. We demonstrate that anti-CD1d antibody blockade of the CD1d/NKT pathway modulates inflammatory parameters in vivo in a primate inflammation model, with therapeutic potential for diseases where the local cytokine milieu is critical. PMID:25751125

  20. 2D Biotope Mapping Using Combined LIDAR, Topographic Survey And Segmented 1D Flow Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entwistle, N. S.; Heritage, G. L.; Milan, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Reach averaged habitat availability models such as PHABSIM are limited due principally to their failure to adequately map hydraulic habitat distribution at a representative scale. A lack of morphologic data, represented in the form of sparse geometric cross-sections fails to generate the necessary detail. Advances in data collection, improved spatial modelling algorithms and the advent of cross-section based segmentation routines in 1D hydraulic models provides the opportunity to revisit the issue of hydraulic habitat mapping and modelling. This paper presents a combined technique for habitat characterisation at the sub-bar scale is presented for the River Rede, Northumberland, UK. Terrestrial LIDAR data of floodplain, banks and exposed bar surfaces at an average 0.05 m spacing are combined with sparser total station survey data of submerged morphologic features. These data are interpolated to create a uniform DEM grid at 0.2 m spacing (adequate to detect the smallest variation in hydraulic habitat in this system). The data grid were then imported into the HECRAS 1D hydraulic model to generate a 2 m spaced series of cross-sections along a 220 m sinuous single thread reach exhibiting pool - riffle point-bar morphology. The hydraulic segmentation routine then generated estimates of depth averaged flow velocity, flow depth and sub unit discharge for 40 sub-divisions of the flow width for a series of flows from 0.5 m3s-1 up to bankfull flow of approximately 9 m3s-1. The resultant hydraulic data were exported in the project coordinate system and plotted to reveal the 2D pattern of hydraulic biotopes present across the range of flows modelled. The results reveal broadly realistic patterns consistent with previous empirical studies and compare well with LIDAR based biotope maps. Analysis of the temporal pattern of biotope change indicates that biotope diversity and complexity is at a maximum at lower flows and across shallower area (riffles) and that these dominate the temporal biotope pattern revealing the importance of the low flow regime in generating and maintaining habitat diversity. The combined survey and modelling technique presented here offers a viable new approach to habitat mapping and modelling providing predictive capability when assessing changes to river morphology and flow regime.

  1. Deconvolution of Complex 1D NMR Spectra Using Objective Model Selection

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Travis S.; Wilson, Henry D.; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S.; Kojetin, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorine (19F) NMR has emerged as a useful tool for characterization of slow dynamics in 19F-labeled proteins. One-dimensional (1D) 19F NMR spectra of proteins can be broad, irregular and complex, due to exchange of probe nuclei between distinct electrostatic environments; and therefore cannot be deconvoluted and analyzed in an objective way using currently available software. We have developed a Python-based deconvolution program, decon1d, which uses Bayesian information criteria (BIC) to objectively determine which model (number of peaks) would most likely produce the experimentally obtained data. The method also allows for fitting of intermediate exchange spectra, which is not supported by current software in the absence of a specific kinetic model. In current methods, determination of the deconvolution model best supported by the data is done manually through comparison of residual error values, which can be time consuming and requires model selection by the user. In contrast, the BIC method used by decond1d provides a quantitative method for model comparison that penalizes for model complexity helping to prevent over-fitting of the data and allows identification of the most parsimonious model. The decon1d program is freely available as a downloadable Python script at the project website (https://github.com/hughests/decon1d/). PMID:26241959

  2. Evaluation of 1-D and 3-D seismic models of the Pacific lower mantle with S, SKS, and SKKS traveltimes and amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, Michael S.; Zhang, Yang; Ritsema, Jeroen

    2013-03-01

    this study, we analyzed the seismic phases S, SKS, and SKKS from 31 deep-focus earthquakes in the Tonga-Fiji region recorded in North America between epicentral distances of 85° and 120°. The differential traveltimes and amplitude ratios for these phases reveal clear epicentral distance trends not predicted by standard one-dimensional (1-D) reference Earth models. The increase of the S/SKS amplitude ratio up to a factor of 10 is accompanied by an increase of the S-SKS differential traveltime of up to 10 s. SKKS-SKS differential traveltimes of 2-3 s and SKKS/SKS amplitude ratios of a factor of 2-4 across the epicentral range have maxima near 107°. We examined these observations using full (1-D and 3-D) waveforms for three 1-D seismic velocity profiles for the central Pacific region and for the tomographic model S40RTS including modifications: different regularization parameters, great-circle path azimuthal variation, strength of S wave velocity perturbations, S wave velocity gradients in the lower mantle, and ultra-low velocity zones. To explain these data, we constructed a hybrid model that combines both features of S40RTS and short-wavelength features from the 1-D profiles. The large-scale seismic structure is represented by S40RTS. Embedded within S40RTS are a 20 km thick ultra-low velocity zone at the core-mantle boundary near the source side and a 200 km thick negative velocity gradient zone near the receiver side of the paths. Our analysis demonstrates that the S wave velocity structure of the Pacific large low shear-velocity province cannot be interpreted solely by global tomographic or regional modeling approaches in exclusion of each other.

  3. Modelling turbulent vertical mixing sensitivity using a 1-D version of NEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reffray, G.; Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Calone, C.

    2014-08-01

    Through two numerical experiments, a 1-D vertical model called NEMO1D was used to investigate physical and numerical turbulent-mixing behaviour. The results show that all the turbulent closures tested (k + l from Blanke and Delecluse, 1993 and two equation models: Generic Lengh Scale closures from Umlauf and Burchard, 2003) are able to correctly reproduce the classical test of Kato and Phillips (1969) under favourable numerical conditions while some solutions may diverge depending on the degradation of the spatial and time discretization. The performances of turbulence models were then compared with data measured over a one-year period (mid-2010 to mid-2011) at the PAPA station, located in the North Pacific Ocean. The modelled temperature and salinity were in good agreement with the observations, with a maximum temperature error between -2 and 2 C during the stratified period (June to October). However the results also depend on the numerical conditions. The vertical RMSE varied, for different turbulent closures, from 0.1 to 0.3 C during the stratified period and from 0.03 to 0.15 C during the homogeneous period. This 1-D configuration at the PAPA station (called PAPA1D) is now available in NEMO as a reference configuration including the input files and atmospheric forcing set described in this paper. Thus, all the results described can be recovered by downloading and launching PAPA1D. The configuration is described on the NEMO site (1D_PAPA">http://www.nemo-ocean.eu/Using-NEMO/Configurations/C1D_PAPA). This package is a good starting point for further investigation of vertical processes.

  4. Modelling turbulent vertical mixing sensitivity using a 1-D version of NEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reffray, G.; Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Calone, C.

    2015-01-01

    Through two numerical experiments, a 1-D vertical model called NEMO1D was used to investigate physical and numerical turbulent-mixing behaviour. The results show that all the turbulent closures tested (k+l from Blanke and Delecluse, 1993, and two equation models: generic length scale closures from Umlauf and Burchard, 2003) are able to correctly reproduce the classical test of Kato and Phillips (1969) under favourable numerical conditions while some solutions may diverge depending on the degradation of the spatial and time discretization. The performances of turbulence models were then compared with data measured over a 1-year period (mid-2010 to mid-2011) at the PAPA station, located in the North Pacific Ocean. The modelled temperature and salinity were in good agreement with the observations, with a maximum temperature error between -2 and 2 C during the stratified period (June to October). However, the results also depend on the numerical conditions. The vertical RMSE varied, for different turbulent closures, from 0.1 to 0.3 C during the stratified period and from 0.03 to 0.15 C during the homogeneous period. This 1-D configuration at the PAPA station (called PAPA1D) is now available in NEMO as a reference configuration including the input files and atmospheric forcing set described in this paper. Thus, all the results described can be recovered by downloading and launching PAPA1D. The configuration is described on the NEMO site (1D_PAPA">http://www.nemo-ocean.eu/Using-NEMO/Configurations/C1D_PAPA). This package is a good starting point for further investigation of vertical processes.

  5. Oxidation characteristics of silicon exposed to O(1D2) and O(3P2) radicals and stress-relaxation oxidation model for O(1D2) radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabe, Yoshiro; Hasunuma, Ryu; Yamabe, Kikuo

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the oxidation of silicon by O(1D2) and O(3P2) radicals in a microwave plasma at 673 K in an Ar/O2 atmosphere containing a small amount of hydrogen. O(1D2) radical oxidation with hydrogen gave a much higher growth rate than wet thermal oxidation at 1223 K. The activation energies for the parabolic rate constant owing to O(1D2) and O(3P2) radical oxidations were respectively 0.18 and 0.40 eV, which are much lower than that (0.71 eV) by thermal oxidation. In time-dependent dielectric breakdown tests, despite SiO2 films formed by radicals having a higher degradation rate than those produced by thermal oxidation, SiO2 films formed by O(1D2) radicals had longer lifetimes. Our dielectric breakdown model indicates this is due to the flat SiO2 surface and interface suppressing two-dimensional local breakdown. A stress-relaxation oxidation model for O(1D2) radicals is proposed that well explains the formation of flat SiO2 surfaces and interfaces.

  6. Application of Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) technique for determination of 1-D shear wave velocity in a landslide area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccia, S.; Del Gaudio, V.; Venisti, N.; Wasowski, J.

    2010-06-01

    The application of the Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) method on slopes affected by or prone to landsliding is complicated by the presence of lateral lithological heterogeneities and irregular topography, which may hinder the extension of the geophone array to the minimum lengths (100-200 m) usually adopted in standard applications of this technique. We focus on deriving one-dimensional shear-wave velocity (Vs) vertical profiles from the analysis of microtremor recordings carried out in the municipality of Caramanico Terme (central Italy) where the seismic response has been monitored with a local accelerometer network since 2002. The stability of the ReMi data acquisitions and the reliability of the results in irregular landslide terrain were tested by using ReMi campaigns in three different periods and different acquisition parameters (seismograph channel number, geophone frequency and spacing). We also investigated the possible presence of directional variations in soil properties by carrying out noise recordings along L-shaped arrays. The influence of changing environmental conditions and of different acquisition parameters was tested by comparing the data obtained from different campaigns, using the same acquisition parameters, with the data from simultaneous acquisitions using different parameters. The tests showed that stable results can be obtained under different acquisition conditions provided that i) the ratio between the coherent and incoherent part of ambient noise is sufficiently high and ii) spatial aliasing does not contaminate the signal in the p (slowness)- f (frequency) matrix near the picking area: the latter condition can be satisfied by selecting geophone frequency and spacing appropriate for the site characteristics and for the investigation purpose. The differences in Vs measured in two orthogonal directions did not exceed 10-20 % and their analysis suggests that these directional variations are most likely due to anisotropy in noise source distribution rather than in material properties. The Rayleigh wave velocity dispersion curves obtained from microseimic noise recordings were then inverted with the DINVER software package to derive vertical distribution of the Vs. We reconstructed vertical profiles of Vs through the joint inversion of fundamental and higher modes, constrained by borehole information. The results from a site of a recent deep-seated slope failure showed that both colluvium few tens of meters thick, and the underlying mudstone have lower velocities than those of the same formations present in the surrounding area not involved in mass movements. This suggests that the mudstone has been affected by slope deformations at this site.

  7. The (2 + 1)-d U(1) quantum link model masquerading as deconfined criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, D.; Jiang, F.-J.; Widmer, P.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2013-12-01

    The (2 + 1)-d U(1) quantum link model is a gauge theory, amenable to quantum simulation, with a spontaneously broken SO(2) symmetry emerging at a quantum phase transition. Its low-energy physics is described by a (2 + 1)-d RP(1) effective field theory, perturbed by an SO(2) breaking operator, which prevents the interpretation of the emergent pseudo-Goldstone boson as a dual photon. At the quantum phase transition, the model mimics some features of deconfined quantum criticality, but remains linearly confining. Deconfinement only sets in at high temperature. Dedicated to the memory of Bernard B Beard (1957-2012).

  8. 3D Versus 1D Radiative Transfer Modeling of Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantoja, Blake M.; Ladjal, Djazia

    2015-01-01

    Planetary nebulae are the products of the fast stellar wind from the end of the AGB star phase. To date, there are many one-dimensional radiative transfer codes, and a few fully 3D codes that can model the ionization of the planetary nebulae. Some limitations on 1D codes are that they can only make spherical or parallel plane models, while 3D codes take much computing power and memory to run. A pseudo-3D code such as pyCloudy can model a planetary nebula in 3D by making multiple runs of a 1D code such as Cloudy in different angles from the center of the nebula. We compared the 1D models with pseudo-3D models to determine if the 1D models give good approximations for the observed parameters of the planetary nebulae. We find that one-dimensional codes can actually give good estimates for electron temperature and density in a bipolar planetary nebula.

  9. Newberry EGS Seismic Velocity Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Templeton, Dennise

    2013-10-01

    We use ambient noise correlation (ANC) to create a detailed image of the subsurface seismic velocity at the Newberry EGS site down to 5 km. We collected continuous data for the 22 stations in the Newberry network, together with 12 additional stations from the nearby CC, UO and UW networks. The data were instrument corrected, whitened and converted to single bit traces before cross correlation according to the methodology in Benson (2007). There are 231 unique paths connecting the 22 stations of the Newberry network. The additional networks extended that to 402 unique paths crossing beneath the Newberry site.

  10. HYDRUS-1D Modeling of an Irrigated Agricultural Plot with Application to Aquifer Recharge Estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of methods are available for estimating aquifer recharge in semi-arid regions, each with advantages and disadvantages. We are investigating a procedure for estimating recharge in an irrigated basin. The method involves computing irrigation return flows based on HYDRUS-1D modeling of root z...

  11. Review of Zero-D and 1-D Models of Blood Flow in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zero-dimensional (lumped parameter) and one dimensional models, based on simplified representations of the components of the cardiovascular system, can contribute strongly to our understanding of circulatory physiology. Zero-D models provide a concise way to evaluate the haemodynamic interactions among the cardiovascular organs, whilst one-D (distributed parameter) models add the facility to represent efficiently the effects of pulse wave transmission in the arterial network at greatly reduced computational expense compared to higher dimensional computational fluid dynamics studies. There is extensive literature on both types of models. Method and Results The purpose of this review article is to summarise published 0D and 1D models of the cardiovascular system, to explore their limitations and range of application, and to provide an indication of the physiological phenomena that can be included in these representations. The review on 0D models collects together in one place a description of the range of models that have been used to describe the various characteristics of cardiovascular response, together with the factors that influence it. Such models generally feature the major components of the system, such as the heart, the heart valves and the vasculature. The models are categorised in terms of the features of the system that they are able to represent, their complexity and range of application: representations of effects including pressure-dependent vessel properties, interaction between the heart chambers, neuro-regulation and auto-regulation are explored. The examination on 1D models covers various methods for the assembly, discretisation and solution of the governing equations, in conjunction with a report of the definition and treatment of boundary conditions. Increasingly, 0D and 1D models are used in multi-scale models, in which their primary role is to provide boundary conditions for sophisticate, and often patient-specific, 2D and 3D models, and this application is also addressed. As an example of 0D cardiovascular modelling, a small selection of simple models have been represented in the CellML mark-up language and uploaded to the CellML model repository http://models.cellml.org/. They are freely available to the research and education communities. Conclusion Each published cardiovascular model has merit for particular applications. This review categorises 0D and 1D models, highlights their advantages and disadvantages, and thus provides guidance on the selection of models to assist various cardiovascular modelling studies. It also identifies directions for further development, as well as current challenges in the wider use of these models including service to represent boundary conditions for local 3D models and translation to clinical application. PMID:21521508

  12. Improved 1D model for calculating hydraulic properties in meandering rivers: Comparisons with measurements and 3D numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji Mohammadi, M.; Kang, S.; Sotiropoulos, F.

    2011-12-01

    It is well-known that meander bends impose local losses of energy to the flow in rivers. These local losses should be added together with friction loss to get the total loss of energy. In this work, we strive to develop a framework that considers the effect of bends in meandering rivers for one-dimensional (1-D) homogenous equations of flow. Our objective is to develop a simple, yet physically sound, and efficient model for carrying out engineering computations of flow through meander bends. We consider several approaches for calculating 1-D hydraulic properties of meandering rivers such as friction factor and Manning coefficient. The method of Kasper et al. (2005), which is based on channel top width, aspect ratio and radius of curvature, is adopted for further calculations. In this method, a correction is implemented in terms of local energy loss, due to helical motion and secondary currents of fluid particles driven by centrifugal force, in meanders. To validate the model, several test cases are simulated and the computed results are compared with the reported data in the literature in terms of water surface elevation, shear velocity, etc. For all cases the computed results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. 3-D RANS turbulent flow simulations are also carried out, using the method of Kang et al. (Adv. In Water Res., vol. 34, 2011), for different geometrical parameters of Kinoshita Rivers to determine the spatial distribution of shear stress on river bed and banks, which is the key factor in scour/deposition patterns. The 3-D solutions are then cross-sectionally averaged and compared with the respective solutions from the 1-D model. The comparisons show that the improved 1D model, which incorporates the effect of local bend loss, captures key flow parameters with reasonable accuracy. Our results also underscore the range of validity and limitations of 1D models for meander bend simulations. This work was supported by NSF Grants (as part of the National Center for Earth-Surface Dynamics). Computational resources were provided by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  13. Coupled 1D-3D hydrodynamic modelling, with application to the Pearl River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twigt, Daniel J.; de Goede, Erik D.; Zijl, Firmijn; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Chiu, Alex Y. W.

    2009-12-01

    Within the hydrodynamic modelling community, it is common practice to apply different modelling systems for coastal waters and river systems. Whereas for coastal waters 3D finite difference or finite element grids are commonly used, river systems are generally modelled using 1D networks. Each of these systems is tailored towards specific applications. Three-dimensional coastal water models are designed to model the horizontal and vertical variability in coastal waters and are less well suited for representing the complex geometry and cross-sectional areas of river networks. On the other hand, 1D river network models are designed to accurately represent complex river network geometries and complex structures like weirs, barrages and dams. A disadvantage, however, is that they are unable to resolve complex spatial flow variability. In real life, however, coastal oceans and rivers interact. In deltaic estuaries, both tidal intrusion of seawater into the upstream river network and river discharge into open waters play a role. This is frequently approached by modelling the systems independently, with off-line coupling of the lateral boundary forcing. This implies that the river and the coastal model run sequentially, providing lateral discharge (1D) and water level (3D) forcing to each other without the possibility of direct feedback or interaction between these processes. An additional disadvantage is that due to the time aggregation usually applied to exchanged quantities, mass conservation is difficult to ensure. In this paper, we propose an approach that couples a 3D hydrodynamic modelling system for coastal waters (Delft3D) with a 1D modelling system for river hydraulics (SOBEK) online. This implies that contrary to off-line coupling, the hydrodynamic quantities are exchanged between the 1D and 3D domains during runtime to resolve the real-time exchange and interaction between the coastal waters and river network. This allows for accurate and mass conserving modelling of complex coastal waters and river network systems, whilst the advantages of both systems are maintained and used in an optimal and computationally efficient way. The coupled 1D-3D system is used to model the flows in the Pearl River Delta (Guangdong, China), which are determined by the interaction of the upstream network of the Pearl River and the open waters of the South China Sea. The highly complex upstream river network is modelled in 1D, simulating river discharges for the dry and wet monsoon periods. The 3D coastal model simulates the flow due to the external (ocean) periodic tidal forcing, the salinity distribution for both dry and wet seasons, as well as residual water levels (sea level anomalies) originating from the South China Sea. The model is calibrated and its performance extensively assessed against field measurements, resulting in a mean root mean square (RMS) error of below 6% for water levels over the entire Pearl River Delta. The model also represents both the discharge distribution over the river network and salinity transport processes with good accuracy, resolving the discharge distribution over the main branches of the river network within 5% of reported annual mean values and RMS errors for salinity in the range of 2 ppt (dry season) to 5 ppt (wet season).

  14. Zero finite-temperature charge stiffness within the half-filled 1D Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Carmelo, J.M.P.; Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084; Institut für Theoretische Physik III, Universität Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart ; Gu, Shi-Jian; Department of Physics and ITP, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong ; Sacramento, P.D.; Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084

    2013-12-15

    Even though the one-dimensional (1D) Hubbard model is solvable by the Bethe ansatz, at half-filling its finite-temperature T>0 transport properties remain poorly understood. In this paper we combine that solution with symmetry to show that within that prominent T=0 1D insulator the charge stiffness D(T) vanishes for T>0 and finite values of the on-site repulsion U in the thermodynamic limit. This result is exact and clarifies a long-standing open problem. It rules out that at half-filling the model is an ideal conductor in the thermodynamic limit. Whether at finite T and U>0 it is an ideal insulator or a normal resistor remains an open question. That at half-filling the charge stiffness is finite at U=0 and vanishes for U>0 is found to result from a general transition from a conductor to an insulator or resistor occurring at U=U{sub c}=0 for all finite temperatures T>0. (At T=0 such a transition is the quantum metal to Mott–Hubbard-insulator transition.) The interplay of the η-spin SU(2) symmetry with the hidden U(1) symmetry beyond SO(4) is found to play a central role in the unusual finite-temperature charge transport properties of the 1D half-filled Hubbard model. -- Highlights: •The charge stiffness of the half-filled 1D Hubbard model is evaluated. •Its value is controlled by the model symmetry operator algebras. •We find that there is no charge ballistic transport at finite temperatures T>0. •The hidden U(1) symmetry controls the U=0 phase transition for T>0.

  15. SILVA: EDF two-phase 1D annular model of a CFB boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Montat, D.; Fauquet, P.; Lafanechere, L.; Bursi, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    Aiming to improve its knowledge of CFB boilers, EDF has initiated a R and D program including: laboratory work on mock-ups, numerical modelling and on-site tests in CFB power plants. One of the objectives of this program is the development of a comprehensive steady-state 1D model of the solid circulation loop, named SILVA, for plant operation and design evaluation purposes. This paper describes its mathematical and physical modelling. Promising validation of the model on cold mock-up and industrial CFB is presented.

  16. Thermodynamic nature of vitrification in a 1D model of a structural glass former

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, A. N.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a new spin-glass model with no positional quenched disorder which is regarded as a coarse-grained model of a structural glass-former. The model is analyzed in the 1D case when the number N of states of a primary cell is large. For N → ∞, the model exhibits a sharp freezing transition of the thermodynamic origin. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the glass transition is accompanied by a significant growth of a static length scale ξ pointing to the structural (equilibrium) nature of dynamical slowdown effects in supercooled liquids.

  17. A preliminary one-dimensional crustal velocity model for Himachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parija, Mahesh Prasad; Kumar, Sushil; Biswal, Shubhasmita; Kumar, Narendra; Mishra, Saurabh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    A preliminary one-dimensional (1D) velocity model for Himachal Pradesh, India has been developed by utilising the P and S wave travel time data. A very steady and narrow velocity model was obtained with travel time inversion, and a range of velocity models were tested with earthquake locations to derive the best-fit velocity model. The 1D velocity model proposed for the study region has seven uniform layers with interfaces at depths of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 km with P wave velocity of 5.219, 5.314, 5.391, 5.392, 5.964, 6.071 and 6.073 km/s and S wave velocity of 2.998, 3.015, 3.134, 3.135, 3.441, 3.482 and 3.647 km/s, respectively. According to the proposed model, the Moho in this part of the Himalaya lies at 60 km depth on an average. For P and S waves, the station correction ranges from -0.88 to 1.50 and -0.58 to 3.59 s, respectively. This low variation in station residuals indicates small lateral velocity changes that confirm the accuracy and stability of the proposed 1D velocity model. Using the new derived 1D velocity model, the earthquake epicentres were relocated and we observe a shallow seismic activity in the region at <30 km depth that clearly describes the ongoing convergence of the India-Eurasia plates in the study region. This study also infers a new, highly active seismic window in the latitude range of 31.8 °N to 32.8 °N and longitude range of 76.8 °E to 78.8 °E in the study region across the Kaurik-Chango fault, a causative fault for the 1975 Kinnaur earthquake.

  18. Box model and 1D longitudinal model of flow and transport in Bosten Lake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Li, WenPeng; Dong, XinGuang

    2015-05-01

    Bosten Lake in the southeast of Yanqi Catchment, China, supports the downstream agricultural and natural environments. Over the last few decades the intensive agricultural activities in Yanqi Catchment resulted in decreased lake levels and deteriorated lake water quality. A two-box model is constructed to understand the evolution of lake level and salinity between 1958 and 2008. The two-box model of the lake indicates that the evaporation does have the same trend as the observed lake area and the annual average evaporation agrees with the value obtained from the Penman-Monteith approach. To achieve a correct salt balance, the ratio of outflow concentration and average lake concentration has to be around 0.7. This is due to the incomplete mixing of the lake caused by short-circuiting between tributary inflow and the main outflow via the pump stations abstracting water from the lake. This short-circuiting is investigated in more detail by a 1D numerical flow and transport model of the lake calibrated with observations of lake level and lake concentrations. The distributed model reproduces the correct time-varying outflow concentration. It is used for the assessment of two basic management options: increasing river discharge (by water saving irrigation, reduction of phreatic evaporation or reduction of agricultural area) and diverting saline drainage water to the desert. Increasing river discharge to the lake by 20% reduces the east basin salt concentration by 0.55 kg/m3, while capturing all the drainage water and discharging it to depressions instead of the lake reduces the east basin salt concentration by 0.63 kg/m3. A combination of increasing river inflow and decreasing drainage salt flux is sufficient to bring future lake TDS below the required 1 kg/m3, to keep a lake level that sustains the lake ecosystem, and to supply more water for downstream development and ecosystem rehabilitation.

  19. A Systematic Comparison between 1-D and 3-D Hemodynamics in Compliant Arterial Models

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Nan; Alastruey, Jordi; Figueroa, C. Alberto

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In this article, we present a systematic comparison of computational hemodynamics in arterial models with deformable vessel walls using a one-dimensional (1-D) and a three-dimensional (3-D) method. The simulations were performed using a series of idealized compliant arterial models representing the common carotid artery, thoracic aorta, aortic bifurcation, and full aorta from the arch to the iliac bifurcation. The formulations share identical outflow boundary conditions and have compatible material laws. We also present an iterative algorithm to select the parameters for the outflow boundary conditions using the 1-D theory to achieve a desired systolic and diastolic pressure at a particular vessel. This 1-D/3-D framework can be used to efficiently determine material and boundary condition parameters for 3-D subject-specific arterial models with deformable vessel walls. Finally, we explore the impact of different anatomical features and hemodynamic conditions on the numerical predictions. The results show good agreement between the two schemes, especially during the diastolic phase of the cycle. PMID:24115509

  20. Comparing plasma fluid models of different order for 1D streamer ionization fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markosyan, Aram H.; Teunissen, Jannis; Dujko, Saa; Ebert, Ute

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate the performance of three plasma fluid models: the first order reaction-drift-diffusion model based on the local field approximation; the second order reaction-drift-diffusion model based on the local energy approximation and a recently developed high order fluid model by Dujko et al (2013 J. Phys. D 46 475202) We first review the fluid models: we briefly discuss their derivation, their underlying assumptions and the type of transport data they require. Then we compare these models to a particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo (PIC/MC) code, using a 1D test problem. The tests are performed in neon and nitrogen at standard temperature and pressure, over a wide range of reduced electric fields. For the fluid models, transport data generated by a multi-term Boltzmann solver are used. We analyze the observed differences in the model predictions and address some of the practical aspects when using these plasma fluid models.

  1. Velocity-jump models with crowding effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treloar, Katrina K.; Simpson, Matthew J.; McCue, Scott W.

    2011-12-01

    Velocity-jump processes are discrete random-walk models that have many applications including the study of biological and ecological collective motion. In particular, velocity-jump models are often used to represent a type of persistent motion, known as a run and tumble, that is exhibited by some isolated bacteria cells. All previous velocity-jump processes are noninteracting, which means that crowding effects and agent-to-agent interactions are neglected. By neglecting these agent-to-agent interactions, traditional velocity-jump models are only applicable to very dilute systems. Our work is motivated by the fact that many applications in cell biology, such as wound healing, cancer invasion, and development, often involve tissues that are densely packed with cells where cell-to-cell contact and crowding effects can be important. To describe these kinds of high-cell-density problems using a velocity-jump process we introduce three different classes of crowding interactions into a one-dimensional model. Simulation data and averaging arguments lead to a suite of continuum descriptions of the interacting velocity-jump processes. We show that the resulting systems of hyperbolic partial differential equations predict the mean behavior of the stochastic simulations very well.

  2. MAST-1D, a Model to Route Sediment and Tracers in Channel-Floodplain Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viparelli, E.; Lauer, J. W.; Belmont, P.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment exchange between the channel and floodplain can occur via meander migration, overbank deposition or erosion, and channel widening or narrowing. Depending on channel and floodplain history, floodplains can act either as sources or sinks of bed material and/or wash load. The Morphodynamics And Sediment Tracers in 1D program (MAST-1D) is a numerical model built to describe grain size specific transport of sediment and tracers and the long-term - i.e. decadal and longer - evolution of channel floodplain complexes. MAST-1D differs from other 1D numerical models because it allows for 1) uneven exchange of sediment and tracers between the river channel and the floodplain, 2) temporal changes in channel geometry, bed elevation and floodplain thickness, which result in changes in the channel hydraulic capacity, and 3) temporal changes of size distribution and tracer content in the floodplain, in the load and in the underlying substrate. Under conditions of constant base level, water and sediment supply, the main assumptions in the model result in the system evolving asymptotically toward a steady state wherein channel bed erosion is balanced by channel bed deposition. When at this condition, the amount of sediment deposited on the floodplain through point bar deposition and overbank sedimentation is balanced by the erosion of sediment from the floodplain through lateral migration. However, imbalances in floodplain storage can persist for many years even when the channel bed elevation and size distribution are near steady state. The MAST-1D program is applied to study the long term response of a sand bed river, an 80 km long reach of the Minnesota River between Mankato and Jordan, Minnesota, to changes in flow regime and the sediment load due to the development of intensive agriculture in the watershed. The simulations are performed in successive phases, the model is first set up so that under the best estimates available for pre-agriculture conditions, channel floodplain exchange is even. Changes in flow regime, sediment load, and grain size of sediment load are then applied to represent agricultural development of the basin. The model is first validated against field data. It is then applied to investigate how the channel-floodplain response changes for different grain size distributions of the sediment load.

  3. Non uniqueness in the 1-D linear inverse problem for initial sea level disturbance and current velocities in the tsunami source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaystrenko, Victor; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2013-04-01

    1-D linear inverse problem for initial sea level disturbance in the tsunami source ?0(x) using sea level record f(t) near the shore was investigated. Sea bottom can be considered as the slopping plane and water depthh(x) = k x. Let the function ?(x,t) describing sea level oscillations depending from time t and space coordinate xis satisfying the linear shallow water equation (gkx??x)x = ?tt If initial velocities in the source zone are equal to zero (?t(x,0)=0) than initial sea level disturbance in the tsunami source ?0(x) = ?(x,0) and sea level record (marigram) on the shore f(t) = ?(0,t) are tied by the integral equation of Abel type which has an unique analytical solution. Situation looks different if initial wave field in the tsunami source is related to sea level disturbance and current velocities not equal to zero. In this case specially constructed initial wave field with ?0(x) = ?(x,0) and ?1(x) = ?t(x,0) tied by the integral equation ?0(Z) = -2 ? zZK(° ---- (Z-)2 - 1) z) ? ?1(z)zdz where K is the full elliptic integral and z = 2° -- xkg- = ?2gxh-, gives the tsunami non observed near the shore: ?(0,t)=0. The work was supported by grant 11-05-01054 of the Russian foundation for basic research.

  4. Verification and comparison of four numerical schemes for a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Fullana, Jose-Maria; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    A reliable and fast numerical scheme is crucial for the 1D simulation of blood flow in compliant vessels. In this paper, a 1D blood flow model is incorporated with a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic arterial wall. This leads to a nonlinear hyperbolic-parabolic system, which is then solved with four numerical schemes, namely: MacCormack, Taylor-Galerkin, monotonic upwind scheme for conservation law and local discontinuous Galerkin. The numerical schemes are tested on a single vessel, a simple bifurcation and a network with 55 arteries. The numerical solutions are checked favorably against analytical, semi-analytical solutions or clinical observations. Among the numerical schemes, comparisons are made in four important aspects: accuracy, ability to capture shock-like phenomena, computational speed and implementation complexity. The suitable conditions for the application of each scheme are discussed. PMID:25145651

  5. Nested 1D-2D approach for urban surface flood modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murla, Damian; Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Floods in urban areas as a consequence of sewer capacity exceedance receive increased attention because of trends in urbanization (increased population density and impermeability of the surface) and climate change. Despite the strong recent developments in numerical modeling of water systems, urban surface flood modeling is still a major challenge. Whereas very advanced and accurate flood modeling systems are in place and operation by many river authorities in support of flood management along rivers, this is not yet the case in urban water management. Reasons include the small scale of the urban inundation processes, the need to have very high resolution topographical information available, and the huge computational demands. Urban drainage related inundation modeling requires a 1D full hydrodynamic model of the sewer network to be coupled with a 2D surface flood model. To reduce the computational times, 0D (flood cones), 1D/quasi-2D surface flood modeling approaches have been developed and applied in some case studies. In this research, a nested 1D/2D hydraulic model has been developed for an urban catchment at the city of Gent (Belgium), linking the underground sewer (minor system) with the overland surface (major system). For the overland surface flood modelling, comparison was made of 0D, 1D/quasi-2D and full 2D approaches. The approaches are advanced by considering nested 1D-2D approaches, including infiltration in the green city areas, and allowing the effects of surface storm water storage to be simulated. An optimal nested combination of three different mesh resolutions was identified; based on a compromise between precision and simulation time for further real-time flood forecasting, warning and control applications. Main streets as mesh zones together with buildings as void regions constitute one of these mesh resolution (3.75m2 - 15m2); they have been included since they channel most of the flood water from the manholes and they improve the accuracy of interactions within the 1D sewer network. Other areas that recorded flooding outside the main streets have been also included with the second mesh resolution for an accurate determination of flood maps (12.5m2 - 50m2). Permeable areas have been identified and used as infiltration zones using the Horton infiltration model. A mesh sensitivity analysis has been performed for the low flood risk areas for a proper model optimization. As outcome of that analysis, the third mesh resolution has been chosen (75m2 - 300m2). Performance tests have been applied for several synthetic design storms as well as historical storm events displaying satisfactory results upon comparing the flood mapping outcomes produced by the different approaches. Accounting for the infiltration in the green city spaces reduces the flood extents in the range 39% - 68%, while the average reduction in flood volume equals 86%. Acknowledgement: Funding for this research was provided by the Interreg IVB NWE programme (project RainGain) and the Belgian Science Policy Office (project PLURISK). The high resolution topographical information data were obtained from the geographical information service AGIV; the original full hydrodynamic sewer network model from the service company Farys, and the InfoWorks licence from Innovyze.

  6. Evaluation of 2 1-D cloud models for the analysis of VAS soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmitt, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluation of the satellite Visual Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VISSR) has begun to document several of its critical shortcomings as far as numerical cloud models are concerned: excessive smoothing of thermal inversions; imprecise measurement of boundary layer moisture; and tendency to exaggerate atmospheric stability. The sensitivity of 1-D cloud models to their required inputs is stressed with special attention to those parameters obtained from atmospheric soundings taken by the VAS or rawinsonde. In addition to performing model experiments using temperature and moisture profiles having the general characteristics of VAS soundings, standard input sensitivity tests were made and 1-D model performance was compared with observations and the results of a 2-D model experiment using AVE/VAS data (Atmospheric Variability Experiment). Although very encouraging, the results are not sufficient to make any specific conclusions. In general, the VAS soundings are likely to be inadequate to provide the cloud base (and subcloud layer) information needed for inputs to current cumulus models. Above cloud base, the tendency to exaggerate the stability of the atmosphere requires solution before meaningful model experiments are run.

  7. Hillslope Hydrographs Analyzed Using 1D and 2D Numerical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusek, J.; Vogel, T. N.; Dohnal, M.; Sanda, M.

    2014-12-01

    Stable isotopes of water naturally occurring in rainwater have the potential to reveal principal transport mechanisms at multiple scales - from soil profile to hillslope and catchment scale. In this contribution, we study transport processes at the hillslope scale by combining field observations of hillslope discharge and the associated oxygen-18 contents with detailed process-based numerical modeling. In the one-dimensional (1D) approach, 1D dual-continuum vertical flow and transport model (based on Richards and advection-dispersion equations) is coupled with 1D single-continuum lateral flow and transport model (based on diffusion wave equation for saturated subsurface flow and advection-dispersion equation for isotope transport). In the two-dimensional (2D) approach, the movement of water in a variably saturated hillslope segment is modeled as vertical planar flow (i.e., the vertical and lateral flow components are fully integrated into one flow system). Both modeling approaches, taking into account flow and transport through the soil matrix and the system of preferential pathways, were used to simulate the subsurface processes during observed rainfall-runoff episodes. The observed subsurface runoff and its oxygen-18 composition were compared with the model predictions. In addition, contributions of pre-event and event water to hillslope runoff during major rainfall-runoff episodes were evaluated by means of numerical experiments involving synthetic oxygen-18 rainfall signatures. The simulated hillslope responses showed a reasonable agreement with the experimental data in terms of subsurface runoff and oxygen-18 transport dynamics. Pre-event water was found to be the significant runoff component in most major rainfall-runoff events, though preferential flow played an important role in the hillslope runoff formation.

  8. Prediction of car cabin environment by means of 1D and 3D cabin model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fišer, J.; Pokorný, J.; Jícha, M.

    2012-04-01

    Thermal comfort and also reduction of energy requirements of air-conditioning system in vehicle cabins are currently very intensively investigated and up-to-date issues. The article deals with two approaches of modelling of car cabin environment; the first model was created in simulation language Modelica (typical 1D approach without cabin geometry) and the second one was created in specialized software Theseus-FE (3D approach with cabin geometry). Performance and capabilities of this tools are demonstrated on the example of the car cabin and the results from simulations are compared with the results from the real car cabin climate chamber measurements.

  9. What causes the large extensions of red supergiant atmospheres?. Comparisons of interferometric observations with 1D hydrostatic, 3D convection, and 1D pulsating model atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo-Torres, B.; Wittkowski, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Scholz, M.; Freytag, B.; Marcaide, J. M.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Wood, P. R.; Abellan, F. J.

    2015-03-01

    Aims: This research has two main goals. First, we present the atmospheric structure and the fundamental parameters of three red supergiants (RSGs), increasing the sample of RSGs observed by near-infrared spectro-interferometry. Additionally, we test possible mechanisms that may explain the large observed atmospheric extensions of RSGs. Methods: We carried out spectro-interferometric observations of the RSGs V602 Car, HD 95687, and HD 183589 in the near-infrared K-band (1.92-2.47 μm) with the VLTI/AMBER instrument at medium spectral resolution (R ~ 1500). To categorize and comprehend the extended atmospheres, we compared our observational results to predictions by available hydrostatic PHOENIX, available 3D convection, and new 1D self-excited pulsation models of RSGs. Results: Our near-infrared flux spectra of V602 Car, HD 95687, and HD 183589 are well reproduced by the PHOENIX model atmospheres. The continuum visibility values are consistent with a limb-darkened disk as predicted by the PHOENIX models, allowing us to determine the angular diameter and the fundamental parameters of our sources. Nonetheless, in the case of V602 Car and HD 95686, the PHOENIX model visibilities do not predict the large observed extensions of molecular layers, most remarkably in the CO bands. Likewise, the 3D convection models and the 1D pulsation models with typical parameters of RSGs lead to compact atmospheric structures as well, which are similar to the structure of the hydrostatic PHOENIX models. They can also not explain the observed decreases in the visibilities and thus the large atmospheric molecular extensions. The full sample of our RSGs indicates increasing observed atmospheric extensions with increasing luminosity and decreasing surface gravity, and no correlation with effective temperature or variability amplitude. Conclusions: The location of our RSG sources in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is confirmed to be consistent with the red limits of recent evolutionary tracks. The observed extensions of the atmospheric layers of our sample of RSGs are comparable to those of Mira stars. This phenomenon is not predicted by any of the considered model atmospheres including available 3D convection and new 1D pulsation models of RSGs. This confirms that neither convection nor pulsation alone can levitate the molecular atmospheres of RSGs. Our observed correlation of atmospheric extension with luminosity supports a scenario of radiative acceleration on Doppler-shifted molecular lines. Based on observations made with the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) at Paranal Observatory under programme ID 091.D-0275.Figures 2-6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Assessing the impact of different sources of topographic data on 1-D hydraulic modelling of floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. Md; Solomatine, D. P.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2015-01-01

    Topographic data, such as digital elevation models (DEMs), are essential input in flood inundation modelling. DEMs can be derived from several sources either through remote sensing techniques (spaceborne or airborne imagery) or from traditional methods (ground survey). The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the light detection and ranging (lidar), and topographic contour maps are some of the most commonly used sources of data for DEMs. These DEMs are characterized by different precision and accuracy. On the one hand, the spatial resolution of low-cost DEMs from satellite imagery, such as ASTER and SRTM, is rather coarse (around 30 to 90 m). On the other hand, the lidar technique is able to produce high-resolution DEMs (at around 1 m), but at a much higher cost. Lastly, contour mapping based on ground survey is time consuming, particularly for higher scales, and may not be possible for some remote areas. The use of these different sources of DEM obviously affects the results of flood inundation models. This paper shows and compares a number of 1-D hydraulic models developed using HEC-RAS as model code and the aforementioned sources of DEM as geometric input. To test model selection, the outcomes of the 1-D models were also compared, in terms of flood water levels, to the results of 2-D models (LISFLOOD-FP). The study was carried out on a reach of the Johor River, in Malaysia. The effect of the different sources of DEMs (and different resolutions) was investigated by considering the performance of the hydraulic models in simulating flood water levels as well as inundation maps. The outcomes of our study show that the use of different DEMs has serious implications to the results of hydraulic models. The outcomes also indicate that the loss of model accuracy due to re-sampling the highest resolution DEM (i.e. lidar 1 m) to lower resolution is much less than the loss of model accuracy due to the use of low-cost DEM that have not only a lower resolution, but also a lower quality. Lastly, to better explore the sensitivity of the 1-D hydraulic models to different DEMs, we performed an uncertainty analysis based on the GLUE methodology.

  11. 1D-3D hybrid modeling-from multi-compartment models to full resolution models in space and time.

    PubMed

    Grein, Stephan; Stepniewski, Martin; Reiter, Sebastian; Knodel, Markus M; Queisser, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of cellular and network dynamics in the brain by means of modeling and simulation has evolved into a highly interdisciplinary field, that uses sophisticated modeling and simulation approaches to understand distinct areas of brain function. Depending on the underlying complexity, these models vary in their level of detail, in order to cope with the attached computational cost. Hence for large network simulations, single neurons are typically reduced to time-dependent signal processors, dismissing the spatial aspect of each cell. For single cell or networks with relatively small numbers of neurons, general purpose simulators allow for space and time-dependent simulations of electrical signal processing, based on the cable equation theory. An emerging field in Computational Neuroscience encompasses a new level of detail by incorporating the full three-dimensional morphology of cells and organelles into three-dimensional, space and time-dependent, simulations. While every approach has its advantages and limitations, such as computational cost, integrated and methods-spanning simulation approaches, depending on the network size could establish new ways to investigate the brain. In this paper we present a hybrid simulation approach, that makes use of reduced 1D-models using e.g., the NEURON simulator-which couples to fully resolved models for simulating cellular and sub-cellular dynamics, including the detailed three-dimensional morphology of neurons and organelles. In order to couple 1D- and 3D-simulations, we present a geometry-, membrane potential- and intracellular concentration mapping framework, with which graph- based morphologies, e.g., in the swc- or hoc-format, are mapped to full surface and volume representations of the neuron and computational data from 1D-simulations can be used as boundary conditions for full 3D simulations and vice versa. Thus, established models and data, based on general purpose 1D-simulators, can be directly coupled to the emerging field of fully resolved, highly detailed 3D-modeling approaches. We present the developed general framework for 1D/3D hybrid modeling and apply it to investigate electrically active neurons and their intracellular spatio-temporal calcium dynamics. PMID:25120463

  12. Velocity model of the shallow lunar crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangi, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    The travel times of the seismic waves obtained for the Apollo-14 and -16 active seismic experiments and the Apollo-16 grenade launches are shown to be consistent with a powder-layer model of the shallow lunar crust. The velocity variation with depth determined from these data is: V(z) = approximately 110 z to the 1/6 power m/sec for z less than 10 meters and V(z) is nearly = to 250 m/sec for z greater than 10 meters. The velocity values found for the 10 meter depth are similar to those found by Kovach, et al. (1972). The z to the 1/6 power depth dependence for the velocity of the topmost layer is that predicted on the basis of a powder layer (Gangi, 1972). The Amplitude variation of the direct waves as a function of source-to-receiver separation, x, is A(x) = A(o)x to the -n power exp(-ax) where 1.5 n 2.2 and a is nearly = to 0.047 neper/m. Velocity-spectra analyses of the direct, surface-reflected, bottom-reflected and refracted waves give results that are consistent with the velocity model inferred from the traveltime data.

  13. Optimal modeling of 1D azimuth correlations in the context of Bayesian inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, Michiel B.; Eggers, Hans C.; Trainor, Thomas A.

    2015-09-01

    Analysis and interpretation of spectrum and correlation data from high-energy nuclear collisions is currently controversial because two opposing physics narratives derive contradictory implications from the same data, one narrative claiming collision dynamics is dominated by dijet production and projectile-nucleon fragmentation, the other claiming collision dynamics is dominated by a dense, flowing QCD medium. Opposing interpretations seem to be supported by alternative data models, and current model-comparison schemes are unable to distinguish between them. There is clearly need for a convincing new methodology to break the deadlock. In this study we introduce Bayesian inference (BI) methods applied to angular correlation data as a basis to evaluate competing data models. For simplicity the data considered are projections of two-dimensional (2D) angular correlations onto a 1D azimuth from three centrality classes of 200-GeV Au-Au collisions. We consider several data models typical of current model choices, including Fourier series (FS) and a Gaussian plus various combinations of individual cosine components. We evaluate model performance with BI methods and with power-spectrum analysis. We find that FS-only models are rejected in all cases by Bayesian analysis, which always prefers a Gaussian. A cylindrical quadrupole cos(2 ϕ ) is required in some cases but rejected for 0%-5%-central Au-Au collisions. Given a Gaussian centered at the azimuth origin, "higher harmonics" cos(m ϕ ) for m >2 are rejected. A model consisting of Gaussian +dipole cos(ϕ )+quadrupole cos(2 ϕ ) provides good 1D data descriptions in all cases.

  14. Investigating the simulation of liquid cloud microphysical processes in numerical models using a 1-D dynamical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearden, C.

    2009-04-01

    This work describes the method by which the performance of a suite of microphysics schemes of varying levels of complexity can be compared in isolation. Bulk schemes using both single-moment and dual-moment treatments of liquid water will be considered, and also an explicit bin-resolving scheme will be used which determines droplet activation from Kohler theory. The purpose is to establish the level of microphysical sophistication required for the successful simulation of liquid clouds in operational models, paying particular attention to the required level of coupling with aerosols. It is important to capture liquid phase processes accurately, not just because they determine the structure of warm clouds, but also because liquid droplets can exist at temperatures below 0degC in the form of supercooled water, which plays a role in ice formation through homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing mechanisms. Each scheme will be implemented within the same 1-D dynamical framework for consistency, and a range of idealised single column cloud simulations will be conducted to explore the parameter space of key variables such as cloud base vertical velocity, aerosol concentration and type. Once the comparison of the microphysical schemes has been conducted in the 1-D framework, a series of warm and mixed-phase cloud case studies will be performed in a mesoscale model framework, to qualitatively demonstrate whether the use of a dual-moment bulk microphysical treatment can lead to improvements in the representation of cloud relative to a single-moment scheme. The simulations will be assessed through quantities such as cloud reflectivity structure, precipitation rate and phase. Ultimately the work will aim to advance our understanding of the key microphysical processes that need to be parameterised in NWP and climate models, and on this basis will seek to quantify the strengths and weaknesses of each scheme.

  15. EFDC1D - A ONE DIMENSIONAL HYDRODYNAMIC AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT MODEL FOR RIVER AND STREAM NETWORKS: MODEL THEORY AND USERS GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical report describes the new one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and sediment transport model EFDC1D. This model that can be applied to stream networks. The model code and two sample data sets are included on the distribution CD. EFDC1D can simulate bi-directional unstea...

  16. 1D finite volume model of unsteady flow over mobile bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiyan; Duan, Jennifer G.

    2011-07-01

    SummaryA one dimensional (1D) finite volume method (FVM) model was developed for simulating unsteady flow, such as dam break flow, and flood routing over mobile alluvium. The governing equation is the modified 1D shallow water equation and the Exner equation that take both bed load and suspended load transport into account. The non-equilibrium sediment transport algorithm was adopted in the model, and the van Rijn method was employed to calculate the bed-load transport rate and the concentration of suspended sediment at the reference level. Flux terms in the governing equations were discretised using the upwind flux scheme, Harten et al. (1983) (HLL) and HLLC schemes, Roe's scheme and the Weighted Average Flux (WAF) schemes with the Double Minmod and Minmod flux limiters. The model was tested under a fixed bed condition to evaluate the performance of several different numerical schemes and then applied to an experimental case of dam break flow over a mobile bed and a flood event in the Rillito River, Tucson, Arizona. For dam break flow over movable bed, all tested schemes were proved to be capable of reasonably simulating water surface profiles, but failed to accurately capture the hydraulic jump. The WAF schemes produced slight spurious oscillations at the water surface and bed profiles and over-estimated the scour depth. When applying the model to the Rillito River, the simulated results generally agreed well with the field measurements of flow discharges and bed elevation changes. Modeling results of bed elevation changes were sensitive to the suspended load recovery coefficient and the bed load adaptation length, which require further theoretical and experimental investigations.

  17. 1-D and 2-D modeling of U-Ti alloy response in impact experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, B.; Favorsky, V.; Landau, A.; Shvarts, D.; Zaretsky, E. B.

    2003-09-01

    Dynamie response of a U-0.75wt%Ti alloy bas been studied in planar (disk-on-disk), reverse (disk-on-rod) and symmetric (rod-on-rod) ballistic impact experiments performed with a 25 mm light-gas gun. The impact velocities ranged between 100 and 500 m/see and the samples were softly recovered for further examination, revealing different degrees of spall fracture (planar impact) and of adiabatic shear bands (ballistic experiments). The back (planar experiments) and the lateral (ballistic experiments) surface velocities were continuously monitored by VISAR. The velocity profiles and the damage maps were simulated using a 2-D AUTODYN^TM Lagrangian finite differences code. Simulations of the planar experiments were performed with special attention to the compressive path of the loading cycle in order to calibrate a modified Steinberg-Cochran-Guinan (SCG) constitutive model. The Bauschinger effect and a single-parameter spall model were added to describe the unloading and tensile paths. The calibrated SCG model was then employed to simulate the ballistic experiments. An erosion AUTODYN built-in subroutine with a threshold value of plastic strain was chosen to describe the failure in the ballistic impact experiments. The results of the suggested experimental-numerical technique can be taken into account in estimating the different contributions to the shock-induced plastic deformation and failure.

  18. Fluid friction and wall viscosity of the 1D blood flow model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Nishi, Shohei; Matsukawa, Mami; Ghigo, Arthur; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria

    2016-02-29

    We study the behavior of the pulse waves of water into a flexible tube for application to blood flow simulations. In pulse waves both fluid friction and wall viscosity are damping factors, and difficult to evaluate separately. In this paper, the coefficients of fluid friction and wall viscosity are estimated by fitting a nonlinear 1D flow model to experimental data. In the experimental setup, a distensible tube is connected to a piston pump at one end and closed at another end. The pressure and wall displacements are measured simultaneously. A good agreement between model predictions and experiments was achieved. For amplitude decrease, the effect of wall viscosity on the pulse wave has been shown as important as that of fluid viscosity. PMID:26862041

  19. A world-line framework for 1D topological conformal σ-models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baulieu, L.; Holanda, N. L.; Toppan, F.

    2015-11-01

    We use world-line methods for pseudo-supersymmetry to construct sl(2|1)-invariant actions for the (2, 2, 0) chiral and (1, 2, 1) real supermultiplets of the twisted D-module representations of the sl(2|1) superalgebra. The derived one-dimensional topological conformal σ-models are invariant under nilpotent operators. The actions are constructed for both parabolic and hyperbolic/trigonometric realizations (with extra potential terms in the latter case). The scaling dimension λ of the supermultiplets defines a coupling constant, 2λ + 1, the free theories being recovered at λ = - /1 2 . We also present, generalizing previous works, the D-module representations of one-dimensional superconformal algebras induced by N = ( p , q ) pseudo-supersymmetry acting on (k, n, n - k) supermultiplets. Besides sl(2|1), we obtain the superalgebras A(1, 1), D(2, 1; α), D(3, 1), D(4, 1), A(2, 1) from (p, q) = (1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (5, 1), at given k, n and critical values of λ.

  20. Quantum cosmological relational model of shape and scale in 1D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Edward

    2011-03-01

    Relational particle models are useful toy models for quantum cosmology and the problem of time in quantum general relativity. This paper shows how to extend existing work on concrete examples of relational particle models in 1D to include a notion of scale. This is useful as regards forming a tight analogy with quantum cosmology and the emergent semiclassical time and hidden time approaches to the problem of time. This paper shows furthermore that the correspondence between relational particle models and classical and quantum cosmology can be strengthened using judicious choices of the mechanical potential. This gives relational particle mechanics models with analogues of spatial curvature, cosmological constant, dust and radiation terms. A number of these models are then tractable at the quantum level. These models can be used to study important issues (1) in canonical quantum gravity: the problem of time, the semiclassical approach to it and timeless approaches to it (such as the naive Schrödinger interpretation and records theory) and (2) in quantum cosmology, such as in the investigation of uniform states, robustness and the qualitative understanding of the origin of structure formation.

  1. Application of HYDRUS 1D model for assessment of phenol-soil adsorption dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pal, Supriya; Mukherjee, Somnath; Ghosh, Sudipta

    2014-04-01

    Laboratory-scale batch, vertical, and horizontal column experiments were conducted to investigate the attenuative capacity of a fine-grained clayey soil of local origin in the surrounding of a steel plant wastewater discharge site in West Bengal, India, for removal of phenol. Linear, Langmuir, and Freundlich isotherm plots from batch experimental data revealed that Freundlich isotherm model was reasonably fitted (R (2) = 0.94). The breakthrough column experiments were also carried out with different soil bed heights (5, 10, and 15 cm) under uniform flow to study the hydraulic movements of phenol by evaluating time concentration flow behavior using bromide as a tracer. The horizontal migration test was also conducted in the laboratory using adsorptive phenol and nonreactive bromide tracer to explore the movement of solute in a horizontal distance. The hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients (D) in the vertical and horizontal directions in the soil were estimated using nonlinear least-square parameter optimization method in CXTFIT model. In addition, the equilibrium convection dispersion model in HYDRUS 1D was also examined to simulate the fate and transport of phenol in vertical and horizontal directions using Freundlich isotherm constants and estimated hydrodynamic parameters as input in the model. The model efficacy and validation were examined through statistical parameters such as the coefficient of determination (R (2)), root mean square error and design of index (d). PMID:24407784

  2. HELIOS-CR A 1-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code with inline atomic kinetics modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. E.; Woodruff, P. R.

    2006-05-01

    HELIOS-CR is a user-oriented 1D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code to simulate the dynamic evolution of laser-produced plasmas and z-pinch plasmas. It includes an in-line collisional-radiative (CR) model for computing non-LTE atomic level populations at each time step of the hydrodynamics simulation. HELIOS-CR has been designed for ease of use, and is well-suited for experimentalists, as well as graduate and undergraduate student researchers. The energy equations employed include models for laser energy deposition, radiation from external sources, and high-current discharges. Radiative transport can be calculated using either a multi-frequency flux-limited diffusion model, or a multi-frequency, multi-angle short characteristics model. HELIOS-CR supports the use of SESAME equation of state (EOS) tables, PROPACEOS EOS/multi-group opacity data tables, and non-LTE plasma properties computed using the inline CR modeling. Time-, space-, and frequency-dependent results from HELIOS-CR calculations are readily displayed with the HydroPLOT graphics tool. In addition, the results of HELIOS simulations can be post-processed using the SPECT3D Imaging and Spectral Analysis Suite to generate images and spectra that can be directly compared with experimental measurements. The HELIOS-CR package runs on Windows, Linux, and Mac OSX platforms, and includes online documentation. We will discuss the major features of HELIOS-CR, and present example results from simulations.

  3. Use of Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) technique for the determination of 1-D shear wave velocity in a landslide area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccia, S.; Del Gaudio, V.; Venisti, N.; Wasowski, J.

    2009-04-01

    In the context of an ongoing study on seismic response of landslide-prone hill-slopes in Central Italy (area of Caramanico Terme), we tested the applicability of the Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) analysis technique (Louie, 2001) to obtain geometrical and physical parameters needed for numerical modelling. In particular, we used this technique to determine one-dimensional shear-wave velocity profiles (Vs) at sites located on and close to a recent landslide that mobilized 30-40 m thick Quaternary colluvium overlying Pliocene mudstones. The use of this technique in unstable slope areas presents difficulties related to rough topography and lateral lithological heterogeneities, which prevent the extension of geophone array up to the minimum lengths (100 - 200 m) commonly adopted in standard applications. Moreover, sites distant from anthropic sources of microtremors can have unfavourable noise conditions in comparison with other well established cases of application. To check the stability of the ReMi data in these operative conditions and the confidence level of the results, three ReMi campaigns were conducted at different times using different acquisition parameters (seismograph channel number, geophone frequency and spacing). We also tested simultaneous noise recording along orthogonal arrays to investigate a possible presence of directional variations of soil properties. The Rayleigh wave velocity dispersion data derived from picking carried out on p (slowness)-f (frequency) matrix showed the presence in noise recordings of different Rayleigh wave vibration modes (fundamental and first two higher modes), which prevail at different frequency intervals. This indicates that it is essential to correctly identify the different vibration modes to avoid erroneous data interpretation (e.g. fictitious identification of velocity decrease with depth). An analysis of the influence of changing environmental conditions and of different acquisition parameters was conducted through the comparison of data obtained from different campaigns with equal acquisition parameters and from simultaneous acquisition with different parameters. We show that different data acquisition can give quite stable results if spatial aliasing does not contaminate the signal in the p-f matrix near the picking area. Regarding the presence of directional variations, the differences found between velocities measured in two orthogonal directions were not very large (up to 10-20 %). These differences were more probably due to an anisotropic distribution of the noise sources rather than to lateral variations in material properties. The Rayleigh wave velocity dispersion curves, obtained from microseismic noise recording, were then inverted with the software Dinver (Wathelet, 2005) to derive shear-wave vertical distribution. This resulted in a large number of models compatible with data uncertainties estimated from measurement repetitions. The major variability characterizing the models at depth implies that this part of profiles is poorly constrained. However, if different vibration modes are recognised, the number of solutions can be considerably reduced by simultaneously inverting the relative dispersion curves and also by introducing into the models additional constraints (e.g. subsurface information from boreholes and seismic refraction data). References Louie J.N.; 2001: Shear wave velocity to 100 meters depth from refraction microtremor arrays. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 91, (2), 347-364. Wathelet M.; 2005: Array recordings of ambient vibrations: surface-wave inversion. PhD thesis, Université de Liège, Belgium.

  4. A 1-D evolutionary model for icy satellites, applied to Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prialnik, Dina; Malamud, Uri

    2015-11-01

    A 1-D long-term evolution code for icy satellites is presented, which couples multiple processes: water migration, geochemical reactions, water and silicate phase transitions, crystallization, compaction by self-gravity, and ablation. The code takes into account various energy sources: tidal heating, radiogenic heating, geochemical energy released by serpentinization or absorbed by mineral dehydration, gravitational energy, and insolation. It includes heat transport by conduction, convection, and advection.The code is applied to Enceladus, by guessing the initial conditions that would render a structure compatible with present-day observations, and adopting a homogeneous initial structure. Assuming that the satellite has been losing water continually along its evolution, it follows that it was formed as a more massive, more ice-rich and more porous object, and gradually transformed into its present day state, due to sustained tidal heating. Several initial compositions and evolution scenarios are considered, and the evolution is simulated for the age of the Solar System. The results corresponding to the present configuration are confronted with the available observational constraints. The present configuration is shown to be differentiated into a pure icy mantle, several tens of km thick, overlying a rocky core, composed of dehydrated rock in the central part and hydrated rock in the outer part. Such a differentiated structure is obtained not only for Enceladus, but for other medium size ice-rich bodies as well.Predictions for Enceladus are a higher rock/ice mass ratio than previously assumed, and a thinner ice mantle, compatible with recent estimates based on gravity field measurements. Although, obviously, the 1-D model cannot be used to explain local phenomena, it sheds light on the internal structure invoked in explanations of localized features and activities.

  5. Testing the accuracy of a 1-D volcanic plume model in estimating mass eruption rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Larry G.

    2014-01-01

    During volcanic eruptions, empirical relationships are used to estimate mass eruption rate from plume height. Although simple, such relationships can be inaccurate and can underestimate rates in windy conditions. One-dimensional plume models can incorporate atmospheric conditions and give potentially more accurate estimates. Here I present a 1-D model for plumes in crosswind and simulate 25 historical eruptions where plume height Hobs was well observed and mass eruption rate Mobs could be calculated from mapped deposit mass and observed duration. The simulations considered wind, temperature, and phase changes of water. Atmospheric conditions were obtained from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis 2.5° model. Simulations calculate the minimum, maximum, and average values (Mmin, Mmax, and Mavg) that fit the plume height. Eruption rates were also estimated from the empirical formula Mempir = 140Hobs4.14 (Mempir is in kilogram per second, Hobs is in kilometer). For these eruptions, the standard error of the residual in log space is about 0.53 for Mavg and 0.50 for Mempir. Thus, for this data set, the model is slightly less accurate at predicting Mobs than the empirical curve. The inability of this model to improve eruption rate estimates may lie in the limited accuracy of even well-observed plume heights, inaccurate model formulation, or the fact that most eruptions examined were not highly influenced by wind. For the low, wind-blown plume of 14–18 April 2010 at Eyjafjallajökull, where an accurate plume height time series is available, modeled rates do agree better with Mobs than Mempir.

  6. A 1-D evolutionary model for icy satellites, applied to Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, Uri; Prialnik, Dina

    2016-04-01

    We develop a long-term 1-D evolution model for icy satellites that couples multiple processes: water migration and differentiation, geochemical reactions and silicate phase transitions, compaction by self-gravity, and ablation. The model further considers the following energy sources and sinks: tidal heating, radiogenic heating, geochemical energy released by serpentinization or absorbed by mineral dehydration, gravitational energy and insolation, and heat transport by conduction, convection, and advection. We apply the model to Enceladus, by guessing the initial conditions that would render a structure compatible with present-day observations, assuming the initial structure to have been homogeneous. Assuming the satellite has been losing water continually along its evolution, we postulate that it was formed as a more massive, more icy and more porous satellite, and gradually transformed into its present day state due to sustained long-term tidal heating. We consider several initial compositions and evolution scenarios and follow the evolution for the age of the Solar System, testing the present day model results against the available observational constraints. Our model shows the present configuration to be differentiated into a pure icy mantle, several tens of km thick, overlying a rocky core, composed of dehydrated rock at the center and hydrated rock in the outer part. For Enceladus, it predicts a higher rock/ice mass ratio than previously assumed and a thinner ice mantle, compatible with recent estimates based on gravity field measurements. Although, obviously, the model cannot be used to explain local phenomena, it sheds light on the internal structure invoked in explanations of localized features and activities.

  7. 1D Tight-Binding Models Render Quantum First Passage Time "Speakable"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith, V.; Kumar, N.

    2015-12-01

    The calculation of First Passage Time (moreover, even its probability density in time) has so far been generally viewed as an ill-posed problem in the domain of quantum mechanics. The reasons can be summarily seen in the fact that the quantum probabilities in general do not satisfy the Kolmogorov sum rule: the probabilities for entering and non-entering of Feynman paths into a given region of space-time do not in general add up to unity, much owing to the interference of alternative paths. In the present work, it is pointed out that a special case exists (within quantum framework), in which, by design, there exists one and only one available path (i.e., door-way) to mediate the (first) passage -no alternative path to interfere with. Further, it is identified that a popular family of quantum systems - namely the 1d tight binding Hamiltonian systems - falls under this special category. For these model quantum systems, the first passage time distributions are obtained analytically by suitably applying a method originally devised for classical (stochastic) mechanics (by Schroedinger in 1915). This result is interesting especially given the fact that the tight binding models are extensively used in describing everyday phenomena in condense matter physics.

  8. 1D-3D hybrid modeling—from multi-compartment models to full resolution models in space and time

    PubMed Central

    Grein, Stephan; Stepniewski, Martin; Reiter, Sebastian; Knodel, Markus M.; Queisser, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of cellular and network dynamics in the brain by means of modeling and simulation has evolved into a highly interdisciplinary field, that uses sophisticated modeling and simulation approaches to understand distinct areas of brain function. Depending on the underlying complexity, these models vary in their level of detail, in order to cope with the attached computational cost. Hence for large network simulations, single neurons are typically reduced to time-dependent signal processors, dismissing the spatial aspect of each cell. For single cell or networks with relatively small numbers of neurons, general purpose simulators allow for space and time-dependent simulations of electrical signal processing, based on the cable equation theory. An emerging field in Computational Neuroscience encompasses a new level of detail by incorporating the full three-dimensional morphology of cells and organelles into three-dimensional, space and time-dependent, simulations. While every approach has its advantages and limitations, such as computational cost, integrated and methods-spanning simulation approaches, depending on the network size could establish new ways to investigate the brain. In this paper we present a hybrid simulation approach, that makes use of reduced 1D-models using e.g., the NEURON simulator—which couples to fully resolved models for simulating cellular and sub-cellular dynamics, including the detailed three-dimensional morphology of neurons and organelles. In order to couple 1D- and 3D-simulations, we present a geometry-, membrane potential- and intracellular concentration mapping framework, with which graph- based morphologies, e.g., in the swc- or hoc-format, are mapped to full surface and volume representations of the neuron and computational data from 1D-simulations can be used as boundary conditions for full 3D simulations and vice versa. Thus, established models and data, based on general purpose 1D-simulators, can be directly coupled to the emerging field of fully resolved, highly detailed 3D-modeling approaches. We present the developed general framework for 1D/3D hybrid modeling and apply it to investigate electrically active neurons and their intracellular spatio-temporal calcium dynamics. PMID:25120463

  9. 1D-coupled photochemical model of neutrals, cations and anions in the atmosphere of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrijevic, M.; Loison, J. C.; Hickson, K. M.; Gronoff, G.

    2016-04-01

    Many models with different characteristics have been published so far to study the chemical processes at work in Titan's atmosphere. Some models focus on neutral species in the stratosphere or ionic species in the ionosphere, but few of them couple all the species throughout the whole atmosphere. Very few of these emphasize the importance of uncertainties in the chemical scheme and study their propagation in the model. We have developed a new 1D-photochemical model of Titan's atmosphere coupling neutral species with positive and negative ions from the lower atmosphere up to the ionosphere and have compared our results with observations to have a comprehensive view of the chemical processes driving the composition of the stratosphere and ionosphere of Titan. We have updated the neutral, positive ion and negative ion chemistry and have improved the description of N2 photodissociation by introducing high resolution N2 absorption cross sections. We performed for the first time an uncertainty propagation study in a fully coupled ion-neutral model. We determine how uncertainties on rate constants on both neutral and ionic reactions influence the model results and pinpoint the key reactions responsible for this behavior. We find very good agreement between our model results and observations in both the stratosphere and in the ionosphere for most neutral compounds. Our results are also in good agreement with an average INMS mass spectrum and specific flybys in the dayside suggesting that our chemical model (for both neutral and ions) provides a good approximation of Titan's atmospheric chemistry as a whole. Our uncertainty propagation study highlights the difficulty to interpret the INMS mass spectra for masses 14, 31, 41 and we identified the key reactions responsible for these ambiguities. Despite an overall improvement in the chemical model, disagreement for some specific compounds (HC3N, C2H5CN, C2H4) highlights the role that certain physical processes could play (meridional dynamics or sticking on aerosols). We find that some critical key reactions are important for many compounds including both neutrals and ions and should be studied in priority to lower the remaining model uncertainties. Extensive studies for some specific processes (including photolyses) are required.

  10. Intricate heterogeneous structures of the top 300 km of the Earth's inner core inferred from global array data: I. Regional 1D attenuation and velocity profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iritani, R.; Takeuchi, N.; Kawakatsu, H.

    2014-05-01

    We apply a waveform inversion method based on simulated annealing to complex core phase data observed by globally deployed seismic arrays, and present regional variation of depth profiles of attenuation and velocity for the top half of the inner core. Whereas measured attenuation parameters exhibit consistent trends for data sampling the eastern hemisphere of the inner core, for the western hemisphere, there is a remarkable difference between data sampling the inner core beneath Africa (W1) and beneath north America (W2). Obtained attenuation profiles suggest that intricate heterogeneities appear to be confined in the top 300 km. The profile for the eastern hemisphere has a high attenuation zone in the top 150 km that gradually diminishes with depth. Conversely, for the western hemisphere, the profile for W1 shows constant low attenuation and that for W2 represents a gradual increase from the inner core boundary to a peak at around 200 km depth. Velocity profiles, obtained from differential traveltimes between PKP(DF) and PKP(CD, BC) phases, for the eastern and western hemispheres are respectively about 0.8% faster and 0.6% slower than the reference model at the top of the inner core, and the difference nearly disappears at about 200 km depth. Our result suggests the presence of intricate quasi-hemispherical structures in the top ˜200-300 km of the inner core.

  11. Cenozoic ice volume and temperature simulations with a 1-D ice-sheet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, B.; van de Wal, R. S. W.; Bintanja, R.; Lourens, L. J.; Tuenter, E.

    2009-04-01

    Ice volume and temperature for the past 35 Million years is investigated with a 1-D ice-sheet model, simulating ice-sheets on both hemispheres. The simulations include two continental Northern Hemisphere (NH) ice-sheets representative for glaciation on the two major continents, i.e. Eurasia (EAZ) and North America (NAM). Antarctic glaciation is simulated with two separate ice-sheets, respectively for West and East Antarctica. The surface air temperature is reconstructed with an inventive inverse procedure, forced with benthic δ18O data. The procedure linearly relates the temperature to the difference between the modelled and observed marine δ18O 100 years later. The derived temperature, representative for the NH, is used to run the ice-sheet model over 100 years, to obtain a mutually consistent record of marine δ18O, sea level and temperature for the last 35 Ma of the Cenozoic. For Northern Hemispheric glaciations results are good compared to similar simulations performed with a much more comprehensive 3-D ice-sheet model. On average, differences are only 1.9 ˚ C for temperature and 6.1 m for sea level. Results with ice-sheets on both hemispheres are very similar. Most notably, the reconstructed ice volume as function of temperature shows a transition from climate dominated by Antarctic ice volume variation towards NH ice-sheets controlled climate. The transition period falls within the range of interglacials (about -2 to +8 ˚ C with respect to present day) and is thus characterized by lower ice volume changes per ˚ C. The relationship between temperature, sea level and δ18O input is tested with an equilibrium experiment, which results in a linear and symmetric relationship for both temperature and total sea level, providing limited evidence for hysteresis, though transient behaviour is still important. Furthermore results show a rather good comparison with other simulations of Antarctic ice volume and observed sea level and deep-sea temperature.

  12. Gravimetric and 1D fullwave modelling results across the Donbas Foldbelt, Ukrania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyngsie, S. B.; Thybo, H.; Dobrefraction Workinggroup

    2003-04-01

    The Donbas Foldbelt, the uplifted and deformed part of the up to 20 km thick Dniepr-Donets Basin (Southeast Ukraine), formed as the result of intra-cratonic rifting. Rifting is believed to have affected large parts of the East European Craton in the Late Devonian. Numerous reflection- and refraction seismic studies have been carried out in the Dniepr-Donets basin, but only a few have targeted the Donbas Foldbelt. A seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection survey (DOBRE’99) was carried out during 1999. The seismic profile has a strike almost perpendicular to the rift axis. The profile has a length of 360 km, reaching from the shores of the Azov sea in the southwest, across the Azov Massif and the Donbas Foldbelt, ending at the Ukraine-Russia border in the Voronezh Massif to the northeast. Complimentary to the refraction survey, a reflection survey (DOBRE 2000) was carried out during 2000. The reflection profile covers the central and southern part of the Donbas Foldbelt, and is coincident to the refraction profile. Gravity modelling by joint inversion indicates high-density syn-rift deposits, possibly alkali-basaltic extrusives in the central part of the basin, and a high-density lower crust beneath the basin. The gravity model supports the results from the raytracing models (DOBREfraction Workinggroup), which divide the crust in the massifs, adjacent to the basin, into upper-, middle- and lower parts. A distinction between the upper- and middle parts cannot be made under the basin in either the raytracing models or the gravity model. Comparison between the reflection seismic profile (DOBREflection Workinggroup) and the gravity model reveals that the high-densities are coincident with high reflectivity. One-dimensional full wave reflectivity modelling yields detailed information on the lower crustal properties beneath the basin. The results indicate that the high-density and reflectivity of the lower curst is likely caused by inhomogeneties (sills). The inhomogeneties have a vertical scale between 400 and 700 m with Vp fluctuations between 4 &8% of the background P-wave velocity. Fractional crystallization of an originally peridotic melt is likely to be the cause of these high velocity fluctuations. The ultramafic intrusions related to tectonic rifting in a ductile lower crust have increased the lower crustal thickness. The Moho displays only a slight relief and has an average depth of 39 km. Intense magmatic activity coincident with a period of maximum lithospheric extension indicates a thermal anomaly during the main rift stage. The anomaly is likely to have been caused by back-arc convection in the Asthenospheric mantle, weakening the lower lithosphere at the onset of tectonic rifting.

  13. Modelling hydrology of a single bioretention system with HYDRUS-1D.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yingying; Wang, Huixiao; Chen, Jiangang; Zhang, Shuhan

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out on the effectiveness of bioretention systems to abate stormwater using computer simulation. The hydrologic performance was simulated for two bioretention cells using HYDRUS-1D, and the simulation results were verified by field data of nearly four years. Using the validated model, the optimization of design parameters of rainfall return period, filter media depth and type, and surface area was discussed. And the annual hydrologic performance of bioretention systems was further analyzed under the optimized parameters. The study reveals that bioretention systems with underdrains and impervious boundaries do have some detention capability, while their total water retention capability is extremely limited. Better detention capability is noted for smaller rainfall events, deeper filter media, and design storms with a return period smaller than 2 years, and a cost-effective filter media depth is recommended in bioretention design. Better hydrologic effectiveness is achieved with a higher hydraulic conductivity and ratio of the bioretention surface area to the catchment area, and filter media whose conductivity is between the conductivity of loamy sand and sandy loam, and a surface area of 10% of the catchment area is recommended. In the long-term simulation, both infiltration volume and evapotranspiration are critical for the total rainfall treatment in bioretention systems. PMID:25133240

  14. Modelling Hydrology of a Single Bioretention System with HYDRUS-1D

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yingying; Wang, Huixiao; Chen, Jiangang; Zhang, Shuhan

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out on the effectiveness of bioretention systems to abate stormwater using computer simulation. The hydrologic performance was simulated for two bioretention cells using HYDRUS-1D, and the simulation results were verified by field data of nearly four years. Using the validated model, the optimization of design parameters of rainfall return period, filter media depth and type, and surface area was discussed. And the annual hydrologic performance of bioretention systems was further analyzed under the optimized parameters. The study reveals that bioretention systems with underdrains and impervious boundaries do have some detention capability, while their total water retention capability is extremely limited. Better detention capability is noted for smaller rainfall events, deeper filter media, and design storms with a return period smaller than 2 years, and a cost-effective filter media depth is recommended in bioretention design. Better hydrologic effectiveness is achieved with a higher hydraulic conductivity and ratio of the bioretention surface area to the catchment area, and filter media whose conductivity is between the conductivity of loamy sand and sandy loam, and a surface area of 10% of the catchment area is recommended. In the long-term simulation, both infiltration volume and evapotranspiration are critical for the total rainfall treatment in bioretention systems. PMID:25133240

  15. Simulating Helium abundances in the Martian upper atmosphere using 1-D and 3-D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Jared M.; Bougher, S. W.; Mahaffy, Paul; Elrod, Meredith

    2015-11-01

    Chemically inert species, such as Helium, serve as an excellent tracer for the interplay between turbulent eddy diffusive processes and molecular diffusive processes. Using species such as Helium, we can effectively constrain the altitude of the homopause—or the transition from the well-mixed lower atmosphere to the mass-separation characteristic of the upper atmosphere. In this study, we will use the Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (M-GITM) to examine the impacts of altering the turbulent diffusion coefficient (eddy diffusion coefficient) on the simulated abundances of Helium. Using data obtained by the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) onboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission as a benchmark, we can examine what possible values for eddy diffusion in the thermosphere are most likely present in Mars’s upper atmosphere—in other words, we can assess where the mean homopause altitude is most likely located during the MAVEN mission. Furthermore, we will compare and contrast the results obtained when using a strictly classical, 1-D treatment of the problem with a more complete coupled, global 3-D treatment of the Martian atmosphere.

  16. Results and limits in the 1-D analytical modeling for the asymmetric DG SOI MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobianu, O.; Glesner, M.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents the results and the limits of 1-D analytical modeling of electrostatic potential in the low-doped p type silicon body of the asymmetric n-channel DG SOI MOSFET, where the contribution to the asymmetry comes only from p- and n-type doping of polysilicon used as the gate electrodes. Solving Poisson's equation with boundary conditions based on the continuity of normal electrical displacement at interfaces and the presence of a minimum electrostatic potential by using the Matlab code we have obtained a minimum potential with a slow variation in the central zone of silicon with the value pinned around 0.46 V, where the applied VGS voltage varies from 0.45 V to 0.95 V. The paper states clearly the validity domain of the analytical solution and the important effect of the localization of the minimum electrostatic potential value on the potential variation at interfaces as a function of the applied VGS voltage.

  17. Evaluating alternative river management options in the tidal Ouse using the QUESTS1D model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Cresser, Malcolm S

    2007-02-01

    The tidal Ouse forms a significant part of the Humber river system in Eastern England, which provides the largest UK fresh water source to the North Sea and a valuable habitat for fish. However it suffers from dissolved oxygen (DO) sag in summer, exacerbated by the industrial effluent discharged at Selby. A one-dimensional water quality model, QUESTS1D, as utilized by the Environment Agency (EA) has been used to evaluate the effectiveness of management options based on exploiting spatial distribution of the assimilative capacity of the river as an alternative to implementing more stringent effluent consents. Significant improvements in water quality of the tidal Ouse are predicted compared to the effects of tightening effluent consents. A system of water quality functions is derived in this paper for quicker and more direct predictions of water quality, which will be useful in future research when combined with other analyses. Taking account the assimilative capacity in policy making, this paper suggests that a combined water management framework should be applied to ensure the required water quality. PMID:17188337

  18. Open boundary conditions for the Diffuse Interface Model in 1-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmarais, J. L.; Kuerten, J. G. M.

    2014-04-01

    New techniques are developed for solving multi-phase flows in unbounded domains using the Diffuse Interface Model in 1-D. They extend two open boundary conditions originally designed for the Navier-Stokes equations. The non-dimensional formulation of the DIM generalizes the approach to any fluid. The equations support a steady state whose analytical approximation close to the critical point depends only on temperature. This feature enables the use of detectors at the boundaries switching between conventional boundary conditions in bulk phases and a multi-phase strategy in interfacial regions. Moreover, the latter takes advantage of the steady state approximation to minimize the interface-boundary interactions. The techniques are applied to fluids experiencing a phase transition and where the interface between the phases travels through one of the boundaries. When the interface crossing the boundary is fully developed, the technique greatly improves results relative to cases where conventional boundary conditions can be used. Limitations appear when the interface crossing the boundary is not a stable equilibrium between the two phases: the terms responsible for creating the true balance between the phases perturb the interior solution. Both boundary conditions present good numerical stability properties: the error remains bounded when the initial conditions or the far field values are perturbed. For the PML, the influence of its main parameters on the global error is investigated to make a compromise between computational costs and maximum error. The approach can be extended to multiple spatial dimensions.

  19. 1-D/3-D geologic model of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, D.K.; Henry, M.; Roberts, L.N.R.; Steinshouer, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    The 3-D geologic model of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin comprises 18 stacked intervals from the base of the Devonian Woodbend Group and age equivalent formations to ground surface; it includes an estimated thickness of eroded sediments based on 1-D burial history reconstructions for 33 wells across the study area. Each interval for the construction of the 3-D model was chosen on the basis of whether it is primarily composed of petroleum system elements of reservoir, hydrocarbon source, seal, overburden, or underburden strata, as well as the quality and areal distribution of well and other data. Preliminary results of the modeling support the following interpretations. Long-distance migration of hydrocarbons east of the Rocky Mountains is indicated by oil and gas accumulations in areas within which source rocks are thermally immature for oil and (or) gas. Petroleum systems in the basin are segmented by the northeast-trending Sweetgrass Arch; hydrocarbons west of the arch were from source rocks lying near or beneath the Rocky Mountains, whereas oil and gas east of the arch were sourced from the Williston Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and migration are primarily due to increased burial associated with the Laramide Orogeny. Hydrocarbon sources and migration were also influenced by the Lower Cretaceous sub-Mannville unconformity. In the Peace River Arch area of northern Alberta, Jurassic and older formations exhibit high-angle truncations against the unconformity. Potential Paleozoic though Mesozoic hydrocarbon source rocks are in contact with overlying Mannville Group reservoir facies. In contrast, in Saskatchewan and southern Alberta the contacts are parallel to sub-parallel, with the result that hydrocarbon source rocks are separated from the Mannville Group by seal-forming strata within the Jurassic. Vertical and lateral movement of hydrocarbons along the faults in the Rocky Mountains deformed belt probably also resulted in mixing of oil and gas from numerous source rocks in Alberta.

  20. 1D and 2D urban dam-break flood modelling in Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Hasan; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Döker, Fatih

    2014-05-01

    Urban flood events are increasing in frequency and severity as a consequence of several factors such as reduced infiltration capacities due to continued watershed development, increased construction in flood prone areas due to population growth, the possible amplification of rainfall intensity due to climate change, sea level rise which threatens coastal development, and poorly engineered flood control infrastructure (Gallegos et al., 2009). These factors will contribute to increased urban flood risk in the future, and as a result improved modelling of urban flooding according to different causative factor has been identified as a research priority (Gallegos et al., 2009; Ozdemir et al. 2013). The flooding disaster caused by dam failures is always a threat against lives and properties especially in urban environments. Therefore, the prediction of dynamics of dam-break flows plays a vital role in the forecast and evaluation of flooding disasters, and is of long-standing interest for researchers. Flooding occurred on the Ayamama River (Istanbul-Turkey) due to high intensity rainfall and dam-breaching of Ata Pond in 9th September 2009. The settlements, industrial areas and transportation system on the floodplain of the Ayamama River were inundated. Therefore, 32 people were dead and millions of Euros economic loses were occurred. The aim of this study is 1 and 2-Dimensional flood modelling of the Ata Pond breaching using HEC-RAS and LISFLOOD-Roe models and comparison of the model results using the real flood extent. The HEC-RAS model solves the full 1-D Saint Venant equations for unsteady open channel flow whereas LISFLOOD-Roe is the 2-D shallow water model which calculates the flow according to the complete Saint Venant formulation (Villanueva and Wright, 2006; Neal et al., 2011). The model consists a shock capturing Godunov-type scheme based on the Roe Riemann solver (Roe, 1981). 3 m high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM), natural characteristics of the pond and its breaching such as depth, wide, length, volume and breaching shape and daily total rainfall data were used in the models. The simulated flooding in the both models were compared with the real flood extent which gathered from photos taken after the flood event, high satellite images acquired after 20 days from the flood event, and field works. The results show that LISFLOOD-Roe hydraulic model gives more than 80% fit to the extent of real flood event. Also both modelling results show that the embankment breaching of the Ata Pond directly affected the flood magnitude and intensity on the area. This study reveals that modelling of the probable flooding in urban areas is necessary and very important in urban planning. References Gallegos, H. A., Schubert, J. E., and Sanders, B. F.: Two dimensional, high-resolution modeling of urban dam-break flooding: A case study of Baldwin Hills California, Adv. Water Resour., 32, 1323-1335, 2009. Neal, J., Villanueva, I., Wright, N., Willis, T., Fewtrell, T. and Bates, P.: How mush physical complexity is needed to model flood inundation? Hydrological Processes, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8339. Ozdemir H., Sampson C., De Almeida G., Bates P.D.: Evaluating scale and roughness effects in urban flood modelling using terrestrial LiDAR data, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol.17, pp.4015-4030, 2013. Roe P.: Approximate Riemann solvers, parameter vectors, and difference-schemes. Journal of Computational Physics 43(2): 357-372, 1981. Villanueva I, Wright NG.: Linking Riemann and storage cell models for flood prediction. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Journal of Water Management 159: 27-33, 2006.

  1. Ice Concentration Retrieval in Stratiform Mixed-phase Clouds Using Cloud Radar Reflectivity Measurements and 1D Ice Growth Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Fan, Jiwen; Luo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    Measurement of ice number concentration in clouds is important but still challenging. Stratiform mixed-phase clouds (SMCs) provide a simple scenario for retrieving ice number concentration from remote sensing measurements. The simple ice generation and growth pattern in SMCs offers opportunities to use cloud radar reflectivity (Ze) measurements and other cloud properties to infer ice number concentration quantitatively. To understand the strong temperature dependency of ice habit and growth rate quantitatively, we develop a 1-D ice growth model to calculate the ice diffusional growth along its falling trajectory in SMCs. The radar reflectivity and fall velocity profiles of ice crystals calculated from the 1-D ice growth model are evaluated with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) ground-based high vertical resolution radar measurements. Combining Ze measurements and 1-D ice growth model simulations, we develop a method to retrieve the ice number concentrations in SMCs at given cloud top temperature (CTT) and liquid water path (LWP). The retrieved ice concentrations in SMCs are evaluated with in situ measurements and with a three-dimensional cloud-resolving model simulation with a bin microphysical scheme. These comparisons show that the retrieved ice number concentrations are within an uncertainty of a factor of 2, statistically.

  2. A 1-D radiative conductive model to study the SOIR/VEx thermal profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahieux, Arnaud; Erwin, Justin T.; Chamberlain, Sarah; Robert, Séverine; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Wilquet, Valérie; Thomas, Ian; Yelle, Roger V.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    2015-04-01

    SOIR is an infrared spectrometer on board Venus Express that probes the Venus terminator region since 2006. The measurements are taken on the morning and evening sides of the terminator, covering all latitudes from the North Pole to the South Pole. Its wavelength range - 2.2 to 4.3 μm - allows a detailed chemical inventory of the Venus atmosphere [1-5], such as CO2, CO, H2O, HCl, HF, SO2 and aerosols. CO2 is detected from 70 km up to 165 km, CO from 70 km to 140 km, and the minor species typically below 110 km down to 70 km. Number density profiles of these species are computed from the measured spectra. Temperature profiles are obtained while computing the spectral inversion of the CO2 spectra combined with the hydrostatic law [6]. These temperature measurements show a striking permanent temperature minimum (at 125 km) and a weaker temperature maximum (over 100-115 km). The time variability of the CO2 density profiles spans over two orders of magnitude, and a clear trend is seen with latitude. The temperature variations are also important, of the order of 35 K for a given pressure level, but the latitude variation are small. Miss-RT, a 1D radiative transfer model has been developed to reproduce the SOIR terminator profiles, derived from the Mars thermosphere code presented in [7]. This model has been expanded to better account for the CO2, CO, and O non-LTE radiative heating and cooling processes which have to be considered in the dense atmosphere of Venus. Radiative cooling by minor species detected by SOIR (e.g. HCl, SO2, and H2O) are found to be small in comparison to the 15 μm CO2 cooling. Aerosol cooling in the 60-90km altitude range may be important to the thermal balance. There is a good agreement between the 1D model temperature profile and the mean SOIR temperature profile. Further we can suggest parameters that can be adjusted to improve the agreement between the model and measurements. The remaining differences can be attributed to the atmosphere dynamics at the terminator. 1. Bertaux, J.L., et al., A warm layer in Venus' cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO. Nature, 2007. 450(29 November): p. 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974. 2. Vandaele, A.C., et al., Carbon monoxide short term variability observed on Venus with SOIR/VEX. Planet. Space Sci., 2014. (in press). 3. Mahieux, A., et al., Venus mesospheric sulfur dioxide measurement retrieved from SOIR on board Venus Express. Planet. Space Sci., 2014. (in press). 4. Mahieux, A., et al., Hydrogen Halides measurements in the Venus upper atmosphere retrieved from SOIR on board Venus Express. Planet. Space Sci., 2014. (in press). 5. Wilquet, V., et al., Optical extinction due to aerosols in the upper haze of Venus: Four years of SOIR/VEX observations from 2006 to 2010. Icarus, 2012. 217(2): p. 875-881. 6. Mahieux, A., et al., Update of the Venus density and temperature profiles at high altitude measured by SOIR on board Venus Express. Planet. Space Sci., 2014. (submitted). 7. Yelle, R., et al., Perturbation of the Mars Atmosphere by the Near-Collision with Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring). Icarus, 2014. 237: p. 202-210.

  3. Reducing the number of parameters in 1D arterial blood flow modeling: less is more for patient-specific simulations

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Sally; Willemet, Marie; Chowienczyk, Phil J.

    2015-01-01

    Patient-specific one-dimensional (1D) blood flow modeling requires estimating model parameters from available clinical data, ideally acquired noninvasively. The larger the number of arterial segments in a distributed 1D model, the greater the number of input parameters that need to be estimated. We investigated the effect of a reduction in the number of arterial segments in a given distributed 1D model on the shape of the simulated pressure and flow waveforms. This is achieved by systematically lumping peripheral 1D model branches into windkessel models that preserve the net resistance and total compliance of the original model. We applied our methodology to a model of the 55 larger systemic arteries in the human and to an extended 67-artery model that contains the digital arteries that perfuse the fingers. Results show good agreement in the shape of the aortic and digital waveforms between the original 55-artery (67-artery) and reduced 21-artery (37-artery) models. Reducing the number of segments also enables us to investigate the effect of arterial network topology (and hence reflection sites) on the shape of waveforms. Results show that wave reflections in the thoracic aorta and renal arteries play an important role in shaping the aortic pressure and flow waves and in generating the second peak of the digital pressure and flow waves. Our novel methodology is important to simplify the computational domain while maintaining the precision of the numerical predictions and to assess the effect of wave reflections. PMID:25888513

  4. Locating earthquakes in west Texas oil fields using 3-D anisotropic velocity models

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Fa; Doser, D.; Baker, M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Earthquakes within the War-Wink gas field, Ward County, Texas, that have been located with a 1-D velocity model occur near the edges and top of a naturally occurring overpressured zone. Because the War-Wink field is a structurally controlled anticline with significant velocity anisotropy associated with the overpressured zone and finely layered evaporites, the authors have attempted to re-locate earthquakes using a 3-D anisotropic velocity model. Preliminary results with this model give the unsatisfactory result that many earthquakes previously located at the top of the overpressured zone (3-3.5 km) moved into the evaporites (1-1.5 km) above the field. They believe that this result could be caused by: (1) aliasing the velocity model; or (2) problems in determining the correct location minima when several minima exist. They are currently attempting to determine which of these causes is more likely for the unsatisfactory result observed.

  5. Pseudofermion dynamical theory for the spin dynamical correlation functions of the half-filled 1D Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmelo, J. M. P.; Čadež, T.

    2016-03-01

    A modified version of the metallic-phase pseudofermion dynamical theory (PDT) of the 1D Hubbard model is introduced for the spin dynamical correlation functions of the half-filled 1D Hubbard model Mott-Hubbard phase. The Mott-Hubbard insulator phase PDT is applied to the study of the model longitudinal and transverse spin dynamical structure factors at finite magnetic field h, focusing in particular on the singularities at excitation energies in the vicinity of the lower thresholds. The relation of our theoretical results to both condensed-matter and ultra-cold atom systems is discussed.

  6. Development of a 1D canopy module to couple mesoscale meteorogical model with building energy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauree, Dasaraden; Kohler, Manon; Blond, Nadge; Clappier, Alain

    2013-04-01

    The actual global warming, highlighted by the scientific community, is due to the greenhouse gases emissions resulting from our energy consumption. This energy is mainly produced in cities (about 70% of the total energy use). Around 36% of this energy are used in buildings (residential/tertiary) and this accounts for about 20% of the greenhouse gases emissions. Moreover, the world population is more and more concentrated in urban areas, 50% of the actual world population already lives in cities and this ratio is expected to reach 70% by 2050. With the obviously increasing responsibility of cities in climate change in the future, it is of great importance to go toward more sustainable cities that would reduce the energy consumption in urban areas. The energy use inside buildings is driven by two factors: (1) the level of comfort wished by the inhabitants and (2) the urban climate. On the other hand, the urban climate is influenced by the presence of buildings. Indeed, artificial surfaces of urban areas modify the energy budget of the Earth's surface and furthermore, heat is released into the atmosphere due to the energy used by buildings. Modifications at the building scale (micro-scale) can thus have an influence on the climate of the urban areas and surroundings (meso-scale), and vice and versa. During the last decades, meso-scale models have been developed to simulate the atmospheric conditions for domain of 100-1000km wide with a resolution of few kilometers. Due to their low resolution, the effects of small obstacles (such as buildings, trees, ...) near the ground are not reproduced properly and parameterizations have been developed to represent such effects in meso-scale models. On the other side, micro-scale models have a higher resolution (around 1 meter) and consequently can better simulate the impact of obstacles on the atmospheric heat flux exchanges with the earth surface. However, only a smaller domain (less than 1km) can be simulated for the same computational time. To simulate the processes at the micro-scale (building) as well as at the meso-scale (city and surroundings), it is necessary to connect these two types of models. It is proposed here to develop a canopy module able to act as an interface between these two scales. The meso-scale model provides the meteorological parameters to the micro-scale model via the canopy module. The micro-scale model then calculates the influence of the different type of surfaces on the variables and gives its back through the module to the meso-scale model. By simulating in a better way the interactions between the atmosphere and the urban surfaces, the model will enhance the estimation of the energy use by building. The tool produced by this research could be coupled in the future with an urban dynamics model to optimize urban planning in order to improve the sustainability of cities.

  7. Testing the early Mars H2-CO2 greenhouse hypothesis with a 1-D photochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, Natasha; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Ramirez, Ramses; Kasting, James F.

    2015-09-01

    A recent study by Ramirez et al. (Ramirez, R.M. et al. [2014]. Nat. Geosci. 7(1), 59-63.) demonstrated that an atmosphere with 1.3-4 bar of CO2 and H2O, in addition to 5-20% H2, could have raised the mean annual and global surface temperature of early Mars above the freezing point of water. Such warm temperatures appear necessary to generate the rainfall (or snowfall) amounts required to carve the ancient martian valleys. Here, we use our best estimates for early martian outgassing rates, along with a 1-D photochemical model, to assess the conversion efficiency of CO, CH4, and H2S to CO2, SO2, and H2. Our outgassing estimates assume that Mars was actively recycling volatiles between its crust and interior, as Earth does today. H2 production from serpentinization and deposition of banded iron-formations is also considered. Under these assumptions, maintaining an H2 concentration of ˜1-2% by volume is achievable, but reaching 5% H2 requires additional H2 sources or a slowing of the hydrogen escape rate below the diffusion limit. If the early martian atmosphere was indeed H2-rich, we might be able to see evidence of this in the rock record. The hypothesis proposed here is consistent with new data from the Curiosity Rover, which show evidence for a long-lived lake in Gale Crater near Mt. Sharp. It is also consistent with measured oxygen fugacities of martian meteorites, which show evidence for progressive mantle oxidation over time.

  8. Diesel Engine performance improvement in a 1-D engine model using Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karra, Prashanth

    2015-12-01

    A particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique was implemented to improve the engine development and optimization process to simultaneously reduce emissions and improve the fuel efficiency. The optimization was performed on a 4-stroke 4-cylinder GT-Power based 1-D diesel engine model. To achieve the multi-objective optimization, a merit function was defined which included the parameters to be optimized: Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Nonmethyl hydro carbons (NMHC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). EPA Tier 3 emissions standards for non-road diesel engines between 37 and 75 kW of output were chosen as targets for the optimization. The combustion parameters analyzed in this study include: Start of main Injection, Start of Pilot Injection, Pilot fuel quantity, Swirl, and Tumble. The PSO was found to be very effective in quickly arriving at a solution that met the target criteria as defined in the merit function. The optimization took around 40-50 runs to find the most favourable engine operating condition under the constraints specified in the optimization. In a favourable case with a high merit function values, the NOx+NMHC and CO values were reduced to as low as 2.9 and 0.014 g/kWh, respectively. The operating conditions at this point were: 10 ATDC Main SOI, -25 ATDC Pilot SOI, 0.25 mg of pilot fuel, 0.45 Swirl and 0.85 tumble. These results indicate that late main injections preceded by a close, small pilot injection are most favourable conditions at the operating condition tested.

  9. Crosswell born inversion for heterogeneous velocity models

    SciTech Connect

    Hegge, R.F.; Herman, G.C.; Sevink, A.G.J.

    1994-12-31

    The application of high-frequency asymptotic Born inverse scattering methods to cross-well imaging is discussed and illustrated with a number of model studies for synthetic data. In particular, attention is given to imaging problems that are associated with typical cross-well geometries. A severe problem is the existence of multiple travel paths between sources and receivers that are particularly apparent if low-velocity layers are present. When this occurs, the high-frequency asymptotic imaging method is no longer valid and large artifacts in the images can result. However, it is concluded that, even in the case of multiple travel paths, good images can be obtained by omitting the singularities in the imaging formula and by combining the results for different source locations.

  10. Iterative calibration of a shape memory alloy constitutive model from 1D and 2D data using optimization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, Daniel; Hartl, Darren

    2014-03-01

    Shape memory alloy constitutive models have been shown to accurately predict 1-D and 3-D material response under general thermomechanical loading. As with any constitutive model, however, the degree to which simulation results match experimental data is dependent on the accurate calibration of model parameters. This work presents a general framework for the identi cation of SMA material parameters using numerical optimization methods and experimental results that include both 1-D data (i.e., stress-strain and strain-temperature line plots) as well as 2-D digital image correlation (DIC) strain eld data. The optimization framework is verified using 1-D and 3-D nite-element-based simulated results as pseudo-experimental data. The study shows that the proposed optimization methods can identify SMA parameters in an automated fashion using data taken from multiple types of experiment, identifying parameters that t very closely to the pseudo-experimental data.

  11. Modeling of general 1-D periodic leaky-wave antennas in layered media using EIGER.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, Donald R.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Celepcikay, Ferhat T.; Johnson, William Arthur; Baccarelli, Paolo; Valerio, Guido; Paulotto, Simone; Langston, William L.; Jackson, David R.

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a mixed-potential integral-equation formulation for analyzing 1-D periodic leaky-wave antennas in layered media. The structures are periodic in one dimension and finite in the other two dimensions. The unit cell consists of an arbitrary-shaped metallic/dielectric structure. The formulation has been implemented in the EIGER{trademark} code in order to obtain the real and complex propagation wavenumbers of the bound and leaky modes of such structures. Validation results presented here include a 1-D periodic planar leaky-wave antenna and a fully 3-D waveguide test case.

  12. Comparison of 1D and 2D CSR Models with Application to the FERMI@ELETTRA Bunch Compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Bassi, G.; Ellison, J.A.; Heinemann, K.

    2011-03-28

    We compare our 2D mean field (Vlasov-Maxwell) treatment of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects with 1D approximations of the CSR force which are commonly implemented in CSR codes. In our model we track particles in 4D phase space and calculate 2D forces [1]. The major cost in our calculation is the computation of the 2D force. To speed up the computation and improve 1D models we also investigate approximations to our exact 2D force. As an application, we present numerical results for the Fermi{at}Elettra first bunch compressor with the configuration described in [1].

  13. Revisiting the capture velocity of a cesium magneto-optical trap: model, simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Muhammad; Magalhães, Daniel V.; Müller, Stella T.; Faisal, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad; Ahmed, Mushtaq

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we have explored ab initio the capture process in a magneto-optical trap by theory, simulation and experiment. We measured the capture velocity vc of a cesium vapor cell magneto-optical trap (VCMOT) from its capture rate R and developed an exact model for the capture rate of a VCMOT in terms of its capture velocity, background density and trap laser beam diameter. We measured the capture velocity of a cesium VCMOT for various trap laser intensities and magnetic field gradients. We observed that the capture velocity is a damping force as well as a restoring force phenomenon. We supported our findings by performing simulations for single atom trajectories in a 1D cesium MOT. Finally, we concluded that two MOTs can have the same capture velocities but very different capture rates, thereby revealing that these are two fundamentally different characteristics of the MOT.

  14. ABSTRACTION OF INFORMATION FROM 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL PORFLOW MODELS INTO A 1-D GOLDSIM MODEL - 11404

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.; Hiergesell, R.

    2010-11-16

    The Savannah River National Laboratory has developed a 'hybrid' approach to Performance Assessment modeling which has been used for a number of Performance Assessments. This hybrid approach uses a multi-dimensional modeling platform (PorFlow) to develop deterministic flow fields and perform contaminant transport. The GoldSim modeling platform is used to develop the Sensitivity and Uncertainty analyses. Because these codes are performing complementary tasks, it is incumbent upon them that for the deterministic cases they produce very similar results. This paper discusses two very different waste forms, one with no engineered barriers and one with engineered barriers, each of which present different challenges to the abstraction of data. The hybrid approach to Performance Assessment modeling used at the SRNL uses a 2-D unsaturated zone (UZ) and a 3-D saturated zone (SZ) model in the PorFlow modeling platform. The UZ model consists of the waste zone and the unsaturated zoned between the waste zone and the water table. The SZ model consists of source cells beneath the waste form to the points of interest. Both models contain 'buffer' cells so that modeling domain boundaries do not adversely affect the calculation. The information pipeline between the two models is the contaminant flux. The domain contaminant flux, typically in units of moles (or Curies) per year from the UZ model is used as a boundary condition for the source cells in the SZ. The GoldSim modeling component of the hybrid approach is an integrated UZ-SZ model. The model is a 1-D representation of the SZ, typically 1-D in the UZ, but as discussed below, depending on the waste form being analyzed may contain pseudo-2-D elements. A waste form at the Savannah River Site (SRS) which has no engineered barriers is commonly referred to as a slit trench. A slit trench, as its name implies, is an unlined trench, typically 6 m deep, 6 m wide, and 200 m long. Low level waste consisting of soil, debris, rubble, wood, etc. is disposed within the trench which is then covered with soil and a cap. The filled trench resembles the surrounding soil, albeit with a higher porosity. As a result, the flow field through the trench is essentially 1-dimensional. This dimensionality makes the abstraction of information from this waste form fairly simple. Engineered waste forms present challenges not seen in the slit trench because of their higher dimensionality. Flow fields must conform to the barriers and are therefore subject to changes in direction. This paper will examine one case and show how this multidimensional flow field can be abstracted into a 1-dimensional flow field while retaining characteristics important to the transport of radioactive contaminants. One complication not addressed by the two preceding examples is that of multiple sources. This presents quite a challenge to the benchmarking exercise, but a fairly robust method has been developed to deal with it. While the PorFlow analyses can treat all sources as independent in space, this is not possible with a 1-D model. This problem has been addressed by constructing multiple 1-D models of the waste forms and using plume overlaps at the assessment points to address the multiple sources which can contribute to a distinct assessment point.

  15. Integrating a 1D Thermal Lake Model into a Global and Regional Climate Model: Model Evaluation and Regional Climate Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subin, Z. M.; Riley, W. J.

    2009-12-01

    Compared to solid ground, lakes tend to have decreased albedo, increased ground heat conductance, and increased effective ground heat capacity. These features alter local surface fluxes compared to nearby vegetation, which in turn alter the climate of the nearby atmosphere and surrounding land areas. Interest in feedbacks between lake behavior and climate change provides motivation for including lakes in global climate models, as does the desire to do effective regional downscaling of climate model predictions over regions with large lake area fraction, like the Great Lakes region. Finally, the initiation, warming, and expansion of Arctic thermokarst lakes could provide an important geophysical and biogeochemical feedback to climate warming. The Community Land Model (CLM) 3.5 currently uses a 1D Hostetler lake scheme. We have updated this model to improve the characterization of surface fluxes, eddy diffusivity, and convective mixing. We also link the lake model with the full snow physics found over other land surface types (including 5 snow layers, aerosol deposition, partial transparency of snow layers, and snow aging), add phase change & ice physics to the lake model, and include soil layers beneath lakes. These soil layers will be an important component of future thermokarst lake modeling, as thermokarst lakes tend to form regions of unfrozen soil (talik) beneath them that become active sites for anaerobic decomposition of pre-modern peat. We have also integrated the updated lake model into a modified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model 3.0. We will present comparisons between predicted and observed thermal conditions, snow and ice depths, and surface energy fluxes at several lake sites, using local meteorological forcing or integrated regional atmospheric coupling. The thermal predictions are generally reasonable and show a marked improvement from runs performed with the baseline CLM 3.5 version of the lake model. Over Sparkling Lake, the lake model simulates the hourly lake water temperatures from 2002-2005 in very good agreement (<3 K error) with observations at all depths when the model is forced with the observed climatology. Over other relatively shallow (2 m - 50 m) lakes, thermal depth profiles are generally well reproduced, with maximum summer surface temperatures generally within ~3 K of the observations and mixing depths accurate to about 20% of lake depth. Snow depths, ice depths, and freezing duration are evaluated. Over very deep lakes like Lake Geneva, the model predicts insufficient mixing below about 30 m depth, which is a known deficiency of the Hostetler Lake Model, although the surface temperature is well replicated. We conclude that the model is suitable for inclusion into regional and global climate models for evaluating climate feedbacks, particularly for shallow thermokarst lakes. Finally, we present a comparison of the simulated historical surface climatology to observations for the Great Lakes region in WRF, both with and without the new lake model.

  16. 1D Runoff-runon stochastic model in the light of queueing theory : heterogeneity and connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harel, M.-A.; Mouche, E.; Ledoux, E.

    2012-04-01

    Runoff production on a hillslope during a rainfall event may be simplified as follows. Given a soil of constant infiltrability I, which is the maximum amount of water that the soil can infiltrate, and a constant rainfall intensity R, runoff is observed where R is greater than I. The infiltration rate equals the infiltrability when runoff is produced, R otherwise. When ponding time, topography, and overall spatial and temporal variations of physical parameters, such as R and I, are neglected, the runoff equation remains simple. In this study, we consider soils of spatially variable infiltrability. As runoff can re-infiltrate on down-slope areas of higher infiltrabilities (runon), the resulting process is highly non-linear. The stationary runoff equation is: Qn+1 = max(Qn + (R - In)*Δx , 0) where Qn is the runoff arriving on pixel n of size Δx [L2/T], R and In the rainfall intensity and infiltrability on that same pixel [L/T]. The non-linearity is due to the dependence of infiltration on R and Qn, that is runon. This re-infiltration process generates patterns of runoff along the slope, patterns that organise and connect to each other differently depending on the rainfall intensity and the nature of the soil heterogeneity. The runoff connectivity, assessed using the connectivity function of Allard (1993), affects greatly the dynamics of the runoff hillslope. Our aim is to assess, in a stochastic framework, the runoff organization on 1D slopes with random infiltrabilities (log-normal, exponential, bimodal and uniform distributions) by means of theoretical developments and numerical simulations. This means linking the nature of soil heterogeneity with the resulting runoff organisation. In term of connectivity, we investigate the relations between structural (infiltrability) and functional (runoff) connectivity. A theoretical framework based on the queueing theory is developed. We implement the idea of Jones et al. (2009), who remarked that the above formulation is identical to the waiting time equation in a single server queue. Thanks to this theory, it is possible to accurately describe some outputs of our numerical model, notably the runoff repartition over the slope for uncorrelated exponential infiltrability distributions. Alternative formulations for the connectivity function of Allard (which cannot be predicted theoretically to our knowledge) are discussed with regard to predictability, efficiency in computation and qualification of the "near-connectedness" state of the system.

  17. Bright and dark solitons in a quasi-1D Bose-Einstein condensates modelled by 1D Gross-Pitaevskii equation with time-dependent parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, S.; Muruganandam, P.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the exact bright and dark solitary wave solutions of an effective 1D Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) by assuming that the interaction energy is much less than the kinetic energy in the transverse direction. In particular, following the earlier works in the literature Pérez-García et al. (2004) [50], Serkin et al. (2007) [51], Gurses (2007) [52] and Kundu (2009) [53], we point out that the effective 1D equation resulting from the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation can be transformed into the standard soliton (bright/dark) possessing, completely integrable 1D nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation by effecting a change of variables of the coordinates and the wave function. We consider both confining and expulsive harmonic trap potentials separately and treat the atomic scattering length, gain/loss term and trap frequency as the experimental control parameters by modulating them as a function of time. In the case when the trap frequency is kept constant, we show the existence of different kinds of soliton solutions, such as the periodic oscillating solitons, collapse and revival of condensate, snake-like solitons, stable solitons, soliton growth and decay and formation of two-soliton bound state, as the atomic scattering length and gain/loss term are varied. However, when the trap frequency is also modulated, we show the phenomena of collapse and revival of two-soliton like bound state formation of the condensate for double modulated periodic potential and bright and dark solitons for step-wise modulated potentials.

  18. Comparison between a 1D and a 2D numerical model of an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Thomas Frank; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian R. H.; Elmegaard, Brian; Pryds, Nini; Smith, Anders

    2008-05-01

    The active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration system represents an environmentally attractive alternative to vapour-compression refrigeration. This paper compares the results of two numerical AMR models: (1) a 1D finite difference model and (2) a 2D finite element model. Both models simulate a reciprocating AMR and can determine the cyclical steady-state temperature profile of the system as well as performance parameters such as the refrigeration capacity, the work input and the coefficient of performance (COP). The models are used to analyse an AMR with a regenerator made of flat parallel plates of gadolinium operating in the presence of a 1 T magnetic field. The results are used to discuss under which circumstances a 1D model is insufficient and a 2D model is necessary. The results indicate that when the temperature gradients in the AMR perpendicular to the flow are small a 1D model obtains accurate results of overall results such as the refrigeration capacity but that a 2D model is required for a detailed analysis of the phenomena occurring inside the AMR.

  19. A crustal seismic velocity model for the UK, Ireland and surrounding seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, A.; England, R.W.; Maguire, Peter K.H.

    2007-01-01

    A regional model of the 3-D variation in seismic P-wave velocity structure in the crust of NW Europe has been compiled from wide-angle reflection/refraction profiles. Along each 2-D profile a velocity-depth function has been digitised at 5 km intervals. These 1-D velocity functions were mapped into three dimensions using ordinary kriging with weights determined to minimise the difference between digitised and interpolated values. An analysis of variograms of the digitised data suggested a radial isotropic weighting scheme was most appropriate. Horizontal dimensions of the model cells are optimised at 40 ?? 40 km and the vertical dimension at 1 km. The resulting model provides a higher resolution image of the 3-D variation in seismic velocity structure of the UK, Ireland and surrounding areas than existing models. The construction of the model through kriging allows the uncertainty in the velocity structure to be assessed. This uncertainty indicates the high density of data required to confidently interpolate the crustal velocity structure, and shows that for this region the velocity is poorly constrained for large areas away from the input data. ?? 2007 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2007 RAS.

  20. Implementation of a 1D k-ɛ model for studying the vertical mixing in Comau fjord, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepulveda, O.; De La Fuente, A.; Bouffard, D.; Meruane, C.

    2014-12-01

    Comau fjord,located in southern Chile (42º22' S, 72º25' W), is a narrow and deep semi-enclosed basin of 68 km-long, 4 km-width and a maximum depth of 500 m. The fjord has a semi-diurnal tidal regime dominated by the M2 component, with maximum oscillations that reach 7,5 m. The stratification and mixing in the Comau fjord was examined in a field campaign during January 2014, using temperature and conductivity sensors and a down-looking ADCP. A very shallow salinity-controlled stratification was detected with a very strong and sharp density change at about 8 m-depth. Furthermore, a surface current of magnitude 5 cm·s-1 due to river discharge was measured and found to interact with both the tide and the wind forcing. A description of the fjord's hydrodynamic was performed using a general 1D vertical k-ɛ model, in which the stratification was forced by exchanges of energy and momentum with the atmosphere. In addition, the river currents and the effects of tidal influence were incorporated through adding terms in the momentum equation that account for non-linear interaction between current and tide, and a periodic barotropic pressure gradient due to the tide. A decomposition in vertical modes were carried out to analyze the velocity data and the results of the model, which showed that the energy is concentrated in the first barotropic mode, in agreement with the fact that the aspect ratio of stratification h1/(h1+h2) is close to 0. Field data and numerical simulations suggest that the energy injected to the system by external forcings is dissipated in the surface region as a consequence of the strong stratification, which acts as a buffer of the energy transfer, controlling the vertical mixing. The model implemented calculates the vertical dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, allowing the estimation of turbulent diffusion parameter, thus connecting the system's hydrodynamics response with the vertical transport of water quality parameters of the system.

  1. Glut1 deficiency (G1D): Epilepsy and metabolic dysfunction in a mouse model of the most common human phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Good, Levi B.; Ma, Qian; Duarte, Joao; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Sinton, Christopher M.; Heilig, Charles W.; Pascual, Juan M.

    2012-01-01

    Brain glucose supplies most of the carbon required for acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) generation (an important step for myelin synthesis) and for neurotransmitter production via further metabolism of acetyl-CoA in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. However, it is not known whether reduced brain glucose transporter type I (GLUT-1) activity, the hallmark of the GLUT-1 deficiency (G1D) syndrome, leads to acetyl-CoA, TCA or neurotransmitter depletion. This question is relevant because, in its most common form in man, G1D is associated with cerebral hypomyelination (manifested as microcephaly) and epilepsy, suggestive of acetyl-CoA depletion and neurotransmitter dysfunction, respectively. Yet, brain metabolism in G1D remains underexplored both theoretically and experimentally, partly because computational models of limited brain glucose transport are subordinate to metabolic assumptions and partly because current hemizygous G1D mouse models manifest a mild phenotype not easily amenable to investigation. In contrast, adult antisense G1D mice replicate the human phenotype of spontaneous epilepsy associated with robust thalamocortical electrical oscillations. Additionally, and in consonance with human metabolic imaging observations, thalamus and cerebral cortex display the lowest GLUT-1 expression and glucose uptake in the mutant mouse. This depletion of brain glucose is associated with diminished plasma fatty acids and elevated ketone body levels, and with decreased brain acetyl-CoA and fatty acid contents, consistent with brain ketone body consumption and with stimulation of brain beta-oxidation and/or diminished cerebral lipid synthesis. In contrast with other epilepsies, astrocyte glutamine synthetase expression, cerebral TCA cycle intermediates, amino acid and amine neurotransmitter contents are also intact in G1D. The data suggest that the TCA cycle is preserved in G1D because reduced glycolysis and acetyl-CoA formation can be balanced by enhanced ketone body utilization. These results are incompatible with global cerebral energy failure or with neurotransmitter depletion as responsible for epilepsy in G1D and point to an unknown mechanism by which glycolysis critically regulates cortical excitability. PMID:22683290

  2. Glut1 deficiency (G1D): epilepsy and metabolic dysfunction in a mouse model of the most common human phenotype.

    PubMed

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Good, Levi B; Ma, Qian; Duarte, Joao; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Sinton, Christopher M; Heilig, Charles W; Pascual, Juan M

    2012-10-01

    Brain glucose supplies most of the carbon required for acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) generation (an important step for myelin synthesis) and for neurotransmitter production via further metabolism of acetyl-CoA in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. However, it is not known whether reduced brain glucose transporter type I (GLUT-1) activity, the hallmark of the GLUT-1 deficiency (G1D) syndrome, leads to acetyl-CoA, TCA or neurotransmitter depletion. This question is relevant because, in its most common form in man, G1D is associated with cerebral hypomyelination (manifested as microcephaly) and epilepsy, suggestive of acetyl-CoA depletion and neurotransmitter dysfunction, respectively. Yet, brain metabolism in G1D remains underexplored both theoretically and experimentally, partly because computational models of limited brain glucose transport are subordinate to metabolic assumptions and partly because current hemizygous G1D mouse models manifest a mild phenotype not easily amenable to investigation. In contrast, adult antisense G1D mice replicate the human phenotype of spontaneous epilepsy associated with robust thalamocortical electrical oscillations. Additionally, and in consonance with human metabolic imaging observations, thalamus and cerebral cortex display the lowest GLUT-1 expression and glucose uptake in the mutant mouse. This depletion of brain glucose is associated with diminished plasma fatty acids and elevated ketone body levels, and with decreased brain acetyl-CoA and fatty acid contents, consistent with brain ketone body consumption and with stimulation of brain beta-oxidation and/or diminished cerebral lipid synthesis. In contrast with other epilepsies, astrocyte glutamine synthetase expression, cerebral TCA cycle intermediates, amino acid and amine neurotransmitter contents are also intact in G1D. The data suggest that the TCA cycle is preserved in G1D because reduced glycolysis and acetyl-CoA formation can be balanced by enhanced ketone body utilization. These results are incompatible with global cerebral energy failure or with neurotransmitter depletion as responsible for epilepsy in G1D and point to an unknown mechanism by which glycolysis critically regulates cortical excitability. PMID:22683290

  3. A new car-following model considering velocity anticipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jun-Fang; Jia, Bin; Li, Xin-Gang; Gao, Zi-You

    2010-01-01

    The full velocity difference model proposed by Jiang et al. [2001 Phys. Rev. E 64 017101] has been improved by introducing velocity anticipation. Velocity anticipation means the follower estimates the future velocity of the leader. The stability condition of the new model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. Theoretical results show that the stability region increases when we increase the anticipation time interval. The mKdV equation is derived to describe the kink-antikink soliton wave and obtain the coexisting stability line. The delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density are obtained in this model. Numerical simulations exhibit that when we increase the anticipation time interval enough, the new model could avoid accidents under urgent braking cases. Also, the traffic jam could be suppressed by considering the anticipation velocity. All results demonstrate that this model is an improvement on the full velocity difference model.

  4. New Analysis of the Deep Impact Comet 9P/Tempel 1 Event Using High Resolution Spectroscopy: Evidence for High Velocity Long-Lived Emission from 630 nm [O( 1 D)] Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corliss, Jason B.; Harris, Walt M.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Roesler, Frederick L.

    2015-11-01

    Thorough analysis of narrow bandpass high spectral resolution (R ≈100,000) observations of [O 1 D] 630nm emission from comet 9P/Tempel 1 taken over a ~1’ FOV both before and after the Deep Impact event provides evidence for a long-lived high velocity jet-like feature. The observations were obtained with an all-reflective spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) coupled to the McMath-Pierce Main telescope. Several spectra centered on Tempel 1 were acquired during the period of 07/04/2005-07/06/2005 UT. We report here on the presence and evolution of a cometary emission feature that appears consistently and exclusively in the post-impact narrow-band spectra centered near the telluric [O 1 D] 630nm emission line. This cometary emission feature shows substantial and distinct Doppler shifts over consecutive post-impact observational nights and if the feature is the anticipated [O 1 D], the corresponding line of sight velocities are -13.4 to -6.5 km/s, relative to the comet’s rest frame.

  5. Partitioning of evaporation into transpiration, soil evaporation and interception: a comparison between isotope measurements and a HYDRUS-1D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanto, S. J.; Wenninger, J.; Coenders-Gerrits, A. M. J.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge of the water fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system is crucial to improve water use efficiency in irrigated land. Many studies have tried to quantify these fluxes, but they encountered difficulties in quantifying the relative contribution of evaporation and transpiration. In this study, we compared three different methods to estimate evaporation fluxes during simulated summer conditions in a grass-covered lysimeter in the laboratory. Only two of these methods can be used to partition total evaporation into transpiration, soil evaporation and interception. A water balance calculation (whereby rainfall, soil moisture and percolation were measured) was used for comparison as a benchmark. A HYDRUS-1D model and isotope measurements were used for the partitioning of total evaporation. The isotope mass balance method partitions total evaporation of 3.4 mm d-1 into 0.4 mm d-1 for soil evaporation, 0.3 mm d-1 for interception and 2.6 mm d-1 for transpiration, while the HYDRUS-1D partitions total evaporation of 3.7 mm d-1 into 1 mm d-1 for soil evaporation, 0.3 mm d-1 for interception and 2.3 mm d-1 for transpiration. From the comparison, we concluded that the isotope mass balance is better for low temporal resolution analysis than the HYDRUS-1D. On the other hand, HYDRUS-1D is better for high temporal resolution analysis than the isotope mass balance.

  6. Velocity statistics of the Nagel-Schreckenberg model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Nicolas; Emig, Thorsten; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The statistics of velocities in the cellular automaton model of Nagel and Schreckenberg for traffic are studied. From numerical simulations, we obtain the probability distribution function (PDF) for vehicle velocities and the velocity-velocity (vv) covariance function. We identify the probability to find a standing vehicle as a potential order parameter that signals nicely the transition between free congested flow for a sufficiently large number of velocity states. Our results for the vv covariance function resemble features of a second-order phase transition. We develop a 3-body approximation that allows us to relate the PDFs for velocities and headways. Using this relation, an approximation to the velocity PDF is obtained from the headway PDF observed in simulations. We find a remarkable agreement between this approximation and the velocity PDF obtained from simulations.

  7. Secondary-electron emission effects in a 1D ELM model studied with Gkeyll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Hakim, A.; Shi, E. L.; Hammett, G. W.

    2015-11-01

    The 1D ELM heat pulse problem of Havlíčková et al (PPCF 54: 045002) is generalized to include secondary electron emission (SEE), an important factor since the secondary electron emission coefficient δ varies widely for different wall materials, ranging from δ < ~ 0 . 5 for lithium to δ > 1 for standard high- Z metals at large Te. For moderate collisionality regimes, analysis and gyrokinetic simulation with the Gkeyll code show an enhancement of the electron heat flux by ~(1 - δ) - 1 , a large enhancement for δ approaching unity. In very collisionless regimes, this enhancement is reduced as secondary electrons escape the plasma before isotropizing in pitch angle. Supported by the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, and DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  8. A 1D Model For Describing Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating At Arbitrary Cyclotron Harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eester, Dirk; Lerche, Ernesto

    2011-12-01

    Both at low and higher cyclotron harmonics, properly accounting for finite Larmor radius effects is crucial in many ICRF heating scenario's creating high energy tails. The present paper discusses an extension of the 1D TOMCAT wave equation solver [1] to arbitrary harmonics and arbitrary wavelengths. Rather than adopting the particle position, the guiding center position is used as the independent variable when writing down an expression for the dielectric response that is suitable for numerical application. This choice of variable yields symmetric and intuitive expressions, and guarantees that a positive definite power absorption is obtained for any of the wave modes in the plasma. Rather than relying on a truncated Taylor series expansion of the dielectric response, an integro-differential approach is proposed. To keep the required computation time for this generalized description reasonable tabulation of integrals is intensively used. An example is provided to illustrate the potential of the new wave code.

  9. 1D Modeling of the Effects of High-Heat Flux ELMs on Partial Detachment in JET and ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongping; Valanju, Prashant; Covele, Brent; Kotschenreuther, Mike; Mahajan, Swadesh; Havlickova, Eva; Militello, Fulvio

    2015-11-01

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) are simulated using a 1D fluid model of the SOL plasma, coupled to a 1 1/2 D neutral model. The simulation is done by using a new code that adapts the SOLF1D code for the plasma and the NUT code for the neutral particles. We simulate ELMs on JET and ITER, starting with a realistic initial condition where the divertor plasma is initially in the partially detached regime. We emphasize heat as the dominant energy input from ELMs, and compare to the case where particles are the dominant energy source, which has been previously studied. We further study the effect of the divertor magnetic field angle with the target in ELMs when the plasma starts in the partially detached regime.

  10. Simple method for exact calculation of thermodynamic properties of the 1D Hubbard model with infinite repulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorov, K. A.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Tikhonov, N. V.

    2013-02-15

    It is shown that the canonical partition function in the 1D Hubbard model with U = {infinity} in the nearest neighbor approximation is determined by the product of canonical partition functions of spinons and holons. In this approximation, the concentration and temperature dependences of the free and internal energies, as well as of the chemical potential, entropy, and heat capacity, are calculated for electron concentrations of 0 {<=} n{sub e} < 1.

  11. Lagrangian statistical model for transport in highly heterogeneous velocity fields.

    PubMed

    Le Borgne, Tanguy; Dentz, Marco; Carrera, Jesus

    2008-08-29

    We define an effective Lagrangian statistical model in phase space (x, t, v) for describing transport in highly heterogeneous velocity fields with complex spatial organizations. The spatial Markovian nature (and temporal non-Markovian nature) of Lagrangian velocities leads to an effective transport description that turns out to be a correlated continuous time random walk. This model correctly captures the Lagrangian velocity correlation properties and is demonstrated to represent a forward model for predicting transport in highly heterogeneous porous media for different types of velocity organizations. PMID:18851594

  12. REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELLING IN THE VADOSE ZONE WITH COUPLED PHREEQC-HYDRUS 1D CODE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To model multicomponent transport during transient variably-saturated flow in the vadose zone, complex models are needed. Ideally such models should incorporate simultaneous solutions for the water flow equation, solute transport and equilibrium or kinetically homogeneous and heterogeneous geochemic...

  13. A 1D model for tides waves and fine sediment in short tidal basins—Application to the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Prooijen, Bram Christiaan; Wang, Zheng Bing

    2013-12-01

    In order to simulate the dynamics of fine sediments in short tidal basins, like the Wadden Sea basins, a 1D cross-sectional averaged model is constructed to simulate tidal flow, depth-limited waves, and fine sediment transport. The key for this 1D model lies in the definition of the geometry (width and depth as function of the streamwise coordinate). The geometry is computed by implementing the water level and flow data, from a 2D flow simulation, and the hypsometric curve in the continuity equation. By means of a finite volume method, the shallow-water equations and sediment transport equations are solved. The bed shear stress consists of the sum of shear stresses by waves and flow, in which the waves are computed with a depth-limited growth equation for wave height and wave frequency. A new formulation for erosion of fines from a sandy bed is proposed in the transport equation for fine sediment. It is shown by comparison with 2D simulations and field measurements that a 1D schematization gives a proper representation of the dynamics in short tidal basins.

  14. Integrating 1D and 2D hydrodynamic, sediment transport model for dam-break flow using finite volume method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, MingLiang; Xu, YuanYuan; Hao, ZiNing; Qiao, Yang

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to set up a dynamically linked 1D and 2D hydrodynamic and sediment transport models for dam break flow. The 1D-2D coupling model solves the generalized shallow water equations, the non-equilibrium sediment transport and bed change equations in a coupled fashion using an explicit finite volume method. It considers interactions among transient flow, strong sediment transport and rapid bed change by including bed change and variable flow density in the flow continuity and momentum equations. An unstructured Quadtree rectangular grid with local refinement is used in the 2D model. The intercell flux is computed by the HLL approximate Riemann solver with shock captured capability for computing the dry-to-wet interface for all models. The effects of pressure and gravity are included in source term in this coupling model which can simplify the computation and eliminate numerical imbalance between source and flux terms. The developed model has been tested against experimental and real-life case of dam-break flow over fix bed and movable bed. The results are compared with analytical solution and measured data with good agreement. The simulation results demonstrate that the coupling model is capable of calculating the flow, erosion and deposition for dam break flows in complicated natural domains.

  15. Comparing 1D, 2D and 3D models for predicting root water uptake at the plant scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Willigen, Peter; van Dam, Jos; Heinen, Marius; Javaux, Mathieu

    2010-05-01

    Numerous modeling approaches exist to simulate soil water extraction by plant roots. They mainly differ in terms of dimensionality (from 1-D to 3-D) and in the degree of detail involved in the root geometry. One dimensional models consider 1-D root length density profiles and assume uniform horizontal soil water distribution and are very efficient regarding computation time. On the opposite, very detailed 3-D approaches, which consider explicitly the root architecture and the root water flow, may need more computation power and time. In between these two extreme cases, other approaches exist, which may be more accurate and less computationally demanding. Our objective is to compare different modeling approaches and check how their implicit or explicit simplifications or assumptions affect the root water uptake (RWU) predictions. Four models were subject to our comparison, all based on Richards equation. The first is a 1-D model solving Richards equation (SWAP) with the Feddes (1978) approach for RWU. The second one is also based on SWAP but with the root water uptake defined by a microscopic approach developed by de Jong van Lier (2008). The third one, FUSSIM, solves the Richards equation in 2-D based on a 2-D distribution of root length density (RLD). The fourth one is R-SWMS, a 3-D model simulating the water flow in the soil and in the roots, based on the complete root architecture description. A 45-day maize root was generated in 3-D and simplified in 2-D or 1-D RLD distributions. We simulated a constant uptake rate for 30 days with a 1-day rainfall at day 15 in three different soil types. We compared relative water uptake versus relative root length density profiles, and actual transpiration time series. On the one hand, the general trends of cumulative transpiration with time for the three soils were relatively similar for all models. On the other hand, some features like hydraulic lift are simulated by both FUSSIM and RSWMS models while other models do not explicitly estimate the water potential in the plant and roots.

  16. UCVM: Open Source Software for Understanding and Delivering 3D Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Physics-based ground motion simulations can calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through 3D velocity models of the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) framework to help researchers build structured or unstructured velocity meshes from 3D velocity models for use in wave propagation simulations. The UCVM software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Currently, the platform supports multiple California models, including SCEC CVM-S4 and CVM-H 11.9.1, and has been designed to support models from any region on earth. UCVM is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. In this presentation, we describe improvements to the UCVM software. The current version, UCVM 14.3.0, released in March of 2014, supports the newest Southern California velocity model, CVM-S4.26, which was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations using CVM-S4 as the starting model (Lee et al., this meeting), and the Broadband 1D velocity model used in the CyberShake 14.2 study. We have ported UCVM to multiple Linux distributions and OS X. Also included in this release is the ability to add small-scale stochastic heterogeneities to extract Cartesian meshes for use in high-frequency ground motion simulations. This tool was built using the C language open-source FFT library, FFTW. The stochastic parameters (Hurst exponent, correlation length, and the horizontal/vertical aspect ratio) can be customized by the user. UCVM v14.3.0 also provides visualization scripts for constructing cross-sections, horizontal slices, basin depths, and Vs30 maps. The interface allows researchers to visually review velocity models . Also, UCVM v14.3.0 can extract isosurfaces of shear-wave velocities equal to 1 km/s (Z1.0) and 2.5 km/s (Z2.5) for any of the registered velocity models. We have also improved our open source distribution by including a user's guide, an advanced user's guide, and a developer's guide so that users of all levels can get started using and extending the UCVM platform.

  17. Parameterized numerical fit to total column ozone changes calculated by the LLNL 1-D model of the troposphere and stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, P.S.

    1986-05-01

    In this note we present a numerical parameterization of the results of the LLNL one-dimensional model for total column ozone change in terms of surface emissions or abundances of the various source species. The LLNL model was used in an earlier study to evaluate a significant number of time-dependent scenarios of future trends in the emissions or atmospheric abundances of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-22, CFC-113, CCl/sub 4/, CH/sub 3/CCl/sub 3/, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, N/sub 2/O, Halon-1301 and Halon-1211. This parameterization produces calculated ozone changes within about 2% (column ozone change relative to the 1985 model atmosphere) of the actual complete model calculation for a wide range of scenarios and ozone changes. It therefore can approximately represent the actual 1-D model for the purposes of economic analysis of regulatory strategies. It is, however, crucial to note that the 1-D model results, and consequently this parameterization, are subject to substantial uncertainties. Future improvements in our knowledge of atmospheric photochemical kinetics and transport in the troposphere and stratosphere should be expected to modify these current results in unpredictable directions.

  18. Parameterized numerical fit to total column ozone changes calculated by the LLNL 1-D model of the troposphere and stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, P. S.

    1986-05-01

    In this note we present a numerical parameterization of the results of the LLNL one-dimensional model for total column ozone change in terms of surface emissions or abundances of the various source species. The LLNL model was used in an earlier study to evaluate a significant number of time-dependent scenarios of future trends in the emissions or atmospheric abundances of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-22, CFC-113, CCl, CHCCl, CO, CH, NO, Halon-1301 and Halon-1211. This parameterization produces calculated ozone changes within about 2% (column ozone change relative to the 1985 model atmosphere) of the actual complete model calculation for a wide range of scenarios and ozone changes. It therefore can approximately represent the actual 1-D model for the purposes of economic analysis of regulatory strategies. It is, however, crucial to note that the 1-D model results, and consequently this parameterization, are subject to substantial uncertainties. Future improvements in our knowledge of atmospheric photochemical kinetics and transport in the troposphere and stratosphere should be expected to modify these current results.

  19. 1D model of seismic wave attenuation in the crust and upper mantle in the north-eastern flanc of the Baikal rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynina, Anna; Sankov, Vladimir; Chechelnitsky, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    The deep profiles of quality factor were obtained using coda-waves of local strong and moderate earthquakes (epicentral distances up to 50 km) occurred within north-eastern flanc of the Baikal rift system during 2002-2009. We used two methods: 1 - the coda envelope method [Experimental.., 1981; Kopnichev, 1991] and 2 - the sliding window method (lapse time window 10-15 sec with a step of 5 sec). Depth of coda-wave penetration was determined according to Pulli's formulae [1984], the velocity of coda-wave is 3.55 km/s (equal to shear wave velocity). For analysis we used the Q values at frequency 1 Hz since for this frequency the attenuation field heterogeneity is most evident [Aptikaeva and Kopnichev, 1991]. In result Q-profiles for eleven local areas were obtained. The Q-values vary from 50 to 170 for different profiles and depths. Herewith quality factor changes nonuniformly - the alternation of layers with high and low Q-values is observed. This phenomenon can be explained by existing velocity discontinuity. In particular for all profiles this alternation is confined to the depth about 100 km. Analysis VP-anomalies obtained in result of 2D teleseismic tomography along Baikal rift system [Mordvinova, 2009] shows the existence discontinuity on depth about 100 km under most of Baikal rift system structures. Analysis of 1D profiles of shear wave velocities in the crust and upper mantle after inversion of receiver functions [Anan'in et al., 2009] also shows presence of these discontinuity dividing high and low velocity layers. The comparison of Q-values and shear wave velocities [Anan'in et al., 2009] shown that in high velocity layers quality factor is higher too and vice versa. Multilayer quality factor model for the lithosphere in north-eastern flanc of the Baikal rift system with the alternation of layers with high and low attenuation determined by us together with analogous data obtained by Yu.F. Kopnichev [1992] for south-western flanc of the rift system can be one of inferential evidences of passive rifting mechanism in studied area. The reported study was supported by RFBR (research project N12-05-31038-mol_a) and by grant of President of Russian Federation (research project N MK-1171.2014.5).

  20. Uncertainty assessment of 3D instantaneous velocity model from stack velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuele Maesano, Francesco; D'Ambrogi, Chiara

    2015-04-01

    3D modelling is a powerful tool that is experiencing increasing applications in data analysis and dissemination. At the same time the need of quantitative uncertainty evaluation is strongly requested in many aspects of the geological sciences and by the stakeholders. In many cases the starting point for 3D model building is the interpretation of seismic profiles that provide indirect information about the geology of the subsurface in the domain of time. The most problematic step in the 3D modelling construction is the conversion of the horizons and faults interpreted in time domain to the depth domain. In this step the dominant variable that could lead to significantly different results is the velocity. The knowledge of the subsurface velocities is related mainly to punctual data (sonic logs) that are often sparsely distributed in the areas covered by the seismic interpretation. The extrapolation of velocity information to wide extended horizons is thus a critical step to obtain a 3D model in depth that can be used for predictive purpose. In the EU-funded GeoMol Project, the availability of a dense network of seismic lines (confidentially provided by ENI S.p.A.) in the Central Po Plain, is paired with the presence of 136 well logs, but few of them have sonic logs and in some portion of the area the wells are very widely spaced. The depth conversion of the 3D model in time domain has been performed testing different strategies for the use and the interpolation of velocity data. The final model has been obtained using a 4 layer cake 3D instantaneous velocity model that considers both the initial velocity (v0) in every reference horizon and the gradient of velocity variation with depth (k). Using this method it is possible to consider the geological constraint given by the geometries of the horizons and the geo-statistical approach to the interpolation of velocities and gradient. Here we present an experiment based on the use of set of pseudo-wells obtained from the stack velocities available inside the area, interpolated using the kriging geo-statistical method. The stack velocities are intersected with the position of the horizons in time domain and from this information we build a pseudo-well to calculate the initial velocity and the gradient of increase (or decrease) of velocity with depth inside the considered rock volume. The experiment is aimed to obtain estimation and a representation of the uncertainty related to the geo-statistical interpolation of velocity data in a 3D model and to have an independent control of the final results using the well markers available inside the test area as constraints. The project GeoMol is co-funded by the Alpine Space Program as part of the European Territorial Cooperation 2007-2013. The project integrates partners from Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland and runs from September 2012 to June 2015. Further information on www.geomol.eu

  1. Detailed analysis of the continuum limit of a supersymmetric lattice model in 1D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijse, L.

    2011-04-01

    We present a full identification of lattice model properties with their field theoretical counterparts in the continuum limit for a supersymmetric model for itinerant spinless fermions on a one-dimensional chain. The continuum limit of this model is described by an {N}=(2,2) superconformal field theory (SCFT) with central charge c = 1. We identify states and operators in the lattice model with fields in the SCFT and we relate boundary conditions on the lattice to sectors in the field theory. We use the dictionary we develop in this paper to give a pedagogical explanation of a powerful tool to study supersymmetric models based on spectral flow (Huijse 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 146406). Finally, we employ the developed machinery to explain numerically observed properties of the particle density on the open chain presented in Beccaria and De Angelis (2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 100401).

  2. The 1D Ising model and the topological phase of the Kitaev chain

    SciTech Connect

    Greiter, Martin Schnells, Vera Thomale, Ronny

    2014-12-15

    It has been noted that the Kitaev chain, a p-wave superconductor with nearest-neighbor pairing amplitude equal to the hopping term Δ=t, and chemical potential μ=0, can be mapped into a nearest neighbor Ising model via a Jordan–Wigner transformation. Starting from the explicit eigenstates of the open Kitaev chain in terms of the original fermion operators, we elaborate that despite this formal equivalence the models are physically inequivalent, and show how the topological phase in the Kitaev chain maps into conventional order in the Ising model.

  3. Interaction of a single mode field cavity with the 1D XY model: Energy spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, H.; Donkov, A. A.; Chamati, H.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we use the fundamental in quantum optics Jaynes-Cummings model to study the response of spin 1/2chain to a single mode of a laser light falling on one of the spins, a focused interaction model between the light and the spin chain. For the spin-spin interaction along the chain we use the XY model. We report here the exact analytical results, obtained with the help of a computer algebra system, for the energy spectrum in this model for chains of up to 4 spins with nearest neighbors interactions, either for open or cyclic chain configurations. Varying the sign and magnitude of the spin exchange coupling relative to the light-spin interaction we have investigated both cases of ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic spin chains.

  4. An Extended Global Sensitivity Analysis Implemented on a 1D Land Biosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou-Katidis, Pavlos; Petropoulos, George; Griffiths, Hywel; Bevan, Rhodri

    2014-05-01

    The implementation of sophisticated mathematical models is undoubtedly becoming increasingly widely used in a variety of fields in geosciences. SimSphere belongs to a special category of land biosphere models called Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) models. Those provide representations, in a vertical profile, of the physical mechanisms controlling the physical interactions occurring in the soil/vegetation/atmosphere continuum at a temporal resolution that is in good agreement with the dynamic timescale of the atmospheric and surface processes. This study builds on previous works conducted by the authors and aims at extending our understanding of this model structure and further establishing its coherence. Herein we present the results from a thorough sensitivity analysis (SA) performed on SimSphere using a cutting edge and robust Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) approach, based on the use of the Gaussian Emulation Machine for Sensitivity Analysis (GEM-SA) tool. In particular, the sensitivity of selected key variables characterising land surface interactions simulated by SimSphere were evaluated at different times of model output. All model inputs were assumed to be normally distributed with their probability distribution functions (PDFs) defined using mean and variance taken from the entire theoretical range that these inputs can take in SimSphere. The sensitivity of the following SimSphere outputs was evaluated: Daily Average Net Radiation, Daily Average Latent Heat flux, Daily Average Sensible Heat flux, Daily Average Air Temperature , Daily Average Radiometric Temperature, Daily Average Surface Moisture Availability, Daily Average Evaporative Fraction and Daily Average Non-Evaporative Fraction. Our results showed largely comparable trends in terms of identifying the most sensitive model inputs in respect to the model outputs examined. In addition, a high percentage of first order interactions between the model inputs were reported, suggesting strong model coherence between inputs and outputs. Among the most sensitive model inputs for the outputs examined were the Fractional Vegetation Cover, Soil Moisture and topographically-related parameters (i.e. slope, aspect). Our study represents a significant step forward in the global efforts towards SimSphere verification given that its use is progressively expanding including present efforts to explore its synergy with Earth Observation for operationally deriving key land surface parameters at a global scale from space. KEYWORDS: Global Sensitivity Analysis, BACCO method, GEM-SA

  5. Bottom Roughness and Bathymetry Estimation of 1-D Shallow Water Equations Model Using Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooshyar, M.; Hagen, S. C.; Wang, D.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrodynamic models are widely applied to coastal areas in order to predict water levels and flood inundation and typically involve solving a form of the Shallow Water Equations (SWE). The SWE are routinely discretized by applying numerical methods, such as the finite element method. Like other numerical models, hydrodynamic models include uncertainty. Uncertainties are generated due to errors in the discrete approximation of coastal geometry, bathymetry, bottom friction and forcing functions such as tides and wind fields. Methods to counteract these uncertainties should always begin with improvements to physical characterization of: the geometric description through increased resolution, parameters that describe land cover variations in the natural and urban environment, parameters that enhance transfer of surface forcings to the water surface, open boundary forcings, and the wetting/drying brought upon by flood and ebb cycles. When the best possible physical representation is achieved, we are left with calibration and data assimilation to reduce model uncertainty. Data assimilation has been applied to coastal hydrodynamic models to better estimate system states and/or system parameters by incorporating observed data into the model. Kalman Filter is one of the most studied data assimilation methods that minimizes the mean square errors between model state estimations and the observed data in linear systems (Kalman , 1960). For nonlinear systems, as with hydrodynamic models, a variation of Kalman filter called Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), is applied to update the system state according to error statistics in the context of Monte Carlo simulations (Evensen , 2003) & (Hitoshi et. al, 2014). In this research, Kalman Filter is incorporated to simultaneously estimate an influential parameter used in the shallow water equations, bottom roughness, and to adjust the physical feature of bathymetry. Starting from an initial estimate of bottom roughness and bathymetry, and applying EnKF, more accurate bottom roughness and bathymetry are obtained by utilizing measurements available in a limited number of gages. The procedure is examined along five typical near shore transects located in Gulf of Mexico.

  6. Impact of sea spray on upper ocean temperature during typhoon passage: simulation with a 1-D turbulent model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lianxin; Zhang, Xuefeng; Han, Guijun; Wu, Xinrong; Cui, Xiaojian; Shao, Caixia; Sun, Chunjian; Zhang, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Xidong; Fu, Hongli

    2015-09-01

    At the interface between the lower atmosphere and sea surface, sea spray might significantly influence air-sea heat fluxes and subsequently, modulate upper ocean temperature during a typhoon passage. The effects of sea spray were introduced into the parameterization of sea surface roughness in a 1-D turbulent model, to investigate the effects of sea spray on upper ocean temperature in the Kuroshio Extension area, for the cases of two real typhoons from 2006, Yagi and Soulik. Model output was compared with data from the Kuroshio Extension Observatory (KEO), and Reynolds and AMSRE satellite remote sensing sea surface temperatures. The results indicate drag coefficients that include the spray effect are closer to observations than those without, and that sea spray can enhance the heat fluxes (especially latent heat flux) considerably during a typhoon passage. Consequently, the model results with heat fluxes enhanced by sea spray simulate better the cooling process of the SST and upper-layer temperature profiles. Additionally, results from the simulation of the passage of typhoon Soulik (that passed KEO quickly), which included the sea spray effect, were better than for the simulated passage of typhoon Yagi (that crossed KEO slowly). These promising 1-D results could provide insight into the application of sea spray in general circulation models for typhoon studies.

  7. Space-based Observational Constraints for 1-D Plume Rise Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Maria Val; Kahn, Ralph A.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Paguam, Ronan; Wooster, Martin; Ichoku, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We use a space-based plume height climatology derived from observations made by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard the NASA Terra satellite to evaluate the ability of a plume-rise model currently embedded in several atmospheric chemical transport models (CTMs) to produce accurate smoke injection heights. We initialize the plume-rise model with assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System and estimated fuel moisture content at the location and time of the MISR measurements. Fire properties that drive the plume-rise model are difficult to estimate and we test the model with four estimates for active fire area and four for total heat flux, obtained using empirical data and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) re radiative power (FRP) thermal anomalies available for each MISR plume. We show that the model is not able to reproduce the plume heights observed by MISR over the range of conditions studied (maximum r2 obtained in all configurations is 0.3). The model also fails to determine which plumes are in the free troposphere (according to MISR), key information needed for atmospheric models to simulate properly smoke dispersion. We conclude that embedding a plume-rise model using currently available re constraints in large-scale atmospheric studies remains a difficult proposition. However, we demonstrate the degree to which the fire dynamical heat flux (related to active fire area and sensible heat flux), and atmospheric stability structure influence plume rise, although other factors less well constrained (e.g., entrainment) may also be significant. Using atmospheric stability conditions, MODIS FRP, and MISR plume heights, we offer some constraints on the main physical factors that drive smoke plume rise. We find that smoke plumes reaching high altitudes are characterized by higher FRP and weaker atmospheric stability conditions than those at low altitude, which tend to remain confined below the BL, consistent with earlier results. We propose two simplified parameterizations for computing injection heights for fires in CTMs and discuss current challenges to representing plume injection heights in large scale atmospheric models.

  8. Assessing the impact of different sources of topographic data on 1-D hydraulic modelling of floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. Md; Solomatine, D. P.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2014-07-01

    Topographic data, such as digital elevation models (DEMs), are essential input in flood inundation modelling. DEMs can be derived from several sources either through remote sensing techniques (space-borne or air-borne imagery) or from traditional methods (ground survey). The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), and topographic contour maps are some of the most commonly used sources of data for DEMs. These DEMs are characterized by different precision and accuracy. On the one hand, the spatial resolution of low-cost DEMs from satellite imagery, such as ASTER and SRTM, is rather coarse (around 30-90 m). On the other hand, LiDAR technique is able to produce a high resolution DEMs (around 1m), but at a much higher cost. Lastly, contour mapping based on ground survey is time consuming, particularly for higher scales, and may not be possible for some remote areas. The use of these different sources of DEM obviously affects the results of flood inundation models. This paper shows and compares a number of hydraulic models developed using HEC-RAS as model code and the aforementioned sources of DEM as geometric input. The study was carried out on a reach of the Johor River, in Malaysia. The effect of the different sources of DEMs (and different resolutions) was investigated by considering the performance of the hydraulic models in simulating flood water levels as well as inundation maps. The outcomes of our study show that the use of different DEMs has serious implications to the results of hydraulic models. The outcomes also indicates the loss of model accuracy due to re-sampling the highest resolution DEM (i.e. LiDAR 1 m) to lower resolution are much less compared to the loss of model accuracy due to the use of low-cost DEM that have not only a lower resolution, but also a lower quality. Lastly, to better explore the sensitivity of the hydraulic models to different DEMs, we performed an uncertainty analysis based on the GLUE methodology.

  9. Data Assimilation Using a Variational Method for a 1D Radiation Belt Diffusion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, R.; Degeling, A. W.; O'Donnell, S.; Rankin, R.; Kabin, K.

    2009-12-01

    A variational data assimilation algorithm has been developed to incorporate electron flux time-series data from satellites into a simple one dimensional diffusion model for the radial transport of radiation belt electrons. The model developed assumes a power law scaling for the radial diffusion coefficient with L shell. The effectiveness of this method is investigated by means of a series of identical twin numerical experiments. This involves using the diffusion model to produce synthetic observations along various satellite trajectories. These observations are in turn used to estimate time-dependent parameters input to the diffusion model, which are compared against the values initially used. The data assimilation algorithm considers the time dependent source located at the outer boundary as a function to be determined. Using synthetic satellite electron flux observations, the algorithm computes a source function that, when used as an input to the diffusion model, most closely reproduces the synthetic observations in a least-squares sense. Observational errors are taken into account, and an estimate of the uncertainty in the output source function is also produced. This uncertainty is found to consistently reflect the quality of the source function estimation during identical twin numerical experiments. Initial tests indicate that the quality of the outer boundary source estimation is strongly dependent on the satellite location, indicating that the outer boundary source estimation becomes poor as information relating to the outer boundary contained in the observations is reduced. The potential of using this data assimilation method to estimate one or more parameters that determine the radial diffusion coefficient, and the possibility of determining whether physical processes affecting the observations are missing in the dynamical model will be discussed.

  10. Evaluation of 1D numerical models in the prediction of distributed flow series constrained by radar altimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getirana, A. C.; Bonnet, M.; Roux, E.; Rotunno, O. C.

    2007-12-01

    Recently, efforts have been done forward the development of methodologies to obtain flow estimates from time series of water height at virtual stations (VS - intersections between satellite tracks and water surfaces) from Topex/Poseidon (TP) and ENVISAT radar mission measurements. Relatively simple 1D propagation models such as Muskingum-Cunge (M-C) Routing Model have presented good results in the water flow propagation in Amazonian rivers. These regions suffer, in most cases, of lack of information witch constrains more accurate hydrologic and hydraulic studies. Nevertheless, these M-C models make a lot of simplification witch may cause the lost of important information that these quasi-ungaged basins can offer. This paper presents a comparison between two propagation models to the estimation of water flow series constrained by T/P and ENVISAT data. The models are: ProGUM, a Muskingum-Cunge flow routing model with diffusion-cum-dynamic wave propagation, and HEC-RAS, a well-known 1D hydrodynamic model. The verification was made in four reaches in the Negro River Basin. Each of these reaches are limited by two gauge stations, one upstream and the other one downstream. A total of five VS distributed over the reaches were analyzed. Previous studies have shown that ProGUM may yield errors less then 10% in validation phases. Here, it is demonstrated that, no much improvements can be achieved by using a more complete model capable to absorb the available data and simplifications of a M-C Model do not make significant modifications in the results of rating curve generation from satellite altimetry.

  11. 2D MHD and 1D HD Models of a Solar Flarea Comprehensive Comparison of the Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falewicz, R.; Rudawy, P.; Murawski, K.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    Without any doubt, solar flaring loops possess a multithread internal structure that is poorly resolved, and there are no means to observe heating episodes and thermodynamic evolution of the individual threads. These limitations cause fundamental problems in numerical modeling of flaring loops, such as selection of a structure and a number of threads, and an implementation of a proper model of the energy deposition process. A set of one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic models of a flaring loop are developed to compare energy redistribution and plasma dynamics in the course of a prototypical solar flare. Basic parameters of the modeled loop are set according to the progenitor M1.8 flare recorded in AR 10126 on 2002 September 20 between 09:21 UT and 09:50 UT. The nonideal 1D models include thermal conduction and radiative losses of the optically thin plasma as energy-loss mechanisms, while the nonideal 2D models take into account viscosity and thermal conduction as energy-loss mechanisms only. The 2D models have a continuous distribution of the parameters of the plasma across the loop and are powered by varying in time and space along and across the loop heating flux. We show that such 2D models are an extreme borderline case of a multithread internal structure of the flaring loop, with a filling factor equal to 1. Nevertheless, these simple models ensure the general correctness of the obtained results and can be adopted as a correct approximation of the real flaring structures.

  12. Coupling 1D Navier Stokes equation with autoregulation lumped parameter networks for accurate cerebral blood flow modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jaiyoung; Hu, Xiao; Shadden, Shawn C.

    2014-11-01

    The cerebral circulation is unique in its ability to maintain blood flow to the brain under widely varying physiologic conditions. Incorporating this autoregulatory response is critical to cerebral blood flow modeling, as well as investigations into pathological conditions. We discuss a one-dimensional nonlinear model of blood flow in the cerebral arteries that includes coupling of autoregulatory lumped parameter networks. The model is tested to reproduce a common clinical test to assess autoregulatory function - the carotid artery compression test. The change in the flow velocity at the middle cerebral artery (MCA) during carotid compression and release demonstrated strong agreement with published measurements. The model is then used to investigate vasospasm of the MCA, a common clinical concern following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Vasospasm was modeled by prescribing vessel area reduction in the middle portion of the MCA. Our model showed similar increases in velocity for moderate vasospasms, however, for serious vasospasm (~ 90% area reduction), the blood flow velocity demonstrated decrease due to blood flow rerouting. This demonstrates a potentially important phenomenon, which otherwise would lead to false-negative decisions on clinical vasospasm if not properly anticipated.

  13. The stability and dynamics of a spike in the 1D Keller-Segel model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, K.; Kolokolnikov, T.; Ward, M. J.

    2007-04-01

    In the limit of a large mass M >> 1 and on a finite interval of length 2L, an equilibrium spike solution to the classical Keller-Segel chemotaxis model with a linear chemotactic function is constructed asymptotically. By calculating an asymptotic formula for the translational eigenvalue for M >> 1, it is shown that the equilibrium spike solution is unstable to translations of the spike profile. If in addition L >> 1, the equilibrium spike is shown to be metastable as a result of an asymptotically exponentially small eigenvalue. For M >> 1 and L >> 1, an asymptotic ordinary differential equation for the metastable spike motion is derived that shows that the spike drifts exponentially slowly towards one of the boundaries of the domain. For a certain reduced Keller-Segel model, corresponding to a domain of small length, a solution with a spike at each of the two boundaries is constructedE This solution is found to be metastable, and it is shown that there is an exponentially slow exchange of mass between the two spikes that occurs over very long timescales. For arbitrary initial conditions, energy methods are used to show the global existence of solutions. The relationship between this reduced Keller-Segel model and a Burgers-type equation modelling the upward propagation of a flame front in a finite channel is emphasized. Full numerical computations are used to confirm the asymptotic results.

  14. Modeling Physiological Systems in the Human Body as Networks of Quasi-1D Fluid Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staples, Anne

    2008-11-01

    Extensive research has been done on modeling human physiology. Most of this work has been aimed at developing detailed, three-dimensional models of specific components of physiological systems, such as a cell, a vein, a molecule, or a heart valve. While efforts such as these are invaluable to our understanding of human biology, if we were to construct a global model of human physiology with this level of detail, computing even a nanosecond in this computational being's life would certainly be prohibitively expensive. With this in mind, we derive the Pulsed Flow Equations, a set of coupled one-dimensional partial differential equations, specifically designed to capture two-dimensional viscous, transport, and other effects, and aimed at providing accurate and fast-to-compute global models for physiological systems represented as networks of quasi one-dimensional fluid flows. Our goal is to be able to perform faster-than-real time simulations of global processes in the human body on desktop computers.

  15. Reactive Transport Modeling of Microbially-Mediated Chromate Reduction in 1-D Soil Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, H.; Viamajala, S.; Alam, M. M.; Peyton, B. M.; Petersen, J. N.; Yonge, D. R.

    2002-12-01

    Cr(VI) reduction tests were performed with the well known metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in liquid phase batch reactors and continuous flow soil columns under anaerobic conditions. In the batch tests, the cultures were grown with fumarate as the terminal electron acceptor and lactate as the electron donor in a simulated groundwater medium to determine yield coefficients and specific growth rates. The bench-scale soil column experiments were carried out with MR-1 to test the hypothesis that the kinetic parameters obtained in batch studies, combined with microbial attachment /detachment processes, will accurately predict reactive transport of Cr(VI) during bacterial Cr(VI) reduction in a soil matrix. Cr(VI)-free simulated groundwater media containing fumarate as the limiting substrate and lactate was supplied to a 2.1cm (ID) x 15 cm soil column inoculated with MR-1 for a duration of 9 residence times to allow for biomass to build-up in the column. Thereafter the column was supplied with both Cr(VI) and substrate. The concentrations of effluent substrate, biomass and Cr(VI) were monitored on a periodic basis and attached biomass in the column was measured in the termination of each column test. A reactive transport model was developed in which 6 governing equations deal with Cr(VI) bioreaction, fumarate (as electron donor) consumption, aqueous biomass growth and transport, solid biomass detachment and attachment kinetics, aqueous and solid phase enzyme reaction and transport, respectively. The model incorporating the enzyme reaction kinetics for Cr(VI) reduction, Monod kinetic expressions for substrate depletion, nonlinear attachment and detachment kinetics for aqueous and solid phase microorganism concentration, was solved by a fully implicit, finite-difference procedure using RT3D (A Modular Computer Code for Reactive Multi-species Transport in 3-Dimensional Groundwater Systems) platform in one dimension. Cr(VI)-free column data was used to calibrate the biomass attachment and detachment terms used in the model. Column data collected with Cr(VI) in the influent was used to calibrate the model. The modeling results indicate that the Cr(VI) and substrate predictions match closely with the column data. The calibrated model was also able to match attached biomass profiles within the column as well as aqueous biomass in the effluent.

  16. Theoretical analysis of micro-machined ultrasonic transducer using a simple 1-D model.

    PubMed

    Ballandras, Sylvain J; Wilm, Mikael; Gelly, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    Micro-machined ultrasonic transducers (MUT) appear as an attractive alternative to standard bulk transducers mainly based on PZT ceramic actuators. However, the simulation of these new devices requires one to take correctly into account their operating conditions. Particularly, most of the MUT structures are periodic, associating a very large number of elementary actuators excited in phase. Furthermore, the development of an equivalent to the Mason model for MUTs would help in the promotion of this new kind of transducers. In this work, we propose a very simple model based on the material resistance theory to describe the flexural motion of a MUT. It is associated with a periodic Green's function development to take into account radiation in water. Basic working principles of MUT then are deduced from computing results, which coincides with already published data on that topic. PMID:16471448

  17. A 1-D Model of the 4 Bed Molecular Sieve of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, Robert; Knox, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Developments to improve system efficiency and reliability for water and carbon dioxide separation systems on crewed vehicles combine sub-scale systems testing and multi-physics simulations. This paper describes the development of COMSOL simulations in support of the Life Support Systems (LSS) project within NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. Specifically, we model the 4 Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) operating on the International Space Station (ISS).

  18. A Simplified 1-D Model for Calculating CO2 Leakage through Conduits

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-02-15

    In geological CO{sub 2} storage projects, a cap rock is generally needed to prevent CO{sub 2} from leaking out of the storage formation. However, the injected CO{sub 2} may still encounter some discrete flow paths such as a conductive well or fault (here referred to as conduits) through the cap rock allowing escape of CO{sub 2} from the storage formation. As CO{sub 2} migrates upward, it may migrate into the surrounding formations. The amount of mass that is lost to the formation is called attenuation. This report describes a simplified model to calculate the CO{sub 2} mass flux at different locations of the conduit and the amount of attenuation to the surrounding formations. From the comparison among the three model results, we can conclude that the steady-state conduit model (SSCM) provides a more accurate solution than the PMC at a given discretization. When there is not a large difference between the permeability of the surrounding formation and the permeability of the conduits, and there is leak-off at the bottom formation (the formation immediately above the CO{sub 2} plume), a fine discretization is needed for an accurate solution. Based on this comparison, we propose to use the SSCM in the rapid prototype for now given it does not produce spurious oscillations, and is already in FORTRAN and therefore can be easily made into a dll for use in GoldSim.

  19. Tuning a physically-based model of the air-sea gas transfer velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, C. D.; Robinson, I. S.; Woolf, D. K.

    Air-sea gas transfer velocities are estimated for one year using a 1-D upper-ocean model (GOTM) and a modified version of the NOAA-COARE transfer velocity parameterization. Tuning parameters are evaluated with the aim of bringing the physically based NOAA-COARE parameterization in line with current estimates, based on simple wind-speed dependent models derived from bomb-radiocarbon inventories and deliberate tracer release experiments. We suggest that A = 1.3 and B = 1.0, for the sub-layer scaling parameter and the bubble mediated exchange, respectively, are consistent with the global average CO 2 transfer velocity k. Using these parameters and a simple 2nd order polynomial approximation, with respect to wind speed, we estimate a global annual average k for CO 2 of 16.4 ± 5.6 cm h -1 when using global mean winds of 6.89 m s -1 from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 1954-2000. The tuned model can be used to predict the transfer velocity of any gas, with appropriate treatment of the dependence on molecular properties including the strong solubility dependence of bubble-mediated transfer. For example, an initial estimate of the global average transfer velocity of DMS (a relatively soluble gas) is only 11.9 cm h -1 whilst for less soluble methane the estimate is 18.0 cm h -1.

  20. Modeling Low Velocity Impacts: Predicting Crater Depth on Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, V. J.; Schenk, P.

    2014-12-01

    The New Horizons mission is due to fly-by the Pluto system in Summer 2015 and provides the first opportunity to image the Pluto surface in detail, allowing both the appearance and number of its crater population to be studied for the first time. Bray and Schenk (2014) combined previous cratering studies and numerical modeling of the impact process to predict crater morphology on Pluto based on current understanding of Pluto's composition, structure and surrounding impactor population. Predictions of how the low mean impact velocity (~2km/s) of the Pluto system will influence crater formation is a complex issue. Observations of secondary cratering (low velocity, high angle) and laboratory experiments of impact at low velocity are at odds regarding how velocity controls depth-diameter ratios: Observations of secondary craters show that these low velocity craters are shallower than would be expected for a hyper-velocity primary. Conversely, gas gun work has shown that relative crater depth increases as impact velocity decreases. We have investigated the influence of impact velocity further with iSALE hydrocode modeling of comet impact into Pluto. With increasing impact velocity, a projectile will produce wider and deeper craters. The depth-diameter ratio (d/D) however has a more complex progression with increasing impact velocity: impacts faster than 2km/s lead to smaller d/D ratios as impact velocity increases, in agreement with gas-gun studies. However, decreasing impact velocity from 2km/s to 300 m/s produced smaller d/D as impact velocity was decreased. This suggests that on Pluto the deepest craters would be produced by ~ 2km/s impacts, with shallower craters produced by velocities either side of this critical point. Further simulations to investigate whether this effect is connected to the sound speed of the target material are ongoing. The complex relationship between impact velocity and crater depth for impacts occurring between 300m/s and 10 km/s suggests that there might be a larger range of 'pristine' crater depths on Pluto than on bodies with higher mean impact velocity. This might affect our ability to define a pristine crater depth as a starting point for crater infill and relaxation studies.

  1. Constraining the temporal evolution of a deep hypersaline anoxic basin by 1D geochemical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhammer, Tobias; Aiello, Ivano; Zabel, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are seafloor features of the accretionary prism of the Mediterranean Ridge. They have formed by the dissolution of exhumed shallow Messinian evaporites and subsequent concentration of the ultra-saline solutions in depressions on the seafloor. As an example, the horseshoe-shaped Urania basin is a DHAB south of the Peloponnese peninsula contains one of the most saline (about six times higher than Mediterranean seawater) and sulfidic (up to 15mM) water bodies of the Earth. Furthermore, its deepest part is underlain by a mud volcano that is responsible for the injection of fluid mud beneath the brine lake, with exceptionally sharp chemoclines between water column, brine, and mud layer. We here present a model approach to reconstruct the temporal aspects of the formation, dynamics and persistence of the brine-mud-system in the deep pit of the Urania Basin. Based on data from a sampling campaign with RV Meteor (Cruise M84/1 in February 2011), we set up a one-dimensional geochemical model that integrates diffusion, reaction and advective transport and mixing. Using a set of model preconditions, we aimed to answer (1) which processes are required to maintain the current situation of steep chemical gradients of the brine-mud-system, (2) how fast the current situation could have developed under different scenarios, and (3) how long such extraordinary conditions could have persisted through Earth's history. We further discuss the consequences of the temporal framework for the evolution of prokaryotic life in this extreme habitat.

  2. Constraining Quantum Critical Dynamics: (2 +1 )D Ising Model and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witczak-Krempa, William

    2015-05-01

    Quantum critical (QC) phase transitions generally lead to the absence of quasiparticles. The resulting correlated quantum fluid, when thermally excited, displays rich universal dynamics. We establish nonperturbative constraints on the linear-response dynamics of conformal QC systems at finite temperature, in spatial dimensions above 1. Specifically, we analyze the large frequency or momentum asymptotics of observables, which we use to derive powerful sum rules and inequalities. The general results are applied to the O (N ) Wilson-Fisher fixed point, describing the QC Ising model when N =1 . We focus on the order parameter and scalar susceptibilities, and the dynamical shear viscosity. Connections to simulations, experiments, and gauge theories are made.

  3. Dynamical correlation functions of the 1D Bose gas (Lieb Liniger model)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caux, Jean-Sebastien; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2007-03-01

    The momentum- and frequency-dependent correlation functions (one-body and density-density) of the one-dimensional interacting Bose gas (Lieb-Liniger model) are obtained for any value (repulsive or attractive) of the interaction parameter. In the repulsive regime, we use the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz and the ABACUS method to reconstruct the correlators to high accuracy for systems with finite but large numbers of particles. For attractive interactions, the correlations are computed analytically. Our results are discussed, with particular emphasis on their applications to quasi-one-dimensional atomic gases.

  4. A 1-D Size Specific Numerical Model for Gravel Transport That Includes Sediment Exchange with a Floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, Wesley; Viparelli, Enrica; Piegay, Herve

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentary deposits adjacent to rivers can represent important sources and sinks for bed material sediment, particularly on decadal and longer timescales. The Morphodynamics and Sediment Tracers in 1-D model (MAST-1D) is a size-specific sediment transport model that allows for active exchange between channel and floodplain sediment on river reaches of tens to hundreds of kilometers in length. The model is intended to provide a mechanism for performing a first-order assessment of the likely importance of off-channel sediment exchange in controlling decadal-scale geomorphic trends, thereby helping plan and/or prioritize field data collection and higher resolution modeling work. The model develops a sediment budget for short segments of an alluvial valley. Each segment encompasses several active river bends. In each segment, a sediment transport capacity computation is performed to determine the downstream flux of bed material sediment, following the approach of most other 1-D sediment transport models. However, the model differs from most other bed evolution models in that sediment can be exchanged with the floodplain in each segment, and mass conservation is applied to both the active layer and floodplain sediment storage reservoirs. The potential for net imbalances in overall exchange as well as the size specific nature of the computations allows the model to simulate reach-scale aggradation/degradation and/or changes in bed texture. The inclusion of fine sediment in the model allows it to track geochemical tracer material and also provides a mechanism to simulate, to first order, the effects of changes in the supply of silt and clay on overall channel hydraulic capacity. The model is applied to a ~40 km reach of the Ain River, a tributary of the Rhône River in eastern France that has experienced a significant sediment deficit as a result of the construction of several dams between 1920 and 1970. MAST-1D simulations result in both incision and the formation of a bed armor near the upstream end of the study reach, where sediment load has been disrupted. The inclusion of active exchange with the floodplain allows the floodplain evolve into a net source of bed material sediment as the channel incises. This effect prevents the sediment deficit from reaching the confluence with the Rhone for several simulated decades. When spatially variable migration rates similar to those measured from aerial photography are used to drive sediment exchange, the model shows complex interaction between bed and bank sediment, with the relatively fine-grained bank sediment supply mobilizing the coarser fraction of the active layer within rapidly shifting portions of the channel. This increases overall transport rates and leads to additional channel incision relative to what is simulated without bank sediment supply in these rapidly shifting reaches. The model is also helpful for evaluating the potential reach-scale effects of gravel augmentation downstream of the dams.

  5. A phenomenological retention tank model using settling velocity distributions.

    PubMed

    Maruejouls, T; Vanrolleghem, P A; Pelletier, G; Lessard, P

    2012-12-15

    Many authors have observed the influence of the settling velocity distribution on the sedimentation process in retention tanks. However, the pollutants' behaviour in such tanks is not well characterized, especially with respect to their settling velocity distribution. This paper presents a phenomenological modelling study dealing with the way by which the settling velocity distribution of particles in combined sewage changes between entering and leaving an off-line retention tank. The work starts from a previously published model (Lessard and Beck, 1991) which is first implemented in a wastewater management modelling software, to be then tested with full-scale field data for the first time. Next, its performance is improved by integrating the particle settling velocity distribution and adding a description of the resuspension due to pumping for emptying the tank. Finally, the potential of the improved model is demonstrated by comparing the results for one more rain event. PMID:22196044

  6. 1-D transient numerical model of a regenerator in a novel sub Kelvin Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Miller, Franklin K.

    2016-03-01

    A sub Kelvin Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigerator (AMRR) is being developed at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. This AMRR consists of two circulators, two regenerators, one superleak, one cold heat exchanger, and two warm heat exchangers. The circulators are novel non-moving part pumps that reciprocate a superfluid mixture of 4He-3He in the system. Heat from the mixture is removed within the two regenerators of this tandem system. An accurate model of the regenerators in this AMRR is necessary in order to predict the performance of these components, which in turn helps predicting the overall performance of the AMRR system. This work presents modeling methodology along with results from a 1-D transient numerical model of the regenerators of an AMRR capable of removing 2.5 mW at 850 mK at cyclic steady state.

  7. Comprehensive 1D Modelling of Reactive Chemical Transport in Unsaturated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissmeier, L.; Barry, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Computer models for simulating environmental processes of water flow, solute transport and geochemical reactions have greatly advanced during recent years. However, there is still demand for the development of programs that a capable of simulating the numerous interactions between physical transport processes and biogeochemical reactions in natural soils. We present a new tool for simulating transient vadose zone flow and solute transport according to the moisture- based form of Richards' equation within the widely used geochemical software PHREEQC. The direct implementation into the geochemical framework provides access to comprehensive geochemical models, giving capabilities beyond existing software for coupled unsaturated flow and reaction. Possible reactions include complex aqueous speciation, cation exchange, equilibrium phase dissolution and precipitation, formation of solid solutions, redox reactions, gas phase exchange, surface adsorption considering electrostatics and kinetic reactions with user-defined rate equations, among others. As a result of the close coupling procedure, the influence of geochemical reactions on water content, e.g., through dissolution or precipitation of water-containing phases, can be investigated. For the solution of the partial differential equations of flow and transport, an explicit finite-difference formulation with a second-order space discretization and first-order time discretization was employed. The use of integrated diffusivities transforms Richards' equation into a simple advection-diffusion equation. Changes in water content and solute concentration were conceptualized as local kinetic reactions of individual elements where changes in moisture content result from fluxes of oxygen and hydrogen across cell boundaries. Reactions and chemical element transport are coupled via sequential two-step operator splitting. The scheme was implemented into PHREEQC without any source code modification such that it can be applied by an experienced user within the existing freely available software. In this presentation, we show results from extensive code verification and demonstrate the unique capabilities of the model for simulating surface sorption to variable charge surface sites including the development of a diffuse double layer as well as dissolution reactions with effects on soil moisture.

  8. Hyperbolic reformulation of a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model and ADER finite volume schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Montecinos, Gino I.; Müller, Lucas O.; Toro, Eleuterio F.

    2014-06-01

    The applicability of ADER finite volume methods to solve hyperbolic balance laws with stiff source terms in the context of well-balanced and non-conservative schemes is extended to solve a one-dimensional blood flow model for viscoelastic vessels, reformulated as a hyperbolic system, via a relaxation time. A criterion for selecting relaxation times is found and an empirical convergence rate assessment is carried out to support this result. The proposed methodology is validated by applying it to a network of viscoelastic vessels for which experimental and numerical results are available. The agreement between the results obtained in the present paper and those available in the literature is satisfactory. Key features of the present formulation and numerical methodologies, such as accuracy, efficiency and robustness, are fully discussed in the paper.

  9. Hierarchic system of QSAR models (1D-4D) on the base of simplex representation of molecular structure.

    PubMed

    Kuz'min, Victor E; Artemenko, Anatoly G; Polischuk, Pavel G; Muratov, Eugene N; Hromov, Alexander I; Liahovskiy, Anatoly V; Andronati, Sergey A; Makan, Svetlana Yu

    2005-11-01

    In this work, a hierarchic system of QSAR models from 1D to 4D is considered on the basis of the simplex representation of molecular structure (SiRMS). The essence of this system is that the QSAR problem is solved sequentially in a series of the improved models of the description of molecular structure. Thus, at each subsequent stage of a hierarchic system, the QSAR problem is not solved ab ovo, but rather the information obtained from the previous step is used. Actually, we deal with a system of solutions defined more exactly. In the SiRMS approach, a molecule is represented as a system of different simplex descriptors (tetratomic fragments with fixed composition, structure, chirality and symmetry). The level of simplex-descriptor detail increases consecutively from 1D to 4D representations of molecular structure. It enables us to determine the fragments of structure that promote or interfere with the given biological activity easily. Molecular design of compounds with a given level of activity is possible on the basis of SiRMS. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated for the example of the analysis of substituted piperazines affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor. PMID:16237516

  10. A 1D pulse wave propagation model of the hemodynamics of calf muscle pump function

    PubMed Central

    Keijsers, J M T; Leguy, C A D; Huberts, W; Narracott, A J; Rittweger, J; van de Vosse, F N

    2015-01-01

    The calf muscle pump is a mechanism which increases venous return and thereby compensates for the fluid shift towards the lower body during standing. During a muscle contraction, the embedded deep veins collapse and venous return increases. In the subsequent relaxation phase, muscle perfusion increases due to increased perfusion pressure, as the proximal venous valves temporarily reduce the distal venous pressure (shielding). The superficial and deep veins are connected via perforators, which contain valves allowing flow in the superficial-to-deep direction. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify the physiological mechanisms of the calf muscle pump, including the effect of venous valves, hydrostatic pressure, and the superficial venous system. Using a one-dimensional pulse wave propagation model, a muscle contraction is simulated by increasing the extravascular pressure in the deep venous segments. The hemodynamics are studied in three different configurations: a single artery–vein configuration with and without valves and a more detailed configuration including a superficial vein. Proximal venous valves increase effective venous return by 53% by preventing reflux. Furthermore, the proximal valves shielding function increases perfusion following contraction. Finally, the superficial system aids in maintaining the perfusion during the contraction phase and reduces the refilling time by 37%. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25766693

  11. A 1D pulse wave propagation model of the hemodynamics of calf muscle pump function.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, J M T; Leguy, C A D; Huberts, W; Narracott, A J; Rittweger, J; van de Vosse, F N

    2015-07-01

    The calf muscle pump is a mechanism which increases venous return and thereby compensates for the fluid shift towards the lower body during standing. During a muscle contraction, the embedded deep veins collapse and venous return increases. In the subsequent relaxation phase, muscle perfusion increases due to increased perfusion pressure, as the proximal venous valves temporarily reduce the distal venous pressure (shielding). The superficial and deep veins are connected via perforators, which contain valves allowing flow in the superficial-to-deep direction. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify the physiological mechanisms of the calf muscle pump, including the effect of venous valves, hydrostatic pressure, and the superficial venous system. Using a one-dimensional pulse wave propagation model, a muscle contraction is simulated by increasing the extravascular pressure in the deep venous segments. The hemodynamics are studied in three different configurations: a single artery-vein configuration with and without valves and a more detailed configuration including a superficial vein. Proximal venous valves increase effective venous return by 53% by preventing reflux. Furthermore, the proximal valves shielding function increases perfusion following contraction. Finally, the superficial system aids in maintaining the perfusion during the contraction phase and reduces the refilling time by 37%. PMID:25766693

  12. Determinants of modelling choices for 1-D free-surface flow and erosion issues in hydrology: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheviron, B.; Moussa, R.

    2015-09-01

    This review paper investigates the determinants of modelling choices, for numerous applications of 1-D free-surface flow and erosion equations, across multiple spatiotemporal scales. We aim to characterize each case study by its signature composed of model refinement (Navier-Stokes: NS, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes: RANS, Saint-Venant: SV or Approximations of Saint-Venant: ASV), spatiotemporal scales (domain length: L from 1 cm to 1000 km; temporal scale: T from 1 second to 1 year; flow depth: H from 1 mm to 10 m), flow typology (Overland: O, High gradient: Hg, Bedforms: B, Fluvial: F) and dimensionless numbers (Dimensionless time period T*, Reynolds number Re, Froude number Fr, Slope S, Inundation ratio Λz, Shields number θ). The determinants of modelling choices are therefore sought in the interplay between flow characteristics, cross-scale and scale-independent views. The influence of spatiotemporal scales on modelling choices is first quantified through the expected correlation between increasing scales and decreasing model refinements, identifying then flow typology a secondary but mattering determinant in the choice of model refinement. This finding is confirmed by the discriminating values of several dimensionless numbers, that prove preferential associations between model refinements and flow typologies. This review is intended to help each modeller positioning his (her) choices with respect to the most frequent practices, within a generic, normative procedure possibly enriched by the community for a larger, comprehensive and updated image of modelling strategies.

  13. A turbulent inflow model based on velocity modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huyer, Stephen A.; Beal, David

    2007-11-01

    This article presents a novel turbulent inflow model based on modulation of the velocity field for use with time-domain propulsor calculations. Given an experimental mean and rms turbulent inflow, a model can be constructed by modulating the velocity field over a range of frequencies. Assuming the turbulence is homogeneous, the inflow can be constructed as a Fourier series where the frequencies can also be modulated to smooth the broadband output. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the model, experimental inflow velocity data were acquired for an upstream stator, downstream rotor configuration mounted on an undersea vehicle afterbody. Two main sources of turbulence originated from the vorticity shed from the stator wakes and the boundary layer vorticity produced on the hull body. Three-dimensional, unsteady velocity data were acquired using hot-wire anemometry and reduced to provide mean and rms velocity values. Time-series data were processed to provide velocity power spectra used to calibrate the model. Simulations were performed using a modified version of the propulsor unsteady flow code capable of computing fully turbulent inflows. This solver models the propulsor blade as a vortex lattice and sheds the vorticity into the wake to solve the unsteady potential flow. The no-flux boundary conditions are satisfied at the lattice control points and the resulting unsteady circulation is a function of the instantaneous inflow velocity field over the blade. Vorticity is shed into the wake to account for the full time history of the inflow velocity field. To demonstrate the full effectiveness of the model, computed surface pressure data were exported to a code to compute the far-field radiated noise (both tonal and broadband). Simulated data were compared with experimentally obtained noise data with favorable results. Applications of this methodology in the incompressible flow domain include broadband analysis of propulsor-radiated noise on undersea vehicles and radiator fan noise in cars.

  14. Studying the Venus terminator thermal structure observed by SOIR/VEx with a 1D radiative transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahieux, A.; Erwin, J. T.; Chamberlain, S.; Robert, S.; Thomas, I.; Vandaele, A. C.; Trompet, L.; Wilquet, V.; Yelle, R. V.

    2015-10-01

    The SOIR instrument on board Venus Express routinely measures the CO2 number density profiles in the mesosphere and thermosphere region at the Venus terminator using the solar occultation technique. Assuming the hydrostatic equilibrium, we derive temperature profiles, which show a permanent cold layer at 125 km, surrounded by two warmer layers at 100 km and 140 km. We developed a 1D conductive radiative transfer model to study the mean SOIR thermal profile, considering the main species, and carefully modelling the radiative terms. In order to correctly reproduce the thermal profile, aerosols cooling and heating terms are added. We describe how aerosols number density profiles can be calculated to have a good match of the thermal profiles.

  15. Modeling non-Fickian dispersion by use of the velocity PDF on the pore scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooshapur, Sheema; Manhart, Michael

    2015-04-01

    For obtaining a description of reactive flows in porous media, apart from the geometrical complications of resolving the velocities and scalar values, one has to deal with the additional reactive term in the transport equation. An accurate description of the interface of the reacting fluids - which is strongly influenced by dispersion- is essential for resolving this term. In REV-based simulations the reactive term needs to be modeled taking sub-REV fluctuations and possibly non-Fickian dispersion into account. Non-Fickian dispersion has been observed in strongly heterogeneous domains and in early phases of transport. A fully resolved solution of the Navier-Stokes and transport equations which yields a detailed description of the flow properties, dispersion, interfaces of fluids, etc. however, is not practical for domains containing more than a few thousand grains, due to the huge computational effort required. Through Probability Density Function (PDF) based methods, the velocity distribution in the pore space can facilitate the understanding and modelling of non-Fickian dispersion [1,2]. Our aim is to model the transition between non-Fickian and Fickian dispersion in a random sphere pack within the framework of a PDF based transport model proposed by Meyer and Tchelepi [1,3]. They proposed a stochastic transport model where velocity components of tracer particles are represented by a continuous Markovian stochastic process. In addition to [3], we consider the effects of pore scale diffusion and formulate a different stochastic equation for the increments in velocity space from first principles. To assess the terms in this equation, we performed Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) for solving the Navier-Stokes equation on a random sphere pack. We extracted the PDFs and statistical moments (up to the 4th moment) of the stream-wise velocity, u, and first and second order velocity derivatives both independent and conditioned on velocity. By using this data and combining the Taylor expansion of velocity increments, du, and the Langevin equation for point particles we obtained the components of velocity fluxes which point to a drift and diffusion behavior in the velocity space. Thus a partial differential equation for the velocity PDF has been formulated that constitutes an advection-diffusion equation in velocity space (a Fokker-Planck equation) in which the drift and diffusion coefficients are obtained using the velocity conditioned statistics of the derivatives of the pore scale velocity field. This has been solved by both a Random Walk (RW) model and a Finite Volume method. We conclude that both, these methods are able to simulate the velocity PDF obtained by DNS. References [1] D. W. Meyer, P. Jenny, H.A.Tschelepi, A joint velocity-concentration PDF method for traqcer flow in heterogeneous porous media, Water Resour.Res., 46, W12522, (2010). [2] Nowak, W., R. L. Schwede, O. A. Cirpka, and I. Neuweiler, Probability density functions of hydraulic head and velocity in three-dimensional heterogeneous porous media, Water Resour.Res., 44, W08452, (2008) [3] D. W. Meyer, H. A. Tchelepi, Particle-based transport model with Markovian velocity processes for tracer dispersion in highly heterogeneous porous media, Water Resour. Res., 46, W11552, (2010)

  16. Assessment of phenol infiltration resilience in soil media by HYDRUS-1D transport model for a waste discharge site.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, K; Pal, S; Chakraborty, B; Mukherjee, S N; Gangopadhyay, A

    2014-10-01

    The movement of contaminants through soil imparts a variety of geo-environmental problem inclusive of lithospheric pollution. Near-surface aquifers are often vulnerable to contamination from surface source if overlying soil possesses poor resilience or contaminant attenuation capacity. The prediction of contaminant transport through soil is urged to protect groundwater from sources of pollutants. Using field simulation through column experiments and mathematical modeling like HYDRUS-1D, assessment of soil resilience and movement of contaminants through the subsurface to reach aquifers can be predicted. An outfall site of effluents of a coke oven plant comprising of alarming concentration of phenol (4-12.2 mg/L) have been considered for studying groundwater condition and quality, in situ soil characterization, and effluent characterization. Hydrogeological feature suggests the presence of near-surface aquifers at the effluent discharge site. Analysis of groundwater of nearby locality reveals the phenol concentration (0.11-0.75 mg/L) exceeded the prescribed limit of WHO specification (0.002 mg/L). The in situ soil, used in column experiment, possess higher saturated hydraulic conductivity (KS  = 5.25 × 10(-4) cm/s). The soil containing 47 % silt, 11 % clay, and 1.54% organic carbon content was found to be a poor absorber of phenol (24 mg/kg). The linear phenol adsorption isotherm model showed the best fit (R(2) = 0.977, RMSE = 1.057) to the test results. Column experiments revealed that the phenol removal percent and the length of the mass transfer zone increased with increasing bed heights. The overall phenol adsorption efficiency was found to be 42-49%. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) predicted by HYDRUS-1D model appears to be close fitting with the BTCs derived from the column experiments. The phenol BTC predicted by the HYDRUS-1D model for 1.2 m depth subsurface soil, i.e., up to the depth of groundwater in the study area, showed that the exhaustion point was reached within 12 days of elapsed time. This clearly demonstrated poor attenuation capacity of the soil to retard migration of phenol to the groundwater from the surface outfall site. Suitable liner, based on these data, may be designed to inhibit subsurface transport of phenol and thereby to protect precious groundwater from contamination. PMID:24929358

  17. Entanglement Entropy and Mutual Information of Circular Entangling Surfaces in 2+1d Quantum Lifshitz Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tianci; Chen, Xiao; Fradkin, Eduardo

    We investigate the entanglement entropy(EE) of circular entangling surfaces in the 2+1d quantum Lifshitz model, where the spatially conformal invariant ground state is a Rokhsar-Kivelson state with Gibbs weight of 2d free Boson. We use cut-off independent mutual information regulator to define and calculate the subleading correction in the EE. The subtlety due to the Boson compactification in the replica trick is carefully taken care of. Our results show that for circular entangling surface, the subleading term is a constant on both the sphere of arbitrary radius and infinite plane. For the latter case, it parallels the constancy of disk EE in 2+1d conformal field theory, despite the lack of full space time conformal invariance. In the end, we present the mutual information of two disjoint disks and compare its scaling function in the small parameter regime (radii much smaller than their separation) with Cardy's general CFT results. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation Grants NSF-DMR-13-06011(TZ) and DMR-1408713 (XC, EF).

  18. Quantization of Energy in 1D Model of Crystal Lattice with Local Perturbations Induced by Ion-Beam Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minrik, Stanislav

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose theoretical basis for investigation of dynamics of acoustic phonons in a thin layers containing nano-scale structural inhomogeneities. One-dimensional (1D) model of a crystal lattice was considered to reveal specific features of the processes arising in such system of phonons in equilibrium state. Standard quantization of energy of 1D ionic chain vibrating by acoustic frequencies was carried out while the presence of foreign ions in this chain was taken into account. Since only two dimensions are dominant in thin layers, only longitudinal vibrations of the chain in the plane of the layer were considered. Results showed that foreign ions affect the energy quantization. Phonon-phonon interaction between two phonon`s modes can be expected if the mass of foreign ions implanted by ion-beam differs from the mass of ions in the initial layer. We believe that the obtained results will help to understand the character of phonon systems in nanostructured thin layers prepared by ion-bem technology, and will allow better explain some thermal and electrical phenomena associated with lattice dynamics in such layers.

  19. Developing regionalized models of lithospheric thickness and velocity structure across Eurasia and the Middle East from jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Julia, J; Nyblade, A; Hansen, S; Rodgers, A; Matzel, E

    2009-07-06

    In this project, we are developing models of lithospheric structure for a wide variety of tectonic regions throughout Eurasia and the Middle East by regionalizing 1D velocity models obtained by jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities. We expect the regionalized velocity models will improve our ability to predict travel-times for local and regional phases, such as Pg, Pn, Sn and Lg, as well as travel-times for body-waves at upper mantle triplication distances in both seismic and aseismic regions of Eurasia and the Middle East. We anticipate the models will help inform and strengthen ongoing and future efforts within the NNSA labs to develop 3D velocity models for Eurasia and the Middle East, and will assist in obtaining model-based predictions where no empirical data are available and for improving locations from sparse networks using kriging. The codes needed to conduct the joint inversion of P-wave receiver functions (PRFs), S-wave receiver functions (SRFs), and dispersion velocities have already been assembled as part of ongoing research on lithospheric structure in Africa. The methodology has been tested with synthetic 'data' and case studies have been investigated with data collected at an open broadband stations in South Africa. PRFs constrain the size and S-P travel-time of seismic discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle, SRFs constrain the size and P-S travel-time of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and dispersion velocities constrain average S-wave velocity within frequency-dependent depth-ranges. Preliminary results show that the combination yields integrated 1D velocity models local to the recording station, where the discontinuities constrained by the receiver functions are superimposed to a background velocity model constrained by the dispersion velocities. In our first year of this project we will (i) generate 1D velocity models for open broadband seismic stations in the western half of the study area (Eurasia and the Middle East) and (ii) identify well located seismic events with event-station paths isolated to individual tectonic provinces within the study area and collect broadband waveforms and source parameters for the selected events. The 1D models obtained from the joint inversion will then be combined with published geologic terrain maps to produce regionalized models for distinctive tectonic areas within the study area, and the models will be validated through full waveform modeling of well-located seismic events recorded at local and regional distances.

  20. Short time-scale analysis of the NW Mediterranean ecosystem during summer-autumn transition: A 1D modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raybaud, V.; Nival, P.; Prieur, L.

    2011-01-01

    Modelling was used as a tool to better understand the physical and biological processes observed during the multidisciplinary cruise DYNAPROC 2 (DYNAmic of rapid PROCesses in the water column), which took place in the Ligurian Sea in September-October 2004. The aim of the cruise was to study the short time-scale physical and biological processes that occur when the ecosystem switches from summer oligotrophy to autumnal mesotrophy. In this study, we have tested two 1D physical-biological coupled models. The first was a classical model in which surface layer dynamics were obtained using the turbulent kinetic energy model of Gaspar [Gaspar et al., 1990]. The simulated food-web took into account ten state variables: three nutrients, three classes of phytoplankton, two classes of zooplankton and two types of detritus. The second model (called IDA, Isopycnals Depth Adjustment) was based on the initial one but it took into account the measured variations of isopycnals depths. The results showed that the IDA model most efficiently reproduced the observed ecosystem dynamics. We have therefore used the IDA model to show that physical processes observed during the cruise had a major effect on biological compartment, mainly on nano- and picophytoplankton.

  1. Velocity Correlations in the Nagel-Schreckenberg Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakouari, N.; Jetto, K.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2014-09-01

    The correlation between the velocity of two successive vehicles as a function of time headway is studied in the one-dimensional cellular automata (CA) NaSch model within parallel dynamic update. It is found that a strong correlation occurs in short time headway. The behavior of the correlation velocity as a function of the car density in different traffic states is also investigated. Moreover, our study is also extended to a more complicated situation where the two vehicles are separated by a number n of other vehicles. It is shown that the velocity correlation coefficient depends strongly on the number n of vehicles in between and on their positions.

  2. Geometric and frequency EMI sounding of estuarine earthen flood defence embankments in Ireland using 1D inversion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganotti, Matteo; Jackson, Ruth; Krahn, Hartmut; Dyer, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Earthen flood defence embankments are linear structures, raised above the flood plain, that are commonly used as flood defences in rural settings; these are often relatively old structures constructed using locally garnered material and of which little is known in terms of design and construction. Alarmingly, it is generally reported that a number of urban developments have expanded to previously rural areas; hence, acquiring knowledge about the flood defences protecting these areas has risen significantly in the agendas of basin and asset managers. This paper focusses, by reporting two case studies, on electromagnetic induction (EMI) methods that would efficiently complement routine visual inspections and would represent a first step to more detailed investigations. Evaluation of the results is presented by comparison with ERT profiles and intrusive investigation data. The EM data, acquired using a GEM-2 apparatus for frequency sounding and an EM-31 apparatus for geometrical sounding, has been handled using the prototype eGMS software tool, being developed by the eGMS international research consortium; the depth sounding data interpretation was assisted by 1D inversions obtained with the EM1DFM software developed by the University of British Columbia. Although both sounding methods showed some limitations, the models obtained were consistent with ERT models and the techniques were useful screening methods for the identification of areas of interest, such as material interfaces or potential seepage areas, within the embankment structure: 1D modelling improved the rapid assessment of earthen flood defence embankments in an estuarine environment; evidence that EMI sounding could play an important role as a monitoring tool or as a first step towards more detailed investigations.

  3. Velocity-density twin transforms in the thin disc model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratek, Łukasz; Sikora, Szymon; Jałocha, Joanna; Kutschera, Marek

    2015-08-01

    Ring mass density and the corresponding circular velocity in thin disc model are known to be integral transforms of one another. But it may be less familiar that the transforms can be reduced to one-fold integrals with identical weight functions. It may be of practical value that the integral for the surface density does not involve the velocity derivative, unlike the equivalent and widely known Toomre's formula.

  4. Giant Fluctuations of Local Magnetoresistance of Organic Spin Valves and the Non-Hermitian 1D Anderson Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, R. C.; Nemirovsky, D.; Kagalovsky, V.; Raikh, M. E.

    2014-06-01

    Motivated by recent experiments, where the tunnel magnetoresitance (TMR) of a spin valve was measured locally, we theoretically study the distribution of TMR along the surface of magnetized electrodes. We show that, even in the absence of interfacial effects (like hybridization due to donor and acceptor molecules), this distribution is very broad, and the portion of area with negative TMR is appreciable even if on average the TMR is positive. The origin of the local sign reversal is quantum interference of subsequent spin-rotation amplitudes in the course of incoherent transport of carriers between the source and the drain. We find the distribution of local TMR exactly by drawing upon formal similarity between evolution of spinors in time and of the reflection coefficient along a 1D chain in the Anderson model. The results obtained are confirmed by the numerical simulations.

  5. 2D Axisymmetric vs 1D: A PIC/DSMC Model of Breakdown in Triggered Vacuum Spark Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Stan; Moore, Chris; Boerner, Jeremiah

    2015-09-01

    Last year at GEC14, we presented results of one-dimensional PIC/DSMC simulations of breakdown in triggered vacuum spark gaps. In this talk, we extend the model to two-dimensional axisymmetric and compare the results to the previous 1D case. Specially, we vary the fraction of the cathode that emits electrons and neutrals (holding the total injection rates over the cathode surface constant) and show the effects of the higher dimensionality on the time to breakdown. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. An analytical 1-D model for vertical momentum and energy flux through a fully developed wind farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Wind farms capture momentum from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) both at the leading edge and from the atmosphere above. Momentum is advected into the wind farm and wake turbulence draws excess momentum in from between turbines until momentum is only available from above the wind farm. This distance can be described by the so-called drag development length scale, which arises from the canopy drag force term in the momentum equation. At this point the flow can be considered fully developed. The horizontally-averaged velocity profile for a fully developed wind farm flow exhibits a characteristic inflection point near the top of the wind farm, similar to that of sparse canopy-type flows (Markfort et al., JoT, 2012). The inflected vertical velocity profile is associated with the presence of a dominant characteristic turbulence scale, which may be responsible for a significant portion of the vertical momentum flux. We evaluate an analytical canopy-type flow model for wind farm-atmosphere interaction by testing it against wind-tunnel experimental data of flow through a model wind farm. The model is adapted to predict the mean flow, vertical momentum flux, and the mean kinetic energy flux as well as kinetic energy dissipation within the wind farm. This model is particularly useful for wind farm configuration optimization, considering wind turbine spacing and surface roughness and can also be useful to represent wind farms in regional scale atmospheric simulations.

  7. Behaviour of ion velocity distributions for a simple collision model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St-Maurice, J.-P.; Schunk, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Calculation of the ion velocity distributions for a weakly ionized plasma subjected to crossed electric and magnetic fields. An exact solution to Boltzmann's equation has been obtained by replacing the Boltzmann collision integral with a simple relaxation model. At altitudes above about 150 km, where the ion collision frequency is much less than the ion cyclotron frequency, the ion distribution takes the shape of a torus in velocity space for electric fields greater than 40 mV/m. This shape persists for one to two hours after application of the electric field. At altitudes where the ion collision and cyclotron frequencies are approximately equal (about 120 km), the ion velocity distribution is shaped like a bean for large electric field strengths. This bean-shaped distribution persists throughout the lifetime of ionospheric electric fields. These highly non-Maxwellian ion velocity distributions may have an appreciable affect on the interpretation of ion temperature measurements.

  8. SCEC CVM-Toolkit (CVM-T) -- High Performance Meshing Tools for SCEC Community Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Ely, G. P.; Olsen, K. B.; Withers, K.; Graves, R. W.; Jordan, T. H.; Plesch, A.; Shaw, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    The SCEC Community Velocity Model Toolkit (CVM-T) enables earthquake modelers to quickly build, visualize, and validate large-scale 3D velocity meshes using SCEC CVM-H or CVM-4. CVM-T is comprised of three main components: (1) a current SCEC community velocity model for Southern California, (2) tools for extracting meshes from this model and visualizing them, and (3) an automated test framework for evaluating new releases of CVMs using SCEC’s AWP-ODC forward wave propagation software and one, or more, ground motion goodness of fit (GoF) algorithms. CVM-T is designed to help SCEC modelers build large-scale velocity meshes by extracting material properties from the most current version of Community Velocity Model H (CVM-H) and to provide a consistent interface as new CVM-H versions are developed. The CVM-T software provides a highly-scalable interface to CVM-H 6.2 (and later) voxets. Along with an improved interface to CVM-H material properties, the CVM-T software adds a geotechnical layer (GTL) to CVM-H 6.2+ based on Ely’s Vs30-derived GTL. The initial release of CVM-T also extends the coverage region for CVM-H 6.2 with a Hadley-Kanamori 1D background. Smoothing is performed within the transition boundary between the core model and the 1D background. The user interface now includes a C API that allows applications to query the model either by elevation or depth. The Extraction and Visualization Tools (EVT) include a parallelized 3D mesh generator which can quickly generate meshes (consisting of Vp, Vs, and density) from either CVM-H or CVM-4 with over 100 billion points. Python plotting scripts can be employed to plot horizontal or profile slices from existing meshes or directly from either CVM. The Automated Test Framework (ATF) is a system for quantitatively evaluating new versions of CVM-H and ensuring that the model improves against prior versions. The ATF employs the CruiseControl build and test framework to run an AWP-ODC simulation for the 2008 Chino Hills event (Mw = 5.39) and perform a goodness of fit statistics calculation on the generated synthetic and recorded observed seismograms using the GoF algorithm, based on comparison of synthetic peak amplitudes to observed peak amplitudes, used in the SCEC Broadband platform. CVM-T produced plots include comparisons of synthetic and observed seismograms, plots of bias versus period, and spatial plots of the pseudo-AA bias over the entire region.

  9. FORest Canopy Atmosphere Transfer (FORCAsT) 1.0: a 1-D model of biosphere-atmosphere chemical exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, K.; Chung, S. H.; Griffin, R. J.; Chen, J.; Forkel, R.; Bryan, A. M.; Steiner, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere interactions play a critical role in governing atmospheric composition, mediating the concentrations of key species such as ozone and aerosol, thereby influencing air quality and climate. The exchange of reactive trace gases and their oxidation products (both gas and particle phase) is of particular importance in this process. The FORCAsT (FORest Canopy Atmosphere Transfer) 1-D model is developed to study the emission, deposition, chemistry and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their oxidation products in the atmosphere within and above the forest canopy. We include an equilibrium partitioning scheme, making FORCAsT one of the few canopy models currently capable of simulating the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) from VOC oxidation in a forest environment. We evaluate the capability of FORCAsT to reproduce observed concentrations of key gas-phase species and report modeled SOA concentrations within and above a mixed forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) during the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiment (CABINEX) field campaign in the summer of 2009. We examine the impact of two different gas-phase chemical mechanisms on modelled concentrations of short-lived primary emissions, such as isoprene and monoterpenes, and their oxidation products. While the two chemistry schemes perform similarly under high-NOx conditions, they diverge at the low levels of NOx at UMBS. We identify peroxy radical and alkyl nitrate chemistry as the key causes of the differences, highlighting the importance of this chemistry in understanding the fate of biogenic VOCs (bVOCs) for both the modelling and measurement communities.

  10. Scale up tools in reactive extrusion and compounding processes. Could 1D-computer modeling be helpful?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradel, J.-L.; David, C.; Quinebèche, S.; Blondel, P.

    2014-05-01

    Industrial scale-up (or scale down) in Compounding and Reactive Extrusion processes is one of the most critical R&D challenges. Indeed, most of High Performances Polymers are obtained within a reactive compounding involving chemistry: free radical grafting, in situ compatibilization, rheology control... but also side reactions: oxidation, branching, chain scission... As described by basic Arrhenius and kinetics laws, the competition between all chemical reactions depends on residence time distribution and temperature. Then, to ensure the best possible scale up methodology, we need tools to match thermal history of the formulation along the screws from a lab scale twin screw extruder to an industrial one. This paper proposes a comparison between standard scale-up laws and the use of Computer modeling Software such as Ludovic® applied and compared to experimental data. Scaling data from a compounding line to another one, applying general rules (for example at constant specific mechanical energy), shows differences between experimental and computed data, and error depends on the screw speed range. For more accurate prediction, 1D-Computer Modeling could be used to optimize the process conditions to ensure the best scale-up product, especially in temperature sensitive reactive extrusion processes. When the product temperature along the screws is the key, Ludovic® software could help to compute the temperature profile along the screws and extrapolate conditions, even screw profile, on industrial extruders.

  11. M5.6 Aftershock of the 2009 L'Aquila, Italy, Earthquake: Broadband Composite Source Modeling with 1D Deterministic Green's Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallovic, F.; Pacor, F.; Zahradnik, J.; Luzi, L.; Puglia, R.

    2013-12-01

    We perform an extended study of the largest aftershock of the 2009 L'Aquila, Italy, Mw 6.3 earthquake, based on low-frequency inversion and broadband simulation of strong-motion data. The M 5.6 aftershock occurred on April 7 and was recorded by ~30 permanent and temporal accelerometric stations located within 50km from the epicenter. Using ISOLA software we perform a CMT inversion, finding the centroid at 15km depth in agreement with previous studies. Distribution of relocated small aftershocks by Valoroso et al. (2013) suggests that the event ruptured a normal fault dipping NE at 60 degrees, antithetic to the major L'Aquila fault. Considering a finite-extent source model with homogenous slip and radial propagation at constant speed we further constrain the model, inverting strong-motion data in the frequency range 0.1-0.5 Hz. We estimate fault dimension of 6x6km, static stress drop of 1 MPa (relatively low with respect to other studies), and find a weak indication of bilateral rupture propagation. These properties are used to setup a broadband (0-10Hz) composite source model with fractal number-size distribution of overlapping subsources. The Green's functions are calculated in 1D layered medium in the full frequency range, assuming shallow site-specific structure, wherever available, and a generic soil profile for rock stations; no stochastic Green's functions are used. At stations with not very strong site effects, the fit between synthetic and observed waveforms is generally good both in frequency and time domains (velocities and accelerations). Only at some stations we observe a peculiar mismatch of ground motion polarization at high frequencies. Careful analysis suggests that the (predominantly) linear S-wave polarization correctly modeled at low frequencies (up to ~2Hz) remains linear even at higher frequencies but at different, frequency dependent, angle.

  12. A reduced-order model based on the coupled 1D-3D finite element simulations for an efficient analysis of hemodynamics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soudah, Eduardo; Rossi, Riccardo; Idelsohn, Sergio; Oñate, Eugenio

    2014-10-01

    A reduced-order model for an efficient analysis of cardiovascular hemodynamics problems using multiscale approach is presented in this work. Starting from a patient-specific computational mesh obtained by medical imaging techniques, an analysis methodology based on a two-step automatic procedure is proposed. First a coupled 1D-3D Finite Element Simulation is performed and the results are used to adjust a reduced-order model of the 3D patient-specific area of interest. Then, this reduced-order model is coupled with the 1D model. In this way, three-dimensional effects are accounted for in the 1D model in a cost effective manner, allowing fast computation under different scenarios. The methodology proposed is validated using a patient-specific aortic coarctation model under rest and non-rest conditions.

  13. Three-dimensional seismic velocity model of the West Bohemia/Vogtland seismoactive region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Růžek, Bohuslav; Horálek, Josef

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we present a smooth 3-D seismic model WB2012 for the West Bohemia/Vogtland earthquake swarm region derived by means of seismic tomography. Inverted data were represented by a set of 2920 P-wave traveltimes from controlled shots fired in a framework of different experiments and a set of 11339 P- and S-wave arrival times from 661 local earthquakes between 1991 December and 2010 March. We used a standard tomographic approach for independent calculation of P- and S-wave velocity fields in a rectangular grid whose size was 1 km in all coordinates. The traveltimes and rays were calculated by a numerical solution of the eiconal equation. While locating seismic events, our new WB2012 model yielded arrival time residuals on average by 13 per cent lower and hypocentre depths by 0.95 km shallower compared to the locations of the foci in the standard 1-D vertically inhomogeneous isotropic velocity model of the West Bohemia swarm region WB2005. Further, we converted the P- and S-wave velocities to the bulk modulus K and Poisson's ratio ν. The bulk modulus (˜40-70 GPa) correlates acceptably with the tectonic and geological structure of the area. The anomalously low values of the Poisson's ratio (˜0.15) are typical for the most active focal zones of Nový Kostel and Lazy in West Bohemia.

  14. Modeling and comparative study of fluid velocities in heterogeneous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingerl, Ferdinand F.; Romanenko, Konstantin; Pini, Ronny; Balcom, Bruce; Benson, Sally

    2013-04-01

    Detailed knowledge of the distribution of effective porosity and fluid velocities in heterogeneous rock samples is crucial for understanding and predicting spatially resolved fluid residence times and kinetic reaction rates of fluid-rock interactions. The applicability of conventional MRI techniques to sedimentary rocks is limited by internal magnetic field gradients and short spin relaxation times. The approach developed at the UNB MRI Centre combines the 13-interval Alternating-Pulsed-Gradient Stimulated-Echo (APGSTE) scheme and three-dimensional Single Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement (SPRITE). These methods were designed to reduce the errors due to effects of background gradients and fast transverse relaxation. SPRITE is largely immune to time-evolution effects resulting from background gradients, paramagnetic impurities and chemical shift. Using these techniques quantitative 3D porosity maps as well as single-phase fluid velocity fields in sandstone core samples were measured. Using a new Magnetic Resonance Imaging technique developed at the MRI Centre at UNB, we created 3D maps of porosity distributions as well as single-phase fluid velocity distributions of sandstone rock samples. Then, we evaluated the applicability of the Kozeny-Carman relationship for modeling measured fluid velocity distributions in sandstones samples showing meso-scale heterogeneities using two different modeling approaches. The MRI maps were used as reference points for the modeling approaches. For the first modeling approach, we applied the Kozeny-Carman relationship to the porosity distributions and computed respective permeability maps, which in turn provided input for a CFD simulation - using the Stanford CFD code GPRS - to compute averaged velocity maps. The latter were then compared to the measured velocity maps. For the second approach, the measured velocity distributions were used as input for inversely computing permeabilities using the GPRS CFD code. The computed permeabilities were then correlated with the ones based on the porosity maps and the Kozeny-Carman relationship. The findings of the comparative modeling study are discussed and its potential impact on the modeling of fluid residence times and kinetic reaction rates of fluid-rock interactions in rocks containing meso-scale heterogeneities are reviewed.

  15. Thermal characterization of large size lithium-ion pouch cell based on 1d electro-thermal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertiz, G.; Oyarbide, M.; Macicior, H.; Miguel, O.; Cantero, I.; Fernandez de Arroiabe, P.; Ulacia, I.

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management is one of the key factors to keep lithium-ion cells in optimum electrical performance, under safe working conditions and into a reasonably low ageing process. This issue is becoming particularly relevant due to the heterogeneous heat generation along the cell. Cell working temperature is determined by ambient temperature, heat generation and evacuation capacity. Therefore, thermal management is established by: i) the intrinsic thermal properties (heat capacity & thermal conductivity) and ii) the heat generation electro-thermal parameters (internal resistance, open circuit voltage & entropic factor). In this research, different methods - calculated and experimental - are used to characterize the main heat properties of a 14Ah -LiFePO4/graphite-commercial large sizes pouch cell. In order to evaluate the accuracy of methods, two comparisons were performed. First, Newman heat generation estimations were compared with experimental heat measurements. Secondly, empirical thermal cell behaviour was match with 1D electro-thermal model response. Finally, considering the results, the most adequate methodology to evaluate the key thermal parameters of a large size Lithium-ion pouch cell are proposed to be: i) pulse method for internal resistance, ii)heat loss method for entropic factor; and iii)experimental measurement (ARC calorimeter and C-177-97 standard method) for heat capacity and thermal conductivity.

  16. Novel phase-space Monte-Carlo method for quench dynamics in 1D and 2D spin models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikovski, Alexander; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Rey, Ana Maria

    2015-05-01

    An important outstanding problem is the effcient numerical computation of quench dynamics in large spin systems. We propose a semiclassical method to study many-body spin dynamics in generic spin lattice models. The method, named DTWA, is based on a novel type of discrete Monte-Carlo sampling in phase-space. We demonstare the power of the technique by comparisons with analytical and numerically exact calculations. It is shown that DTWA captures the dynamics of one- and two-point correlations 1D systems. We also use DTWA to study the dynamics of correlations in 2D systems with many spins and different types of long-range couplings, in regimes where other numerical methods are generally unreliable. Computing spatial and time-dependent correlations, we find a sharp change in the speed of propagation of correlations at a critical range of interactions determined by the system dimension. The investigations are relevant for a broad range of systems including solids, atom-photon systems and ultracold gases of polar molecules, trapped ions, Rydberg, and magnetic atoms. This work has been financially supported by JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF-1211914, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI.

  17. A Numerical Method of Reduced Complexity for Simulating Vascular Hemodynamics Using Coupled 0D Lumped and 1D Wave Propagation Models

    PubMed Central

    Kroon, Wilco; Huberts, Wouter; Bosboom, Marielle; van de Vosse, Frans

    2012-01-01

    A computational method of reduced complexity is developed for simulating vascular hemodynamics by combination of one-dimensional (1D) wave propagation models for the blood vessels with zero-dimensional (0D) lumped models for the microcirculation. Despite the reduced dimension, current algorithms used to solve the model equations and simulate pressure and flow are rather complex, thereby limiting acceptance in the medical field. This complexity mainly arises from the methods used to combine the 1D and the 0D model equations. In this paper a numerical method is presented that no longer requires additional coupling methods and enables random combinations of 1D and 0D models using pressure as only state variable. The method is applied to a vascular tree consisting of 60 major arteries in the body and the head. Simulated results are realistic. The numerical method is stable and shows good convergence. PMID:22654957

  18. Preliminary 3D seismic velocity model for the crustal structure of the southern part of the Korean Peninsula inferred from ambient noise tomography and waveform modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhie, J.; Kim, S.; Lee, S.

    2012-12-01

    We construct a preliminary 3D seismic velocity model for the crust beneath the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Broadband waveforms obtained from seismic network in and around the study area are used. First, a quasi-3D S-wave model is estimated from Rayleigh wave tomography using ambient seismic noise. During the depth-inversion of dispersion curve for each inversion node, a Bayesian approach is used to introduce sharp boundaries and to provide a statistical assessment of inverted 1D Vsv models. Crustal thickness and average Vp/Vs ratio are constrained from the result of previous receiver function (RF) study. Then, Love wave dispersions are inverted for 1D Vsh models by allowing small velocity perturbations with respect to the previously defined 1D Vsv-wave models. Lastly, a series of forward 3D waveform modeling are performed based on the anisotropic S-wave model. The starting P-wave velocity model is determined by using Vp/Vs ratio from the RF study and an average model between Vsv and Vsh models. Values of Vp/Vs ratio, Vsv, Vsh, and crustal thickness are systematically varied during the forward modeling to fit observed three-component broadband (~0.05-0.3 Hz) waveforms. By doing this, we develop a preliminary 3D velocity model for the southern Korean Peninsula. Our model is a starting model of the realistic 3D model, which takes into account more data such as surface geological feature, high-frequency body wave travel times, and gravity. The final model will be used to predict strong g round motion of potential large scenario earthquakes after correcting site effects.

  19. A New Mixed Model Based on the Velocity Structure Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Christophe; Friedrich, Rainer; Da Silva, Carlos B.; Métais, Olivier

    We propose a new mixed model for Large Eddy-Simulation based on the 3D spatial velocity increment. This approach blends the non-linear properties of the Increment model (Brun & Friedrich (2001)) with the eddy viscosity characteristics of the Structure Function model (Métais & Lesieur (1992)). The behaviour of this subgrid scale model is studied both via a priori tests of a plane jet at ReH=3000 and Large Eddy-Simulation of a round jet at ReD=25000. This approach allows to describe both forward and backward energy transfer encountered in transitional shear flows.

  20. Intraglottal velocity and pressure measurements in a hemilarynx model.

    PubMed

    Oren, Liran; Gutmark, Ephraim; Khosla, Sid

    2015-02-01

    Determining the mechanisms of self-sustained oscillation of the vocal folds requires characterization of the pressures produced by intraglottal aerodynamics. Because most of the intraglottal aerodynamic forces cannot be measured in a tissue model of the larynx, current understanding of vocal fold vibration mechanism is derived from mechanical, analytical, and computational models. Previous studies have computed intraglottal pressures from measured intraglottal velocity fields and intraglottal geometry; however, this technique for determining pressures is not yet validated. In this study, intraglottal pressure measurements taken in a hemilarynx model are compared with pressure values that are computed from simultaneous velocity measurements. The results showed that significant negative pressure formed near the superior aspect of the folds during closing, which agrees with previous measurements in other hemilarynx models. Intraglottal velocity measurements show that the flow near the superior aspect separates from the glottal wall during closing and may develop into a vortex, which further augments the magnitude of negative pressure. Intraglottal pressure distributions, computed by solving the pressure Poisson equation, showed good agreement with pressure measurements. The match between the pressure computations and its measurements validates the current technique, which was previously used to estimate intraglottal pressure distribution in a full larynx model. PMID:25698025

  1. Intraglottal velocity and pressure measurements in a hemilarynx model

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Liran; Gutmark, Ephraim; Khosla, Sid

    2015-01-01

    Determining the mechanisms of self-sustained oscillation of the vocal folds requires characterization of the pressures produced by intraglottal aerodynamics. Because most of the intraglottal aerodynamic forces cannot be measured in a tissue model of the larynx, current understanding of vocal fold vibration mechanism is derived from mechanical, analytical, and computational models. Previous studies have computed intraglottal pressures from measured intraglottal velocity fields and intraglottal geometry; however, this technique for determining pressures is not yet validated. In this study, intraglottal pressure measurements taken in a hemilarynx model are compared with pressure values that are computed from simultaneous velocity measurements. The results showed that significant negative pressure formed near the superior aspect of the folds during closing, which agrees with previous measurements in other hemilarynx models. Intraglottal velocity measurements show that the flow near the superior aspect separates from the glottal wall during closing and may develop into a vortex, which further augments the magnitude of negative pressure. Intraglottal pressure distributions, computed by solving the pressure Poisson equation, showed good agreement with pressure measurements. The match between the pressure computations and its measurements validates the current technique, which was previously used to estimate intraglottal pressure distribution in a full larynx model. PMID:25698025

  2. A 1-D Cryothermal Model of Ceres’ Megaregolith: Predictions for Surface Vapor Flux, Subsurface Temperatures and Pore Ice Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Dylan; Wood, Stephen E.; Bapst, Jonathan; Mehlhaff, Joshua; Griffiths, Stephen G.

    2014-11-01

    We have applied a self-consistent 1-D model for heat diffusion, vapor diffusion, and ice condensation/sublimation, and surface energy balance to investigate our hypothesis for the source of the recently observed water vapor around Ceres [1]. As described in a companion presentation [2], we find that the estimated global flux of 6 kg/s can be produced by steady-state sublimation of subsurface ice driven by the “geothermal” temperature gradient for a heat flux of 1 mW/m2 - the value estimated for a chondritic abundance of heat-producing elements [3,4]. We will present a detailed description of our Ceres cryothermal diffusion model and comparisons with previous models. One key difference is the use of a new physics-based analytic model (‘MaxRTCM’) for calculating the thermal conductivity (Kth) of planetary regolith [5] that has been validated by comparisons to a wide range of laboratory data [6]. MaxRTCM predicts much lower Kth values in the upper regolith than those in previous work [3]. It also accounts for a process first modeled in a study of unstable equatorial ground ice on Mars [7,8], where vapor diffusing up from a receding ice table toward the surface can recondense at shallower depths - eventually forming a steady-state profile of pore ice volume fraction that increases with depth and maintains a constant flux of vapor at all depths [7]. Using MaxRTCM we calculate the corresponding Kth(z) profiles and will present predictions and implications of the resulting temperature profile in the upper few kilometers of Ceres’ megaregolith.References: [1] Küppers et al. (2014), Nature, 505(7484), 525-527. [2] Wood et al., 2014, this meeting. [3] Fanale & Salvail (1989) Icarus 82, 97-110. [4] McCord and Sotin (2005) JGR 110, E05009. [5] Wood (2013) LPSC Abs. 44, 3077. [6] Wood (2014), Icarus, in revision. [7] Mellon et al. (1997), JGR, 102, 19357-69. [8] Clifford (1993), JGR, 98, 10973-11016.

  3. Development of a 1 D hydrodynamic habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibious as basis for sustainable exploitation of hydroelectric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manful, D. Y.; Kaule, G.; Wieprecht, S.; Rees, J.; Hu, W.

    2009-12-01

    Hydroelectric Power (HEP) is proving to be a good alternative to carbon based energy. In the past hydropower especially large scale hydro attracted significant criticism as a result of its impact on the environment. A new breed of hydroelectric dam is in the offing. The aim is to have as little a footprint as possible on the environment in both pre and post construction phases and thus minimize impact on biodiversity whilst producing clean renewable energy. The Bui dam is 400 MW scheme currently under development on the Black Volta River in the Bui national park in Ghana. The reservoir created by the Bui barrage is expected to impact (through inundation) the habitat of two species of hippos know to exist in the park, the Hippopotamus amphibius and the Choeropsis liberiensis. Computer-based models present a unique opportunity to assess quantitatively the impact of the new reservoir on the habitat of the target species in this case the H. amphibious. Until this undertaking, there were very few studies documenting the habitat of the H. amphibious let alone model it. The work and subsequent presentation will show the development of a habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The Habitat Information retrieval Program based on Streamflow Analysis, in short HIPStrA, is a one dimensional (1D) in-stream, spatially explicit hybrid construct that combines physico-chemical evidence and expert knowledge to forecast river habitat suitability (Hs) for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The version of the model presented is specifically developed to assess the impact of a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam on potential dwelling areas in the Bui gorge for hippos. Accordingly, this version of HIPStrA simulates a special reservoir suitability index (Rsi), a metric that captures the”hippo friendliness” of any lake or reservoir. The impact of measured and simulated flood events as well as low flows, representing extreme events is also assessed. Recommendations are made for the operating rules of the reservoir in the post-construction phase of the dam. A great deal of work has been done on the effects of stream flow changes on fish especially salmonids. Very little work however has been done assessing the impact of hydropower schemes on aquatic mammals especially in Africa. HIPStrA is the first attempt at developing a computer-based habitat model for a large aquatic megaherbivore. The need for energy for development, the availability of large rivers and a rich biodiversity base in Africa makes a case for careful and ecological smart exploitation. The overarching aim of the study is the sustainable development of hydroelectric power through the use of methodologies and tools to rigorously assess changes in instream conditions that impact aquatic mammals.

  4. Mg line formation in late-type stellar atmospheres. II. Calculations in a grid of 1D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, Y.; Barklem, P. S.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Mg is the α element of choice for Galactic population and chemical evolution studies because it is easily detectable in all late-type stars. Such studies require precise elemental abundances, and thus departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) need to be accounted for. Aims: Our goal is to provide reliable departure coefficients and equivalent widths in non-LTE, and for reference in LTE, for diagnostic lines of Mg studied in late-type stars. These can be used, for example, to correct LTE spectra and abundances. Methods: Using the model atom built and tested in the preceding paper in this series, we performed non-LTE radiative transfer calculations in a grid of 3945 stellar 1D atmospheric models. We used a sub-grid of 86 models to explore the propagation of errors in the recent atomic collision calculations to the radiative transfer results. Results: We obtained departure coefficients for all the levels and equivalent widths (in LTE and non-LTE) for all the radiative transitions included in the "final" model atom presented in Paper I. Here we present and describe our results and show some examples of applications of the data. The errors that result from uncertainties in the collisional data are investigated and tabulated. The results for equivalent widths and departure coefficients are made freely available. Conclusions: Giants tend to have negative abundance corrections while dwarfs have positive, though small, corrections. Error analysis results show that uncertainties related to the atomic collision data are typically on the order of 0.01 dex or less, although for few stellar models in specific lines uncertainties can be as large as 0.03 dex. As these errors are less than or on the same order as typical corrections, we expect that we can use these results to extract Mg abundances from high-quality spectra more reliably than from classical LTE analysis. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A120 http://The same data is accessible via the INSPECT project http://inspect.coolstars19.com

  5. 1D-Var multilayer assimilation of X-band SAR data into a detailed snowpack model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, X. V.; Ferro-Famil, L.; Gay, M.; Durand, Y.; Dumont, M.; Morin, S.; Allain, S.; D'Urso, G.; Girard, A.

    2014-10-01

    The structure and physical properties of a snowpack and their temporal evolution may be simulated using meteorological data and a snow metamorphism model. Such an approach may meet limitations related to potential divergences and accumulated errors, to a limited spatial resolution, to wind or topography-induced local modulations of the physical properties of a snow cover, etc. Exogenous data are then required in order to constrain the simulator and improve its performance over time. Synthetic-aperture radars (SARs) and, in particular, recent sensors provide reflectivity maps of snow-covered environments with high temporal and spatial resolutions. The radiometric properties of a snowpack measured at sufficiently high carrier frequencies are known to be tightly related to some of its main physical parameters, like its depth, snow grain size and density. SAR acquisitions may then be used, together with an electromagnetic backscattering model (EBM) able to simulate the reflectivity of a snowpack from a set of physical descriptors, in order to constrain a physical snowpack model. In this study, we introduce a variational data assimilation scheme coupling TerraSAR-X radiometric data into the snowpack evolution model Crocus. The physical properties of a snowpack, such as snow density and optical diameter of each layer, are simulated by Crocus, fed by the local reanalysis of meteorological data (SAFRAN) at a French Alpine location. These snowpack properties are used as inputs of an EBM based on dense media radiative transfer (DMRT) theory, which simulates the total backscattering coefficient of a dry snow medium at X and higher frequency bands. After evaluating the sensitivity of the EBM to snowpack parameters, a 1D-Var data assimilation scheme is implemented in order to minimize the discrepancies between EBM simulations and observations obtained from TerraSAR-X acquisitions by modifying the physical parameters of the Crocus-simulated snowpack. The algorithm then re-initializes Crocus with the modified snowpack physical parameters, allowing it to continue the simulation of snowpack evolution, with adjustments based on remote sensing information. This method is evaluated using multi-temporal TerraSAR-X images acquired over the specific site of the Argentière glacier (Mont-Blanc massif, French Alps) to constrain the evolution of Crocus. Results indicate that X-band SAR data can be taken into account to modify the evolution of snowpack simulated by Crocus.

  6. Analytic solutions for seismic travel time and ray path geometry through simple velocity models.

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Sanford

    2007-12-01

    The geometry of ray paths through realistic Earth models can be extremely complex due to the vertical and lateral heterogeneity of the velocity distribution within the models. Calculation of high fidelity ray paths and travel times through these models generally involves sophisticated algorithms that require significant assumptions and approximations. To test such algorithms it is desirable to have available analytic solutions for the geometry and travel time of rays through simpler velocity distributions against which the more complex algorithms can be compared. Also, in situations where computational performance requirements prohibit implementation of full 3D algorithms, it may be necessary to accept the accuracy limitations of analytic solutions in order to compute solutions that satisfy those requirements. Analytic solutions are described for the geometry and travel time of infinite frequency rays through radially symmetric 1D Earth models characterized by an inner sphere where the velocity distribution is given by the function V (r) = A-Br{sup 2}, optionally surrounded by some number of spherical shells of constant velocity. The mathematical basis of the calculations is described, sample calculations are presented, and results are compared to the Taup Toolkit of Crotwell et al. (1999). These solutions are useful for evaluating the fidelity of sophisticated 3D travel time calculators and in situations where performance requirements preclude the use of more computationally intensive calculators. It should be noted that most of the solutions presented are only quasi-analytic. Exact, closed form equations are derived but computation of solutions to specific problems generally require application of numerical integration or root finding techniques, which, while approximations, can be calculated to very high accuracy. Tolerances are set in the numerical algorithms such that computed travel time accuracies are better than 1 microsecond.

  7. A Comparison of Different-Mode Fields Generated from Grounded-Wire Source Based on the 1D Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Nan-Nan; Xue, Guo-qiang; Li, Hai; Younis, M.; Hou, Dong-yang; Zhong, Hua-sen; Chen, Wei-ying; Cui, Jiang-wei

    2016-02-01

    Traditional TEM study mainly focuses on the generation and application of the TE field using a loop or grounded-wire source; but in recent decades, lots of efforts have been made for implementation of the TM field and even the integration of the TE field with the TM one into anomaly detection in the subsurface. However, no applicable principles have been proposed for selecting the optimal electromagnetic field for various subsurface targets. The transient electromagnetic (TEM) fields generated from grounded-wire source consist of the TE-mode response (current-carrying wire), the TE-TM mode response (grounding ends) and the combined TEM-mode response (current-carrying wire and grounding ends). This study performs a comparison of TE/TE-TM/TEM fields by generating them from grounded-wire source and testing their distribution characteristics, detection depth, and sensitivity to anomalies, using both synthetic 1D model and two field surveys in China. The comparisons demonstrate that, the detection depth of the TE-TM field is smaller than those of both the TE and combined TEM fields. Meanwhile, for electric field, the TE-TM response provides a better detection than the TEM one, but with an uneven distribution. Therefore, the TE-TM electric field requires well-designed arrangements of receiving positions when applied to real projects. For the magnetic field, the TEM response has the best detection capability compared to the TE and TE-TM ones, but is least sensitive to layer thickness and resistivity, especially for an embedded layer with low resistivity.

  8. Floodplain mapping via 1D and quasi-2D numerical models in the valley of Thessaly, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, Athanasios; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koukouvinos, Antonis; Tegos, Aristoteles; Pagana, Vasiliki; Panagopoulos, Panayiotis-Dionisios; Mamassis, Nikolaos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2013-04-01

    The European Union Floods Directive defines a flood as 'a covering by water of land not normally covered by water'. Human activities, such as agriculture, urban development, industry and tourism, contribute to an increase in the likelihood and adverse impacts of flood events. The study of the hydraulic behaviour of a river is important in flood risk management. Here, we investigate the behaviour of three hydraulic models, with different theoretical frameworks, in a real case scenario. The area is located in the Penios river basin, in the plain of Thessaly (Greece). The three models used are the one-dimensional HEC-RAS and the quasi two-dimensional LISFLOOD-FP and FLO-2D which are compared to each other, in terms of simulated maximum water depth as well as maximum flow velocity, and to a real flood event. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is performed to determine how each simulation is affected by the river and floodplain roughness coefficient, in terms of flood inundation.

  9. Estimation of macro velocity models by wave field extrapolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Hendricus Lambertus Hubertus

    A method to estimate accurate macro velocity models for prediction of traveltimes of seismic waves in the earth's subsurface is developed. The sensitivity of prestack migration is used to estimate the model and since model errors are expressed in the quality of the migration result, the migration process itself can be used to determine these errors. Using an initial model, shot records are downward extrapolated to grid points (depth points) in the subsurface. The extrapolated data can be reordered into so called common depth point (CDP) gathers, image gathers and focus panels. The deviation from horizontal alignment is used to quantify the errors in the model and to apply update corrections accordingly. The analysis can be done before or after stacking over all shot records (CDP stacking). the previously mentioned focus panels are generated by CDP stacking. The alignment analysis reduces then to a simple focusing analysis. The examples discussed show that horizontal alignment gives accurate macro velocity models for prestack depth migration. Focus panels can be difficult to interpret in complicated situations, where it is impossible to converge to the correct solution with focus panels only. The process should be guided by macrogeologic models of the area. In complicated situations, a layer stripping strategy is preferred.

  10. The USGS 3D Seismic Velocity Model for Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocher, T. M.; Aagaard, B.; Simpson, R. W.; Jachens, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    We present a new regional 3D seismic velocity model for Northern California for use in strong motion simulations of the 1906 San Francisco and other earthquakes. The model includes compressional-wave velocity (Vp), shear-wave velocity (Vs), density, and intrinsic attenuation (Qp, Qs). These properties were assigned for each rock type in a 3D geologic model derived from surface outcrops, boreholes, gravity and magnetic data, and seismic reflection, refraction, and tomography studies. A detailed description of the model, USGS Bay Area Velocity Model 05.1.0, is available online [http://www.sf06simulation.org/geology/velocitymodel]. For ground motion simulations Vs and Qs are more important parameters than Vp and Qp because the strongest ground motions are generated chiefly by shear and surface wave arrivals. Because Vp data are more common than Vs data, however, we first developed Vp versus depth relations for each rock type and then converted these to Vs versus depth relations. For the most important rock types in Northern California we compiled measurements of Vp versus depth using borehole logs, laboratory measurements on hand samples, seismic refraction profiles, and tomography models. These rock types include Salinian and Sierran granitic rocks, metagraywackes and greenstones of the Franciscan Complex, Tertiary and Mesozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and Quaternary and Holocene deposits (Brocher, USGS OFR 05-1317, 2005). Vp versus depth curves were converted to Vs versus depth curves using new empirical nonlinear relations between Vs and Vp (Brocher, BSSA, 2005). These relations, showing that Poisson's ratio is a nonlinear function of Vp, were similarly based on compilations of diverse Vs and Vp measurements on a large suite of rock types, mainly from California and the Pacific Northwest. The model is distributed in a discretized form with routines to query the model using C++, C, and Fortran 77 programming languages. The geologic model was discretized at higher resolution near the surface (100m horizontal and 25m vertical) compared with depth (800m horizontal and 200m vertical). The model contains material properties at nearly 190 million locations and is stored as an Etree database (Tu et al., 2003). The query routines provide a simple interface to the database, returning the material properties for a given latitude, longitude, and elevation or depth.

  11. A 1-D model evaluation of OH regeneration mechanisms from isoprene oxidation for use in global models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalakis, Nikos; Krol, Maarten; Kanakidou, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Hydroxyl radical (OH) is one of the main oxidants in the troposphere. It drives photochemistry and thus cleaning the troposphere from ubiquitous reactive compounds that impact on the environment and the ecosystems. Due to the high reactivity of OH, both its atmospheric measurements and the simulations of its concentrations remain challenging. Recent measurements have shown significant mismatch with atmospheric simulations based on current knowledge of organic atmospheric chemistry. New degradations pathways in the oxidation chemistry of isoprene, initiated by OH radical, have been proposed based on chamber experiments and theoretical calculations. These pathways regenerate OH and are actually missing from global chemistry and transport models (CTMs) that show an underestimation of OH when compared to the limited number of observations. In this study we use the 1-dimensional model Wageningen University Single Column Model (WUSCM) to investigate, evaluate and reduce for use in global CTMs, isoprene oxidation pathways that are leading to OH regeneration and were recently proposed in literature applied on the PEGASOS 2012 campaign over Cabauw, Netherlands. The WUSCM simulates boundary layer meteorology (radiation, land-atmosphere interaction and mixing) and can support different chemistry schemes coupled with the KPP solver. The chemistry scheme used in the TM4-ECPL global model chemical scheme is the basis for the development and testing of the new pathways of isoprene chemistry.

  12. Sleipner CCS site: velocity and attenuation model from seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, G.; Chadwick, R. A.; Williams, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The results of the travel-time and frequency shift tomographic inversion of the seismic data from one of the high-resolution lines acquired in 2006 on the Sleipner CO2 geological storage site are here presented. The work has been performed within the European project CO2ReMoVe, to produce an accurate model in-depth, of both seismic velocities and attenuation, to constrain better the quantification studies of the project's partners. Tomographic techniques have the advantage of not assuming horizontal layering or uniform lateral velocities, and of enabling an easy comparison of models, even if resulting from seismic data acquired with different geometries, unavoidable in a time-lapse data set. Through an iterative process, the differences in travel-times between observed direct, reflected or refracted arrivals and the same, calculated on a discrete model, with a ray-tracing based on the Fermat's principle, are minimized. Other minimization procedures provide the reflector/refractor geometries in -depth. Analogously, in attenuation tomography, the minimization process takes into account the observed and calculated spectral-centroid frequency-shift, due to the loss of the highest frequency of the seismic wave, while crossing an attenuating medium. The result is a seismic quality factor (Q) model in-depth, and hence of the attenuation that is known to be more sensitive to subtle changes in physical properties than seismic velocity. The model is across the center of the CO2 plume, on the in-line 1838, and is constituted by nine layers, four resulting by a preliminary analysis of the pre-injection 1994 data set, i.e. seabed, a strong reflection in the overburden and the top and bottom of the Utsira Sand, plus additional five horizons, four of which within Utsira Sands, and one just above the top of it. The layers within the reservoir are very close to each other and in some cases they merge together laterally. The accumulation of CO2 in the uppermost layer of the reservoir, observed by other analyses, is confirmed by our analysis, whereas within the plume, lateral variations of both seismic velocity and Q values are observed. The presence of fine shale lenses, and their impact on the CO2 distribution within the plume may be the reason for these lateral variations. The seismic velocity and Q tomographic values have been compared with the theoretical curves from petrophysics studies, so to give to the results an interpretation in terms of effective variations in CO2 saturation and heterogeneity within the plume.

  13. Constitutive model for flake graphite cast iron automotive brake discs: from macroscopic multiscale models to a 1D rheological description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustins, L.; Billardon, R.; Hild, F.

    2015-06-01

    One of the critical points of the thermomechanical fatigue design process is the correct description of the cyclic behavior of the material. This work focuses on the material of automotive brake discs, namely flake graphite cast iron. The specificity of this material is its asymmetric behavior under tensile and compressive loadings, which is due to the shape of graphite that acts as small cracks. Multiscale models inspired from the literature are first presented. They lead to a good description of the material behavior under cyclic loadings. An elastoviscoplastic constitutive model is then proposed in a one-dimensional setting in order to accurately describe cyclic tests from room temperature up to 600° C.

  14. Model-Based Least Squares Reconstruction of Coded Source Neutron Radiographs: Integrating the ORNL HFIR CG1D Source Model

    SciTech Connect

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Gregor, Jens; Bingham, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    At the present, neutron sources cannot be fabricated small and powerful enough in order to achieve high resolution radiography while maintaining an adequate flux. One solution is to employ computational imaging techniques such as a Magnified Coded Source Imaging (CSI) system. A coded-mask is placed between the neutron source and the object. The system resolution is increased by reducing the size of the mask holes and the flux is increased by increasing the size of the coded-mask and/or the number of holes. One limitation of such system is that the resolution of current state-of-the-art scintillator-based detectors caps around 50um. To overcome this challenge, the coded-mask and object are magnified by making the distance from the coded-mask to the object much smaller than the distance from object to detector. In previous work, we have shown via synthetic experiments that our least squares method outperforms other methods in image quality and reconstruction precision because of the modeling of the CSI system components. However, the validation experiments were limited to simplistic neutron sources. In this work, we aim to model the flux distribution of a real neutron source and incorporate such a model in our least squares computational system. We provide a full description of the methodology used to characterize the neutron source and validate the method with synthetic experiments.

  15. Seismic velocity modelling of the Carboneras Fault Zone, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. L.; Rutter, E. H.; Nippress, S. E. J.; Brodie, K. H.

    2015-04-01

    The Carboneras fault zone forms part of a major strike-slip fault system in SE Spain, striking NE-SW, and accommodating up to 40 km displacement. It affects basement metamorphic rocks and unconformably overlying upper Miocene sediments and volcanic rocks. High-resolution shallow seismic tomographic sections were made across the fault zone in two localities. From the same areas, fault rocks and their wallrocks were collected for laboratory seismic velocity measurements. The laboratory data were corrected for the substantial effects of near-surface crack damage. By combining these results with geological cross sections, forward velocity models for the fault zone were constructed to compare with field seismic measurements and hence to 'ground-truth' the inferences made from them. These velocity/depth relationships matched moderately well with those extracted from the in-situ tomography results. Aspects of the in-situ seismic sections matched features on the forward-modelled sections, but the comparisons showed that it is important to have some degree of foreknowledge of the geology to be able successfully to interpret seismic tomography sections as an exploration tool.

  16. Pose Estimation using 1D Fourier Transform and Euclidean Distance Matching of CAD Model and Inspected Model Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkoffli, Zuliani; Abu Bakar, Elmi

    2016-02-01

    This paper present pose estimation relation of CAD model object and Projection Real Object (PRI). Image sequence of PRI and CAD model rotate on z axis at 10 degree interval in simulation and real scene used in this experiment. All this image is go through preprocessing stage to rescale object size and image size and transform all the image into silhouette. Correlation of CAD and PRI image is going through in this stage. Magnitude spectrum shows a reliable value in range 0.99 to 1.00 and Phase spectrum correlation shows a fluctuate graph in range 0.56 - 0.97. Euclidean distance correlation graph for CAD and PRI shows 2 zone of similar value due to almost symmetrical object shape. Processing stage of retrieval inspected PRI image in CAD database was carried out using range phase spectrum and maximum magnitude spectrum value within ±10% tolerance. Additional processing stage of retrieval inspected PRI image using Euclidean distance within ±5% tolerance also carried out. Euclidean matching shows a reliable result compared to range phase spectrum and maximum magnitude spectrum value by sacrificing more than 5 times processing time.

  17. Proxy interpretation of coral-recorded seawater ?18O using 1-D model forced by isotope-incorporated GCM in tropical oceanic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Kojima, Keitaro; Yoshimura, Kei; Oka, Akira

    2014-11-01

    The oxygen isotopic ratio in the seawater (?18Osw) recorded in ?18O of coral skeleton for several centuries in tropical regions is an important variable for reconstructing the past climate. However, the relationship between ?18Osw and hydrological balance has not been clearly uncovered yet. In this study, a one-dimensional ocean budget model forced by the global quasi-reanalysis isotope data, which is the output of an isotope-incorporated global spectral model, is employed to simulate ?18Osw. The results from the simulations are compared with 31 coral records in tropical oceanic regions. The 1-D model successfully reproduces ?18Osw in 21 coral records, indicating these corals have the potential to reconstruct the local hydrological budget. The results also confirm that the reproducibility of the 1-D model generally increases with the annual precipitation variability. However, in the regions where the precipitation variability is less, it is more difficult to reconstruct climatic information from the ?18Osw, since the nonlocal physical processes unaccounted for in the 1-D model may affect ?18Osw. The sensitivity analysis of the 1-D model shows that in tropical oceanic regions, the large-scale precipitation is the dominant factor for ?18Osw, confirming that ?18Osw recorded in the coral records is a proxy for the precipitation anomaly. This study implies that ?18Osw is more closely associated with precipitation and local water isotope budget in tropical oceanic regions than elsewhere, and that the 1-D model is a useful approach for the proxy interpretation in tropical oceanic regions.

  18. Mapping fractures using 1D anisotropic modelling of magnetotelluric data: a case study from the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, A.; Heinson, G.; Holford, S.; Thiel, S.

    2015-06-01

    We present 1D anisotropic inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) data as a potential tool for mapping structural permeability in sedimentary basins. Using 1D inversions of a 171 site, broadband MT data set from the Koroit region of the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia, we have delineated an electrically anisotropic layer at approximately 2.5 to 3.5 km depth. The anisotropy strike is consistent between stations at approximately 160° east of north. The depth of anisotropy corresponds to the top depth of the Lower Cretaceous Crayfish Group, and the anisotropy factor increases from west to east. We interpret the anisotropy as resulting from north-northwest oriented, fluid-filled fractures resulting in enhanced electrical and hydraulic conductivity. This interpretation is consistent with permeability data from well formation tests. It is also consistent with the orientation of mapped faults in the area, which are optimally oriented for reactivation in the current stress field.

  19. The Flank of La Sila (calabria, Southern Italy) : Geomorphic Expression of Local Footwall Flexure: A 1-d Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molin, P.; Pazzaglia, F. J.; Dramis, F.

    In active tectonic regions, topography is the result of the interactions of tectonics that deform and move rocks and surface processes that erode rocks. So first-order topo- graphic features including relief, drainage patterns, and stream gradient slope repre- sent ways to quantitatively characterize the interaction between tectonics and geomor- phology, providing a basis for modelling landscape evolution. We characterize tectonic processes through geomorphic investigations in the Sila Massif (Calabria, Italy). Here the Apennines are a narrow and rugged chain, composed of relatively uniform rock- type (crystalline Paleozoic plutonic and metamorphic rocks), that appears to have been affected by extensional tectonics since the early Pliocene and that were rapidly raised above sea level in the Pleistocene. Our study examines the tectonic geomorphology of the northern portion of the Sila Massif focusing on the general topographic met- rics, drainage patterns, and river longitudinal profiles. Our goal is to develop a general picture of the influence of extensional tectonics in the landscape evolution of the Sila Massif in the context of the recent and rapid uplift (0.6-1 mm/yr in the last 700.000 yrs) of the entire Italian peninsula. Our main data base is composed of map and DEM- based topographic analyses, supplemented with field investigations. These data are consistent with a landscape dominated by intra-chain extensional tectonics including block tilting and footwall flexure, superimposed on a regional rock and surface uplift. In particular the flexure of the extensional fault that surround the Sila Massif could have generated the bowl-shape plateau presently located on the Sila top. We develop a simple, flexural,1-D geodynamic model (Turcott and Schubert, 1982) to explain the uplift of the Sila Massif flank. The topographic imprint of the long-wavelength Qua- ternary uplift of the massif is removed by filtering the topography with a low pass filter. The flexural analysis is then performed on the residual topography which nor- malizes the elevation of the plateau flank to sea level. The model generates a plate elastic thickness between 3500-4000 m. This value is consistent with the ones found in the Basin and Range and in Tibet (Masek et al., 1994), confirming a possible flexu- ral isostatic origin of the Sila plateau rim. The uplifted plateau flank fixes the drainage divide and hinders the drainages from integrating into the plateau interior and fully dissecting the rolling upland surface. As a result, the clear geomorphic expression of active normal faulting is well evident around Sila, but is masked within the massif it- 1 self allowing the general perception that it is a vertically uplifted plateau. Furthermore, the marine terrace data on the Ionian coast that suggest an uplift rate of 0.6 mm/yr in the last 350.000 years confirm the broad uplift of the area. These results support the notion of a old landscape less rugged than the modern one that is coincident with a slow uplift related to syn- and late-orogenic exhumation, the eastward migration of the arc, and roll-back in the subducting slab. This old landscape have been preserved by the footwall flexure of the extensional faults surrounding the Sila Massif and uplifted in the Pleistocene as the wavelength of deformation broadened. References Masek J.G., Isacks B.L., and Fielding E.J. (1994) U Rift flank uplift in Tibet: evidence for a viscous lower crust, Tectonics, 13, 659-667. Turcotte D. L. and Schubert G. (1982) U Geodynamics U Applications of continuum physics to ge- ological problems, John Wiley and Sons, pp.450 2

  20. Predicting abnormal pressure from 2-D seismic velocity modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Grauls, D.; Dunand, J.P.; Beaufort, D.

    1995-12-01

    Seismic velocities are the only data available, before drilling, on which to base a quantitative, present-day estimate of abnormal pressure. Recent advances in seismic velocity processing have enabled them to obtain, using an in-house approach, an optimized 2-D interval velocity field and consequently to better define the lateral extension of pressure regimes. The methodology, interpretation and quantification of overpressure-related anomalies are supported by case studies, selected in sand-shale dominated Tertiary basins, offshore West Africa. Another advantage of this approach is that it can also account for the presence of reservoir-potential intervals at great depth and thus provide significant insight, from a prospective standpoint, into very poorly explored areas. Although at the outset the 2-D seismic tool legitimately merits being favored, optimization of the final predictive pressure model, prior to drilling, will depend upon the success of its combined use with other concepts and approaches, pertaining to structural geology, sedimentology, rock mechanics and fluid dynamics.

  1. A New Regional 3-D Velocity Model of the India-Pakistan Region for Improved Event Location Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, D.; Vincent, C.; Johnson, M.

    2001-05-01

    A 3-D velocity model for the crust and upper mantle (WINPAK3D) has been developed to improve regional event location in the India-Pakistan region. Results of extensive testing demonstrate that the model improves location accuracy for this region, specifically for the case of small regionally recorded events, for which teleseismic data may not be available. The model was developed by integrating the results of more than sixty previous studies related to crustal velocity structure in the region. We evaluated the validity of the 3-D model using the following methods: (1) cross validation analysis for a variety of events, (2) comparison of model determined hypocenters with known event location, and (3) comparison of model-derived and empirically-derived source-specific station corrections (SSSC) generated for the International Monitoring System (IMS) auxiliary seismic station located at Nilore. The 3-D model provides significant improvement in regional location compared to both global and regional 1-D models in this area of complex structural variability. For example, the epicenter mislocation for an event with a well known location was only 6.4 km using the 3-D model, compared with a mislocation of 13.0 km using an average regional 1-D model and 15.1 km for the IASPEI91 model. We will present these and other results to demonstrate that 3-D velocity models are essential to improving event location accuracy in regions with complicated crustal geology and structures. Such 3-D models will be a prerequisite for achieving improved location accuracies for regions of high monitoring interest.

  2. Modeling the exit velocity of a compressed air cannon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrbach, Z. J.; Buresh, T. R.; Madsen, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of compressed air cannons in an undergraduate laboratory provides a way to illustrate the connection between diverse physics concepts, such as conservation of momentum, the work-kinetic energy theorem, gas expansion, air drag, and elementary Newtonian mechanics. However, it is not clear whether the expansion of the gas in the cannon is an adiabatic or an isothermal process. We built an air cannon that utilizes a diaphragm valve to release the pressurized gas and found that neither process accurately predicts the exit velocity of our projectile. We discuss a model based on the flow of air through the valve, which is in much better agreement with our data.

  3. A model for ductile metal friction at high velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerberg, J. E.; Ravelo, R. J.; Germann, T. C.

    We describe a meso-macro scale model for the frictional force at ductile metal interfaces for high velocities and large compressions. The model incorporates the micro-mesoscopic growth and refinement of material microstructure in a highly strained region at the sliding interface and incorporates both rate dependent plasticity and thermal conduction. The model compares favorably with recent large scale (1.8 billion atom) simulations to 50 ns of 3-dimensional polycrystalline 13-50 nm grain size Al-Al interfaces at pressures of 15 GPa using the SPaSM NonEquilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) simulation code. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. The support of the LANL ASC-PEM program is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Three dimensional Rayleigh wave velocity model using multimode surface wave tomography of Eastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, S.; Yuan, X.; Debayle, E.; Priestley, K. F.; Kind, R.; Li, X.

    2010-12-01

    The collision of the Eurasian plate, Indian plate and Philippine sea plate resulted in the tectonic feature of todays; like mountain ranges, fold belts, sedimentary basins and high plateaus in China and the surrounding region. In the Northern part this region is supposed to get some resistance from the Siberian shield. But the collision of Indian plate has left its major imprints and the consequence of this was the uplift of Himalayan Mountain and Tibetan Plateau. This triple junction scenario is the main cause for many inter and intra-plate earthquake in this region. It is generally agreed that the lithosphere is thick in west China while much of the lithospheric root was lost beneath some cratons in east China. Still it's an open debate whether the lithosphere beneath the Tibetan plateau has doubled its thickness as did the crust above or much of the thickened lithosphere was removed by mantle convection and delamination. In our study we try to determine the three dimensional Sv wave speed and azimuthal anisotropy model by analyzing the vertical component multimode Rayleigh wave seismogram. The data which we used are from broadband stations from in and around China. We construct the three dimensional model in two step procedure. In the first step we use the automated version of the Cara and Leveque [1987] waveform inversion technique in terms of secondary observables for modeling each multimode Rayleigh waveform to determine the path-average mantle Sv wave speed structure. In the second stage we combine the 1-D velocity models in a tomographic inversion to obtain the three dimensional Sv wave speed structure and the azimuthal anisotropy as a function of depth. We have taken a source region specific velocity structure from the three dimensional model 3SMAC to improve the source excitation computation. We analyzed the seismograms using a modified (smoothed) version of PREM for the upper mantle velocity structure both for the reference model used in extracting the modal information from the seismogram and for the starting inversion and a priori velocity models employed in determining the path-average mantle structure. However, each path has a path-specific crustal model determined by averaging the crustal part of 3SMAC along the path.

  5. Traveling waves in an optimal velocity model of freeway traffic.

    PubMed

    Berg, P; Woods, A

    2001-03-01

    Car-following models provide both a tool to describe traffic flow and algorithms for autonomous cruise control systems. Recently developed optimal velocity models contain a relaxation term that assigns a desirable speed to each headway and a response time over which drivers adjust to optimal velocity conditions. These models predict traffic breakdown phenomena analogous to real traffic instabilities. In order to deepen our understanding of these models, in this paper, we examine the transition from a linear stable stream of cars of one headway into a linear stable stream of a second headway. Numerical results of the governing equations identify a range of transition phenomena, including monotonic and oscillating travelling waves and a time- dependent dispersive adjustment wave. However, for certain conditions, we find that the adjustment takes the form of a nonlinear traveling wave from the upstream headway to a third, intermediate headway, followed by either another traveling wave or a dispersive wave further downstream matching the downstream headway. This intermediate value of the headway is selected such that the nonlinear traveling wave is the fastest stable traveling wave which is observed to develop in the numerical calculations. The development of these nonlinear waves, connecting linear stable flows of two different headways, is somewhat reminiscent of stop-start waves in congested flow on freeways. The different types of adjustments are classified in a phase diagram depending on the upstream and downstream headway and the response time of the model. The results have profound consequences for autonomous cruise control systems. For an autocade of both identical and different vehicles, the control system itself may trigger formations of nonlinear, steep wave transitions. Further information is available [Y. Sugiyama, Traffic and Granular Flow (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), p. 137]. PMID:11308709

  6. Traveling waves in an optimal velocity model of freeway traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Peter; Woods, Andrew

    2001-03-01

    Car-following models provide both a tool to describe traffic flow and algorithms for autonomous cruise control systems. Recently developed optimal velocity models contain a relaxation term that assigns a desirable speed to each headway and a response time over which drivers adjust to optimal velocity conditions. These models predict traffic breakdown phenomena analogous to real traffic instabilities. In order to deepen our understanding of these models, in this paper, we examine the transition from a linear stable stream of cars of one headway into a linear stable stream of a second headway. Numerical results of the governing equations identify a range of transition phenomena, including monotonic and oscillating travelling waves and a time- dependent dispersive adjustment wave. However, for certain conditions, we find that the adjustment takes the form of a nonlinear traveling wave from the upstream headway to a third, intermediate headway, followed by either another traveling wave or a dispersive wave further downstream matching the downstream headway. This intermediate value of the headway is selected such that the nonlinear traveling wave is the fastest stable traveling wave which is observed to develop in the numerical calculations. The development of these nonlinear waves, connecting linear stable flows of two different headways, is somewhat reminiscent of stop-start waves in congested flow on freeways. The different types of adjustments are classified in a phase diagram depending on the upstream and downstream headway and the response time of the model. The results have profound consequences for autonomous cruise control systems. For an autocade of both identical and different vehicles, the control system itself may trigger formations of nonlinear, steep wave transitions. Further information is available [Y. Sugiyama, Traffic and Granular Flow (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), p. 137].

  7. Velocity response curves demonstrate the complexity of modeling entrainable clocks.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Stephanie R; Cheever, Allyson; Harmon, Sarah M

    2014-12-21

    Circadian clocks are biological oscillators that regulate daily behaviors in organisms across the kingdoms of life. Their rhythms are generated by complex systems, generally involving interlocked regulatory feedback loops. These rhythms are entrained by the daily light/dark cycle, ensuring that the internal clock time is coordinated with the environment. Mathematical models play an important role in understanding how the components work together to function as a clock which can be entrained by light. For a clock to entrain, it must be possible for it to be sped up or slowed down at appropriate times. To understand how biophysical processes affect the speed of the clock, one can compute velocity response curves (VRCs). Here, in a case study involving the fruit fly clock, we demonstrate that VRC analysis provides insight into a clock׳s response to light. We also show that biochemical mechanisms and parameters together determine a model׳s ability to respond realistically to light. The implication is that, if one is developing a model and its current form has an unrealistic response to light, then one must reexamine one׳s model structure, because searching for better parameter values is unlikely to lead to a realistic response to light. PMID:25193284

  8. Analytical model of solutions of (2+1)-D heat convection equations in a shape memory alloy device immersed in a blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher Abourabia, Aly; Hassan, Kawsar Mohammad; Abo-Elghar, Eman Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    We investigate a bio-system composed of a shape memory alloy (SMA) immersed and subjected to heat convection in a blood vessel, affected by heart beats that create a wave motion of long wavelength. The tackled model in (2+1)-D is based on the continuity and momentum equations for the fluid phase, besides; the state of the SMA are described via previous works in the form of statistical distributions of energy for both Martensite and Austenite phases. The solution based on the reductive perturbation technique gives a thermal diffusion-like equation as a key for expressing the temperature and velocity components of the blood. In terms of two cases concerning the difference between the wave numbers in the perpendicular directions, it is found that the system's temperature increases nonlinearly from a minimum initial temperature 293 K (20 °C) up to a maximum value about 316.68 K (43.68 °C), then tends to decrease along the blood flow (anisotropy of K and L) direction. In both cases it is observed that the SMA acquires most of this temperature raising not the blood because of its conventional biological limits (37-40 °C). The range of the heart beats wave numbers characteristic for each person plays an important role in realizing phase changes in the anisotropic case leading to the formation of the hysteresis loops Martensite-Austenite-Martensite or vice versa, according to the energy variation. The entropy generation σ is investigated for the system (Blood + SMA), it predicts that along the flow direction the system gains energy convectively up to a maximum value, then reverses his tendency to gradually loosing energy passing by the equilibrium state, then the system looses energy to the surroundings by the same amount which was gained beforehand. The loss diminishes but stops before arriving to equilibrium again. For certain differences in wave numbers the system starts to store energy again after it passes by the state of equilibrium for the second time. In the curves of σ the common points of intersections can be looked for as the positions where the phase changes take place. It is observed that the effect of heat transfer is dominated over the viscous dissipation substantially; this is illustrated by the irreversibility distribution ratio ϕ and the Bejan number. On the other hand this is assured by the smallness of the ratio between the initial effect of shear viscosity to the initial thermal effect in the alloy (Γ ≈ 10-8). Furthermore, this allows the SMA to reveal the properties of phase change in order, for instance, to prevent the passage of large clots from reaching the lungs.

  9. Ultralow-velocity zone geometries resolved by multi-dimensional waveform modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanacore, E. A.; Rost, S.; Thorne, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    Ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs) are thin patches of material with strongly reduced seismic wave speeds situated on top of the core-mantle boundary (CMB). A common phase used to detect ULVZs is SPdKS (SKPdS), an SKS wave with a short diffracted P leg along the CMB. Most previous efforts have examined ULVZ properties using 1D waveform modeling approaches. We present waveform modeling results using the 2.5D finite difference algorithm PSVaxi allowing us better insight into ULVZ structure and location. We characterize ULVZ waveforms based on ULVZ elastic properties, shape, and position along the SPdKS raypath. In particular, we vary the ULVZ location (e.g. source or receiver side), ULVZ topographical profiles (e.g. boxcar, trapezoidal, or Gaussian) and ULVZ lateral scale along great circle path (2.5º, 5º, 10º). We observe several waveform effects absent in 1D ULVZ models and show evidence for waveform effects allowing the differentiation between source and receiver side ULVZs. Early inception of the SPdKS/SKPdS phase is difficult to detect for receiver-side ULVZs with maximum shifts in SKPdS initiation of ˜3º in epicentral distance, whereas source-side ULVZs produce maximum shifts of SPdKS initiation of ˜5º, allowing clear separation of source- versus receiver-side structure. We present a case study using data from up to 300 broadband stations in Turkey recorded between 2005 and 2010. We observe a previously undetected ULVZ in the southern Atlantic Ocean region centered near 45º S, 12.5ºW, with a lateral scale of ˜3°, VP reduction of 10%, VS reduction of 30%, and density increase of 10% relative to PREM.

  10. Unsteady velocity measurements in a realistic intracranial aneurysm model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugron, Ádám; Farinas, Marie-Isabelle; Kiss, László; Paál, György

    2012-01-01

    The initiation, growth and rupture of intracranial aneurysms are intensively studied by computational fluid dynamics. To gain confidence in the results of numerical simulations, validation of the results is necessary. To this end the unsteady flow was measured in a silicone phantom of a realistic intracranial aneurysm. A flow circuit was built with a novel unsteady flow rate generating method, used to model the idealised shape of the heartbeat. This allowed the measurement of the complex three-dimensional velocity distribution by means of laser-optical methods such as laser doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV measurements, available with high temporal and spatial distribution, were found to have good agreement with the control LDA measurements. Furthermore, excellent agreement was found with the numerical results.

  11. Near-infrared spectro-interferometry of Mira variables and comparisons to 1D dynamic model atmospheres and 3D convection simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittkowski, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Freytag, B.; Scholz, M.; Höfner, S.; Karovicova, I.; Whitelock, P. A.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: We aim at comparing spectro-interferometric observations of Mira variable asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with the latest 1D dynamic model atmospheres based on self-excited pulsation models (CODEX models) and with 3D dynamic model atmospheres including pulsation and convection (CO5BOLD models) to better understand the processes that extend the molecular atmosphere to radii where dust can form. Methods: We obtained a total of 20 near-infrared K-band spectro-interferometric snapshot observations of the Mira variables o Cet, R Leo, R Aqr, X Hya, W Vel, and R Cnc with a spectral resolution of about 1500. We compared observed flux and visibility spectra with predictions by CODEX 1D dynamic model atmospheres and with azimuthally averaged intensities based on CO5BOLD 3D dynamic model atmospheres. Results: Our visibility data confirm the presence of spatially extended molecular atmospheres located above the continuum radii with large-scale inhomogeneities or clumps that contribute a few percent of the total flux. The detailed structure of the inhomogeneities or clumps show a variability on time scales of 3 months and above. Both modeling attempts provided satisfactory fits to our data. In particular, they are both consistent with the observed decrease in the visibility function at molecular bands of water vapor and CO, indicating a spatially extended molecular atmosphere. Observational variability phases are mostly consistent with those of the best-fit CODEX models, except for near-maximum phases, where data are better described by near-minimum models. Rosseland angular diameters derived from the model fits are broadly consistent between those based on the 1D and the 3D models and with earlier observations. We derived fundamental parameters including absolute radii, effective temperatures, and luminosities for our sources. Conclusions: Our results provide a first observational support for theoretical results that shocks induced by convection and pulsation in the 3D CO5BOLD models of AGB stars are roughly spherically expanding and of similar nature to those of self-excited pulsations in 1D CODEX models. Unlike for red supergiants, the pulsation- and shock-induced dynamics can levitate the molecular atmospheres of Mira variables to extensions that are consistent with observations. Based on observations made with the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) at Paranal Observatory under program IDs 082.D-0723, 084.D-0839, 088.D-0160, 090.D-0817, and 091.D-0765.

  12. A parameterized numerical fit to total column ozone changes calculated by the LLNL 1-D model of the troposphere and stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, P.S.

    1986-11-01

    Economic analysis of the costs and benefits of regulation of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions with respect to changes in the total atmospheric ozone column abundance depends on the availability of an accurate means to predict future ozone changes as a function of CFC emissions and trends in other atmospheric species. Over about the last decade, these predictive calculations have been made chiefly with one-dimensional numerical models of the stratosphere. Although these models, run time-dependently, are substantially more computationally efficient than the more desirable multi-dimensional models, they remain expensive from the viewpoint of the requirements of cost/benefit analysis. In this note we present a numerical parameterization of the results of the LLNL one-dimensional model for total column ozone change in terms of surface emissions or abundances of the various source species. Previous versions of the LLNL model have been used in earlier studies to evaluate time-dependent scenarios of future trends in the emissions or atmospheric abundances of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-22, CFC-113, CCl/sub 4/, CH/sub 3/CCl/sub 3/, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, N/sub 2/O, Halon-1301 and Halon-1211. The numerical fit reported here produces calculated ozone changes within about 2% (column ozone change relative to the 1985 model atmosphere) of the current LLNL 1-D model results, for a range of scenarios and ozone changes. It therefore can approximately represent the actual 1-D model for the purposes of economic analysis of regulatory strategies. It is, however, crucial to note that the 1-D model results, and consequently this parameterization, are subject to substantial uncertainties. Future improvements in our knowledge of atmospheric photochemical kinetics and transport in the troposphere and stratosphere should be expected to modify these current results in unpredictable directions.

  13. A parameterized numerical fit to total column ozone changes calculated by the LLNL 1-D model of the troposphere and stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, P. S.

    1986-11-01

    Economic analysis of the costs and benefits of regulation of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions with respect to changes in the total atmospheric ozone column abundance depends on the availability of an accurate means to predict future ozone changes as a function of CFC emissions and trends in other atmospheric species. For the past decade, these predictive calculations have been made chiefly with one-dimensional numerical models of the stratosphere. Although these models, run time-dependently, are substantially more computationally efficient than the more desirable multi-dimensional models, they remain expensive from the viewpoint of the requirements of cost/benefit analysis. Therefore, a numerical parameterization is presented of the results of the LLNL one-dimensional model for total column ozone change in terms of surface emissions or abundances of the various source species. Previous versions of the LLNL model have been used in earlier studies to evaluate time-dependent scenarios of future trends in the emissions or atmospheric abundances of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-22, CFC-113, CCl4, CH3CCl3, CO2, CH4, N2O, Halon-1301, Halon-1211. The numerical fit reported here produces calculated ozone changes within about 2% (column ozone change relative to the 1985 model atmosphere) of the current LLNL 1-D model results, for a range of scenarios and ozone changes. It therefore can approximately represent the actual 1-D model for the purposes of economic analysis of regulatory strategies. It is, however, crucial to note that the 1-D model results, and consequently this parameterization, are subject to substantial uncertainties. Future improvements in the knowledge of atmospheric photochemical kinetics and transport in the troposphere and stratosphere are expected to modify these current results.

  14. Authentication Based on Pole-zero Models of Signature Velocity.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Saeid; Fallah, Ali; Towhidkhah, Farzad

    2013-10-01

    With the increase of communication and financial transaction through internet, on-line signature verification is an accepted biometric technology for access control and plays a significant role in authenticity and authorization in modernized society. Therefore, fast and precise algorithms for the signature verification are very attractive. The goal of this paper is modeling of velocity signal that pattern and properties is stable for persons. With using pole-zero models based on discrete cosine transform, precise method is proposed for modeling and then features is founded from strokes. With using linear, parzen window and support vector machine classifiers, the signature verification technique was tested with a large number of authentic and forgery signatures and has demonstrated the good potential of this technique. The signatures are collected from three different database include a proprietary database, the SVC2004 and the Sabanci University signature database benchmark databases. Experimental results based on Persian, SVC2004 and SUSIG databases show that our method achieves an equal error rate of 5.91%, 5.62% and 3.91% in the skilled forgeries, respectively. PMID:24696797

  15. A transport model of the turbulent scalar-velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amano, R. S.; Goel, P.; Chai, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Performance tests of the third-order turbulence closure for predictions of separating and recirculating flows in backward-facing steps were studied. Computations of the momentum and temperature fields in the flow domain being considered entail the solution of time-averaged transport equations containing the second-order turbulent fluctuating products. The triple products, which are responsible for the diffusive transport of the second-order products, attain greater significance in separating and reattaching flows. The computations are compared with several algebraic models and with the experimental data. The prediction was improved considerably, particularly in the separated shear layer. Computations are further made for the temperature-velocity double products and triple products. Finally, several advantages were observed in the usage of the transport equations for the evaluation of the turbulence triple products; one of the most important features is that the transport model can always take the effects of convection and diffusion into account in strong convective shear flows such as reattaching separated layers while conventional algebraic models cannot account for these effects in the evaluation of turbulence variables.

  16. Modelling nonstationary Doppler noise in exoplanetary radial velocity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, Roman V.

    2015-08-01

    We construct a new class of analytic nonstationary noise models for exoplanetary Doppler data. The observable correlated noise is represented as a convolution of a parent activity process with a given memory function. The model honours the casuality principle, meaning that only past values of the activity may affect the observable value. This model does not approximate detailedly any real stellar activity phenomena, but it becomes mathematically simple, simultaneously satisfying the basic natural principles of physical sensibility and self-consistency.Additionally, we develop a new type of periodograms that can be used to detect periodic modulations in the Doppler noise characteristics, rather than in the observed radial velocity curve itself. We present first results of applying this technique to public Doppler time series available for a set of planet-hosting stars.This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 14-02-92615 KO_a), the UK Royal Society International Exchange grant IE140055, by the President of Russia grant for young scientists (No. MK-733.2014.2), by the programme of the Presidium of Russian Academy of Sciences P21, and by the Saint Petersburg State University research grant 6.37.341.2015.

  17. Authentication Based on Pole-zero Models of Signature Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Saeid; Fallah, Ali; Towhidkhah, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    With the increase of communication and financial transaction through internet, on-line signature verification is an accepted biometric technology for access control and plays a significant role in authenticity and authorization in modernized society. Therefore, fast and precise algorithms for the signature verification are very attractive. The goal of this paper is modeling of velocity signal that pattern and properties is stable for persons. With using pole-zero models based on discrete cosine transform, precise method is proposed for modeling and then features is founded from strokes. With using linear, parzen window and support vector machine classifiers, the signature verification technique was tested with a large number of authentic and forgery signatures and has demonstrated the good potential of this technique. The signatures are collected from three different database include a proprietary database, the SVC2004 and the Sabanci University signature database benchmark databases. Experimental results based on Persian, SVC2004 and SUSIG databases show that our method achieves an equal error rate of 5.91%, 5.62% and 3.91% in the skilled forgeries, respectively. PMID:24696797

  18. Modeling Normal Shock Velocity Curvature Relation for Heterogeneous Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Sunhee; Crochet, Michael; Pemberton, Steve

    2015-06-01

    The normal shock velocity and curvature, Dn(κ) , relation on a detonation shock surface has been an important functional quantity to measure to understand the shock strength exerted against the material interface between a main explosive charge and the case of an explosive munition. The Dn(κ) relation is considered an intrinsic property of an explosive, and can be experimentally deduced by rate stick tests at various charge diameters. However, experimental measurements of the Dn(κ) relation for heterogeneous explosives such as PBXN-111 are challenging due to the non-smoothness and asymmetry usually observed in the experimental streak records of explosion fronts. Out of the many possibilities, the asymmetric character may be attributed to the heterogeneity of the explosives, a hypothesis which begs two questions: (1) is there any simple hydrodynamic model that can explain such an asymmetric shock evolution, and (2) what statistics can be derived for the asymmetry using simulations with defined structural heterogeneity in the unreacted explosive? Saenz, Taylor and Stewart studied constitutive models for derivation of the Dn(κ) relation on porous `homogeneous' explosives and carried out simulations in a spherical coordinate frame. In this paper, we extend their model to account for `heterogeneity' and present shock evolutions in heterogeneous explosives using 2-D hydrodynamic simulations with some statistical examination. (96TW-2015-0004)

  19. Do4Models: Performance of current climate model dust emission schemes from a 1D box model perspective using field campaign data to constrain the simulated dust emission flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haustein, Karsten; King, James; Wiggs, Giles; Washington, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Dust emission schemes in climate models are relatively simple and are often tuned to represent observed background aerosol concentrations many of which are thousands of kilometres from source regions. Parameterisations of dust emission in numerical models were developed from idealised experiments such as those conducted in wind tunnels. Improvement of current model dust emission schemes has been difficult to achieve because of the paucity of observations from key dust sources. The Dust Observations for Models project (DO4Models) aims to gather data from source regions at a scale appropriate to climate model grid box resolution. Here we present the results of 1D box model simulations in which three commonly used parameterisations for the horizontal and vertical dust emission flux (Marticorena and Bergametti 1995, Alfaro and Gomez 2001, Shao et al. 2004) are applied and compared with Do4Models field campaign data retrieved over a typical salt pan dust source (Sua Pan, Botswana). The sensitivity of the schemes to input parameters such as soil moisture content, aerodynamic surface roughness length, shear velocity, soil texture class, and particle size is tested with particular regard to the representation of horizontal-to-vertical-mass-flux ratio. The effects of spatial averaging over 11 field sites is evaluated as is the average dust emission flux of a typical 12x12km model grid box. It is analysed whether the full range of surface processes (temporal changes in roughness, moisture, and soil conditions) is represented sufficiently well after averaging yet. Furthermore, the application of the dispersed soil size distribution on the performance of the emission schemes compared to the typically used undisturbed soil size distribution provided from soil databases is examined. Preliminary results suggest that the current schemes do not describe the observed emission process well. The scheme after Shao et al. (2004) provides the most accurate horizontal flux estimate so far. However, as our observed horizontal-to-vertical-dust-flux ratio is fairly variable compared to other field sites (e.g. Owens Lake), an accurate representation of the saltating flux does not assure a good simulation of the vertical emission flux. The simpler scheme after Marticorena and Bergametti (1995) can therefore compete in terms of total vertical dust flux despite its deficiencies in representing the full range of physics involved. We show that the moisture correction strongly affects the simulated dust flux and that the drag partition correction after Marticorena and Bergametti (1997) needs a little revision to be applicable to the whole range of observed roughness lengths. The dispersed soil texture data allow for a better representation of the deflatable dust fraction which controls the horizontal flux. It is more consistently constrained with regard to the measured saltating flux.

  20. A novel 1D/2D model for simulating conjugate heat transfer applied to flow boiling in tubes with external fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocłoń, Paweł; Łopata, Stanisław; Nowak, Marzena

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a novel, simplified model for the time-efficient simulation of transient conjugate heat transfer in round tubes. The flow domain and the tube wall are modeled in 1D and 2D, respectively and empirical correlations are used to model the flow domain in 1D. The model is particularly useful when dealing with complex physics, such as flow boiling, which is the main focus of this study. The tube wall is assumed to have external fins. The flow is vertical upwards. Note that straightforward computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of conjugate heat transfer in a system of tubes, leads to 3D modeling of fluid and solid domains. Because correlation is used and dimensionality reduced, the model is numerically more stable and computationally more time-efficient compared to the CFD approach. The benefit of the proposed approach is that it can be applied to large systems of tubes as encountered in many practical applications. The modeled equations are discretized in space using the finite volume method, with central differencing for the heat conduction equation in the solid domain, and upwind differencing of the convective term of the enthalpy transport equation in the flow domain. An explicit time discretization with forward differencing was applied to the enthalpy transport equation in the fluid domain. The conduction equation in the solid domain was time discretized using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The model is applied in different boundary conditions and the predicted boiling patterns and temperature fields are discussed.

  1. A novel 1D/2D model for simulating conjugate heat transfer applied to flow boiling in tubes with external fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocłoń, Paweł; Łopata, Stanisław; Nowak, Marzena

    2014-09-01

    This study presents a novel, simplified model for the time-efficient simulation of transient conjugate heat transfer in round tubes. The flow domain and the tube wall are modeled in 1D and 2D, respectively and empirical correlations are used to model the flow domain in 1D. The model is particularly useful when dealing with complex physics, such as flow boiling, which is the main focus of this study. The tube wall is assumed to have external fins. The flow is vertical upwards. Note that straightforward computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of conjugate heat transfer in a system of tubes, leads to 3D modeling of fluid and solid domains. Because correlation is used and dimensionality reduced, the model is numerically more stable and computationally more time-efficient compared to the CFD approach. The benefit of the proposed approach is that it can be applied to large systems of tubes as encountered in many practical applications. The modeled equations are discretized in space using the finite volume method, with central differencing for the heat conduction equation in the solid domain, and upwind differencing of the convective term of the enthalpy transport equation in the flow domain. An explicit time discretization with forward differencing was applied to the enthalpy transport equation in the fluid domain. The conduction equation in the solid domain was time discretized using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The model is applied in different boundary conditions and the predicted boiling patterns and temperature fields are discussed.

  2. Spring phytoplankton bloom and associated lower trophic level food web dynamics on Georges Bank: 1-D and 2-D model studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Rubao; Chen, Changsheng; Franks, Peter J. S.; Townsend, David W.; Durbin, Edward G.; Beardsley, Robert C.; Gregory Lough, R.; Houghton, Robert W.

    2006-11-01

    A coupled biological-physical model was developed and tested in one-dimensional (1-D, vertical) and two-dimensional (2-D, cross-sectional) domains to examine the spring phytoplankton bloom and associated lower trophic level food web dynamics on Georges Bank (GB). The biological model consists of nine compartments: dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, ammonium and silicate), phytoplankton (large and small size classes), zooplankton (large and small size classes), and detrital organic nitrogen and biogenic silica. The 1-D model results showed that in the shallow central bank, the timing and duration of spring blooms are closely linked to the light intensity and its downward penetration, while the intensity of blooms is regulated by initial nutrient concentrations and zooplankton grazing pressure. In the deeper flank area, the bloom dynamics is directly controlled by the seasonal development of stratification. The interactions between the shallow and deep regions of the bank were examined by a 2-D model, which showed that the cross-sectional gradients of biological quantities were caused mainly by the shallow-deep topographic transition and tidal mixing. Between the shallow and deep regions, a possible phytoplankton maximum concentration area was seen in the model at the time before the formation of the tidal-mixing front. Once the tidal-mixing front was established during late spring, the model showed a relatively high concentration of phytoplankton near the front as the result of the tidally driven up-front nutrient flux. Both the 1-D and 2-D models captured the basic seasonal cycles of the nutrients and phytoplankton in the central bank, but failed to reproduce those patterns in the deep flank regions, where horizontal advection might play a significant role.

  3. A 1D model for describing ion cyclotron resonance heating at arbitrary cyclotron harmonics in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eester, Dirk; Lerche, Ernesto

    2013-05-01

    Both at low and higher cyclotron harmonics, properly accounting for finite Larmor radius effects is crucial in many ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating scenario's creating high energy tails. This paper discusses an extension TOMCAT-U of the 1D TOMCAT tokamak plasma wave equation solver (Van Eester and Koch 1998 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 40 1949) to arbitrary harmonics and arbitrary wavelengths while only keeping leading order terms in equilibrium variation terms. Rather than adopting the particle position, the guiding center position is used as the independent variable when writing down an expression for the dielectric response that is suitable for numerical application. This choice of independent variable yields intuitive expressions involving the Kennel-Engelmann operator which can directly be linked to the corresponding expressions in the RF diffusion operator appearing in the Fokker-Planck equation. It also guarantees that a positive definite power transfer from waves to particles is ensured for any of the wave modes in a plasma in which all populations have a Maxwellian distribution, as is expected from first principles. Rather than relying on a truncated Taylor series expansion of the dielectric response, an integrodifferential approach that retains all finite Larmor radius effects is proposed. To keep the required computation time for this generalized description reasonable, tabulation of integrals is intensively used. Although the accent is on the presentation of the upgraded formalism as well as the adopted recursions and tabulations, a few examples are provided to illustrate the potential of the new wave code that relies on these tabulations.

  4. S-wave velocity and Poisson's ratio model in Southern Chile along a transect at 38°15'S from active and passive TIPTEQ data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Catalina; Mechie, James

    2015-04-01

    Using active and passive seismology data from project TIPTEQ (from The Incoming Plate to mega-Thrust EarthQuake processes) we derive a shear (S) wave velocity and a Poisson's ratio (σ) model across the Chilean convergent margin along 38°15'S, where the Mw 9.5 Valdivia earthquake is believed to have occurred. The obtained S-wave velocity model consists of three different tomographic images that were merged together. In the upper part (0 - 5 km depth), controlled source data from explosions were used to obtain a S-wave travel-time tomography. In the middle part (5 - 20 km depth) a dispersion analysis and then a noise tomography were carried out in two different ways: one used the dispersion curves to obtain a 3D S-wave velocity model in one step and the other used the dispersion curves to obtain surface-wave velocity tomographic images for different periods and then used the surface-wave velocity values every 10 km along the profile to obtain 1D S-wave velocity profiles every 10 km that were then interpolated to obtain a 2D S-wave tomography. Both methods produce similar S-wave travel-times. In the lower part (20 - 75 km depth, depending on the longitude) an already existent S-wave velocity model from local earthquake tomography was merged with the other two sections. The final S-wave velocity model and already existent compressional (P) wave velocity models along the same transect allowed us to obtain a Poisson's ratio model. The results show that the velocities and Poisson's ratios in this part of the Chilean convergent margin can all be explained in terms of normal rock types. There is no requirement to call on the existence of significant amounts of present-day fluids in the continental lithosphere above the plate interface in this part of the Chilean convergent margin, to explain the derived velocities and Poisson's ratios.

  5. White and relaxed noises in optimal velocity models for pedestrian flow with stop-and-go waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tordeux, Antoine; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    A class of microscopic stochastic models is proposed to describe 1D pedestrian trajectories obtained in laboratory experiments. The class contains continuous first-order models that are based on statistically calibrated optimal velocity functions. More specifically, we consider a model with an additive white noise and another one where the noise is determined by the inertial Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process. Simulation results show that both stochastic models give a good description of the characteristic relation between speed and spacing (fundamental diagram) and its variability. However, only the inertial noise model can reproduce the observed stop-and-go waves, bimodal speed distributions, and non-zero speed or spacing autocorrelations. This allows us to identify minimal microscopic stochastic mechanisms for the emergence of stable traffic waves.

  6. The roles of magmatic and external water in the March 8 tephra eruption at Mount St. Helens as assessed by a 1-D steady plume-height model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastin, L. G.; Sherrod, D. R.; Vallance, J. W.; Thornber, C. T.; Ewert, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    The dome-building eruption at Mount St. Helens has occurred through glacial ice and snow that would be expected to substantially affect the character of the eruption. Nevertheless, the role of water in the eruption to date has not always been clear. For example, on March 8, 2005, a half-hour-long tephra blast sent a plume to a maximum of ~9 km above the vent (based on pilot reports); seismicity and plume heights were greatest during the first ~10 minutes, then persisted for another ~15 minutes at a lower level before the eruption stopped. Tephra volume within 5 km2 downwind of the vent was ~5x104 m3 DRE, but trace amounts were reported at least to Ellensburg, WA (150 km NE), suggesting a total areal coverage >5,000 km2 and total volume >1x105 m3. Assuming that most of this material was expelled in the first ten minutes and had a density of 2500 kg/m3, the mass flow rate (M) during the vigorous phase was >~4x105 kg/s. The tephra, composed primarily of non-pumiceous broken and decrepitated dome rock, could have been expelled either by groundwater and steam at relatively modest (boiling-point) temperatures, or by magmatic gas at much higher temperatures. The high plume, however, suggested significant buoyancy, perhaps driven by temperatures closer to magmatic. To assess the effect of magmatic heat on plume height, we employ a 1-D steady volcanic plume model that uses specified vent diameter, exit velocity, eruption temperature, mass fractions of gas and added external water, and profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity, to calculate plume height and plume properties as a function of elevation. The model considers the enthalpy of equilibrium water condensation and of ice formation. Model results show that, under atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles measured near Mount St. Helens on the afternoon of March 8, 2005, a plume height (h) of 7-9 km could have developed with eruption temperatures (T) as low as 100° C, provided the mass fraction of water vapor in the plume (n) exceeded ~0.25 (mixtures containing less gas at this temperature would collapse before reaching 7-9 km height). At T=100° C and n=0.25, however, a mass flux of 0.6-1x105 kg/s will generate the observed 7-9km plume height, whereas a mass flow rate >~4x105 kg/s, in line with observations, results in h>~11 km. Under more typical magmatic temperatures (900° C) and gas mass fractions (0.02-0.03), plume heights of 7-9 km require M=4-6x105 kg/s -- nearly an order of magnitude greater than the vapor-rich, boiling point mixture, but more in line with the estimated mass flow rate of this eruption. These results, though not definitive, suggest that magmatic heat may have been important in driving the March 8 eruption. Relationships between mass flow rate and plume height may be useful in assessing the roles of magmatic and phreatic sources during other small eruptions.

  7. Comparison of CME radial velocities from a flux rope model and an ice cream cone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

    2011-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest energy release process in the solar system and act as the primary driver of geomagnetic storms and other space weather phenomena on the Earth. So it is very important to infer their directions, velocities and three-dimensional structures. In this study, we choose two different models to infer radial velocities of halo CMEs since 2008 : (1) an ice cream cone model by Xue et al (2005) using SOHO/LASCO data, (2) a flux rope model by Thernisien et al. (2009) using the STEREO/SECCHI data. In addition, we use another flux rope model in which the separation angle of flux rope is zero, which is morphologically similar to the ice cream cone model. The comparison shows that the CME radial velocities from among each model have very good correlations (R>0.9). We will extending this comparison to other partial CMEs observed by STEREO and SOHO.

  8. A new time-dependent analytic model for radiation-induced photocurrent in finite 1D epitaxial diodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Verley, Jason C.; Axness, Carl L.; Hembree, Charles Edward; Keiter, Eric Richard; Kerr, Bert

    2012-04-01

    Photocurrent generated by ionizing radiation represents a threat to microelectronics in radiation environments. Circuit simulation tools such as SPICE [1] can be used to analyze these threats, and typically rely on compact models for individual electrical components such as transistors and diodes. Compact models consist of a handful of differential and/or algebraic equations, and are derived by making simplifying assumptions to any of the many semiconductor transport equations. Historically, many photocurrent compact models have suffered from accuracy issues due to the use of qualitative approximation, rather than mathematically correct solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation. A practical consequence of this inaccuracy is that a given model calibration is trustworthy over only a narrow range of operating conditions. This report describes work to produce improved compact models for photocurrent. Specifically, an analytic model is developed for epitaxial diode structures that have a highly doped subcollector. The analytic model is compared with both numerical TCAD calculations, as well as the compact model described in reference [2]. The new analytic model compares well against TCAD over a wide range of operating conditions, and is shown to be superior to the compact model from reference [2].

  9. An Intriguing Shift Occurs in the Novel Protein Phosphatase 1 Binding Partner, TCTEX1D4: Evidence of Positive Selection in a Pika Model

    PubMed Central

    Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Margarida Lopes, Ana; Esteves, Sara L. C.; Afonso, Sandra; Lemos de Matos, Ana; Lissovsky, Andrey A.; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A. B.; Esteves, Pedro José; Fardilha, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    T-complex testis expressed protein 1 domain containing 4 (TCTEX1D4) contains the canonical phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 (PPP1) binding motif, composed by the amino acid sequence RVSF. We identified and validated the binding of TCTEX1D4 to PPP1 and demonstrated that indeed this protein is a novel PPP1 interacting protein. Analyses of twenty-one mammalian species available in public databases and seven Lagomorpha sequences obtained in this work showed that the PPP1 binding motif 90RVSF93 is present in all of them and is flanked by a palindromic sequence, PLGS, except in three species of pikas (Ochotona princeps, O. dauurica and O. pusilla). Furthermore, for the Ochotona species an extra glycosylation site, motif 96NLS98, and the loss of the palindromic sequence were observed. Comparison with other lagomorphs suggests that this event happened before the Ochotona radiation. The dN/dS for the sequence region comprising the PPP1 binding motif and the flanking palindrome highly supports the hypothesis that for Ochotona species this region has been evolving under positive selection. In addition, mutational screening shows that the ability of pikas TCTEX1D4 to bind to PPP1 is maintained, although the PPP1 binding motif is disrupted, and the N- and C-terminal surrounding residues are also abrogated. These observations suggest pika as an ideal model to study novel PPP1 complexes regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24130861

  10. An intriguing shift occurs in the novel protein phosphatase 1 binding partner, TCTEX1D4: evidence of positive selection in a pika model.

    PubMed

    Korrodi-Gregrio, Lus; Margarida Lopes, Ana; Esteves, Sara L C; Afonso, Sandra; Lemos de Matos, Ana; Lissovsky, Andrey A; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A B; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F; Esteves, Pedro Jos; Fardilha, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    T-complex testis expressed protein 1 domain containing 4 (TCTEX1D4) contains the canonical phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 (PPP1) binding motif, composed by the amino acid sequence RVSF. We identified and validated the binding of TCTEX1D4 to PPP1 and demonstrated that indeed this protein is a novel PPP1 interacting protein. Analyses of twenty-one mammalian species available in public databases and seven Lagomorpha sequences obtained in this work showed that the PPP1 binding motif 90RVSF93 is present in all of them and is flanked by a palindromic sequence, PLGS, except in three species of pikas (Ochotona princeps, O. dauurica and O. pusilla). Furthermore, for the Ochotona species an extra glycosylation site, motif 96NLS98, and the loss of the palindromic sequence were observed. Comparison with other lagomorphs suggests that this event happened before the Ochotona radiation. The dN/dS for the sequence region comprising the PPP1 binding motif and the flanking palindrome highly supports the hypothesis that for Ochotona species this region has been evolving under positive selection. In addition, mutational screening shows that the ability of pikas TCTEX1D4 to bind to PPP1 is maintained, although the PPP1 binding motif is disrupted, and the N- and C-terminal surrounding residues are also abrogated. These observations suggest pika as an ideal model to study novel PPP1 complexes regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24130861

  11. Coupling WEPP and 3ST1D models for improved prediction of flow and sediment transport at watershed scales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watershed modeling is a key component of watershed management that involves the simulation of hydrological and fluvial processes for predicting flow and sediment transport within a watershed. For practical purposes, most numerical models have been developed to simulate either runoff and soil erosion...

  12. Electron fountains or a steady 1D collisionless model of photonically ejected electron sheaths with arbitrary electron spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.

    1986-03-10

    This report presents an analytical model of photonically ejected electron space charge into vacuum. This model has four attractive features. It applies for any electron spectra, it conserves particle energy, charge conservation is observed through the continuity equation, and current fluxes as well as charge density have spatial variation determined in a self-consistent manner by the local electrical potential. This model is formulated as a steady, one dimensional, collisionless problem but it can be used to model pulsed experiments in which ''quasi-steady'', ''thin sheath'', and ''unmagnetized'' criteria are met. This unipolar problem is possibly the simplest case of a general class of problems described by the Poisson-Vlasov equations. The sheaths modelled in this report are produced by the photoelectric and Compton interactions of radiation with metal plates. These sheaths are not driven by current controlled external circuits thus current is not an independent parameter. 13 figs.

  13. The Candy Wrapper Velocity Model for the Earth's Inner Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattesini, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent global expansion of seismic data motivated a number of seismological studies of the Earth's inner core that proposed the existence of increasingly complex structure and anisotropy. In the meantime, new hypotheses of dynamic mechanisms have been put forward to interpret seismological results. Here, the nature of hemispherical dichotomy and anisotropy is re-investigated by bridging the observations of PKP(bc-df) differential travel-times with the iron bcc/hcp elastic properties computed from first-principles methods.The Candy Wrapper velocity model introduced here accounts for a dynamic picture of the inner core (i.e., the eastward drift of material), where different iron crystal shapes can be stabilized at the two hemispheres. We show that seismological data are best explained by a rather complicated, mosaic-like, structure of the inner core, where well-separated patches of different iron crystals compose the anisotropic western hemispherical region, and a conglomerate of almost indistinguishable iron phases builds-up the weakly anisotropic eastern side.

  14. The seasonal nitrogen cycle in Wilkinson Basin, Gulf of Maine, as estimated by 1-D biological model optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Laurence A.

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to fit a simple ecosystem model to climatological nitrogen cycle data in the Gulf of Maine, in order to calibrate the biological model for use in future 3-D modelling studies. First depth-dependent monthly climatologies of nitrate, ammonium, chlorophyll, zooplankton, detritus and primary production data from Wilkinson Basin, Gulf of Maine, were created. A 6-box nitrogen-based ecosystem model was objectively fitted to the data through parameter optimization. Optimization was based on weighted least squares with model-data misfits nondimensionalized by assigned uncertainties in the monthly climatological estimates. These uncertainties were estimated as the standard deviations of the raw data from the 6-meter and monthly bin averages. On average the model fits the monthly means almost within their assigned uncertainties. Several statistics are examined to assess model-data misfit. Pattern statistics such as the correlation coefficient lack practical significance when data errors are large relative to the signal, as in this application. Thus Taylor diagrams were not found to be useful. The RMSE and model bias normalized by the data error were found to be the most useful skill metrics as they indicate whether the model fits the data within its estimated error. The optimal simulated nitrogen cycle budgets are presented, as an estimate of the seasonal nitrogen cycle in Wilkinson Basin, and discussed in context of the available data. Wilkinson Basin has spring and fall phytoplankton blooms, and strong summer stratification with a deep chlorophyll maximum near 21 m, just above the nitracline. The mean euphotic zone depth is estimated to be 25 m, relatively constant with season. The model estimates annual primary production as 176 g C m - 2 yr - 1 , annual new production as 71 g C m - 2 yr - 1 and sinking PON fluxes of 9.7 and 4.7 g N m - 2 yr - 1 at 24 and 198 m respectively. Areas for improvement in the biological model, the model optimization method, and significant data gaps are identified.

  15. Modeling ground thermal regime of an ancient buried ice body in Beacon Valley, Antarctica using a 1-D heat equation with latent heat effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Sletten, R. S.; Hallet, B.; Waddington, E. D.; Wood, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    An ancient massive ice body buried under several decimeters of debris in Beacon Valley, Antarctica is believed to be over one million years old, making it older than any known glacier or ice cap. It is fundamentally important as a reservoir of water, proxy for climatic information, and an expression of the periglacial landscape. It is also one of Earth's closest analog for widespread, near-surface ice found in Martian soils and ice-cored landforms. We are interested in understanding controls on how long this ice may persist since our physical model of sublimation suggests it should not be stable. In these models, the soil temperatures and the gradient are important because it determines the direction and magnitude of the vapor flux, and thus sublimation rates. To better understand the heat transfer processes and constrain the rates of processes governing ground ice stability, a model of the thermal behavior of the permafrost is applied to Beacon Valley, Antarctica. It calculates soil temperatures based on a 1-D thermal diffusion equation using a fully implicit finite volume method (FVM). This model is constrained by soil physical properties and boundary conditions of in-situ ground surface temperature measurements (with an average of -23.6oC, a maximum of 20.5oC and a minimum of -54.3oC) and ice-core temperature record at ~30 m. Model results are compared to in-situ temperature measurements at depths of 0.10 m, 0.20 m, 0.30 m, and 0.45 m to assess the model's ability to reproduce the temperature profile for given thermal properties of the debris cover and ice. The model's sensitivity to the thermal diffusivity of the permafrost and the overlaying debris is also examined. Furthermore, we incorporate the role of ice condensation/sublimation which is calculated using our vapor diffusion model in the 1-D thermal diffusion model to assess potential latent heat effects that in turn affect ground ice sublimation rates. In general, the model simulates the ground thermal regime well. Detailed temperature comparison suggests that the 1-D thermal diffusion model results closely approximate the measured temperature at all depths with the average square root of the mean squared error (SRMSE) of 0.15oC; a linear correlation between modeled and measured temperatures yields an average R2 value of 0.9997. Prominent seasonal temperature variations diminish with depth, and it equilibrates to mean annual temperature at about 21.5 m depth. The amount of heat generated/consumed by ice condensation/sublimation is insufficient to significantly impact the thermal regime.

  16. An extension of the Savage-Hutter gravity driven granular flow model on arbitrary topography in 1D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellin, Wolfgang; Ostermann, Alexander; Staggl, Gregor

    2015-04-01

    In an implementation of the Savage-Hutter model in a GIS (geographic information system, e.g. GRASS GIS) curvature terms must be accounted for. We extend the work of Bouchut et al. (2003) to include friction between flowing mass and bed, as well as the active/passive earth pressure coefficient to model the behavior of the granular flow according to the original Savage-Hutter idea. Conservation of mass and momentum in curvilinear coordinates are integrated over the flow height yielding a shallow water model. This work is part of the project avaflow: http://www.avaflow.org/ References: F. Bouchut, A. Mangeney-Castelnau, B. Perthame, J.-P. Vilotte, A new model of Saint Venant and Savage-Hutter type for gravity driven shallow water flows, C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, série I 336 (2003), 531-536.

  17. Status of the solar and infrared radiation submodels in the LLNL 1-D and 2-D chemical-transport models

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, K.E.; Taylor, K.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    The authors have implemented a series of state of the art radiation transport submodels in previously developed one dimensional and two dimensional chemical transport models of the troposphere and stratosphere. These submodels provide the capability of calculating accurate solar and infrared heating rates. They are a firm basis for further radiation submodel development as well as for studying interactions between radiation and model dynamics under varying conditions of clear sky, clouds, and aerosols. 37 refs., 3 figs.

  18. (abstract) Modeling the Critical Velocity Ionization Experiment Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J.; Murphy, G.; Biasca, R.

    1993-01-01

    Proper interpretation of critical velocity ionization experiments depends upon understanding the expected results from in-situ or remote sensors. In particular, the 1991 shuttle based CIV experiment had diagnostics.

  19. Establishing the Capability of a 1D SVAT Modelling Scheme in Predicting Key Biophysical Vegetation Characterisation Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Gareth; Petropoulos, George P.; Carlson, Toby N.; Purdy, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    Sensitivity analysis (SA) consists of an integral and important validatory check of a computer simulation model before it is used to perform any kind of analysis. In the present work, we present the results from a SA performed on the SimSphere Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) model utilising a cutting edge and robust Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) approach, based on the use of the Gaussian Emulation Machine for Sensitivity Analysis (GEM-SA) tool. The sensitivity of the following model outputs was evaluated: the ambient CO2 concentration and the rate of CO2 uptake by the plant, the ambient O3 concentration, the flux of O3 from the air to the plant/soil boundary, and the flux of O3 taken up by the plant alone. The most sensitive model inputs for the majority of model outputs were related to the structural properties of vegetation, namely, the Leaf Area Index, Fractional Vegetation Cover, Cuticle Resistance and Vegetation Height. External CO2 in the leaf and the O3 concentration in the air input parameters also exhibited significant influence on model outputs. This work presents a very important step towards an all-inclusive evaluation of SimSphere. Indeed, results from this study contribute decisively towards establishing its capability as a useful teaching and research tool in modelling Earth's land surface interactions. This is of considerable importance in the light of the rapidly expanding use of this model worldwide, which also includes research conducted by various Space Agencies examining its synergistic use with Earth Observation data towards the development of operational products at a global scale. This research was supported by the European Commission Marie Curie Re-Integration Grant "TRANSFORM-EO". SimSphere is currently maintained and freely distributed by the Department of Geography and Earth Sciences at Aberystwyth University (http://www.aber.ac.uk/simsphere). Keywords: CO2 flux, ambient CO2, O3 flux, SimSphere, Gaussian process emulators, BACCO GEM-SA, TRANSFORM-EO.

  20. Non-thermal O/1D/ produced by dissociative recombination of O2/+/ - A theoretical model and observational results. [in earth atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, G. A.; Abreu, V. J.; Hays, P. B.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal and nonthermal O(1D) number density profiles are calculated. The two populations are assumed to be coupled by a thermalization cross-section which determines the loss and production in the nonthermal and thermal populations, respectively. The sources, sinks and transport of the two populations are used to model volume emission rate profiles at 6300 A. The 6300 A brightness measured by the Visible Airglow Experiment is then used to establish the presence of the nonthermal population and to determine the thermalization cross-section.

  1. Combining flow routing modelling and direct velocity measurement for optimal discharge estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corato, G.; Moramarco, T.; Tucciarelli, T.

    2011-03-01

    A new procedure is proposed for estimating river discharge hydrographs during flood events, using only water level data measured at a gauged site, as well as 1-D shallow water modelling and sporadic maximum surface flow velocity measurements. During flood, the piezometric level is surmised constant in the vertical plane of the river section, where the top of the banks is always above the river level, and is well represented by the recorded stage hydrograph. The river is modelled along the reach directly located downstream the upstream gauged section, where discharge hydrograph is sought after. For the stability with respect to the topographic error, as well as for the simplicity of the data required to satisfy the boundary conditions, a diffusive hydraulic model is adopted for flow routing. Assigned boundary conditions are: (1) the recorded stage hydrograph at the upstream river site and (2) the zero diffusion condition at the downstream end of the reach. The MAST algorithm is used for the numerical solution of the flow routing problem, which is embedded in the Brent algorithm used for the computation of the optimum Manning coefficient. Based on synthetic tests concerning a broad prismatic channel, the optimal reach length is chosen so that the approximated downstream boundary condition effects on discharge hydrograph assessment at upstream end are negligible. The roughness Manning coefficient is calibrated by using sporadic instantaneous surface velocity measurements during the rising limb of flood that are turned into instantaneous discharges through the solid of velocity estimated by a two-dimensional entropic model. Several historical events, occurring in three gauged sites along the upper Tiber River wherein a reliable rating curve is available, have been used for the validation. The analysis outcomes can be so summarized: (1) criteria adopted for selecting the optimal channel length and based on synthetic tests have been proved reliable by using field data of three gauged river sites. Indeed, for each of them a downstream reach, long not more than 500 m, is turned out fair for achieving good performances of the diffusive hydraulic model, thus allowing to drastically reducing the topographical data of river cross-sections; (2) the procedure for Manning's coefficient calibration allowed to get high performance of the hydraulic model just considering the observed water levels and sporadic measurements of maximum surface flow velocity during the rising limb of flood. Indeed, in terms of errors in magnitude on peak discharge, for the optimal calibration, they were found, in average, not exceeding 5% for all events observed in the three investigated gauged sections, while the Nash-Sutcliff efficiency was, in average, greater than 0.95. Therefore, the proposed procedure, apart from to have turned out reliable for the rating curve assessment at ungauged sites, can be applied in realtime for whatever flood conditions and this is of great interest for the practice hydrology seeing that, looking at new monitoring technologies, it will be possible to carry out velocity measurements by hand-held radar sensors in different river sites and for the same flood.

  2. Study of fog characteristics by using the 1-D COBEL model at the airport of Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolaki, S.; Pytharoulis, I.; Karacostas, T.

    2010-07-01

    An attempt is made to couple the one dimensional COBEL - ISBA (COuche Brouillard Eau Liquide - Interactions Soil Biosphere Atmosphere) model with the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) numerical weather prediction model. This accomplishment will improve the accuracy on the short-term forecasting of fog events, which is of paramount importance -mainly to the airway companies, the airports functioning and the community as well- and will provide the means for the implementation of extensive studies of fog events formed at the "Macedonia" airport of Thessaloniki. Numerical experiments have been performed to study in depth the thermodynamic structure and the microphysical characteristics of the fog event that was formed on 06/01/2010. Moreover, the meteorological conditions -under the influence of which- the fog event was formed are also investigated. Sensitivity tests with respect to the initial conditions of temperature, relative humidity and geostrophic wind speed profiles have been performed to illustrate the models performance. Dew deposition rates have also been examined in order to test the importance of it on controlling the fog formation. The numerical results have been compared with actual measurements and the findings have been evaluated and discussed.

  3. Integrating models to simulate emergent behaviour: effects of organic matter on soil hydraulics in the ICZ-1D soil-vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valstar, Johan; Rowe, Ed; Konstantina, Moirogiorgou; Giannakis, Giorgos; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    Soil develops as a result of interacting processes, many of which have been described in more or less detailed models. A key challenge in developing predictive models of soil function is to integrate processes that operate across a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Many soil functions could be classified as "emergent", since they result from the interaction of subsystems. For example, soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics are commonly considered in relation to carbon storage, but can have profound effects on soil hydraulic properties that are conventionally considered to be static. Carbon fixed by plants enters the soil as litterfall, root turnover or via mycorrhizae. Plants need water and nutrients to grow, and an expanding root system provides access to a larger volume of soil for uptake of water and nutrients. Roots also provide organic exudates, such as oxalate, which increase nutrient availability. Carbon inputs are transformed at various rates into soil biota, CO2, and more persistent forms of organic matter. The SOM is partly taken up into soil aggregates of variable sizes, which slows down degradation. Water availability is an important factor as both plant growth and SOM degradation can be limited by shortage of water. Water flow is the main driver for transport of nutrients and other solutes. The flow of water in turn is influenced by the presence of SOM as this influences soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity. Towards the top of the unsaturated zone, bioturbation by the soil fauna transports both solid material and solutes. Weathering rates of minerals determine the availability of many nutrients and are in turn dependent on parameters such as pH, water content, CO2 pressure and oxalate concentration. Chemical reactions between solutes, dissolution and precipitation, and exchange on adsorption sites further influence solute concentrations. Within the FP7 SoilTrEC project, we developed a model that incorporates all of these processes, to explore the complex interactions involved in soil development and change. We were unable to identify appropriately-detailed existing models for plant productivity and for the dynamics of soil aggregation and porosity, and so developed the PROSUM and CAST models, respectively, to simulate these subsystems. Moreover, we applied the BRNS generator to obtain a chemical equilibrium model. These were combined with HYDRUS-1D (water and solute transport), a weathering model (derived from the SAFE model) and a simple bioturbation model. The model includes several feedbacks, such as the effect of soil organic matter on water retention and hydraulic conductivity. We encountered several important challenges when building the integrated model. First, a mechanism was developed that initiates the execution of a single time step for an individual sub-model and accounts for the relevant mass transfers between sub-models. This allows for different and sometimes variable time step duration in the submodels. Secondly, we removed duplicated processes and identified and included relevant solute production terms that had been neglected. The model is being tested against datasets obtained from several Soil Critical Zone Observatories in Europe. This contribution focuses on the design strategy for the model.

  4. FORest canopy atmosphere transfer (FORCAsT) 1.0: a 1-D model of biosphere-atmosphere chemical exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, K.; Chung, S. H.; Griffin, R. J.; Chen, J.; Forkel, R.; Bryan, A. M.; Steiner, A. L.

    2015-07-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere interactions play a critical role in governing atmospheric composition, mediating the concentration of key species such as ozone and aerosol, thereby influencing air quality and climate. The exchange of reactive trace gases and their oxidation products (both gas and particle phase) is of particular importance in this process. The FORCAsT (FORest Canopy AtmoSphere Transfer) one-dimensional model is developed to study the emission, deposition, chemistry and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their oxidation products in the atmosphere within and above the forest canopy. We include an equilibrium partitioning scheme, making FORCAsT one of the few canopy models currently capable of simulating the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from VOC oxidation in a forest environment. We evaluate the capability of FORCAsT to reproduce observed concentrations of key gas-phase species and report modeled SOA concentrations within and above a mixed forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) during the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiment (CABINEX) field campaign in summer 2009. We examine the impact of two different gas-phase chemical mechanisms on modelled concentrations of short-lived primary emissions, such as isoprene and monoterpenes, and their oxidation products. While the two chemistry schemes perform similarly under high-NOx conditions, they diverge at the low levels of NOx at UMBS. We identify peroxy radical and alkyl nitrate chemistry as the key causes of the differences, highlighting the importance of this chemistry in understanding the fate of biogenic VOCs (bVOCs) for both the modelling and measurement communities.

  5. Solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding in the Au-In system: experimental study and 1D modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deillon, Léa; Hessler-Wyser, Aïcha; Hessler, Thierry; Rappaz, Michel

    2015-12-01

    Au-In bonds with a nominal composition of about 60 at.% In were fabricated for use in wafer-level packaging of MEMS. The microstructure of the bonds was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The bond hermeticity was then assessed using oxidation of Cu thin discs predeposited within the sealed packages. The three intermetallic compounds AuIn2, AuIn and Au7In3 were observed. Their thickness evolution during bonding and after subsequent heat treatment was successfully modelled using a finite difference model of diffusion, thermodynamic data and diffusion coefficients calibrated from isothermal diffusion couples. 17% of the packages were hermetic and, although the origin of the leaks could not be clearly identified, it appeared that hermeticity was correlated with the unevenness of the metallisation and/or wafer and the fact that the bonds shrink due to density differences as the relative fractions of the various phases gradually evolve.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Grid of 1D models for Mg line formation (Osorio+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, Y.; Barklem, P. S.

    2015-11-01

    Table mgnlte.dat provides equivalent widths in LTE and non-LTE for 19 MgI spectral lines calculated in 3859 stellar atmospheres and using 21 Mg abundance per star. These data can be used to calculate abundance corrections in a broad variety of stellar models and Mg enhancements in a consistent way. The tables in data/* provides departure coefficients of the LEVEL in 10563 stellar atmospheres at 56 depth points in the atmosphere and using 21 Mg abundance values per star. These data can be used to calculate abundance corrections in a broad variety of stellar models and Mg enhancements in a consistent way. The format of the departure coefficients is the unit-less value of the ratio between the nlte and lte population of the level LEVEL of Mg. (3 data files).

  7. A mathematical model of turbulence in flows with uniform stationary velocity gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Certain cases of turbulence as a postinstability state of a fluid in motion modeled by the introduction of multivalued velocity fields are examined. The turbulence is regarded as occurring in the form of random pulsations which grow until the external energy input in the average flow is balanced by the dissipated energy of pulsations by means of turbulent friction. Closed form analytic solutions are shown to be possible when the considered velocity fields, the pulsation velocity and the fluid velocity, are decoupled.

  8. Breaking through 1D layout limitations and regaining 2D design freedom part II: stitching yield modeling and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Liu, Hongyi; Han, Ting; Chen, Yijian

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a stitch database is built from various identified stitching structures in an open-cell layout library. The corresponding stitching yield models are developed for the hybrid optical and self-aligned multiple patterning (hybrid SAMP). Based on the concept of probability-of-success (POS) function, we first develop a single-stitching yield model to quantify the effects of overlay errors and cut-hole CD variations. The overhang distance designed in a stitching process (or its mean value μ) is found to be critical to the stitching yield performance and can be optimized using this yield model. We also investigate the physical significance of several process parameters such as half pitch (HP), standard deviation (σ) of the random overhang distribution, and cut-hole CD (CL). Our study shows that certain types of stitching yield are sensitive to σ and HP, while in general high yield can be achieved for a large number of stitching types we examined. To improve the yield of certain challenging stitching structures, various layout modification strategies are proposed and discussed.

  9. Deriving Surface Soil Moisture from Medium Resolution VNIR/TIR Earth Observation Data combined with 1D simulation process model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, George P.; Carlson, Toby N.

    2013-04-01

    Earth Observation (EO) has played an imperative role in extending our abilities for obtaining information on the spatio-temporal distribution of surface soil moisture (SSM). A wide range of techniques have been proposed for this purpose, utilising spectral information acquired from remote sensing instruments operating in different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some of these methods have been based on the integration of satellite-derived estimates of Fractional Vegetation Cover (Fr) and Land Surface Temperature (Ts) in the form of a scatterplot domain, often combining simulations from land surface process model. In this work we present results from the evaluation of one such technique implemented using ENVISAT's Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) medium resolution sensor imagery and SimSphere land surface model. Validation of the derived SMC maps was undertaken in different sites in Europe representing a variety of climatic, topographic and environmental conditions, for which validated in-situ observations from diverse operational ground observational networks were available. Our results indicated a generally close agreement between the inverted SMC maps and the in-situ observations, with accuracies often comparable to previous studies implemented using different types of EO data. Comparisons of the derived SMC maps regionally against other satellite-derived products also showed largely an explainable distribution of SMC in relation to surface heterogeneity. The present work was conducted in the framework of the PROgRESSIon (Prototyping the Retrievals of Energy Fluxes and Soil Moisture Content) project, funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) Support to Science Element (STSE). The project aims at exploring the development of a series of prototype products for the estimation of turbulent heat fluxes and SMC derived from the synergy of SimSphere land surface model with EO observations from advanced technologically designed medium resolution ESA-funded or co-funded instruments. KEYWORDS: surface soil moisture, remote sensing, triangle, SimSphere, AATSR.

  10. An empirical model to forecast solar wind velocity through statistical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Ridley, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    The accurate prediction of the solar wind velocity has been a major challenge in the space weather community. Previous studies proposed many empirical and semi-empirical models to forecast the solar wind velocity based on either the historical observations, e.g. the persistence model, or the instantaneous observations of the sun, e.g. the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model. In this study, we use the one-minute WIND data from January 1995 to August 2012 to investigate and compare the performances of 4 models often used in literature, here referred to as the null model, the persistence model, the one-solar-rotation-ago model, and the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model. It is found that, measured by root mean square error, the persistence model gives the most accurate predictions within two days. Beyond two days, the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model serves as the best model, though it only slightly outperforms the null model and the one-solar-rotation-ago model. Finally, we apply the least-square regression to linearly combine the null model, the persistence model, and the one-solar-rotation-ago model to propose a 'general persistence model'. By comparing its performance against the 4 aforementioned models, it is found that the accuracy of the general persistence model outperforms the other 4 models within five days. Due to its great simplicity and superb performance, we believe that the general persistence model can serve as a benchmark in the forecast of solar wind velocity and has the potential to be modified to arrive at better models.

  11. Transient runoff-runon model for a 1-D slope with random infiltrability: flow statistics and connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harel, Marie-Alice; Mouche, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Despite the recent research focused on runoff pattern connectivity in hydrology, there is a surprising lack of theoretical knowledge regarding hillslope runoff generation and dynamics during a rainfall event. The transient problem is especially unaddressed. In this paper we propose a model based on queueing theory formalism for the infiltration-excess overland flow generation on soils with random infiltration properties. The influence of rainfall intensity and duration on runoff dynamics and connectivity is studied thanks to this model, numerical simulation and available steady-state results. We limit our study to a rainfall intensity that is a rectangular function of time. Exact solutions for the case of spatially random exponential distributions of soil infiltrability and rainfall intensity are developed. Simulations validate these analytical results and allow for the study the rising and recession limbs of the hydrograph for different rainfall characteristics. The case of a deterministic uniform rainfall rate and different infiltrability distributions is also discussed in light of runoff connectivity. We show that the connectivity framework contributes to a better understanding and prediction of runoff pattern formation and evolution with time. A fragmented overland flow is shown to have shorter charge and discharge periods after the onset and offset of rainfall compared to well connected runoff fields. These results demonstrate that the transient regime characteristics are linked with connectivity parameters, rainstorm properties and scale issues.

  12. A damage assessment model of slender bridge members based on 1D linear member theory with frequency dependent parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chih-Peng; Cheng, Chia-Chi; Lai, Jiunnren; Chiang, Chih-Hung

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a linear model with frequency dependent structural property was used to generate the corresponding frequency response function and dynamic stiffness for selected dynamic problems where certain nonlinearity can be resulted from time/space varying characteristics of the bridge vibrations. Derivation of the proposed formula is based on the vibration theory of the elementary member with frequency dependent elastic properties, in which Modulus of Elasticity can be interpreted as serial and parallel connections of springs and dashpots. This paper first describes the use of the proposed formulation to reasonably depict the nonlinear cable vibration associated with the varying tension forces over time. The proposed formulation can also be used to simulate flexural vibration of damage beams in which the elastic property involves certain space varying or time varying characteristics. Simple numerical/experimental data were next used to demonstrate and confirm the potential application of such simulation idea. Consequently, it is concluded that such assessment model with frequency dependent parameters can be practically feasible and serve as a useful tool in the spectral analysis regarding dynamic problems of slender bridge members.

  13. Evaluation of Bulk Charging in Geostationary Transfer Orbit and Earth Escape Trajectories Using the Numit 1-D Charging Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Parker, Linda N.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2007-01-01

    The NUMIT 1-dimensional bulk charging model is used as a screening to ol for evaluating time-dependent bulk internal or deep dielectric) ch arging of dielectrics exposed to penetrating electron environments. T he code is modified to accept time dependent electron flux time serie s along satellite orbits for the electron environment inputs instead of using the static electron flux environment input originally used b y the code and widely adopted in bulk charging models. Application of the screening technique ts demonstrated for three cases of spacecraf t exposure within the Earth's radiation belts including a geostationa ry transfer orbit and an Earth-Moon transit trajectory for a range of orbit inclinations. Electric fields and charge densities are compute d for dielectric materials with varying electrical properties exposed to relativistic electron environments along the orbits. Our objectiv e is to demonstrate a preliminary application of the time-dependent e nvironments input to the NUMIT code for evaluating charging risks to exposed dielectrics used on spacecraft when exposed to the Earth's ra diation belts. The results demonstrate that the NUMIT electric field values in GTO orbits with multiple encounters with the Earth's radiat ion belts are consistent with previous studies of charging in GTO orb its and that potential threat conditions for electrostatic discharge exist on lunar transit trajectories depending on the electrical proper ties of the materials exposed to the radiation environment.

  14. A time series generalized functional model based method for vibration-based damage precise localization in structures consisting of 1D, 2D, and 3D elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaris, C. S.; Sakellariou, J. S.; Fassois, S. D.

    2016-06-01

    This study focuses on the problem of vibration-based damage precise localization via data-based, time series type, methods for structures consisting of 1D, 2D, or 3D elements. A Generalized Functional Model Based method is postulated based on an expanded Vector-dependent Functionally Pooled ARX (VFP-ARX) model form, capable of accounting for an arbitrary structural topology. The FP model's operating parameter vector elements are properly constrained to reflect any given topology. Damage localization is based on operating parameter vector estimation within the specified topology, so that the location estimate and its uncertainty bounds are statistically optimal. The method's effectiveness is experimentally demonstrated through damage precise localization on a laboratory spatial truss structure using various damage scenarios and a single pair of random excitation - vibration response signals in a low and limited frequency bandwidth.

  15. Dimuon radiation at relativistic energies available at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron within a (3 + 1)D hydrodynamic + cascade model

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, E.; Steinheimer, J.; Bleicher, M.; Schramm, S.

    2011-07-15

    We analyze dilepton emission from hot and dense matter using a hybrid approach based on the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) transport model with an intermediate hydrodynamic stage for the description of heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energies. During the hydrodynamic stage, the production of lepton pairs is described by radiation rates for a strongly interacting medium in thermal equilibrium. In the low-mass region, hadronic thermal emission is evaluated by assuming vector meson dominance including in-medium modifications of the {rho} meson spectral function through scattering from nucleons and pions in the heat bath. In the intermediate-mass region, the hadronic rate is essentially determined by multipion annihilation processes. Emission from quark-antiquark annihilation in the quark gluon plasma (QGP) is taken into account as well. When the system is sufficiently dilute, the hydrodynamic description breaks down and a transition to a final cascade stage is performed. In this stage dimuon emission is evaluated as commonly done in transport models. By focusing on the enhancement with respect to the contribution from long-lived hadron decays after freezeout observed at the SPS in the low-mass region of the dilepton spectra, the relative importance of the different thermal contributions and of the two dynamical stages is investigated. We find that three separated regions can be identified in the invariant mass spectra. Whereas the very low and the intermediate-mass regions mostly receive contribution from the thermal dilepton emission, the region around the vector meson peak is dominated by the cascade emission. Above the {rho}-peak region the spectrum is driven by QGP radiation. Analysis of the dimuon transverse mass spectra reveals that the thermal hadronic emission shows an evident mass ordering not present in the emission from the QGP. A comparison of our calculation to recent acceptance-corrected NA60 data on invariant as well as transverse mass spectra is performed.

  16. Basin infilling of a schematic 1D estuary using two different approaches: an aggregate diffusive type model and a processed based model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laginha Silva, Patricia; Martins, Flávio A.; Boski, Tomász; Sampath, Dissanayake M. R.

    2010-05-01

    Fluvial sediment transport creates great challenges for river scientists and engineers. The interaction between the fluid (water) and the solid (dispersed sediment particles) phases is crucial in morphodynamics. The process of sediment transport and the resulting morphological evolution of rivers get more complex with the exposure of the fluvial systems to the natural and variable environment (climatic, geological, ecological and social, etc.). The earlier efforts in mathematical river modelling were almost exclusively built on traditional fluvial hydraulics. The last half century has seen more and more developments and applications of mathematical models for fluvial flow, sediment transport and morphological evolution. The first attempts for a quantitative description and simulation of basin filling in geological time scales started in the late 60´s of the last century (eg. Schwarzacher, 1966; Briggs & Pollack, 1967). However, the quality of this modelling practice has emerged as a crucial issue for concern, which is widely viewed as the key that could unlock the full potential of computational fluvial hydraulics. Most of the models presently used to study fluvial basin filling are of the "diffusion type" (Flemmings and Jordan, 1989). It must be noted that this type of models do not assume that the sediment transport is performed by a physical diffusive process. Rather they are synthetic models based on mass conservation. In the "synthesist" viewpoint (Tipper, 1992; Goldenfeld & Kadanoff, 1999; Werner, 1999 in Paola, 2000) the dynamics of complex systems may occur on many levels (time or space scales) and the dynamics of higher levels may be more or less independent of that at lower levels. In this type of models the low frequency dynamics is controlled by only a few important processes and the high frequency processes are not included. In opposition to this is the "reductionist" viewpoint that states that there is no objective reason to discard high frequency processes. In this viewpoint the system is broken down into its fundamental components and processes and the model is build up by selecting the important processes regardless of its time and space scale. This viewpoint was only possible to pursue in the recent years due to improvement in system knowledge and computer power (Paola, 2000). The primary aim of this paper is to demonstrate that it is possible to simulate the evolution of the sediment river bed, traditionally studied with synthetic models, with a process-based hydrodynamic, sediment transport and morphodynamic model, solving explicitly the mass and momentum conservation equations. With this objective, a comparison between two mathematical models for alluvial rivers is made to simulate the evolution of the sediment river bed of a conceptual 1D embayment for periods in the order of a thousand years: the traditional synthetic basin infilling aggregate diffusive type model based on the diffusion equation (Paola, 2000), used in the "synthesist" viewpoint and the process-based model MOHID (Miranda et al., 2000). The simulation of the sediment river bed evolution achieved by the process-based model MOHID is very similar to those obtained by the diffusive type model, but more complete due to the complexity of the process-based model. In the MOHID results it is possible to observe a more comprehensive and realistic results because this type of model include processes that is impossible to a synthetic model to describe. At last the combined effect of tide, sea level rise and river discharges was investigated in the process based model. These effects cannot be simulated using the diffusive type model. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using process based models to perform studies in scales of 10000 years. This is an advance relative to the use of synthetic models, enabling the use of variable forcing. REFERENCES • Briggs, L.I. and Pollack, H.N., 1967. Digital model of evaporate sedimentation. Science, 155, 453-456. • Flemmings, P.B. and Jordan, T.E., 1989. A synthetic stratigraphic model of foreland basin development. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 3851-3866. • Miranda, R., Braunschweig, F., Leitão, P., Neves, R., Martins, F. & Santos A., 2000. MOHID 2000 - A coastal integrated object oriented model. Proc. Hydraulic Engineering Software VIII, Lisbon, 2000, 393-401, Ed. W.R. Blain & C.A. Brebbia, WITpress. • Paola, C., 2000. Quantitative models of sedimentary basin filing. Sedimentology, 47, 121-178. • Schwarzacher, W., 1966. Sedimentation in a subsiding basin. Nature, 5043, 1349-1350. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was supported by the EVEDUS PTDC/CLI/68488/2006 Research Project

  17. Key elements of regional seismic velocity models for long period ground motion simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Regional 3-D seismic velocity models used for broadband strong motion simulations must include compressional-wave velocity (Vp), shear-wave velocity (Vs), intrinsic attenuation (Qp, Qs), and density. Vs and Qs are the most important of these parameters because the strongest ground motions are generated chiefly by shear- and surface-wave arrivals. Because Vp data are more common than Vs data, many researchers first develop a Vp model and convert it to a Vs model. I describe recent empirical relations between Vs, Vp, Qs, Qp, and density that allow velocity models to be rapidly and accurately calculated. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  18. Two-band model description of electroabsorption and third-harmonic generation in 1-D MX linear chains

    SciTech Connect

    Shuai, Z.; Bredas, J.L.; Saxena, A.; Gammel, J.T.; Bishop, A.R.

    1994-10-01

    Within a two-band model, the authors investigate the electroabsorption (EA) and third-harmonic generation (THG) processes in halogen-bridged mixed-valence Pt complexes: PtCl, PtBr and Ptl. For PtCl, the theoretical THG spectrum shows three peaks, corresponding to (i) a three-photon resonance at 0.83 eV originating in a M(etal)-M(etal) transition; (ii) a two-photon resonance at 1.5 eV from an M-M band-edge transition; and (iii) a three-photon resonance at 1.6 eV from an M-X transition. The latter two peaks account well for the twin-peak structure seen experimentally. They show that the twin-peak intensity strongly decreases from PtCl to PtBr and disappears for PtI. They also discuss the theoretical EA spectra due to localized defects (polarons, bipolarons, kinks, and excitons).

  19. Shuttle data book: SRM fragment velocity model. Presented to the SRB Fragment Model Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the velocity of fragments generated by the range safety destruction (RSD) or random failure of a Space Transportation System (STS) Solid Rocket Motor (SRM). The specific requirement was to provide a fragment model for use in those Galileo and Ulysses RTG safety analyses concerned with possible fragment impact on the spacecraft radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGS). Good agreement was obtained between predictions and observations for fragment velocity, velocity distributions, azimuths, and rotation rates. Based on this agreement with the entire data base, the model was used to predict the probable fragment environments which would occur in the event of an STS-SRM RSD or randon failure at 10, 74, 84 and 110 seconds. The results of these predictions are the basis of the fragment environments presented in the Shuttle Data Book (NSTS-08116). The information presented here is in viewgraph form.

  20. A comparison of 1D analytical model and 3D finite element analysis with experiments for a rosen-type piezoelectric transformer.

    PubMed

    Boukazouha, F; Poulin-Vittrant, G; Tran-Huu-Hue, L P; Bavencoffe, M; Boubenider, F; Rguiti, M; Lethiecq, M

    2015-07-01

    This article is dedicated to the study of Piezoelectric Transformers (PTs), which offer promising solutions to the increasing need for integrated power electronics modules within autonomous systems. The advantages offered by such transformers include: immunity to electromagnetic disturbances; ease of miniaturisation for example, using conventional micro fabrication processes; and enhanced performance in terms of voltage gain and power efficiency. Central to the adequate description of such transformers is the need for complex analytical modeling tools, especially if one is attempting to include combined contributions due to (i) mechanical phenomena owing to the different propagation modes which differ at the primary and secondary sides of the PT; and (ii) electrical phenomena such as the voltage gain and power efficiency, which depend on the electrical load. The present work demonstrates an original one-dimensional (1D) analytical model, dedicated to a Rosen-type PT and simulation results are successively compared against that of a three-dimensional (3D) Finite Element Analysis (COMSOL Multiphysics software) and experimental results. The Rosen-type PT studied here is based on a single layer soft PZT (P191) with corresponding dimensions 18 mm × 3 mm × 1.5 mm, which operated at the second harmonic of 176 kHz. Detailed simulational and experimental results show that the presented 1D model predicts experimental measurements to within less than 10% error of the voltage gain at the second and third resonance frequency modes. Adjustment of the analytical model parameters is found to decrease errors relative to experimental voltage gain to within 1%, whilst a 2.5% error on the output admittance magnitude at the second resonance mode were obtained. Relying on the unique assumption of one-dimensionality, the present analytical model appears as a useful tool for Rosen-type PT design and behavior understanding. PMID:25753623

  1. Velocity measurements in jets with application to noise source modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Philip J.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of the statistical properties of turbulent velocity fluctuations in an axisymmetric jet. The focus is on those properties that are relevant to the prediction of noise. Measurements are performed using two single hot-wire anemometers as well as a two-component anemometer. Two-point cross correlations of the axial velocity fluctuations and of the fluctuations in the square of the axial velocity fluctuations are presented. Several reference locations in the jet are used including points on the jet lip and centerline. The scales of the turbulence and the convection velocity are determined, both in an overall sense as well as a function of frequency. The relationship between the second and fourth order correlations is developed and compared with the experimental data. The implications of the use of dimensional as well as non-dimensional correlations are considered. Finally, a comparison is made between the length scales deduced from the flow measurements and a RANS CFD calculation.

  2. Investigation of D1 Receptor–Agonist Interactions and D1/D2 Agonist Selectivity Using a Combination of Pharmacophore and Receptor Homology Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Malo, Marcus; Brive, Lars; Luthman, Kristina; Svensson, Peder

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use a combined structure and pharmacophore modeling approach to extract information regarding dopamine D1 receptor agonism and D1/D2 agonist selectivity. A 3D structure model of the D1 receptor in its agonist-bound state was constructed with a full D1 agonist present in the binding site. Two different binding modes were identified using (+)-doxanthrine or SKF89626 in the modeling procedure. The 3D model was further compared with a selective D1 agonist pharmacophore model. The pharmacophore feature arrangement was found to be in good agreement with the binding site composition of the receptor model, but the excluded volumes did not fully reflect the shape of the agonist binding pocket. A new receptor-based pharmacophore model was developed with forbidden volumes centered on atom positions of amino acids in the binding site. The new pharmacophore model showed a similar ability to discriminate as the previous model. A comparison of the 3D structures and pharmacophore models of D1 and D2 receptors revealed differences in shape and ligand-interacting features that determine selectivity of D1 and D2 receptor agonists. A hydrogen bond pharmacophoric feature (Ser-TM5) was shown to contribute most to the selectivity. Non-conserved residues in the binding pocket that strongly contribute to D1/D2 receptor agonist selectivity were also identified; those were Ser/Cys3.36, Tyr/Phe5.38, Ser/Tyr5.41, and Asn/His6.55 in the transmembrane (TM) helix region, together with Ser/Ile and Leu/Asn in the second extracellular loop (EC2). This work provides useful information for the design of new selective D1 and D2 agonists. The combined receptor structure and pharmacophore modeling approach is considered to be general, and could therefore be applied to other ligand–protein interactions for which experimental information is limited. PMID:22315216

  3. Sub-grid Parameterization of Cumulus Vertical Velocities for Climate and Numerical Weather Prediction Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, William; Donner, Leo

    2015-04-01

    Microphysical and aerosol processes determine the magnitude of climate forcing by aerosol-cloud interactions, are central aspects of cloud-climate feedback, and are important elements in weather systems for which accurate forecasting is a major goal of numerical weather prediction. Realistic simulation of these processes demands not only accurate microphysical and aerosol process representations but also realistic simulation of the vertical motions in which the aerosols and microphysics act. Aerosol activation, for example, is a strong function of vertical velocity. Cumulus parameterizations for climate and numerical weather prediction models have recently begun to include vertical velocities among the statistics they predict. These vertical velocities have been subject to only limited evaluation using observed vertical velocities. Deployments of multi-Doppler radars and dual-frequency profilers in recent field campaigns have substantially increased the observational base of cumulus vertical velocities, which for decades had been restricted mostly to GATE observations. Observations from TWP-ICE (Darwin, Australia) and MC3E (central United States) provide previously unavailable information on the vertical structure of cumulus vertical velocities and observations in differing synoptic contexts from those available in the past. They also provide an opportunity to independently evaluate cumulus parameterizations with vertical velocities tuned to earlier GATE observations. This presentation will compare vertical velocities observed in TWP-ICE and MC3E with cumulus vertical velocities using the parameterization in the GFDL CM3 climate model. Single-column results indicate parameterized vertical velocities are frequently greater than observed. Errors in parameterized vertical velocities exhibit similarities to vertical velocities explicitly simulated by cloud-system resolving models, and underlying issues in the treatment of microphysics may be important for both. The dependence of convective microphysical properties on vertical velocities and consequences for microphysics of simulation errors will be illustrated. Underlying limitations in the parameterization and model resolution will be discussed as explanations for differences between observed and simulated vertical velocities.

  4. A comparative study of velocity increment generation between the rigid body and flexible models of MMET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Norilmi Amilia

    2016-02-01

    The motorized momentum exchange tether (MMET) is capable of generating useful velocity increments through spin-orbit coupling. This study presents a comparative study of the velocity increments between the rigid body and flexible models of MMET. The equations of motions of both models in the time domain are transformed into a function of true anomaly. The equations of motion are integrated, and the responses in terms of the velocity increment of the rigid body and flexible models are compared and analysed. Results show that the initial conditions, eccentricity, and flexibility of the tether have significant effects on the velocity increments of the tether.

  5. Solar velocity references from 3D HD photospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Cruz Rodrguez, J.; Kiselman, D.; Carlsson, M.

    2011-04-01

    Context. The measurement of Doppler velocities in spectroscopic solar observations requires a reference for the local frame of rest. The rotational and radial velocities of the Earth and the rotation of the Sun introduce velocity offsets in the observations. Normally, good references for velocities are missing (e.g. telluric lines), especially in filter-based spectropolarimetric observations. Aims: We determine an absolute reference for line-of-sight velocities measured from solar observations for any heliocentric angle, calibrating the convective line shift of spatially-averaged profiles on quiet sun from a 3D hydrodynamical simulation. This method works whenever there is quiet sun in the field-of-view, and it has the advantage of being relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the atomic data. Methods: We carry out radiative transfer computations in LTE for selected C i and Fe i lines, whereas the Ca ii infrared lines are synthesized in non-LTE. Radiative transfer calculations are done with a modified version of Multi, using the snapshots of a non-magnetic 3D hydrodynamical simulation of the photosphere. Results: The resulting synthetic profiles show the expected C-shaped bisector at disk center. The degree of asymmetry and the line shifts, however, show a clear dependence on the heliocentric angle and the properties of the lines. The profiles at ? = 1 are compared with observed profiles to prove their reliability, and they are tested against errors induced by the LTE calculations, inaccuracies in the atomic data and the 3D simulation. Conclusions: Theoretical quiet-sun profiles of lines commonly used by solar observers are provided to the community. Those can be used as absolute references for line-of-sight velocities. The limb effect is produced by the projection of the 3D atmosphere along the line of sight. Non-LTE effects on Fe i lines are found to have a small impact on the convective shifts of the lines, reinforcing the usability of the LTE approximation in this case. We estimate the precision of the disk-center line shifts to be approximately 50 m s-1, but the off-center profiles remain to be tested against observations. The spectral profiles are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/528/A113

  6. Impact of river bed morphology on discharge and water levels simulated by a 1D Saint-Venant hydraulic model at regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, F.; Ducharne, A.; Flipo, N.; Oudin, L.; Ledoux, E.

    2013-01-01

    SummaryRiver cross-sections data are required to represent channel geometry in hydrodynamic models. In the absence of accurate data at regional scale, simplified or parameterized cross sections are often used, which might affect the performance of the hydrodynamic model. In this study we assess the sensitivity of a 1D Saint-Venant hydraulic model to different types of river morphological data. The question is addressed using a 1D unsteady hydraulic model (HEC-RAS), with lateral inflows provided by the hydro(geo)logical model Eau-Dyssée, to explore a wide spectrum of river geometry scenarios, regarding river bed slopes and cross-sectional shapes. The target scale is the one of the Seine River (France). As a gateway for larger and more complex regional hydro(geo)logical applications, our case-study covers a well-described 89-km reach in a sub-tributary of the Seine River. River morphology is described by high-resolution cross-sections, and Manning's roughness coefficient (n) is used for calibration against observed discharges and river stages in a mid-reach control point, with satisfactory performances over the 8-year simulation period. The resulting model still simulates realistic discharge hydrographs when forced with degraded channel geometry data, using either fewer cross-sections or approximated ones. In such cases, however, the hydraulic model does not always satisfactorily predict the associated water levels when compared to observations. In certain geometry scenarios, the RMSE between simulated water levels using degraded geometry and observations may go up to 0.3 m. The study confirms that the accuracy of predicted water levels and maximum water depths simulated by a Saint-Venant model relies on an accurate representation of channel geometry and bed level slopes along the river reach. From the various scenarios, it appears that the longitudinal description of the bed level profiles has a larger impact on the simulation of water levels than the cross-sectional shapes. This offers interesting implications for flood forecast mapping applications and regional scale models that often use simplified river geometry and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) built by remote sensing technologies to simulate the water levels.

  7. Mw5.5 Aftershock of the 2009 L'Aquila, Italy, Earthquake: Broadband Composite Source Modeling with 1D Deterministic Green's Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallovic, Frantisek; Pacor, Francesca; Zahradnik, Jiri; Luzi, Lucia; Puglia, Rodolfo; D'Amico, Maria

    2014-05-01

    We perform an extended study of the largest aftershock of the Mw6.3 2009 L'Aquila, Italy, earthquake, based on low-frequency inversion and broadband simulation of strong-motion data. The Mw5.5 aftershock occurred on April 7 and was recorded by ~30 permanent and temporal accelerometric stations located within 50km from the epicenter. Using ISOLA software we perform a CMT inversion, finding the centroid at 15km depth in agreement with previous studies. Distribution of relocated small aftershocks by Valoroso et al. (2013) suggests that the event ruptured a normal fault dipping NE at 60 degrees, antithetic to the major L'Aquila fault. To better constrain the source model, we invert strong-motion data in the frequency range 0.1-0.5 Hz, considering a finite-extent fault with homogenous slip and radial propagation at constant speed. We estimate fault dimension of 6x6km, static stress drop of 10 MPa (relatively low with respect to other studies), and find a weak indication of bilateral rupture propagation. These features are used to setup a broadband (0-10Hz) composite source model with fractal number-size distribution of overlapping subsources. The Green's functions are calculated in 1D layered medium in the full frequency range, assuming shallow site-specific structure, wherever available, and an average profile for generic rock stations; no stochastic Green's functions are used. At stations with not very strong site effects, the fit between synthetic and observed waveforms is generally good. Careful analysis of S-wave group polarization at high frequencies reveals that while some stations retain the predominantly linear polarization in accordance with the 1D modeling, other stations show a peculiar mismatch. The high-frequency mismatch appears either as the occurrence of random circular polarization, or as a variation of the angle characterizing the linear polarization. We discuss these observations in terms of crustal heterogeneity and azimuthally dependent site amplification.

  8. A Velocity Distribution Model for Steady State Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Eric B.

    1996-01-01

    Consider a box that is filled with an ideal gas and that is aligned along Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) having until length in the 'y' direction and unspecified length in the 'x' and 'z' directions. Heat is applied uniformly over the 'hot' end of the box (y = 1) and is removed uniformly over the 'cold' end (y = O) at a constant rate such that the ends of the box are maintained at temperatures T(sub 0) at y = O and T(sub 1) at y = 1. Let U, V, and W denote the respective velocity components of a molecule inside the box selected at some random time and at some location (x, y, z). If T(sub 0) = T(sub 1), then U, Y, and W are mutually independent and Gaussian, each with mean zero and variance RT(sub 0), where R is the gas constant. When T(sub 0) does not equal T(sub 1) the velocity components are not independent and are not Gaussian. Our objective is to characterize the joint distribution of the velocity components U, Y, and W as a function of y, and, in particular, to characterize the distribution of V given y. It is hoped that this research will lead to an increased physical understanding of the nature of turbulence.

  9. Velocity model calibration as a tool to improve regional wave moment tensors: Application to the Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinose, G. A.

    2006-12-01

    Many scientific issues for the Basin and Range Province (BRP) remain unsettled including structural evolution, strain rates, slip partitioning and earthquake source physics. A catalog of earthquake source parameters including locations and moment tensors is the basis for tectonic and geophysical study. New instrumentation from the Advance National Seismic System, EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, Bigfoot and US-Array brings the opportunity for high quality research; therefore, a catalog is an underlying foundation for examining the BRP. We are continuing to generate a moment tensor catalog for the BRP (Mw<3.5) using long-period regional waves spanning back to 1990. Iterative waveform inversion method (e.g., Nolet et al., 1986, Randell, 1994) is used to calibrate the BRP velocity and density structure using two northern and southern BRP earthquakes. The calibrated models generate realistic synthetics for (f<0.5Hz) with ~50-80% variance reduction. We averaged all path specific models to construct a 1-D BRP community background model. The crust is relatively simple between 5-20km (~6.12km/s) and there is a strong velocity gradient in the upper 5- km. There are lower velocities in the upper crust but higher velocities in the mid-crust for the Sierra Nevada paths relative to BRP. There is also a lower crust high-velocity anomaly near Battle Mountain and Elko that is faster by ~5% and may indicate a wider area of under-plating by basaltic magmas. There are significant low velocity zones in the upper and mid crust mainly across the Walker Lane Belt that may indicate the presence of fluids. We are continuing to work on assessing the performance of these newly calibrated models in improving the estimation of moment tensors down to lower magnitudes and mapping out holes in the seismic network which can be filled to improve moment tensor catalog. We also are looking at how these models work at locating earthquakes and comparing synthetics with those computed from models constrained from different data including refraction, surface wave dispersion, and travel-time tomography.

  10. Kinematic and diabatic vertical velocity climatologies from a chemistry climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, C. M.; Ploeger, F.; Konopka, P.; Müller, R.

    2015-11-01

    The representation of vertical velocity in chemistry climate models is a key element for the representation of the large scale Brewer-Dobson-Circulation in the stratosphere. Here, we diagnose and compare the kinematic and diabatic vertical velocities in the ECHAM/Messy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. The calculation of kinematic vertical velocity is based on the continuity equation, whereas diabatic vertical velocity is computed using diabatic heating rates. Annual and monthly zonal mean climatologies of vertical velocity from a 10 year simulation are provided for both, kinematic and diabatic vertical velocity representations. In general, both vertical velocity patterns show the main features of the stratospheric circulation, namely upwelling at low latitudes and downwelling at high latitudes. The main difference in the vertical velocity pattern is a more uniform structure for diabatic and a noisier structure for kinematic vertical velocity. Diabatic vertical velocities show higher absolute values both in the upwelling branch in the inner tropics and in the downwelling regions in the polar vortices. Further, there is a latitudinal shift of the tropical upwelling branch in boreal summer between the two vertical velocity representations with the tropical upwelling region in the diabatic representation shifted southward compared to the kinematic case. Furthermore, we present mean age of air climatologies from two transport schemes in EMAC using these different vertical velocities. The age of air distributions show a hemispheric difference pattern in the stratosphere with younger air in the Southern Hemisphere and older air in the Northern Hemisphere using the transport scheme with diabatic vertical velocities. Further, the age of air climatology from the transport scheme using diabatic vertical velocities shows younger mean age of air in the inner tropical upwelling branch and older mean age in the extratopical tropopause region.

  11. Velocity mapping and models of the elliptical galaxies NGC 720, NGC 1052, and NGC 4697

    SciTech Connect

    Binney, J.J.; Davies, R.L.; Illingworth, G.D. Oxford Univ. National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ California Univ., Santa Cruz )

    1990-09-01

    CCD surface photometry and extensive long-slit spectroscopy are used to construct detailed models of the flattened ellipticals NGC 720, 1052, and 4697. The models are combined with the Jeans equations to yield predicted fields of line-of-sight velocity dispersion and streaming velocity. By comparing these fields with observed velocities, it is concluded that none of these systems can have isotropic velocity dispersion tensors, and diminishing the assumed inclination of any given galaxy tends to decrease the line-of-sight velocity dispersion and, counterintuitively, to increase the line-of-sight rotation speeds. The ratio of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion along the minor axis to that along the major axis is found to be a sensitive diagnostic of the importance of a third integral for the galaxy's structure. 48 refs.

  12. Velocity mapping and models of the elliptical galaxies NGC 720, NGC 1052, and NGC 4697

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binney, J. J.; Davies, Roger L.; Illingworth, Garth D.

    1990-01-01

    CCD surface photometry and extensive long-slit spectroscopy are used to construct detailed models of the flattened ellipticals NGC 720, 1052, and 4697. The models are combined with the Jeans equations to yield predicted fields of line-of-sight velocity dispersion and streaming velocity. By comparing these fields with observed velocities, it is concluded that none of these systems can have isotropic velocity dispersion tensors, and diminishing the assumed inclination of any given galaxy tends to decrease the line-of-sight velocity dispersion and, counterintuitively, to increase the line-of-sight rotation speeds. The ratio of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion along the minor axis to that along the major axis is found to be a sensitive diagnostic of the importance of a third integral for the galaxy's structure.

  13. Impact of sea-surface dust radiative forcing on the oceanic primary production: A 1D modeling approach applied to the West African coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc, Mallet; Chami, Malik; Gentili, Bernard; Sempéré, Richard; Dubuisson, P.

    2009-08-01

    The impact of the dust sea-surface forcing (DSSF) on the oceanic Primary Production (PP) is investigated here by using 1D modelling approach coupling an atmospheric radiative transfer model and a simple PP model. Simulations reveal that dust are able to induce a significant decrease of PP due to the attenuation of light by about 15-25% for dust optical depth (DOD) larger than 0.6-0.7 (at 550 nm). For DOD lower than ˜0.2-0.3, the influence of dust on PP is weak (˜5%). In addition to DOD, the important role played by dust single scattering albedo (DSSA) is also shown. Realistic applications over the Senegal coast are studied using SeaWiFS and AERONET observations. The analysis showed that PP could be reduced by about 15-20% during the spring period. This study highlights that dust/light interactions need to be parameterized in coupled ocean-atmosphere models used to estimate PP at regional scales.

  14. Examining the Role of CD1d and Natural Killer T Cells in the Development of Nephritis in a Genetically Susceptible Lupus Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun-Qi; Wen, Xiangshu; Liu, Hongzhu; Folayan, Gbolahan; Dong, Xin; Zhou, Min; Van Kaer, Luc; Singh, Ram Raj

    2008-01-01

    Objective CD1d-reactive invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells secrete multiple cytokines upon T cell receptor (TCR) engagement and modulate many immune-mediated conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of these cells in the development of autoimmune disease in genetically lupus-prone (NZB × NZW)F1 (BWF1) mice. Methods The CD1d1-null genotype was crossed onto the NZB and NZW backgrounds to establish CD1d1-knockout (CD1d0) BWF1 mice. CD1d0 mice and their wild-type littermates were monitored for the development of nephritis and assessed for cytokine responses to CD1d-restricted glycolipid α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer), anti-CD3 antibody, and con-canavalin A (Con A). Thymus and spleen cells were stained with CD1d tetramers that had been loaded with αGalCer or its analog PBS-57 to detect iNKT cells, and the cells were compared between BWF1 mice and class II major histocompatibility complex–matched nonautoimmune strains, including BALB/c, (BALB/c × NZW)F1 (CWF1), and NZW. Results CD1d0 BWF1 mice had more severe nephritis than did their wild-type littermates. Although iNKT cells and iNKT cell responses were absent in CD1d0 BWF1 mice, the CD1d0 mice continued to have significant numbers of interferon-γ–producing NKT-like (CD1d-independent TCRβ+,NK1.1+ and/or DX5+) cells. CD1d deficiency also influenced cytokine responses by conventional T cells: upon in vitro stimulation of splenocytes with Con A or anti-CD3, type 2 cytokine levels were reduced, whereas type 1 cytokine levels were increased or unchanged in CD1d0 mice as compared with their wild-type littermates. Additionally, numbers of thymic iNKT cells were lower in young wild-type BWF1 mice than in nonautoimmune strains. Conclusion Germline deletion of CD1d exacerbates lupus in BWF1 mice. This finding, together with reduced thymic iNKT cells in young BWF1 mice as compared with nonautoimmune strains, implies a regulatory role of CD1d and iNKT cells during the development of lupus. PMID:17393451

  15. A lithospheric velocity model for the flat slab region of Argentina from joint inversion of Rayleigh-wave dispersion and teleseismic receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammirati, J. B.; Alvarado, P. M.; Beck, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Receiver Function (RF) analyses using teleseismic P waveforms is a technique to isolate P to S conversions from seismic discontinuities in the lithosphere. Using earthquakes with a good azimuthal distribution, RFs recorded at a three-component seismic station can be inverted to obtain detailed lithospheric velocity structures. The technique, however presents a velocity-depth trade-off, which results in a non-unique model because RFs do not depend on the absolute seismic velocities but rather on relative velocity contrasts. Unlike RF, surface wave dispersion is sensitive to the average shear-wave velocity which makes it well suited for studying long period variations of the lithospheric seismic velocities. We performed a joint inversion of RF and Rayleigh-wave phase velocity dispersion to investigate the structure beneath the SIEMBRA network, a 43-broadband-seismic-station array deployed in the Pampean flat slab region of Argentina. Our results indicate: 1) The presence of several mid-crustal discontinuities probably related with terrane accretion; 2) A high seismic velocity in the lower crust suggesting partial eclogitization; 3) A thicker crust (> 50 km) beneath the western Sierras Pampeanas with an abrupt change in the relative timing of the Moho signal indicating a thinner crust to the east; 4) The presence of the subducting oceanic crust lying at ~100 km depth. We then built a 1D regional velocity model for the flat slab region of Argentina and used it for regional moment tensor inversions for local earthquakes. This technique is notably dependent on small-scale variations of Earth structure when modeling higher frequency seismic waveforms. Eighteen regional focal mechanisms have been determined. Our solutions are in good agreement with GCMT source estimations although our solutions for deep earthquakes systematically resulted in shallower focal depths suggesting that the slab seismicity could be concentrated at the top of the subducting Nazca plate. Solutions corresponding to crustal events match well the geological observations from other studies.

  16. A 3-D velocity model for earthquake location from combined geological and geophysical data: a case study from the TABOO near fault observatory (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre, Diana; Lupattelli, Andrea; Mirabella, Francesco; Trippetta, Fabio; Valoroso, Luisa; Lomax, Anthony; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Collettini, Cristiano; Chiaraluce, Lauro

    2014-05-01

    Accurate hypocenter location at the crustal scale strongly depends on our knowledge of the 3D velocity structure. The integration of geological and geophysical data, when available, should contribute to a reliable seismic velocity model in order to guarantee high quality earthquake locations as well as their consistency with the geological structure. Here we present a 3D, P- and S-wave velocity model of the Upper Tiber valley region (Northern Apennines) retrieved by combining an extremely robust dataset of surface and sub-surface geological data (seismic reflection profiles and boreholes), in situ and laboratory velocity measurements, and earthquake data. The study area is a portion of the Apennine belt undergoing active extension where a set of high-angle normal faults is detached on the Altotiberina low-angle normal fault (ATF). From 2010, this area hosts a scientific infrastructure (the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory, TABOO; http://taboo.rm.ingv.it/), consisting of a dense array of multi-sensor stations, devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the deformation processes along the ATF fault system. The proposed 3D velocity model is a layered model in which irregular shaped surfaces limit the boundaries between main lithological units. The model has been constructed by interpolating depth converted seismic horizons interpreted along 40 seismic reflection profiles (down to 4s two way travel times) that have been calibrated with 6 deep boreholes (down to 5 km depth) and constrained by detailed geological maps and structural surveys data. The layers of the model are characterized by similar rock types and seismic velocity properties. The P- and S-waves velocities for each layer have been derived from velocity measurements coming from both boreholes (sonic logs) and laboratory, where measurements have been performed on analogue natural samples increasing confining pressure in order to simulate crustal conditions. In order to test the 3D velocity model, we located a selected dataset of the 2010-2013 TABOO catalogue, which is composed of about 30,000 micro-earthquakes (see Valoroso et al., same session). Earthquake location was performed by applying the global-search earthquake location method NonLinLoc, which is able to manage strong velocity contrasts as that observed in the study area. The model volume is 65km x 55km x 20km and is parameterized by constant velocity, cubic cells of side 100 m. For comparison, we applied the same inversion code by using the best 1D model of the area obtained with earthquake data. The results show a significant quality improvement with the 3D model both in terms of location parameters and correlation between seismicity distribution and known geological structures.

  17. Behavioral abnormalities in APPSwe/PS1dE9 mouse model of AD-like pathology: comparative analysis across multiple behavioral domains.

    PubMed

    Janus, Christopher; Flores, Abigail Y; Xu, Guilian; Borchelt, David R

    2015-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by dysfunction in cognitive and noncognitive domains with clinical diagnosis based on multiple neuropsychological tests. Here, we evaluated cognitive and noncognitive behaviors in 2 age cohorts (8 and 14 months at the start of the study) of APPSwe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice that model AD-like amyloidosis. We used a battery of tests that included fear-conditioned context and tone memories, swimming activity, and orientation to a proximal cue in a visible platform water maze test and burrowing and nest building activity. To compare the performance of mice across all tests, we used z-score normalization of data. The analyses revealed that the behavior of the transgenic mice was significantly compromised in cognitive as well as in noncognitive domains. Combining scores across multiple behavioral tests produced an integrated index characterizing the overall phenotypic abnormality in this model of AD-like amyloidosis. Assessing multiple behavioral domains provides a broader view of the breadth of impairments in multiple behavioral systems. Greater implementation of such approaches could enable reliable and clinically predictive evaluation of therapeutics in mouse models of amyloidosis. PMID:26089165

  18. PPARγ agonist pioglitazone improves cerebellar dysfunction at pre-Aβ deposition stage in APPswe/PS1dE9 Alzheimer's disease model mice.

    PubMed

    Toba, Junya; Nikkuni, Miyu; Ishizeki, Masato; Yoshii, Aya; Watamura, Naoto; Inoue, Takafumi; Ohshima, Toshio

    2016-05-13

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the best known neurodegenerative diseases; it causes dementia and its pathological features include accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. Elevated Cdk5 activity and CRMP2 phosphorylation have been reported in the brains of AD model mice at the early stage of the disease, but the significance thereof in human AD remains unelucidated. We have recently reported that Aβ accumulation in the cerebellum of AD model APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice, and cerebellar dysfunctions, such as impairment of motor coordination ability and long-term depression (LTD) induction, at the pre-Aβ accumulation stage. In the present study, we found increased phosphorylation levels of CRMP2 as well as increased p35 protein levels in the cerebellum of APP/PS1 mice. Interestingly, we show that pioglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, normalized the p35 protein and CRMP2 phosphorylation levels in the cerebellum. Impaired motor coordination ability and LTD in APP/PS1 mice were ameliorated by pioglitazone treatment at the pre-Aβ accumulation stage. These results suggest a correlation between CRMP2 phosphorylation and AD pathophysiology, and indicate the effectiveness of pioglitazone treatment at the pre-Aβ accumulation stage in AD model mice. PMID:27059136

  19. Recent Advances in the Modeling of the Transport of Two-Plasmon-Decay Electrons in the 1-D Hydrodynamic Code LILAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delettrez, J. A.; Myatt, J. F.; Yaakobi, B.

    2015-11-01

    The modeling of the fast-electron transport in the 1-D hydrodynamic code LILAC was modified because of the addition of cross-beam-energy-transfer (CBET) in implosion simulations. Using the old fast-electron with source model CBET results in a shift of the peak of the hard x-ray (HXR) production from the end of the laser pulse, as observed in experiments, to earlier in the pulse. This is caused by a drop in the laser intensity of the quarter-critical surface from CBET interaction at lower densities. Data from simulations with the laser plasma simulation environment (LPSE) code will be used to modify the source algorithm in LILAC. In addition, the transport model in LILAC has been modified to include deviations from the straight-line algorithm and non-specular reflection at the sheath to take into account the scattering from collisions and magnetic fields in the corona. Simulation results will be compared with HXR emissions from both room-temperature plastic and cryogenic target experiments. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  20. DNS evaluation of Reynolds stress models and Generalized Langevin models using velocity-acceleration correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xinyu; Mathioudakis, Alexandros

    2015-11-01

    Velocity-acceleration correlation is used to evaluate the pressure-rate-of-strain term for Reynolds-stress based models and the drift coefficient in the generalized Langevin model. The direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a non-premixed temporally-evolving slot jet flame and a premixed temporally-evolving slot jet flame are used. Both flames feature moderate Reynolds numbers, as well as highly anisotropic and inhomogeneous flow environment. Good agreement is achieved between turbulent statistics obtained from velocity-acceleration correlation and those obtained directly from DNS. Different filter sizes are then applied to the DNS database to further test the feasibility of representing pressure-rate-of-strain term and the drift coefficient using velocity-acceleration correlation in experiments or large eddy simulations. Behaviors of turbulent statistics obtained from the premixed flame and those from the nonpremixed flame are analyzed. Finally, the applicability of existing generalized Langevin model coefficients to flame simulations is discussed. The authors acknowledge Dr. Jacqueline Chen for providing access to the DNS database and computing resources.

  1. Self-healing slip pulses in dynamic rupture models due to velocity-dependent strength

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Tullis, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    Seismological observations of short slip duration on faults (short rise time on seismograms) during earthquakes are not consistent with conventional crack models of dynamic rupture and fault slip. In these models, the leading edge of rupture stops only when a strong region is encountered, and slip at an interior point ceases only when waves from the stopped edge of slip propagate back to that point. In contrast, some seismological evidence suggests that the duration of slip is too short for waves to propagate from the nearest edge of the ruptured surface, perhaps even if the distance used is an asperity size instead of the entire rupture dimension. What controls slip duration, if not dimensions of the fault or of asperities? In this study, dynamic earthquake rupture and slip are represented by a propagating shear crack. For all propagating shear cracks, slip velocity is highest near the rupture front, and at a small distance behind the rupture front, the slip velocity decreases. As pointed out by Heaton (1990), if the crack obeys a negative slip-rate-dependent strength relation, the lower slip velocity behind the rupture front will lead to strengthening that further reduces the velocity, and under certain circumstances, healing of slip can occur. The boundary element method of Hamano (1974) is used in a program adapted from Andrews (1985) for numerical simulations of mode II rupture with two different velocity-dependent strength functions. For the first function, after a slip-weakening displacement, the crack follows an exponential velocity-weakening relation. The characteristic velocity V0 of the exponential determines the magnitude of the velocity-dependence at dynamic velocities. The velocity-dependence at high velocity is essentially zero when V0 is small and the resulting slip velocity distribution is similar to slip weakening. If V0 is larger, rupture propagation initially resembles slip-weakening, but spontaneous healing occurs behind the rupture front. The rise time and rupture propagation velocity depend on the choice of constitutive parameters. The second strength function is a natural log velocity-dependent form similar to constitutive laws that fit experimental rock friction data at lower velocities. Slip pulses also arise with this function. For a reasonable choice of constitutive parameters, slip pulses with this function do not propagate at speeds greater than the Raleighwave velocity. The calculated slip pulses are similar in many aspects to seismic observations of short rise time. In all cases of self-healing slip pulses, the residual stress increases with distance behind the trailing edge of the pulse so that the final stress drop is much less than the dynamic stress drop, in agreement with the model of Brune (1976) and some recent seismological observations of rupture.

  2. Forest-atmosphere BVOC exchange in diverse and structurally complex canopies: 1-D modeling of a mid-successional forest in northern Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Alexander M.; Cheng, Susan J.; Ashworth, Kirsti; Guenther, Alex B.; Hardiman, Brady S.; Bohrer, Gil; Steiner, Allison L.

    2015-11-01

    Foliar emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC)-important precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols-vary widely by vegetation type. Modeling studies to date typically represent the canopy as a single dominant tree type or a blend of tree types, yet many forests are diverse with trees of varying height. To assess the sensitivity of biogenic emissions to tree height variation, we compare two 1-D canopy model simulations in which BVOC emission potentials are homogeneous or heterogeneous with canopy depth. The heterogeneous canopy emulates the mid-successional forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). In this case, high-isoprene-emitting foliage (e.g., aspen and oak) is constrained to the upper canopy, where higher sunlight availability increases the light-dependent isoprene emission, leading to 34% more isoprene and its oxidation products as compared to the homogeneous simulation. Isoprene declines from aspen mortality are 10% larger when heterogeneity is considered. Overall, our results highlight the importance of adequately representing complexities of forest canopy structure when simulating light-dependent BVOC emissions and chemistry.

  3. Butyrylcholinesterase is Associated with β-Amyloid Plaques in the Transgenic APPSWE/PSEN1dE9 Mouse Model of Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Darvesh, Sultan; Cash, Meghan K.; Reid, G. Andrew; Martin, Earl; Mitnitski, Arnold; Geula, Changiz

    2011-01-01

    Histochemical analysis of Alzheimer disease (AD) brain tissues indicates that butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) is present in β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques. The role of BuChE in AD pathology is unknown but an animal model developing similar BuChE-associated Aβ plaques could provide insights. The APPSWE/PSEN1dE9 mouse (ADTg), which develops Aβ plaques, was examined to determine if BuChE associates with these plaques, as in AD. We found that in mature ADTg mice, BuChE activity associated with Aβ plaques. Aβ-, thioflavin-S- and BuChE-positive plaques mainly accumulated in olfactory structures, cerebral cortex, hippocampal formation, amygdala and cerebellum. No plaques were stained for acetylcholinesterase activity. The distribution and abundance of plaque staining in ADTg closely resembled many aspects of plaque staining in AD. BuChE staining consistently showed fewer plaques than were detected with Aβ immunostaining but a greater number of plaques than were visualized with thioflavin-S. Double-labelling experiments demonstrated that all BuChE-positive plaques were Aβ-positive while only some BuChE-positive plaques were thioflavin-S-positive. These observations suggest that BuChE is associated with a subpopulation of Aβ plaques and may play a role in AD plaque maturation. Further study of this animal model could clarify the role of BuChE in AD pathology. PMID:22157615

  4. Forest-atmosphere BVOC exchange in diverse and structurally complex canopies: 1-D modeling of a mid-successional forest in northern Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Alexander M.; Cheng, Susan J.; Ashworth, Kirsti; Guenther, Alex B.; Hardiman, Brady; Bohrer, Gil; Steiner, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    Foliar emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC)dimportant precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosolsdvary widely by vegetation type. Modeling studies to date typi-cally represent the canopy as a single dominant tree type or a blend of tree types, yet many forests are diverse with trees of varying height. To assess the sensitivity of biogenic emissions to tree height vari-ation, we compare two 1-D canopy model simulations in which BVOC emission potentials are homo-geneous or heterogeneous with canopy depth. The heterogeneous canopy emulates the mid-successional forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). In this case, high-isoprene-emitting fo-liage (e.g., aspen and oak) is constrained to the upper canopy, where higher sunlight availability increases the light-dependent isoprene emission, leading to 34% more isoprene and its oxidation products as compared to the homogeneous simulation. Isoprene declines from aspen mortality are 10% larger when heterogeneity is considered. Overall, our results highlight the importance of adequately representing complexities of forest canopy structure when simulating light-dependent BVOC emissions and chemistry.

  5. Hypocenter relocation using a fast grid search method and a 3-D seismic velocity model for the Sumatra region

    SciTech Connect

    Nugroho, Hendro; Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2013-09-09

    Determination of earthquake hypocenter in Indonesia conducted by the Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (MCGA) has still used a 1-D seismic velocity model. In this research, we have applied a Fast Grid Search (FGM) method and a 3-D velocity model resulting from tomographic imaging to relocate earthquakes in the Sumatran region. The data were taken from the MCGA data catalog from 2009 to 2011 comprising of subduction zone and on land fault earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4 Mw. Our preliminary results show some significant changes in the depths of the relocated earthquakes which are in general deeper than the depths of hypocenters from the MCGA data catalog. The residual times resulting from the relocation process are smaller than those prior to the relocation. Encouraged by these results, we will continue to conduct hypocenter relocation for all events from the MCGA data catalog periodically in order to produce a new data catalog with good quality. We hope that the new data catalog will be useful for further studies.

  6. Impact of velocity correlation and distribution on transport in fractured media: Field evidence and theoretical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Peter K.; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Dentz, Marco; Bour, Olivier; Juanes, Ruben

    2015-02-01

    Flow and transport through fractured geologic media often leads to anomalous (non-Fickian) transport behavior, the origin of which remains a matter of debate: whether it arises from variability in fracture permeability (velocity distribution), connectedness in the flow paths through fractures (velocity correlation), or interaction between fractures and matrix. Here we show that this uncertainty of distribution- versus correlation-controlled transport can be resolved by combining convergent and push-pull tracer tests because flow reversibility is strongly dependent on velocity correlation, whereas late-time scaling of breakthrough curves is mainly controlled by velocity distribution. We build on this insight, and propose a Lagrangian statistical model that takes the form of a continuous time random walk (CTRW) with correlated particle velocities. In this framework, velocity distribution and velocity correlation are quantified by a Markov process of particle transition times that is characterized by a distribution function and a transition probability. Our transport model accurately captures the anomalous behavior in the breakthrough curves for both push-pull and convergent flow geometries, with the same set of parameters. Thus, the proposed correlated CTRW modeling approach provides a simple yet powerful framework for characterizing the impact of velocity distribution and correlation on transport in fractured media.

  7. Error propagation for velocity and shear stress prediction using 2D models for environmental management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, Gregory B.; Gilbert, Andrew T.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Buckland, Evan M.

    2006-08-01

    SummaryResource managers, scientists, government regulators, and stakeholders are considering sophisticated numerical models for managing complex environmental problems. In this study, observations from a river-rehabilitation experiment involving gravel augmentation and spawning habitat enhancement were used to assess sources and magnitudes of error in depth, velocity, and shear velocity predictions made at the 1-m scale with a commercial two-dimensional (depth-averaged) model. Error in 2D model depth prediction averaged 21%. This error was attributable to topographic survey resolution, which at 1 pt per 1.14 m 2, was inadequate to resolve small humps and depressions influencing point measurements. Error in 2D model velocity prediction averaged 29%. More than half of this error was attributable to depth prediction error. Despite depth and velocity error, 56% of tested 2D model predictions of shear velocity were within the 95% confidence limit of the best field-based estimation method. Ninety percent of the error in shear velocity prediction was explained by velocity prediction error. Multiple field-based estimates of shear velocity differed by up to 160%, so the lower error for the 2D model's predictions suggests such models are at least as accurate as field measurement. 2D models enable detailed, spatially distributed estimates compared to the small number measurable in a field campaign of comparable cost. They also can be used for design evaluation. Although such numerical models are limited to channel types adhering to model assumptions and yield predictions only accurate to ˜20-30%, they can provide a useful tool for river-rehabilitation design and assessment, including spatially diverse habitat heterogeneity as well as for pre- and post-project appraisal.

  8. A dual-phantom system for validation of velocity measurements in stenosis models under steady flow.

    PubMed

    Blake, James R; Easson, William J; Hoskins, Peter R

    2009-09-01

    A dual-phantom system is developed for validation of velocity measurements in stenosis models. Pairs of phantoms with identical geometry and flow conditions are manufactured, one for ultrasound and one for particle image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV model is made from silicone rubber, and a new PIV fluid is made that matches the refractive index of 1.41 of silicone. Dynamic scaling was performed to correct for the increased viscosity of the PIV fluid compared with that of the ultrasound blood mimic. The degree of stenosis in the models pairs agreed to less than 1%. The velocities in the laminar flow region up to the peak velocity location agreed to within 15%, and the difference could be explained by errors in ultrasound velocity estimation. At low flow rates and in mild stenoses, good agreement was observed in the distal flow fields, excepting the maximum velocities. At high flow rates, there was considerable difference in velocities in the poststenosis flow field (maximum centreline differences of 30%), which would seem to represent real differences in hydrodynamic behavior between the two models. Sources of error included: variation of viscosity because of temperature (random error, which could account for differences of up to 7%); ultrasound velocity estimation errors (systematic errors); and geometry effects in each model, particularly because of imperfect connectors and corners (systematic errors, potentially affecting the inlet length and flow stability). The current system is best placed to investigate measurement errors in the laminar flow region rather than the poststenosis turbulent flow region. PMID:19540655

  9. Surface-wave phase-velocity models of the United States: Expanding with USArray coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, A. E.; Ekstrom, G.; Nettles, M.

    2014-12-01

    We update our models of Love and Rayleigh wave phase-velocity structure using USArray data through mid 2014. We make measurements of the phase at periods from 25 to 100 s using a two-station method that assumes a great-circle arrival path for Love waves, and uses the estimated arrival angle for Rayleigh waves to correct the two-station calculation. Arrival-angle estimates are made with a mini-array method that employs a grid search to select the back-azimuth to the source that best predicts the phase observed on a local subset of stations. The two-station phase data with inter-station path lengths between 350 and 750 km are inverted to produce phase-velocity models at discrete periods. The new data set expands the modeled area, covering the entire contiguous United States. The mini-array method also produces an estimate of the local phase-velocity. We calculate this local phase-velocity for both Love and Rayleigh waves, and compare the measurements with the maps resulting from the inversion of the two-station measurements. The local phase velocities, two-station phase velocities, and two-station phase-velocity models are all examined for bias resulting from overtone interference. Based on previous work, we expect overtone interference to affect Love wave measurements but not Rayleigh wave measurements, and to affect the local measurements more than the two-station models.

  10. Effect of a low-velocity sedimentary cover on the 3-D velocity models derived from inversion of local arrival times. An example from the New Madrid seismic zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, J. M.; Chiu, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    When applying seismic tomography to local arrival times from an area with a low-velocity sedimentary cover, the effect of the sediments on travel times should be taken into account. If that is not done, the resulting velocity model(s) cannot be assumed to be correct. This fairly obvious statement has been challenged recently by Powell et al. (JGR, 2010), who claimed that the sediments that cover the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ, central United States) can be ignored. This claim is examined here and shown to be incorrect. The NMSZ is covered by low-velocity, poorly consolidated sediments (Vp=1.8 km/s, Vs=3), which are underlain by Paleozoic rocks of much higher velocity. In the central NMSZ the sediment thickness varies between about 0.1 and 0.7 km. The JHD analysis of the data collected in that area by a portable network (PANDA) showed that the P- and S-wave station corrections spanned large ranges (0.35 and 0.63 s, respectively, Pujol et al., Eng. Geol., 1997). This study also showed that a Vp/Vs of 3 for the sediments would be too high if the lateral velocity variations were confined to the sedimentary cover. Here we generate synthetic traveltimes for a model with a sedimentary cover having variable depth (as determined from boreholes) underlain by the high-velocity layers in the 1-D model used for the JHD analysis. The synthetic data were generated for the station and event distributions corresponding to the Panda data. The tomographic inversion of the synthetic times produces spurious anomalies in Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs, from the surface to a depth of 10 km. In addition, the events are mislocated in depth, with errors between 0 and 1 km for most of them. These results should dispel the notion that the effect of the unconsolidated sediments can be ignored. On the other hand, the inversion of the actual Panda data results in velocity anomalies similar to the synthetic anomalies, although larger, which is consistent with the conclusions of Pujol et al. (1997). Unfortunately, extricating the effects of the sediments from those of deeper velocity anomalies will not be possible with seismic tomography unless in-situ determinations of Vp/Vs for the sediments in the network area become available. Alternatively, analysis techniques that make use of more than just P- and S-wave arrivals (such as S-to-P converted waves) may have to be designed.

  11. Quantifying Uncertainty in Velocity Models using Bayesian Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, R.; Caiado, C.; Majdański, M.

    2008-12-01

    Quanitifying uncertainty in models derived from observed data is a major issue. Public and political understanding of uncertainty is poor and for industry inadequate assessment of risk costs money. In this talk we will examine the geological structure of the subsurface, however our principal exploration tool, controlled source seismology, gives its data in time. Inversion tools exist to map these data into a depth model but a full exploration of the uncertainty of the model is rarely done because robust strategies do not exist for large non-linear complex systems. There are two principal sources of uncertainty: the first comes from the input data which is noisy and bandlimited; the second, and more sinister, is from the model parameterisation and forward algorithms themselves, which approximate to the physics to make the problem tractable. To address these issues we propose a Bayesian approach. One philosophy is to estimate the uncertainty in a possible model derived using standard inversion tools. During the inversion stage we can use our geological prejudice to derive an acceptable model. Then we use a local random walk using the Metropolis- Hastings algorithm to explore the model space immediately around a possible solution. For models with a limited number of parameters we can use the forward modeling step from the inversion code. However as the number of parameters increase and/or the cost of the forward modeling step becomes significant, we need to use fast emulators to act as proxies so a sufficient number of iterations can be performed on which to base our statistical measures of uncertainty. In this presentation we show examples of uncertainty estimation using both pre- and post-critical seismic data. In particular, we will demonstrate uncertainty introduced by the approximation of the physics by using a tomographic inversion of bandlimited data and show that uncertainty increases as the central frequency of the data decreases. This is consistent with the infinite frequency approximation in the tomographic modeling step becoming increasing compromised.

  12. Development and Validation of the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) Version 5 Containing Multiple 1D Muscles for Estimating Occupant Motions with Muscle Activation During Side Impacts.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masami; Nakahira, Yuko

    2015-11-01

    Accurate prediction of occupant head kinematics is critical for better understanding of head/face injury mechanisms in side impacts, especially far-side occupants. In light of the fact that researchers have demonstrated that muscle activations, especially in neck muscles, can affect occupant head kinematics, a human body finite element (FE) model that considers muscle activation is useful for predicting occupant head kinematics in real-world automotive accidents. In this study, we developed a human body FE model called the THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) Version 5 that contains 262 one-dimensional (1D) Hill-type muscle models over the entire body. The THUMS was validated against 36 series of PMHS (Post Mortem Human Surrogate) and volunteer test data in this study, and 16 series of PMHS and volunteer test data on side impacts are presented. Validation results with force-time curves were also evaluated quantitatively using the CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) method. The validation results suggest that the THUMS has good biofidelity in the responses of the regional or full body for side impacts, but relatively poor biofidelity in its local level of responses such as brain displacements. Occupant kinematics predicted by the THUMS with a muscle controller using 22 PID (Proportional-Integral- Derivative) controllers were compared with those of volunteer test data on low-speed lateral impacts. The THUMS with muscle controller reproduced the head kinematics of the volunteer data more accurately than that without muscle activation, although further studies on validation of torso kinematics are needed for more accurate predictions of occupant head kinematics. PMID:26660740

  13. Intercomparison of Eight Forward 1D Vector Radiative Transfer Models, with the Performance of Satellite Aerosol Remote Sensing Algorithms in Mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Anthony B.; Kalashnikova, Olga V.; Diner, David J.; Garay, Michael J.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Korkin, Sergey V.; Martonchik, John V.; Natraj, Vijay; Sanghavi, Suniti V.; Xu, Feng; Zhai, Pengwang; Rozanov, Vladimir V.; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.

    2014-05-01

    Quantification and characterization of the omnipresent atmospheric aerosol by remote sensing methods is key to answering many challenging questions in atmospheric science, in climate modeling and in air quality monitoring foremost. In recent years, accurate measurement of the state of polarization of photon fluxes at optical sensors in the visible and near-IR spectrum has been hailed as a very promising approach to aerosol remote sensing. Consequently, there has been a flurry of activity in polarized or 'vector' radiative transfer (vRT) model development. This covers the multiple scattering and ground reflection aspects of sensor signal prediction that complement single-particle scattering computation, and lies at the core of all physics-based retrieval algorithms. One can legitimately ask: What level of model fidelity (representativeness of natural scenes) and what computational accuracy should be achieved for this task in view of the practical constraints that apply? These constraints are, at a minimum: (i) the desired accuracy of the retrieved aerosol properties, (ii) observational uncertainties, and (iii) operational efficiency requirements as determined by throughput. We offer a rational and balanced approach to address these questions and illustrate it with a systematic inter-comparison of the performance of a diverse set of 1D vRT models using a small but representative set of test cases. This 'JPL' benchmarking suite of cases is naturally divided into two parts. First the emphasis is on stratified atmospheres with a continuous mixture of molecular and aerosol scattering and absorption over a black surface, with the corresponding pure cases treated for diagnostic purposes. Then the emphasis shifts to the variety of surfaces, both polarizing and not, that can be encountered in real observations and may confuse the aerosol retrieval algorithm if not properly treated.

  14. Velocity model construction, uncertainty evaluation, and two-way travel time to sediment thickness conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Shimeld, J.; Dickie, K.; Dehler, S. A.; Desroches, K.

    2013-12-01

    Sediment thickness determinations play a key role in positioning the most seaward fixed points of the outer limits of continental shelves for coastal states. Seismic reflection surveying is an invaluable technique for estimating the sediment thickness required for the positioning. However, such seismic reflection surveying records the two way travel time (twtt) of vertically incident seismic waves. An accurate seismic velocity model is required for the conversion between twtt and sediment thickness. In this approach, a velocity model is constructed, its uncertainty is evaluated, and twtt is converted to sediment thickness. All of these procedures are programmed for batch and script processing. First, a slowness (the inverse of velocity) function, which is based on the solid sediment compaction theory, is selected and it is fitted using all available velocity observations using the reduced major axis (RMA) method, which can minimize errors from both velocity and depth observations. Second, the velocity uncertainty is estimated using a bootstrapping method by simulating a non-replace re-sampling procedure; thus it is also used in the estimation of sediment thickness uncertainty that is caused by velocity model errors. Moreover, with the constructed velocity model, conversion from sediment depth to twtt is resolved analytically and the conversion from twtt to depth is completed by solving a nonlinear equation with Newton iteration method, having approved convergence efficiency and a predefined accuracy (0.1 m). Finally, all these processes have been implemented in C# and JavaScript for integration with GeoFrame file format (seismic horizon interpretation) or embedded in any document with power batch processing and flexible verification facilities. As an example, publicly available velocity observations in the Labrador Sea region are used in the construction of a velocity model and the evaluation of velocity and sediment thickness uncertainty. The conversion between twtt and sediment thickness, based on the constructed velocity model, is derived and their excellent performance is demonstrated by simulating and comparing with published velocity models in the deep water region of the global oceans.

  15. Diurnal variation of stratospheric and lower mesospheric HOCl, ClO and HO2 at the equator: comparison of 1-D model calculations with measurements by satellite instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, M.; Baron, P.; Urban, J.; Froidevaux, L.; Jonsson, A. I.; Kasai, Y.; Kuribayashi, K.; Mitsuda, C.; Murtagh, D. P.; Sagawa, H.; Santee, M. L.; Sato, T. O.; Shiotani, M.; Suzuki, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Walker, K. A.; Wang, S.

    2013-08-01

    The diurnal variation of HOCl and the related species ClO, HO2 and HCl measured by satellites has been compared with the results of a one-dimensional photochemical model. The study compares the data from various limb-viewing instruments with model simulations from the middle stratosphere to the lower mesosphere. Data from three sub-millimetre instruments and two infrared spectrometers are used, namely from the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) on board Odin, the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board Aura, the Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) on the International Space Station, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on board ENVISAT, and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) on board SCISAT. Inter-comparison of the measurements from instruments on sun-synchronous satellites (SMR, MLS, MIPAS) and measurements from solar occultation instruments (ACE-FTS) is challenging since the measurements correspond to different solar zenith angles (or local times). However, using a model which covers all solar zenith angles and data from the SMILES instrument which measured at all local times over a period of several months provides the possibility to verify the model and to indirectly compare the diurnally variable species. The satellite data were averaged for latitudes of 20 S to 20 N for the SMILES observation period from November 2009 to April 2010 and were compared at three altitudes: 35, 45 and 55 km. Besides presenting the SMILES data, the study also shows a first comparison of the latest MLS data (version 3.3) of HOCl, ClO, and HO2 with other satellite observations, as well as a first evaluation of HO2 observations made by Odin/SMR. The MISU-1D model has been carefully initialised and run for conditions and locations of the observations. The diurnal cycle features for the species investigated here are generally well reproduced by the model. The satellite observations and the model agree well in terms of absolute mixing ratios. The differences between the day and night values of the model are in good agreement with the observations although the amplitude of the HO2 diurnal variation is 10-20% lower in the model than in the observations. In particular, the data offered the opportunity to study the reaction ClO+HO2 ? HOCl+O2 in the lower mesosphere at 55 km. At this altitude the HOCl night-time variation depends only on this reaction. The result of this analysis points towards a value of the rate constant within the range of the JPL 2006 recommendation and the upper uncertainty limit of the JPL 2011 recommendation at 55 km.

  16. Understanding 1D Electrostatic Dust Levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartzell, C. M.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Electrostatically-dominated dust motion has been hypothesized since the Lunar Horizon Glow was observed by the Surveyor spacecraft. The hypothesized occurence of this phenomenon was naturally extended to asteroids due to their small gravities. Additionally, it has been suggested that the dust ponds observed on Eros by the NEAR mission may be created by electrostatically-dominated dust transport. Previous attempts to numerically model dust motion on the Moon and Eros have been stymied by poorly understood dust launching mechanisms. As a result, the initial velocity and charge of dust particles used in numerical simulations may or may not have any relevance to the actual conditions occurring in situ. It has been seen that properly tuned initial states (velocity and charge) result in dust particles levitating above the surface in both 1D and 2D simulations. Levitation is of interest to planetary scientists since it provides a way to quickly redistribute the surface dust particles over a body. However, there is currently no method to predict whether or not a certain initial state will result in levitation. We have developed a method to provide constraints on the initial states that result in levitation as a function of dust particle size and central body gravity. Additionally, our method can be applied to several models of the plasma sheath. Thus, we limit the guesswork involved in determining which initial conditions result in levitation. We provide a more detailed understanding of levitation phenomena couched in terms of the commonly recognized spring-mass system. This method of understanding dust motion removes the dependency on the launching mechanism, which remains fraught with controversy. Once a feasible dust launching mechanism is identified (be it micrometeoroid bombardment or electrostatic lofting), our method will allow the community to quickly ascertain if dust levitation will occur in situ or if it is simply a numerical artifact. In addition to constraining the initial states that result in dust levitation, our model provides estimates of the heights and sizes of particles that could be levitated as a function of the central body gravity and plasma sheath potential profile. Thus, given a model of the plasma sheath, we can inform future missions hoping to observe levitating particles.

  17. Sensitivity testing of a 1-D calving criterion numerical model constrained by observations of post-LIA fluctuations of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia, SW Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, J. M.; Mair, D.; Nick, F. M.; Rea, B. R.; Schofield, E.; Nienow, P. W.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to successfully model the behaviour of Greenlandic tidewater glaciers is pivotal for the prediction of future behaviour and potential impact on global sea level. However, to have confidence in the results of numerical models, they must be capable of replicating the full range of observed glacier behaviour (i.e. both advance and retreat) when realistic forcings are applied. Due to the paucity of observational records recording this behaviour, it is therefore necessary to verify calving models against reconstructions of glacier dynamics. The dynamics of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (KNS) can be reconstructed with a high degree of detail using a combination of sedimentological and geomorphological evidence, photographs, historical sources and satellite imagery. Since the LIA-maximum KNS has retreated a total of 21 km with multiple phases of rapid retreat evident between topographic pinning points. A readvance attaining a position 9 km from the current terminus associated with the '1920 stade' is also identified. KNS therefore represents an ideal test location for calving models since it has both advanced and retreated over known timescales, while the scale of fluctuations implies KNS is sensitive to parameter(s) controlling terminus stability. Using the known stable positions for verification, we present the results of an array of sensitivity tests conducted on KNS using the 1-D flowband calving model of Nick et al (2009). The model is initially tuned to an historically stable position where the glacier configuration is accurately known (in this case 1985), and forced by varying surface mass balance, crevasse water depth, submarine melt rate at the calving front, in addition to the strength and pervasiveness of sikussak in the fjord. Successive series of experiments were run using each parameter to test model sensitivity to the initial conditions of each variable. Results indicate that the model is capable of stabilising at locations that are in agreement with the geomorphic/historical record. Reference: Nick FM, Vieli A, Howat IM, Joughin I. 2009. Large-scale changes in Greenland outlet glaciers triggered at the terminus. Nature Geoscience 2 : 110-114

  18. Electron Density and Two-Channel Neutron Emission Measurements in Steady-State Spherical Inertial-Electrostatically Confined Plasmas, with Review of the 1-D Kinetic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, Chris C.; Hrbud, Ivana

    2004-01-01

    Electron density measurements have been made in steady-state plasmas in a spherical inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) discharge using microwave interferometry. Plasma cores interior to two cathodes, having diameters of 15 and 23 cm, respectively, were probed over a transverse range of 10 cm with a spatial resolution of about 1.4 cm for buffer gas pressures from 0.2 to 6 Pa in argon and deuterium. The transverse profiles are generally flat, in some cases with eccentric symmetric minima, and give mean densities of from approx. = 0.4 to 7x 10(exp 10)/cu cm, the density generally increasing with the neutral gas pressure. Numerical solutions of the 1-D Poisson equation for EC plasmas are reviewed and energy distribution functions are identified which give flat transverse profiles. These functions are used with the plasma approximation to obtain solutions which also give densities consistent with the measurements, and a double potential well solution is obtained which has minima qualitatively similar to those observed. Explicit consideration is given to the compatibility of the solutions interior and exterior to the cathode, and to grid transparency. Deuterium fusion neutron emission rates were also measured and found to be isotropic, to within the measurement error, over two simultaneous directions. Anisotropy was observed in residual emissions during operation with non-fusing hydrogen-1. The deuterium rates are consistent with predictions from the model.

  19. Current plate velocities relative to the hotspots incorporating the NUVEL-1 global plate motion model

    SciTech Connect

    Gripp, A.E.; Gordon, R.G. )

    1990-07-01

    NUVEL-1 is a new global model of current relative plate velocities which differ significantly from those of prior models. Here the authors incorporate NUVEL-1 into HS2-NUVEL1, a new global model of plate velocities relative to the hotspots. HS2-NUVEL1 was determined from the hotspot data and errors used by Minster and Jordan (1978) to determine AM1-2, which is their model of plate velocities relative to the hotspots. AM1-2 is consistent with Minster and Jordan's relative plate velocity model RM2. Here the authors compare HS2-NUVEL1 with AM1-2 and examine how their differences relate to differences between NUVEL-1 and RM2. HS2-NUVEL1 plate velocities relative to the hotspots are mainly similar to those of AM1-2. Minor differences between the two models include the following: (1) in HS2-NUVEL1 the speed of the partly continental, apparently non-subducting Indian plate is greater than that of the purely oceanic, subducting Nazca plate; (2) in places the direction of motion of the African, Antarctic, Arabian, Australian, Caribbean, Cocos, Eurasian, North American, and South American plates differs between models by more than 10{degree}; (3) in places the speed of the Australian, Caribbean, Cocos, Indian, and Nazca plates differs between models by more than 8 mm/yr. Although 27 of the 30 RM2 Euler vectors differ with 95% confidence from those of NUVEL-1, only the AM1-2 Arabia-hotspot and India-hotspot Euler vectors differ with 95% confidence from those of HS2-NUVEL1. Thus, substituting NUVEL-1 for RM2 in the inversion for plate velocities relative to the hotspots changes few Euler vectors significantly, presumably because the uncertainty in the velocity of a plate relative to the hotspots is much greater than the uncertainty in its velocity relative to other plates.

  20. Modeling water flow and bacterial transport in undisturbed lysimeters under irrigations of dairy shed effluent and water using HYDRUS-1D.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuang; Pang, Liping; Buchan, Graeme D; Simůnek, Jirí; Noonan, Mike J; Close, Murray E

    2010-02-01

    HYDRUS-1D was used to simulate water flow and leaching of fecal coliforms and bromide (Br) through six undisturbed soil lysimeters (70 cm depth by 50 cm diameter) under field conditions. Dairy shed effluent (DSE) spiked with Br was applied to the lysimeters, which contained fine sandy loam layers. This application was followed by fortnightly spray or flood water irrigation. Soil water contents were measured at four soil depths over 171 days, and leachate was collected from the bottom. The post-DSE period simulations yielded a generally decreased saturated water content compared to the pre-DSE period, and an increased saturated hydraulic conductivity and air-entry index, suggesting that changes in soil hydraulic properties (e.g. via changes in structure) can be induced by irrigation and seasonal effects. The single-porosity flow model was successful in simulating water flow under natural climatic conditions and spray irrigation. However, for lysimeters under flood irrigation, when the effect of preferential flow paths becomes more significant, the good agreement between predicted and observed water contents could only be achieved by using a dual-porosity flow model. Results derived from a mobile-immobile transport model suggest that compared to Br, bacteria were transported through a narrower pore-network with less mass exchange between mobile and immobile water zones. Our study suggests that soils with higher topsoil clay content and soils under flood irrigation are at a high risk of bacteria leaching through preferential flow paths. Irrigation management strategies must minimize the effect of preferential flow to reduce bacterial leaching from land applications of effluent. PMID:19775719

  1. Potential of high resolution satellite imagery, remote weather data and 1D hydraulic modeling to evaluate flood areas in Gonaives, Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozza, Andrea; Durand, Arnaud; Allenbach, Bernard; Confortola, Gabriele; Bocchiola, Daniele

    2013-04-01

    We present a feasibility study to explore potential of high-resolution imagery, coupled with hydraulic flood modeling to predict flooding risks, applied to the case study of Gonaives basins (585 km²), Haiti. We propose a methodology working at different scales, providing accurate results and a faster intervention during extreme flood events. The 'Hispaniola' island, in the Caribbean tropical zone, is often affected by extreme floods events. Floods are caused by tropical springs and hurricanes, and may lead to several damages, including cholera epidemics, as recently occurred, in the wake of the earthquake upon January 12th 2010 (magnitude 7.0). Floods studies based upon hydrological and hydraulic modeling are hampered by almost complete lack of ground data. Thenceforth, and given the noticeable cost involved in the organization of field measurement campaigns, the need for exploitation of remote sensing images data. HEC-RAS 1D modeling is carried out under different scenarios of available Digital Elevation Models. The DEMs are generated using optical remote sensing satellite (WorldView-1) and SRTM, combined with information from an open source database (Open Street Map). We study two recent flood episodes, where flood maps from remote sensing were available. Flood extent and land use have been assessed by way of data from SPOT-5 satellite, after hurricane Jeanne in 2004 and hurricane Hanna in 2008. A semi-distributed, DEM based hydrological model is used to simulate flood flows during the hurricanes. Precipitation input is taken from daily rainfall data derived from TRMM satellite, plus proper downscaling. The hydraulic model is calibrated using floodplain friction as tuning parameters against the observed flooded area. We compare different scenarios of flood simulation, and the predictive power of model calibration. The method provide acceptable results in depicting flooded areas, especially considering the tremendous lack of ground data, and show the potential of remote sensing information in prediction of flood events in this area, for the purpose of risk assessment and land use planning, and possibly for flood forecast during extreme events.

  2. Velocity Modeling of Land 3-D Surface Seismic Data for Prestack Depth Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, W. S.; Zhou, H.

    2005-05-01

    Since the early 1990's prestack depth migrations (PSDM) have been routinely applied to 3-D seismic data. Using current methods building an accurate velocity model is dependent on the quality of the seismic data. Data quality is a reason why PSDM have been applied nearly exclusively to marine data. To apply the power of PSDM to land 3-D surface seismic data deriving an initial sediment velocity model that overcomes limitations of data quality associated with land 3-D seismic data is essential. In this study I use a non-seismic approach to generate an initial sediment velocity model for PSDM of land 3-D surface seismic data. Differences in data quality between marine and land 3-D seismic data provided the motivation to investigate innovative velocity modeling techniques for land 3-D surface seismic data. In this study current practices primarily for marine data were reviewed and problems with land 3-D surface seismic data were identified. An approach that integrates the efficiency and accuracy of current methods and overcomes the limitations imposed by data quality was implemented. Data were acquired over Vinton Dome in southwest Louisiana and used in this case study to derive an initial sediment velocity model using sonic logs. Comparing the results with a prestack time migration (PSTM) and a PSDM that had been migrated using a seismically derived velocity model demonstrated that this approach enhanced the fidelity of the Vinton Dome 3-D surface seismic data.

  3. Determination of simple constitutive models for borosilicate glass using penetration-velocity data from ballistic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G. R.; Holmquist, T. J.

    2007-12-12

    Constitutive models for brittle materials such as glass can be very complex as they are dependent on strains, strain rates, pressures, temperatures, damage and other parameters. There may also be significant (pressure-dependent) strength after failure such that the constitutive response is much different for intact material and failed material. A large number of laboratory tests is required to develop a comprehensive constitutive model. Another approach is to develop simple models by using penetration-velocity data obtained from ballistic experiments. Here various functional forms of simple models (with a limited number of constants) can be used to (computationally) match the penetration velocity over a range of impact velocities. This allows for the determination of the most important parameters and it provides an approximation of the stresses that occur during penetration. This article presents several simple computational models for borosilicate glass, including single-state models and dual-state models (that include an intact strength and a failed strength)

  4. Volumetric Velocity Measurements of Pulsating Flow through a Model Aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troolin, Daniel; Amatya, Devesh; Longmire, Ellen

    2010-11-01

    Volumetric 3-component velocimetry (V3V) was used to examine the flow structure inside of a scaled-up transparent urethane model of a saccular aneurysm. The model was fabricated to match the geometry of an in vivo case. Index matching was used to minimize optical distortions caused by the curved walls of the model. The model and a surrounding visualization box were integrated into a custom-built pulse duplicator system with in-line flow meter and pressure transducers. The pulsing frequency and amplitude were controlled independently to generate two flow conditions each having a non-dimensional peak Reynolds (Re) and Womersley (Wo) Number: Re = 250, Wo = 10.4 and Re = 125, Wo = 7.4. Phase-locked and instantaneous measurements of the pulsatile flow upstream, downstream, and within the aneurysm reveal significant three-dimensional features including zones of separation, recirculation, impingement, and relative inactivity. Plots and movies will be shown, and a detailed discussion of the flow and various experimental considerations will be included.

  5. 1D Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Reactive transport modeling for deep geothermal systems: A case study of Groß Schönebeck reservoir, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driba, D. L.; De Lucia, M.; Peiffer, S.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid-rock interactions in geothermal reservoirs are driven by the state of disequilibrium that persists among solid and solutes due to changing temperature and pressure. During operation of enhanced geothermal systems, injection of cooled water back into the reservoir disturbs the initial thermodynamic equilibrium between the reservoir and its geothermal fluid, which may induce modifications in permeability through changes in porosity and pore space geometry, consequently bringing about several impairments to the overall system.Modeling of fluid-rock interactions induced by injection of cold brine into Groß Schönebeck geothermal reservoir system situated in the Rotliegend sandstone at 4200m depth have been done by coupling geochemical modeling Code Phreeqc with OpenGeoSys. Through batch modeling the re-evaluation of the measured hydrochemical composition of the brine has been done using Quintessa databases, the results from the calculation indicate that a mineral phases comprising of K-feldspar, hematite, Barite, Calcite and Dolomite was found to match the hypothesis of equilibrium with the formation fluid, Reducing conditions are presumed in the model (pe = -3.5) in order to match the amount of observed dissolved Fe and thus considered as initial state for the reactive transport modeling. based on a measured composition of formation fluids and the predominant mineralogical assemblage of the host rock, a preliminary 1D Reactive transport modeling (RTM) was run with total time set to 30 years; results obtained for the initial simulation revealed that during this period, no significant change is evident for K-feldspar. Furthermore, the precipitation of calcite along the flow path in the brine results in a drop of pH from 6.2 to a value of 5.2 noticed over the simulated period. The circulation of cooled fluid in the reservoir is predicted to affect the temperature of the reservoir within the first 100 -150m from the injection well. Examination of porosity change in this simulation reveals that, porosity and permeability near the wellbore are enhanced after injection. This is chiefly due to the dissolution of calcite near the injection well and less extent by dolomite The porosity is improved by more than 14% at the injection well, but then decreases away from the well.

  6. Diurnal variation of stratospheric HOCl, ClO and HO2 at the equator: comparison of 1-D model calculations with measurements of satellite instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, M.; Baron, P.; Urban, J.; Froidevaux, L.; Jonsson, A. I.; Kasai, Y.; Kuribayashi, K.; Mitsuda, C.; Murtagh, D. P.; Sagawa, H.; Santee, M. L.; Sato, T. O.; Shiotani, M.; Suzuki, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Walker, K. A.; Wang, S.

    2012-08-01

    The diurnal variation of HOCl and the related species ClO, HO2 and HCl measured by satellites has been compared with the results of a one-dimensional photochemical model. The study compares the data from various limb-viewing instruments with model simulations from the middle stratosphere to the lower mesosphere. Data from three sub-millimeter instruments and two infrared spectrometers are used, namely from the Sub-Millimeter Radiometer (SMR) on board Odin, the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board Aura, the Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) on the International Space Station, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on board ENVISAT, and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) on board SCISAT. Inter-comparison of the measurements from instruments on sun-synchronous satellites (SMR, MLS, MIPAS) and measurements from solar occultation instruments (ACE-FTS) is challenging since the measurements correspond to different solar zenith angles (or local times). However, using a model which covers all solar zenith angles and the new SMILES instrument which measures at all local times over a period of several months provides the possibility to indirectly compare the diurnally variable species. The satellite data were averaged for latitudes of 20 S to 20 N for the SMILES observation period from November 2009 to April 2010 and were compared at three altitudes: 35, 45 and 55 km. This study presents the first evaluation of HO2 Odin/SMR data and also the first comparison of the new SMILES data and the latest version of MLS (version 3.3) with other satellite observations. The MISU-1D model has been run for conditions and locations of the observations. The diurnal cycle features for the species investigated here are generally well reproduced by the model. The satellite observations and the model generally agree well in terms of absolute mixing ratios as well as differences between the day and night values. This confirms that gas phase chemistry of these species based on latest recommendations of reaction rate constants is fairly well understood.

  7. Extending SALSA3D: Adding Secondary Phases to a Global 3D P-Velocity Model for Improved Seismic Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begnaud, M. L.; Ballard, S.; Young, C. J.; Hipp, J. R.; Encarnacao, A. V.; Maceira, M.; Phillips, W. S.; Chael, E. P.; Rowe, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The SALSA3D (SAndia LoS Alamos 3D) global three-dimensional P-velocity tomography model of the Earth's crust and mantle has been shown to significantly improve seismic event location accuracy and precision, compared to standard 1D and 2/2.5D models. This improvement has been demonstrated using data from the International Monitoring System (IMS), a sparse, global seismic network. In relocation tests using the IMS network and a set of seismic events with ground truth (GT) levels of 5 km or better, over 80% of the defining arrivals are regional Pn (15%) or teleseismic P phases (65.1%). There is a small percentage of phases that requires a model that supports secondary phase prediction. We plan to update the SALSA3D model to include an S-velocity component as well as an updated P-velocity model using secondary compressional phases. Our model is derived from the latest version of the GT catalog of travel-time picks assembled by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model is represented using the triangular tessellation system described by Ballard et al. (2009), which incorporates variable resolution in both the geographic and radial dimensions. For our starting model, we use a simplified layer crustal model derived from the Crust 1.0 model, overlying a uniform ak135 mantle. Sufficient damping is used to reduce velocity adjustments so that ray path changes between iterations are small. We obtain proper model smoothness by using progressive grid refinement, refining the grid only in areas where it is warranted by the available data. Our approach produces a smooth, multi-resolution model with node density appropriate to both ray coverage and the velocity gradients required by the data. We compare the travel-time prediction and location capabilities of the updated SALSA3D model to standard 1D and 2/2.5D models via location tests on a global event set with GT of 5 km or better. We compare location results using a subset of these events that have a significant number of phases with which to produce random realizations of actual arrival data. In addition, further tests will involve using GT5 or better events and their arrivals specifically for the IMS network, to test the use of a 3D model on an operational network intended for explosion monitoring.

  8. Current plate velocities relative to the hotspots incorporating the NUVEL-1 global plate motion model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gripp, Alice E.; Gordon, Richard G.

    1990-01-01

    The NUVEL-1 model of current global relative plate velocities is presently incorporated into HS2-NUVEL1, a global model for plate velocities relative to hotspots; the results thus obtained are compared with those of the AM1-2 model of hotspot-relative plate velocities. While there are places in which plate velocities relative to the hotspots differ between HS2-NUVEL1 and AM1-2 by tens of degrees in direction and 15 mm/yr in speed, the hotspot Euler vectors differ with 95 percent confidence only for the Arabian and Indian plates. Plates attached to subducting slabs move faster relative to the hotspots than do plates without slabs.

  9. Measurements and a model for convective velocities in the turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, W. C.; Sandborn, V. A.

    1973-01-01

    A physical model is presented which describes convective velocities within a flat plate turbulent boundary layer. A production zone concept is used as a basis for the physical model. The production zone concept employs the idea that packets of turbulent fluid are generated near the viscous sublayer. These packets are found to be discernible from the mean motion and may move either outward from the production zone or inward depending on their circulation relative to the fluid surrounding the packet. The packets are predicted to travel with a convective velocity different from the local mean velocity throughout most of the boundary layer. The model also predicts that the convective velocities will be functions of wave number outside the production zone.

  10. A subgrid-scale model based on the second-order velocity structure function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comte, P.; Lee, Sangsan; Cabot, William H.

    1990-01-01

    A series of tests were performed to help extend the use of a subgrid-scale model to compressible and wall-bounded flows. A priori tests were done in the case of the incompressible turbulent channel flow. They showed that a 1-D formulation of the structure-function model is more appropriate, leading to a satisfactory behavior of the model at the walls without requiring any damping function. This model is consistent with the original formulation of Metais & Lesieur (1990). In large-eddy simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence, both models performed well up to an initial rms Mach number of 0.6.

  11. Detailed p- and s-wave velocity models along the LARSE II transect, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, J.M.; Fuis, G.S.; Ryberg, T.; Lutter, W.J.; Catchings, R.D.; Goldman, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Structural details of the crust determined from P-wave velocity models can be improved with S-wave velocity models, and S-wave velocities are needed for model-based predictions of strong ground motion in southern California. We picked P- and S-wave travel times for refracted phases from explosive-source shots of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, Phase II (LARSE II); we developed refraction velocity models from these picks using two different inversion algorithms. For each inversion technique, we calculated ratios of P- to S-wave velocities (VP/VS) where there is coincident P- and S-wave ray coverage.We compare the two VP inverse velocity models to each other and to results from forward modeling, and we compare the VS inverse models. The VS and VP/VS models differ in structural details from the VP models. In particular, dipping, tabular zones of low VS, or high VP/VS, appear to define two fault zones in the central Transverse Ranges that could be parts of a positive flower structure to the San Andreas fault. These two zones are marginally resolved, but their presence in two independent models lends them some credibility. A plot of VS versus VP differs from recently published plots that are based on direct laboratory or down-hole sonic measurements. The difference in plots is most prominent in the range of VP = 3 to 5 km=s (or VS ~ 1:25 to 2:9 km/s), where our refraction VS is lower by a few tenths of a kilometer per second from VS based on direct measurements. Our new VS - VP curve may be useful for modeling the lower limit of VS from a VP model in calculating strong motions from scenario earthquakes.

  12. An improved car-following model considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaowei; Huang, Mengxing; Ren, Jia; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-05-01

    To better describe car-following behaviors in the adaptive cruise control strategy and further increase roadway traffic mobility and reduce fuel consumptions, the linkage between velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car and the following car's acceleration or deceleration is explored with respect to the measured car-following data by employing the gray correlation analysis theory and then an improved car-following model considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car on basis of the full velocity difference model is proposed. Numerical simulations are carried out and the effects of velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car on each car's velocity, acceleration, vehicular gap, fuel consumptions and the total fuel consumptions of the whole car-following system with different time window lengths are investigated in detail. The results show that velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car has significant effects on car-following behaviors and fuel consumptions, and that considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car in designing the adaptive cruise control system can improve traffic flow stability and reduce fuel consumptions.

  13. Thermal blooming threshold computations with a Markov model of velocity turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viecelli, James A.

    1988-11-01

    A model of velocity turbulence based on first order Markov statistics is discussed. The coherence time of the scintillations in the optical intensity of a low power beam passing through the turbulence depends inversely on the root mean square amplitude of the velocity fluctuations. The relationship between coherence time and level of velocity turbulence is independent of both the velocity correlation length and the index structure constant. Application of the Markov model to atmospheric scintillation data yields estimates for the rms amplitude of velocity turbulence consistent with convective boundary layer theory. Computations of the optical field show that velocity turbulence introduces a threshold for stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering. The threshold can be expressed in terms of a formula relating the limit on absorbed power to the rms amplitude of the velocity fluctuations. Above threshold the instability grows approximately exponentially reaching saturation after only a few waves of phase distortion have accumulated. Below threshold the instability is suppressed but there is a slow increase in the level of index turbulence caused by incoherent heating of the propagation medium.

  14. Reduction of the uncertainties in the water level-discharge relation of a 1D hydraulic model in the context of operational flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habert, J.; Ricci, S.; Le Pape, E.; Thual, O.; Piacentini, A.; Goutal, N.; Jonville, G.; Rochoux, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a data-driven hydrodynamic simulator based on the 1-D hydraulic solver dedicated to flood forecasting with lead time of an hour up to 24 h. The goal of the study is to reduce uncertainties in the hydraulic model and thus provide more reliable simulations and forecasts in real time for operational use by the national hydrometeorological flood forecasting center in France. Previous studies have shown that sequential assimilation of water level or discharge data allows to adjust the inflows to the hydraulic network resulting in a significant improvement of the discharge while leaving the water level state imperfect. Two strategies are proposed here to improve the water level-discharge relation in the model. At first, a modeling strategy consists in improving the description of the river bed geometry using topographic and bathymetric measurements. Secondly, an inverse modeling strategy proposes to locally correct friction coefficients in the river bed and the flood plain through the assimilation of in situ water level measurements. This approach is based on an Extended Kalman filter algorithm that sequentially assimilates data to infer the upstream and lateral inflows at first and then the friction coefficients. It provides a time varying correction of the hydrological boundary conditions and hydraulic parameters. The merits of both strategies are demonstrated on the Marne catchment in France for eight validation flood events and the January 2004 flood event is used as an illustrative example throughout the paper. The Nash-Sutcliffe criterion for water level is improved from 0.135 to 0.832 for a 12-h forecast lead time with the data assimilation strategy. These developments have been implemented at the SAMA SPC (local flood forecasting service in the Haute-Marne French department) and used for operational forecast since 2013. They were shown to provide an efficient tool for evaluating flood risk and to improve the flood early warning system. Complementary with the deterministic forecast of the hydraulic state, the estimation of an uncertainty range is given relying on off-line and on-line diagnosis. The possibilities to further extend the control vector while limiting the computational cost and equifinality problem are finally discussed.

  15. Interannual variability of Si and N cycles at the time-series station KERFIX between 1990 and 1995 a 1-D modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pondaven, P.; Ruiz-Pino, D.; Fravalo, C.; Tréguer, P.; Jeandel, C.

    2000-02-01

    Interannual variability of nutrients and plankton cycles were studied at the time-series station KERFIX (50°40'S, 68°25'E) using a 1-D coupled physical-biogeochemical model that is descended from that of Pondaven et al. (1998). At KERFIX, a high half saturation constant for silicic acid uptake ( KSi) and a high Si/ N uptake ratio are required to reproduce the Si and N cycles. Although very high in comparison with most data from temperate systems, these values are consistent with KSi and Si/ N uptake ratios measured in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. Past and recent finding on the role of light and iron limitation on nutrient consumption ratios might explain these "unusual" silicon uptake kinetic parameters. Comparison of model results with observations show that the model correctly reproduces the observed interannual variability of nutrients and plankton cycles at KERFIX between 1992 and 1995. Characteristic features of this region are a spring phytoplankton bloom of 1.0-1.5 mg Chlorophyll a m -3 and a net excess of silicic acid utilisation over that of nitrate. This high silicic acid utilisation leads to low Si concentrations in late summer and subsequent Si limitation of diatom growth. The interannual variability of production of silicon and nitrogen predicted by the model is 1.93±0.04 mol Si m -2 yr -1 and 1.35±0.07 mol N m -2 yr -1 (±SD). In parallel, the predicted export is 1.12±0.04 mol Si m -2 yr -1 and 0.06±0.01 mol N m -2 yr -1. It is shown that diatoms may contribute significantly to export if diatom sinking is taken into account. An interannual variability of the predicted Si and N cycles is detected. This variability is associated with changes in the mixed layer properties, which have been documented to be linked to the Pacific El Niño Southern Oscillation or displacement of the Polar Front.

  16. Turbulence-induced Relative Velocity of Dust Particles V. Testing Previous Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Liubin; Padoan, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    Coagulation models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks usually adopt the prediction of Vlk et al. or its later developments (hereafter Vlk-type models) for the collision velocity of dust particles induced by turbulent motions. We review the formulation and the underlying physical picture of these models, test their predictions against a numerical simulation, and examine the accuracy of the commonly used prescription for dust particle collisions. We show that Vlk-type models typically overestimate the rms of the particle relative velocity by a factor of two, if the particle friction times lie in the inertial range of the flow. The commonly used prescription for the collision kernel has several inaccuracies, and, in particular, it neglects the effect of turbulent clustering. Interestingly, for particles of equal sizes, the inaccuracies happen to cancel out, and by coincidence, the commonly used kernel prescription based on Vlk-type models is in good agreement with our simulation result. For particles of different sizes, the prescription shows a larger discrepancy from the measured kernel, and may overestimate the collision rate by up to a factor of 2.5. We find that the predicted rms relative velocity by Vlk-type models provides reasonable estimates for the average collision velocity per collision. We also make an effort to improve the accuracy of Vlk-type models for the rms relative velocity by tuning the correlation time of turbulent eddies and modifying the criterion for eddy classification.

  17. Modeling the effect of varying swim speeds on fish passage through velocity barriers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, T.

    2006-01-01

    The distance fish can swim through zones of high-velocity flow is an important factor limiting the distribution and conservation of riverine and diadromous fishes. Often, these barriers are characterized by nonuniform flow conditions, and it is likely that fish will swim at varying speeds to traverse them. Existing models used to predict passage success, however, typically include the unrealistic assumption that fish swim at a constant speed regardless of the speed of flow. This paper demonstrates how the maximum distance of ascent through velocity barriers can be estimated from the swim speed-fatigue time relationship, allowing for variation in both swim speed and water velocity.

  18. Measurement of velocity deficit at the downstream of a 1:10 axial hydrokinetic turbine model

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S; Hill, Craig; Chamorro, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Wake recovery constrains the downstream spacing and density of turbines that can be deployed in turbine farms and limits the amount of energy that can be produced at a hydrokinetic energy site. This study investigates the wake recovery at the downstream of a 1:10 axial flow turbine model using a pulse-to-pulse coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP). In addition, turbine inflow and outflow velocities were measured for calculating the thrust on the turbine. The result shows that the depth-averaged longitudinal velocity recovers to 97% of the inflow velocity at 35 turbine diameter (D) downstream of the turbine.

  19. Relations among fault behavior, subsurface geology, and three-dimensional velocity models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, A.J.; Eberhart-Phillips, D.

    1991-01-01

    The development of three-dimensional P-wave velocity models for the regions surrounding five large earthquakes in California has lead to the recognition of relations among fault behavior and the material properties of the rocks that contact the fault at seismogenic depths; regions of high moment release appear to correlate with high seismic velocities whereas rupture initiation or termination may be associated with lower seismic velocities. These relations point toward a physical understanding of why faults are divided into segments that can fail independently, an understanding that could improve our ability to predict earthquakes and strong ground motion.

  20. a Modified Cellular Automaton Model for Ring Road Traffic with Velocity Guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, C. Q.; Huang, H. J.; Tang, T. Q.

    We present a modified cellular automaton model to study the traffic flow on a signal controlled ring road with velocity guidance. The velocity guidance is such a strategy that when vehicles approach the traffic light, suggested velocities are provided for avoiding the vehicles' sharp brakes in front of red light. Simulation results show that this strategy may significantly reduce the vehicles' stopping rate and the effect size is dependent upon the traffic density, the detector position, the signal's cycle time and the obedience rate of vehicles to the guidance.

  1. Modeling of extinction in turbulent diffusion flames by the velocity-dissipation-composition PDF method

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, A.T. . Inst. for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion); Pope, S.B. . Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    The velocity-dissipation-composition probability density function (pdf) method is used to model a turbulent CO/H[sub 2]/N[sub 2]-air-piloted jet diffusion flame in the regime of extinction. The thermochemistry is modeled by a three-scalar simplified formulation obtained by the intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (ILDM) method. Calculations are performed for five different jet velocities, and the scalar pdfs are compared with experimental data. Overall good agreement is obtained between the calculations and the experimental results, with the only significant difference being the high level of scatter in the experimental data compared with the pdf results: reasons for this difference are discussed. The pdf method is found to predict flame extinction at approximately the same jet velocity as that of the experiment. A small amount of local extinction is observed in the pdf results for the high-jet-velocity cases.

  2. Direct Measurement of Internal Flow Velocities in a Star-Slot Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Winfred A., Jr.; Jenkins, Rhonald M.; Hengel, John E.; Smith, Andrew W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a cold flow experiment to make direct measurements of the velocity distribution in a model of a solid rocket motor star grain propellant slot. The experimental procedure utilizes a multi-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) and an apparatus for seeding the flow with aluminum particles to determine the velocity components at various discrete locations within the star slot. The test article used in this investigation was a one-tenth scale, cold flow model based on the geometry of the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor head-end section. The results obtained for the direct measurements of velocity are compared to velocities calculated from measured pressure distributions to data obtained from oil smear experiments and flow visualization videos, and to heat transfer calorimeter data.

  3. Site-Specific Velocity and Density Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Brouns, Thomas M.

    2007-06-27

    This report documents the work conducted under the SBP to develop a shear wave and compressional wave velocity and density model specific to the WTP site. Section 2 provides detailed background information on the WTP site and its underlying geology as well as on the Seismic Boreholes Project activities leading up to the Vs and Vp measurements. In Section 3, methods employed and results obtained are documented for measurements of Vs and Vp velocities in basalts and interbeds. Section 4 provides details on velocity measurements in the sediments underlying the WTP. Borehole gravity measurements of density of the subsurface basalt and sediments are described in Section 5. Section 6 describes the analysis of data presented in section 3-5, and presents the overall velocity and density model for the WTP site.

  4. Lane-changing behavior and its effect on energy dissipation using full velocity difference model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Ding, Jian-Xun; Shi, Qin; Kühne, Reinhart D.

    2016-07-01

    In real urban traffic, roadways are usually multilane with lane-specific velocity limits. Most previous researches are derived from single-lane car-following theory which in the past years has been extensively investigated and applied. In this paper, we extend the continuous single-lane car-following model (full velocity difference model) to simulate the three-lane-changing behavior on an urban roadway which consists of three lanes. To meet incentive and security requirements, a comprehensive lane-changing rule set is constructed, taking safety distance and velocity difference into consideration and setting lane-specific speed restriction for each lane. We also investigate the effect of lane-changing behavior on distribution of cars, velocity, headway, fundamental diagram of traffic and energy dissipation. Simulation results have demonstrated asymmetric lane-changing “attraction” on changeable lane-specific speed-limited roadway, which leads to dramatically increasing energy dissipation.

  5. Modeling velocity in gradient flows with coupled-map lattices with advection.

    PubMed

    Lind, Pedro G; Corte-Real, João; Gallas, Jason A C

    2002-07-01

    We introduce a simple model to investigate large scale behavior of gradient flows based on a lattice of coupled maps which, in addition to the usual diffusive term, incorporates advection, as an asymmetry in the coupling between nearest neighbors. This diffusive-advective model predicts traveling patterns to have velocities obeying the same scaling as wind velocities in the atmosphere, regarding the advective parameter as a sort of geostrophic wind. In addition, the velocity and wavelength of traveling wave solutions are studied. In general, due to the presence of advection, two regimes are identified: for strong diffusion the velocity varies linearly with advection, while for weak diffusion a power law is found with a characteristic exponent proportional to the diffusion. PMID:12241473

  6. Parameterized isoprene and monoterpene emissions from the boreal forest floor: Implementation into a 1D chemistry-transport model and investigation of the influence on atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogensen, Ditte; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Gierens, Rosa; Smolander, Sampo; Kulmala, Markku; Boy, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted from the biosphere and can work as precursor gases for aerosol particles that can affect the climate (e.g. Makkonen et al., ACP, 2012). VOC emissions from needles and leaves have gained the most attention, however other parts of the ecosystem also have the ability to emit a vast amount of VOCs. This, often neglected, source can be important e.g. at periods where leaves are absent. Both sources and drivers related to forest floor emission of VOCs are currently limited. It is thought that the sources are mainly due to degradation of organic matter (Isidorov and Jdanova, Chemosphere, 2002), living roots (Asensio et al., Soil Biol. Biochem., 2008) and ground vegetation. The drivers are biotic (e.g. microbes) and abiotic (e.g. temperature and moisture). However, the relative importance of the sources and the drivers individually are currently poorly understood. Further, the relative importance of these factors is highly dependent on the tree species occupying the area of interest. The emission of isoprene and monoterpenes where measured from the boreal forest floor at the SMEAR II station in Southern Finland (Hari and Kulmala, Boreal Env. Res., 2005) during the snow-free period in 2010-2012. We used a dynamic method with 3 automated chambers analyzed by Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometer (Aaltonen et al., Plant Soil, 2013). Using this data, we have developed empirical parameterizations for the emission of isoprene and monoterpenes from the forest floor. These parameterizations depends on abiotic factors, however, since the parameterizations are based on field measurements, biotic features are captured. Further, we have used the 1D chemistry-transport model SOSAA (Boy et al., ACP, 2011) to test the seasonal relative importance of inclusion of these parameterizations of the forest floor compared to the canopy crown emissions, on the atmospheric reactivity throughout the canopy.

  7. Predicting Ground Motions In Seattle Using A New Shear Wave Velocity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorey, A. A.; Vidale, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Much of Seattle lies atop a deep sedimentary basin. The Seattle Basin amplifies and distorts seismic waves in ways that modulate the hazard from earthquakes. Seismic hazard assessments heavily depend upon upper crustal and near-surface S-wave velocity models. Improving the accuracy and resolution of basin S-wave models is key to improving predictions of ground shaking. Tomography, with short-period Rayleigh waves extracted using noise interferometry, can refine S-wave velocity models in urban areas with dense arrays of short period and broadband instruments. We applied this technique to develop a new S-wave velocity model encompassing the upper 3-4 km and covering Seattle and several neighboring cities. We then embed this updated model into the regional velocity model that was used in the development of the USGS seismic hazard maps for Seattle. We collected data from two local earthquakes, one crustal and one Benioff Zone event, which were recorded on many strong motion stations operated by the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network and the USGS Earthquake Hazards program. For the two local earthquakes, we compared amplitudes and waveforms predicted by our new velocity model to predictions made using the older velocity model at stiff soil sites. For the crustal event, the amplitudes predicted by simulations with our new model are closer to the data than those predicted by the previous model. At periods between 1.25-5 seconds our new model makes considerably better predictions, while at periods between 1-1.25 seconds our new model makes better predictions, but the difference is smaller. For the Benioff zone event, the two models’ predictions are both good, but also favor our model. At periods between 1.6-3.3, the previous model makes better predictions while our model makes better predictions at periods between 1-1.6 and 3.3-5 seconds. Our simulations confirm that amplitudes are determined by a complex set of variables including basin velocity structure, wave-guides, and soil type. We are working to improve predicted amplifications to improve seismic hazard assessments. Many new strong motion instruments have been installed within the last year, including Netquakes seismographs operated by the USGS, providing us with a valuable data set for improving our predictions. Shear wave velocities in the Seattle Basin

  8. No-net-rotation model of current plate velocities incorporating plate motion model NUVEL-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, Donald F.; Gordon, Richard G.

    1991-01-01

    NNR-NUVEL1 is presented which is a model of plate velocities relative to the unique reference frame defined by requiring no-net-rotation of the lithosphere while constraining relative plate velocities to equal those in global plate motion model NUVEL-1 (DeMets et al., 1990). In NNR-NUVEL1, the Pacific plate rotates in a right-handed sense relative to the no-net-rotation reference frame at 0.67 deg/m.y. about 63 deg S, 107 deg E. At Hawaii the Pacific plate moves relative to the no-net-rotation reference frame at 70 mm/yr, which is 25 mm/yr slower than the Pacific plate moves relative to the hotspots. Differences between NNR-NUVEL1 and HS2-NUVEL1 are described. The no-net-rotation reference frame differs significantly from the hotspot reference frame. If the difference between reference frames is caused by motion of the hotspots relative to a mean-mantle reference frame, then hotspots beneath the Pacific plate move with coherent motion towards the east-southeast. Alternatively, the difference between reference frames can show that the uniform drag, no-net-torque reference frame, which is kinematically equivalent to the no-net-rotation reference frame, is based on a dynamically incorrect premise.

  9. Velocity model building in the Gulf of Mexico-An old story with a new twist

    SciTech Connect

    Witcombe, M. )

    1994-04-01

    With the commercial availability of 3-D pre- and poststack depth migration, more and more attention is being focused by the industry on producing velocity models in a fast and reliable manner. Various methods have been presented in the past for producing 3-D velocity fields, but it should be realized that a method suited to one particular region is not neccesarily the best solution in other areas. Much attention is currently being focused on developing high end, 3-D forward modeling packages for the more complex areas of the world. It should be remembered that in areas of more straight forward sedimentary velocities, new tools, in the form of desktop workstations and massively parallel super computers, can be used to good effect with some of the more traditional modeling approaches. A case history will be presented that combines the use of a computer workstation with 2-D prestack depth migration and iterative 3-D poststack depth migration to produce a robust velocity model suitable for use with 3-D prestack or poststack depth migration on a Gulf of Mexico data set. The workstation allows us to quickly get a feel for the variation of subsurface velocity over the data set, with the aim of incorporating overpressure information into our model. 2-D prestack depth migrations were used to Q.C. and refine the model before running full 3-D poststack depth migration to delineate the salt sheets present in the area.

  10. A distributed, dynamic, parallel computational model: the role of noise in velocity storage

    PubMed Central

    Merfeld, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Networks of neurons perform complex calculations using distributed, parallel computation, including dynamic “real-time” calculations required for motion control. The brain must combine sensory signals to estimate the motion of body parts using imperfect information from noisy neurons. Models and experiments suggest that the brain sometimes optimally minimizes the influence of noise, although it remains unclear when and precisely how neurons perform such optimal computations. To investigate, we created a model of velocity storage based on a relatively new technique–“particle filtering”–that is both distributed and parallel. It extends existing observer and Kalman filter models of vestibular processing by simulating the observer model many times in parallel with noise added. During simulation, the variance of the particles defining the estimator state is used to compute the particle filter gain. We applied our model to estimate one-dimensional angular velocity during yaw rotation, which yielded estimates for the velocity storage time constant, afferent noise, and perceptual noise that matched experimental data. We also found that the velocity storage time constant was Bayesian optimal by comparing the estimate of our particle filter with the estimate of the Kalman filter, which is optimal. The particle filter demonstrated a reduced velocity storage time constant when afferent noise increased, which mimics what is known about aminoglycoside ablation of semicircular canal hair cells. This model helps bridge the gap between parallel distributed neural computation and systems-level behavioral responses like the vestibuloocular response and perception. PMID:22514288

  11. A math model for high velocity sensoring with a focal plane shuttered camera.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.

    1971-01-01

    A new mathematical model is presented which describes the image produced by a focal plane shutter-equipped camera. The model is based upon the well-known collinearity condition equations and incorporates both the translational and rotational motion of the camera during the exposure interval. The first differentials of the model with respect to exposure interval, delta t, yield the general matrix expressions for image velocities which may be simplified to known cases. The exposure interval, delta t, may be replaced under certain circumstances with a function incorporating blind velocity and image position if desired. The model is tested using simulated Lunar Orbiter data and found to be computationally stable as well as providing excellent results, provided that some external information is available on the velocity parameters.

  12. High Resolution Interseismic Velocity Model of the San Andreas Fault From GPS and InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, X.; Sandwell, D. T.; Smith-Konter, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    We recover the interseismic deformation along the entire San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) at a spatial resolution of 200 meters by combining InSAR and GPS observations using a dislocation model. Previous efforts to compare 17 different GPS-derived strain rate models of the SAFS shows that GPS data alone cannot uniquely resolve the rapid velocity gradients near faults, which are critical for understanding the along-strike variations in stress accumulation rate and associated earthquake hazard. To improve the near-fault velocity resolution, we integrate new GPS observations with InSAR observations, initially from ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite launched by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) ascending data (spanning 2006.5-2010), using a remove/restore approach. More than 1100 interferograms were processed with the newly developed InSAR processing software GMTSAR. The integration uses a dislocation-based velocity model to interpolate the Line-Of-Sight (LOS) velocity at the full resolution of the InSAR data in radar coordinates. The residual between the model and InSAR LOS velocity are stacked and high-pass filtered, then added back to the model. This LOS velocity map covers almost entire San Andreas Fault System (see Figure 1) from Maacama Fault to the north to the Superstition Hills Fault to the south. The average standard deviation of the LOS velocity model ranges from 2 to 4 mm/yr. Our initial results show previously unknown details in along-strike variations in surface fault creep. Moreover, the high resolution velocity field can resolve asperities in these "creeping" sections that are important for understanding moment accumulation rates and seismic hazards. We find that much of the high resolution velocity signal is related to non-tectonic processes (e.g., ground subsidence and uplift) sometimes very close to the fault zone. The near-fault deformation signal extracted from this velocity map can provide tighter constraints on fault slip rates and locking depths of the major fault segments along the SAFS.

  13. Focal mechanisms of earthquake multiplets in the western part of the Corinth Rift (Greece): influence of the velocity model and constraints on the geometry of the active faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godano, Maxime; Deschamps, Anne; Lambotte, Sophie; Lyon-Caen, Hélène; Bernard, Pascal; Pacchiani, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    The composite fault plane solutions for 24 large multiplets recorded in the western part of the Corinth Rift between 2000 and 2007 are computed by jointly inverting P polarities and Sv/P, Sh/P, Sv/Sh amplitude ratios of the direct waves. The fault plane solutions are determined using 1-D and 3-D velocity models. Solutions computed with the 3-D velocity model are preferred to the ones computed with the 1-D model because overall, 3-D solutions have a better score function. They correspond essentially to E-NE/W-SW and W-NW/E-SE striking normal faults, which is consistent with the N-S extensional/vertical shortening tectonic regime of the area. For 15 multiplets, one of the nodal planes is similar to the plane delineated by the earthquakes. It is then possible to determine which nodal plane is the fault plane. The analysis of the fault plane solutions highlights a clear decrease of their dip with depth and towards the north. Several multiplets with steeply dipping fault planes (50°-60°) located at depths of 7-8 km are clearly located at the base of onshore and offshore faults that crop out close to the south border of the Corinth Gulf, indicating that these faults are steep down to 7-8 km depth. To the north, multiplets underline a low angle north-dipping structure (20°-30°) on which steep north-dipping faults could take root.

  14. One-dimensional velocity model of the Middle Kura Depresion from local earthquakes data of Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetirmishli, G. C.; Kazimova, S. E.; Kazimov, I. E.

    2011-09-01

    We present the method for determining the velocity model of the Earth's crust and the parameters of earthquakes in the Middle Kura Depression from the data of network telemetry in Azerbaijan. Application of this method allowed us to recalculate the main parameters of the hypocenters of the earthquake, to compute the corrections to the arrival times of P and S waves at the observation station, and to significantly improve the accuracy in determining the coordinates of the earthquakes. The model was constructed using the VELEST program, which calculates one-dimensional minimal velocity models from the travel times of seismic waves.

  15. Determination of simple constitutive models for DEDF glass using penetration-velocity data from ballistic experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Gordon; Holmquist, Timothy

    2007-06-01

    Constitutive models for brittle materials such as glass can be very complex as they are dependent on strains, stain rates, pressures, temperatures, damage and other parameters. There may also be significant (pressure-dependent) strength after failure such that the constitutive response is much different for intact material and failed material. A great number of laboratory tests are required to develop a comprehensive constitutive model. Another approach is to develop simple models using penetration-velocity data obtained from ballistic experiments. Here, various functional forms of simple models (with a limited number of constants) are used to (computationally) match the penetration velocity over a range of impact velocities. This allows for the determination of the most important parameters and it provides an approximation of the stresses that occur during penetration. This paper presents constitutive models for high-density DEDF glass. They are based on penetration-velocity data reported by Behner et al. (Proceedings of the 22^nd International Symposium on Ballistics, Vancouver BC, Canada, November 2005) for gold rods impacting DEDF glass at impact velocities from 400 to 2500 m/s.

  16. Dynamics of ozone and nitrogen oxides at Summit, Greenland. II. Simulating snowpack chemistry during a spring high ozone event with a 1-D process-scale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Keenan A.; Kramer, Louisa J.; Doskey, Paul V.; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Seok, Brian; Van Dam, Brie; Helmig, Detlev

    2015-09-01

    Observed depth profiles of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) in snowpack interstitial air at Summit, Greenland were best replicated by a 1-D process-scale model, which included (1) geometrical representation of snow grains as spheres, (2) aqueous-phase chemistry confined to a quasi-liquid layer (QLL) on the surface of snow grains, and (3) initialization of the species concentrations in the QLL through equilibrium partitioning with mixing ratios in snowpack interstitial air. A comprehensive suite of measurements in and above snowpack during a high O3 event facilitated analysis of the relationship between the chemistry of snowpack and the overlying atmosphere. The model successfully reproduced 2 maxima (i.e., a peak near the surface of the snowpack at solar noon and a larger peak occurring in the evening that extended down from 0.5 to 2 m) in the diurnal profile of NO2 within snowpack interstitial air. The maximum production rate of NO2 by photolysis of nitrate (NO3-) was approximately 108 molec cm-3 s-1, which explained daily observations of maxima in NO2 mixing ratios near solar noon. Mixing ratios of NO2 in snowpack interstitial air were greatest in the deepest layers of the snowpack at night and were attributed to thermal decomposition of peroxynitric acid, which produced up to 106 molec NO2 cm-3 s-1. Highest levels of NO in snowpack interstitial air were confined to upper layers of the snowpack and observed profiles were consistent with photolysis of NO2. Production of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from NO3- photolysis was estimated to be two orders of magnitude larger than NO production and supports the hypothesis that NO3- photolysis is the primary source of NOx within sunlit snowpack in the Arctic. Aqueous-phase oxidation of formic acid by O3 resulted in a maximum consumption rate of ∼106-107 molec cm-3 s-1 and was the primary removal mechanism for O3.

  17. Early alterations in energy metabolism in the hippocampus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Pedrós, Ignacio; Petrov, Dmitry; Allgaier, Michael; Sureda, Francesc; Barroso, Emma; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; Auladell, Carme; Pallàs, Mercè; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Casadesús, Gemma; Folch, Jaume; Camins, Antoni

    2014-09-01

    The present study had focused on the behavioral phenotype and gene expression profile of molecules related to insulin receptor signaling in the hippocampus of 3 and 6 month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Elevated levels of the insoluble Aβ (1-42) were detected in the brain extracts of the transgenic animals as early as 3 months of age, prior to the Aβ plaque formation (pre-plaque stage). By the early plaque stage (6 months) both the soluble and insoluble Aβ (1-40) and Aβ (1-42) peptides were detectable. We studied the expression of genes related to memory function (Arc, Fos), insulin signaling, including insulin receptor (Insr), Irs1 and Irs2, as well as genes involved in insulin growth factor pathways, such as Igf1, Igf2, Igfr and Igfbp2. We also examined the expression and protein levels of key molecules related to energy metabolism (PGC1-α, and AMPK) and mitochondrial functionality (OXPHOS, TFAM, NRF1 and NRF2). 6 month-old APP/PS1 mice demonstrated impaired cognitive ability, were glucose intolerant and showed a significant reduction in hippocampal Insr and Irs2 transcripts. Further observations also suggest alterations in key cellular energy sensors that regulate the activities of a number of metabolic enzymes through phosphorylation, such as a decrease in the Prkaa2 mRNA levels and in the pAMPK (Thr172)/Total APMK ratio. Moreover, mRNA and protein analysis reveals a significant downregulation of genes essential for mitochondrial replication and respiratory function, including PGC-1α in hippocampal extracts of APP/PS1 mice, compared to age-matched wild-type controls at 3 and 6 months of age. Overall, the findings of this study show early alterations in genes involved in insulin and energy metabolism pathways in an APP/PS1 model of AD. These changes affect the activity of key molecules like NRF1 and PGC-1α, which are involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that the impairments in both insulin signaling and energy metabolism precede the development of AD amyloidogenesis. PMID:24887203

  18. UCVM: An Open Source Framework for 3D Velocity Model Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Plesch, A.; Taborda, R.; Callaghan, S.; Small, P.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic velocity models provide fundamental input data to ground motion simulations, in the form of structured or unstructured meshes or grids. Numerous models are available for California, as well as for other parts of the United States and Europe, but models do not share a common interface. Being able to interact with these models in a standardized way is critical in order to configure and run 3D ground motion simulations. The Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) software, developed by researchers at the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), is an open source framework designed to provide a cohesive way to interact with seismic velocity models. We describe the several ways in which we have improved the UCVM software over the last year. We have simplified the UCVM installation process by automating the installation of various community codebases, improving the ease of use.. We discuss how UCVM software was used to build velocity meshes for high-frequency (4Hz) deterministic 3D wave propagation simulations, and how the UCVM framework interacts with other open source resources, such as NetCDF file formats for visualization. The UCVM software uses a layered software architecture that transparently converts geographic coordinates to the coordinate systems used by the underlying velocity models and supports inclusion of a configurable near-surface geotechnical layer, while interacting with the velocity model codes through their existing software interfaces. No changes to the velocity model codes are required. Our recent UCVM installation improvements bundle UCVM with a setup script, written in Python, which guides users through the process that installs the UCVM software along with all the user-selectable velocity models. Each velocity model is converted into a standardized (configure, make, make install) format that is easily downloaded and installed via the script. UCVM is often run in specialized high performance computing (HPC) environments, so we have included checks during the installation process to alert users about potential conflicts. We also describe how UCVM can create an octree-based database representation of a velocity model which can be directly queried by 3D wave propagation simulation codes using the open source etree library. We will discuss how this approach was used to create an etree for a 4-Hz Chino Hills simulation. Finally, we show how the UCVM software can integrate NetCDF utility code to produce 3D velocity model files compatible with open source NetCDF data viewers. This demonstrates that UCVM can generate meshes from any compatible community velocity model and that the resulting models can be visualized without the need for complex secondary tools. This illustrates how developers can easily write tools that can convert data from one format to another using the UCVM API.

  19. A simple way to model the pressure dependency of rock velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tongcheng

    2016-04-01

    Modeling the pressure dependency of rock velocity is important for interpreting and comparing the seismic and earthquake data from different depths. This study develops a multicomponent differential effective medium model for the elastic properties of porous rocks with two types of pores in the grain background without mixing order. The developed model is applied to modeling the pressure dependent elastic velocity of porous rocks by incorporating the variation of stiff and compliant porosity as a function of pressure. The pressure dependent stiff and compliant porosity were inverted from the measured total porosity under pressure using a dual porosity model, and the unknown constant stiff and compliant pore aspect ratios were inverted by best fitting the modeled velocity to the measured data. Application of the approach to a low porosity granite and a medium porosity sandstone sample showed that the pressure dependency of rock velocity can be satisfactorily modeled by the developed model using the pressure dependent stiff and compliant porosity and carefully estimated stiff and compliant pore aspect ratio values.

  20. Traffic stability of a car-following model considering driver’s desired velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Geng; Sun, Di-Hua; Liu, Wei-Ning; Liu, Hui

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed by considering driver’s desired velocity according to Transportation Cyber Physical Systems. The effect of driver’s desired velocity on traffic flow has been investigated through linear stability theory and nonlinear reductive perturbation method. The linear stability condition shows that driver’s desired velocity effect can enlarge the stable region of traffic flow. From nonlinear analysis, the Burgers equation and mKdV equation are derived to describe the evolution properties of traffic density waves in the stable and unstable regions respectively. Numerical simulation is carried out to verify the analytical results, which reveals that traffic congestion can be suppressed efficiently by taking driver’s desired velocity effect into account.

  1. Fabry-Perot interferometer measurement of static temperature and velocity for ASTOVL model tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourous, Helen E.; Seacholtz, Richard G.

    1995-01-01

    A spectrally resolved Rayleigh/Mie scattering diagnostic was developed to measure temperature and wing-spanwise velocity in the vicinity of an ASTOVL aircraft model in the Lewis 9 x 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The spectrum of argon-ion laser light scattered by the air molecules and particles in the flow was resolved with a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Temperature was extracted from the spectral width of the Rayleigh scattering component, and spanwise gas velocity from the gross spectral shift. Nozzle temperature approached 800 K, and the velocity component approached 30 m/s. The measurement uncertainty was about 5 percent for the gas temperature, and about 10 m/s for the velocity. The large difference in the spectral width of the Mie scattering from particles and the Rayleigh scattering from gas molecules allowed the gas temperature to be measured in flow containing both naturally occurring dust and LDV seed (both were present).

  2. Quasilinear model for energetic particle diffusion in radial and velocity space

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Bass, E. M.

    2013-04-15

    A quasilinear model for passive energetic particle (EP) turbulent diffusion in radial and velocity space is fitted and tested against nonlinear gyrokinetic tokamak simulations with the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 045001 (2003)]. Off diagonal elements of a symmetric positive definite 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 EP diffusion matrix account for fluxes up radial (energy) gradients driven by energy (radial) gradients of the EP velocity space distribution function. The quasilinear ratio kernel of the model is provided by a simple analytic formula for the EP radial and velocity space EP diffusivity relative to radial thermal ion energy diffusivity at each linear mode of the turbulence driven by the thermal plasma. The TGLF [G. M. Staebler, J. E. Kinsey, and R. E. Waltz, Phys. Plasmas 14, 0055909 (2007); ibid. 15, 0055908 (2008)] tokamak transport model provides the linear mode frequency and growth rates to the kernel as well as the nonlinear spectral weight for each mode.

  3. Quasilinear model for energetic particle diffusion in radial and velocity space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltz, R. E.; Bass, E. M.; Staebler, G. M.

    2013-04-01

    A quasilinear model for passive energetic particle (EP) turbulent diffusion in radial and velocity space is fitted and tested against nonlinear gyrokinetic tokamak simulations with the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 045001 (2003)]. Off diagonal elements of a symmetric positive definite 2×2 EP diffusion matrix account for fluxes up radial (energy) gradients driven by energy (radial) gradients of the EP velocity space distribution function. The quasilinear ratio kernel of the model is provided by a simple analytic formula for the EP radial and velocity space EP diffusivity relative to radial thermal ion energy diffusivity at each linear mode of the turbulence driven by the thermal plasma. The TGLF [G. M. Staebler, J. E. Kinsey, and R. E. Waltz, Phys. Plasmas 14, 0055909 (2007); ibid. 15, 0055908 (2008)] tokamak transport model provides the linear mode frequency and growth rates to the kernel as well as the nonlinear spectral weight for each mode.

  4. A Community Velocity Model (CVM) for the Sichuan basin and Longmen Shan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Hubbard, J.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Jia, D.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new three-dimensional velocity model of the crust and upper mantle for the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, developed using the concept of a Community Velocity Model (CVM) (Magistrale et al., 2000; Sss and Shaw, 2003). The model extends from 27.5-34.5N and 100-110E, and describes the velocity structure of the Sichuan basin and surrounding fold-and-thrust belt systems (including the Longmen Shan, Micang Shan, Daba Shan, Eastern Sichuan and Kangdian), as well as the Kunlun and Xianshuihe-Anninghe strike fault systems in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The model consists of 3D surfaces representing major geologic unit contacts and faults, and is parameterized with velocity-depth curves (Boore and Joyner, 1997) calibrated using sonic logs from wells. The model incorporates data from 1166 oil wells, industry isopach maps, surface geological maps and digital elevation models. The model was developed in the program GoCAD, a geological computer-aided design application (Mallet, 1992). The geological surfaces were modeled based on industry isopach maps for various units augmented by stratigraphic picks in oil and gas wells and regional seismic reflection profiles. These surfaces include base Quaternary, Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic, and Paleozoic horizons. These surface are locally cut by major faults, which are compatible with the locations and displacements of major faults systems in the Sichuan Community Fault Model (CFM) (Hubbard et al., 2012). The velocity profiles for each layer are calibrated with high-resolution sonic log as well as stacking velocities from seismic reflection profiles and vertical seismic profiles. This upper crustal model extends down to ~10-15 km depth, and is embedded into a regional tomographic model (Xu and Song, 2010). The Sichuan basin is an atypical basin in terms of its velocity structure. The rocks exposed at the surface are primarily Mesozoic in age, with limited patch of Cenozoic rocks in the southwestern part of the basin. As a consequence, the velocities (Vp) in the basin are generally fast. They range from about 3000 to ~7500 m/s, exhibiting increasing velocities with age and depth. We divide the rock in the Sichuan basin and Longmen Shan region into five basic types: (1) Cenozoic alluvium; (2) Mesozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; (3) Paleozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; (4) Proterozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks and (5) granite. Cenozoic alluvium is thin (0~500 m) and limited primarily to the southwestern basin. Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are thick (2600-9800 m) and widely exposed at the surface and in boreholes in the basin. Their velocities vary from about 3000-6000 m/s. Paleozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are also common, exposed primarily in the Longmen Shan and in regions to the north, east, and south of the basin. These units vary in thickness from 400-4100 m, and have velocities from about 5000-7000 m/s. Proterozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks crop out in narrow regions around the boundary of the basin, but are disturbed within the basin. Two exploration wells penetrate the base of Sinian, giving a velocity of about 6500-7500 m/s. The model will serve as a basic community resource for strong ground motion prediction and seismic hazard assessments in the densely populated Sichuan basin.

  5. SALSA3D: Validating a Global 3D P-Velocity Model of the Earth's Crust and Mantle for Improved Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begnaud, M. L.; Ballard, S.; Young, C. J.; Hipp, J. R.; Encarnacao, A.; Phillips, W. S.; Chael, E. P.; Rowe, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    We are developing a global 3D P wave velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle using seismic tomography to assess improvement to seismic event locations obtained using high quality 3D Earth models in lieu of 1D and 2/2.5D models. We present the most recent version of SALSA3D (SAndia LoS Alamos 3D) version 1.9, and demonstrate its ability to reduce mislocations for a large set of realizations derived from a carefully chosen set of globally-distributed ground truth (GT) events. Our model is derived from the latest version of the GT catalog of P/Pn travel-time picks assembled by Los Alamos National Laboratory. For this current version, we employ more robust data quality control measures than previously used, as well as additional global GT data sources. To prevent over-weighting due to ray path redundancy and to reduce the computational burden, we cluster rays into representative rays. The model is represented using the triangular tessellation system described by Ballard et al. (2009), which incorporates variable resolution in both the geographic and radial dimensions. For our starting model, we use a simplified layer crustal model derived from the NNSA Unified model in Eurasia and Crust 2.0 model everywhere else, overlying a uniform ak135 mantle. Sufficient damping is used to reduce velocity adjustments so that ray path changes between iterations are small. We obtain proper model smoothness by using progressive grid refinement, refining the grid only in areas where the data warrant such a refinement. In previous versions, we based this refinement on velocity changes from previous model iterations. For the current version, we utilize the diagonal of the model resolution matrix to control where grid refinement occurs, resulting in more consistent and continuous areas of refinement than before. In addition to the changes in grid refinement, we also employ a more robust convergence criterion between successive grid refinements, allowing a better fit to first broader model features, then progressively to finer ones. Our approach produces a smooth, multi-resolution model with node density appropriate to both ray coverage and the velocity gradients required by the data. This scheme is computationally expensive, so we use a distributed computing framework based on the Java Parallel Processing Framework, providing us with ~400 processors. We compare the travel-time prediction and location capabilities to standard 1D and 2/2.5D models via location tests on a global event set with GT of 5 km or better. These events generally possess hundreds of Pn and P picks from which we generate different realizations of station distributions, yielding a range of azimuthal coverage and ratios of teleseismic to regional arrivals, with which we test the robustness and quality of relocation. For the current version of the model, we test using the full 3D covariance matrix to calculate path-dependent travel time uncertainty rather than standard 1D, distance-dependent uncertainty. The SALSA3D model reduces mislocation over the standard 1D ak135 model regardless of Pn to P ratio, with the improvement being most pronounced at higher azimuthal gaps. SALSA3D also reduces mislocation compared to the combined RSTT/ak135 model (2.5D - RSTT for regional phases), with SALSA3D and RSTT performing about the same when using only Pn arrivals in location tests.

  6. MAMPOSSt: Modelling Anisotropy and Mass Profiles of Observed Spherical Systems - I. Gaussian 3D velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamon, Gary A.; Biviano, Andrea; Boué, Gwenaël

    2013-03-01

    Mass modelling of spherical systems through internal kinematics is hampered by the mass-velocity anisotropy degeneracy inherent in the Jeans equation, as well as the lack of techniques that are both fast and adaptable to realistic systems. A new fast method, called Modelling Anisotropy and Mass Profiles of Observed Spherical Systems (MAMPOSSt), is developed and thoroughly tested. MAMPOSSt performs a maximum-likelihood fit of the distribution of observed tracers in projected phase space (projected radius and line-of-sight velocity). As in other methods, MAMPOSSt assumes a shape for the gravitational potential (or equivalently the total mass profile). However, instead of postulating a shape for the distribution function in terms of energy and angular momentum, or supposing Gaussian line-of-sight velocity distributions, MAMPOSSt assumes a velocity anisotropy profile and a shape for the 3D velocity distribution. The formalism is presented for the case of a Gaussian 3D velocity distribution. In contrast to most methods based on moments, MAMPOSSt requires no binning, differentiation, nor extrapolation of the observables. Tests on cluster-mass haloes from ΛCDM dissipationless cosmological simulations indicate that, with 500 tracers, MAMPOSSt is able to jointly recover the virial radius, tracer scale radius, dark matter scale radius and outer or constant velocity anisotropy with small bias (<10 per cent on scale radii and <2 per cent on the two other quantities) and inefficiencies of 10, 27, 48 and 20 per cent, respectively. MAMPOSSt does not perform better when some parameters are frozen, and even particularly worse when the virial radius is set to its true value, which appears to be the consequence of halo triaxiality. The accuracy of MAMPOSSt depends weakly on the adopted interloper removal scheme, including an efficient iterative Bayesian scheme that we introduce here, which can directly obtain the virial radius with as good precision as MAMPOSSt. Additional tests are made on the number of tracers, the stacking of haloes, the chosen aperture, and the density and velocity anisotropy models. Our tests show that MAMPOSSt with Gaussian 3D velocities is very competitive with other methods that are either currently restricted to constant velocity anisotropy or 3 orders of magnitude slower. These tests suggest that MAMPOSSt can be a very powerful and rapid method for the mass and anisotropy modelling of systems such as clusters and groups of galaxies, elliptical and dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  7. Visuo-spatial learning and memory deficits on the Barnes maze in the 16-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Timothy P; Brown, Richard E

    2009-07-19

    The APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse is a double transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease, which harbors mutant mouse/human amyloid precursor protein (Swedish K594N/M595L) and presenilin-1 genes (PS1-dE9). These mice develop beta-amyloid plaques and exhibit visuo-spatial learning and memory impairment in the Morris water maze (MWM) at 8-12 and 16-18 months of age. To extend these findings, we tested visuo-spatial learning and memory of male and female APPswe/PS1dE9 mice at 16 months of age on the Barnes maze. APPswe/PS1dE9 mice showed impaired acquisition learning using measures of latency, distance traveled, errors and hole deviation scores, and were less likely to use the spatial search strategy to locate the escape hole than wild-type mice. APPswe/PS1dE9 mice also showed a deficit in memory in probe tests on the Barnes maze relative to wild-type mice. Learning and memory deficits, however, were not found during reversal training and reversal probe tests. Sex differences were observed, as male APPswe/PS1dE9 mice had smaller reversal effects than male wild-type mice, but females of each genotype did not differ. Overall, these results replicate previous findings using the MWM, and indicate that APPswe/PS1dE9 mice have impaired visuo-spatial learning and memory at 16 months of age. PMID:19428625

  8. Flexural analysis of the Magallanes retroarc basin of southern South America: A 1-D elastic-plastic model for deflection of attenuated lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosdick, J. C.; Hilley, G. E.; Graham, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of inelastic bending of attenuated lithosphere on foreland flexure and basin geometry in the Upper Cretaceous Magallanes Basin of southern South America. The lack of correlation between topographic load from the present-day Patagonian Andes and the distribution of total sediment thickness in the adjacent Magallanes Basin suggests that that foreland lithosphere has accumulated irrecoverable strain and thus, inelastic flexure should be considered. We present a 1-D numerical analysis using an elastic-plastic model for plate bending and explore the effects of yield stress, spatially-variable flexural rigidity, and size of the tapered topographic load. The Upper Cretaceous Magallanes retroforeland basin formed during Andean orogenesis after closure of a Late Jurassic quasi-oceanic backarc basin. The unusually thick (>5 km) succession of Cenomanian-Maastrichtian sedimentary rocks were deposited in a deep-marine axial foredeep. Sediment thickness profiles across the Cenomanian-Turonian basin fill define a curve with high amplitude and long-wavelength deflection and a substantially suppressed forebulge. Secondly, observed thicknesses across the basin show a distinct inflection point, located ~200 km east of the palinspastically-restored thrust front, that separates a deep (>2.5 km thick) depocenter that thins abruptly toward the craton. Linear elastic models using a range of flexural rigidities (3.6 x 1022 to 2.8 x 1023 N-m) corresponding to elastic thicknesses of 20-40 km for both line loads and distributed loads do not fit observed sediment thicknesses. We explore the effects of obducted high-density oceanic blocks in the thrust belt, spatial variations in elastic thickness of attenuated lithosphere, and permanent strain on foreland flexure. In elastic-plastic models, the plate deforms elastically when the fiber stress is less than the maximum yield stress. When the bending stress in the plate reaches the yield stress, the outer portions of the plate behaves plastically. We compare the observed sedimentary thickness with derived deflection curves. Preliminary results show that spatial variations in elastic thickness (Te) strongly affect the geometry of flexural profiles. Increasing Te toward the foreland transmits deflection farther toward the craton. A higher contrast in Te between the foredeep and craton region amplifies this effect. Plasticity also affects the overall geometry of the deflection profile. As the yield stress decreases, maximum deflection increases, the forebulge increases in height, and the backbulge basin shallows considerably. Lastly, we find that the position of the transition point between mechanical properties exerts a control on the location and height of the forebulge but does not affect the amplitude of the maximum foredeep deflection. The inclusion of inelastic strain significantly changes the basin geometry and mechanical strength of the lithosphere. Our preliminary work has important implications for predicting the distribution and character of sedimentary infill and rates of basin depocenter migration in foreland basins that evolve on narrow plates and attenuated lithosphere.

  9. Anisotropic shear-wave velocity structure of the Earth's mantle: A global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustowski, B.; EkströM, G.; DziewońSki, A. M.

    2008-06-01

    We combine a new, large data set of surface wave phase anomalies, long-period waveforms, and body wave travel times to construct a three-dimensional model of the anisotropic shear wave velocity in the Earth's mantle. Our modeling approach is improved and more comprehensive compared to our earlier studies and involves the development and implementation of a new spherically symmetric reference model, simultaneous inversion for velocity and anisotropy, as well as discontinuity topographies, and implementation of nonlinear crustal corrections for waveforms. A comparison of our new three-dimensional model, S362ANI, with two other models derived from comparable data sets but using different techniques reveals persistent features: (1) strong, ˜200-km-thick, high-velocity anomalies beneath cratons, likely representing the continental lithosphere, underlain by weaker, fast anomalies extending below 250 km, which may represent continental roots, (2) weak velocity heterogeneity between 250 and 400 km depths, (3) fast anomalies extending horizontally up to 2000-3000 km in the mantle transition zone beneath subduction zones, (4) lack of strong long-wavelength heterogeneity below 650 km suggesting inhibiting character of the upper mantle-lower mantle boundary, and (5) slow-velocity superplumes beneath the Pacific and Africa. The shear wave radial anisotropy is strongest at 120 km depth, in particular beneath the central Pacific. Lateral anisotropic variations appreciably improve the fit to data that are predominantly sensitive to the uppermost and lowermost mantle but not to the waveforms that control the transition zone and midmantle depths. Tradeoffs between lateral variations in velocity and anisotropy are negligible in the uppermost mantle but noticeable at the bottom of the mantle.

  10. Pilot model expansion tunnel test flow properties obtained from velocity, pressure, and probe measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friesen, W. J.; Moore, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Velocity-profile, pitot-pressure, and supplemental probe measurements were made at the nozzle exist of an expansion tunnel (a modification to the Langley pilot model expansion tube) for a nozzle net condition of a nitrogen test sample with a velocity of 4.5 km/sec and a density 0.005 times the density of nitrogen at standard conditions, both with the nozzle initially immersed in a helium atmosphere and with the nozzle initially evacuated. The purpose of the report is to present the results of these measurements and some of the physical properties of the nitrogen test sample which can be inferred from the measured results. The main conclusions reached are that: the velocity profiles differ for two nozzle conditions; regions of the flow field can be found where the velocity is uniform to within 5 percent and constant for several hundred microseconds; the velocity of the nitrogen test sample is reduced due to passage through the nozzle; and the velocity profiles do not significantly reflect the large variations which occur in the inferred density profiles.

  11. A California statewide three-dimensional seismic velocity model from both absolute and differential times

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, G.; Thurber, C.H.; Zhang, H.; Hauksson, E.; Shearer, P.M.; Waldhauser, F.; Brocher, T.M.; Hardebeck, J.

    2010-01-01

    We obtain a seismic velocity model of the California crust and uppermost mantle using a regional-scale double-difference tomography algorithm. We begin by using absolute arrival-time picks to solve for a coarse three-dimensional (3D) P velocity (VP) model with a uniform 30 km horizontal node spacing, which we then use as the starting model for a finer-scale inversion using double-difference tomography applied to absolute and differential pick times. For computational reasons, we split the state into 5 subregions with a grid spacing of 10 to 20 km and assemble our final statewide VP model by stitching together these local models. We also solve for a statewide S-wave model using S picks from both the Southern California Seismic Network and USArray, assuming a starting model based on the VP results and a VP=VS ratio of 1.732. Our new model has improved areal coverage compared with previous models, extending 570 km in the SW-NE directionand 1320 km in the NW-SE direction. It also extends to greater depth due to the inclusion of substantial data at large epicentral distances. Our VP model generally agrees with previous separate regional models for northern and southern California, but we also observe some new features, such as high-velocity anomalies at shallow depths in the Klamath Mountains and Mount Shasta area, somewhat slow velocities in the northern Coast Ranges, and slow anomalies beneath the Sierra Nevada at midcrustal and greater depths. This model can be applied to a variety of regional-scale studies in California, such as developing a unified statewide earthquake location catalog and performing regional waveform modeling.

  12. Shallow-velocity models at the Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, determined from array analyses of tremor wavefields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saccorotti, G.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.

    2003-01-01

    The properties of the surface wavefield at Kilauea Volcano are analysed using data from small-aperture arrays of short-period seismometers deployed in and around the Kilauea caldera. Tremor recordings were obtained during two Japan-US cooperative experiments conducted in 1996 and 1997. The seismometers were deployed in three semi-circular arrays with apertures of 300, 300 and 400 m, and a linear array with length of 1680 m. Data are analysed using a spatio-temporal correlation technique well suited for the study of the stationary stochastic wavefields of Rayleigh and Love waves associated with volcanic activity and scattering sources distributed in and around the summit caldera. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients are obtained as a function of frequency and are inverted for the dispersion characteristics of Rayleigh and Love waves using a grid search that seeks phase velocities for which the L-2 norm between data and forward modelling operators is minimized. Within the caldera, the phase velocities of Rayleigh waves range from 1400 to 1800 m s-1 at 1 Hz down to 300-400 m s-1 at 10 Hz, and the phase velocities of Love waves range from 2600 to 400 m s-1 within the same frequency band. Outside the caldera, Rayleigh wave velocities range from 1800 to 1600 m s-1 at 1 Hz down to 260-360 m s-1 at 10 Hz, and Love wave velocities range from 600 to 150 m s-1 within the same frequency band. The dispersion curves are inverted for velocity structure beneath each array, assuming these dispersions represent the fundamental modes of Rayleigh and Love waves. The velocity structures observed at different array sites are consistent with results from a recent 3-D traveltime tomography of the caldera region, and point to a marked velocity discontinuity associated with the southern caldera boundary.

  13. Polar versus Cartesian velocity models for maneuvering target tracking with IMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laneuville, Dann

    This paper compares various model sets in different IMM filters for the maneuvering target tracking problem. The aim is to see whether we can improve the tracking performance of what is certainly the most widely used model set in the literature for the maneuvering target tracking problem: a Nearly Constant Velocity model and a Nearly Coordinated Turn model. Our new challenger set consists of a mixed Cartesian position and polar velocity state vector to describe the uniform motion segments and is augmented with the turn rate to obtain the second model for the maneuvering segments. This paper also gives a general procedure to discretize up to second order any non-linear continuous time model with linear diffusion. Comparative simulations on an air defence scenario with a 2D radar, show that this new approach improves significantly the tracking performance in this case.

  14. Modeling continuous seismic velocity changes due to ground shaking in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassenmeier, Martina; Richter, Tom; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Korn, Michael; Tilmann, Frederik

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate temporal seismic velocity changes due to earthquake related processes and environmental forcing, we analyze 8 years of ambient seismic noise recorded by the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) network in northern Chile between 18° and 25° S. The Mw 7.7 Tocopilla earthquake in 2007 and the Mw 8.1 Iquique earthquake in 2014 as well as numerous smaller events occurred in this area. By autocorrelation of the ambient seismic noise field, approximations of the Green's functions are retrieved. The recovered function represents backscattered or multiply scattered energy from the immediate neighborhood of the station. To detect relative changes of the seismic velocities we apply the stretching method, which compares individual autocorrelation functions to stretched or compressed versions of a long term averaged reference autocorrelation function. We use time windows in the coda of the autocorrelations, that contain scattered waves which are highly sensitive to minute changes in the velocity. At station PATCX we observe seasonal changes in seismic velocity as well as temporary velocity reductions in the frequency range of 4-6 Hz. The seasonal changes can be attributed to thermal stress changes in the subsurface related to variations of the atmospheric temperature. This effect can be modeled well by a sine curve and is subtracted for further analysis of short term variations. Temporary velocity reductions occur at the time of ground shaking usually caused by earthquakes and are followed by a recovery. We present an empirical model that describes the seismic velocity variations based on continuous observations of the local ground acceleration. Our hypothesis is that not only the shaking of earthquakes provokes velocity drops, but any small vibrations continuously induce minor velocity variations that are immediately compensated by healing in the steady state. We show that the shaking effect is accumulated over time and best described by the integrated envelope of the ground acceleration over 1 day which is the discretization interval of the velocity measurements. In our model the amplitude of the velocity reduction as well as the recovery time are proportional to the size of the excitation. This model with the two free scaling parameters for the shaking induced velocity variation fits the data in remarkable detail. Additionally, a linear trend is observed that might be related to a recovery process from one or more earthquakes before our measurement period. For the Tocopilla earthquake in 2007 and the Iquique earthquake in 2014 velocity reductions are also observed at other stations of the IPOC network. However, a clear relationship between the ground shaking and the induced velocity reductions is not visible at other stations. We attribute the outstanding sensitivity of PATCX to ground shaking to the special geological setting of the station, where the material consists of relatively loose conglomerate with high pore volume.

  15. Broadband Waveform Modeling to Evaluate the USGS Seismic Velocity Model for the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, A.; Petersson, A.; Nilsson, S.; Sjogreen, B.; McCandless, K.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake centenary, the USGS developed a three-dimensional seismic velocity and attenuation model for Northern California based on detailed geologic and geophysical constraints. The model was used to predict ground motions for the 1906 rupture. In this study we evaluate the model to assess its ability to accurately predict ground motions from moderate earthquakes recorded on broadband stations. Satisfactory prediction of ground motions from these events will provide hope for accurate modeling of future scenario earthquakes. Simulations were performed on large parallel computer(s) with a new elastic finite difference code developed at LLNL. We simulated broadband ground motions (0-0.25 Hz) for several moderate (magnitude 3.5-5.0) earthquakes in the region observed at Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) broadband stations. These events are well located and can be modeled with simple point moment tensor sources (taken from the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory catalog), helping to isolate the effects of structure on the waveforms. These data sample the region's diverse tectonic structures, such as the bay muds, sedimentary basins and hard rock complexes. Preliminary results indicate that the simulations reproduce many important features in the data. For example, observed long duration surface waves are often predicted for complex paths (traveling across contrasting structures) and through sedimentary basins. Excellent waveform fits were frequently obtained for long-period comparisons (0.02-0.1) and good fits were often obtained for shorter periods. We will attempt higher frequency simulations to test the ability of the model to match the high frequency response. Finally, we performed large scenario earthquake simulations for the Hayward Fault. These simulations predict large amplifications across the Santa Clara and San Ramon/Livermore Valley sedimentary basins and with the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta.

  16. Stabilization of traffic flow in optimal velocity model via delayed-feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yanfei; Hu, Haiyan

    2013-04-01

    Traffic jams may occur due to various reasons, such as traffic accidents, lane reductions and on-ramps. In order to suppress the traffic congestion in an optimal velocity traffic model without any driver's delay taken into account, a delayed-feedback control of both displacement and velocity differences is proposed in this study. By using the delay-independent stability criteria and the H∞-norm, the delayed-feedback control can be determined to stabilize the unstable traffic flow and suppress the traffic jam. The numerical case studies are given to demonstrate and verify the new control method. Furthermore, a comparison is made between the new control method and the method proposed by Konishi et al. [K. Konishi, M. Hirai, H. Kokame, Decentralized delayed-feedback control of an optimal velocity traffic model, Eur. Phys. J. B 15 (2000) 715-722]. The results show that the new control method makes the traffic flow more stable and improves the control performance.

  17. An Empirical Model of Human Aspiration in Low-Velocity Air Using CFD Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, T. Renée; Anderson, Kimberly R.

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to investigate the aspiration efficiency of the human head in low velocities to examine whether the current inhaled particulate mass (IPM) sampling criterion matches the aspiration efficiency of an inhaling human in airflows common to worker exposures. Data from both mouth and nose inhalation, averaged to assess omnidirectional aspiration efficiencies, were compiled and used to generate a unifying model to relate particle size to aspiration efficiency of the human head. Multiple linear regression was used to generate an empirical model to estimate human aspiration efficiency and included particle size as well as breathing and freestream velocities as dependent variables. A new set of simulated mouth and nose breathing aspiration efficiencies was generated and used to test the fit of empirical models. Further, empirical relationships between test conditions and CFD estimates of aspiration were compared to experimental data from mannequin studies, including both calm-air and ultra-low velocity experiments. While a linear relationship between particle size and aspiration is reported in calm air studies, the CFD simulations identified a more reasonable fit using the square of particle aerodynamic diameter, which better addressed the shape of the efficiency curve’s decline toward zero for large particles. The ultimate goal of this work was to develop an empirical model that incorporates real-world variations in critical factors associated with particle aspiration to inform low-velocity modifications to the inhalable particle sampling criterion. PMID:25438035

  18. a Multiple Data Set Joint Inversion Global 3d P-Velocity Model of the Earth's Crust and Mantle for Improved Seismic Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, S.; Begnaud, M. L.; Hipp, J. R.; Chael, E. P.; Encarnacao, A.; Maceira, M.; Yang, X.; Young, C. J.; Phillips, W.

    2013-12-01

    SALSA3D is a global 3D P wave velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle developed specifically to provide seismic event locations that are more accurate and more precise than are locations from 1D and 2.5D models. In this paper, we present the most recent version of our model, for the first time jointly derived from multiple types of data: body wave travel times, surface wave group velocities, and gravity. The latter two are added to provide information in areas with poor body wave coverage, and are down-weighted in areas where body wave coverage is good. To constrain the inversions, we invoked empirical relations among the density, S velocity, and P velocity. We demonstrate the ability of the new SALSA3D model to reduce mislocations and generate statistically robust uncertainty estimates for a large set of realizations derived from a carefully chosen set of globally-distributed ground truth events. We obtain path-dependent travel time prediction uncertainties for our model by computing the full 3D model covariance matrix of our tomographic system and integrating the model slowness variance and covariance along paths of interest. This approach yields very low travel time prediction uncertainties for well-sampled paths through the Earth and higher uncertainties for paths that are poorly represented in the data set used to develop the model. While the calculation of path-dependent prediction uncertainties with this approach is computationally expensive, uncertainties can be pre-computed for a network of stations and stored in 3D lookup tables that can be quickly and efficiently interrogated using GeoTess software.

  19. Crustal velocities near Coalinga, California, modeled from a combined earthquake/explosion refraction profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macgregor-Scott, N.; Walter, A.

    1988-01-01

    Crustal velocity structure for the region near Coalinga, California, has been derived from both earthquake and explosion seismic phase data recorded along a NW-SE seismic-refraction profile on the western flank of the Great Valley east of the Diablo Range. Comparison of the two data sets reveals P-wave phases in common which can be correlated with changes in the velocity structure below the earthquake hypocenters. In addition, the earthquake records reveal secondary phases at station ranges of less than 20 km that could be the result of S- to P-wave conversions at velocity interfaces above the earthquake hypocenters. Two-dimensional ray-trace modeling of the P-wave travel times resulted in a P-wave velocity model for the western flank of the Great Valley comprised of: 1) a 7- to 9-km thick section of sedimentary strata with velocities similar to those found elsewhere in the Great Valley (1.6 to 5.2 km s-1); 2) a middle crust extending to about 14 km depth with velocities comparable to those reported for the Franciscan assemblage in the Diablo Range (5.6 to 5.9 km s-1); and 3) a 13- to 14-km thick lower crust with velocities similar to those reported beneath the Diablo Range and the Great Valley (6.5 to 7.30 km s-1). This lower crust may have been derived from subducted oceanic crust that was thickened by accretionary underplating or crustal shortening. -Authors

  20. Using the International Monitoring System to Validate SALSA3D: A Global 3D P-Velocity Model of the Crust and Mantle for Improved Seismic Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begnaud, M. L.; Ballard, S.; Young, C. J.; Hipp, J. R.; Encarnacao, A.; Phillips, W.; Chael, E. P.; Rowe, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate the ability of SALSA3D (SAndia LoS Alamos 3D) version 2.1, a global 3D P-wave velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle, to reduce mislocations compared to those derived from standard 1D and 2-2.5D models, for a set of realizations using only IMS stations - an example of a sparse network whose locations depend heavily on the velocity model employed - and a carefully chosen group of globally-distributed ground truth (GT) events. Our model is derived from the latest version of the GT catalog of P/Pn travel-time picks assembled by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model uses the GeoTess triangular tessellation system described by Ballard et al. (2009; www.sandia.gov/geotess), which incorporates variable resolution both laterally and radially. For our starting model, we use a simplified version of the NNSA Unified model in Eurasia and the Crust 2.0 model elsewhere. Damping reduces velocity adjustments so that ray path changes between iterations are small. We obtain proper model smoothness via progressive grid refinement using the diagonal of the model resolution matrix to determine where the data warrant such a refinement. Our approach provides more consistent and continuous areas of refinement, producing a smooth, multi-resolution model with node density appropriate to both ray coverage and the velocity gradients required by the data. This scheme is computationally expensive, so we use a distributed computing framework of ~400 processors. The global IMS network consists of approximately 150 primary and auxiliary stations, forming a pre-defined, sparse network with which to locate seismic events. We compare the travel-time prediction and location capabilities of SALSA3D to standard 1D and 2/2.5D models via location tests on a global event set with GT of 5 km or better. Using Pn and P picks from IMS stations only, we generate different realizations of station distributions, yielding a range of azimuthal coverage and ratios of teleseismic to regional arrivals, with which we test the accuracy and precision of relocation. We test using the full 3D covariance matrix of the current model to calculate path-dependent travel time uncertainty, rather than applying standard, 1D, distance-dependent uncertainty. SALSA3D reduces mislocation over the standard 1D ak135 model regardless of Pn to P ratio, with the most pronounced improvement at higher azimuthal gaps. SALSA3D also reduces mislocation compared to the combined RSTT/ak135 model (2.5D - RSTT for regional phases), with minimal improvement over RSTT when only regional Pn phases are used to compute locations.

  1. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking.

    PubMed

    Wágner, Dorottya S; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter; Dechesne, Arnaud; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through altering the hindered settling velocity and yield stress parameter. Strikingly, this is not the case for Chloroflexi, occurring in more than double the abundance of M. parvicella, and forming filaments primarily protruding from the flocs. The transient and compression settling parameters show a comparably high variability, and no significant association with filamentous abundance. A two-dimensional, axi-symmetrical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to assess calibration scenarios to model filamentous bulking. Our results suggest that model predictions can significantly benefit from explicitly accounting for filamentous bulking by calibrating the hindered settling velocity function. Furthermore, accounting for the transient and compression settling velocity in the computational domain is crucial to improve model accuracy when modelling filamentous bulking. However, the case-specific calibration of transient and compression settling parameters as well as yield stress is not necessary, and an average parameter set - obtained under bulking and good settling conditions - can be used. PMID:25935367

  2. On the assimilation of ice velocity and concentration data into large-scale sea ice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulière, V.; Fichefet, T.

    2007-06-01

    Data assimilation into sea ice models designed for climate studies has started about 15 years ago. In most of the studies conducted so far, it is assumed that the improvement brought by the assimilation is straightforward. However, some studies suggest this might not be true. In order to elucidate this question and to find an appropriate way to further assimilate sea ice concentration and velocity observations into a global sea ice-ocean model, we analyze here results from a number of twin experiments (i.e. experiments in which the assimilated data are model outputs) carried out with a simplified model of the Arctic sea ice pack. Our objective is to determine to what degree the assimilation of ice velocity and/or concentration data improves the global performance of the model and, more specifically, reduces the error in the computed ice thickness. A simple optimal interpolation scheme is used, and outputs from a control run and from perturbed experiments without and with data assimilation are thoroughly compared. Our results indicate that, under certain conditions depending on the assimilation weights and the type of model error, the assimilation of ice velocity data enhances the model performance. The assimilation of ice concentration data can also help in improving the model behavior, but it has to be handled with care because of the strong connection between ice concentration and ice thickness. This study is first step towards real data assimilation into NEMO-LIM, a global sea ice-ocean model.

  3. A velocity-dependent anomalous radial transport model for (2-D, 2-V) kinetic transport codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodi, Kowsik; Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Cohen, Ron; Rognlien, Tom

    2008-11-01

    Plasma turbulence constitutes a significant part of radial plasma transport in magnetically confined plasmas. This turbulent transport is modeled in the form of anomalous convection and diffusion coefficients in fluid transport codes. There is a need to model the same in continuum kinetic edge codes [such as the (2-D, 2-V) transport version of TEMPEST, NEO, and the code being developed by the Edge Simulation Laboratory] with non-Maxwellian distributions. We present an anomalous transport model with velocity-dependent convection and diffusion coefficients leading to a diagonal transport matrix similar to that used in contemporary fluid transport models (e.g., UEDGE). Also presented are results of simulations corresponding to radial transport due to long-wavelength ExB turbulence using a velocity-independent diffusion coefficient. A BGK collision model is used to enable comparison with fluid transport codes.

  4. Modeling the Coupled Effects of Pore Space Geometry and Velocity on Colloid Transport and Retention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent experimental and theoretical work has demonstrated that pore space geometry and hydrodynamics can play an important role in colloid retention under unfavorable attachment conditions. Computer models that only consider the average pore-water velocity and a single attachment rate coefficient a...

  5. USING METEOROLOGICAL MODEL OUTPUT AS A SURROGATE FOR ON-SITE OBSERVATIONS TO PREDICT DEPOSITION VELOCITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Multi-Layer Model (NOAA-MLM) is used by several operational dry deposition networks for estimating the deposition velocity of O , SO , HNO , and particles. The NOAA-MLM requires hourly values of meteorological variables and...

  6. Modeling the spatiotemporal organization of velocity storage in the vestibuloocular reflex by optokinetic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphan, T.; Sturm, D.; Cohen, B. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    1. A generalized three-dimensional state space model of visual vestibular interaction was developed. Matrix and dynamical system operators associated with inputs from the semicircular canals, otolith velocity estimator, and the visual system have been incorporated into the model, which focus on their relationship to the velocity storage integrator. 2. A relationship was postulated between the eigenvalues and the direction of the eigenvectors of the system matrix and the orientation of the spatial vertical. It was assumed that the system matrix for a tilted position was a composition of two linear transformations of the system matrix for the upright position. One transformation modifies the eigenvalues of the system matrix, whereas another rotates the eigenvectors of the system matrix. The pitch and roll eigenvectors rotate with the head, whereas the yaw axis eigenvector remains approximately spatially invariant. 3. Based on the three-dimensional model, a computational procedure was formulated to identify the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the system matrix with the use of a modification of the marquardt algorithm. With the use of data obtained from a monkey, it was shown that the three-dimensional behavior of velocity storage cannot be predicted solely in terms of its time constants, i.e., the inverse of its eigenvalues. With the use of the same eigenvalues the data could either be fit or not fit, depending on the eigenvector directions. Therefore, it is necessary to specify eigenvector directions when characterizing velocity storage in three dimensions. 4. Parameters found with the use of the Marquardt algorithm were incorporated into the model. Diagonal matrices in a head coordinate frame were introduced for coupling the visual system to the integrator and to the direct optokinetic pathway. Simulations of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and optokinetic after-nystagmus (OKAN) were run. The model predicted the behavior of yaw and pitch OKN and OKAN when the animal is upright. It also predicted the cross-coupling in the side down position. The trajectories in velocity space were also accurately simulated. 5. One of the predictions of the model is that when the stimulus direction is along an eigenvector, the trajectory in velocity space is a straight line. Using the "spectral width" of the residuals from a straight line sequence during OKAN, we developed a methodology to estimate how close the OKAN decay was to an eigenvector trajectory. 6. Thus we have developed a model-based approach for studying and interpreting the response characteristics of velocity storage in three dimensions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

  7. Soluble Aβ levels correlate with cognitive deficits in the 12-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Hao, Jian; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Zhuo; Lei, Gesheng; Su, Changjun; Miao, Jianting; Li, Zhuyi

    2011-09-23

    Amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) is believed to be central in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) characterized by cognitive deficits. However, it remains uncertain which form(s) of Aβ pathology is responsible for the cognitive deficits in AD. In the present study, the cognitive deficits and the profiles of Aβ pathology were characterized in the 12-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice, and their correlations were examined. Compared with non-transgenic littermates, the middle-aged APPswe/PS1dE9 mice exhibited spatial learning and memory deficits in the water maze test and long-term contextual memory deficits in the step-down passive avoidance test. Among the middle-aged APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, hippocampal soluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels were highly correlated with spatial learning deficits and long-term contextual memory deficits, as well as cortical and hippocampal soluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels were strongly correlated with spatial memory deficits. By contrast, no significant correlations were observed between three measures of cognitive functions and amyloid plaque burden (total Aβ plaque load and fibrillar Aβ plaque load), total Aβ levels (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42), as well as insoluble Aβ levels (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42). Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified hippocampal soluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels as independent factors for predicting the spatial learning deficits and the long-term contextual memory deficits, as well as hippocampal and cortical soluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels as independent factors for predicting the spatial memory deficits in transgenic mice. These results demonstrate that cognitive deficits are highly related to the levels of soluble Aβ in middle-aged APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, in which soluble Aβ levels are only a tiny fraction of the amount of total Aβ levels. Consequently, our findings provide further evidence that soluble Aβ might primarily contribute to cognitive deficits in AD, suggesting that reducing the levels of soluble Aβ species would be a therapeutic intervention for AD patients even with large deposits of aggregated, insoluble Aβ. PMID:21513747

  8. Relationship between Elastic wave Velocity and Permeability of Rock Model with penny-shaped cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamabe, H.; Tsuji, T.; Matsuoka, T.

    2011-12-01

    Estimating underground fluid-flow is of great importance in petroleum engineering and carbon capture and storage (CCS). Permeability is one of the most important parameters which show how easily fluid passes through rock mass. It could be acquired just by measuring rock samples near borehole in lab-experiments. It means that permeability except near borehole should be estimated, considering other information. In this research, elastic wave velocity is focused as a tool of estimating permeability, because it is one of the most popular parameter which has underground information. The relationship between permeability and elastic wave velocities should be revealed, in order to establish a methodology to estimate rock permeability from elastic wave velocity. These two parameters are controlled by pore geometry of rock. Therefore, we focused on pore geometry as connecting bridge between the two parameters: permeability, elastic wave velocity. We modeled the considering rock as a solid mass containing a lot of same-sized penny-shaped cracks randomly. LBM (Lattice Boltzmann Method), which is one of the computational fluid dynamics methods, is adopted for calculating permeability in our study. This method has a storing point especially under complicated fluid-solid boundary condition. Elastic wave velocities are derived from effective elastic moduli (i.e., bulk modulus, stiffness). They are estimated by self-consistent approximation, which needs porosity of rock model, aspect ratio of penny-shaped cracks and volume fraction of each phase. In this research, we assume that solid phase is composed only by quartz and rock's pore space is filled with water. The simulated results demonstrate that aspect ratio of crack can be estimated by P- and S-wave velocity, and aspect ratio and P-wave velocity can determine porosity. Whereas, the relationship between porosity and permeability is dependent on aspect ratio, which means permeability can be estimated by aspect ratio and porosity. Therefore, this research reveals that permeability can be estimated by P-wave velocity and S-wave velocity if the rock is composed by same-sized penny cracks.

  9. Elastic-wave velocity in marine sediments with gas hydrates: Effective medium modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helgerud, M.B.; Dvorkin, J.; Nur, A.; Sakai, A.; Collett, T.

    1999-01-01

    We offer a first-principle-based effective medium model for elastic-wave velocity in unconsolidated, high porosity, ocean bottom sediments containing gas hydrate. The dry sediment frame elastic constants depend on porosity, elastic moduli of the solid phase, and effective pressure. Elastic moduli of saturated sediment are calculated from those of the dry frame using Gassmann's equation. To model the effect of gas hydrate on sediment elastic moduli we use two separate assumptions: (a) hydrate modifies the pore fluid elastic properties without affecting the frame; (b) hydrate becomes a component of the solid phase, modifying the elasticity of the frame. The goal of the modeling is to predict the amount of hydrate in sediments from sonic or seismic velocity data. We apply the model to sonic and VSP data from ODP Hole 995 and obtain hydrate concentration estimates from assumption (b) consistent with estimates obtained from resistivity, chlorinity and evolved gas data. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Modeling and simulation of continuous wave velocity radar based on third-order DPLL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Yan; Zhu, Chen; Hong, Ma

    2015-02-01

    Second-order digital phase-locked-loop (DPLL) is widely used in traditional Continuous wave (CW) velocity radar with poor performance in high dynamic conditions. Using the third-order DPLL can improve the performance. Firstly, the echo signal model of CW radar is given. Secondly, theoretical derivations of the tracking performance in different velocity conditions are given. Finally, simulation model of CW radar is established based on Simulink tool. Tracking performance of the two kinds of DPLL in different acceleration and jerk conditions is studied by this model. The results show that third-order PLL has better performance in high dynamic conditions. This model provides a platform for further research of CW radar.

  11. Effects of geometry and jet velocity on noise associated with an upper-surface-blowing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, L. R.; Yu, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The noise characteristics associated with various upper surface blowing configurations were investigated using a small model consisting of a plate and flap assembly (simulated wing with flap) attached to a rectangular nozzle. Nozzle aspect ratio, flow-run length, and flap-deflection angle were the experimental parameters studied. Three nozzle-exit velocities were used. The normalized noise spectra obtained for different nozzle aspect ratios proved to be similar in terms of Strouhal number based on jet velocity and flow-run length. Consequently, the need for knowing local flow velocity and length scales (for example, at the flap trailing edge) as required in some of the existing noise prediction schemes is eliminated. Data are compared with results computed from three different noise prediction schemes, and the validity of each scheme is assessed. A simple method is proposed to evaluate the frequency dependence of acoustic shielding obtained with the simulated wing flap.

  12. Fokker-Planck Models of Star Clusters with Anisotropic Velocity Distributions III. Multi-Mass Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Koji

    1997-10-01

    The evolution of globular clusters driven by two-body relaxation was investigated by means of a numerical integration of the two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation in energy--angular momentum space. The two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation allows the development of velocity anisotropy. We include a spectrum of stellar masses in this paper. The radial anisotropy develops, that is, the radial velocity dispersion exceeds the tangential one, in the outer halo of multi-mass clusters as in single-mass clusters. However, the evolution of the velocity anisotropy significantly depends on the stellar mass in some cases. In fact, the tangential-velocity dispersion becomes dominant around the half-mass radius for massive components in clusters with a steep mass function. The development of this tangential anisotropy is closely related to the initial cooling of the massive components toward energy equipartition. Our simulation results suggest that multi-mass anisotropic King-Michie models are not always appropriate for describing the velocity anisotropy in globular clusters.

  13. Velocity Measurements Near the Empennage of a SmallScale Helicopter Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorton, Susan Althoff; Meyers, James F.; Berry, John D.

    1996-01-01

    A test program was conducted in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to measure the flow near the empennage of a small-scale powered helicopter model with an operating tail fan. Three-component velocity profiles were measured with Laser Velocimetry (LV) one chord forward of the horizontal tail for four advance ratios to evaluate the effect of the rotor wake impingement on the horizontal tail angle of attack. These velocity data indicate the horizontal tail can experience unsteady downwash angle variations of over 30 degrees due to the rotor wake influence. The horizontal tail is most affected by the rotor wake above advance ratios of 0.10. Velocity measurements of the flow on the inlet side of the fan were made for a low-speed flight condition using both conventional LV techniques and a promising, non-intrusive, global, three-component velocity measurement technique called Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV). The velocity data show an accelerated flow near the fan duct, and vorticity calculations track the passage of main rotor wake vortices through the measurement plane. DGV shows promise as an evolving tool for rotor flowfield diagnostics.

  14. Modeling the 2-D seismic velocity structure across the Kenya rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, L. W.; Wang, B.; Daudt, C. R.; Keller, G. R.; Patel, J. P.

    1994-09-01

    A 460-km-long seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile across the East African rift in Kenya has been interpreted using a travel-time inversion method to calculate a two-dimensional crustal and uppermost mantle seismic velocity model. The derived model is consistent with the crustal structure determined by independent interpretation of axial (along the rift) and flank (near the eastern end of the cross profile) data sets. The velocity model indicates that the Kenya rift at this location (near the Equator) is a relatively narrow (about 100 km wide) feature from surface expression (fault-bounded basins) to upper-mantle depths. A 5-km-deep, sediment- and volcanic-filled basin is present beneath the rift valley. Seismic velocities in the underlying crust are slightly higher directly beneath the rift valley than in the adjacent terranes. Additionally, the crust thins by about 8 km (to a thickness of about 30 km) in a 100-km-wide zone beneath the rift valley and anomalously low upper-mantle seismic velocity (Pn ≈ 7.6 km/s) is present only beneath the thinned crust and extends to depths of greater than 120 km.

  15. Dynamics of velocity gradient invariants in turbulence: Restricted Euler and linear diffusion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, Jesús; Dopazo, César; Valiño, Luis

    1998-08-01

    A complete system of dynamical equations for the invariants of the velocity gradient, the strain rate, and the rate-of-rotation tensors is deduced for an incompressible flow. The equations for the velocity gradient invariants R and Q were first deduced by Cantwell [Phys. Fluids A 4, 782 (1992)] in terms of Hij, the tensor containing the anisotropic part of the pressure Hessian and the viscous diffusion term in the velocity gradient equation. These equations are extended here for the strain rate tensor invariants, RS and QS, and for the rate-of-rotation tensor invariant, QW, using HijS and HijW, the symmetric and the skew-symmetric parts of Hij, respectively. In order to obtain a complete system, an equation for the square of the vortex stretching vector, Vi≡Sijωj, is required. The resulting dynamical system of invariants is closed using a simple model for the velocity gradient evolution: an isotropic approximation for the pressure term and a linear model for the viscous diffusion term. The local topology and the resulting statistics implied by this model reproduce a number of trends similar to known results from numerical experiments for the small scales of turbulence.

  16. Modeling Compressional and Shear Wave Velocities of Unconsolidated Sediments in the Vadose Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, P. A.

    2001-12-01

    Recent advances in seismic surveys have provided ways to image shallow structure in highly attenuating soils and near-surface rock. Applications include using surface wave methods to find tunnels; mapping landfills with seismic refraction methods; finding faults, the water table, or other strong heterogeneities using seismic reflection surveys. Recent improvements in laboratory ultrasonic measurement techniques have provided reliable data on compressional and shear wave velocities in soils at low pressures analogous to the top few meters to tens of meters of the subsurface. The availability of these data points the way for development of interpretation methods that may allow seismologists to obtain more information from their data in the future. For environmental applications, improvements to interpretation methods could lead to reliable detection of second-order features such as changes in soil saturation, presence of dense non-aqueous phase liquids, or changes in clay content. Traditional modeling techniques developed in the oil industry are optimized for consolidated materials at pressures and depths greater than those typical for environmental applications. The shallow subsurface velocities are highly nonlinear and the soils are highly attenuating, and these characteristics must be considered when modeling velocities (and also when processing seismic data). Various factors, including grain contact roughness, location of clay with respect to sand grains, location of fluid in the partially-saturated case, loose vs. dense packing, all affect the compressional and shear wave velocities and attenuation and their pressure (depth) dependence. Care must be taken when applying effective medium theories or grain-contact theories to model shallow soil velocity behavior. Unconsolidated materials at low pressures show much greater variation in compressional vs. shear wave properties than consolidated materials and high-pressure applications would show. Despite the modeling difficulties, progress in seismic interpretation may be made if data are available for both compressional and shear waves. Examples of pitfalls and methods for successful soil velocity modeling will be presented using lab and field velocity data from the literature, for sands, silty sands, and other unconsolidated materials. The goal is to develop techniques to improve interpretation of seismic data from the vadose zone. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48 and supported specifically by the DOE Environmental Management Science Program. >http://www.llnl.gov/ees/esd/expgeoph/Berge/EMSP/

  17. Three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the San Francisco Bay region, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, Clifford H.; Brocher, Thomas M.; Zhang, Haijiang; Langenheim, Victoria E.

    2007-07-01

    A new three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the greater San Francisco Bay region has been derived using the double-difference seismic tomography method, using data from about 5,500 chemical explosions or air gun blasts and approximately 6,000 earthquakes. The model region covers 140 km NE-SW by 240 km NW-SE, extending from 20 km south of Monterey to Santa Rosa and reaching from the Pacific coast to the edge of the Great Valley. Our model provides the first regional view of a number of basement highs that are imaged in the uppermost few kilometers of the model, and images a number of velocity anomaly lows associated with known Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins in the study area. High velocity (Vp > 6.5 km/s) features at ˜15-km depth beneath part of the edge of the Great Valley and along the San Francisco peninsula are interpreted as ophiolite bodies. The relocated earthquakes provide a clear picture of the geometry of the major faults in the region, illuminating fault dips that are generally consistent with previous studies. Ninety-five percent of the earthquakes have depths between 2.3 and 15.2 km, and the corresponding seismic velocities at the hypocenters range from 4.8 km/s (presumably corresponding to Franciscan basement or Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Great Valley Sequence) to 6.8 km/s. The top of the seismogenic zone is thus largely controlled by basement depth, but the base of the seismogenic zone is not restricted to seismic velocities of ≤6.3 km/s in this region, as had been previously proposed.

  18. Crustal Velocity Model of Watusi Data Integrated With Legacy Data, Clark County, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaragoza, S. A.; Snelson, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    The Las Vegas Valley, Nevada is located in the central Basin and Range Province, about 100 km southeast of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Las Vegas sits atop a basin up to 5 km deep (Langenheim et al., 2001) that has been shown to amplify energy from strong ground motion (Su et al., 1998). Rapid population growth has led to concerns that future nuclear testing at NTS may pose a hazard from strong ground motion. Studies performed when nuclear testing was ongoing were limited to the central basin and were insufficient to adequately assess ground motion hazard for the entire Valley. In September 2002, 400 single-channel seismic recorders were deployed to record a chemical blast (Watusi) at NTS. Forward modeling of these data as well as Legacy data from the 1960s (Prodehl, 1979) produced a 268 km two-dimensional crustal velocity model from Kingman, Arizona to NTS with higher resolution than the previous model. Crustal velocities range from 3.5 to 6.2 km/s. Velocities at the Moho range from 7.9-8.0 km/s. Crustal depth ranges from 28-29 km near Kingman to 33-34 km near NTS. A structural feature in model space at 12-15 km underneath Indian Springs, Nevada appears to focus seismic energy into the Las Vegas basin, and may pose a significant seismic hazard. The feature has a dip in model space of 45º toward the southeast. A density model was also produced and tied to the velocity model. The density model is consistent with the velocity model, confirming crustal depth ranges from 28-29 km near Kingman to 33-34 km near NTS. The density model also confirms the 45º southeast-dipping structural feature and indicates the location of a mafic body in model space at a depth of 5-12 km beneath the Las Vegas Basin. Possible interpretations of the dipping structure include a relict thrust or metamorphic core complex. However, these interpretations are difficult due to the steep dip angle of the feature, and more evidence would be needed to verify one of these conclusions. A more likely interpretation would be that this feature represents apparent dip on the Las Vegas Valley Shear Zone.

  19. Cluster statistics and quasisoliton dynamics in microscopic optimal-velocity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo; Xu, Xihua; Pang, John Z. F.; Monterola, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Using the non-linear optimal velocity models as an example, we show that there exists an emergent intrinsic scale that characterizes the interaction strength between multiple clusters appearing in the solutions of such models. The interaction characterizes the dynamics of the localized quasisoliton structures given by the time derivative of the headways, and the intrinsic scale is analogous to the "charge" of the quasisolitons, leading to non-trivial cluster statistics from the random perturbations to the initial steady states of uniform headways. The cluster statistics depend both on the quasisoliton charge and the density of the traffic. The intrinsic scale is also related to an emergent quantity that gives the extremum headways in the cluster formation, as well as the coexistence curve separating the absolute stable phase from the metastable phase. The relationship is qualitatively universal for general optimal velocity models.

  20. Comparative Experimental and Modeling Study of Fluid Velocities in Heterogeneous Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingerl, F.; Romanenko, K.; Pini, R.; Balcom, B.; Benson, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of fluid velocities and effective porosities in rocks is crucial for predicting kinetic reaction rates and fluid-rock interactions in a plethora of geo-engineering applications, ranging from geothermal systems, Enhanced Oil Recovery to Carbon Capture and Storage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging can be used to measure spatially resolved porosities and fluid velocities in porous media. Large internal field gradients and short spin relaxation times, however, constrain the usability of the conventional MRI technique in natural rock samples. The combination of three-dimensional Single Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement (SPRITE) and the 13-interval Alternating-Pulsed-Gradient Stimulated-Echo (APGSTE) scheme - a method developed at the UNB MRI Center - is able to compensate for those challenges and quantitative 3 dimensional maps of porosities and fluid velocities can be obtained. In this study we measured velocities and porosities using MRI in a sandstone rock sample showing meso-scale heterogeneities. Then we generated permeabilities using three independent approaches, employed them to model single-phase fluid flow in the measured rock sample and compared the generated velocity maps with the respective MRI measurements. For the first modeling approach, we applied the Kozeny-Carman relationship to create a permeability map based on porosities measured using MRI. For the second approach we used permeabilities derived from CO2-H2O multi-phase experiments performed in the same rock sample assuming the validity of the J-Leverett function. The permeabilities in the third approach were generated by applying a new inverse iterative-updating technique. The resulting three permeability maps were then used as input for a CFD simulation - using the Stanford CFD code AD-GPRS - to create a respective velocity map, which in turn was then compared to the measured velocity map. The results of the different independent methods for generating permeability maps as well as their correlation with the measured velocity maps are evaluated. Furthermore the implication of this study on understanding kinetic reaction rates and fluid-rock interaction is discussed.

  1. Prediction of Critical Velocity During Cold Spraying Based on a Coupled Thermomechanical Eulerian Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F. F.; Li, W. Y.; Yu, M.; Liao, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    In cold spraying (CS), critical velocity of particles is one of the most important parameters. The impacting particle and substrate inevitably undergo a strong thermomechanical coupling process at the contacting interface and serious plastic deformation in a very short time. In this paper, a coupled thermomechanical Eulerian (CTM-Eulerian) model was, for the first time, developed for CS particles to investigate plastic deformation and heat conduction within the bulk, and to predict the critical velocity. Results show that heat conduction has a significant effect on the temperature distribution within the particle which will influence the atom diffusion at the impacting interface, while a little influence on plastic deformation. Moreover, based on the deformed particle shapes and plastic strain analysis, a calculated critical velocity of about 300 m/s for copper is obtained. Finally, this CTM-Eulerian model is extended to other commonly sprayed materials and the predicted critical velocities of Fe, Ni, SS304, Al, In718, and TC4 are about 350, 380, 395, 410, 490, and 500 m/s, respectively.

  2. A comparison of measured and modeled velocity fields for a laminar flow in a porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, B. D.; Apte, S. V.; Liburdy, J. A.; Ziazi, R. M.; He, X.; Finn, J. R.; Patil, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    Obtaining highly-resolved velocity data from experimental measurements in porous media is a significant challenge. The goal of this work is to compare the velocity fields measured in a randomly-packed porous medium obtained from particle image velocimetry (PIV) with corresponding fields predicted from direct numerical simulation (DNS). Experimentally, the porous medium was comprised of 15 mm diameter spherical beads made of optical glass placed in a glass flow cell to create the packed bed. A solution of ammonium thiocyanate was refractive-index matched to the glass creating a medium that could be illuminated with a laser sheet without distortion. The bead center locations were quantified using the imaging system so that the geometry of the porous medium was known very accurately. Two-dimensional PIV data were collected and processed to provide high-resolution velocity fields at a single plane within the porous medium. A Cartesian-grid-based fictitious domain approach was adopted for the direct numerical simulation of flow through the same geometry as the experimental measurements and without any adjustable parameters. The uncertainties associated with characterization of the pore geometry, PIV measurements, and DNS predictions were all systematically quantified. Although uncertainties in bead position measurements led to minor discrepancies in the comparison of the velocity fields, the axial and normal velocity deviations exhibited normalized root mean squared deviations (NRMSD) of only 11.32% and 4.74%, respectively. The high fidelity of both the experimental and numerical methods have significant implications for understanding and even for engineering the micro-macro relationship in porous materials. The ability to measure and model sub-pore-scale flow features also has relevance to the development of upscaled models for flow in porous media, where physically reasonable closure models must be developed at the sub-pore scale. These results provide valuable data in support of that goal.

  3. Predicting flow in aortic dissection: comparison of computational model with PC-MRI velocity measurements.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z; Juli, C; Wood, N B; Gibbs, R G J; Xu, X Y

    2014-09-01

    Aortic dissection is a life-threatening process in which the weakened wall develops a tear, causing separation of wall layers. The dissected layers separate the original true aortic lumen and a newly created false lumen. If untreated, the condition can be fatal. Flow rate in the false lumen is a key feature for false lumen patency, which has been regarded as one of the most important predictors of adverse early and later outcomes. Detailed flow analysis in the dissected aorta may assist vascular surgeons in making treatment decisions, but computational models to simulate flow in aortic dissections often involve several assumptions. The purpose of this study is to assess the computational models adopted in previous studies by comparison with in vivo velocity data obtained by means of phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI). Aortic dissection geometry was reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) images, while PC-MRI velocity data were used to define inflow conditions and to provide distal velocity components for comparison with the simulation results. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation incorporated a laminar-turbulent transition model, which is necessary for adequate flow simulation in aortic conditions. Velocity contours from PC-MRI and CFD in the two lumens at the distal plane were compared at four representative time points in the pulse cycle. The computational model successfully captured the complex regions of flow reversal and recirculation qualitatively, although quantitative differences exist. With a rigid wall assumption and exclusion of arch branches, the CFD model over-predicted the false lumen flow rate by 25% at peak systole. Nevertheless, an overall good agreement was achieved, confirming the physiological relevance and validity of the computational model for type B aortic dissection with a relatively stiff dissection flap. PMID:25070022

  4. Shear wave velocity models retrieved using Rg wave dispersion data in shallow crust in some regions of southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shutian; Motazedian, Dariush; Corchete, Victor

    2013-04-01

    Many crucial tasks in seismology, such as locating seismic events and estimating focal mechanisms, need crustal velocity models. The velocity models of shallow structures are particularly important in the simulation of ground motions. In southern Ontario, Canada, many small shallow earthquakes occur, generating high-frequency Rayleigh ( Rg) waves that are sensitive to shallow structures. In this research, the dispersion of Rg waves was used to obtain shear-wave velocities in the top few kilometers of the crust in the Georgian Bay, Sudbury, and Thunder Bay areas of southern Ontario. Several shallow velocity models were obtained based on the dispersion of recorded Rg waves. The Rg waves generated by an m N 3.0 natural earthquake on the northern shore of Georgian Bay were used to obtain velocity models for the area of an earthquake swarm in 2007. The Rg waves generated by a mining induced event in the Sudbury area in 2005 were used to retrieve velocity models between Georgian Bay and the Ottawa River. The Rg waves generated by the largest event in a natural earthquake swarm near Thunder Bay in 2008 were used to obtain a velocity model in that swarm area. The basic feature of all the investigated models is that there is a top low-velocity layer with a thickness of about 0.5 km. The seismic velocities changed mainly within the top 2 km, where small earthquakes often occur.

  5. Detailed Velocity and Density models of the Cascadia Subduction Zone from Prestack Full-Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, W.; Holbrook, W. S.; Mallick, S.; Everson, E. D.; Tobin, H. J.; Keranen, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the geologic composition of the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) is critically important in assessing seismic hazards in the Pacific Northwest. Despite being a potential earthquake and tsunami threat to millions of people, key details of the structure and fault mechanisms remain poorly understood in the CSZ. In particular, the position and character of the subduction interface remains elusive due to its relative aseismicity and low seismic reflectivity, making imaging difficult for both passive and active source methods. Modern active-source reflection seismic data acquired as part of the COAST project in 2012 provide an opportunity to study the transition from the Cascadia basin, across the deformation front, and into the accretionary prism. Coupled with advances in seismic inversion methods, this new data allow us to produce detailed velocity models of the CSZ and accurate pre-stack depth migrations for studying geologic structure. While still computationally expensive, current computing clusters can perform seismic inversions at resolutions that match that of the seismic image itself. Here we present pre-stack full waveform inversions of the central seismic line of the COAST survey offshore Washington state. The resultant velocity model is produced by inversion at every CMP location, 6.25 m laterally, with vertical resolution of 0.2 times the dominant seismic frequency. We report a good average correlation value above 0.8 across the entire seismic line, determined by comparing synthetic gathers to the real pre-stack gathers. These detailed velocity models, both Vp and Vs, along with the density model, are a necessary step toward a detailed porosity cross section to be used to determine the role of fluids in the CSZ. Additionally, the P-velocity model is used to produce a pre-stack depth migration image of the CSZ.

  6. Three-dimensional models of P wave velocity and P-to-S velocity ratio in the southern central Andes by simultaneous inversion of local earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeber, Frank M.; Asch, Günter

    1999-09-01

    The PISCO'94 (Proyecto de Investigatión Sismológica de la Cordillera Occidental, 1994) seismological network of 31 digital broad band and short-period three-component seismometers was deployed in northern Chile between the Coastal Cordillera and the Western Cordillera. More than 5300 local seismic events were observed in a 100 day period. A subset of high-quality P and S arrival time data was used to invert simultaneously for hypocenters and velocity structure. Additional data from two other networks in the region could be included. The velocity models show a number of prominent anomalies, outlining an extremely thickened crust (about 70 km) beneath the forearc region, an anomalous crustal structure beneath the recent magmatic arc (Western Cordillera) characterized by very low velocities, and a high-velocity slab. A region of an increased Vp/Vs ratio has been found directly above the Wadati-Benioff zone, which might be caused by hydration processes. A zone of lower than average velocities and a high Vp/Vs ratio might correspond to the asthenospheric wedge. The upper edge of the Wadati-Benioff zone is sharply defined by intermediate depth hypocenters, while evidence for a double seismic zone can hardly be seen. Crustal events between the Precordillera and the Western Cordillera have been observed for the first time and are mainly located in the vicinity of the Salar de Atacama down to depths of about 40 km.

  7. Seismic waveforms and velocity model heterogeneity: Towards a full-waveform microseismic location algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, D. A.; Aljaafari, A.; Usher, P.; Verdon, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic forward modeling is an integral component of microseismic location algorithms, yet there is generally no one correct approach, but rather a range of acceptable approaches that can be used. Since seismic signals are band limited, the length scale of heterogeneities can significantly influence the seismic wavefronts and waveforms. This can be especially important for borehole microseismic monitoring, where subsurface heterogeneity can be strong and/or vary on length scales equivalent to or less than the dominant source wavelength. In this paper, we show that ray-based approaches are not ubiquitously suitable for all borehole microseismic applications. For unconventional reservoir settings, ray-based algorithms may not be suitably accurate for advanced microseismic imaging. Here we focus on exploring the feasibility of using one-way wave equations as forward propagators for full waveform event location techniques. As a feasibility study, we implement an acoustic wide-angle wave equation and use a velocity model interpolation approach to explore the computational efficiency and accuracy of the solution. We compare the results with an exact solution to evaluate travel-time and amplitude errors. The results show that accurate travel-times can be predicted to within 2 ms of the true solution for modest velocity model interpolation. However, for accurate amplitude prediction or for higher dominant source frequencies, a larger number of velocity model interpolations is required.

  8. Bayesian Assessment of Mean Velocity Profile Models in Wall-Bounded Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Robert; Oliver, Todd

    2010-11-01

    The form of the mean velocity profile in high-Reynolds-number wall-bounded turbulent shear flows has been the subject of renewed interest in recent years. A number of questions have been raised regarding the universality of the von Karman constant, the dependence of the over-lap layer on Reynolds number and even the appropriateness of a logarithmic description of the overlap layer. The questions have been difficult to resolve because the models predict subtle differences in the mean velocity profiles at finite Reynolds number. However, these subtle differences are important for scaling to very high Reynolds number and for inferring wall shear stress when direct measurements are not available. In this work, Bayesian inference is used to infer parameters (e.g. the Karman constant) and their uncertainty in a variety of turbulent mean velocity representations using experimental data over a wide range of Reynolds number. Moreover, an information theory-based multi-model formalism is used to rank competing models (e.g., the standard log and power laws and finite Reynolds number refinements of these profiles) by a metric that naturally balances data fit versus model complexity. This work is supported by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security Administration] under Award Number [DE-FC52-08NA28615].

  9. Towards a Rational Model for the Triple Velocity Correlations of Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younis, B. A.; Gatski, T. B.; Speziale, C. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a rational approach to modelling the triple velocity correlations that appear in the transport equations for the Reynolds stresses. All existing models of these correlations have largely been formulated on phenomenological grounds and are defective in one important aspect: they all neglect to allow for the dependence of these correlations on the local gradients of mean velocity. The mathematical necessity for this dependence will be demonstrated in the paper. The present contribution lies in the novel use of Group Representation Theory to determine the most general tensorial form of these correlations in terms of all the second- and third-order tensor quantities that appear in the exact equations that govern their evolution. The requisite representation did not exist in the literature and therefore had to be developed specifically for this purpose by Professor G. F. Smith. The outcome of this work is a mathematical framework for the construction of algebraic, explicit, and rational models for the triple velocity correlations that are theoretically consistent and include all the correct dependencies. Previous models are reviewed, and all are shown to be an incomplete subset of this new representation, even to lowest order.

  10. Modelling the Velocity Field in a Regular Grid in the Area of Poland on the Basis of the Velocities of European Permanent Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogusz, Janusz; Kłos, Anna; Grzempowski, Piotr; Kontny, Bernard

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of testing the various methods of permanent stations' velocity residua interpolation in a regular grid, which constitutes a continuous model of the velocity field in the territory of Poland. Three packages of software were used in the research from the point of view of interpolation: GMT ( The Generic Mapping Tools), Surfer and ArcGIS. The following methods were tested in the softwares: the Nearest Neighbor, Triangulation (TIN), Spline Interpolation, Surface, Inverse Distance to a Power, Minimum Curvature and Kriging. The presented research used the absolute velocities' values expressed in the ITRF2005 reference frame and the intraplate velocities related to the NUVEL model of over 300 permanent reference stations of the EPN and ASG-EUPOS networks covering the area of Europe. Interpolation for the area of Poland was done using data from the whole area of Europe to make the results at the borders of the interpolation area reliable. As a result of this research, an optimum method of such data interpolation was developed. All the mentioned methods were tested for being local or global, for the possibility to compute errors of the interpolated values, for explicitness and fidelity of the interpolation functions or the smoothing mode. In the authors' opinion, the best data interpolation method is Kriging with the linear semivariogram model run in the Surfer programme because it allows for the computation of errors in the interpolated values and it is a global method (it distorts the results in the least way). Alternately, it is acceptable to use the Minimum Curvature method. Empirical analysis of the interpolation results obtained by means of the two methods showed that the results are identical. The tests were conducted using the intraplate velocities of the European sites. Statistics in the form of computing the minimum, maximum and mean values of the interpolated North and East components of the velocity residuum were prepared for all the tested methods, and each of the resulting continuous velocity fields was visualized by means of the GMT programme. The interpolated components of the velocities and their residua are presented in the form of tables and bar diagrams.

  11. Assessing waveform predictions of recent three-dimensional velocity models of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xueyang; Shen, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Accurate velocity models are essential for both the determination of earthquake locations and source moments and the interpretation of Earth structures. With the increasing number of three-dimensional velocity models, it has become necessary to assess the models for accuracy in predicting seismic observations. Six models of the crustal and uppermost mantle structures in Tibet and surrounding regions are investigated in this study. Regional Rayleigh and Pn (or Pnl) waveforms from two ground truth events, including one nuclear explosion and one natural earthquake located in the study area, are simulated by using a three-dimensional finite-difference method. Synthetics are compared to observed waveforms in multiple period bands of 20-75 s for Rayleigh waves and 1-20 s for Pn/Pnl waves. The models are evaluated based on the phase delays and cross-correlation coefficients between synthetic and observed waveforms. A model generated from full-wave ambient noise tomography best predicts Rayleigh waves throughout the data set, as well as Pn/Pnl waves traveling from the Tarim Basin to the stations located in central Tibet. In general, the models constructed from P wave tomography are not well suited to predict Rayleigh waves, and vice versa. Possible causes of the differences between observed and synthetic waveforms, and frequency-dependent variations of the "best matching" models with the smallest prediction errors are discussed. This study suggests that simultaneous prediction for body and surface waves requires an integrated velocity model constructed with multiple seismic waveforms and consideration of other important properties, such as anisotropy.

  12. Analytical modeling of helicopter static and dynamic induced velocity in GRASP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Donald L.; Hodges, Dewey H.

    1987-01-01

    The methodology used by the General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP) to model the characteristics of the flow through a helicopter rotor in hovering or axial flight is described. Since the induced flow plays a significant role in determining the aeroelastic properties of rotorcraft, the computation of the induced flow is an important aspect of the program. Because of the combined finite-element/multibody methodology used as the basis for GRASP, the implementation of induced velocity calculations presented an unusual challenge to the developers. To preserve the modelling flexibility and generality of the code, it was necessary to depart from the traditional methods of computing the induced velocity. This is accomplished by calculating the actuator disc contributions to the rotor loads in a separate element called the air mass element, and then performing the calculations of the aerodynamic forces on individual blade elements within the aeroelastic beam element.

  13. Quantitative explanation of circuit experiments and real traffic using the optimal velocity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Akihiro; Kikuchi, Macoto; Shibata, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Yuki; Tadaki, Shin-ichi; Yukawa, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    We have experimentally confirmed that the occurrence of a traffic jam is a dynamical phase transition (Tadaki et al 2013 New J. Phys. 15 103034, Sugiyama et al 2008 New J. Phys. 10 033001). In this study, we investigate whether the optimal velocity (OV) model can quantitatively explain the results of experiments. The occurrence and non-occurrence of jammed flow in our experiments agree with the predictions of the OV model. We also propose a scaling rule for the parameters of the model. Using this rule, we obtain critical density as a function of a single parameter. The obtained critical density is consistent with the observed values for highway traffic.

  14. Impact velocity modelling and signal processing of spur gear vibration for the estimation of defect size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parey, A.; Tandon, N.

    2007-01-01

    Gears are one of the most common elements in any rotating machinery. If gear defect can be assessed, gearbox maintenance schedule can be optimally planned. This paper presents an impact velocity model relating measurable vibration signal to the defect size on the gear tooth flank. The analytical model was verified experimentally. The experimental results support the effectiveness of the analytical model in estimating defect size. In addition, experimental vibration signals were decomposed using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique. These decomposed oscillatory functions are called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Kurtosis value of selected IMF was calculated for early detection of fault.

  15. Estimation of the velocity model uncertainties and of the associated uncertainties on microseismic event locations by a Bayesian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesret, A.; Noble, M.; Desassis, N.; Romary, T.

    2012-12-01

    The reservoirs and mines are often monitored by detecting and analyzing the induced seismicity. This microseismicity is interpreted to derive the location and orientation of the fractures and also to derive several physical parameters. Very precise location of the induced seismicity with its associated uncertainties is thus of primary importance. The largest contribution to the microseismic location errors is due to the lack of knowledge of the wave-propagation medium, the velocity model has thus to be preliminary inverted. We here present a tomography algorithm that estimates the true uncertainties on the resulting velocity model. Including these results, we develop an approach that allows to obtain accurate event locations and their associated uncertainties due to the velocity model uncertainties. The inversion of the velocity model is often a totally non-linear inverse problem. To solve it, we choose a Bayesian approach as this formulation allows for a complete understanding of all possible solutions. In a Bayesian context, a large number of samples of statistically near-independent models from the a posteriori probability distribution are sought. Such solutions are consistent with both the data and the prior information, as they fit the data within error bars, and adhere to soft prior constraints given by a prior probability distribution. We apply the Bayesian approach to the tomography of calibration shots for a typical 3D geometry hydraulic fracture context. We develop a Monte-Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) algorithm which generates samples of velocity model distributed according to the posterior distribution. This leads us to express the best and the mean velocity model as well as the associated standard deviation. This allows identifying the regions of the velocity field where the velocities are well constrained and thus reliable and also the regions where the velocities are poorly constrained. This strategy results in the estimation of the true uncertainty on the velocity model, which is much more accurate than the common roughly estimated percentage of uncertainty on the velocity model. We then develop the Bayesian formalism for the event location by including the posterior distribution of the velocity model previously obtained. For the location problem, we use a full grid search algorithm as the whole posterior probability distribution can be explored at a reasonable computational cost. We compute the probability density of the hypocenter location, taking into account the velocity model uncertainties. The resulting probability map shows that the commonly used probability density associated to the picking uncertainties must not be used to represent the probability density associated to the velocity model uncertainties. Traveltime picking and velocity model uncertainties should thus not be mixed.

  16. Velocity and pressure characteristics of a model SSME high pressure fuel turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, D. G-N.; Sabnis, J. S.; Mcdonald, H.

    1991-01-01

    Under the present effort an experiment rig has been constructed, an instrumentation package developed and a series of mean and rms velocity and pressure measurements made in a turbopump which modelled the first stage of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump. The rig was designed so as to allow initial experiments with a single configuration consisting of a bell-mouth inlet, a flight impeller, a vaneless diffuser and a volute. Allowance was made for components such as inlet guide vanes, exit guide vanes, downstream pumps, etc. to be added in future experiments. This flexibility will provide a clear baseline set of experiments and allow evaluation in later experiments of the effect of adding specific components upon the pump performance properties. The rotational speed of the impeller was varied between 4260 and 7680 rpm which covered the range of scaled SSME rotation speeds when due allowance is made for the differing stagnation temperature, model to full scale. The results at the inlet obtained with rotational speeds of 4260, 6084 and 7680 rpm showed that the axial velocity at the bell-mouth inlet remained roughly constant at 2.2 of the bulk velocity at the exit of the turbopump near the center of the inlet, but it decreased rapidly with increasing radius at all three speeds. Reverse flow occurred at a radius greater than 0.9 R for all three speeds and the maximum negative velocity reduced from 1.3 of the bulk velocity at the exit of the turbopump at 4260 rpm to 0.35 at 7680 rpm, suggesting that operating at a speed closer to the design condition of 8700 rpm improved the inlet characteristics. The reverse flow caused positive prerotation at the impeller inlet which was negligibly small near the center but reached 0.7 of the impeller speed at the outer annulus. The results in the diffuser and the volute obtained at 7680 rpm show that the hub and shroud walls of the diffuser were characterized by regions of transient reverse flow with negative revolution-averaged velocity of 8 percent of the maximum forward revolution-averaged velocity at the center of the diffuser passage near the shroud wall.

  17. A dynamic model for the turbulent burning velocity for large eddy simulation of premixed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, E.; Pitsch, H.

    2008-09-15

    Turbulent premixed combustion is particularly difficult to describe using large eddy simulation (LES). In LES, premixed flame structures typically exist on subfilter length scales. Consequently, premixed LES models must be capable of describing how completely unresolved flame structures propagate under the influence of completely unresolved eddies. This description is usually accomplished through the implementation of a model for the turbulent burning velocity. Here, a dynamic model for describing the turbulent burning velocity in the context of LES is presented. This model uses a new surface filtering procedure that is consistent with standard LES filtering. Additionally, it only uses information that comes directly from the flame front. This latter attribute is important for two reasons. First, it guarantees that the model can be consistently applied when level set methods, where arbitrary constraints can be imposed on field variables away from fronts, are used to track the flame. Second, it forces the model to recognize that the physics governing flame front propagation are only valid locally at the front. Results showing model validation in the context of direct numerical simulation (DNS), and model application in the context of LES, are presented. (author)

  18. A reconciliation of empirical and mechanistic models of the air-sea gas transfer velocity