Minimum 1D P- and S- Velocity Models for Montenegro and Vicinity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vucic, Ljiljana; Kissling, Edi; Spakman, Wim; Glavatovic, Branislav
2015-04-01
The territory of Montenegro and its vicinity are characterized by high-seismicity rate and very complex tectonics. Namely, southern Adria microplate subducts beneath Eurasia, forming the Dinarides fold-and-thrust belt which spreads through whole Montenegro and the western Balkans. Present-day lithosphere structure of the Adria-Dinarides collision zone in general is not constrained very well and, consequently, there is a lack of three-dimensional (3D) velocity models in this region. For these reasons, high resolution 3D tomography modeling of this area is considered to be of great importance. As part of preparatory phase for conducting a 3D local earthquake tomography study, a substantial amount of waveform data was collected, from all surroundings national seismic networks including 130 seismic stations from 11 countries. The data set comprises waveforms from 1452 earthquakes in the region recorded during time period 1990 - 2014. The collected data were obtained in different formats and the data base was harmonized by converting and integrating all data to miniseed format. The potential resolution of collected data for seismic tomography purpose was analyzed by ray density testing, using specially developed software for this specific purpose. The result is expressed as the number of rays between selected group of earthquake hypocenters and seismic stations, penetrating through the 3D model of the Earth crust and it documents the great potential of the data set for 3D seismic tomography. As a prerequisite to 3D tomography and for consistent high-precision earthquake locations, a minimum 1D velocity model has been calculated. The data set of around 400 earthquakes was selected from the main database and consistent wave onsets picking was performed, including seismic phase interpretation and its quality assessment. This highly consistent travel time data set is used for calculation of 1D velocity models for the region under study. The minimum 1D models were derived through the iterative inversion procedure using VELEST software. Comparison of the results between previous routinely processed seismic data at the studied area and the earthquake relocation results by applying the new 1D models, shows a significant improvement in quality of hypocenter parameters of all earthquakes used in the experiment. Since a minimum 1D model represents a solution to the coupled hypocenter-velocity problem, the resulting velocity information will be used as a suitable velocity model for further routine earthquake location in the region, and also as the appropriate initial reference model for 3D tomography modeling, applying the full seismic database. Keywords: minimum 1D model, seismic tomography, Velest, Montenegro
Rayleigh Wave Dispersion and A 1d S-velocity Model of The Fennoscandian Mantle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Funke, S.; Friederich, W.; Sstwg, The
We derive a Rayleigh wave dispersion curve from surface wave data recorded at the SVEKALAPKO tomographic array deployed in Southern Finland from September 1998 to March 1999. After a suite of processing steps, complex spectral amplitudes of the Rayleigh wave train are determined for each available seismogram. The process- ing includes low-pass filtering, instrument correction, deconvolution using a standard earth model to compress the Rayleigh wave train, computation of Gabor matrices (sonograms) to pick group travel times, and finally estimation of complex spectral amplitudes in a Gaussian time window of frequency-dependent width centered on the group travel time. Spectral amplitude values are only accepted if the signal-to-noise ratio in the considered frequency interval is above a pre-chosen threshold and if the picked group travel time does not deviate too strongly from that predicted by a stan- dard earth model. The final dataset contains spectral amplitude values at 34 selected periods from 52 earthquakes observed at on average 25 stations. For each selected frequency, we determine a phase velocity by fitting plane waves propagating across the array with this velocity to the complex spectral amplitudes of all earthquakes and stations. Errors are estimated with a bootstrap method. We obtain reliable phase velocities in the frequency band from 8 mHz to 50 mHz. Phase veloci- ties for lower frequencies exhibit large errors due to the lack of big earthquakes during the time of deployment. The phase velocities are substantially higher than predicted by standard earth model ak135 below 20 mHz and slightly lower above 25 mHz. We have inverted the dispersion curve for a 1D shear wave velocity model down to about 400 km depth and obtain a 50 km thick crust and a fast upper mantle with a sub- Moho velocity of 4.7 km/s. Our data do not require a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle. Indeed, the dispersion curve can be explained by a nearly straight velocity profile from the Moho to the 410 km discontinuity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabtaji, Agung; Nugraha, Andri Dian
2015-04-01
West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graves, R. W.
2012-12-01
I have performed low frequency (f < 1 Hz) ground motion simulations for the 2008 Mw 5.23 Mt. Carmel, Illinois and 2011 Mw 5.74 Mineral, Virginia earthquakes to calibrate a rock-site 1D crustal velocity and Q structure model for central and eastern US (CEUS). For each earthquake, the observed ground motions were simulated at sites extending out to about 900 km from the epicenter. Sites within the Mississippi embayment are not included in the modeling. The initial 1D velocity model was developed by averaging profiles extracted from the CUS V1.3 3D velocity model (Ramirez-Guzman et al, 2012) at each of the recording sites, with the surface shear wave velocity set at 2200 m/s. The Mt. Carmel earthquake is represented as a point double couple (strike=25, dip=90, rake=-175) at a depth of 14 km and a slip-rate function having a Brune corner frequency of 0.89 Hz (Hartzell and Mendoza, 2011). The Mineral earthquake is represented as a point double couple (strike=26, dip=55, rake=108) at a depth of 6 km and a slip-rate function having a corner frequency of 0.50 Hz. Full waveform Green's functions were computed using the FK method of Zhu and Rivera (2002). The initial model does well at reproducing the median level of observed response spectral acceleration (Sa) for most sites out to 300 km at periods of 2 to 5 sec, including the observed flattening in distance attenuation between 70 and 150 km. However, this model under predicts the motions beyond about 400 km distance. Increasing Q in the mid- and lower crust from the original value of 700 to 5000 removes this under prediction of the larger distance motions. Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) estimates have been computed from the simulations using the ground motion-intensity conversion equations of Atkinson and Kaka (2007; AK2007) and Dangkua and Cramer (2011; DC2011-ENA) for comparison against the observed "Did You Feel It" intensity estimates. Given the bandwidth limitations of the simulations, I use the conversion relations for 2 sec Sa. For both earthquakes, the MMI values obtained from DC2011-ENA are systematical higher than the AK2007 values for all distances and over predict the median level of the observed values by roughly 1 MMI unit, whereas the AK2007 values provide a close match to the observed median levels.bserved and simulated spectral acceleration levels at 2 second period (left) and MMI (right) for the Mt. Carmel earthquake.
Pulse Compression with Superluminal Group Velocity in 1-D Photonic
Brest, Université de
of photonic crystals or Photonic BandGap (PBG) for optical devices [1] has induced the emergence of novelPulse Compression with Superluminal Group Velocity in 1-D Photonic Bandgap Coplanar Waveguide Marc of a Photonic BandGap coplanar waveguide (CPW) that jointly exhibits pulse compression and superluminal group
Wataru Mori; Jun Ueda; Tsukasa Ogasawara
2010-01-01
This paper demonstrates that a 1-d.o.f. planar ball-throwing robot has the capability of controlling three kinematic variables of a ball independently: translational velocity, angular velocity and direction. The throwing motion is modeled using two underactuated contact dynamics, called a finger-link contact model and a fingertip contact model, with a unidirectional transition from one model to another. A combination of a
Cerveny, Vlastislav
at the Little Carpathians region, Slovakia Zuzana Jechumtálová 1 & Petr Bulant 2 1 Institute of Geophysics at Little Carpathians region, Slovakia. A simplified 1-D and 3-D laterally inhomogeneous structural models;1. Introduction and motivation The mountain region of Little Carpathians in western Slovakia, especially the zone
Cerveny, Vlastislav
in the Little Carpathians region, Slovakia Zuzana Jechumtá lová 1 and Petr Bulant2 1 Institute of Geophysics of the Little Carpathians region of Slovakia. Simplified 1-D and 3-D laterally inhomogeneous structural models region of the Little Carpathians in western Slovakia, especially within the zone surrounding Dobrá Voda
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2008-05-29
The Introductory Physics 1D Motion Lab asks students to develop a computer model for a ball moving vertically under the influence of gravity. When the file is opened, it is initially programmed with a mass moving at constant velocity. It is assumed that students have first collected data of a basketball or volleyball bouncing under a motion detector. The lab instructions fully explain how to build the computer model using Easy Java Simulations modeling tool. The students will learn how to modify the model to simulate a bouncing ball, define variables, calculate relationships, and change the properties for plotting the graph. The calculus is done for the student. Editor's Note: The Easy Java Simulation tool greatly reduces the amount of programming required to develop computer models. Exercises in student-generated modeling are becoming much more widespread in physics education because of the opportunities for students to test and apply their own prototypes to explain and predict physical phenomena. This resource is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. In order to modify the simulation (and see how it is designed), users must install the Easy Java Simulations Modeling and Authoring Tool. SEE RELATED MATERIALS for a link to install the EJS modeling tool.
Optimal Velocity Model with Relative Velocity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawada, Shiro
The optimal velocity model which depends not only on the headway but also on the relative velocity is analyzed in detail. We investigate the effect of considering the relative velocity based on the linear and nonlinear analysis of the model. The linear stability analysis shows that the improvement in the stability of the traffic flow is obtained by taking into account the relative velocity. From the nonlinear analysis, the relative velocity dependence of the propagating kink solution for traffic jam is obtained. The relation between the headway and the velocity and the fundamental diagram are examined by numerical simulation. We find that the results by the linear and nonlinear analysis of the model are in good agreement with the numerical results.
1D wind model: sinusoidal piston
Freytag, Bernd
Sun ). 3D#1D: Extraction of piston movement The 3D models cover only the inner part of the atmosphere convection zone and the inner atmosphere of an AGB star (T eff =2800 K, M=1M Sun , R=350 R Sun ) were waves running into the outer atmosphere. 200 400 600 800 R [R Sun ] 40 20 0 20 40 V radial [km
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajima, Y.; Madsen, O. S.
2002-12-01
The paper will present a theoretical model for the prediction of undertow velocity profiles in the surf zone due to near-normally incident waves. The waves may be periodic or narrow-banded random waves, and the beach may be plane or barred. The theoretical model consists of three components: (i) breaking wave model; (ii) surface roller model; and (iii) undertow velocity profile model. \\textit{The breaking wave model} (Tajima and Madsen, 2002) is based on the concept of an equivalent linear wave and predicts linear wave characteristics for shoaling, breaking and broken waves. Non-linear wave characteristics, e.g., near-bottom orbital velocity, are obtained from equivalent linear wave characteristics and local bottom slope through use of simple transform formulae. \\textit{The surface roller model} is based on the same principle as Dally et al. (1985), but differs from this by transferring only the potential energy lost from the wave motion into the surface roller and calculating the decay of surface roller energy using a decay coefficient equal to that obtained for the breaking wave dissipation model. \\textit{The undertow velocity profile model} assumes a linearly varying shear stress over the water depth combined with an assumed form of the turbulent eddy viscosity. The shear stress at the surface is obtained from the breaking wave and surface roller models, whereas the bottom shear stress is obtained from considerations of mass conservation, i.e., depth-integrated undertow velocity must equal the volume transport of waves and surface roller above trough level. The near-bottom undertow velocity is calculated at the edge of the wave-bottom boundary layer, from knowledge of near-bottom orbital velocity, bottom shear stress and bottom roughness, using the combined wave-current bottom boundary layer theory by Madsen (1994). Comparison of predicted and measured undertow velocity profiles are performed for periodic and random waves normally incident on plane and barred concrete beaches as well as random waves near-normally incident on barred movable bed beach profiles. In general the agreement between predicted and observed undertow velocities is excellent. It is shown that model predictions are fairly insensitive to the choice of turbulent eddy viscosity, which is the only adjustable quantity in the model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.
2013-01-01
Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their
Effective-range signatures in quasi-1D matter waves: sound velocity and solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sgarlata, F.; Mazzarella, G.; Salasnich, L.
2015-06-01
We investigate ultracold and dilute bosonic atoms under strong transverse harmonic confinement using a 1D modified GrossPitaevskii equation (1D MGPE), which accounts for the energy dependence of the two-body scattering amplitude within an effective-range expansion. We study sound waves and solitons of the quasi-1D system, comparing the 1D MGPE results with the 1D GPE ones. We find that when the finite-size nature of the interaction is taken into account, the speed of sound and the density profiles of both dark and bright solitons show relevant quantitative changes with respect to predictions given by the standard 1D GPE.
Comparison of ray--matrix and finite--difference methods in a simple 1D model
Cerveny, Vlastislav
parameter files can share the same input data and may be run several times with various modifications22191 1214, Email: klimes@seis.karlov.mff.cuni.cz Summary A simple 1D model, consisting of a low velocity file which contains both the input data and the instructions on program execution. The structure
Ion velocity distribution at the termination shock: 1-D PIC simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Quanming; Yang, Zhongwei; Lembčge, Bertrand
2012-11-01
The Voyager 2 (V2) plasma observations of the proton temperature downstream of the quasi-perpendicular heliospheric termination shock (TS) showed that upstream thermal solar wind ions played little role in the shock dissipation mechanism and their downstream temperature is an order of magnitude smaller than predicted by MHD Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. While pickup ions (PUI) are generally expected to play an important role in energy dissipation at the shock, the details remain unclear. Here, one-dimensional (1-D) Particle-in-cell (PIC) code is used to examine kinetic properties and downstream velocity distribution functions of pickup ions (the hot supra-thermal component) and solar wind protons (SWs, the cold component) at the perpendicular heliospheric termination shock. The code treats the pickup ions self-consistently as a third component. Present results show that: (1) both of the incident SWs and PUIs can be separated into two parts: reflected (R) ions and directly transmitted (DT) ions, the energy gain of the R ions at the shock front is much larger than that of the DT ions; (2) the fraction of reflected SWs and their downstream temperature decrease with the relative percentage PUI%; (3) no matter how large the PUI% is, the downstream ion velocity distribution function always can be separated into three parts: 1. a high energy tail (i.e. the wings) dominated by the reflected PUIs, 2. a low energy core mainly contributed by the directly transmitted SWs, and 3. a middle energy part which is a complicated superposition of reflected SWs and directly transmitted PUIs. The significance of the presence of pickup ions on shock front micro-structure and nonstationarity is also discussed.
Ion velocity distribution at the termination shock: 1-D PIC simulation
Lu Quanming; Yang Zhongwei; Lembege, Bertrand [CAS Key Laboratory of Basic Plasma Physics, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); SOA Key Laboratory for Polar Science, Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai 200136 (China); LATMOS-UVSQ-IPSL-CNRS, Guyancourt 78280 (France)
2012-11-20
The Voyager 2 (V2) plasma observations of the proton temperature downstream of the quasi-perpendicular heliospheric termination shock (TS) showed that upstream thermal solar wind ions played little role in the shock dissipation mechanism and their downstream temperature is an order of magnitude smaller than predicted by MHD Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. While pickup ions (PUI) are generally expected to play an important role in energy dissipation at the shock, the details remain unclear. Here, one-dimensional (1-D) Particle-in-cell (PIC) code is used to examine kinetic properties and downstream velocity distribution functions of pickup ions (the hot supra-thermal component) and solar wind protons (SWs, the cold component) at the perpendicular heliospheric termination shock. The code treats the pickup ions self-consistently as a third component. Present results show that: (1) both of the incident SWs and PUIs can be separated into two parts: reflected (R) ions and directly transmitted (DT) ions, the energy gain of the R ions at the shock front is much larger than that of the DT ions; (2) the fraction of reflected SWs and their downstream temperature decrease with the relative percentage PUI%; (3) no matter how large the PUI% is, the downstream ion velocity distribution function always can be separated into three parts: 1. a high energy tail (i.e. the wings) dominated by the reflected PUIs, 2. a low energy core mainly contributed by the directly transmitted SWs, and 3. a middle energy part which is a complicated superposition of reflected SWs and directly transmitted PUIs. The significance of the presence of pickup ions on shock front micro-structure and nonstationarity is also discussed.
Modeling an electric motor in 1-D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, Thomas G.
1991-01-01
Quite often the dynamicist will be faced with having an electric drive motor as a link in the elastic path of a structure such that the motor's characteristics must be taken into account to properly represent the dynamics of the primary structure. He does not want to model it so accurately that he could get detailed stress and displacements in the motor proper, but just sufficiently to represent its inertia loading and elastic behavior from its mounting bolts to its drive coupling. Described here is how the rotor and stator of such a motor can be adequately modeled as a colinear pair of beams.
GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL
KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BURIAN, STEVEN J. [NON LANL
2007-01-17
This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.
Data Analysis of cGPS stations in central Greece: station velocities and 1-D strain estimates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganas, Athanassios; Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Gianniou, Michalis
2013-04-01
We processed 30-s GPS data from permanent GNSS stations in central Greece, available at NOA since 2006. We obtained position time series along with horizontal and vertical velocities using the Kalman filtering approach and accounting for time-correlated noise content. The station distribution allowed us to draw velocity profiles and to calculate rates of baseline length change (1-D strain). In central Greece, the coherent picture of the velocity pattern for Attica and north-eastern Peloponnese (Corinth) stations (effectively a velocity "plateau" at 30 mm/yr) indicates that these areas belong to the same crustal block, although some internal strain is present within Attica's crust as well as across the Saronic Gulf. Our 1-D strain estimates are in general agreement with geological data (fault slip rates) in central Greece, implying accommodation of this crustal extension along E-W striking active normal faults. Some NE-SW directed shortening is mapped in the wider area to the west of the termination of the North Anatolian Fault (Sporades islands).
Electronic properties of the 1D Frenkel-Kontorova model.
Tong, Peiqing; Li, Baowen; Hu, Bambi
2002-01-28
The energy spectra and quantum diffusion of an electron in a 1D incommensurate Frenkel-Kontorova model are studied numerically. We found that the spectral and dynamical properties of an electron display quite different behaviors in the invariance circle regime and in the Cantorus regime. In the former case, it is similar to that of the Harper model, whereas in the latter case, it is similar to that of the Fibonacci model. The relationship between spectral and transport properties is discussed. PMID:11801152
Examination of 1D Solar Cell Model Limitations Using 3D SPICE Modeling: Preprint
McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.
2012-06-01
To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell modeling, 3D SPICE-based modeling is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a model cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this modeling give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and 3D models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhakal, Y. P.; Tsuno, S.; Yamanaka, H.
2011-12-01
There are several 3-D velocity structural models for the Kanto Basin in Japan. However, the velocity models are different because they have been constructed with separate data sets such as, geophysical, geological, and earthquake data. It is, therefore, important for the reliable prediction of long-period ground motions to validate those models based on the observed earthquake recordings. Tsuno et al. (2011) revised the depths of the seismic basement and sedimentary layer interfaces in the Yamanaka and Yamada (2006) model of the Kanto Basin by the inversion of H/V-spectra of coda waves. In this paper, we perform 1-D simulation of long-period S-waves (2-10 s) to verify the velocity structures in the Kanto Basin inverted from H/V-spectra of earthquake ground motions. Considering the simplicity in the estimation of source parameters, we simulate the long-period S-waves for the nearby intermediate depth moderate earthquakes. We compare only the first cycle of the observed and synthetic S-waveforms. Consequently, the comparison of the time window for velocity waveforms will be sufficiently ahead of the 3-D basin effects. References Tsuno, S., H. Yamanaka, S. Sakai, N. Hirata, K. Kasahara, H. Kimura, T. Aketagawa [2011], "Deep S-wave Velocity Structures in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area estimated by the H/V Spectral Ratio Using coda waves, 4th IASPEI/IAEE International Symposium on Effects of Surface Geology on Seismic Motion, UCSB, Aug 23-26. Yamanaka, H. and N. Yamada [2006], "Modeling 3D S-wave Velocity Structure of Kanto Basin for Estimation of Earthquake Ground Motion", Butsuri-Tansa, Vol. 59, No. 6, pp. 549-560 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Nonlocal order parameters for the 1D Hubbard model.
Montorsi, Arianna; Roncaglia, Marco
2012-12-01
We characterize the Mott-insulator and Luther-Emery phases of the 1D Hubbard model through correlators that measure the parity of spin and charge strings along the chain. These nonlocal quantities order in the corresponding gapped phases and vanish at the critical point U(c)=0, thus configuring as hidden order parameters. The Mott insulator consists of bound doublon-holon pairs, which in the Luther-Emery phase turn into electron pairs with opposite spins, both unbinding at U(c). The behavior of the parity correlators is captured by an effective free spinless fermion model. PMID:23368231
A scattering model of 1D quantum wire regular polygons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Estarellas, Cristian; Serra, Llorenç
2015-07-01
We calculate the quantum states of regular polygons made of 1D quantum wires treating each polygon vertex as a scatterer. The vertex scattering matrix is analytically obtained from the model of a circular bend of a given angle of a 2D nanowire. In the single mode limit the spectrum is classified in doublets of vanishing circulation, twofold split by the small vertex reflection, and singlets with circulation degeneracy. Simple analytic expressions of the energy eigenvalues are given. It is shown how each polygon is characterized by a specific spectrum.
Constitutive modeling and control of 1D smart composite structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Briggs, Jonathan P.; Ostrowski, James P.; Ponte-Castaneda, Pedro
1998-07-01
Homogenization techniques for determining effective properties of composite materials may provide advantages for control of stiffness and strain in systems using hysteretic smart actuators embedded in a soft matrix. In this paper, a homogenized model of a 1D composite structure comprised of shape memory alloys and a rubber-like matrix is presented. With proportional and proportional/integral feedback, using current as the input state and global strain as an error state, implementation scenarios include the use of tractions on the boundaries and a nonlinear constitutive law for the matrix. The result is a simple model which captures the nonlinear behavior of the smart composite material system and is amenable to experiments with various control paradigms. The success of this approach in the context of the 1D model suggests that the homogenization method may prove useful in investigating control of more general smart structures. Applications of such materials could include active rehabilitation aids, e.g. wrist braces, as well as swimming/undulating robots, or adaptive molds for manufacturing processes.
Flooding flows in city crossroads: experiments and 1-D modelling.
Rivičre, N; Perkins, R J; Chocat, B; Lecus, A
2006-01-01
This study focuses on the discharge distribution in an intersection of four channels, similar to a city crossroad. The channels and the intersection are all horizontal. Flow enters through two of the channels, and leaves through the other two. The flow is subcritical everywhere, and flow depths are controlled by vertical weirs at the exits of the outlet channels. The main variables that are measured are the flow rates in the four channels. When the weir heights in the outlet channels are the same, the ratio of flow rates in the outlet channels depends only on the ratio of flow rates in the inlet channels; if the outlet conditions are different, other parameters, such as the total flow rate also become important. The flow has also been simulated numerically using a solution of the 1-D Saint Venant equations, with a simple model to predict flow distribution in the intersection. A comparison with the experimental data shows that this model works well for the limited range of experimental conditions studied here. However, further work is needed on a wider range of conditions, closer to real conditions, before the model can be considered valid for practical applications. PMID:17120636
Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Liu, J.; Xu, Y.; Liu, Q.
2008-01-01
Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves utilizes a multichannel recording system to estimate near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities from high-frequency Rayleigh waves. A pseudo-2D S-wave velocity (vS) section is constructed by aligning 1D models at the midpoint of each receiver spread and using a spatial interpolation scheme. The horizontal resolution of the section is therefore most influenced by the receiver spread length and the source interval. The receiver spread length sets the theoretical lower limit and any vS structure with its lateral dimension smaller than this length will not be properly resolved in the final vS section. A source interval smaller than the spread length will not improve the horizontal resolution because spatial smearing has already been introduced by the receiver spread. In this paper, we first analyze the horizontal resolution of a pair of synthetic traces. Resolution analysis shows that (1) a pair of traces with a smaller receiver spacing achieves higher horizontal resolution of inverted S-wave velocities but results in a larger relative error; (2) the relative error of the phase velocity at a high frequency is smaller than at a low frequency; and (3) a relative error of the inverted S-wave velocity is affected by the signal-to-noise ratio of data. These results provide us with a guideline to balance the trade-off between receiver spacing (horizontal resolution) and accuracy of the inverted S-wave velocity. We then present a scheme to generate a pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section with high horizontal resolution using multichannel records by inverting high-frequency surface-wave dispersion curves calculated through cross-correlation combined with a phase-shift scanning method. This method chooses only a pair of consecutive traces within a shot gather to calculate a dispersion curve. We finally invert surface-wave dispersion curves of synthetic and real-world data. Inversion results of both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate that inverting high-frequency surface-wave dispersion curves - by a pair of traces through cross-correlation with phase-shift scanning method and with the damped least-square method and the singular-value decomposition technique - can feasibly achieve a reliable pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section with relatively high horizontal resolution. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Global Models of Surface Wave Group Velocity
E. W. F. Larson; G. Ekström
2001-01-01
v--vMeasurements of group velocity are derived from phase-velocity dispersion curves and modeled with global laterally-varying isotropic structure. Maps for both Love and Rayleigh waves are created in the period range 35 s to 175 s. The data set of group-velocity measurements includes over 50,000 minor-arc observations and 5,000 major-arc observations. The errors in the measurements are estimated by an empirical
Newberry EGS Seismic Velocity Model
Templeton, Dennise
We use ambient noise correlation (ANC) to create a detailed image of the subsurface seismic velocity at the Newberry EGS site down to 5 km. We collected continuous data for the 22 stations in the Newberry network, together with 12 additional stations from the nearby CC, UO and UW networks. The data were instrument corrected, whitened and converted to single bit traces before cross correlation according to the methodology in Benson (2007). There are 231 unique paths connecting the 22 stations of the Newberry network. The additional networks extended that to 402 unique paths crossing beneath the Newberry site.
Newberry EGS Seismic Velocity Model
Templeton, Dennise
2013-10-01
We use ambient noise correlation (ANC) to create a detailed image of the subsurface seismic velocity at the Newberry EGS site down to 5 km. We collected continuous data for the 22 stations in the Newberry network, together with 12 additional stations from the nearby CC, UO and UW networks. The data were instrument corrected, whitened and converted to single bit traces before cross correlation according to the methodology in Benson (2007). There are 231 unique paths connecting the 22 stations of the Newberry network. The additional networks extended that to 402 unique paths crossing beneath the Newberry site.
Errors obtained when 1D magnetic component models are not properly applied
R. Prieto; J. A. Oliver; J. A. Cobos; J. Uceda; M. Christini
1999-01-01
Since 1D magnetic component models are widely used, it is very important to understand the range of their application. This work presents an analysis of 1D magnetic component models in order to study their range of application. The errors that can result when these models are not properly applied have been quantified. Therefore, the results of this work provide the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
West, Joseph
2014-03-01
The motion of objects traveling at relativistic speeds and subject only to isotropic photon drag (blackbody friction as a special case) is modeled. The objects are assumed to be perfectly absorbing. Analytic expressions for velocity and position as a function of time for objects subject to photon drag are obtained for the case in which the photons are constrained to one-dimensional motion. If the object is also assumed to be a perfect emitter of energy, analytic expressions are found for time as a function of velocity of the body for photons constrained to one-dimensional motion, and for a full three-dimensional isotropic photon background. The derivations are carried out entirely from the point of view of a reference frame at rest relative to the isotropic photon field, so that no changes of reference frame are involved. The results for the three-dimensional model do not agree with work by previous authors, and this discrepancy is discussed. The derivations are suitable for use in the undergraduate classroom. Example cases for a light sail and a micron-sized sand grain are examined for interactions with the cosmic background radiation, assuming a temperature of 3000 K, the temperature at the time the universe became transparent, and it is found that relativistic speeds would decay on a time scale of years.
1D numerical model of muddy subaqueous and subaerial debris flows
Imran, J.; Parker, G.; Locat, J.; Lee, H.
2001-01-01
A 1D numerical model of the downslope flow and deposition of muddy subaerial and subaqueous debris flows is presented. The model incorporates the Herschel-Bulkley and bilinear rheologies of viscoplastic fluid. The more familiar Bingham model is integrated into the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model. The conservation equations of mass and momentum of single-phase laminar debris flow are layer-integrated using the slender flow approximation. They are then expressed in a Lagrangian framework and solved numerically using an explicit finite difference scheme. Starting from a given initial shape, a debris flow is allowed to collapse and propagate over a specified topography. Comparison between the model predictions and laboratory experiments shows reasonable agreement. The model is used to study the effect of the ambient fluid density, initial shape of the failed mass, and rheological model on the simulated propagation of the front and runout characteristics of muddy debris flows. It is found that initial failure shape influence the front velocity but has little bearing on the final deposit shape. In the Bingham model, the excess of shear stress above the yield strength is proportional to the strain rate to the first power. This exponent is free to vary in the Herschel-Bulkley model. When it is set at a value lower than unity, the resulting final deposits are thicker and shorter than in the case of the Bingham rheology. The final deposit resulting from the bilinear model is longer and thinner than that from the Bingham model due to the fact that the debris flow is allowed to act as a Newtonian fluid at low shear rate in the bilinear model.
1D Modeling of Solar Cells ELEN E9501 Course Project
Lavaei, Javad
1D Modeling of Solar Cells ELEN E9501 Course Project Columbia University Department of Electrical.............................................................................................................8 4.3 Simulation Results of the Solar Cell Model......................................................................................................13 #12;2 ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1. IV Characteristic of the solar cell
H. W. Barker; G. L. Stephens; P. T. Partain; J. W. Bergman; B. Bonnel; K. Campana; E. E. Clothiaux; S. Clough; S. Cusack; J. Delamere; J. Edwards; K. F. Evans; Y. Fouquart; S. Freidenreich; V. Galin; Y. Hou; S. Kato; J. Li; E. Mlawer; J.-J. Morcrette; W. O'Hirok; P. Räisänen; V. Ramaswamy; B. Ritter; E. Rozanov; M. Schlesinger; K. Shibata; P. Sporyshev; Z. Sun; M. Wendisch; N. Wood; F. Yang
2003-01-01
The primary purpose of this study is to assess the performance of 1D solar radiative transfer codes that are used currently both for research and in weather and climate models. Emphasis is on interpretation and handling of unresolved clouds. Answers are sought to the following questions: (i) How well do 1D solar codes interpret and handle columns of information pertaining
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thorne, Michael S.; Zhang, Yang; Ritsema, Jeroen
2013-03-01
this study, we analyzed the seismic phases S, SKS, and SKKS from 31 deep-focus earthquakes in the Tonga-Fiji region recorded in North America between epicentral distances of 85° and 120°. The differential traveltimes and amplitude ratios for these phases reveal clear epicentral distance trends not predicted by standard one-dimensional (1-D) reference Earth models. The increase of the S/SKS amplitude ratio up to a factor of 10 is accompanied by an increase of the S-SKS differential traveltime of up to 10 s. SKKS-SKS differential traveltimes of 2-3 s and SKKS/SKS amplitude ratios of a factor of 2-4 across the epicentral range have maxima near 107°. We examined these observations using full (1-D and 3-D) waveforms for three 1-D seismic velocity profiles for the central Pacific region and for the tomographic model S40RTS including modifications: different regularization parameters, great-circle path azimuthal variation, strength of S wave velocity perturbations, S wave velocity gradients in the lower mantle, and ultra-low velocity zones. To explain these data, we constructed a hybrid model that combines both features of S40RTS and short-wavelength features from the 1-D profiles. The large-scale seismic structure is represented by S40RTS. Embedded within S40RTS are a 20 km thick ultra-low velocity zone at the core-mantle boundary near the source side and a 200 km thick negative velocity gradient zone near the receiver side of the paths. Our analysis demonstrates that the S wave velocity structure of the Pacific large low shear-velocity province cannot be interpreted solely by global tomographic or regional modeling approaches in exclusion of each other.
Numerical modeling of textured silicon solar cells using PC1D
P. A. Basore
1990-01-01
PC-1D is a quasi-one-dimensional finite-element program for modeling semiconductor devices on personal computers. The program offers solar cell researchers a convenient user interface with the ability to address complex issues associated with heavy doping, high-level injection, nonplanar structures, and transients. The physical and numerical models used in PC-1D Version 2 that make it possible to approximate the multidimensional effects found
Kinetic Model for 1D aggregation of yeast ``prions''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunes, Kay; Cox, Daniel; Singh, Rajiv
2004-03-01
Mammalian prion proteins (PrP) are of public health interest because of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. Yeast have proteins which can undergo similar reconformation and aggregation processes to PrP; yeast forms are simpler to experimentally study and model. Recent in vitro studies of the SUP35 protein(1), showed long aggregates and pure exponential growth of the misfolded form. To explain this data, we have extended a previous model of aggregation kinetics(2). The model assumes reconformation only upon aggregation, and includes aggregate fissioning and an initial nucleation barrier. We find for sufficiently small nucleation rates or seeding by small dimer concentrations that we can achieve the requisite exponential growth and long aggregates. We will compare to a more realistic stochastic kinetics model and present prelimary attempts to describe recent experiments on SUP35 strains. *-Supported by U.S. Army Congressionally Mandated Research Fund. 1) P. Chien and J.S. Weissman, Nature 410, 223 (2001); http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/bionet03/collins/. 2) J. Masel, V.A.> Jansen, M.A. Nowak, Biophys. Chem. 77, 139 (1999).
Modelling stock markets by probabilistic 1-D cellular automata
Hakman A. Wan
1994-01-01
The concept of probabilistic cellular automata is introduced in this paper. The automata are used to model a simple stock market in which the buying and selling of a stock is governed by a probabilistic transition function which is also a function of time. It is possible to apply theories of Markov chain, e.g. absorption time, to this situation. Some
Seon Jeong Park; Jung Mo Lee; In-Chang Ryu
2009-01-01
The crustal velocity structures beneath four broadband seismic stations (GKP, GSU, HDB, and BUS) in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin, southeastern Korea, are estimated by using receiver function analyses employing teleseismic waveforms. The genetic algorithm is adopted to avoid the inherent non-uniqueness problem of the inversion. The inversion results are constrained by surface-wave dispersions to complement the shortcoming of the receiver
Space-based observational constraints for 1-D fire smoke plume-rise models
Jacob, Daniel J.
conclude that embedding in large-scale atmospheric studies an advanced plume-rise model using currentlySpace-based observational constraints for 1-D fire smoke plume-rise models Maria Val Martin,1 to evaluate the performance of a widely used plume-rise model. We initialize the model with assimilated
Cosmological velocity correlations - Observations and model predictions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Davis, Marc; Strauss, Michael A.; White, Simon D. M.; Yahil, Amos
1989-01-01
By applying the present simple statistics for two-point cosmological peculiar velocity-correlation measurements to the actual data sets of the Local Supercluster spiral galaxy of Aaronson et al. (1982) and the elliptical galaxy sample of Burstein et al. (1987), as well as to the velocity field predicted by the distribution of IRAS galaxies, a coherence length of 1100-1600 km/sec is obtained. Coherence length is defined as that separation at which the correlations drop to half their zero-lag value. These results are compared with predictions from two models of large-scale structure formation: that of cold dark matter and that of baryon isocurvature proposed by Peebles (1980). N-body simulations of these models are performed to check the linear theory predictions and measure sampling fluctuations.
V. Ryaboy; D. R. Baumgardt; P. Firbas; A. M. Dainty
2001-01-01
- Seismic event locations based on regional 1-D velocity-depth sections can have bias errors caused by travel-time variations within different tectonic provinces and due to ray-paths crossing boundaries between tectonic provinces with different crustal and upper mantle velocity structures. Seismic event locations based on 3-D velocity models have the potential to overcome these limitations. This paper summarizes preliminary results for
Coupled 1D3D hydrodynamic modelling, with application to the Pearl River Delta
Daniel J. Twigt; Erik D. De Goede; Firmijn Zijl; Dirk Schwanenberg; Alex Y. W. Chiu
2009-01-01
Within the hydrodynamic modelling community, it is common practice to apply different modelling systems for coastal waters\\u000a and river systems. Whereas for coastal waters 3D finite difference or finite element grids are commonly used, river systems\\u000a are generally modelled using 1D networks. Each of these systems is tailored towards specific applications. Three-dimensional\\u000a coastal water models are designed to model the
Adaptive Simulated Annealing Velocity Modeling for Rayleigh Wave Dispersion
Donghong Pei; Satish Pullammanappallil; John Louie
2005-01-01
We first implemented a new forward computation of Rayleigh dispersion curves from 1-d velocity profiles. Based on the reflectivity method in terms of generalized reflection and transmission coefficients, we compute the phase velocities of fundamental and higher modes and corresponding eigen-functions for shallow surface-wave dispersion curves. The significant small of relative traction residuals at the free surface and comparisons with
Numerical Simulation of Pulse-Tube Refrigerators: 1D model I.A. Lyulina1
Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit
Numerical Simulation of Pulse-Tube Refrigerators: 1D model I.A. Lyulina1 , R.M.M. Mattheij1 , A numerical model has been introduced to study steady oscillatory heat and mass transfer in the tube section of a pulse-tube refrigerator. Conservation equations describing compressible gas flow in the tube are solved
Galaxy Models with Tangentially Anisotropic Velocity Distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Jin H.; Evans, N. Wyn
2006-02-01
This paper provides two families of flexible and simple galaxy models. Many representatives of these families possess important cosmological cusps, with the density behaving like r-1, r-4/3, or r-3/2 at small radii. The density falls off between r-3 and r-5 at large radii. We provide analytic and anisotropic distribution functions for all the models. Unlike many existing methods, our algorithm can yield tangentially anisotropic velocity dispersions in the outer parts, and so is useful for modeling populations of satellite galaxies and substructure in host galaxy halos. As an application, we demonstrate the degeneracy between mass and anisotropy for the satellite galaxy population of the Milky Way. This can introduce a factor of ~3 uncertainty in the mass of the Milky Way as inferred from the kinematics of the satellite population.
Comparison of a 1-D radiation/Boltzmann model with fluorescent lamp data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, G.; Giuliani, J.
2003-10-01
A spatially dependent, steady state collisional-radiative model for a low-pressure Ar-Hg plasma is developed to study the conventional mercury fluorescent lamp. The model consists of the 1-D electron Boltzmann equation for the EEDF, self-consistently coupled to a 1-D radiation transport model, a collisional-radiative equilibrium model, the gas thermal balance equation and an equation for the ambipolar potential. The collisional-radiative model incorporates 5 Ar and 11 Hg species. Details of the model will be presented in an associated poster. The radially dependent EEDF, escape factors and coupling coefficients, electron density and mean energy, electron impact excitation and ionisation rates, electron particle and power balance terms, UV and visible radiation, particle and energy fluxes are investigated. We find substantially improved agreement between our new model and existing radially resolved data. Future exploration of the Ar-Hg column discharge will address the radial plasma properties of electrodeless discharges.
Optimal velocity difference model for a car-following theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, G. H.; Cai, X. H.; Liu, C. Q.; Cao, B. F.; Tuo, M. X.
2011-10-01
In this Letter, we present a new optimal velocity difference model for a car-following theory based on the full velocity difference model. The linear stability condition of the new model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The unrealistically high deceleration does not appear in OVDM. Numerical simulation of traffic dynamics shows that the new model can avoid the disadvantage of negative velocity occurred at small sensitivity coefficient ? in full velocity difference model by adjusting the coefficient of the optimal velocity difference, which shows that collision can disappear in the improved model.
A New Car Following Model: Comprehensive Optimal Velocity Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Jun-Fang; Jia, Bin; Li, Xing-Gang
2011-06-01
In this paper, we present a new car-following model, i.e. comprehensive optimal velocity model (COVM), whose optimal velocity function not only depends on the following distance of the preceding vehicle, but also depends on the velocity difference with preceding vehicle. Simulation results show that COVM is an improvement over the previous ones theoretically. Then, the stability condition of the model is obtained by the linear stability analysis, which has shown that the model could obtain a bigger stable region than previous models in the phase diagram. Through the nonlinear analysis, the Burgers, Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and modified KdV (mKdV) equations are derived for the triangular shock wave, the soliton wave, and the kink-antikink soliton wave. At the same time, numerical simulations are also carried out to show that the model could simulate these density waves.
AMPS1D modeling of P3HT\\/PCBM bulk-heterojunction solar cell
Bushra Mohamed Omer; Ahmed Khogali; Almantas Pivrikas
2011-01-01
An effective medium model using AMPS-1D (Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structure) simulation program was shown to be applicable for bulk heterojunction polymer solar cell modeling. The model was successfully applied to P3HT\\/PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cell; the simulation results show that in P3HT\\/PCBM with ohmic contacts the open circuit voltage is governed by the LUMO of the acceptor and
A 3D\\/1D geometrical multiscale model of cerebral vasculature
Tiziano Passerini; Mariarita de Luca; Luca Formaggia; Alfio Quarteroni; Alessandro Veneziani
2009-01-01
Geometrical multiscale modeling is a strategy advocated in computational hemodynamics for representing in a single numerical\\u000a model dynamics that involve different space scales. This approach is particularly useful to describe complex networks such\\u000a as the circle of Willis in the cerebral vasculature. A multiscale model of the cerebral circulation is presented where a one-dimensional\\u000a (1D) description of the circle of
(2+1)d Thirring model at quantum criticality Lukas Janssen, Holger Gies
Rossak, Wilhelm R.
/03/2012 2 / 17 #12;Universality: liquid-gas coexistence curves [E. Guggenheim 1945] L-G (-t)1/3 1 (Nobel Prize '10)] Topological insulators [Hsieh et al. '08] . . . Linear dispersion relation: (q) |q transformations: ei4 ei5 ei45 Lukas Janssen (FSU Jena) (2+1)d Thirring model at quantum criticality 23
HYDRUS-1D Modeling of an Irrigated Agricultural Plot with Application to Aquifer Recharge Estimation
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A variety of methods are available for estimating aquifer recharge in semi-arid regions, each with advantages and disadvantages. We are investigating a procedure for estimating recharge in an irrigated basin. The method involves computing irrigation return flows based on HYDRUS-1D modeling of root z...
Accuracy of 1D microvascular flow models in the limit of low Reynolds numbers.
Pindera, Maciej Z; Ding, Hui; Athavale, Mahesh M; Chen, Zhijian
2009-05-01
We describe results of numerical simulations of steady flows in tubes with branch bifurcations using fully 3D and reduced 1D geometries. The intent is to delineate the range of validity of reduced models used for simulations of flows in microcapillary networks, as a function of the flow Reynolds number Re. Results from model problems indicate that for Re less than 1 and possibly as high as 10, vasculatures may be represented by strictly 1D Poiseuille flow geometries with flow variation in the axial dimensions only. In that range flow rate predictions in the different branches generated by 1D and 3D models differ by a constant factor, independent of Re. When the cross-sectional areas of the branches are constant these differences are generally small and appear to stem from an uncertainty of how the individual branch lengths are defined. This uncertainty can be accounted for by a simple geometrical correction. For non-constant cross-sections the differences can be much more significant. If additional corrections for the presence of branch junctions and flow area variations are not taken into account in 1D models of complex vasculatures, the resultant flow predictions should be interpreted with caution. PMID:19135462
Sergej A. Choroszavin
2003-07-13
This paper is an electronic application to my set of lectures, subject:`Formal methods in solving differential equations and constructing models of physical phenomena'. Addressed, mainly: postgraduates and related readers. Content: a discussion of the simple models of linear friction, the models, that have the mechanism that is based on radiation reaction. The interactions we will deal are based on equation arrays of the kind: d^2 q(t)/dt^2 =-\\Omega^2 q(t)+f_{compl}(t,q,Q), d^2 u(t,x)/dt^2=c^{2}d^2 u(t,x)/dx^2 -4{\\gamma}c\\delta(x-x_0) F_{src}(t,q,Q) +f_1(t,x), Q(t) = >. Central mathematical points: d'Alembert-Kirchhoff-like formulae. Central physical points: phenomena of Radiation Reaction, Braking Radiation and Friction.
Implementation of a 1D k-? model for studying the vertical mixing in Comau fjord, Chile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sepulveda, O.; De La Fuente, A.; Bouffard, D.; Meruane, C.
2014-12-01
Comau fjord,located in southern Chile (42ş22' S, 72ş25' W), is a narrow and deep semi-enclosed basin of 68 km-long, 4 km-width and a maximum depth of 500 m. The fjord has a semi-diurnal tidal regime dominated by the M2 component, with maximum oscillations that reach 7,5 m. The stratification and mixing in the Comau fjord was examined in a field campaign during January 2014, using temperature and conductivity sensors and a down-looking ADCP. A very shallow salinity-controlled stratification was detected with a very strong and sharp density change at about 8 m-depth. Furthermore, a surface current of magnitude 5 cmˇs-1 due to river discharge was measured and found to interact with both the tide and the wind forcing. A description of the fjord's hydrodynamic was performed using a general 1D vertical k-? model, in which the stratification was forced by exchanges of energy and momentum with the atmosphere. In addition, the river currents and the effects of tidal influence were incorporated through adding terms in the momentum equation that account for non-linear interaction between current and tide, and a periodic barotropic pressure gradient due to the tide. A decomposition in vertical modes were carried out to analyze the velocity data and the results of the model, which showed that the energy is concentrated in the first barotropic mode, in agreement with the fact that the aspect ratio of stratification h1/(h1+h2) is close to 0. Field data and numerical simulations suggest that the energy injected to the system by external forcings is dissipated in the surface region as a consequence of the strong stratification, which acts as a buffer of the energy transfer, controlling the vertical mixing. The model implemented calculates the vertical dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, allowing the estimation of turbulent diffusion parameter, thus connecting the system's hydrodynamics response with the vertical transport of water quality parameters of the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaystrenko, Victor; Pelinovsky, Efim
2013-04-01
1-D linear inverse problem for initial sea level disturbance in the tsunami source ?0(x) using sea level record f(t) near the shore was investigated. Sea bottom can be considered as the slopping plane and water depthh(x) = k x. Let the function ?(x,t) describing sea level oscillations depending from time t and space coordinate xis satisfying the linear shallow water equation (gkx??x)x = ?tt If initial velocities in the source zone are equal to zero (?t(x,0)=0) than initial sea level disturbance in the tsunami source ?0(x) = ?(x,0) and sea level record (marigram) on the shore f(t) = ?(0,t) are tied by the integral equation of Abel type which has an unique analytical solution. Situation looks different if initial wave field in the tsunami source is related to sea level disturbance and current velocities not equal to zero. In this case specially constructed initial wave field with ?0(x) = ?(x,0) and ?1(x) = ?t(x,0) tied by the integral equation ?0(Z) = -2 ? zZK(° ---- (Z-)2 - 1) z) ? ?1(z)zdz where K is the full elliptic integral and z = 2° -- xkg- = ?2gxh-, gives the tsunami non observed near the shore: ?(0,t)=0. The work was supported by grant 11-05-01054 of the Russian foundation for basic research.
A 1D model for the description of mixing-controlled reacting diesel sprays
Desantesa, J.M.; Pastor, J.V.; Garcia-Oliver, J.M.; Pastor, J.M. [CMT - Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain)
2009-01-15
The paper reports an investigation on the transient evolution of diesel flames in terms of fuel-air mixing, spray penetration and combustion rate. A one-dimensional (1D) spray model, which was previously validated for inert diesel sprays, is extended to reacting conditions. The main assumptions of the model are the mixing-controlled hypothesis and the validity of self-similarity for conservative properties. Validation is achieved by comparing model predictions with both CFD gas jet simulations and experimental diesel spray measurements. The 1D model provides valuable insight into the evolution of the flow within the spray (momentum and mass fluxes, tip penetration, etc.) when shifting from inert to reacting conditions. Results show that the transient diesel flame evolution is mainly governed by two combustion-induced effects, namely the reduction in local density and the increase in flame radial width. (author)
A crustal seismic velocity model for the UK, Ireland and surrounding seas
Kelly, A.; England, R.W.; Maguire, Peter K.H.
2007-01-01
A regional model of the 3-D variation in seismic P-wave velocity structure in the crust of NW Europe has been compiled from wide-angle reflection/refraction profiles. Along each 2-D profile a velocity-depth function has been digitised at 5 km intervals. These 1-D velocity functions were mapped into three dimensions using ordinary kriging with weights determined to minimise the difference between digitised and interpolated values. An analysis of variograms of the digitised data suggested a radial isotropic weighting scheme was most appropriate. Horizontal dimensions of the model cells are optimised at 40 ?? 40 km and the vertical dimension at 1 km. The resulting model provides a higher resolution image of the 3-D variation in seismic velocity structure of the UK, Ireland and surrounding areas than existing models. The construction of the model through kriging allows the uncertainty in the velocity structure to be assessed. This uncertainty indicates the high density of data required to confidently interpolate the crustal velocity structure, and shows that for this region the velocity is poorly constrained for large areas away from the input data. ?? 2007 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2007 RAS.
Evaluation of 1D and 2D numerical models for predicting river flood inundation
M. S. Horritt; P. D. Bates
2002-01-01
1D and 2D models of flood hydraulics (HEC-RAS, LISFLOOD-FP and TELEMAC-2D) are tested on a 60km reach of the river Severn, UK. Synoptic views of flood extent from radar remote sensing satellites have been acquired for flood events in 1998 and 2000. The three models are calibrated, using floodplain and channel friction as free parameters, against both the observed inundated
Constraint on the 1D earth model near core-mantle boundary by free core nutation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chengli; Zhang, Mian
2015-04-01
Free core nutation (FCN) is a normal mode of the rotating earth with fluid outer core (FOC). Its period depends on the physics of the mantle and FOC, especially the parameters near core-mantle boundary (CMB), like the density and elastic (Lame) parameters. FCN period can be determined very accurately by VLBI and superconductive tidal gravimetry, but the theoretical calculation results of FCN period from traditional approaches and 1D earth model (like PREM) deviate significantly from the accurate observation. Meanwhile, the influence of the uncertainty of a given earth model on nutation has never been studied before. In this work, a numerical experiment is presented to check this problem, and we want to see whether FCN can provide a constraint on the construction of a 1D earth model, especially on the gradient of material density near CMB.
L. M. Escribano; R. Prieto; J. A. Oliver; J. A. Cobos
2006-01-01
Analytical (1D) thermal models for magnetic components are commonly used in the magnetic component design process in order to estimate the temperature in the component. Most of the analytical thermal models presented in the literature, consider small separation between different turns of the same layer. However, if that separation is high, a 1D thermal model might be inaccurate. This paper
Coupled 1D-3D hydrodynamic modelling, with application to the Pearl River Delta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Twigt, Daniel J.; de Goede, Erik D.; Zijl, Firmijn; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Chiu, Alex Y. W.
2009-12-01
Within the hydrodynamic modelling community, it is common practice to apply different modelling systems for coastal waters and river systems. Whereas for coastal waters 3D finite difference or finite element grids are commonly used, river systems are generally modelled using 1D networks. Each of these systems is tailored towards specific applications. Three-dimensional coastal water models are designed to model the horizontal and vertical variability in coastal waters and are less well suited for representing the complex geometry and cross-sectional areas of river networks. On the other hand, 1D river network models are designed to accurately represent complex river network geometries and complex structures like weirs, barrages and dams. A disadvantage, however, is that they are unable to resolve complex spatial flow variability. In real life, however, coastal oceans and rivers interact. In deltaic estuaries, both tidal intrusion of seawater into the upstream river network and river discharge into open waters play a role. This is frequently approached by modelling the systems independently, with off-line coupling of the lateral boundary forcing. This implies that the river and the coastal model run sequentially, providing lateral discharge (1D) and water level (3D) forcing to each other without the possibility of direct feedback or interaction between these processes. An additional disadvantage is that due to the time aggregation usually applied to exchanged quantities, mass conservation is difficult to ensure. In this paper, we propose an approach that couples a 3D hydrodynamic modelling system for coastal waters (Delft3D) with a 1D modelling system for river hydraulics (SOBEK) online. This implies that contrary to off-line coupling, the hydrodynamic quantities are exchanged between the 1D and 3D domains during runtime to resolve the real-time exchange and interaction between the coastal waters and river network. This allows for accurate and mass conserving modelling of complex coastal waters and river network systems, whilst the advantages of both systems are maintained and used in an optimal and computationally efficient way. The coupled 1D-3D system is used to model the flows in the Pearl River Delta (Guangdong, China), which are determined by the interaction of the upstream network of the Pearl River and the open waters of the South China Sea. The highly complex upstream river network is modelled in 1D, simulating river discharges for the dry and wet monsoon periods. The 3D coastal model simulates the flow due to the external (ocean) periodic tidal forcing, the salinity distribution for both dry and wet seasons, as well as residual water levels (sea level anomalies) originating from the South China Sea. The model is calibrated and its performance extensively assessed against field measurements, resulting in a mean root mean square (RMS) error of below 6% for water levels over the entire Pearl River Delta. The model also represents both the discharge distribution over the river network and salinity transport processes with good accuracy, resolving the discharge distribution over the main branches of the river network within 5% of reported annual mean values and RMS errors for salinity in the range of 2 ppt (dry season) to 5 ppt (wet season).
Assessment of improved root growth representation in a 1-D, field scale crop model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miltin Mboh, Cho; Gaiser, Thomas; Ewert, Frank
2015-04-01
Many 1-D, field scale crop models over-simplify root growth. The over-simplification of this "hidden half" of the crop may have significant consequences on simulated root water and nutrient uptake with a corresponding reflection on the simulated crop yields. Poor representation of root growth in crop models may therefore constitute a major source of uncertainty propagation. In this study we assess the effect of an improved representation of root growth in a model solution of the model framework SIMPLACE (Scientific Impact assessment and Modeling PLatform for Advanced Crop and Ecosystem management) compared to conventional 1-D approaches. The LINTUL5 crop growth model is coupled to the Hillflow soil water balance model within the SIMPLACE modeling framework (Gaiser et al, 2013). Root water uptake scenarios in the soil hydrological simulator Hillflow (Bronstert, 1995) together with an improved representation of root growth is compared to scenarios for which root growth is simplified. The improvement of root growth is achieved by integrating root growth solutions from R-SWMS (Javaux et al., 2008) into the SIMPLACE model solution. R-SWMS is a three dimensional model for simultaneous modeling of root growth, soil water fluxes and solute transport and uptake. These scenarios are tested by comparing how well the simulated water contents match with the observed soil water dynamics. The impacts of the scenarios on above ground biomass and wheat grain are assessed
Zero finite-temperature charge stiffness within the half-filled 1D Hubbard model
Carmelo, J.M.P., E-mail: carmelo@fisica.uminho.pt [Center and Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus Gualtar, P-4710-057 Braga (Portugal) [Center and Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus Gualtar, P-4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Institut für Theoretische Physik III, Universität Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Gu, Shi-Jian [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China) [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Physics and ITP, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Sacramento, P.D. [CFIF, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal) [CFIF, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)
2013-12-15
Even though the one-dimensional (1D) Hubbard model is solvable by the Bethe ansatz, at half-filling its finite-temperature T>0 transport properties remain poorly understood. In this paper we combine that solution with symmetry to show that within that prominent T=0 1D insulator the charge stiffness D(T) vanishes for T>0 and finite values of the on-site repulsion U in the thermodynamic limit. This result is exact and clarifies a long-standing open problem. It rules out that at half-filling the model is an ideal conductor in the thermodynamic limit. Whether at finite T and U>0 it is an ideal insulator or a normal resistor remains an open question. That at half-filling the charge stiffness is finite at U=0 and vanishes for U>0 is found to result from a general transition from a conductor to an insulator or resistor occurring at U=U{sub c}=0 for all finite temperatures T>0. (At T=0 such a transition is the quantum metal to MottHubbard-insulator transition.) The interplay of the ?-spin SU(2) symmetry with the hidden U(1) symmetry beyond SO(4) is found to play a central role in the unusual finite-temperature charge transport properties of the 1D half-filled Hubbard model. -- Highlights: The charge stiffness of the half-filled 1D Hubbard model is evaluated. Its value is controlled by the model symmetry operator algebras. We find that there is no charge ballistic transport at finite temperatures T>0. The hidden U(1) symmetry controls the U=0 phase transition for T>0.
Modeling students' conceptual understanding of force, velocity, and acceleration
Zollman, Dean
Modeling students' conceptual understanding of force, velocity, and acceleration Rebecca Rosenblatt, velocity, and acceleration. The test was administered to more than 800 students enrolled in standard incorrect response that velocity must be in the direction of the acceleration or net force, up to 30
HELIOS-CR - A 1-D Radiation-Magnetohydrodynamics Code with Inline Atomic Kinetics Modeling
J. J. MacFarlane; I. E. Golovkin; P. R. Woodruff
2005-01-01
HELIOS-CR is a user-oriented 1D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code to simulate the dynamic evolution of laser-produced plasmas and z-pinch plasmas. It includes an in-line collisional-radiative (CR) model for computing non-LTE atomic level populations at each time step of the hydrodynamics simulation. HELIOS-CR has been designed for ease of use, and is well-suited for experimentalists, as well as graduate and undergraduate student researchers.
HELIOS-CR A 1-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code with inline atomic kinetics modeling
J. J. MacFarlane; I. E. Golovkin; P. R. Woodruff
2006-01-01
HELIOS-CR is a user-oriented 1D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code to simulate the dynamic evolution of laser-produced plasmas and z-pinch plasmas. It includes an in-line collisional-radiative (CR) model for computing non-LTE atomic level populations at each time step of the hydrodynamics simulation. HELIOS-CR has been designed for ease of use, and is well-suited for experimentalists, as well as graduate and undergraduate student researchers.
HELIOS-CR A 1-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code with inline atomic kinetics modeling
J. J. Macfarlane; I. E. Golovkin; P. R. Woodruff
2006-01-01
HELIOS-CR is a user-oriented 1D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code to simulate the dynamic evolution of laser-produced plasmas and z-pinch plasmas. It includes an in-line collisional-radiative (CR) model for computing non-LTE atomic level populations at each time step of the hydrodynamics simulation. HELIOS-CR has been designed for ease of use, and is well-suited for experimentalists, as well as graduate and undergraduate student researchers.
Avtar Singh Sehra
2006-02-27
In part I we study quantum modified photon trajectories in a Schwarzschild blackhole spacetime. The photon vacuum polarization effect in curved spacetime leads to birefringence, i.e. the photon velocity becomes c+/-dc depending on its polarization. This velocity shift then results in modified photon trajectories. In this work we give an introduction to this quantum effect in relativity and we study its effects in Schwarzschild spacetime for critical orbits. Some key results are that the critical orbits are shifted depending on polarization and the event horizon remains fixed. In Part II we use the 2+1d Nambu-Jona-Lasino NJL model to study the superfluid behaviour of two-dimensional quark matter. We begin with an introduction to QCD its symmetries and the NJL model. We then go on to study the 2+1d NJL model. We show that at high density the 2+1d NJL model represents a relativistic gapless thin film BCS superfluid.
Box model and 1D longitudinal model of flow and transport in Bosten Lake, China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ning; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Li, WenPeng; Dong, XinGuang
2015-05-01
Bosten Lake in the southeast of Yanqi Catchment, China, supports the downstream agricultural and natural environments. Over the last few decades the intensive agricultural activities in Yanqi Catchment resulted in decreased lake levels and deteriorated lake water quality. A two-box model is constructed to understand the evolution of lake level and salinity between 1958 and 2008. The two-box model of the lake indicates that the evaporation does have the same trend as the observed lake area and the annual average evaporation agrees with the value obtained from the Penman-Monteith approach. To achieve a correct salt balance, the ratio of outflow concentration and average lake concentration has to be around 0.7. This is due to the incomplete mixing of the lake caused by short-circuiting between tributary inflow and the main outflow via the pump stations abstracting water from the lake. This short-circuiting is investigated in more detail by a 1D numerical flow and transport model of the lake calibrated with observations of lake level and lake concentrations. The distributed model reproduces the correct time-varying outflow concentration. It is used for the assessment of two basic management options: increasing river discharge (by water saving irrigation, reduction of phreatic evaporation or reduction of agricultural area) and diverting saline drainage water to the desert. Increasing river discharge to the lake by 20% reduces the east basin salt concentration by 0.55 kg/m3, while capturing all the drainage water and discharging it to depressions instead of the lake reduces the east basin salt concentration by 0.63 kg/m3. A combination of increasing river inflow and decreasing drainage salt flux is sufficient to bring future lake TDS below the required 1 kg/m3, to keep a lake level that sustains the lake ecosystem, and to supply more water for downstream development and ecosystem rehabilitation.
A Bayesian model for the measurement of visual velocity
David Ascher; Norberto M. Grzywacz
2000-01-01
Several models have been proposed for how the brain measures velocity from the output of motion-energy units. These models make some unrealistic assumptions such as the use of Gabor-shaped temporal filters, which are non causal, or flat spatial spectra, which are invalidated by existing data. We present a Bayesian model of velocity perception, which makes more realistic assumptions and allows
P, S wave velocity model of the crust and upper most mantle of Albania region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ormeni, Rrapo
2011-01-01
This paper describes the one-dimensional (1D) velocity model computed by VELEST in the SEISAN seismic analysis system, inverting re-picked P-wave and S-wave arrival times recorded during 2002-2006 by the Albanian, Montenegro, Thessalonica and Macedonia seismic networks. The re-picked data yield P-wave and S-wave velocities proved to be more suitable compared to bulletin data for this detailed inversion study. Seismic phases recorded by the Albania seismic network and integrated with data from the Montenegro, Thessalonica and Macedonia networks are used to prepare the Albanian seismic bulletin. Earthquake hypocenters from the Albanian bulletins have also location errors that are negligible for civil protection purposes, large scale seismotectonic analyses and more accurate hypocentral determinations which are necessary for detailed seismotectonic and geodynamic studies. It was noted that the smoothness of the velocity variation increased with depth. A velocity of 5.5 km/s was calculated for the upper crust, 6.1 km/s was calculated for the middle crust and 6.9 km/s was computed for the lower crust. P wave velocity was 7.85 km/s at depth of 50 km and for the upper mantle it is 8.28 km/s. Using the improved velocity model, the earthquakes which occurred in Albania in the past 5 years were able to be relocated, achieving constrained hypocentral determinations for events in Albania. The interpretation of the 1 D velocity models infers interesting features of the deep structure of Albania. These results represent an important step towards more detailed seismotectonic analyses.
Modeling velocity dispersion In Gypsy site, Oklahoma
Alsaadan, Sami Ibrahim
2010-01-01
Discrepancies in interval velocities estimated from vertical well measurements made with different source central frequencies at Gypsy site could be primarily explained in terms of intrinsic attenuation. Four intervals ...
Evaluation of 2 1-D cloud models for the analysis of VAS soundings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Emmitt, G. D.
1984-01-01
Evaluation of the satellite Visual Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VISSR) has begun to document several of its critical shortcomings as far as numerical cloud models are concerned: excessive smoothing of thermal inversions; imprecise measurement of boundary layer moisture; and tendency to exaggerate atmospheric stability. The sensitivity of 1-D cloud models to their required inputs is stressed with special attention to those parameters obtained from atmospheric soundings taken by the VAS or rawinsonde. In addition to performing model experiments using temperature and moisture profiles having the general characteristics of VAS soundings, standard input sensitivity tests were made and 1-D model performance was compared with observations and the results of a 2-D model experiment using AVE/VAS data (Atmospheric Variability Experiment). Although very encouraging, the results are not sufficient to make any specific conclusions. In general, the VAS soundings are likely to be inadequate to provide the cloud base (and subcloud layer) information needed for inputs to current cumulus models. Above cloud base, the tendency to exaggerate the stability of the atmosphere requires solution before meaningful model experiments are run.
Nested 1D-2D approach for urban surface flood modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murla, Damian; Willems, Patrick
2015-04-01
Floods in urban areas as a consequence of sewer capacity exceedance receive increased attention because of trends in urbanization (increased population density and impermeability of the surface) and climate change. Despite the strong recent developments in numerical modeling of water systems, urban surface flood modeling is still a major challenge. Whereas very advanced and accurate flood modeling systems are in place and operation by many river authorities in support of flood management along rivers, this is not yet the case in urban water management. Reasons include the small scale of the urban inundation processes, the need to have very high resolution topographical information available, and the huge computational demands. Urban drainage related inundation modeling requires a 1D full hydrodynamic model of the sewer network to be coupled with a 2D surface flood model. To reduce the computational times, 0D (flood cones), 1D/quasi-2D surface flood modeling approaches have been developed and applied in some case studies. In this research, a nested 1D/2D hydraulic model has been developed for an urban catchment at the city of Gent (Belgium), linking the underground sewer (minor system) with the overland surface (major system). For the overland surface flood modelling, comparison was made of 0D, 1D/quasi-2D and full 2D approaches. The approaches are advanced by considering nested 1D-2D approaches, including infiltration in the green city areas, and allowing the effects of surface storm water storage to be simulated. An optimal nested combination of three different mesh resolutions was identified; based on a compromise between precision and simulation time for further real-time flood forecasting, warning and control applications. Main streets as mesh zones together with buildings as void regions constitute one of these mesh resolution (3.75m2 - 15m2); they have been included since they channel most of the flood water from the manholes and they improve the accuracy of interactions within the 1D sewer network. Other areas that recorded flooding outside the main streets have been also included with the second mesh resolution for an accurate determination of flood maps (12.5m2 - 50m2). Permeable areas have been identified and used as infiltration zones using the Horton infiltration model. A mesh sensitivity analysis has been performed for the low flood risk areas for a proper model optimization. As outcome of that analysis, the third mesh resolution has been chosen (75m2 - 300m2). Performance tests have been applied for several synthetic design storms as well as historical storm events displaying satisfactory results upon comparing the flood mapping outcomes produced by the different approaches. Accounting for the infiltration in the green city spaces reduces the flood extents in the range 39% - 68%, while the average reduction in flood volume equals 86%. Acknowledgement: Funding for this research was provided by the Interreg IVB NWE programme (project RainGain) and the Belgian Science Policy Office (project PLURISK). The high resolution topographical information data were obtained from the geographical information service AGIV; the original full hydrodynamic sewer network model from the service company Farys, and the InfoWorks licence from Innovyze.
Model Sensitivity to Parameters in the Simple 1-D Land-Atmosphere Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, C.; Van Ogtrop, F.; Willem, V.
2012-04-01
Large scale effects are generally more important to the regional climate than local effects, such as land cover. However there is rarely any comparison of the two types of effects due to the complexity of the land-atmosphere system and the difficulties in controlling different climate drivers. Here we look into this matter from a model perspective. The modified simple 1-D land-atmosphere model based on D'Andrea (2006) and Baudena (2008) is used to investigate the relative sensitivity of climate variables (air temperature and precipitation) to the external forcing and local forcing. The model has two properties: firstly, it is an equilibrium model and secondly, it requires a small set of parameters. Therefore, this model is suitable for sensitivity analysis in which the effect of change in one factor can be isolated. In this study, we perform sensitivity analysis on the effects of four parameters. External forcing is represented by solar radiation (100 - 800 W m2) and moisture influx (0 - 1 mm hr-1) to the region. Local forcing is represented by the initial leaf area index (LAI, 0 - 10) and the initial soil wetness (0.13 - 0.63). A normalized index is used to access the sensitivity of the model outputs to the parameters. The index is defined as SI = dmax -dmin, Dmean ˇr where dmax and dmin represent the local extremes; Dmean is the mean value for the whole domain and r is the proportion of the whole domain from which the local extremes are taken. Precipitation and air temperature output both responded nonlinearly to the tested parameters. Precipitation is resistant to changes when parameters are near to the lower end of value ranges until a threshold is hit. On the other hand, temperature is more sensitive to the low parameter values than the high parameter values. Hence, precipitation is suppressed and temperature remains high due to lack of vegetation cover, or low soil moisture, or negligible moisture influx from outside the region. Both precipitation and temperature are low when radiation is insufficient (in this case, < 456 W m2). For the tested range, the system reveals that both the initial soil moisture as shown by D'Andrea (2006) and other conditions can lead to multiple equilibriums. The sensitivity indexes show that precipitation is generally more sensitive to the changes in radiation and moisture influx, both with SI > 2 in the middle ranges. The sensitivity of precipitation to the changes in soil wetness and LAI are below 0.5. This could be an indication that external forcing is more important than local forcing in determining the local climate. However, the results also suggest the local effects can contribute to the local climate variation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xuebing; Chen, Ting; Zou, Yongtao; Liebermann, Robert C.; Li, Baosheng
2015-05-01
Compressional (VP) and shear (VS) wave velocities of a synthetic KLB-1 peridotite were measured for the first time up to 10 GPa using ultrasonic interferometry. Analysis of the P and S wave velocities yielded K0 = 123(1) GPa, K0' = 5.1(2), G0 = 75(1) GPa, and G0'= 1.3(1) for the bulk and shear moduli and their pressure derivatives. Comparison with Voigt-Reuss-Hill (VRH) calculations based on literature elasticity data for its constituent minerals indicates that the experimentally measured P and S wave velocities, densities, bulk sound velocities, and VP/VS ratios fall close to the lower limit of VRH averages associated with the uncertainties of the mineral elasticity data. A comparison with previous modeling of mantle compositions implies that the velocities for an aggregate with the pyrolitic composition of KLB-1 are in close agreement with seismic data at the depths of the Earth's upper mantle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellerive, Andre; Tang, Justin; Radulescu, Matei
2013-11-01
1-D Asymptotic analysis on Fickett's model for reactive compressible flow, i.e Burgers' equation with an added reactive term. The model's simplicity is useful to identify the mechanisms that control the detonation stability. An induction-reaction, two-step, chain-branching reaction model is used. We assume a slowed time evolution based on the particle transit through the induction zone. The equation is derived for a high activation energy and a larger exothermic reaction layer than induction layer. The evolution equation is second order in time in the shock front velocity perturbation. The equation yields both stable and unstable solutions, the unstable solutions lead to high amplitude limit-cycles. The results show the stability boundary to be the activation energy times the ratio of induction time to reaction time, ? < CST , at high activation energies. For larger reaction time to induction time the stability is only dependent on the activation energy, ? < CST . The stability boundary and unstable solutions agree with numerical simulation and are consistent with previous reactive Euler models.
Velocity autocorrelation functions in model liquid metals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsang, T.; Maclin, A. P.
1975-01-01
Starting from interatomic potentials and static radial distribution functions, a self-consistent iteration scheme has been used to calculate velocity autocorrelation functions in liquid metals. The interatomic forces are treated directly. The calculation bypasses the details of the many-body dynamics and it is not necessary to introduce any additional parameters. Several simplifications may be used without introducing appreciable deviations. The results are in good agreement with computer experiments on liquid sodium at 383 K, suggesting that the velocity autocorrelation function may be a simpler quantity than previously supposed.
Optimal modeling of 1D azimuth correlations in the context of Bayesian inference
Michiel B. De Kock; Hans C. Eggers; Thomas A. Trainor
2015-02-16
Analysis and interpretation of spectrum and correlation data from high-energy nuclear collisions is currently controversial because two opposing physics narratives derive contradictory implications from the same data-one narrative claiming collision dynamics is dominated by dijet production and projectile-nucleon fragmentation, the other claiming collision dynamics is dominated by a dense, flowing QCD medium. Opposing interpretations seem to be supported by alternative data models, and current model-comparison schemes are unable to distinguish between them. There is clearly need for a convincing new methodology to break the deadlock. In this study we introduce Bayesian Inference (BI) methods applied to angular correlation data as a basis to evaluate competing data models. For simplicity the data considered are projections of 2D angular correlations onto 1D azimuth from three centrality classes of 200 GeV Au-Au collisions. We consider several data models typical of current model choices, including Fourier series (FS) and a Gaussian plus various combinations of individual cosine components. We evaluate model performance with BI methods and with power-spectrum (PS) analysis. We find that the FS-only model is rejected in all cases by Bayesian analysis which always prefers a Gaussian. A cylindrical quadrupole cos(2\\phi) is required in some cases but rejected for most-central Au-Au collisions. Given a Gaussian centered at the azimuth origin "higher harmonics" cos(m\\phi) for m > 2 are rejected. A model consisting of Gaussian + dipole cos(\\phi) + quadrupole cos(2\\phi) provides good 1D data descriptions in all cases.
Construction of an initial velocity model for migration velocity analysis from gravimetric inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, H. B.; Macedo, D. L.; Santos, E. B.; Schleicher, J.; Novais, M.
2013-12-01
The construction of the best possible image in depth from the acquired data is a major challenge in both seismic exploration and seismological investigations. Migration is one of the main methods of seismic imaging, and prior knowledge of a subsurface velocity model is needed for its application. On the other hand, migration itself gives clues about the quality of the used velocity model. This property gives rise to iterative migration velocity analysis (MVA) methods. MVA is an important seismic processing step in prestack time and depth imaging, which basically exploits the redundancy of seismic data to improve an a-priori velocity model. For fast convergence and reliable results, MVA requires good starting models. We present a new 3D velocity model building algorithm based on geometry information acquired from a recently introduced efficient gravity gradiometry inversion method. This gravity inversion method is useful to estimate a 3D density-contrast distribution on a grid of prisms. It is highly efficient because it does not require the solution of a large equation system. Instead, the solution grows systematically around prismatic elements called "seeds". This allow to test different density contrasts for different bodies. Here, we propose the use of the estimated density-contrast distribution (i.e., the skeleton of the body) as a first guess for the velocity model. The basic idea is to replace the density value contained in each prism by a velocity consistent with the presumed geology. The result of MVA can then, in turn, be used to improve on the geometry for the gravity inversion. This joint processing and interpretation can be considered as an alternative way to improve the knowledge of complex structures. For example, the image quality of salt structures and sub-salt sediments obtained by reflection seismic is almost always limited by the effects of wavefield transmission, scattering and absorption. We tested whether the geometry of complex structures such as salt structures obtained by gravity inversion is sufficiently well approximated to build a seismic velocity model. For this purpose, we performed an inversion of several 3D bodies with different geometries and different densities. To demonstrate the capability of the technique, we extracted 2D profiles from the inverted solution in various directions, and replaced the density value by a consistent and convenient velocity. Thereafter, we performing 2D depth- and time-migration for seismic data previously modeled with the real geometry using the velocity model of each extracted profile. Our results indicate the usefulness of the discussed velocity model building algorithm to generate initial velocity models for MVA, even for complex geologic structures. To corroborate our point, we will compare our velocity models and migrated sections with results from other methods commonly used in MVA.
Using overlapping sonobuoy data from the Ross Sea to construct a 2D deep crustal velocity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selvans, M. M.; Clayton, R. W.; Stock, J. M.; Granot, R.
2012-03-01
Sonobuoys provide an alternative to using long streamers while conducting multi-channel seismic (MCS) studies, in order to provide deeper velocity control. We present analysis and modeling techniques for interpreting the sonobuoy data and illustrate the method with ten overlapping sonobuoys collected in the Ross Sea, offshore from Antarctica. We demonstrate the importance of using the MCS data to correct for ocean currents and changes in ship navigation, which is required before using standard methods for obtaining a 1D velocity profile from each sonobuoy. We verify our 1D velocity models using acoustic finite-difference (FD) modeling and by performing depth migration on the data, and demonstrate the usefulness of FD modeling for tying interval velocities to the shallow crust imaged using MCS data. Finally, we show how overlapping sonobuoys along an MCS line can be used to construct a 2D velocity model of the crust. The velocity model reveals a thin crust (5.5 ą 0.4 km) at the boundary between the Adare and Northern Basins, and implies that the crustal structure of the Northern Basin may be more similar to that of the oceanic crust in the Adare Basin than to the stretched continental crust further south in the Ross Sea.
a Revised Stochastic Optimal Velocity Model Considering the Velocity Gap with a Preceding Vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shigaki, Keizo; Tanimoto, Jun; Hagishima, Aya
The stochastic optimal velocity (SOV) model, which is a cellular automata model, has been widely used because of its good reproducibility of the fundamental diagram, despite its simplicity. However, it has a drawback: in SOV, a vehicle that is temporarily stopped takes a long time to restart. This study proposes a revised SOV model that suppresses this particular defect; the basic concept of this model is derived from the car-following model, which considers the velocity gap between a particular vehicle and the preceding vehicle. A series of simulations identifies the model parameters and clarifies that the proposed model can reproduce the three traffic phases: free, jam, and even synchronized phases, which cannot be achieved by the conventional SOV model.
Pool Formation in Boulder-Bed Streams: Implications From 1-D and 2-D Numerical Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrison, L. R.; Keller, E. A.
2003-12-01
In mountain rivers of Southern California, boulder-large roughness elements strongly influence flow hydraulics and pool formation and maintenance. In these systems, boulders appear to control the stream morphology by converging flow and producing deep pools during channel forming discharges. Our research goal is to develop quantitative relationships between boulder roughness elements, temporal patterns of scour and fill, and geomorphic processes that are important in producing pool habitat. The longitudinal distribution of shear stress, unit stream power and velocity were estimated along a 48 m reach on Rattlesnake Creek, using the HEC-RAS v 3.0 and River 2-D numerical models. The reach has an average slope of 0.02 and consists of a pool-riffle sequence with a large boulder constriction directly above the pool. Model runs were performed for a range of stream discharges to test if scour and fill thresholds for pool and riffle environments could be identified. Results from the HEC-RAS simulations identified that thresholds in shear stress, unit stream power and mean velocity occur above a discharge of 5.0 cms. Results from the one-dimensional analysis suggest that the reversal in competency is likely due to changes in cross-sectional width at varying flows. River 2-D predictions indicated that strong transverse velocity gradients were present through the pool at higher modeled discharges. At a flow of 0.5 cms (roughly 1/10th bankfull discharge), velocities are estimated at 0.6 m/s and 1.3 m/s for the pool and riffle, respectively. During discharges of 5.15 cms (approximate bankfull discharge), the maximum velocity in the pool center increased to nearly 3.0 m/s, while the maximum velocity over the riffle is estimated at approximately 2.5 cms. These results are consistent with those predicted by HEC-RAS, though the reversal appears to be limited to a narrow jet that occurs through the pool head and pool center. Model predictions suggest that the velocity reversal is produced by a boulder-bedrock constriction that rapidly decreases the channel width above the pool by roughly 25 percent. The width constriction creates highly turbulent flow capable of scouring bed material through the pool. The high velocity core that is produced through the pool center appears to be enhanced by the formation of a large eddy directly below the boulder. Values of unit stream power and shear stress indicate that the pool exit is an area of deposition of bed material due to a decrease in tractive force. The presence of a strong transverse velocity gradient suggests that only a portion of the flow is responsible for scouring bed material. After we eliminate the dead water zone, the lowest five percent of the velocity range, patterns of effective width between pools and riffles begin to emerge. The ratio of flow width between adjacent pools and riffles is one measure of flow convergence. At a discharge of 0.5 cms, the ratio of effective width between pools and riffles is roughly 1:1, implying that there is uniform flow with little flow convergence. At a discharge of 5.15 cms the width ratio between the pool and riffle is about 1:3, demonstrating the strong convergent flow patterns at the pool head. The observed effective width relationship suggests that when considering restoration designs, boulders should be placed in areas that replicate natural convergence and divergence patterns in order to maximize pool area and depth.
Uncertainty assessment of 3D instantaneous velocity model from stack velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emanuele Maesano, Francesco; D'Ambrogi, Chiara
2015-04-01
3D modelling is a powerful tool that is experiencing increasing applications in data analysis and dissemination. At the same time the need of quantitative uncertainty evaluation is strongly requested in many aspects of the geological sciences and by the stakeholders. In many cases the starting point for 3D model building is the interpretation of seismic profiles that provide indirect information about the geology of the subsurface in the domain of time. The most problematic step in the 3D modelling construction is the conversion of the horizons and faults interpreted in time domain to the depth domain. In this step the dominant variable that could lead to significantly different results is the velocity. The knowledge of the subsurface velocities is related mainly to punctual data (sonic logs) that are often sparsely distributed in the areas covered by the seismic interpretation. The extrapolation of velocity information to wide extended horizons is thus a critical step to obtain a 3D model in depth that can be used for predictive purpose. In the EU-funded GeoMol Project, the availability of a dense network of seismic lines (confidentially provided by ENI S.p.A.) in the Central Po Plain, is paired with the presence of 136 well logs, but few of them have sonic logs and in some portion of the area the wells are very widely spaced. The depth conversion of the 3D model in time domain has been performed testing different strategies for the use and the interpolation of velocity data. The final model has been obtained using a 4 layer cake 3D instantaneous velocity model that considers both the initial velocity (v0) in every reference horizon and the gradient of velocity variation with depth (k). Using this method it is possible to consider the geological constraint given by the geometries of the horizons and the geo-statistical approach to the interpolation of velocities and gradient. Here we present an experiment based on the use of set of pseudo-wells obtained from the stack velocities available inside the area, interpolated using the kriging geo-statistical method. The stack velocities are intersected with the position of the horizons in time domain and from this information we build a pseudo-well to calculate the initial velocity and the gradient of increase (or decrease) of velocity with depth inside the considered rock volume. The experiment is aimed to obtain estimation and a representation of the uncertainty related to the geo-statistical interpolation of velocity data in a 3D model and to have an independent control of the final results using the well markers available inside the test area as constraints. The project GeoMol is co-funded by the Alpine Space Program as part of the European Territorial Cooperation 2007-2013. The project integrates partners from Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland and runs from September 2012 to June 2015. Further information on www.geomol.eu
1-D COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF A MOTIVE NOZZLE FOR THE R744
TWO-PHASE EJECTOR
2010-01-01
The paper presents the results of a theoretical analysis performed for a motive nozzle of a two-phase R744 ejector at steady-state conditions. The model takes into consideration one-dimensional flow of real fluid through the converging-diverging nozzle. The proposed approach allows the determination of one- dimensional distributions of pressure, velocity and density. The simulated profiles take account of local values of
Coupling superposed 1D and 2D shallow-water models: Source terms in finite volume schemes
E. D. Fernández-Nieto; J. Marin; J. Monnier
2010-01-01
We study the superposition of 1D and 2D shallow-water equations with non-flat topographies, in the context of river-flood modeling. Since we superpose both models in the bi-dimensional areas, we focus on the definition of the coupling term required in the 1D equations. Using explicit finite volume schemes, we propose a definition of the discrete coupling term leading to schemes globally
Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Fan, Jiwen; Luo, Tao
2014-10-01
Measurement of ice number concentration in clouds is important but still challenging. Stratiform mixed-phase clouds (SMCs) provide a simple scenario for retrieving ice number concentration from remote sensing measurements. The simple ice generation and growth pattern in SMCs offers opportunities to use cloud radar reflectivity (Ze) measurements and other cloud properties to infer ice number concentration quantitatively. To understand the strong temperature dependency of ice habit and growth rate quantitatively, we develop a 1-D ice growth model to calculate the ice diffusional growth along its falling trajectory in SMCs. The radar reflectivity and fall velocity profiles of ice crystals calculated from the 1-D ice growth model are evaluated with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) ground-based high vertical resolution radar measurements. Combining Ze measurements and 1-D ice growth model simulations, we develop a method to retrieve the ice number concentrations in SMCs at given cloud top temperature (CTT) and liquid water path (LWP). The retrieved ice concentrations in SMCs are evaluated with in situ measurements and with a three-dimensional cloud-resolving model simulation with a bin microphysical scheme. These comparisons show that the retrieved ice number concentrations are within an uncertainty of a factor of 2, statistically.
AM1/d-CB1: A Semiempirical Model for QM/MM Simulations of Chemical Glycobiology Systems
Govender, Krishna; Gao, Jiali; Naidoo, Kevin J.
2015-01-01
A semiempirical method based on the AM1/d Hamiltonian is introduced to model chemical glycobiological systems. We included in the parameter training set glycans and the chemical environment often found about them in glycoenzymes. Starting with RM1 and AM1/d-PhoT models we optimized H, C, N, O, and P atomic parameters targeting the best performing molecular properties that contribute to enzyme catalyzed glycan reaction mechanisms. The training set comprising glycans, amino acids, phosphates and small organic model systems was used to derive parameters that reproduce experimental data or high-level density functional results for carbohydrate, phosphate and amino acid heats of formation, amino acid proton affinities, amino acid and monosaccharide dipole moments, amino acid ionization potentials, water-phosphate interaction energies, and carbohydrate ring pucker relaxation times. The result is the AM1/d-Chemical Biology 1 or AM1/d-CB1 model that is considerably more accurate than existing NDDO methods modeling carbohydrates and the amino acids often present in the catalytic domains of glycoenzymes as well as the binding sites of lectins. Moreover, AM1/d-CB1 computed proton affinities, dipole moments, ionization potentials and heats of formation for transition state puckered carbohydrate ring conformations, observed along glycoenzyme catalyzed reaction paths, are close to values computed using DFT M06-2X. AM1/d-CB1 provides a platform from which to accurately model reactions important in chemical glycobiology.
Pairwise velocities in the Halo Model: Luminosity and Scale Dependence
Anze Slosar; Uros Seljak; Argyro Tasitsiomi
2005-12-20
We investigate the properties of the pairwise velocity dispersion as a function of galaxy luminosity in the context of a halo model. We derive the distribution of velocities of pairs at a given separation taking into account both one-halo and two-halo contributions. We show that pairwise velocity distribution in real space is a complicated mixture of host-satellite, satellite-satellite and two-halo pairs. The peak value is reached at around 1$h^{-1}$Mpc and does not reflect the velocity dispersion of a typical halo hosting these galaxies, but is instead dominated by the satellite-satellite pairs in high mass clusters. This is true even for cross-correlations between bins separated in luminosity. As a consequence the velocity dispersion at a given separation can decrease with luminosity, even if the underlying typical halo host mass is increasing, in agreement with recent observations. We compare our findings to numerical simulations and find a good agreement. Numerical simulations also suggest a luminosity dependent velocity bias, which depends on the subhalo mass. We develop models of the auto- and cross-correlation function of luminosity subsamples of galaxies in the observable $r_\\proj - \\pi$ space and calculate the inferred velocity dispersion as a function of wave vector if dispersion model is fit to the redshift space power spectrum. We find that so derived pairwise velocity dispersion also exhibits a bump at $k\\sim 1 h/{\\rm Mpc}$.
Julia, J; Nyblade, A; Hansen, S; Rodgers, A; Matzel, E
2009-07-06
In this project, we are developing models of lithospheric structure for a wide variety of tectonic regions throughout Eurasia and the Middle East by regionalizing 1D velocity models obtained by jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities. We expect the regionalized velocity models will improve our ability to predict travel-times for local and regional phases, such as Pg, Pn, Sn and Lg, as well as travel-times for body-waves at upper mantle triplication distances in both seismic and aseismic regions of Eurasia and the Middle East. We anticipate the models will help inform and strengthen ongoing and future efforts within the NNSA labs to develop 3D velocity models for Eurasia and the Middle East, and will assist in obtaining model-based predictions where no empirical data are available and for improving locations from sparse networks using kriging. The codes needed to conduct the joint inversion of P-wave receiver functions (PRFs), S-wave receiver functions (SRFs), and dispersion velocities have already been assembled as part of ongoing research on lithospheric structure in Africa. The methodology has been tested with synthetic 'data' and case studies have been investigated with data collected at an open broadband stations in South Africa. PRFs constrain the size and S-P travel-time of seismic discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle, SRFs constrain the size and P-S travel-time of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and dispersion velocities constrain average S-wave velocity within frequency-dependent depth-ranges. Preliminary results show that the combination yields integrated 1D velocity models local to the recording station, where the discontinuities constrained by the receiver functions are superimposed to a background velocity model constrained by the dispersion velocities. In our first year of this project we will (i) generate 1D velocity models for open broadband seismic stations in the western half of the study area (Eurasia and the Middle East) and (ii) identify well located seismic events with event-station paths isolated to individual tectonic provinces within the study area and collect broadband waveforms and source parameters for the selected events. The 1D models obtained from the joint inversion will then be combined with published geologic terrain maps to produce regionalized models for distinctive tectonic areas within the study area, and the models will be validated through full waveform modeling of well-located seismic events recorded at local and regional distances.
Modeling Low Velocity Impacts: Predicting Crater Depth on Pluto
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bray, V. J.; Schenk, P.
2014-12-01
The New Horizons mission is due to fly-by the Pluto system in Summer 2015 and provides the first opportunity to image the Pluto surface in detail, allowing both the appearance and number of its crater population to be studied for the first time. Bray and Schenk (2014) combined previous cratering studies and numerical modeling of the impact process to predict crater morphology on Pluto based on current understanding of Pluto's composition, structure and surrounding impactor population. Predictions of how the low mean impact velocity (~2km/s) of the Pluto system will influence crater formation is a complex issue. Observations of secondary cratering (low velocity, high angle) and laboratory experiments of impact at low velocity are at odds regarding how velocity controls depth-diameter ratios: Observations of secondary craters show that these low velocity craters are shallower than would be expected for a hyper-velocity primary. Conversely, gas gun work has shown that relative crater depth increases as impact velocity decreases. We have investigated the influence of impact velocity further with iSALE hydrocode modeling of comet impact into Pluto. With increasing impact velocity, a projectile will produce wider and deeper craters. The depth-diameter ratio (d/D) however has a more complex progression with increasing impact velocity: impacts faster than 2km/s lead to smaller d/D ratios as impact velocity increases, in agreement with gas-gun studies. However, decreasing impact velocity from 2km/s to 300 m/s produced smaller d/D as impact velocity was decreased. This suggests that on Pluto the deepest craters would be produced by ~ 2km/s impacts, with shallower craters produced by velocities either side of this critical point. Further simulations to investigate whether this effect is connected to the sound speed of the target material are ongoing. The complex relationship between impact velocity and crater depth for impacts occurring between 300m/s and 10 km/s suggests that there might be a larger range of 'pristine' crater depths on Pluto than on bodies with higher mean impact velocity. This might affect our ability to define a pristine crater depth as a starting point for crater infill and relaxation studies.
Modeling non-Fickian dispersion by use of the velocity PDF on the pore scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kooshapur, Sheema; Manhart, Michael
2015-04-01
For obtaining a description of reactive flows in porous media, apart from the geometrical complications of resolving the velocities and scalar values, one has to deal with the additional reactive term in the transport equation. An accurate description of the interface of the reacting fluids - which is strongly influenced by dispersion- is essential for resolving this term. In REV-based simulations the reactive term needs to be modeled taking sub-REV fluctuations and possibly non-Fickian dispersion into account. Non-Fickian dispersion has been observed in strongly heterogeneous domains and in early phases of transport. A fully resolved solution of the Navier-Stokes and transport equations which yields a detailed description of the flow properties, dispersion, interfaces of fluids, etc. however, is not practical for domains containing more than a few thousand grains, due to the huge computational effort required. Through Probability Density Function (PDF) based methods, the velocity distribution in the pore space can facilitate the understanding and modelling of non-Fickian dispersion [1,2]. Our aim is to model the transition between non-Fickian and Fickian dispersion in a random sphere pack within the framework of a PDF based transport model proposed by Meyer and Tchelepi [1,3]. They proposed a stochastic transport model where velocity components of tracer particles are represented by a continuous Markovian stochastic process. In addition to [3], we consider the effects of pore scale diffusion and formulate a different stochastic equation for the increments in velocity space from first principles. To assess the terms in this equation, we performed Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) for solving the Navier-Stokes equation on a random sphere pack. We extracted the PDFs and statistical moments (up to the 4th moment) of the stream-wise velocity, u, and first and second order velocity derivatives both independent and conditioned on velocity. By using this data and combining the Taylor expansion of velocity increments, du, and the Langevin equation for point particles we obtained the components of velocity fluxes which point to a drift and diffusion behavior in the velocity space. Thus a partial differential equation for the velocity PDF has been formulated that constitutes an advection-diffusion equation in velocity space (a Fokker-Planck equation) in which the drift and diffusion coefficients are obtained using the velocity conditioned statistics of the derivatives of the pore scale velocity field. This has been solved by both a Random Walk (RW) model and a Finite Volume method. We conclude that both, these methods are able to simulate the velocity PDF obtained by DNS. References [1] D. W. Meyer, P. Jenny, H.A.Tschelepi, A joint velocity-concentration PDF method for traqcer flow in heterogeneous porous media, Water Resour.Res., 46, W12522, (2010). [2] Nowak, W., R. L. Schwede, O. A. Cirpka, and I. Neuweiler, Probability density functions of hydraulic head and velocity in three-dimensional heterogeneous porous media, Water Resour.Res., 44, W08452, (2008) [3] D. W. Meyer, H. A. Tchelepi, Particle-based transport model with Markovian velocity processes for tracer dispersion in highly heterogeneous porous media, Water Resour. Res., 46, W11552, (2010)
Verification and comparison of four numerical schemes for a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model
Wang, Xiaofei; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present four numerical schemes for a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model. In the case with a small nonlinearity (small amplitude of wave), asymptotic analysis predicts several behaviours of the wave: propagation in a uniform tube, attenuation of the amplitude due to the skin friction, diffusion due to the viscosity of the wall, and reflection and transmission at a branching point. These predictions are compared very favorably with all of the numerical solutions. The schemes are also tested in case with a larger nonlinearity. Finally, we apply all of the schemes on a relatively realistic arterial system with 55 arteries. The schemes are compared in four aspects: the spatial and temporal convergence speed, the ability to capture shock phenomena, the computation speed and the complexity of the implementation. The suitable conditions for the application of the various schemes are discussed.
HELIOS-CR A 1-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code with inline atomic kinetics modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Macfarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. E.; Woodruff, P. R.
2006-05-01
HELIOS-CR is a user-oriented 1D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code to simulate the dynamic evolution of laser-produced plasmas and z-pinch plasmas. It includes an in-line collisional-radiative (CR) model for computing non-LTE atomic level populations at each time step of the hydrodynamics simulation. HELIOS-CR has been designed for ease of use, and is well-suited for experimentalists, as well as graduate and undergraduate student researchers. The energy equations employed include models for laser energy deposition, radiation from external sources, and high-current discharges. Radiative transport can be calculated using either a multi-frequency flux-limited diffusion model, or a multi-frequency, multi-angle short characteristics model. HELIOS-CR supports the use of SESAME equation of state (EOS) tables, PROPACEOS EOS/multi-group opacity data tables, and non-LTE plasma properties computed using the inline CR modeling. Time-, space-, and frequency-dependent results from HELIOS-CR calculations are readily displayed with the HydroPLOT graphics tool. In addition, the results of HELIOS simulations can be post-processed using the SPECT3D Imaging and Spectral Analysis Suite to generate images and spectra that can be directly compared with experimental measurements. The HELIOS-CR package runs on Windows, Linux, and Mac OSX platforms, and includes online documentation. We will discuss the major features of HELIOS-CR, and present example results from simulations.
Using 1-D Models to Interpret the Reflectance Anisotropy of 3-D Canopy Targets: Issues and Caveats
Jean-Luc Widlowski; Bernard Pinty; Thomas Lavergne; Michel Max Verstraete; Nadine Gobron
2005-01-01
This paper evaluates 1) to what extent one-dimensional (1-D) models can be used to represent the magnitude and directionality of the surface reflectance field of heterogeneous canopy targets at different spatial resolutions, and 2) whether this usage results in significant biases in the estimation of the corresponding state variables. It will be seen that when both the 1-D and three-dimensional
Mixture Models for Estimating Maximum Blood Flow Velocity
Marzban, Caren
. Here, two generalizations are examined: 1) skewed gaussian and 2) non- gaussian mixture models. Both ultrasound data. The method was based on a gaussian mixture model for the distribution of blood flow. Mixture" blood flow velocity. But gaussian mixture models are restric- tive in that the distribution of blood
Testing the accuracy of a 1-D volcanic plume model in estimating mass eruption rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mastin, Larry G.
2014-03-01
During volcanic eruptions, empirical relationships are used to estimate mass eruption rate from plume height. Although simple, such relationships can be inaccurate and can underestimate rates in windy conditions. One-dimensional plume models can incorporate atmospheric conditions and give potentially more accurate estimates. Here I present a 1-D model for plumes in crosswind and simulate 25 historical eruptions where plume height Hobs was well observed and mass eruption rate Mobs could be calculated from mapped deposit mass and observed duration. The simulations considered wind, temperature, and phase changes of water. Atmospheric conditions were obtained from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis 2.5° model. Simulations calculate the minimum, maximum, and average values (Mmin, Mmax, and Mavg) that fit the plume height. Eruption rates were also estimated from the empirical formula Mempir = 140Hobs4.14 (Mempir is in kilogram per second, Hobs is in kilometer). For these eruptions, the standard error of the residual in log space is about 0.53 for Mavg and 0.50 for Mempir. Thus, for this data set, the model is slightly less accurate at predicting Mobs than the empirical curve. The inability of this model to improve eruption rate estimates may lie in the limited accuracy of even well-observed plume heights, inaccurate model formulation, or the fact that most eruptions examined were not highly influenced by wind. For the low, wind-blown plume of 14-18 April 2010 at Eyjafjallajökull, where an accurate plume height time series is available, modeled rates do agree better with Mobs than Mempir.
Epstein, Sally; Willemet, Marie; Chowienczyk, Phil J; Alastruey, Jordi
2015-07-01
Patient-specific one-dimensional (1D) blood flow modeling requires estimating model parameters from available clinical data, ideally acquired noninvasively. The larger the number of arterial segments in a distributed 1D model, the greater the number of input parameters that need to be estimated. We investigated the effect of a reduction in the number of arterial segments in a given distributed 1D model on the shape of the simulated pressure and flow waveforms. This is achieved by systematically lumping peripheral 1D model branches into windkessel models that preserve the net resistance and total compliance of the original model. We applied our methodology to a model of the 55 larger systemic arteries in the human and to an extended 67-artery model that contains the digital arteries that perfuse the fingers. Results show good agreement in the shape of the aortic and digital waveforms between the original 55-artery (67-artery) and reduced 21-artery (37-artery) models. Reducing the number of segments also enables us to investigate the effect of arterial network topology (and hence reflection sites) on the shape of waveforms. Results show that wave reflections in the thoracic aorta and renal arteries play an important role in shaping the aortic pressure and flow waves and in generating the second peak of the digital pressure and flow waves. Our novel methodology is important to simplify the computational domain while maintaining the precision of the numerical predictions and to assess the effect of wave reflections. PMID:25888513
An upper-mantle S-wave velocity model for Northern Europe from Love and Rayleigh group velocities
Christian Weidle; Valérie Maupin
2008-01-01
A model of upper-mantle S-wave velocity and transverse anisotropy beneath northwestern Europe is presented, based on regional surface wave observations. Group velocities for both Love and Rayleigh surface waves are measured on waveform data from international and regional data archives (including temporary deployments) and then inverted for group velocity maps, using a method accounting for Fresnel zone sensitivity. The group
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitten, Daniel; Hartl, Darren
2014-03-01
Shape memory alloy constitutive models have been shown to accurately predict 1-D and 3-D material response under general thermomechanical loading. As with any constitutive model, however, the degree to which simulation results match experimental data is dependent on the accurate calibration of model parameters. This work presents a general framework for the identi cation of SMA material parameters using numerical optimization methods and experimental results that include both 1-D data (i.e., stress-strain and strain-temperature line plots) as well as 2-D digital image correlation (DIC) strain eld data. The optimization framework is verified using 1-D and 3-D nite-element-based simulated results as pseudo-experimental data. The study shows that the proposed optimization methods can identify SMA parameters in an automated fashion using data taken from multiple types of experiment, identifying parameters that t very closely to the pseudo-experimental data.
High Velocity Rain: The Terminal Velocity of Model of Galactic Infall
Robert A. Benjamin; Laura Danly
1996-12-18
A model is proposed for determining the distances to falling interstellar clouds in the galactic halo by measuring the cloud velocity and column density and assuming a model for the vertical density distribution of the Galactic interstellar medium. It is shown that falling clouds with $N(H I) \\sim 0.4 kpc$ one or more of the following occurs: (1) the neutral fraction of the cloud decreases to $\\sim 31 \\pm 14%$, (2) the density drops off faster than characterized by Reynolds, or (3) there is a systematic decrease in drag coefficient with increasing z.
1D and 2D urban dam-break flood modelling in Istanbul, Turkey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozdemir, Hasan; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Döker, Fatih
2014-05-01
Urban flood events are increasing in frequency and severity as a consequence of several factors such as reduced infiltration capacities due to continued watershed development, increased construction in flood prone areas due to population growth, the possible amplification of rainfall intensity due to climate change, sea level rise which threatens coastal development, and poorly engineered flood control infrastructure (Gallegos et al., 2009). These factors will contribute to increased urban flood risk in the future, and as a result improved modelling of urban flooding according to different causative factor has been identified as a research priority (Gallegos et al., 2009; Ozdemir et al. 2013). The flooding disaster caused by dam failures is always a threat against lives and properties especially in urban environments. Therefore, the prediction of dynamics of dam-break flows plays a vital role in the forecast and evaluation of flooding disasters, and is of long-standing interest for researchers. Flooding occurred on the Ayamama River (Istanbul-Turkey) due to high intensity rainfall and dam-breaching of Ata Pond in 9th September 2009. The settlements, industrial areas and transportation system on the floodplain of the Ayamama River were inundated. Therefore, 32 people were dead and millions of Euros economic loses were occurred. The aim of this study is 1 and 2-Dimensional flood modelling of the Ata Pond breaching using HEC-RAS and LISFLOOD-Roe models and comparison of the model results using the real flood extent. The HEC-RAS model solves the full 1-D Saint Venant equations for unsteady open channel flow whereas LISFLOOD-Roe is the 2-D shallow water model which calculates the flow according to the complete Saint Venant formulation (Villanueva and Wright, 2006; Neal et al., 2011). The model consists a shock capturing Godunov-type scheme based on the Roe Riemann solver (Roe, 1981). 3 m high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM), natural characteristics of the pond and its breaching such as depth, wide, length, volume and breaching shape and daily total rainfall data were used in the models. The simulated flooding in the both models were compared with the real flood extent which gathered from photos taken after the flood event, high satellite images acquired after 20 days from the flood event, and field works. The results show that LISFLOOD-Roe hydraulic model gives more than 80% fit to the extent of real flood event. Also both modelling results show that the embankment breaching of the Ata Pond directly affected the flood magnitude and intensity on the area. This study reveals that modelling of the probable flooding in urban areas is necessary and very important in urban planning. References Gallegos, H. A., Schubert, J. E., and Sanders, B. F.: Two dimensional, high-resolution modeling of urban dam-break flooding: A case study of Baldwin Hills California, Adv. Water Resour., 32, 1323-1335, 2009. Neal, J., Villanueva, I., Wright, N., Willis, T., Fewtrell, T. and Bates, P.: How mush physical complexity is needed to model flood inundation? Hydrological Processes, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8339. Ozdemir H., Sampson C., De Almeida G., Bates P.D.: Evaluating scale and roughness effects in urban flood modelling using terrestrial LiDAR data, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol.17, pp.4015-4030, 2013. Roe P.: Approximate Riemann solvers, parameter vectors, and difference-schemes. Journal of Computational Physics 43(2): 357-372, 1981. Villanueva I, Wright NG.: Linking Riemann and storage cell models for flood prediction. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Journal of Water Management 159: 27-33, 2006.
Comparison of 1D and 2D CSR Models with Application to the FERMI@ELETTRA Bunch Compressors
Bassi, G.; Ellison, J.A.; Heinemann, K.
2011-03-28
We compare our 2D mean field (Vlasov-Maxwell) treatment of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects with 1D approximations of the CSR force which are commonly implemented in CSR codes. In our model we track particles in 4D phase space and calculate 2D forces [1]. The major cost in our calculation is the computation of the 2D force. To speed up the computation and improve 1D models we also investigate approximations to our exact 2D force. As an application, we present numerical results for the Fermi{at}Elettra first bunch compressor with the configuration described in [1].
Testing the Early Mars H2-CO2 Greenhouse Hypothesis with a 1-D Photochemical Model
Batalha, Natasha; Ramirez, Ramses; Kasting, James
2015-01-01
A recent study by Ramirez et al. (2014) demonstrated that an atmosphere with 1.3-4 bar of CO2 and H2O, in addition to 5-20% H2, could have raised the mean annual and global surface temperature of early Mars above the freezing point of water. Such warm temperatures appear necessary to generate the rainfall (or snowfall) amounts required to carve the ancient martian valleys. Here, we use our best estimates for early martian outgassing rates, along with a 1-D photochemical model, to assess the conversion efficiency of CO, CH4, and H2S to CO2, SO2, and H2. Our outgassing estimates assume that Mars was actively recycling volatiles between its crust and interior, as Earth does today. H2 production from serpentinization and deposition of banded iron-formations is also considered. Under these assumptions, maintaining an H2 concentration of ~1-2% by volume is achievable, but reaching 5% H2 requires additional H2 sources or a slowing of the hydrogen escape rate below the diffusion limit. If the early martian atmosphere...
Open boundary conditions for the Diffuse Interface Model in 1-D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desmarais, J. L.; Kuerten, J. G. M.
2014-04-01
New techniques are developed for solving multi-phase flows in unbounded domains using the Diffuse Interface Model in 1-D. They extend two open boundary conditions originally designed for the Navier-Stokes equations. The non-dimensional formulation of the DIM generalizes the approach to any fluid. The equations support a steady state whose analytical approximation close to the critical point depends only on temperature. This feature enables the use of detectors at the boundaries switching between conventional boundary conditions in bulk phases and a multi-phase strategy in interfacial regions. Moreover, the latter takes advantage of the steady state approximation to minimize the interface-boundary interactions. The techniques are applied to fluids experiencing a phase transition and where the interface between the phases travels through one of the boundaries. When the interface crossing the boundary is fully developed, the technique greatly improves results relative to cases where conventional boundary conditions can be used. Limitations appear when the interface crossing the boundary is not a stable equilibrium between the two phases: the terms responsible for creating the true balance between the phases perturb the interior solution. Both boundary conditions present good numerical stability properties: the error remains bounded when the initial conditions or the far field values are perturbed. For the PML, the influence of its main parameters on the global error is investigated to make a compromise between computational costs and maximum error. The approach can be extended to multiple spatial dimensions.
ABSTRACTION OF INFORMATION FROM 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL PORFLOW MODELS INTO A 1-D GOLDSIM MODEL - 11404
Taylor, G.; Hiergesell, R.
2010-11-16
The Savannah River National Laboratory has developed a 'hybrid' approach to Performance Assessment modeling which has been used for a number of Performance Assessments. This hybrid approach uses a multi-dimensional modeling platform (PorFlow) to develop deterministic flow fields and perform contaminant transport. The GoldSim modeling platform is used to develop the Sensitivity and Uncertainty analyses. Because these codes are performing complementary tasks, it is incumbent upon them that for the deterministic cases they produce very similar results. This paper discusses two very different waste forms, one with no engineered barriers and one with engineered barriers, each of which present different challenges to the abstraction of data. The hybrid approach to Performance Assessment modeling used at the SRNL uses a 2-D unsaturated zone (UZ) and a 3-D saturated zone (SZ) model in the PorFlow modeling platform. The UZ model consists of the waste zone and the unsaturated zoned between the waste zone and the water table. The SZ model consists of source cells beneath the waste form to the points of interest. Both models contain 'buffer' cells so that modeling domain boundaries do not adversely affect the calculation. The information pipeline between the two models is the contaminant flux. The domain contaminant flux, typically in units of moles (or Curies) per year from the UZ model is used as a boundary condition for the source cells in the SZ. The GoldSim modeling component of the hybrid approach is an integrated UZ-SZ model. The model is a 1-D representation of the SZ, typically 1-D in the UZ, but as discussed below, depending on the waste form being analyzed may contain pseudo-2-D elements. A waste form at the Savannah River Site (SRS) which has no engineered barriers is commonly referred to as a slit trench. A slit trench, as its name implies, is an unlined trench, typically 6 m deep, 6 m wide, and 200 m long. Low level waste consisting of soil, debris, rubble, wood, etc. is disposed within the trench which is then covered with soil and a cap. The filled trench resembles the surrounding soil, albeit with a higher porosity. As a result, the flow field through the trench is essentially 1-dimensional. This dimensionality makes the abstraction of information from this waste form fairly simple. Engineered waste forms present challenges not seen in the slit trench because of their higher dimensionality. Flow fields must conform to the barriers and are therefore subject to changes in direction. This paper will examine one case and show how this multidimensional flow field can be abstracted into a 1-dimensional flow field while retaining characteristics important to the transport of radioactive contaminants. One complication not addressed by the two preceding examples is that of multiple sources. This presents quite a challenge to the benchmarking exercise, but a fairly robust method has been developed to deal with it. While the PorFlow analyses can treat all sources as independent in space, this is not possible with a 1-D model. This problem has been addressed by constructing multiple 1-D models of the waste forms and using plume overlaps at the assessment points to address the multiple sources which can contribute to a distinct assessment point.
Is flow velocity a significant parameter in flood damage modelling?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreibich, H.; Piroth, K.; Seifert, I.; Maiwald, H.; Kunert, U.; Schwarz, J.; Merz, B.; Thieken, A. H.
2009-10-01
Flow velocity is generally presumed to influence flood damage. However, this influence is hardly quantified and virtually no damage models take it into account. Therefore, the influences of flow velocity, water depth and combinations of these two impact parameters on various types of flood damage were investigated in five communities affected by the Elbe catchment flood in Germany in 2002. 2-D hydraulic models with high to medium spatial resolutions were used to calculate the impact parameters at the sites in which damage occurred. A significant influence of flow velocity on structural damage, particularly on roads, could be shown in contrast to a minor influence on monetary losses and business interruption. Forecasts of structural damage to road infrastructure should be based on flow velocity alone. The energy head is suggested as a suitable flood impact parameter for reliable forecasting of structural damage to residential buildings above a critical impact level of 2 m of energy head or water depth. However, general consideration of flow velocity in flood damage modelling, particularly for estimating monetary loss, cannot be recommended.
A 1-D radiative conductive model to study the SOIR/VEx thermal profiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahieux, Arnaud; Erwin, Justin T.; Chamberlain, Sarah; Robert, Séverine; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Wilquet, Valérie; Thomas, Ian; Yelle, Roger V.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup
2015-04-01
SOIR is an infrared spectrometer on board Venus Express that probes the Venus terminator region since 2006. The measurements are taken on the morning and evening sides of the terminator, covering all latitudes from the North Pole to the South Pole. Its wavelength range - 2.2 to 4.3 ?m - allows a detailed chemical inventory of the Venus atmosphere [1-5], such as CO2, CO, H2O, HCl, HF, SO2 and aerosols. CO2 is detected from 70 km up to 165 km, CO from 70 km to 140 km, and the minor species typically below 110 km down to 70 km. Number density profiles of these species are computed from the measured spectra. Temperature profiles are obtained while computing the spectral inversion of the CO2 spectra combined with the hydrostatic law [6]. These temperature measurements show a striking permanent temperature minimum (at 125 km) and a weaker temperature maximum (over 100-115 km). The time variability of the CO2 density profiles spans over two orders of magnitude, and a clear trend is seen with latitude. The temperature variations are also important, of the order of 35 K for a given pressure level, but the latitude variation are small. Miss-RT, a 1D radiative transfer model has been developed to reproduce the SOIR terminator profiles, derived from the Mars thermosphere code presented in [7]. This model has been expanded to better account for the CO2, CO, and O non-LTE radiative heating and cooling processes which have to be considered in the dense atmosphere of Venus. Radiative cooling by minor species detected by SOIR (e.g. HCl, SO2, and H2O) are found to be small in comparison to the 15 ?m CO2 cooling. Aerosol cooling in the 60-90km altitude range may be important to the thermal balance. There is a good agreement between the 1D model temperature profile and the mean SOIR temperature profile. Further we can suggest parameters that can be adjusted to improve the agreement between the model and measurements. The remaining differences can be attributed to the atmosphere dynamics at the terminator. 1. Bertaux, J.L., et al., A warm layer in Venus' cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO. Nature, 2007. 450(29 November): p. 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974. 2. Vandaele, A.C., et al., Carbon monoxide short term variability observed on Venus with SOIR/VEX. Planet. Space Sci., 2014. (in press). 3. Mahieux, A., et al., Venus mesospheric sulfur dioxide measurement retrieved from SOIR on board Venus Express. Planet. Space Sci., 2014. (in press). 4. Mahieux, A., et al., Hydrogen Halides measurements in the Venus upper atmosphere retrieved from SOIR on board Venus Express. Planet. Space Sci., 2014. (in press). 5. Wilquet, V., et al., Optical extinction due to aerosols in the upper haze of Venus: Four years of SOIR/VEX observations from 2006 to 2010. Icarus, 2012. 217(2): p. 875-881. 6. Mahieux, A., et al., Update of the Venus density and temperature profiles at high altitude measured by SOIR on board Venus Express. Planet. Space Sci., 2014. (submitted). 7. Yelle, R., et al., Perturbation of the Mars Atmosphere by the Near-Collision with Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring). Icarus, 2014. 237: p. 202-210.
Finite-Source Inversion for the 2004 Parkfield Earthquake using 3D Velocity Model Green's Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, A.; Dreger, D.; Larsen, S.
2008-12-01
We determine finite fault models of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake using 3D Green's functions. Because of the dense station coverage and detailed 3D velocity structure model in this region, this earthquake provides an excellent opportunity to examine how the 3D velocity structure affects the finite fault inverse solutions. Various studies (e.g. Michaels and Eberhart-Phillips, 1991; Thurber et al., 2006) indicate that there is a pronounced velocity contrast across the San Andreas Fault along the Parkfield segment. Also the fault zone at Parkfield is wide as evidenced by mapped surface faults and where surface slip and creep occurred in the 1966 and the 2004 Parkfield earthquakes. For high resolution images of the rupture process"Ait is necessary to include the accurate 3D velocity structure for the finite source inversion. Liu and Aurchuleta (2004) performed finite fault inversions using both 1D and 3D Green's functions for 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake using the same source paramerization and data but different Green's functions and found that the models were quite different. This indicates that the choice of the velocity model significantly affects the waveform modeling at near-fault stations. In this study, we used the P-wave velocity model developed by Thurber et al (2006) to construct the 3D Green's functions. P-wave speeds are converted to S-wave speeds and density using by the empirical relationships of Brocher (2005). Using a finite difference method, E3D (Larsen and Schultz, 1995), we computed the 3D Green's functions numerically by inserting body forces at each station. Using reciprocity, these Green's functions are recombined to represent the ground motion at each station due to the slip on the fault plane. First we modeled the waveforms of small earthquakes to validate the 3D velocity model and the reciprocity of the Green"fs function. In the numerical tests we found that the 3D velocity model predicted the individual phases well at frequencies lower than 0.25 Hz but that the velocity model is fast at stations located very close to the fault. In this near-fault zone the model also underpredicts the amplitudes. This implies the need to include an additional low velocity zone in the fault zone to fit the data. For the finite fault modeling we use the same stations as in our previous study (Kim and Dreger 2008), and compare the results to investigate the effect of 3D Green's functions on kinematic source inversions. References: Brocher, T. M., (2005), Empirical relations between elastic wavespeeds and density in the Earth's crust, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 95, No. 6, 2081-2092. Eberhart-Phillips, D., and A.J. Michael, (1993), Three-dimensional velocity structure and seismicity in the Parkfield region, central California, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 15,737-15,758. Kim A., D. S. Dreger (2008), Rupture process of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake from near-fault seismic waveform and geodetic records, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B07308. Thurber, C., H. Zhang, F. Waldhauser, J. Hardebeck, A. Michaels, and D. Eberhart-Phillips (2006), Three- dimensional compressional wavespeed model, earthquake relocations, and focal mechanisms for the Parkfield, California, region, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 96, S38-S49. Larsen, S., and C. A. Schultz (1995), ELAS3D: 2D/3D elastic finite-difference wave propagation code, Technical Report No. UCRL-MA-121792, 19pp. Liu, P., and R. J. Archuleta (2004), A new nonlinear finite fault inversion with three-dimensional Green's functions: Application to the 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B02318.
Evaluation of six fracture models in high velocity perforation
X. Teng; T. Wierzbicki
2006-01-01
A systematic evaluation of six ductile fracture models is performed to identify the most suitable fracture criterion for high velocity perforation problems. Included in the paper are the Wilkins, the JohnsonCook, the maximum shear stress, the modified CockcroftLatham, the constant fracture strain, and the BaoWierzbicki fracture models. These six fracture models are implemented into ABAQUS\\/Explicit by means of a user
Three-dimensional seismic velocity model of the West Bohemia/Vogtland seismoactive region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
R?ek, Bohuslav; Horálek, Josef
2013-11-01
In this paper, we present a smooth 3-D seismic model WB2012 for the West Bohemia/Vogtland earthquake swarm region derived by means of seismic tomography. Inverted data were represented by a set of 2920 P-wave traveltimes from controlled shots fired in a framework of different experiments and a set of 11339 P- and S-wave arrival times from 661 local earthquakes between 1991 December and 2010 March. We used a standard tomographic approach for independent calculation of P- and S-wave velocity fields in a rectangular grid whose size was 1 km in all coordinates. The traveltimes and rays were calculated by a numerical solution of the eiconal equation. While locating seismic events, our new WB2012 model yielded arrival time residuals on average by 13 per cent lower and hypocentre depths by 0.95 km shallower compared to the locations of the foci in the standard 1-D vertically inhomogeneous isotropic velocity model of the West Bohemia swarm region WB2005. Further, we converted the P- and S-wave velocities to the bulk modulus K and Poisson's ratio ?. The bulk modulus (40-70 GPa) correlates acceptably with the tectonic and geological structure of the area. The anomalously low values of the Poisson's ratio (0.15) are typical for the most active focal zones of Nový Kostel and Lazy in West Bohemia.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Numerical modeling of shallow non-Newtonian flows: Part I. The 1D horizontal dam break problem´e Cassin, BP 7151, 97715 Saint-Denis cedex 09, France October 6, 2012 Abstract The dam break problem subject to the horizontal dam break problem. Keywords power-law fluid; dam break problem; shallow flows
Single-pulse 1D laser Raman scattering applied in a gas turbine model combustor at elevated pressure
L. Wehr; W. Meier; P. Kutne; C. Hassa
2007-01-01
A 1D laser Raman system for the simultaneous measurement of the major species concentrations, mixture fraction, and temperature in gas turbine-like flames is presented. The adaptation of the measuring technique to the test rig and the particular challenges of the measurements are described. The gas turbine model combustor was operated with natural gas and preheated air at pressures of 2
Oxidation mechanisms and kinetics of 1D-SiC/C/SiC composite materials; 2: Modeling
Filipuzzi, L.; Naslain, R. (Domaine Univ., Pessac (France). Lab. des Composites Thermostructuraux)
1994-02-01
A model, based on a simple axisymmetrical fiber/interphase/matrix assembly, is derived to depict the oxidation behavior of 1D-SiC/C/SiC composites within the temperature range 900--1300 C and for 10
An Electric Shock Model for Experiments on Critical Ionization Velocity
V. I. Badin
2001-01-01
To describe the generation of the electric field by a discontinuity of the Hall current, an equation of the third order was obtained by using the electric charge conservation and Ohm's laws. Solutions to this equation are used to model the electric impulses detected in experiments aimed to verify the Alfven hypothesis on the critical ionization velocity in the process
Analysis of optimal velocity model with explicit delay
Masako Bando; Katsuya Hasebe; Ken Nakanishi; Akihiro Nakayama
1998-01-01
We analyze the optimal velocity model (OVM) with explicit delay. The properties of congestion and the delay time of car motion are investigated by analytical and numerical methods. It is shown that the small explicit delay time has almost no effects. In the case of the large explicit delay time, a new phase of congestion pattern of OVM seems to
Velocity and concentration measurements in a model diesel engine
C. Arcoumanis; H. G. Green; J. H. Whitelaw
1985-01-01
Laser Doppler anemometry and Rayleigh scattering have been used to quantify the velocity and concentration fields after the start of injection in a model diesel engine motored at 200 rpm in the absence of compression. Fuel injection was simulated by a transient jet of vapour Freon-12 initiated at 40 degrees before top-dead-centre through a nozzle incorporated into the centre of
A Non Parametric Model for the Cosmic Velocity Field
E. Branchini; L. Teodoro; C. S. Frenk; I. Schmoldt; G. Efstathiou; S. D. M. White; W. Saunders; M. Rowan-Robinson; O. Keeble; H. Tadros; S. Maddox; S. Oliver; W. Sutherland
1999-02-03
We present a self consistent nonparametric model of the local cosmic velocity field based on the density distribution in the PSCz redshift survey of IRAS galaxies. The error analysis, carried out on mock PSCz catalogues constructed from N-body simulations, reveals uncertainties of ~70 km/sec. The denser sampling provided by the PSCz survey compared to previous IRAS galaxy surveys allows us to reconstruct the velocity field out to larger distances. The most striking feature of the model velocity field is a coherent large-scale streaming motion along a baseline connecting Perseus-Pisces, the Local Supercluster, the Great Attractor, and the Shapley Concentration. We find no evidence for back-infall onto the Great Attractor. Instead, material behind and around the Great Attractor in inferred to be streaming towards the Shapley Concentration The PSCz model velocities compare well with those predicted from the 1.2Jy redshift survey of IRAS galaxies and with those predicted from the distribution of Abell/ACO clusters, out to 140 Mpc/h. Comparison of the real-space density fields (or, alternatively, the peculiar velocity fields) inferred from the PSC$z$ and cluster catalogues gives a relative (linear) bias parameter between clusters and IRAS galaxies of 4.4 +/- 0.6. Finally, we compare the cumulative bulk flows predicted from the PSCz gravity field with those measured from the Mark III and SFI catalogues of peculiar velocities. A conservative estimate of beta=Omega**0.6/b, where b is the bias parameter for IRAS galaxies, gives beta =0.6 + 0.22 -0.15, in agreement with other recent determinations.
A new settling velocity model to describe secondary sedimentation.
Ramin, Elham; Wágner, Dorottya S; Yde, Lars; Binning, Philip J; Rasmussen, Michael R; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Plósz, Benedek Gy
2014-12-01
Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in biological wastewater treatment plants. The maximum permissible inflow to the plant depends on the efficiency of SSTs in separating and thickening the activated sludge. The flow conditions and solids distribution in SSTs can be predicted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. Despite extensive studies on the compression settling behaviour of activated sludge and the development of advanced settling velocity models for use in SST simulations, these models are not often used, due to the challenges associated with their calibration. In this study, we developed a new settling velocity model, including hindered, transient and compression settling, and showed that it can be calibrated to data from a simple, novel settling column experimental set-up using the Bayesian optimization method DREAM(ZS). In addition, correlations between the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model parameters and sludge concentration were identified with data from batch rheological experiments. A 2-D axisymmetric CFD model of a circular SST containing the new settling velocity and rheological model was validated with full-scale measurements. Finally, it was shown that the representation of compression settling in the CFD model can significantly influence the prediction of sludge distribution in the SSTs under dry- and wet-weather flow conditions. PMID:25243657
Modeling and comparative study of fluid velocities in heterogeneous rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hingerl, Ferdinand F.; Romanenko, Konstantin; Pini, Ronny; Balcom, Bruce; Benson, Sally
2013-04-01
Detailed knowledge of the distribution of effective porosity and fluid velocities in heterogeneous rock samples is crucial for understanding and predicting spatially resolved fluid residence times and kinetic reaction rates of fluid-rock interactions. The applicability of conventional MRI techniques to sedimentary rocks is limited by internal magnetic field gradients and short spin relaxation times. The approach developed at the UNB MRI Centre combines the 13-interval Alternating-Pulsed-Gradient Stimulated-Echo (APGSTE) scheme and three-dimensional Single Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement (SPRITE). These methods were designed to reduce the errors due to effects of background gradients and fast transverse relaxation. SPRITE is largely immune to time-evolution effects resulting from background gradients, paramagnetic impurities and chemical shift. Using these techniques quantitative 3D porosity maps as well as single-phase fluid velocity fields in sandstone core samples were measured. Using a new Magnetic Resonance Imaging technique developed at the MRI Centre at UNB, we created 3D maps of porosity distributions as well as single-phase fluid velocity distributions of sandstone rock samples. Then, we evaluated the applicability of the Kozeny-Carman relationship for modeling measured fluid velocity distributions in sandstones samples showing meso-scale heterogeneities using two different modeling approaches. The MRI maps were used as reference points for the modeling approaches. For the first modeling approach, we applied the Kozeny-Carman relationship to the porosity distributions and computed respective permeability maps, which in turn provided input for a CFD simulation - using the Stanford CFD code GPRS - to compute averaged velocity maps. The latter were then compared to the measured velocity maps. For the second approach, the measured velocity distributions were used as input for inversely computing permeabilities using the GPRS CFD code. The computed permeabilities were then correlated with the ones based on the porosity maps and the Kozeny-Carman relationship. The findings of the comparative modeling study are discussed and its potential impact on the modeling of fluid residence times and kinetic reaction rates of fluid-rock interactions in rocks containing meso-scale heterogeneities are reviewed.
A Non Parametric Model for the Cosmic Velocity Field
Branchini, E; Frenk, C S; Schmoldt, I M; Efstathiou, G P; White, S D M; Saunders, W J; Rowan-Robinson, M; Keeble, O; Tadros, H; Maddox, S J; Oliver, S; Sutherland, W
1999-01-01
We present a self consistent nonparametric model of the local cosmic velocity field based on the density distribution in the PSCz redshift survey of IRAS galaxies. The error analyisis, carried out on mock PSCz catalogues constructed from N-body simulations, reveals uncertainties of ~70 km/sec. The denser sampling provided by the PSCz survey compared to previous IRAS galaxy surveys allows us to reconstruct the velocity field out to larger distances. The most striking feature of the model velocity field is a coherent large-scale streaming motion along a baseline connecting Perseus-Pisces, the Local Supercluster, the Great Attractor, and the Shapley Concentration. We find no evidence for back-infall onto the Great Attractor. Instead, material behind and around the Great Attractor in inferred to be streaming towards the Shapley Concentration The PSCz model velocities compare well with those predicted from the 1.2Jy redshift survey of IRAS galaxies and with those predicted from the distribution of Abell/ACO cluste...
A 1-D modelling of climatic and chemical effects of greenhouse gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vupputuri, R. K. R.; Higuchi, K.; Hengeveld, H. G.
1995-09-01
A coupled 1-D time-dependent radiative-convective-photochemical diffusion model which extends from the surface to 60 km is used to investigate the potential impact of greenhouse trace gas emissions on long-term changes in global climate, atmospheric ozone and surface UV-B radiation, taking into accoont the influence of aerosol loading into the atmosphere from major volcanic eruptions, of thermal inertia of the upper mixed layer of the ocean and of other radiativephotochemical feedback mechanisms. Experiments are carried out under global and annual average insolation and cloudiness conditions. The transient calculations are made for three different growth scenarios for increase in trace gas concentrations. Scenario 1, which begins in 1850, uses the best estimate values for future trace gas concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-11, CFC-12 and tropospheric O3, based on current observational trends. Scenarios 2 and 3, which begin in 1990, assume lower and upper ranges, respectively, of observed growth rates to estimate future concentrations. The transient response of the model for Scenario 1 suggests that surface warming of the ocean mixed layer of about 1 K should have taken place between 1850 and 1990 due to a combined increase of atmospheric CO2 and other trace gases. For the three scenarios considered in this study, the cumulative surface warming induced by all major trace gases for the period 1850 to 2080 ranges from 2.7 K to 8.2 K with the best estimate value of 5 K. The results indicate that the direct and the indirect chemistry-climate interactions of non-CO2 trace gases contribute significantly to the cumulative surface warming (up to 65% by the year 2080). The thermal inertia of a mixed layer of the ocean is shown to have the effect of delaying equilibrium surface warming by almost three decades with an e-folding time of about 5 years. The volcanic aerosols which would result from major volcanic eruptions play a significant role by interrupting the long-term greenhouse surface warming trend and replacing it by a temporary cooling on a time scale of a decade or less. Furthermore, depending on the scenario used, a reduction in the net ozone column could result in an increase in the solar UV-B radiation at the surface by as much as 300% towards the end of 21st century.
Random Texture Defect Detection Using 1-D Hidden Markov Models Based on Local Binary Patterns
Hadi Hadizadeh; Shahriar Baradaran Shokouhi
2008-01-01
SUMMARY In this paper a novel method for the purpose of random texture defect detection using a collection of 1-D HMMs is presented. The sound textural content of a sample of training texture images is first en- coded by a compressed LBP histogram and then the local patterns of the input training textures are learned, in a multiscale framework, through
Empirical Performance Models for 3T1D Memories Kristen Lovin
Lee, Benjamin C.
by simulating memory array components separately based on their contribution to the worst-case critical path. We times of a 3T1D memory array with a median error of 7.39%. I. INTRODUCTION For decades, technology exploration by architects. To be widely adopted by architects and to be integrated into chip-level simulators
Analytic solutions for seismic travel time and ray path geometry through simple velocity models.
Ballard, Sanford
2007-12-01
The geometry of ray paths through realistic Earth models can be extremely complex due to the vertical and lateral heterogeneity of the velocity distribution within the models. Calculation of high fidelity ray paths and travel times through these models generally involves sophisticated algorithms that require significant assumptions and approximations. To test such algorithms it is desirable to have available analytic solutions for the geometry and travel time of rays through simpler velocity distributions against which the more complex algorithms can be compared. Also, in situations where computational performance requirements prohibit implementation of full 3D algorithms, it may be necessary to accept the accuracy limitations of analytic solutions in order to compute solutions that satisfy those requirements. Analytic solutions are described for the geometry and travel time of infinite frequency rays through radially symmetric 1D Earth models characterized by an inner sphere where the velocity distribution is given by the function V (r) = A-Br{sup 2}, optionally surrounded by some number of spherical shells of constant velocity. The mathematical basis of the calculations is described, sample calculations are presented, and results are compared to the Taup Toolkit of Crotwell et al. (1999). These solutions are useful for evaluating the fidelity of sophisticated 3D travel time calculators and in situations where performance requirements preclude the use of more computationally intensive calculators. It should be noted that most of the solutions presented are only quasi-analytic. Exact, closed form equations are derived but computation of solutions to specific problems generally require application of numerical integration or root finding techniques, which, while approximations, can be calculated to very high accuracy. Tolerances are set in the numerical algorithms such that computed travel time accuracies are better than 1 microsecond.
Intraglottal velocity and pressure measurements in a hemilarynx model.
Oren, Liran; Gutmark, Ephraim; Khosla, Sid
2015-02-01
Determining the mechanisms of self-sustained oscillation of the vocal folds requires characterization of the pressures produced by intraglottal aerodynamics. Because most of the intraglottal aerodynamic forces cannot be measured in a tissue model of the larynx, current understanding of vocal fold vibration mechanism is derived from mechanical, analytical, and computational models. Previous studies have computed intraglottal pressures from measured intraglottal velocity fields and intraglottal geometry; however, this technique for determining pressures is not yet validated. In this study, intraglottal pressure measurements taken in a hemilarynx model are compared with pressure values that are computed from simultaneous velocity measurements. The results showed that significant negative pressure formed near the superior aspect of the folds during closing, which agrees with previous measurements in other hemilarynx models. Intraglottal velocity measurements show that the flow near the superior aspect separates from the glottal wall during closing and may develop into a vortex, which further augments the magnitude of negative pressure. Intraglottal pressure distributions, computed by solving the pressure Poisson equation, showed good agreement with pressure measurements. The match between the pressure computations and its measurements validates the current technique, which was previously used to estimate intraglottal pressure distribution in a full larynx model. PMID:25698025
A. Hofzumahaus; B. L. Lefer; P. S. Monks; S. R. Hall; A. Kylling; B. Mayer; R. E. Shetter; W. Junkermann; A. Bais; J. G. Calvert; C. A. Cantrell; S. Madronich; G. D. Edwards; A. Kraus; M. Müller; B. Bohn; R. Schmitt; P. Johnston; R. McKenzie; G. J. Frost; E. Griffioen; M. Krol; T. Martin; G. Pfister; E. P. Röth; A. Ruggaber; W. H. Swartz; S. A. Lloyd; M. Van Weele
2004-01-01
The International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI) took place at Boulder, Colorado, from 15 to 19 June 1998 and offered the opportunity to test how well experimental techniques and theoretical models can determine the photolysis frequency of O3 ? O(1D) in the troposphere. Different techniques measured the downwelling 2? sr component of j(O1D) at the ground and were
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajendran, S.; Muruganandam, P.; Lakshmanan, M.
2010-04-01
We investigate the exact bright and dark solitary wave solutions of an effective 1D Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) by assuming that the interaction energy is much less than the kinetic energy in the transverse direction. In particular, following the earlier works in the literature Pérez-García et al. (2004) [50], Serkin et al. (2007) [51], Gurses (2007) [52] and Kundu (2009) [53], we point out that the effective 1D equation resulting from the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation can be transformed into the standard soliton (bright/dark) possessing, completely integrable 1D nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation by effecting a change of variables of the coordinates and the wave function. We consider both confining and expulsive harmonic trap potentials separately and treat the atomic scattering length, gain/loss term and trap frequency as the experimental control parameters by modulating them as a function of time. In the case when the trap frequency is kept constant, we show the existence of different kinds of soliton solutions, such as the periodic oscillating solitons, collapse and revival of condensate, snake-like solitons, stable solitons, soliton growth and decay and formation of two-soliton bound state, as the atomic scattering length and gain/loss term are varied. However, when the trap frequency is also modulated, we show the phenomena of collapse and revival of two-soliton like bound state formation of the condensate for double modulated periodic potential and bright and dark solitons for step-wise modulated potentials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harley, P.; Spence, S.; Early, J.; Filsinger, D.; Dietrich, M.
2013-12-01
Single-zone modelling is used to assess different collections of impeller 1D loss models. Three collections of loss models have been identified in literature, and the background to each of these collections is discussed. Each collection is evaluated using three modern automotive turbocharger style centrifugal compressors; comparisons of performance for each of the collections are made. An empirical data set taken from standard hot gas stand tests for each turbocharger is used as a baseline for comparison. Compressor range is predicted in this study; impeller diffusion ratio is shown to be a useful method of predicting compressor surge in 1D, and choke is predicted using basic compressible flow theory. The compressor designer can use this as a guide to identify the most compatible collection of losses for turbocharger compressor design applications. The analysis indicates the most appropriate collection for the design of automotive turbocharger centrifugal compressors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobrynina, Anna; Sankov, Vladimir; Chechelnitsky, Vladimir
2014-05-01
The deep profiles of quality factor were obtained using coda-waves of local strong and moderate earthquakes (epicentral distances up to 50 km) occurred within north-eastern flanc of the Baikal rift system during 2002-2009. We used two methods: 1 - the coda envelope method [Experimental.., 1981; Kopnichev, 1991] and 2 - the sliding window method (lapse time window 10-15 sec with a step of 5 sec). Depth of coda-wave penetration was determined according to Pulli's formulae [1984], the velocity of coda-wave is 3.55 km/s (equal to shear wave velocity). For analysis we used the Q values at frequency 1 Hz since for this frequency the attenuation field heterogeneity is most evident [Aptikaeva and Kopnichev, 1991]. In result Q-profiles for eleven local areas were obtained. The Q-values vary from 50 to 170 for different profiles and depths. Herewith quality factor changes nonuniformly - the alternation of layers with high and low Q-values is observed. This phenomenon can be explained by existing velocity discontinuity. In particular for all profiles this alternation is confined to the depth about 100 km. Analysis VP-anomalies obtained in result of 2D teleseismic tomography along Baikal rift system [Mordvinova, 2009] shows the existence discontinuity on depth about 100 km under most of Baikal rift system structures. Analysis of 1D profiles of shear wave velocities in the crust and upper mantle after inversion of receiver functions [Anan'in et al., 2009] also shows presence of these discontinuity dividing high and low velocity layers. The comparison of Q-values and shear wave velocities [Anan'in et al., 2009] shown that in high velocity layers quality factor is higher too and vice versa. Multilayer quality factor model for the lithosphere in north-eastern flanc of the Baikal rift system with the alternation of layers with high and low attenuation determined by us together with analogous data obtained by Yu.F. Kopnichev [1992] for south-western flanc of the rift system can be one of inferential evidences of passive rifting mechanism in studied area. The reported study was supported by RFBR (research project N12-05-31038-mol_a) and by grant of President of Russian Federation (research project N MK-1171.2014.5).
The peculiar velocity field in a quintessence model
Claudio Rubano; Mauro Sereno
2002-03-13
We investigate the evolution of matter density perturbations and some properties of the peculiar velocity field for a special class of exponential potentials in a scalar field model for quintessence, for which a general exact solution is known. The data from the 2-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) suggest a value of the today pressureless matter density Omega_M0 = 0.18 +- 0.05.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez Merodo, Jose Antonio; Battista Crosta, Giovanni; Secondi, Marco
2010-05-01
The Bindo-Cortenova landslide is a large, active slope failure located in the Italian Prealps close to the Lake of Cuomo. The unstable area covers 1.2 km2 and extends between 450 and 1200 m a.s.l. The landslide site is formed by the paleo-landslide material that consists of large to extremely large blocks of reddish sandstone and conglomerate (Verrucano Lombardo) immersed in a matrix of gravely sand, from coarse to fine. A first major landslide of about 80.000 m3 took place on 29 Novembre 2002, two days after a second landslide involved about 1 to 1.2 million m3 of debris covering a slope sector of about 85.000 m2 and causing important damages on properties. These failures coincide with a period of extraordinary heavy rainfall, 493 up to 875 mm of cumulative rainfall were measured in Novembre 2002 and the most intensive rainfall season is generally in May with the average monthly precipitation between 160 and 190 mm. Until today field observations show a close relation between ground movement and rainfall intensity. Monitoring and modeling are two important tools to predict the landslide behavior and prediction is necessary to guarantee the safety of this area. This work presents a simple 1D infinite slope model to reproduce slow landslides mobility directly from the known daily rainfall intensity. The model reproduces in a simple coupling way: rainfall infiltration, ground water changes and kinematic deformation. Concerning rainfall infiltration, changes in groundwater level have been taken directly proportional to the rainfall intensity and governed by a dissipation model of the excess pore-fluid through a simple consolidation equation. Concerning the kinematic deformation, the 1D infinite slope model assumes a pre-existing slip surface where the shear strength is at residual conditions and includes a viscoplastic behavior, the predicted movements are concentrated within a relatively narrow shear zone above which the sliding mass moves essentially as a rigid body. The time evolution of the computed ground water level has been compared to the recorded data given by a borehole. In turn, computed deformation evolution has been compared to the ground displacement data given by novel inSAR monitoring system. The main advantage of such a model lies in its relatively simple applicability, very few parameters are needed to reproduce qualitatively and "quantitatively" the recorded motion. The main drawback is that the computed solution depends strongly on the given input data, that means that very slight changes in an input parameter induce important changes in the computed solution.
Numerical Modeling of the Copper-Indium-Selenium (CIS) based Solar Cell Performance by AMPS1D
N. Amin; M. Tang; K. Sopian
2007-01-01
This paper analyzes the copper-indium-selenium (CIS) and copper-indium-gallium-selenium (CIGS) based solar cell performance by AMPS-1D numerical modeling. Various factors which affect the solar cell's performance are investigated, carefully referring to practical cells, to obtain the optimum parameters for the CIS and CIGS solar cells. Among the factors studied are thickness and bandgap energy of absorber layer, thickness of buffer layer
Sidorov, K. A.; Ovchinnikov, S. G., E-mail: sgo@iph.krasn.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Tikhonov, N. V. [Siberian Federal University (Russian Federation)] [Siberian Federal University (Russian Federation)
2013-02-15
It is shown that the canonical partition function in the 1D Hubbard model with U = {infinity} in the nearest neighbor approximation is determined by the product of canonical partition functions of spinons and holons. In this approximation, the concentration and temperature dependences of the free and internal energies, as well as of the chemical potential, entropy, and heat capacity, are calculated for electron concentrations of 0 {<=} n{sub e} < 1.
Sleipner CCS site: velocity and attenuation model from seismic tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossi, G.; Chadwick, R. A.; Williams, G. A.
2012-04-01
The results of the travel-time and frequency shift tomographic inversion of the seismic data from one of the high-resolution lines acquired in 2006 on the Sleipner CO2 geological storage site are here presented. The work has been performed within the European project CO2ReMoVe, to produce an accurate model in-depth, of both seismic velocities and attenuation, to constrain better the quantification studies of the project's partners. Tomographic techniques have the advantage of not assuming horizontal layering or uniform lateral velocities, and of enabling an easy comparison of models, even if resulting from seismic data acquired with different geometries, unavoidable in a time-lapse data set. Through an iterative process, the differences in travel-times between observed direct, reflected or refracted arrivals and the same, calculated on a discrete model, with a ray-tracing based on the Fermat's principle, are minimized. Other minimization procedures provide the reflector/refractor geometries in -depth. Analogously, in attenuation tomography, the minimization process takes into account the observed and calculated spectral-centroid frequency-shift, due to the loss of the highest frequency of the seismic wave, while crossing an attenuating medium. The result is a seismic quality factor (Q) model in-depth, and hence of the attenuation that is known to be more sensitive to subtle changes in physical properties than seismic velocity. The model is across the center of the CO2 plume, on the in-line 1838, and is constituted by nine layers, four resulting by a preliminary analysis of the pre-injection 1994 data set, i.e. seabed, a strong reflection in the overburden and the top and bottom of the Utsira Sand, plus additional five horizons, four of which within Utsira Sands, and one just above the top of it. The layers within the reservoir are very close to each other and in some cases they merge together laterally. The accumulation of CO2 in the uppermost layer of the reservoir, observed by other analyses, is confirmed by our analysis, whereas within the plume, lateral variations of both seismic velocity and Q values are observed. The presence of fine shale lenses, and their impact on the CO2 distribution within the plume may be the reason for these lateral variations. The seismic velocity and Q tomographic values have been compared with the theoretical curves from petrophysics studies, so to give to the results an interpretation in terms of effective variations in CO2 saturation and heterogeneity within the plume.
Velocity and concentration measurements in a model diesel engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arcoumanis, C.; Green, H. G.; Whitelaw, J. H.
1985-09-01
Laser Doppler anemometry and Rayleigh scattering have been used to quantify the velocity and concentration fields after the start of injection in a model diesel engine motored at 200 rpm in the absence of compression. Fuel injection was simulated by a transient jet of vapour Freon-12 initiated at 40 degrees before top-dead-centre through a nozzle incorporated into the centre of a permanently open intake valve. Swirl was induced by means of 60 degree vanes located in the inlet, port. The piston configurations comprised a flat and a re-entrant piston-bowl. The results indicate that for the two nozzle geometries investigated the mass flux decays faster than momentum with nearly constant decay rates along the centreline. The nozzle with the larger exit diameter and wider jet angle gave rise to slower decay of both mass and momentum with associated lower velocity and concentration fluctuations.
A new velocity model for clay-sand mixtures
Xu, S.; White, R.E. [Birkbeck Coll., London (United Kingdom)]|[University Coll. London (United Kingdom)
1995-01-01
None of the standard porosity-velocity models (e.g., the time-average equation, Raymer`s equations) is satisfactory for interpreting well-logging data over a broad depth range. Clays in the section are the usual source of the difficulty through the bias and scatter that they introduce into the relationship between porosity and P-wave transit time. Because clays are composed of fine sheet-like particles, they normally form pores with much smaller aspect ratios than those associated with sand grains. This difference in pore geometry provides the key to obtaining more consistent resistivity and sonic log interpretations. A velocity model for clay-sand mixtures has been developed in terms of the Kuster and Toksoez, effective medium and Gassmann theories. In this model, the total pore space is assumed to consist of two parts: (1) pores associated with sand grains and (2) pores associated with clays (including bound water). The essential feature of the model is the assumption that the geometry of pores associated with sand grains is significantly different from that associated with clays. Because of this, porosity in shales affects elastic compliance differently from porosity in sandstones. The predictive power of the model is demonstrated by the agreement between its predictions and laboratory measurements and by its ability to predict sonic logs from other logs over large depth intervals where formations vary from unconsolidated to consolidated sandstones and shales.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandey, S.; Yuan, X.; Debayle, E.; Priestley, K. F.; Kind, R.; Li, X.
2010-12-01
The collision of the Eurasian plate, Indian plate and Philippine sea plate resulted in the tectonic feature of todays; like mountain ranges, fold belts, sedimentary basins and high plateaus in China and the surrounding region. In the Northern part this region is supposed to get some resistance from the Siberian shield. But the collision of Indian plate has left its major imprints and the consequence of this was the uplift of Himalayan Mountain and Tibetan Plateau. This triple junction scenario is the main cause for many inter and intra-plate earthquake in this region. It is generally agreed that the lithosphere is thick in west China while much of the lithospheric root was lost beneath some cratons in east China. Still it's an open debate whether the lithosphere beneath the Tibetan plateau has doubled its thickness as did the crust above or much of the thickened lithosphere was removed by mantle convection and delamination. In our study we try to determine the three dimensional Sv wave speed and azimuthal anisotropy model by analyzing the vertical component multimode Rayleigh wave seismogram. The data which we used are from broadband stations from in and around China. We construct the three dimensional model in two step procedure. In the first step we use the automated version of the Cara and Leveque [1987] waveform inversion technique in terms of secondary observables for modeling each multimode Rayleigh waveform to determine the path-average mantle Sv wave speed structure. In the second stage we combine the 1-D velocity models in a tomographic inversion to obtain the three dimensional Sv wave speed structure and the azimuthal anisotropy as a function of depth. We have taken a source region specific velocity structure from the three dimensional model 3SMAC to improve the source excitation computation. We analyzed the seismograms using a modified (smoothed) version of PREM for the upper mantle velocity structure both for the reference model used in extracting the modal information from the seismogram and for the starting inversion and a priori velocity models employed in determining the path-average mantle structure. However, each path has a path-specific crustal model determined by averaging the crustal part of 3SMAC along the path.
Preliminary Velocity Measurements in the Wake of a Submarine Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jimenez, J. M.; Reynolds, R.; Smits, A. J.
2000-11-01
Preliminary Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) over a submarine shape has been conducted in a low speed wind tunnel at Princeton University. The model is a 1/67 replica of the USS Albacore, an experimental submarine designed to achieve maximum underwater performance, and based on "bodies of revolution." The model is tested with a sail, and different tail appendages. Velocity vector fields and flow visualizations in the wake region are presented for Reynolds numbers based on model length up to 10^5. The experiments establish the groundwork for future investigations of submarine models in the new High Reynolds Number Test Facility (http://www.princeton.edu/ gasdyn/HRTF.html). Supported by ONR Grants N00014-97-1-0325, N00014-97-1-0340 and N00014-97-1-0618.
Stochastic optimal velocity model and its long-lived metastability.
Kanai, Masahiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Tokihiro, Tetsuji
2005-09-01
In this paper, we propose a stochastic cellular automaton model of traffic flow extending two exactly solvable stochastic models, i.e., the asymmetric simple exclusion process and the zero range process. Moreover, it is regarded as a stochastic extension of the optimal velocity model. In the fundamental diagram (flux-density diagram), our model exhibits several regions of density where more than one stable state coexists at the same density in spite of the stochastic nature of its dynamical rule. Moreover, we observe that two long-lived metastable states appear for a transitional period, and that the dynamical phase transition from a metastable state to another metastable/stable state occurs sharply and spontaneously. PMID:16241502
Predicting abnormal pressure from 2-D seismic velocity modeling
Grauls, D.; Dunand, J.P.; Beaufort, D.
1995-12-01
Seismic velocities are the only data available, before drilling, on which to base a quantitative, present-day estimate of abnormal pressure. Recent advances in seismic velocity processing have enabled them to obtain, using an in-house approach, an optimized 2-D interval velocity field and consequently to better define the lateral extension of pressure regimes. The methodology, interpretation and quantification of overpressure-related anomalies are supported by case studies, selected in sand-shale dominated Tertiary basins, offshore West Africa. Another advantage of this approach is that it can also account for the presence of reservoir-potential intervals at great depth and thus provide significant insight, from a prospective standpoint, into very poorly explored areas. Although at the outset the 2-D seismic tool legitimately merits being favored, optimization of the final predictive pressure model, prior to drilling, will depend upon the success of its combined use with other concepts and approaches, pertaining to structural geology, sedimentology, rock mechanics and fluid dynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winckelmans, G. S.; Lund, T. S.; Carati, D.; Wray, A. A.
1996-01-01
Subgrid-scale models for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in both the velocity-pressure and the vorticity-velocity formulations were evaluated and compared in a priori tests using spectral Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) databases of isotropic turbulence: 128(exp 3) DNS of forced turbulence (Re(sub(lambda))=95.8) filtered, using the sharp cutoff filter, to both 32(exp 3) and 16(exp 3) synthetic LES fields; 512(exp 3) DNS of decaying turbulence (Re(sub(Lambda))=63.5) filtered to both 64(exp 3) and 32(exp 3) LES fields. Gaussian and top-hat filters were also used with the 128(exp 3) database. Different LES models were evaluated for each formulation: eddy-viscosity models, hyper eddy-viscosity models, mixed models, and scale-similarity models. Correlations between exact versus modeled subgrid-scale quantities were measured at three levels: tensor (traceless), vector (solenoidal 'force'), and scalar (dissipation) levels, and for both cases of uniform and variable coefficient(s). Different choices for the 1/T scaling appearing in the eddy-viscosity were also evaluated. It was found that the models for the vorticity-velocity formulation produce higher correlations with the filtered DNS data than their counterpart in the velocity-pressure formulation. It was also found that the hyper eddy-viscosity model performs better than the eddy viscosity model, in both formulations.
Collision-free nonuniform dynamics within continuous optimal velocity models.
Tordeux, Antoine; Seyfried, Armin
2014-10-01
Optimal velocity (OV) car-following models give with few parameters stable stop-and -go waves propagating like in empirical data. Unfortunately, classical OV models locally oscillate with vehicles colliding and moving backward. In order to solve this problem, the models have to be completed with additional parameters. This leads to an increase of the complexity. In this paper, a new OV model with no additional parameters is defined. For any value of the inputs, the model is intrinsically asymmetric and collision-free. This is achieved by using a first-order ordinary model with two predecessors in interaction, instead of the usual inertial delayed first-order or second-order models coupled with the predecessor. The model has stable uniform solutions as well as various stable stop-and -go patterns with bimodal distribution of the speed. As observable in real data, the modal speed values in congested states are not restricted to the free flow speed and zero. They depend on the form of the OV function. Properties of linear, concave, convex, or sigmoid speed functions are explored with no limitation due to collisions. PMID:25375554
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Baumgartner, François
2006-11-01
We have constructed a forward modelling code in Matlab, capable of handling several commonly used electrical and electromagnetic methods in a 1D environment. We review the implemented electromagnetic field equations for grounded wires, frequency and transient soundings and present new solutions in the case of a non-magnetic first layer. The CR1Dmod code evaluates the Hankel transforms occurring in the field equations using either the Fast Hankel Transform based on digital filter theory, or a numerical integration scheme applied between the zeros of the Bessel function. A graphical user interface allows easy construction of 1D models and control of the parameters. Modelling results are in agreement with other authors, but the time of computation is less efficient than other available codes. Nevertheless, the CR1Dmod routine handles complex resistivities and offers solutions based on the full EM-equations as well as the quasi-static approximation. Thus, modelling of effects based on changes in the magnetic permeability and the permittivity is also possible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daae, M.; Shprits, Y.; Koller, J.; Chen, Y.
2009-12-01
We present reanalysis of assimilated data using the UCLA 1-D VERB code at higher L* than previously used. Moving the outer boundary to L* = 10 may improve the reanalysis since more data is blended with the radiation belt model. Simulations show that in the heart of the radiation belts, L* < 6, the effect of the boundary condition is negligible. We also analyze the sensitivity of the code to changes in the loss model, and how sensitive the code is to the initial condition, showing that the results of the data assimilation using the Kalman filter can reliably reproduce phase space density in the heart of the radiation belts. This work demonstrates that the reanalysis using the UCLA 1-D VERB code can be used with other data sources such as THEMIS, CRRES, and POLAR at higher L*. By assimilating more data, the reanalysis can be improved to more accurately reproduce the radiation belt, especially during geomagnetically disturbed times when basic physical models in general are oversimplified.
Modeling Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity During Orthostatic Stress.
Mader, Greg; Olufsen, Mette; Mahdi, Adam
2015-08-01
Cerebral autoregulation refers to the physiological process that maintains stable cerebral blood flow (CBF) during changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP). In this study, we propose a simple, nonlinear quantitative model with only four parameters that can predict CBF velocity as a function of ABP. The model was motivated by the viscoelastic-like behavior observed in the data collected during postural change from sitting to standing. Qualitative testing of the model involved analysis of dynamic responses to step-changes in pressure both within and outside the autoregulatory range, while quantitative testing was used to show that the model can fit dynamics observed in data measured from a healthy young and a healthy elderly subject. The latter involved analysis of structural and practical identifiability, sensitivity analysis, and parameter estimation. Results showed that the model is able to reproduce observed overshoot and adaptation and predict the different responses in the healthy young and the healthy elderly subject. For the healthy young subject, the overshoot was significantly more pronounced than for the elderly subject, but the recovery time was longer for the young subject. These differences resulted in different parameter values estimated using the two datasets. PMID:25549771
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kauczok, S.; Maul, C.; Chichinin, A. I.; Gericke, K.-H.
2010-06-01
In order to measure the state selective double differential cross section of a reactive collision, the preparation of the reactants with defined initial velocities and quantum states in number densities high enough to achieve an acceptable count rate is most important. At the same time, secondary collisions have to be prevented in order to ensure that the nascent products are not thermalized. Usually, the best way to control the initial conditions is to use crossed molecular beams, but the number density decreases quadratically with the distance from the nozzle orifice which can be a problem, especially if a molecular product with a large number of populated states is to be analyzed state specifically by REMPI spectroscopy. In this contribution we would like to present a method for measuring the quantum state selective differential cross section of a photoinitiated reaction that combines the advantages of the PHOTOLOC technique (high reactant densities) and the parallel beams technique used by the groups of Kitsopoulos, Orr-Ewing, and Suits (defined relative velocity of the reactants). Moreover, an algorithm based on a Bayesian backward reconstruction developed by W. H. Richardson [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 55 (1972)] has been derived. Both, one reactant and the precursor of the other reactant, are present in the same molecular beam and the center of mass velocity is selected by shifting the dissociation and the detection laser in time and space. Like in comparable methods, this produces a bias in the measured velocity distribution due to the fact that the reaction takes place in the whole volume surrounding the laser beams. This has been also reported by Toomes et al. in the case of the parallel beams technique and presents a general problem of probing reaction products by REMPI spectroscopy. To account for this, we develop a general approach that can be easily adapted to other conditions. The bias is removed in addition to deconvolution from the spread in reactant velocities. Using the benchmark system O(D1)+D2 with N2O as the precursor, we demonstrate that the technique is also applicable in a very general sense (i.e., also with a large spread in reactant velocities, products much faster than reactants) and therefore can be used also if such unfortunate conditions cannot be avoided. Since the resulting distribution of velocities in the laboratory frame is not cylindrically symmetric, three dimensional velocity mapping is the method of choice for the detection of the ionized products. For the reconstruction, the distance between the two laser beams is an important parameter. We have measured this distance using the photodissociation of HBr at 193 nm, detecting the H atoms near 243 nm. The collision energy resulting from the 193 nm photodissociation of N2O is 5.2ą1.9 kcal/mol. Our results show a preference for backward scattered D atoms with the OH partner fragment in the high vibrational states (v =4-6), in accord with previously published results claiming the growing importance of a linear abstraction mechanism for collision energies higher than 2.4 kcal/mol.
An Analytical Electrothermal Model of a 1-D Electrothermal MEMS Micromirror
Bowers, John
-consuming. In certain cases a lumped element model (LEM) may be used to simulate the behavior of a device. LEMs can compared to FEM simulators. Manginell et al. used an LEM to model the electrothermal behavior by partitioning the device into a network of thermal resistors and power sources and was simulated in SPICE. LEM
A Simple 1-D Physical Model for the Crawling Nematode Sperm Cell
A. Mogilner; D. W. Verzi
2003-01-01
We develop a one-dimensional physical model of the crawling movement of simple cells: The sperm of a nematode, Ascaris suum. The model is based on the assumptions that polymerization and bundling of the cytoskeletal filaments generate the force for extension at the front, and that energy stored in the gel formed from the filament bundles is subsequently used to produce
Analytical one--way plane--wave solution in the 1D anisotropic ``twisted crystal'' model
Cerveny, Vlastislav
Analytical one--way plane--wave solution in the 1ÂD anisotropic ``twisted crystal'' model Lud: +420Â2Â2191 1214, EÂmail: klimes@seis.karlov.mff.cuni.cz Summary The exact analytical expressions in the simple 1ÂD anisotropic ``twisted crystal'' model, are presented. The analytical equations may be useful
Experimental validation of a 1-D continuous thickening model using a pilot column
Brendan R. Gladman; Murray Rudman; Peter J. Scales
2010-01-01
Predictive modelling of solidliquid separation can greatly assist the design and operation of thickening and filtration equipment, improving water recovery and reducing costs. A phenomenological model describing continuous thickening has been previously developed with primary inputs being the material properties, (compressive yield stress and hindered settling function) derived from routine laboratory batch settling and filtration tests. This work aimed to
Fundamental Diagrams of 1D-Traffic Flow by Optimal Control Models
Farhi, Nadir
2010-01-01
Traffic on a circular road is described by dynamic programming equations associated to optimal control problems. By solving the equations analytically, we derive the relation between the average car density and the average car flow, known as the fundamental diagram of traffic. First, we present a model based on min-plus algebra, then we extend it to a stochastic dynamic programming model, then to a stochastic game model. The average car flow is derived as the average cost per time unit of optimal control problems, obtained in terms of the average car density. The models presented in this article can also be seen as developed versions of the car-following model. The derivations proposed here can be used to approximate, understand and interprete fundamental diagrams derived from real measurements.
Iterative modelling, a new approach to the inversion of 1-D seismograms
Raskin, Greg Steven
1987-01-01
contributions to the impedance structure. 19 D. Parameter Removal The desired end-product is a general and stable model. We have roughly equated model generality to large numbers of parameters and inversion stability to small numbers of parameters... interfaces to vary simultaneously with a constraint upon the total length of the model vector ~'Bamberger et, al. 1982. and Mace and Lailly 1986]. The first approach is very stable as it considers fev' parameters, yet it is prone to error due to a. lack ol...
Heat-Transfer and Solidification Model of Continuous Slab Casting: CON1D
Thomas, Brian G.
coupled with two-dimensional (2-D) steady-state heat conduction within the mold wall. The model features fluid-flow calculations within the liquid pool. The FORTRAN program CONID has a user-friendly interface
Analysis, simulation and visualization of 1D tapping via reduced dynamical models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blackmore, Denis; Rosato, Anthony; Tricoche, Xavier; Urban, Kevin; Zou, Luo
2014-04-01
A low-dimensional center-of-mass dynamical model is devised as a simplified means of approximately predicting some important aspects of the motion of a vertical column comprised of a large number of particles subjected to gravity and periodic vertical tapping. This model is investigated first as a continuous dynamical system using analytical, simulation and visualization techniques. Then, by employing an approach analogous to that used to approximate the dynamics of a bouncing ball on an oscillating flat plate, it is modeled as a discrete dynamical system and analyzed to determine bifurcations and transitions to chaotic motion along with other properties. The predictions of the analysis are then compared-primarily qualitatively-with visualization and simulation results of the reduced continuous model, and ultimately with simulations of the complete system dynamics.
Farid Taherkhani; Ebrahim Daryaei; Hadi Abroshan; Hamed Akbarzadeh; Gholamabbas Parsafar; Alessandro Fortunelli
2011-01-01
To solve the controversy, regarding the existence of an analytic solution to the 1-D Ising model with nearest-neighbor (NN) and next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) interactions in the presence of a magnetic field, we apply the transfer matrix method to solve the 1-D Ising model in the presence of a magnetic field, taking both NN and NNN interactions into account. We show that
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hooshyar, M.; Hagen, S. C.; Wang, D.
2014-12-01
Hydrodynamic models are widely applied to coastal areas in order to predict water levels and flood inundation and typically involve solving a form of the Shallow Water Equations (SWE). The SWE are routinely discretized by applying numerical methods, such as the finite element method. Like other numerical models, hydrodynamic models include uncertainty. Uncertainties are generated due to errors in the discrete approximation of coastal geometry, bathymetry, bottom friction and forcing functions such as tides and wind fields. Methods to counteract these uncertainties should always begin with improvements to physical characterization of: the geometric description through increased resolution, parameters that describe land cover variations in the natural and urban environment, parameters that enhance transfer of surface forcings to the water surface, open boundary forcings, and the wetting/drying brought upon by flood and ebb cycles. When the best possible physical representation is achieved, we are left with calibration and data assimilation to reduce model uncertainty. Data assimilation has been applied to coastal hydrodynamic models to better estimate system states and/or system parameters by incorporating observed data into the model. Kalman Filter is one of the most studied data assimilation methods that minimizes the mean square errors between model state estimations and the observed data in linear systems (Kalman , 1960). For nonlinear systems, as with hydrodynamic models, a variation of Kalman filter called Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), is applied to update the system state according to error statistics in the context of Monte Carlo simulations (Evensen , 2003) & (Hitoshi et. al, 2014). In this research, Kalman Filter is incorporated to simultaneously estimate an influential parameter used in the shallow water equations, bottom roughness, and to adjust the physical feature of bathymetry. Starting from an initial estimate of bottom roughness and bathymetry, and applying EnKF, more accurate bottom roughness and bathymetry are obtained by utilizing measurements available in a limited number of gages. The procedure is examined along five typical near shore transects located in Gulf of Mexico.
Tyler Dumouchel; Robert A. de Kemp
2010-01-01
Micro-PET image resolution is on the order of the left ventricle (LV) wall thickness in a mouse heart. Mouse LV images are thus subject to partial volume (PV) losses, impeding the ability to quantify tracer activity in cardiac muscle. In this study, 2D and 3D PV correction (PVC) models are proposed for mouse imaging. ECG gated PET images are acquired
A global Bayesian sensitivity analysis of the 1d SimSphere SVAT model using the GEM-SA software
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petropoulos, G.; Wooster, M. J.; Carlson, T. N.; Kennedy, M.; Scholze, M.
2009-04-01
Sensitivity analysis consist an integral validatory check of an all-inclusive validation of any multi-level code computer simulation model before the latter is used in performing any kind of analysis of operation, particularly so if a model is going to be used on an operational basis. A software platform/tool called GEM SA developed for performing a global sensitivity analysis (GSA) adopting the Bayesian theory is tested herein in the 1d SVAT model SimSphere with the aim to identify the most responsive model inputs, detect their interactions and derive absolute sensitivity measures concerning the model structure. The present study represents the first implementation of a global sensitivity analysis (GSA) method in SimSphere whereas the method presented here can be potentially adopted and applied to other simulation models including SVAT models. This study is very timely in terms of the overall validation of the model, considering that its use was recently proposed in modelling methodology for the operational retrieval of surface moisture content by National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) and NASA in a series of satellite platforms scheduled to be placed in orbit in the next 12 years starting from 2009. The employed GSA method was found capable of identifying the most responsive model inputs and also of capturing the key interactions structure between the model inputs in the simulation of each of the target quantities on which the GSA was conducted. The dominant input parameters which were found to consistently control the predictions of the considered outputs by the model were the topography parameters (slope, aspect) as well as the fractional vegetation cover and surface moisture availability. The implications of these findings for the use of the model are also discussed. Keywords: SimSphere, BACCO GEM-SA, SVAT model, sensitivity analysis, Gaussian process emulator
Space-based Observational Constraints for 1-D Plume Rise Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Maria Val; Kahn, Ralph A.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Paguam, Ronan; Wooster, Martin; Ichoku, Charles
2012-01-01
We use a space-based plume height climatology derived from observations made by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard the NASA Terra satellite to evaluate the ability of a plume-rise model currently embedded in several atmospheric chemical transport models (CTMs) to produce accurate smoke injection heights. We initialize the plume-rise model with assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System and estimated fuel moisture content at the location and time of the MISR measurements. Fire properties that drive the plume-rise model are difficult to estimate and we test the model with four estimates for active fire area and four for total heat flux, obtained using empirical data and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) re radiative power (FRP) thermal anomalies available for each MISR plume. We show that the model is not able to reproduce the plume heights observed by MISR over the range of conditions studied (maximum r2 obtained in all configurations is 0.3). The model also fails to determine which plumes are in the free troposphere (according to MISR), key information needed for atmospheric models to simulate properly smoke dispersion. We conclude that embedding a plume-rise model using currently available re constraints in large-scale atmospheric studies remains a difficult proposition. However, we demonstrate the degree to which the fire dynamical heat flux (related to active fire area and sensible heat flux), and atmospheric stability structure influence plume rise, although other factors less well constrained (e.g., entrainment) may also be significant. Using atmospheric stability conditions, MODIS FRP, and MISR plume heights, we offer some constraints on the main physical factors that drive smoke plume rise. We find that smoke plumes reaching high altitudes are characterized by higher FRP and weaker atmospheric stability conditions than those at low altitude, which tend to remain confined below the BL, consistent with earlier results. We propose two simplified parameterizations for computing injection heights for fires in CTMs and discuss current challenges to representing plume injection heights in large scale atmospheric models.
Radon exhalation from uranium mill tailings: experimental validation of a 1-D model.
Ferry, C; Richon, P; Beneito, A; Robé, M C
2001-01-01
TRACI, a model based on the physical mechanisms governing the migration of radon in unsaturated soils, has been developed to evaluate the radon flux density at the surface of uranium mill tailings. To check the validity of the TRACI model and the effectiveness of cover layers, an in situ study was launched in 1997 with the French uranium mining company, COGEMA. The study consisted of continuous measurements of moisture content, suction, radon concentration at various depths inside a UMT cover, and flux density at its surface. An initial analysis has shown that radon concentration and flux density, as calculated with a steady-state diffusion model using monthly averaged moisture contents, are in good agreement with measured monthly averaged concentrations and flux densities. PMID:11379078
Modeling Bioenhanced DNAPL Dissolution in 1-D and 2-D Flow systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wesseldyke, E. S.; Becker, J. G.; Seagren, E. A.; Mayer, A. S.
2011-12-01
Chlorinated ethenes, such as tetrachloroethene (PCE), released into the environment can form dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), which can act as persistent sources of contamination to groundwater. Due to their low aqueous solubility, these DNAPL contaminant sources can persist for up to hundreds of years under natural conditions. Several methods have been investigated to enhance the rate of dissolution of DNAPLs, including bioenhanced dissolution, which consists of stimulating the growth of a microbial population that biodegrades the contaminant, thereby reducing its concentration at the DNAPL-water interface, and creating a greater driving force for contaminant dissolution. This phenomenon has been studied at length in batch reactors and column studies. The hypothesis of this research is that, in modeling DNAPL dissolution bioenhancement via dehalorespiration, it is important to include the effects of microbial competition, as well as spatial effects. A two-dimensional coupled flow-transport model was developed using the finite-volume method (FVM), which includes a DNAPL pool source, and the effects of multiple microbial species. The model has been confirmed to maintain mass balance and has been validated by comparison to an analytical solution for pool dissolution. The model will be used to simulate a pseudo one-dimensional system and a two-dimensional system under multiple microbial competition scenarios and varying hydrodynamic conditions. The results of these simulations will be compared to determine differences in estimations of dissolution bioenhancement, and analyzed for spatial effects that are captured by a two-dimensional model, but not by a pseudo one-dimensional FVM model. Preliminary two-dimensional simulations have shown the effects of large biomass growth near the NAPL source, which could lead to bioclogging and change the flow field. Further simulations are underway and the results will be presented.
D. Clarke; J. Townend; M. K. Savage; S. Bannister
2009-01-01
We analyze earthquakes occurring in and around the Rotorua and Kawerau geothermal systems, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. The two data sets contain 504 and 1875 shallow (?20 km deep) earthquakes, respectively, and span the 21 year period between 1984 and 2004. The arrival time data for these earthquakes are first used to calculate 1-D P- and S-wave seismic velocity models and
A. Rodgers; A. Petersson; S. Nilsson; B. Sjogreen; K. McCandless
2006-01-01
As part of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake centenary, the USGS developed a three-dimensional seismic velocity and attenuation model for Northern California based on detailed geologic and geophysical constraints. The model was used to predict ground motions for the 1906 rupture. In this study we evaluate the model to assess its ability to accurately predict ground motions from moderate earthquakes
Verification and comparison of four numerical schemes for a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
about the cardiovascular system. For corresponding author 1 hal-00790665,version3-22Apr2013 #12;example hyperbolic-parabolic system, which is then solved with four nu- merical schemes, namely: MacCormack, Taylor, this model captures well the behaviours of pulse wave, from which one can extract a lot of useful information
TESTS OF 1-D TRANSPORT MODELS, AND THEIR PREDICTIONS FOR ITER
Hammett, Greg
, transport models provide a means for optimizing the tokamak design and operational scenarios. Thirdly, further tests of the effect of sheared flows and of the 'stiffness' of transport are planned. Several to the development of the ITER Profile Database [2] which contains fully analyzed profile data, readily accessible
A macroscopic 1D model for shape memory alloys including asymmetric behaviors and
Stefanelli, Ulisse
in Earthquake Engineering (EUCENTRE), Pavia, Italy cIstituto di Matematica Applicata e Tecnologie Informatiche Strutturale (DMS), Universit`a degli Studi di Pavia, Italy bEuropean Centre for Training and Research (IMATI), CNR, Pavia, Italy Abstract The research toward an exhaustive modeling of the macroscopic
Fundamental Diagrams of 1D-Traffic Flow by Optimal Control Models
Nadir Farhi; Domaine de Voluceau
2010-01-01
Traffic on a circular road is described by dynamic programming equations associated to optimal control problems. By solving the equations analytically, we derive the relation between the average car density and the average car flow, known as the fundamental diagram of traffic. First, we present a model based on min-plus algebra, then we extend it to a stochastic dynamic programming
Iterative modelling, a new approach to the inversion of 1-D seismograms
Raskin, Greg Steven
1987-01-01
by correcting the field trace. The plane wave impulse response is decayed by a factor of E" (which need only be approx- imately correct). This corrected impulse response approximates a point source impulse response but neglects differential decay between... primaries and multiples. The source wavelet is convolved with this pseudo-point source impulse response to generate the model output trace for comparison with the field trace. It is shown that even when an incorrect decay is used internally, the true...
1D Computational model of a two-phase R744 ejector for expansion work recovery
Krzysztof Banasiak; Armin Hafner
2011-01-01
A one-dimensional mathematical model of the R744 two-phase ejector for expansion work recovery is presented in this paper. Governing equations were formulated for all passages of the ejector based on the differential equations for mass, momentum, and energy balance as well as a differential representation for the equation of state. For two-flow sections (mixer and diffuser) closing equations for mass,
A Simplified 1-D Model for Calculating CO2 Leakage through Conduits
Zhang, Y.; Oldenburg, C.M.
2011-02-15
In geological CO{sub 2} storage projects, a cap rock is generally needed to prevent CO{sub 2} from leaking out of the storage formation. However, the injected CO{sub 2} may still encounter some discrete flow paths such as a conductive well or fault (here referred to as conduits) through the cap rock allowing escape of CO{sub 2} from the storage formation. As CO{sub 2} migrates upward, it may migrate into the surrounding formations. The amount of mass that is lost to the formation is called attenuation. This report describes a simplified model to calculate the CO{sub 2} mass flux at different locations of the conduit and the amount of attenuation to the surrounding formations. From the comparison among the three model results, we can conclude that the steady-state conduit model (SSCM) provides a more accurate solution than the PMC at a given discretization. When there is not a large difference between the permeability of the surrounding formation and the permeability of the conduits, and there is leak-off at the bottom formation (the formation immediately above the CO{sub 2} plume), a fine discretization is needed for an accurate solution. Based on this comparison, we propose to use the SSCM in the rapid prototype for now given it does not produce spurious oscillations, and is already in FORTRAN and therefore can be easily made into a dll for use in GoldSim.
Constraining the temporal evolution of a deep hypersaline anoxic basin by 1D geochemical modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldhammer, Tobias; Aiello, Ivano; Zabel, Matthias
2014-05-01
Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are seafloor features of the accretionary prism of the Mediterranean Ridge. They have formed by the dissolution of exhumed shallow Messinian evaporites and subsequent concentration of the ultra-saline solutions in depressions on the seafloor. As an example, the horseshoe-shaped Urania basin is a DHAB south of the Peloponnese peninsula contains one of the most saline (about six times higher than Mediterranean seawater) and sulfidic (up to 15mM) water bodies of the Earth. Furthermore, its deepest part is underlain by a mud volcano that is responsible for the injection of fluid mud beneath the brine lake, with exceptionally sharp chemoclines between water column, brine, and mud layer. We here present a model approach to reconstruct the temporal aspects of the formation, dynamics and persistence of the brine-mud-system in the deep pit of the Urania Basin. Based on data from a sampling campaign with RV Meteor (Cruise M84/1 in February 2011), we set up a one-dimensional geochemical model that integrates diffusion, reaction and advective transport and mixing. Using a set of model preconditions, we aimed to answer (1) which processes are required to maintain the current situation of steep chemical gradients of the brine-mud-system, (2) how fast the current situation could have developed under different scenarios, and (3) how long such extraordinary conditions could have persisted through Earth's history. We further discuss the consequences of the temporal framework for the evolution of prokaryotic life in this extreme habitat.
Thermal robustness of multipartite entanglement of the 1-D spin 1/2 XY model
Yoshifumi Nakata; Damian Markham; Mio Murao
2009-03-12
We study the robustness of multipartite entanglement of the ground state of the one-dimensional spin 1/2 XY model with a transverse magnetic field in the presence of thermal excitations, by investigating a threshold temperature, below which the thermal state is guaranteed to be entangled. We obtain the threshold temperature based on the geometric measure of entanglement of the ground state. The threshold temperature reflects three characteristic lines in the phase diagram of the correlation function. Our approach reveals a region where multipartite entanglement at zero temperature is high but is thermally fragile, and another region where multipartite entanglement at zero temperature is low but is thermally robust.
Constraining quantum critical dynamics: 2+1D Ising model and beyond
Witczak-Krempa, William
2015-01-01
Quantum critical (QC) phase transitions generally lead to the absence of quasiparticles. The resulting correlated quantum fluid, when thermally excited, displays rich universal dynamics. We establish non-perturbative constraints on the linear-response dynamics of conformal QC systems, in spatial dimensions above one. Specifically, we analyze the large frequency/momentum asymptotics, which we use to derive powerful sum rules. The general results are applied to the O(N) Wilson-Fisher fixed point, describing the QC Ising model when N = 1. We focus on the order parameter and scalar susceptibilities, and the dynamical shear viscosity. Connections to simulations, experiments and interacting gauge theories are made.
Modeling the dispersion of drilling muds using the bblt model: the effects of settling velocity
Haibo Niu; Adam Drozdowski; Tahir Husain; Brian Veitch; Neil Bose; Kenneth Leeb
2009-01-01
The benthic boundary layer transport (bblt) model was widely used in the Atlantic Canadian offshore region to assess the potential\\u000a impact zones from drilling wastes discharges from offshore oil and gas drilling. The current version of the bblt uses a single-class\\u000a settling velocity scenario, which may affect its performance, as settling velocity is size, shape, and material dependent.\\u000a In this
Stochastic optimal velocity model and its long-lived metastability Masahiro Kanai
of the optimal velocity model. In the fundamental diagram flux-density diagram , our model exhibits several by using the fundamental diagram, which displays the relation of the flux the average velocity of vehicles automaton model of traffic flow extending two exactly solvable stochastic models, i.e., the asymmetric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roundy, R. C.; Nemirovsky, D.; Kagalovsky, V.; Raikh, M. E.
2014-06-01
Motivated by recent experiments, where the tunnel magnetoresitance (TMR) of a spin valve was measured locally, we theoretically study the distribution of TMR along the surface of magnetized electrodes. We show that, even in the absence of interfacial effects (like hybridization due to donor and acceptor molecules), this distribution is very broad, and the portion of area with negative TMR is appreciable even if on average the TMR is positive. The origin of the local sign reversal is quantum interference of subsequent spin-rotation amplitudes in the course of incoherent transport of carriers between the source and the drain. We find the distribution of local TMR exactly by drawing upon formal similarity between evolution of spinors in time and of the reflection coefficient along a 1D chain in the Anderson model. The results obtained are confirmed by the numerical simulations.
Violating of the Essam-Fisher and Rushbrooke formulas: quantum phase transitions and 1D Ising model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Udodov, Vladimir; Katanov Khakas State Univ Team
2014-03-01
The classical Essam-Fisher and Rushbrooke relationships (1963) that connect the equilibrium critical exponents of susceptibility, specific heat and order parameter are shown to be valid only if the critical temperature TC > 0 and T -->TC . For quantum phase transitions (PT's) and 1D Ising model with TC = 0 K, these relations are proved to be of different form. This fact has been actually observed experimentally, but the reasons were not quite clear. A general formula containing the classical results as a special case is proposed. This formula is applicable to all equilibrium PT's of any space dimension. The predictions of the theory are consistent with the available experimental data and do not cast any doubts upon the scaling hypothesis. Author thanks Katanov Khakas State University for support.
An analytical 1-D model for vertical momentum and energy flux through a fully developed wind farm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2014-05-01
Wind farms capture momentum from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) both at the leading edge and from the atmosphere above. Momentum is advected into the wind farm and wake turbulence draws excess momentum in from between turbines until momentum is only available from above the wind farm. This distance can be described by the so-called drag development length scale, which arises from the canopy drag force term in the momentum equation. At this point the flow can be considered fully developed. The horizontally-averaged velocity profile for a fully developed wind farm flow exhibits a characteristic inflection point near the top of the wind farm, similar to that of sparse canopy-type flows (Markfort et al., JoT, 2012). The inflected vertical velocity profile is associated with the presence of a dominant characteristic turbulence scale, which may be responsible for a significant portion of the vertical momentum flux. We evaluate an analytical canopy-type flow model for wind farm-atmosphere interaction by testing it against wind-tunnel experimental data of flow through a model wind farm. The model is adapted to predict the mean flow, vertical momentum flux, and the mean kinetic energy flux as well as kinetic energy dissipation within the wind farm. This model is particularly useful for wind farm configuration optimization, considering wind turbine spacing and surface roughness and can also be useful to represent wind farms in regional scale atmospheric simulations.
A Model for the Estimate of Local Velocity
Norberto M. Grzywacz; Alan L. Yuille
1990-01-01
Motion sensitive cells in the primary visual cortex are not selective to velocity, but rather are directionally selective and tuned to spatiotemporal frequencies. This paper describes physiologically plausible theories for computing velocity from the outputs of spatiotemporally oriented filters and proves several theorems showing how to combine the outputs of a class of frequency tuned filters to detect local image
Modeling the Velocity of Self-Propagating Exothermic Reactions in Multilayer Foils
L. Wang; B. He; X. H. Jiang
2010-01-01
Nanoscale reactive multilayer foils can react exothermically in solid state and the reaction can self-propagate at a fixed velocity at very low temperatures. The propagating velocity is a key parameter to characterize the multilayer foils. The authors presented an extended model to predict the velocities of self-propagating reactions in multilayer foils that have alternating layers with different layer thicknesses. The
Hyperbolic reformulation of a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model and ADER finite volume schemes
Montecinos, Gino I.; Müller, Lucas O.; Toro, Eleuterio F.
2014-06-01
The applicability of ADER finite volume methods to solve hyperbolic balance laws with stiff source terms in the context of well-balanced and non-conservative schemes is extended to solve a one-dimensional blood flow model for viscoelastic vessels, reformulated as a hyperbolic system, via a relaxation time. A criterion for selecting relaxation times is found and an empirical convergence rate assessment is carried out to support this result. The proposed methodology is validated by applying it to a network of viscoelastic vessels for which experimental and numerical results are available. The agreement between the results obtained in the present paper and those available in the literature is satisfactory. Key features of the present formulation and numerical methodologies, such as accuracy, efficiency and robustness, are fully discussed in the paper.
Constraining quantum critical dynamics: 2+1D Ising model and beyond
William Witczak-Krempa
2015-03-24
Quantum critical (QC) phase transitions generally lead to the absence of quasiparticles. The resulting correlated quantum fluid, when thermally excited, displays rich universal dynamics. We establish non-perturbative constraints on the linear-response dynamics of conformal QC systems at finite temperature, in spatial dimensions above one. Specifically, we analyze the large frequency/momentum asymptotics of observables, which we use to derive powerful sum rules and inequalities. The general results are applied to the O(N) Wilson-Fisher fixed point, describing the QC Ising model when N = 1. We focus on the order parameter and scalar susceptibilities, and the dynamical shear viscosity. Connections to simulations, experiments and gauge theories are made.
Constraining quantum critical dynamics: (2+1)D Ising model and beyond.
Witczak-Krempa, William
2015-05-01
Quantum critical (QC) phase transitions generally lead to the absence of quasiparticles. The resulting correlated quantum fluid, when thermally excited, displays rich universal dynamics. We establish nonperturbative constraints on the linear-response dynamics of conformal QC systems at finite temperature, in spatial dimensions above 1. Specifically, we analyze the large frequency or momentum asymptotics of observables, which we use to derive powerful sum rules and inequalities. The general results are applied to the O(N) Wilson-Fisher fixed point, describing the QC Ising model when N=1. We focus on the order parameter and scalar susceptibilities, and the dynamical shear viscosity. Connections to simulations, experiments, and gauge theories are made. PMID:25978256
Point Defects in 3D and 1D Nanomaterials: The Model Case of Titanium Dioxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knauth, Philippe
2010-11-01
Titanium dioxide is one of the most important oxides for applications in energy and environment, such as solar cells, photocatalysis, lithium-ion batteries. In recent years, new forms of titanium dioxide with unusual structure and/or morphology have been developed, including nanocrystals, nanotubes or nanowires. We have studied in detail the point defect chemistry in nanocrystalline TiO2 powders and ceramics. There can be a change from predominant Frenkel to Schottky disorder, depending on the experimental conditions, e.g. temperature and oxygen partial pressure. We have also studied the local environment of various dopants with similar ion radius, but different ion charge (Zn2+, Y3+, Sn4+, Zr4+, Nb5+) in TiO2 nanopowders and nanoceramics by Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) Spectroscopy. Interfacial segregation of acceptors was demonstrated, but donors and isovalent ions do not segregate. An electrostatic "space charge" segregation model is applied, which explains well the observed phenomena.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soudah, Eduardo; Rossi, Riccardo; Idelsohn, Sergio; Ońate, Eugenio
2014-10-01
A reduced-order model for an efficient analysis of cardiovascular hemodynamics problems using multiscale approach is presented in this work. Starting from a patient-specific computational mesh obtained by medical imaging techniques, an analysis methodology based on a two-step automatic procedure is proposed. First a coupled 1D-3D Finite Element Simulation is performed and the results are used to adjust a reduced-order model of the 3D patient-specific area of interest. Then, this reduced-order model is coupled with the 1D model. In this way, three-dimensional effects are accounted for in the 1D model in a cost effective manner, allowing fast computation under different scenarios. The methodology proposed is validated using a patient-specific aortic coarctation model under rest and non-rest conditions.
A 1D pulse wave propagation model of the hemodynamics of calf muscle pump function.
Keijsers, J M T; Leguy, C A D; Huberts, W; Narracott, A J; Rittweger, J; van de Vosse, F N
2015-07-01
The calf muscle pump is a mechanism which increases venous return and thereby compensates for the fluid shift towards the lower body during standing. During a muscle contraction, the embedded deep veins collapse and venous return increases. In the subsequent relaxation phase, muscle perfusion increases due to increased perfusion pressure, as the proximal venous valves temporarily reduce the distal venous pressure (shielding). The superficial and deep veins are connected via perforators, which contain valves allowing flow in the superficial-to-deep direction. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify the physiological mechanisms of the calf muscle pump, including the effect of venous valves, hydrostatic pressure, and the superficial venous system. Using a one-dimensional pulse wave propagation model, a muscle contraction is simulated by increasing the extravascular pressure in the deep venous segments. The hemodynamics are studied in three different configurations: a single artery-vein configuration with and without valves and a more detailed configuration including a superficial vein. Proximal venous valves increase effective venous return by 53% by preventing reflux. Furthermore, the proximal valves shielding function increases perfusion following contraction. Finally, the superficial system aids in maintaining the perfusion during the contraction phase and reduces the refilling time by 37%. Š 2015 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25766693
Constraints on shear velocity in the cratonic upper mantle from Rayleigh wave phase velocity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirsch, Aaron C.
The standard model of the thermal and chemical structure of cratons has been scrutinized in recent years as additional data have been collected. Recent seismological and petrological studies indicate that the notion of cratonic lithosphere as a thick thermal boundary layer with a very depleted and dehydrated composition may be too simplistic and does not fully explain all aspects of the seismological and petrological observations. We hypothesized that the cratonic lithosphere may be more complicated and designed an experiment to investigate its thermal, chemical, and mineralogical properties using a global database of fundamental mode Rayleigh surface waves. To test this hypothesis, the phase velocities of Rayleigh wave that travel paths primarily over cratons were selected. A 1-D global craton phase velocity profile was generated from these observations and compared to predicted phase-velocity curves using two different forward modeling techniques. With the first approach, profiles of shear velocity were generated based on educated guesses of upper mantle temperatures using geotherms. With the second approach, profiles of shear velocity were generated using random permutations about 1-D global model STW105. In total 5,625 geotherm and 80,000 random 1-D forward models were generated for comparison. Each shear velocity model was converted to phase velocity and compared to the observed range of cratonic phase velocities, defined as within one standard deviation of the mean. This method was able to constrain shear velocity in cratons relatively well though the 1-D profiles deviate at depths shallower than 100 km. Shear velocity is faster than PREM/STW105 to depths greater than 200 km with constantly increasing velocity with depth in the random model and a low velocity layer at 100-150 km.
Zhang, Wenhuan; Wang, Yihang
2015-01-01
In this paper, 14-velocity and 18-velocity multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) models are proposed for three-dimensional incompressible flows. These two models are constructed based on the incompressible LBGK model proposed by He et al. (Chin. Phys., 2004, 13: 40-46) and the MRT LB model proposed by d'Humi\\`{e}res et al. (Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A, 2002, 360: 437-451), which have advantages in the computational efficiency and stability, respectively. Through the Chapman-Enskog analysis, the models can recover to three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in the low Mach number limit. To verify the present models, the steady Poiseuille flow, unsteady pulsatile flow and lid-driven cavity flow in three dimensions are simulated. The simulation results agree well with the analytical solutions or the existing numerical results. Moreover, it is found that the present models show higher accuracy than d'Humi\\`{e}res et al. model and better stability than He et al. model.
Kroon, Wilco; Huberts, Wouter; Bosboom, Marielle; van de Vosse, Frans
2012-01-01
A computational method of reduced complexity is developed for simulating vascular hemodynamics by combination of one-dimensional (1D) wave propagation models for the blood vessels with zero-dimensional (0D) lumped models for the microcirculation. Despite the reduced dimension, current algorithms used to solve the model equations and simulate pressure and flow are rather complex, thereby limiting acceptance in the medical field. This complexity mainly arises from the methods used to combine the 1D and the 0D model equations. In this paper a numerical method is presented that no longer requires additional coupling methods and enables random combinations of 1D and 0D models using pressure as only state variable. The method is applied to a vascular tree consisting of 60 major arteries in the body and the head. Simulated results are realistic. The numerical method is stable and shows good convergence. PMID:22654957
Key elements of regional seismic velocity models for long period ground motion simulations
Brocher, T.M.
2008-01-01
Regional 3-D seismic velocity models used for broadband strong motion simulations must include compressional-wave velocity (Vp), shear-wave velocity (Vs), intrinsic attenuation (Qp, Qs), and density. Vs and Qs are the most important of these parameters because the strongest ground motions are generated chiefly by shear- and surface-wave arrivals. Because Vp data are more common than Vs data, many researchers first develop a Vp model and convert it to a Vs model. I describe recent empirical relations between Vs, Vp, Qs, Qp, and density that allow velocity models to be rapidly and accurately calculated. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.
(abstract) Modeling the Critical Velocity Ionization Experiment Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, J.; Murphy, G.; Biasca, R.
1993-01-01
Proper interpretation of critical velocity ionization experiments depends upon understanding the expected results from in-situ or remote sensors. In particular, the 1991 shuttle based CIV experiment had diagnostics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spencer, Roy W.; Braswell, William D.
2014-02-01
Global average ocean temperature variations to 2,000 m depth during 1955-2011 are simulated with a 40 layer 1D forcing-feedback-mixing model for three forcing cases. The first case uses standard anthropogenic and volcanic external radiative forcings. The second adds non-radiative internal forcing (ocean mixing changes initiated in the top 200 m) proportional to the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) to represent an internal mode of natural variability. The third case further adds ENSO-related radiative forcing proportional to MEI as a possible natural cloud forcing mechanism associated with atmospheric circulation changes. The model adjustable parameters are net radiative feedback, effective diffusivities, and internal radiative (e.g., cloud) and non-radiative (ocean mixing) forcing coefficients at adjustable time lags. Model output is compared to Levitus ocean temperature changes in 50 m layers during 1955-2011 to 700 m depth, and to lag regression coefficients between satellite radiative flux variations and sea surface temperature between 2000 and 2010. A net feedback parameter of 1.7Wm-2 K-1 with only anthropogenic and volcanic forcings increases to 2.8Wm-2 K-1 when all ENSO forcings (which are one-third radiative) are included, along with better agreement between model and observations. The results suggest ENSO can influence multi-decadal temperature trends, and that internal radiative forcing of the climate system affects the diagnosis of feedbacks. Also, the relatively small differences in model ocean warming associated with the three cases suggests that the observed levels of ocean warming since the 1950s is not a very strong constraint on our estimates of climate sensitivity.
Exact solution of the 1D Hubbard model in the atomic limit with inter-site magnetic coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mancini, Ferdinando; Plekhanov, Evgeny; Sica, Gerardo
2013-05-01
In this paper, we present for the first time the exact solution in the narrow-band limit of the 1D extended Hubbard model with nearest-neighbour spin-spin interactions described by an exchange constant J. An external magnetic field h is also taken into account. This result has been obtained in the framework of the Green's functions formalism, using the composite operator method. By means of this theoretical background, we have studied some relevant features such as double occupancy, magnetization, spin-spin and charge-charge correlation functions and derived a phase diagram for both ferro (J > 0) and anti-ferro (J < 0) coupling in the limit of zero temperature. We also report a study on density of states, specific heat, charge and spin susceptibilities. In the limit of zero temperature, we show that the model exhibits a very rich phase diagram characterized by different magnetic orders and by the coexistence of charge and spin orderings at commensurate filling. Moreover, our analysis at finite temperature of density of states and response functions shows the presence of low-temperature charge and spin excitations near the phase boundaries.
Shuttle data book: SRM fragment velocity model. Presented to the SRB Fragment Model Review Panel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1989-01-01
This study was undertaken to determine the velocity of fragments generated by the range safety destruction (RSD) or random failure of a Space Transportation System (STS) Solid Rocket Motor (SRM). The specific requirement was to provide a fragment model for use in those Galileo and Ulysses RTG safety analyses concerned with possible fragment impact on the spacecraft radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGS). Good agreement was obtained between predictions and observations for fragment velocity, velocity distributions, azimuths, and rotation rates. Based on this agreement with the entire data base, the model was used to predict the probable fragment environments which would occur in the event of an STS-SRM RSD or randon failure at 10, 74, 84 and 110 seconds. The results of these predictions are the basis of the fragment environments presented in the Shuttle Data Book (NSTS-08116). The information presented here is in viewgraph form.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooke, William; Donner, Leo
2015-04-01
Microphysical and aerosol processes determine the magnitude of climate forcing by aerosol-cloud interactions, are central aspects of cloud-climate feedback, and are important elements in weather systems for which accurate forecasting is a major goal of numerical weather prediction. Realistic simulation of these processes demands not only accurate microphysical and aerosol process representations but also realistic simulation of the vertical motions in which the aerosols and microphysics act. Aerosol activation, for example, is a strong function of vertical velocity. Cumulus parameterizations for climate and numerical weather prediction models have recently begun to include vertical velocities among the statistics they predict. These vertical velocities have been subject to only limited evaluation using observed vertical velocities. Deployments of multi-Doppler radars and dual-frequency profilers in recent field campaigns have substantially increased the observational base of cumulus vertical velocities, which for decades had been restricted mostly to GATE observations. Observations from TWP-ICE (Darwin, Australia) and MC3E (central United States) provide previously unavailable information on the vertical structure of cumulus vertical velocities and observations in differing synoptic contexts from those available in the past. They also provide an opportunity to independently evaluate cumulus parameterizations with vertical velocities tuned to earlier GATE observations. This presentation will compare vertical velocities observed in TWP-ICE and MC3E with cumulus vertical velocities using the parameterization in the GFDL CM3 climate model. Single-column results indicate parameterized vertical velocities are frequently greater than observed. Errors in parameterized vertical velocities exhibit similarities to vertical velocities explicitly simulated by cloud-system resolving models, and underlying issues in the treatment of microphysics may be important for both. The dependence of convective microphysical properties on vertical velocities and consequences for microphysics of simulation errors will be illustrated. Underlying limitations in the parameterization and model resolution will be discussed as explanations for differences between observed and simulated vertical velocities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichinose, G. A.
2006-12-01
Many scientific issues for the Basin and Range Province (BRP) remain unsettled including structural evolution, strain rates, slip partitioning and earthquake source physics. A catalog of earthquake source parameters including locations and moment tensors is the basis for tectonic and geophysical study. New instrumentation from the Advance National Seismic System, EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, Bigfoot and US-Array brings the opportunity for high quality research; therefore, a catalog is an underlying foundation for examining the BRP. We are continuing to generate a moment tensor catalog for the BRP (Mw<3.5) using long-period regional waves spanning back to 1990. Iterative waveform inversion method (e.g., Nolet et al., 1986, Randell, 1994) is used to calibrate the BRP velocity and density structure using two northern and southern BRP earthquakes. The calibrated models generate realistic synthetics for (f<0.5Hz) with ~50-80% variance reduction. We averaged all path specific models to construct a 1-D BRP community background model. The crust is relatively simple between 5-20km (~6.12km/s) and there is a strong velocity gradient in the upper 5- km. There are lower velocities in the upper crust but higher velocities in the mid-crust for the Sierra Nevada paths relative to BRP. There is also a lower crust high-velocity anomaly near Battle Mountain and Elko that is faster by ~5% and may indicate a wider area of under-plating by basaltic magmas. There are significant low velocity zones in the upper and mid crust mainly across the Walker Lane Belt that may indicate the presence of fluids. We are continuing to work on assessing the performance of these newly calibrated models in improving the estimation of moment tensors down to lower magnitudes and mapping out holes in the seismic network which can be filled to improve moment tensor catalog. We also are looking at how these models work at locating earthquakes and comparing synthetics with those computed from models constrained from different data including refraction, surface wave dispersion, and travel-time tomography.
Modeling of Extinction in Turbulent Diffusion Flames by the Velocity-Dissipation-Composition
Modeling of Extinction in Turbulent Diffusion Flames by the Velocity-Dissipation-Composition PDF-dissipation-compositionprobabilitydensityfunction(pdf)method is used to model a turbulent CO/H2/N2-air-piloted jet diffusionflamein the regimeof extinction- nomenon of extinction. In this paper, the transport equation for the joint pdf of velocity, dissipation
Robert S. Crosson
1976-01-01
Arrival times from an ensemble of discrete earthquakes independently contain information on hypocenter locations and jointly provide information on the velocity model. A properly formulated least squares estimation procedure can be used to determine simultaneously both hypocenter and velocity model parameters. By means of this procedure a sufficiently well distributed set of earthquakes provides information on crustal structure without some
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Maciejewska, A.; Osi?ski, R.; Jakacki, J.; J?drasik, J.
2009-04-01
This paper presents a one-dimensional Ecosystem Model. Mathematically, the pelagic variables in the model are described by a second-order partial differential equation of the diffusion type with biogeochemical sources and sinks. The temporal changes in the phytoplankton biomass are caused by primary production, respiration, mortality, grazing by zooplankton and sinking. The zooplankton biomass is affected by ingestion, excretion, respiration, fecal production, mortality, and carnivorous grazing. The changes in the pelagic detritus concentration are determined by input of: dead phytoplankton and zooplankton, natural mortality of predators, fecal pellets, and sinks: sedimentation, zooplankton grazing and decomposition. The nutrient concentration is caused by nutrient release, zooplankton excretion, predator excretion, detritus decomposition and benthic regeneration as sources and by nutrient uptake by phytoplankton as sinks. However, the benthic detritus is described by phytoplankton sedimentation, detritus sedimentation and remineralisation. The particulate organic carbon concentration is determined as the sum of phytoplankton, zooplankton and dead organic matter (detritus) concentrations. The 1D ecosystem model was used to simulate the seasonal dynamics of pelagic variables (phytoplankton, zooplankton, pelagic detritus and POC) in the southern Baltic Sea (Gda?sk Deep, Bornholm Deep and Gotland Deep). The calculations were made assuming: 1) increase in the water temperature in the upper layer - 0.008oC per year, 2) increase in the available light - 0.2% per year. Based on this trend, daily, monthly and seasonal and annual variability of phytoplankton, zooplankton, pelagic detritus and particulate organic carbon in different areas of the southern Baltic Sea (Gda?sk Deep, Borrnholm Deep and Gotland Deep) in the euphotic layer was calculated for the years: 2000, 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050.
Thermal characterization of large size lithium-ion pouch cell based on 1d electro-thermal model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vertiz, G.; Oyarbide, M.; Macicior, H.; Miguel, O.; Cantero, I.; Fernandez de Arroiabe, P.; Ulacia, I.
2014-12-01
Thermal management is one of the key factors to keep lithium-ion cells in optimum electrical performance, under safe working conditions and into a reasonably low ageing process. This issue is becoming particularly relevant due to the heterogeneous heat generation along the cell. Cell working temperature is determined by ambient temperature, heat generation and evacuation capacity. Therefore, thermal management is established by: i) the intrinsic thermal properties (heat capacity & thermal conductivity) and ii) the heat generation electro-thermal parameters (internal resistance, open circuit voltage & entropic factor). In this research, different methods - calculated and experimental - are used to characterize the main heat properties of a 14Ah -LiFePO4/graphite-commercial large sizes pouch cell. In order to evaluate the accuracy of methods, two comparisons were performed. First, Newman heat generation estimations were compared with experimental heat measurements. Secondly, empirical thermal cell behaviour was match with 1D electro-thermal model response. Finally, considering the results, the most adequate methodology to evaluate the key thermal parameters of a large size Lithium-ion pouch cell are proposed to be: i) pulse method for internal resistance, ii)heat loss method for entropic factor; and iii)experimental measurement (ARC calorimeter and C-177-97 standard method) for heat capacity and thermal conductivity.
Basin and crustral velocity structure modeling for strong motion simulation in Kinki area, Japan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwata, T.; Kagawa, T.; Petukhin, A.; Onishi, Y.
2006-12-01
We constructed a prototype of the basin and crustal velocity structure model in Kinki area, SW of Japan, for the strong ground motion simulation of a hypothetical disastrous crustal and subduction earthquakes. Two deep seismic exploration experiments were conducted in the Kinki area, by the project of regional characterization of the crust in metropolitan areas for prediction of strong ground motion supported by MEXT (Ito et al., 2005; Sato et al., 2005). The obtained profiles give new information for underground structures of the crust, from the surface to the subducting slab. Three-dimensional seismic tomography results and seismic imaging results are also used for constraining of the crustal velocity structure model. The Osaka, Kyoto, Nara, and Ohmi basin velocity models, constructed many geophysical exploration survey results, are inserted into the crustal velocity structure model. The applicability of the constructed velocity structure model to the ground motion simulation is examined by simulating observed waveforms of appropriate size events.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ammirati, J. B.; Alvarado, P. M.; Beck, S. L.
2014-12-01
Receiver Function (RF) analyses using teleseismic P waveforms is a technique to isolate P to S conversions from seismic discontinuities in the lithosphere. Using earthquakes with a good azimuthal distribution, RFs recorded at a three-component seismic station can be inverted to obtain detailed lithospheric velocity structures. The technique, however presents a velocity-depth trade-off, which results in a non-unique model because RFs do not depend on the absolute seismic velocities but rather on relative velocity contrasts. Unlike RF, surface wave dispersion is sensitive to the average shear-wave velocity which makes it well suited for studying long period variations of the lithospheric seismic velocities. We performed a joint inversion of RF and Rayleigh-wave phase velocity dispersion to investigate the structure beneath the SIEMBRA network, a 43-broadband-seismic-station array deployed in the Pampean flat slab region of Argentina. Our results indicate: 1) The presence of several mid-crustal discontinuities probably related with terrane accretion; 2) A high seismic velocity in the lower crust suggesting partial eclogitization; 3) A thicker crust (> 50 km) beneath the western Sierras Pampeanas with an abrupt change in the relative timing of the Moho signal indicating a thinner crust to the east; 4) The presence of the subducting oceanic crust lying at ~100 km depth. We then built a 1D regional velocity model for the flat slab region of Argentina and used it for regional moment tensor inversions for local earthquakes. This technique is notably dependent on small-scale variations of Earth structure when modeling higher frequency seismic waveforms. Eighteen regional focal mechanisms have been determined. Our solutions are in good agreement with GCMT source estimations although our solutions for deep earthquakes systematically resulted in shallower focal depths suggesting that the slab seismicity could be concentrated at the top of the subducting Nazca plate. Solutions corresponding to crustal events match well the geological observations from other studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mamaní, M. J.; Borzotta, E.; Venencia, J. E.; Maidana, A.; Moyano, C. E.; Castiglione, B.
2000-05-01
Four magnetotelluric soundings were carried out in 1993 in the region of the Copahue active volcano located at the border between Chile and Argentina (37°45'S, 71°18'W). Three soundings were located inside the caldera of the ancient stratovolcano (east of Copahue) and the fourth outside it. The soundings inside the caldera were situated at about 6, 11, and 14 km from the volcano. Digital data were obtained covering the range of periods from 1 sec to 10,000 sec using induction coils and a flux-gate magnetometer to obtain the magnetic data and Cu-SO 4Cu electrodes for electric field measurements. The apparent resistivity curves corresponding to principal directions were analyzed in conjunction with the geological background in order to eliminate distortion which is very important in this hot volcanic region. Then, 1D modellings were performed using the "normal" curves i.e., curves without distortions. Using the apparent resistivity curves with distortions, 2D modelling was also performed along a profile perpendicular to the regional tectonic trend suggested by MT soundings into the caldera. Results show low resistivity values of about 3-15 ?m between 9 km to 20 km depth in the crust, suggesting high temperatures, with minimum values of about 700°C with partially melted zones in the upper crust between 9 km to 20 km depth under the caldera. The presence of a possible sulphide-carbonaceous layer (SC layer) in the upper basement could play an important role in lowering the electrical resistivities because of its high electronic conductivity.
Modelling of composite sandwich structures with honeycomb core subjected to high-velocity impact
Brenda L. Buitrago; Carlos Santiuste; Sonia Sánchez-Sáez; Enrique Barbero; Carlos Navarro
2010-01-01
In this study the perforation of composite sandwich structures subjected to high-velocity impact was analysed. Sandwich panels with carbon\\/epoxy skins and an aluminium honeycomb core were modelled by a three-dimensional finite element model implemented in ABAQUS\\/Explicit. The model was validated with experimental tests by comparing numerical and experimental residual velocity, ballistic limit, and contact time. By this model the influence
Chen, Bo
2012-10-19
) wedge model smoothed by median mesh lter; (c) wedge model smoothed by velocity gra- dient smoothing scheme; (d) wedge model smoothed by running average smoothing scheme. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12 2 Edge features preserved..., and (d) running average smoothed wedge model. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13 3 First arrival travel-time computed by Eikonal solver using (a) original wedge model, (b) median mesh smoothed wedge model, (c...
A new High-Resolution Model for the Velocity and Density Structure of Northwest Europe
A. Kelly; R. W. England; P. K. Maguire; R. A. Chadwick; T. C. Pharaoh
2004-01-01
A new high-resolution model for the crustal velocity structure of northwest Europe has been produced from wide-angle reflection seismic data. These data provide the best constraints on the P-wave velocity structure of the crust and depths to major interfaces (e.g.~Moho). Over 31000~km of wide-angle seismic profiles have been digitised to map the Moho depth and 3D variations in velocity structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spica, Zack J.; Caudron, Corentin; Pińa-Flores, José; Perton, Mathieu; Thomas, Lecocq; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Legrand, Denis
2015-04-01
It is now well accepted that the average autocorrelation of seismic noise at a single station is proportional to the imaginary part of the Green's function when both source and receiver are the same. More recently, it has been established that the horizontal and vertical imaginary parts of the Green's function, i.e. the horizontal and vertical transfer functions, should be used to calculate the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio of ambient noise (HVSR). The HVSR is a popular technique that only requires a short-term (20 minutes) 3 components recording of seismic noise. Assuming an unbounded multi-layer model for the computation of the Green function, one can conduct the HVSR inversions to assess the 1D velocity structure of the subsurface. This approach was used to constrain several 1D velocity models (certain up to 3 km deep) of the Ijen caldera (Java, Indonesia) already established by the inversion of dispersion curves. Additionally, 84 HVSR measurements were also performed on Kawah Ijen volcano and allowed to provide a map of the local site effects. The velocity models obtained and the great outcrop of the crater rim allow robust and direct interpretation of the underground geology. Using a first order approximation, some mechanical proprieties of the shallower layers can be derived and the depth of an important lithological interface can be followed all around the Kawah Ijen crater.
A global 3D P-velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle for improved event location.
Ballard, Sanford; Encarnacao, Andre Villanova; Begnaud, Michael A. (Los Alamos National Laboratories); Rowe, Charlotte A. (Los Alamos National Laboratories); Lewis, Jennifer E.; Young, Christopher John; Chang, Marcus C.; Hipp, James Richard
2010-04-01
To test the hypothesis that high quality 3D Earth models will produce seismic event locations which are more accurate and more precise, we are developing a global 3D P wave velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle using seismic tomography. In this paper, we present the most recent version of our model, SALSA3D (SAndia LoS Alamos) version 1.4, and demonstrate its ability to reduce mislocations for a large set of realizations derived from a carefully chosen set of globally-distributed ground truth events. Our model is derived from the latest version of the Ground Truth (GT) catalog of P and Pn travel time picks assembled by Los Alamos National Laboratory. To prevent over-weighting due to ray path redundancy and to reduce the computational burden, we cluster rays to produce representative rays. Reduction in the total number of ray paths is > 55%. The model is represented using the triangular tessellation system described by Ballard et al. (2009), which incorporates variable resolution in both the geographic and radial dimensions. For our starting model, we use a simplified two layer crustal model derived from the Crust 2.0 model over a uniform AK135 mantle. Sufficient damping is used to reduce velocity adjustments so that ray path changes between iterations are small. We obtain proper model smoothness by using progressive grid refinement, refining the grid only around areas with significant velocity changes from the starting model. At each grid refinement level except the last one we limit the number of iterations to prevent convergence thereby preserving aspects of broad features resolved at coarser resolutions. Our approach produces a smooth, multi-resolution model with node density appropriate to both ray coverage and the velocity gradients required by the data. This scheme is computationally expensive, so we use a distributed computing framework based on the Java Parallel Processing Framework, providing us with {approx}400 processors. Resolution of our model is assessed using a variation of the standard checkerboard method, as well as by directly estimating the diagonal of the model resolution matrix based on the technique developed by Bekas, et al. We compare the travel-time prediction and location capabilities of this model over standard 1D models. We perform location tests on a global, geographically-distributed event set with ground truth levels of 5 km or better. These events generally possess hundreds of Pn and P phases from which we can generate different realizations of station distributions, yielding a range of azimuthal coverage and proportions of teleseismic to regional arrivals, with which we test the robustness and quality of relocation. The SALSA3D model reduces mislocation over standard 1D ak135, especially with increasing azimuthal gap. The 3D model appears to perform better for locations based solely or dominantly on regional arrivals, which is not unexpected given that ak135 represents a global average and cannot therefore capture local and regional variations.
Ritsema, Jeroen
of thermal upwelling [e.g., Schuberth et al., 2009; Simmons et al., 2009; Davies et al., 2012]. [3: Thorne, M. S., Y. Zhang, and J. Ritsema (2013), Evaluation of 1-D and 3-D seismic models of the Pacific lower mantle with S, SKS, and SKKS traveltimes and amplitudes, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 118, 985
Thorne, Michael
of thermal upwelling [e.g., Schuberth et al., 2009; Simmons et al., 2009; Davies et al., 2012]. [3. Zhang, and J. Ritsema (2013), Evaluation of 1-D and 3-D seismic models of the Pacific lower mantle with S, SKS, and SKKS traveltimes and amplitudes, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 118, doi:10.1002/jgrb
Wu, Yih-Min
Tectonics Earthquake tomography Moho Subduction Thrust belt In order to better understand the mode identified three Moho discontinuities and the plate interface that juxtaposes Eurasian lower crust against mapping. For the Moho, additional depth constraints were derived from 1D models using P-wave arrivals
A Comparison of Different-Mode Fields Generated from Grounded-Wire Source Based on the 1D Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Nan-Nan; Xue, Guo-qiang; Li, Hai; Younis, M.; Hou, Dong-yang; Zhong, Hua-sen; Chen, Wei-ying; Cui, Jiang-wei
2015-05-01
Calculation of pressure gradients from MR velocity data in a laminar flow model.
Adler, R S; Chenevert, T L; Fowlkes, J B; Pipe, J; Rubin, J M
1991-01-01
The MR velocity data obtained in a simple geometry and low Reynolds number are employed to calculate pressure gradients using the known solution of the Navier-Stokes equation. Calculations compare favorably with measured results for the simple model presented. The potential usefulness of noninvasive pressure gradient determination from quantitative analysis of imaging-derived velocity distributions is suggested. PMID:2026816
A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR TSUNAMI GENERATION USING A CONSERVATIVE VELOCITY-PRESSURE HYPERBOLIC SYSTEM
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR TSUNAMI GENERATION USING A CONSERVATIVE VELOCITY-PRESSURE HYPERBOLIC enable to propagate as a SaintVenant water wave and to become a tsunami when reaching the shore. We. We conclude by some discussions about the emergence of a tsunami wave or not. 1. The velocity
Particle Velocity Interpolation in Block-Centered Finite Difference Groundwater Flow Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goode, Daniel J.
1990-05-01
A block-centered, finite difference model of two-dimensional groundwater flow yields velocity values at the midpoints of interfaces between adjacent blocks. Method of characteristics, random walk and particle-tracking models of solute transport require velocities at arbitrary particle locations within the finite difference grid. Particle path lines and travel times are sensitive to the spatial interpolation scheme employed, particularly in heterogeneous aquifers. This paper briefly reviews linear and bilinear interpolation of velocity and introduces a new interpolation scheme. Linear interpolation of velocity is consistent with the numerical solution of the flow equation and preserves discontinuities in velocity caused by abrupt (blocky) changes in transmissivity or hydraulic conductivity. However, linear interpolation yields discontinuous and somewhat unrealistic velocities in homogeneous aquifers. Bilinear interpolation of velocity yields continuous and realistic velocities in homogeneous and smoothly heterogeneous aquifers but does not preserve discontinuities in velocity at abrupt transmissivity boundaries. The new scheme uses potentiometric head gradients and offers improved accuracy for nonuniform flow in heterogeneous aquifers with abrupt changes in transmissivity. The new scheme is equivalent to bilinear interpolation in homogeneous media and is equivalent to linear interpolation where gradients are uniform. Selecting the best interpolation scheme depends, in part, on the conceptualization of aquifer heterogeneity, that is, whether changes in transmissivity occur abruptly or smoothly.
Wataru Mori; Jun Ueda; Tsukasa Ogasawara
2009-01-01
This paper demonstrates that a 1-DOF planar ball-throwing robot has the capability of controlling three kinematic variables of a ball independently: translational velocity, angular velocity, and direction. The throwing motion is modeled using two underactuated contact dynamics, called a finger-link contact model and a fingertip contact model, with a unidirectional transition from one model to another. A combination of a
Self-healing slip pulses in dynamic rupture models due to velocity-dependent strength
Beeler, N.M.; Tullis, T.E.
1996-01-01
Seismological observations of short slip duration on faults (short rise time on seismograms) during earthquakes are not consistent with conventional crack models of dynamic rupture and fault slip. In these models, the leading edge of rupture stops only when a strong region is encountered, and slip at an interior point ceases only when waves from the stopped edge of slip propagate back to that point. In contrast, some seismological evidence suggests that the duration of slip is too short for waves to propagate from the nearest edge of the ruptured surface, perhaps even if the distance used is an asperity size instead of the entire rupture dimension. What controls slip duration, if not dimensions of the fault or of asperities? In this study, dynamic earthquake rupture and slip are represented by a propagating shear crack. For all propagating shear cracks, slip velocity is highest near the rupture front, and at a small distance behind the rupture front, the slip velocity decreases. As pointed out by Heaton (1990), if the crack obeys a negative slip-rate-dependent strength relation, the lower slip velocity behind the rupture front will lead to strengthening that further reduces the velocity, and under certain circumstances, healing of slip can occur. The boundary element method of Hamano (1974) is used in a program adapted from Andrews (1985) for numerical simulations of mode II rupture with two different velocity-dependent strength functions. For the first function, after a slip-weakening displacement, the crack follows an exponential velocity-weakening relation. The characteristic velocity V0 of the exponential determines the magnitude of the velocity-dependence at dynamic velocities. The velocity-dependence at high velocity is essentially zero when V0 is small and the resulting slip velocity distribution is similar to slip weakening. If V0 is larger, rupture propagation initially resembles slip-weakening, but spontaneous healing occurs behind the rupture front. The rise time and rupture propagation velocity depend on the choice of constitutive parameters. The second strength function is a natural log velocity-dependent form similar to constitutive laws that fit experimental rock friction data at lower velocities. Slip pulses also arise with this function. For a reasonable choice of constitutive parameters, slip pulses with this function do not propagate at speeds greater than the Raleighwave velocity. The calculated slip pulses are similar in many aspects to seismic observations of short rise time. In all cases of self-healing slip pulses, the residual stress increases with distance behind the trailing edge of the pulse so that the final stress drop is much less than the dynamic stress drop, in agreement with the model of Brune (1976) and some recent seismological observations of rupture.
Code package MAG c user tool for numerical modeling of 1D shock wave and dynamic processes in solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudenko, Vladimir; Shaburov, Michail
1999-06-01
Design and theoretical and numerical preparation of shock wave experiments require, as a rule, conduction of a large amount of calculations. Usually preparation of a problem for numerical solution, calculation and processing of the results is done be programmers c mathematicians. The appearance of powerful personal computers and interface tools allows to develop such user-oriented programs that a researcher can handle them without the help of a mathematician, even if he does not have special programming background. Code package MAG for numerical solution of 1D system of equations of hydrodynamics, elastoplastics, heat conduction and magnetic hydrodynamic. A number of modern models of elastoplastics and kinetics of power materials is implemented in it. The package includes libraries of equations of state, thermal physical and electromagnetic properties of substances. The code package is an interactive visual medium providing a user with the following capabilities: ? Input and edit initial data for a problem; ? Calculate separate problems, as well as series of problems with a possibility of automatic variation of parameters; ? View the modeled phenomena dynamically using the means of visualization; ? Control the process of calculation: terminate the calculation, change parameters, make express-processing of the results, continue the calculation etc.; ? Process the numerical results producing final plots and tables; ? Record and store numerical results in databases, including the formats supported by Microsoft Word, Acces, Exel; ? Make dynamic visual comparison of the results of several simultaneous calculations; ? Carry out automatic numerical optimization of a selected experimental scheme. The package is easy in use, allows prompt input and convenient information processing. The validity of numerical results obtained with the package MAG has been proved by numerous hydrodynamic experiments and comparisons with numerical results from similar programs. The package was developed using the means of the integrated medium of visual development of applications Delphi-4 and contains about 50000 lines of initial code in Object Pascal programming language. An executable file runs on IBM-compatible personal computers under operation systems Windows-NT, Windows-95,-98.The code package MAG is under constant improvement and development. A tutorial package on physics of solids for high institutions and scientific research centers is developed on its basis. The package may be adjusted and improved in collaboration with interested users.
An improved model for the non-linear velocity power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jennings, Elise
2012-11-01
The velocity divergence power spectrum is a key ingredient in modelling redshift-space distortion effects on quasi-linear and non-linear scales. We present an improved model for the z= 0 velocity divergence auto and cross power spectrum which was originally suggested by Jennings et al. Using numerical simulations we measure the velocity fields using a Delaunay tessellation and obtain an accurate prediction of the velocity divergence power spectrum on scales k < 1 h Mpc-1. We use this to update the model which is now accurate to 2 per cent for both P?? and P?? at z= 0 on scales k < 0.65 h Mpc-1 and k < 0.35 h Mpc-1, respectively. We find that the formula for the redshift dependence of the velocity divergence power spectra proposed by Jennings et al. recovers the measured z > 0 P(k) to markedly greater accuracy with the new model. The non-linear P?? and P?? at z= 1 are recovered accurately to better than 2 per cent on scales k < 0.2 h Mpc-1. Recently, it was shown that the velocity field shows larger differences between modified gravity cosmologies and ? cold dark matter (?CDM) compared to the matter field. An accurate model for the velocity divergence power spectrum, such as the one presented here, is a valuable tool for analysing redshift-space distortion effects in future galaxy surveys and for constraining deviations from general relativity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Augustins, L.; Billardon, R.; Hild, F.
2015-06-01
One of the critical points of the thermomechanical fatigue design process is the correct description of the cyclic behavior of the material. This work focuses on the material of automotive brake discs, namely flake graphite cast iron. The specificity of this material is its asymmetric behavior under tensile and compressive loadings, which is due to the shape of graphite that acts as small cracks. Multiscale models inspired from the literature are first presented. They lead to a good description of the material behavior under cyclic loadings. An elastoviscoplastic constitutive model is then proposed in a one-dimensional setting in order to accurately describe cyclic tests from room temperature up to 600° C.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Q.; Shimeld, J.; Dickie, K.; Dehler, S. A.; Desroches, K.
2013-12-01
Sediment thickness determinations play a key role in positioning the most seaward fixed points of the outer limits of continental shelves for coastal states. Seismic reflection surveying is an invaluable technique for estimating the sediment thickness required for the positioning. However, such seismic reflection surveying records the two way travel time (twtt) of vertically incident seismic waves. An accurate seismic velocity model is required for the conversion between twtt and sediment thickness. In this approach, a velocity model is constructed, its uncertainty is evaluated, and twtt is converted to sediment thickness. All of these procedures are programmed for batch and script processing. First, a slowness (the inverse of velocity) function, which is based on the solid sediment compaction theory, is selected and it is fitted using all available velocity observations using the reduced major axis (RMA) method, which can minimize errors from both velocity and depth observations. Second, the velocity uncertainty is estimated using a bootstrapping method by simulating a non-replace re-sampling procedure; thus it is also used in the estimation of sediment thickness uncertainty that is caused by velocity model errors. Moreover, with the constructed velocity model, conversion from sediment depth to twtt is resolved analytically and the conversion from twtt to depth is completed by solving a nonlinear equation with Newton iteration method, having approved convergence efficiency and a predefined accuracy (0.1 m). Finally, all these processes have been implemented in C# and JavaScript for integration with GeoFrame file format (seismic horizon interpretation) or embedded in any document with power batch processing and flexible verification facilities. As an example, publicly available velocity observations in the Labrador Sea region are used in the construction of a velocity model and the evaluation of velocity and sediment thickness uncertainty. The conversion between twtt and sediment thickness, based on the constructed velocity model, is derived and their excellent performance is demonstrated by simulating and comparing with published velocity models in the deep water region of the global oceans.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Begnaud, M. L.; Ballard, S.; Young, C. J.; Hipp, J. R.; Encarnacao, A. V.; Maceira, M.; Phillips, W. S.; Chael, E. P.; Rowe, C. A.
2014-12-01
The SALSA3D (SAndia LoS Alamos 3D) global three-dimensional P-velocity tomography model of the Earth's crust and mantle has been shown to significantly improve seismic event location accuracy and precision, compared to standard 1D and 2/2.5D models. This improvement has been demonstrated using data from the International Monitoring System (IMS), a sparse, global seismic network. In relocation tests using the IMS network and a set of seismic events with ground truth (GT) levels of 5 km or better, over 80% of the defining arrivals are regional Pn (15%) or teleseismic P phases (65.1%). There is a small percentage of phases that requires a model that supports secondary phase prediction. We plan to update the SALSA3D model to include an S-velocity component as well as an updated P-velocity model using secondary compressional phases. Our model is derived from the latest version of the GT catalog of travel-time picks assembled by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model is represented using the triangular tessellation system described by Ballard et al. (2009), which incorporates variable resolution in both the geographic and radial dimensions. For our starting model, we use a simplified layer crustal model derived from the Crust 1.0 model, overlying a uniform ak135 mantle. Sufficient damping is used to reduce velocity adjustments so that ray path changes between iterations are small. We obtain proper model smoothness by using progressive grid refinement, refining the grid only in areas where it is warranted by the available data. Our approach produces a smooth, multi-resolution model with node density appropriate to both ray coverage and the velocity gradients required by the data. We compare the travel-time prediction and location capabilities of the updated SALSA3D model to standard 1D and 2/2.5D models via location tests on a global event set with GT of 5 km or better. We compare location results using a subset of these events that have a significant number of phases with which to produce random realizations of actual arrival data. In addition, further tests will involve using GT5 or better events and their arrivals specifically for the IMS network, to test the use of a 3D model on an operational network intended for explosion monitoring.
Settling velocities of particulate systems: 14. Unified model of sedimentation, centrifugation
Bürger, Raimund
Settling velocities of particulate systems: 14. Unified model of sedimentation, centrifugationliquid separation of flocculated suspensions including sedimentation- thickening, centrifugation and filtration. After identifying the variables and equations for each of the operations, thickening, centrifugation
Estimating V?s(30) (or NEHRP site classes) from shallow velocity models (depths < 30 m)
Boore, David M.
2004-01-01
The average velocity to 30 m [V??s(30)] is a widely used parameter for classifying sites to predict their potential to amplify seismic shaking. In many cases, however, models of shallow shear-wave velocities, from which V??s(30) can be computed, do not extend to 30 m. If the data for these cases are to be used, some method of extrapolating the velocities must be devised. Four methods for doing this are described here and are illustrated using data from 135 boreholes in California for which the velocity model extends to at least 30 m. Methods using correlations between shallow velocity and V??s(30) result in significantly less bias for shallow models than the simplest method of assuming that the lowermost velocity extends to 30 m. In addition, for all methods the percent of sites misclassified is generally less than 10% and falls to negligible values for velocity models extending to at least 25 m. Although the methods using correlations do a better job on average of estimating V??s(30), the simplest method will generally result in a lower value of V??s(30) and thus yield a more conservative estimate of ground motion [which generally increases as V??s(30) decreases].
'A Civil Action' 1-D Transport Game
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Scott Bair
The 'A Civil Action' 1-D Contaminant Transport Game is an EXCEL spreadsheet that enables students to compute concentrations of TCE traveling in the groundwater flow system toward well H that emanate from the W.R. Grace site. The idea of the game is to draw students into learning some of the fundamental concepts about (1) how contaminants move in the subsurface and (2) how models can be used to test hypotheses. These concepts are taught within the context of the famous 'A Civil Action' trial described in the book by Jonathan Harr (1996) and the movie starring John Travolta (1998). The spreadsheet computes values of hydraulic head, advective flow velocities and traveltimes, contaminant velocities, and contaminant concentrations at 20 locations along the flowpath from W.R. Grace to the Aberjona River. Breakthrough curves showing changes in concentration versus distance and changes in concentration versus time pop-up automatically (see below). The spreadsheet also creates graphs of advective and contaminant velocities versus distance.
Finite-Source Inversion for the 2004 Parkfield Earthquake using 3D Velocity Model Green's Functions
A. Kim; D. Dreger; S. Larsen
2008-01-01
We determine finite fault models of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake using 3D Green's functions. Because of the dense station coverage and detailed 3D velocity structure model in this region, this earthquake provides an excellent opportunity to examine how the 3D velocity structure affects the finite fault inverse solutions. Various studies (e.g. Michaels and Eberhart-Phillips, 1991; Thurber et al., 2006) indicate
Gripp, A.E.; Gordon, R.G. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA))
1990-07-01
NUVEL-1 is a new global model of current relative plate velocities which differ significantly from those of prior models. Here the authors incorporate NUVEL-1 into HS2-NUVEL1, a new global model of plate velocities relative to the hotspots. HS2-NUVEL1 was determined from the hotspot data and errors used by Minster and Jordan (1978) to determine AM1-2, which is their model of plate velocities relative to the hotspots. AM1-2 is consistent with Minster and Jordan's relative plate velocity model RM2. Here the authors compare HS2-NUVEL1 with AM1-2 and examine how their differences relate to differences between NUVEL-1 and RM2. HS2-NUVEL1 plate velocities relative to the hotspots are mainly similar to those of AM1-2. Minor differences between the two models include the following: (1) in HS2-NUVEL1 the speed of the partly continental, apparently non-subducting Indian plate is greater than that of the purely oceanic, subducting Nazca plate; (2) in places the direction of motion of the African, Antarctic, Arabian, Australian, Caribbean, Cocos, Eurasian, North American, and South American plates differs between models by more than 10{degree}; (3) in places the speed of the Australian, Caribbean, Cocos, Indian, and Nazca plates differs between models by more than 8 mm/yr. Although 27 of the 30 RM2 Euler vectors differ with 95% confidence from those of NUVEL-1, only the AM1-2 Arabia-hotspot and India-hotspot Euler vectors differ with 95% confidence from those of HS2-NUVEL1. Thus, substituting NUVEL-1 for RM2 in the inversion for plate velocities relative to the hotspots changes few Euler vectors significantly, presumably because the uncertainty in the velocity of a plate relative to the hotspots is much greater than the uncertainty in its velocity relative to other plates.
A ceramic fracture model for high velocity impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, William H.
1993-05-01
The objectives of this research program were to develop, implement, and demonstrate a failure model for aluminum oxide ceramic under impact loading. A comprehensive test program for Coors AD-85 was conducted. Four types of experiments provided a basis for the development of the ceramic failure model. A phenomenological damage-based failure model for compressive fracture of impacted aluminum oxide was developed with emphasis placed on predicting fragment sizes of failed ceramic. Test data suggested a fragment size correlation with loading rate. A model was developed incorporating the data and implemented in the EPIC hydrocode. Comparisons of the results of this model to penetration test were positive.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirkby, A.; Heinson, G.; Holford, S.; Thiel, S.
2015-06-01
We present 1D anisotropic inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) data as a potential tool for mapping structural permeability in sedimentary basins. Using 1D inversions of a 171 site, broadband MT data set from the Koroit region of the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia, we have delineated an electrically anisotropic layer at approximately 2.5 to 3.5 km depth. The anisotropy strike is consistent between stations at approximately 160° east of north. The depth of anisotropy corresponds to the top depth of the Lower Cretaceous Crayfish Group, and the anisotropy factor increases from west to east. We interpret the anisotropy as resulting from north-northwest oriented, fluid-filled fractures resulting in enhanced electrical and hydraulic conductivity. This interpretation is consistent with permeability data from well formation tests. It is also consistent with the orientation of mapped faults in the area, which are optimally oriented for reactivation in the current stress field.
Subgrid scale updraft velocity in km-scale models: implication for the aerosol indirect effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malavelle, F.; Haywood, J.; Field, P.; Hill, A.; Abel, S.; Lock, A.; Shipway, B.; McBeath, K.
2013-12-01
Aerosol-cloud-interactions (ACI) span a large range of spatial and temporal scales. The coarse resolution used in Global Circulation Models and Earth System models is unable to resolve the fine scale processes (e.g. vertical velocity, turbulent mixing) or the microphysical and dynamic feedbacks that are important for ACI, which leads to important uncertainties. The microphysical link between aerosols and clouds is activation, which is a strong function of the cloud-scale updraft velocity. To bridge the gap between the cloud scale and the global scale, a potential approach is using high-resolution large-scale models such as those from operational Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). However, even for non-hydrostatic km-scale NWP models, vertical velocities are only partially resolved. This work focuses on the parameterisation of the sub-grid vertical velocity and aerosol activation in such models. In order to estimate the contribution of the unresolved sub-grid variability, we analyse the updraft velocity at cloud resolving scales. Our strategy relies on running Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models and analysing hi-resolution aircraft observations of stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds to devise the scale-linking partition function of the total updraft velocity variability. To construct such a function, the resolved and sub-grid parts of the variables at coarser grid sizes are deduced after coarse graining the initial high resolution datasets. On this basis, we have developed and tested a framework for a parameterization that represents the sub-grid variability of updraft velocity in UK-Met Office NWP model, the Unified Model (UM), which is applicable to resolutions up to a few km. We show that without correction, the variability of updraft velocity decreases with decreasing model resolution. Applying our parameterization leads to consistent estimates of vertical velocity variability across the different resolutions. The contribution of the sub-grid variability to the vertical velocity standard deviation is factor of ~4-8 increase in simulations at a 1 km horizontal grid resolution. Offline calculations of CCN activated fraction using two activation schemes have been performed to investigate the sensitivity of the activation processes when the sub-grid scale vertical velocity variability is accounted for. These tests show significant increases in the CCN activated fraction, from +20% up to +100% depending on CCN concentration and the scheme considered. This highlights important implications for future ACI simulations at km-scale.
Quantifying Uncertainty in Velocity Models using Bayesian Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hobbs, R.; Caiado, C.; Majda?ski, M.
2008-12-01
Quanitifying uncertainty in models derived from observed data is a major issue. Public and political understanding of uncertainty is poor and for industry inadequate assessment of risk costs money. In this talk we will examine the geological structure of the subsurface, however our principal exploration tool, controlled source seismology, gives its data in time. Inversion tools exist to map these data into a depth model but a full exploration of the uncertainty of the model is rarely done because robust strategies do not exist for large non-linear complex systems. There are two principal sources of uncertainty: the first comes from the input data which is noisy and bandlimited; the second, and more sinister, is from the model parameterisation and forward algorithms themselves, which approximate to the physics to make the problem tractable. To address these issues we propose a Bayesian approach. One philosophy is to estimate the uncertainty in a possible model derived using standard inversion tools. During the inversion stage we can use our geological prejudice to derive an acceptable model. Then we use a local random walk using the Metropolis- Hastings algorithm to explore the model space immediately around a possible solution. For models with a limited number of parameters we can use the forward modeling step from the inversion code. However as the number of parameters increase and/or the cost of the forward modeling step becomes significant, we need to use fast emulators to act as proxies so a sufficient number of iterations can be performed on which to base our statistical measures of uncertainty. In this presentation we show examples of uncertainty estimation using both pre- and post-critical seismic data. In particular, we will demonstrate uncertainty introduced by the approximation of the physics by using a tomographic inversion of bandlimited data and show that uncertainty increases as the central frequency of the data decreases. This is consistent with the infinite frequency approximation in the tomographic modeling step becoming increasing compromised.
Detailed p- and s-wave velocity models along the LARSE II transect, Southern California
Murphy, J.M.; Fuis, G.S.; Ryberg, T.; Lutter, W.J.; Catchings, R.D.; Goldman, M.R.
2010-01-01
Structural details of the crust determined from P-wave velocity models can be improved with S-wave velocity models, and S-wave velocities are needed for model-based predictions of strong ground motion in southern California. We picked P- and S-wave travel times for refracted phases from explosive-source shots of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, Phase II (LARSE II); we developed refraction velocity models from these picks using two different inversion algorithms. For each inversion technique, we calculated ratios of P- to S-wave velocities (VP/VS) where there is coincident P- and S-wave ray coverage.We compare the two VP inverse velocity models to each other and to results from forward modeling, and we compare the VS inverse models. The VS and VP/VS models differ in structural details from the VP models. In particular, dipping, tabular zones of low VS, or high VP/VS, appear to define two fault zones in the central Transverse Ranges that could be parts of a positive flower structure to the San Andreas fault. These two zones are marginally resolved, but their presence in two independent models lends them some credibility. A plot of VS versus VP differs from recently published plots that are based on direct laboratory or down-hole sonic measurements. The difference in plots is most prominent in the range of VP = 3 to 5 km=s (or VS ~ 1:25 to 2:9 km/s), where our refraction VS is lower by a few tenths of a kilometer per second from VS based on direct measurements. Our new VS - VP curve may be useful for modeling the lower limit of VS from a VP model in calculating strong motions from scenario earthquakes.
Specified discharge velocity models for numerical simulations of laminar vortex rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danaila, Ionut; Vadean, Claudiu; Danaila, Sterian
2009-09-01
We numerically and theoretically investigate the flow generated at the exit section of a piston/cylinder arrangement that is generally used in experiments to produce vortex rings. Accurate models for the velocity profile in this section (also called specified discharge velocity, SDV models) are necessary in (i) numerical simulations of laminar vortex rings that do not compute the flow inside the cylinder and (ii) in slug-models that provide a formula for the total circulation of the flow. Based on the theoretical and numerical analysis of the flow evolution in the entrance region of a pipe, we derive two new and easy to implement SDV models. A first model takes into account the unsteady evolution of the centerline velocity, while the second model also includes the time variation of the characteristics of the boundary layer at the exit plane of the vortex generator. The models are tested in axisymmetric direct numerical simulations of vortex rings. As distinguished from classical SDV model, the new models allow to accurately reproduce the characteristics of the flow. In particular, the time evolution of the total circulation is in good agreement with experimental results and previous numerical simulations including the vortex generator. The second model also provides a more realistic time evolution of the vortex ring circulation. Using the classical slug-model and the new correction for the centerline velocity, we finally derive a new and accurate analytical expression for the total circulation of the flow.
Relations among fault behavior, subsurface geology, and three-dimensional velocity models
Michael, A.J.; Eberhart-Phillips, D.
1991-01-01
The development of three-dimensional P-wave velocity models for the regions surrounding five large earthquakes in California has lead to the recognition of relations among fault behavior and the material properties of the rocks that contact the fault at seismogenic depths; regions of high moment release appear to correlate with high seismic velocities whereas rupture initiation or termination may be associated with lower seismic velocities. These relations point toward a physical understanding of why faults are divided into segments that can fail independently, an understanding that could improve our ability to predict earthquakes and strong ground motion.
Modeling the effect of varying swim speeds on fish passage through velocity barriers
Castro-Santos, T.
2006-01-01
The distance fish can swim through zones of high-velocity flow is an important factor limiting the distribution and conservation of riverine and diadromous fishes. Often, these barriers are characterized by nonuniform flow conditions, and it is likely that fish will swim at varying speeds to traverse them. Existing models used to predict passage success, however, typically include the unrealistic assumption that fish swim at a constant speed regardless of the speed of flow. This paper demonstrates how the maximum distance of ascent through velocity barriers can be estimated from the swim speed-fatigue time relationship, allowing for variation in both swim speed and water velocity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Soojin; Yook, Se-Jin; Lee, Kwan-Soo
2014-03-01
The Gaussian diffusion sphere model (GDSM) is proposed to predict the average deposition velocity of particles onto a flat plate exposed to parallel airflow after considering the combined effects of electrophoresis and thermophoresis. This model can account for convection, Brownian diffusion, gravitational settling, thermophoresis, and electrophoresis, and it provides fast calculation times and accurate predictions. Using the GDSM, the effects of the deposition surface size on the deposition velocity are analyzed. When the gravitational effect is dominant for a face-up surface or the attractive electrophoresis effect is dominant, the deposition velocity is estimated to be independent of the deposition surface size. Deposition under the influence of thermophoresis depends on the deposition surface size due to the formation of a thermal boundary layer. Deposition velocities for a 450-mm-long surface are studied under a temperature difference of 40 K and for electric field strengths ranging from 0 to 1000 V/cm.
Norris, A.T. (NASA Lewis Research Center, Brookpark, OH (United States). Inst. for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion); Pope, S.B. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)
1995-01-01
The velocity-dissipation-composition probability density function (pdf) method is used to model a turbulent CO/H[sub 2]/N[sub 2]-air-piloted jet diffusion flame in the regime of extinction. The thermochemistry is modeled by a three-scalar simplified formulation obtained by the intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (ILDM) method. Calculations are performed for five different jet velocities, and the scalar pdfs are compared with experimental data. Overall good agreement is obtained between the calculations and the experimental results, with the only significant difference being the high level of scatter in the experimental data compared with the pdf results: reasons for this difference are discussed. The pdf method is found to predict flame extinction at approximately the same jet velocity as that of the experiment. A small amount of local extinction is observed in the pdf results for the high-jet-velocity cases.
Direct Measurement of Internal Flow Velocities in a Star-Slot Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foster, Winfred A., Jr.; Jenkins, Rhonald M.; Hengel, John E.; Smith, Andrew W.
1997-01-01
This paper presents the results of a cold flow experiment to make direct measurements of the velocity distribution in a model of a solid rocket motor star grain propellant slot. The experimental procedure utilizes a multi-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) and an apparatus for seeding the flow with aluminum particles to determine the velocity components at various discrete locations within the star slot. The test article used in this investigation was a one-tenth scale, cold flow model based on the geometry of the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor head-end section. The results obtained for the direct measurements of velocity are compared to velocities calculated from measured pressure distributions to data obtained from oil smear experiments and flow visualization videos, and to heat transfer calorimeter data.
Considerations in the Calculation of Vertical Velocity in Three-Dimensional Circulation Models
RICHARD A. LUETTICH JR; Julia C. Muccino; Michael G. G. Foreman
2002-01-01
The vertical velocity, w, in three-dimensional circulation models is typically computed from the three-di- mensional continuity equation given the free-surface elevation and depth-varying horizontal velocity. This prob- lem appears to be overdetermined, since the continuity equation is first order, yet w must satisfy boundary conditions at both the free surface and the bottom. At least three methods have been previously
Sobolev scalar products in the construction of velocity models
Cerveny, Vlastislav
mail: klimes@seis.karlov.mff.cuni.cz Summary The Sobolev scalar products are defined, and discussed from inversion enables to control the model parameters unresolved by the data being fit. For example, if the interface is formed by a part of zero isosurface of a smooth function, the data tend just to minimize
A global 3D P-velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle for improved event location : SALSA3D.
Young, Christopher John; Steck, Lee K. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Phillips, William Scott (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Ballard, Sanford; Chang, Marcus C.; Rowe, Charlotte A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Encarnacao, Andre Villanova; Begnaud, Michael A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Hipp, James Richard
2010-07-01
To test the hypothesis that high quality 3D Earth models will produce seismic event locations which are more accurate and more precise, we are developing a global 3D P wave velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle using seismic tomography. In this paper, we present the most recent version of our model, SALSA3D version 1.5, and demonstrate its ability to reduce mislocations for a large set of realizations derived from a carefully chosen set of globally-distributed ground truth events. Our model is derived from the latest version of the Ground Truth (GT) catalog of P and Pn travel time picks assembled by Los Alamos National Laboratory. To prevent over-weighting due to ray path redundancy and to reduce the computational burden, we cluster rays to produce representative rays. Reduction in the total number of ray paths is {approx}50%. The model is represented using the triangular tessellation system described by Ballard et al. (2009), which incorporates variable resolution in both the geographic and radial dimensions. For our starting model, we use a simplified two layer crustal model derived from the Crust 2.0 model over a uniform AK135 mantle. Sufficient damping is used to reduce velocity adjustments so that ray path changes between iterations are small. We obtain proper model smoothness by using progressive grid refinement, refining the grid only around areas with significant velocity changes from the starting model. At each grid refinement level except the last one we limit the number of iterations to prevent convergence thereby preserving aspects of broad features resolved at coarser resolutions. Our approach produces a smooth, multi-resolution model with node density appropriate to both ray coverage and the velocity gradients required by the data. This scheme is computationally expensive, so we use a distributed computing framework based on the Java Parallel Processing Framework, providing us with {approx}400 processors. Resolution of our model is assessed using a variation of the standard checkerboard method. We compare the travel-time prediction and location capabilities of SALSA3D to standard 1D models via location tests on a global event set with GT of 5 km or better. These events generally possess hundreds of Pn and P picks from which we generate different realizations of station distributions, yielding a range of azimuthal coverage and ratios of teleseismic to regional arrivals, with which we test the robustness and quality of relocation. The SALSA3D model reduces mislocation over standard 1D ak135 regardless of Pn to P ratio, with the improvement being most pronounced at higher azimuthal gaps.
SALSA3D : a global 3D p-velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle for improved event location.
Encarnacao, Andre Villanova; Begnaud, Michael A. (Los Alamos National Laboratories); Rowe, Charlotte A. (Los Alamos National Laboratories); Young, Christopher John; Chang, Marcus C.; Ballard, Sally C.; Hipp, James Richard
2010-06-01
To test the hypothesis that high quality 3D Earth models will produce seismic event locations which are more accurate and more precise, we are developing a global 3D P wave velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle using seismic tomography. In this paper, we present the most recent version of our model, SALSA3D version 1.5, and demonstrate its ability to reduce mislocations for a large set of realizations derived from a carefully chosen set of globally-distributed ground truth events. Our model is derived from the latest version of the Ground Truth (GT) catalog of P and Pn travel time picks assembled by Los Alamos National Laboratory. To prevent over-weighting due to ray path redundancy and to reduce the computational burden, we cluster rays to produce representative rays. Reduction in the total number of ray paths is {approx}50%. The model is represented using the triangular tessellation system described by Ballard et al. (2009), which incorporates variable resolution in both the geographic and radial dimensions. For our starting model, we use a simplified two layer crustal model derived from the Crust 2.0 model over a uniform AK135 mantle. Sufficient damping is used to reduce velocity adjustments so that ray path changes between iterations are small. We obtain proper model smoothness by using progressive grid refinement, refining the grid only around areas with significant velocity changes from the starting model. At each grid refinement level except the last one we limit the number of iterations to prevent convergence thereby preserving aspects of broad features resolved at coarser resolutions. Our approach produces a smooth, multi-resolution model with node density appropriate to both ray coverage and the velocity gradients required by the data. This scheme is computationally expensive, so we use a distributed computing framework based on the Java Parallel Processing Framework, providing us with {approx}400 processors. Resolution of our model is assessed using a variation of the standard checkerboard method. We compare the travel-time prediction and location capabilities of SALSA3D to standard 1D models via location tests on a global event set with GT of 5 km or better. These events generally possess hundreds of Pn and P picks from which we generate different realizations of station distributions, yielding a range of azimuthal coverage and ratios of teleseismic to regional arrivals, with which we test the robustness and quality of relocation. The SALSA3D model reduces mislocation over standard 1D ak135 regardless of Pn to P ratio, with the improvement being most pronounced at higher azimuthal gaps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oc?o?, Pawe?; ?opata, Stanis?aw; Nowak, Marzena
2015-04-01
This study presents a novel, simplified model for the time-efficient simulation of transient conjugate heat transfer in round tubes. The flow domain and the tube wall are modeled in 1D and 2D, respectively and empirical correlations are used to model the flow domain in 1D. The model is particularly useful when dealing with complex physics, such as flow boiling, which is the main focus of this study. The tube wall is assumed to have external fins. The flow is vertical upwards. Note that straightforward computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of conjugate heat transfer in a system of tubes, leads to 3D modeling of fluid and solid domains. Because correlation is used and dimensionality reduced, the model is numerically more stable and computationally more time-efficient compared to the CFD approach. The benefit of the proposed approach is that it can be applied to large systems of tubes as encountered in many practical applications. The modeled equations are discretized in space using the finite volume method, with central differencing for the heat conduction equation in the solid domain, and upwind differencing of the convective term of the enthalpy transport equation in the flow domain. An explicit time discretization with forward differencing was applied to the enthalpy transport equation in the fluid domain. The conduction equation in the solid domain was time discretized using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The model is applied in different boundary conditions and the predicted boiling patterns and temperature fields are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Rubao; Chen, Changsheng; Franks, Peter J. S.; Townsend, David W.; Durbin, Edward G.; Beardsley, Robert C.; Gregory Lough, R.; Houghton, Robert W.
2006-11-01
A coupled biological-physical model was developed and tested in one-dimensional (1-D, vertical) and two-dimensional (2-D, cross-sectional) domains to examine the spring phytoplankton bloom and associated lower trophic level food web dynamics on Georges Bank (GB). The biological model consists of nine compartments: dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, ammonium and silicate), phytoplankton (large and small size classes), zooplankton (large and small size classes), and detrital organic nitrogen and biogenic silica. The 1-D model results showed that in the shallow central bank, the timing and duration of spring blooms are closely linked to the light intensity and its downward penetration, while the intensity of blooms is regulated by initial nutrient concentrations and zooplankton grazing pressure. In the deeper flank area, the bloom dynamics is directly controlled by the seasonal development of stratification. The interactions between the shallow and deep regions of the bank were examined by a 2-D model, which showed that the cross-sectional gradients of biological quantities were caused mainly by the shallow-deep topographic transition and tidal mixing. Between the shallow and deep regions, a possible phytoplankton maximum concentration area was seen in the model at the time before the formation of the tidal-mixing front. Once the tidal-mixing front was established during late spring, the model showed a relatively high concentration of phytoplankton near the front as the result of the tidally driven up-front nutrient flux. Both the 1-D and 2-D models captured the basic seasonal cycles of the nutrients and phytoplankton in the central bank, but failed to reproduce those patterns in the deep flank regions, where horizontal advection might play a significant role.
A math model for high velocity sensoring with a focal plane shuttered camera.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, P.
1971-01-01
A new mathematical model is presented which describes the image produced by a focal plane shutter-equipped camera. The model is based upon the well-known collinearity condition equations and incorporates both the translational and rotational motion of the camera during the exposure interval. The first differentials of the model with respect to exposure interval, delta t, yield the general matrix expressions for image velocities which may be simplified to known cases. The exposure interval, delta t, may be replaced under certain circumstances with a function incorporating blind velocity and image position if desired. The model is tested using simulated Lunar Orbiter data and found to be computationally stable as well as providing excellent results, provided that some external information is available on the velocity parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yetirmishli, G. C.; Kazimova, S. E.; Kazimov, I. E.
2011-09-01
We present the method for determining the velocity model of the Earth's crust and the parameters of earthquakes in the Middle Kura Depression from the data of network telemetry in Azerbaijan. Application of this method allowed us to recalculate the main parameters of the hypocenters of the earthquake, to compute the corrections to the arrival times of P and S waves at the observation station, and to significantly improve the accuracy in determining the coordinates of the earthquakes. The model was constructed using the VELEST program, which calculates one-dimensional minimal velocity models from the travel times of seismic waves.
UCVM: An Open Source Framework for 3D Velocity Model Research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gill, D.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Plesch, A.; Taborda, R.; Callaghan, S.; Small, P.
2013-12-01
Three-dimensional (3D) seismic velocity models provide fundamental input data to ground motion simulations, in the form of structured or unstructured meshes or grids. Numerous models are available for California, as well as for other parts of the United States and Europe, but models do not share a common interface. Being able to interact with these models in a standardized way is critical in order to configure and run 3D ground motion simulations. The Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) software, developed by researchers at the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), is an open source framework designed to provide a cohesive way to interact with seismic velocity models. We describe the several ways in which we have improved the UCVM software over the last year. We have simplified the UCVM installation process by automating the installation of various community codebases, improving the ease of use.. We discuss how UCVM software was used to build velocity meshes for high-frequency (4Hz) deterministic 3D wave propagation simulations, and how the UCVM framework interacts with other open source resources, such as NetCDF file formats for visualization. The UCVM software uses a layered software architecture that transparently converts geographic coordinates to the coordinate systems used by the underlying velocity models and supports inclusion of a configurable near-surface geotechnical layer, while interacting with the velocity model codes through their existing software interfaces. No changes to the velocity model codes are required. Our recent UCVM installation improvements bundle UCVM with a setup script, written in Python, which guides users through the process that installs the UCVM software along with all the user-selectable velocity models. Each velocity model is converted into a standardized (configure, make, make install) format that is easily downloaded and installed via the script. UCVM is often run in specialized high performance computing (HPC) environments, so we have included checks during the installation process to alert users about potential conflicts. We also describe how UCVM can create an octree-based database representation of a velocity model which can be directly queried by 3D wave propagation simulation codes using the open source etree library. We will discuss how this approach was used to create an etree for a 4-Hz Chino Hills simulation. Finally, we show how the UCVM software can integrate NetCDF utility code to produce 3D velocity model files compatible with open source NetCDF data viewers. This demonstrates that UCVM can generate meshes from any compatible community velocity model and that the resulting models can be visualized without the need for complex secondary tools. This illustrates how developers can easily write tools that can convert data from one format to another using the UCVM API.
Developing a Crustal and Upper Mantle Velocity Model for the Brazilian Northeast
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Julia, J.; Nascimento, R.
2013-05-01
Development of 3D models for the earth's crust and upper mantle is important for accurately predicting travel times for regional phases and to improve seismic event location. The Brazilian Northeast is a tectonically active area within stable South America and displays one of the highest levels of seismicity in Brazil, with earthquake swarms containing events up to mb 5.2. Since 2011, seismic activity is routinely monitored through the Rede Sismográfica do Nordeste (RSisNE), a permanent network supported by the national oil company PETROBRAS and consisting of 15 broadband stations with an average spacing of ~200 km. Accurate event locations are required to correctly characterize and identify seismogenic areas in the region and assess seismic hazard. Yet, no 3D model of crustal thickness and crustal and upper mantle velocity variation exists. The first step in developing such models is to refine crustal thickness and depths to major seismic velocity boundaries in the crust and improve on seismic velocity estimates for the upper mantle and crustal layers. We present recent results in crustal and uppermost mantle structure in NE Brazil that will contribute to the development of a 3D model of velocity variation. Our approach has consisted of: (i) computing receiver functions to obtain point estimates of crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio and (ii) jointly inverting receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion velocities from an independent tomography study to obtain S-velocity profiles at each station. This approach has been used at all the broadband stations of the monitoring network plus 15 temporary, short-period stations that reduced the inter-station spacing to ~100 km. We expect our contributions will provide the basis to produce full 3D velocity models for the Brazilian Northeast and help determine accurate locations for seismic events in the region.
Low velocity impact experiments on the explosive LX-10 with modeling of reaction violence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chidester, Steven; Garcia, Frank; Vandersall, Kevin S.; Tarver, Craig M.; Ferranti, Louis
2012-03-01
A new gas gun capability designed for the velocity range of ~20-400 m/s was used to study the mechanisms of low-velocity impact ignition and reaction violence of explosive targets in safety studies. Hemispherical charges of the HMX-based explosive LX-10 (95% HMX, 5% Viton binder) assembled in a polycarbonate target ring were impacted by a 6.35 mm diameter hardened steel rod protruding from a projectile at velocities ranging from 36 to 374 m/s. Digital high-speed (Phantom v12) cameras were utilized to capture the times of first ignition and a Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probe placed at the rear of the target was used to measure the free surface velocity histories of an aluminum foil on the LX-10 surface to quantify the resulting reaction violence. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for LX-10 was used to compare the relative violence of these reactions to the intentional detonation of an equivalent LX-10 charge. It was found that comparing the model results to that of the experiment using this impactor geometry within the tested velocity range, the reaction violence increased with velocity from 45-374 m/s and only a small fraction of material appears to react during the impact.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Gao W.; Ye, Yu G.; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Chang L.; Diao, Shao B.; Wang, Jia S.
2010-02-01
Although elastic velocities (Vp, Vs) can be used to assess the distribution and concentration of marine gas hydrates in situ and several existing models relate hydrate saturation to acoustic velocity, the accuracy of these models is uncertain because of the difficulty in determining hydrate saturations and velocities of intact hydrate-bearing sediments. In this paper, the acoustic properties of gas hydrate-bearing consolidated sediments were investigated experimentally. Hydrate saturation (Sh) and acoustic velocities were measured in one system by time domain reflectometry and ultrasonic methods, respectively, during gas hydrate formation and subsequent dissociation in a water-saturated artificial core. Acoustic velocities change little at low hydrate saturations (0% to 10%), whereas they increase rapidly when hydrate saturation is between 10% and 30%. We verified two commonly used models, i.e., the weighted equation (WE) and the Biot-Gassmann theory modified by Lee (BGTL). In the 0% to 40% hydrate saturation range, the WE model is consistent with the measured Vp data, while a combination of the WE and the Vp/Vs ratio in the BGTL predicts Vs corresponding to the observed data. As hydrate saturation is more than 30%, however, the BGTL is more suitable for predicting both Vp and Vs. This suggests that gas hydrate may be treated as a component within a matrix of consolidated sediments when hydrate saturation exceeds 30%. However, when Sh is less than 30%, the hydrate locates in the pore fluid or partly adheres to the sediment frame.
Bow shock models for the velocity structure of ultracompact H II regions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Buren, Dave; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark
1992-01-01
The velocity structure of ultracompact H II regions is modeled assuming that O stars moving supersonically through molecular clouds sweep up bow shocks to produce the observed objects. The expected radio recombination line emission is calculated for the case of an optically thin continuum and the strong effect of changing the viewing angle is shown. The kinematic information removes the degeneracy with ram pressure of a previous model, allowing measurement of stellar velocity vectors and cloud densities. A detailed model for G29.96-0.02 shows good agreement with observations by Wood and Churchwell, supporting the bow shock hypothesis. It is found that the exciting star of G29 is moving at 20 km/s relative to the gas, suggesting that O stars acquire a large velocity dispersion early in their lives.
A. Daehne; Th. W. J. van Asch; A. Corsini; A. Spickermann; S. Bégueria-Portugučs
2010-01-01
Understanding the behavior of landslides often starts with a numerical simulation that accurately accounts for observed physical processes. This research proposes a method for the implementation of the dynamic SLOWMOVE model to a high-mobility, moderate velocity earth flow located in the northern Apennines. The Valoria landslide is 3.5 km long earth slide- earth flow that resumed activity in 2001. Landslide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laginha Silva, Patricia; Martins, Flávio A.; Boski, Tomász; Sampath, Dissanayake M. R.
2010-05-01
Fluvial sediment transport creates great challenges for river scientists and engineers. The interaction between the fluid (water) and the solid (dispersed sediment particles) phases is crucial in morphodynamics. The process of sediment transport and the resulting morphological evolution of rivers get more complex with the exposure of the fluvial systems to the natural and variable environment (climatic, geological, ecological and social, etc.). The earlier efforts in mathematical river modelling were almost exclusively built on traditional fluvial hydraulics. The last half century has seen more and more developments and applications of mathematical models for fluvial flow, sediment transport and morphological evolution. The first attempts for a quantitative description and simulation of basin filling in geological time scales started in the late 60´s of the last century (eg. Schwarzacher, 1966; Briggs & Pollack, 1967). However, the quality of this modelling practice has emerged as a crucial issue for concern, which is widely viewed as the key that could unlock the full potential of computational fluvial hydraulics. Most of the models presently used to study fluvial basin filling are of the "diffusion type" (Flemmings and Jordan, 1989). It must be noted that this type of models do not assume that the sediment transport is performed by a physical diffusive process. Rather they are synthetic models based on mass conservation. In the "synthesist" viewpoint (Tipper, 1992; Goldenfeld & Kadanoff, 1999; Werner, 1999 in Paola, 2000) the dynamics of complex systems may occur on many levels (time or space scales) and the dynamics of higher levels may be more or less independent of that at lower levels. In this type of models the low frequency dynamics is controlled by only a few important processes and the high frequency processes are not included. In opposition to this is the "reductionist" viewpoint that states that there is no objective reason to discard high frequency processes. In this viewpoint the system is broken down into its fundamental components and processes and the model is build up by selecting the important processes regardless of its time and space scale. This viewpoint was only possible to pursue in the recent years due to improvement in system knowledge and computer power (Paola, 2000). The primary aim of this paper is to demonstrate that it is possible to simulate the evolution of the sediment river bed, traditionally studied with synthetic models, with a process-based hydrodynamic, sediment transport and morphodynamic model, solving explicitly the mass and momentum conservation equations. With this objective, a comparison between two mathematical models for alluvial rivers is made to simulate the evolution of the sediment river bed of a conceptual 1D embayment for periods in the order of a thousand years: the traditional synthetic basin infilling aggregate diffusive type model based on the diffusion equation (Paola, 2000), used in the "synthesist" viewpoint and the process-based model MOHID (Miranda et al., 2000). The simulation of the sediment river bed evolution achieved by the process-based model MOHID is very similar to those obtained by the diffusive type model, but more complete due to the complexity of the process-based model. In the MOHID results it is possible to observe a more comprehensive and realistic results because this type of model include processes that is impossible to a synthetic model to describe. At last the combined effect of tide, sea level rise and river discharges was investigated in the process based model. These effects cannot be simulated using the diffusive type model. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using process based models to perform studies in scales of 10000 years. This is an advance relative to the use of synthetic models, enabling the use of variable forcing. REFERENCES Briggs, L.I. and Pollack, H.N., 1967. Digital model of evaporate sedimentation. Science, 155, 453-456. Flemmings, P.B. and Jordan, T.E., 19
Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Margarida Lopes, Ana; Esteves, Sara L C; Afonso, Sandra; Lemos de Matos, Ana; Lissovsky, Andrey A; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A B; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F; Esteves, Pedro José; Fardilha, Margarida
2013-01-01
T-complex testis expressed protein 1 domain containing 4 (TCTEX1D4) contains the canonical phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 (PPP1) binding motif, composed by the amino acid sequence RVSF. We identified and validated the binding of TCTEX1D4 to PPP1 and demonstrated that indeed this protein is a novel PPP1 interacting protein. Analyses of twenty-one mammalian species available in public databases and seven Lagomorpha sequences obtained in this work showed that the PPP1 binding motif 90RVSF93 is present in all of them and is flanked by a palindromic sequence, PLGS, except in three species of pikas (Ochotona princeps, O. dauurica and O. pusilla). Furthermore, for the Ochotona species an extra glycosylation site, motif 96NLS98, and the loss of the palindromic sequence were observed. Comparison with other lagomorphs suggests that this event happened before the Ochotona radiation. The dN/dS for the sequence region comprising the PPP1 binding motif and the flanking palindrome highly supports the hypothesis that for Ochotona species this region has been evolving under positive selection. In addition, mutational screening shows that the ability of pikas TCTEX1D4 to bind to PPP1 is maintained, although the PPP1 binding motif is disrupted, and the N- and C-terminal surrounding residues are also abrogated. These observations suggest pika as an ideal model to study novel PPP1 complexes regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24130861
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girshick, Steven; Larriba-Andaluz, Carlos
2014-10-01
It has been hypothesized that deposition of very small silicon nanoparticles during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon, under conditions where the particle impact velocity is high enough to cause particle melting/amorphization, can lead to epitaxial film growth at low temperature. One way to accomplish this might be by pulsing the RF plasma and applying a positive DC bias during the afterglow of each pulse. The negatively charged particles, trapped in the plasma during the ON phase of each pulse, are accelerated to the substrate during the afterglow. To assess the feasibility of such an approach, we conducted numerical simulations of a pulsed capacitively-coupled RF Ar-silane plasma. We used a modified version of a previously reported 1D model, in which a nanodusty plasma is simulated by self-consistently coupling models for the plasma, chemistry and aerosol. Preliminary results indicate that the approach is feasible, but that parameters such as pulse frequency and duty cycle are important in limiting particle growth and in maximizing fluxes of energetic nanoparticles to the substrate. Partially supported by US Dept. of Energy Office of Fusion Energy Science (DE-SC0001939) and US National Science Foundation (CHE-124752).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, L.; Sletten, R. S.; Hallet, B.; Waddington, E. D.; Wood, S. E.
2013-12-01
An ancient massive ice body buried under several decimeters of debris in Beacon Valley, Antarctica is believed to be over one million years old, making it older than any known glacier or ice cap. It is fundamentally important as a reservoir of water, proxy for climatic information, and an expression of the periglacial landscape. It is also one of Earth's closest analog for widespread, near-surface ice found in Martian soils and ice-cored landforms. We are interested in understanding controls on how long this ice may persist since our physical model of sublimation suggests it should not be stable. In these models, the soil temperatures and the gradient are important because it determines the direction and magnitude of the vapor flux, and thus sublimation rates. To better understand the heat transfer processes and constrain the rates of processes governing ground ice stability, a model of the thermal behavior of the permafrost is applied to Beacon Valley, Antarctica. It calculates soil temperatures based on a 1-D thermal diffusion equation using a fully implicit finite volume method (FVM). This model is constrained by soil physical properties and boundary conditions of in-situ ground surface temperature measurements (with an average of -23.6oC, a maximum of 20.5oC and a minimum of -54.3oC) and ice-core temperature record at ~30 m. Model results are compared to in-situ temperature measurements at depths of 0.10 m, 0.20 m, 0.30 m, and 0.45 m to assess the model's ability to reproduce the temperature profile for given thermal properties of the debris cover and ice. The model's sensitivity to the thermal diffusivity of the permafrost and the overlaying debris is also examined. Furthermore, we incorporate the role of ice condensation/sublimation which is calculated using our vapor diffusion model in the 1-D thermal diffusion model to assess potential latent heat effects that in turn affect ground ice sublimation rates. In general, the model simulates the ground thermal regime well. Detailed temperature comparison suggests that the 1-D thermal diffusion model results closely approximate the measured temperature at all depths with the average square root of the mean squared error (SRMSE) of 0.15oC; a linear correlation between modeled and measured temperatures yields an average R2 value of 0.9997. Prominent seasonal temperature variations diminish with depth, and it equilibrates to mean annual temperature at about 21.5 m depth. The amount of heat generated/consumed by ice condensation/sublimation is insufficient to significantly impact the thermal regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koulakov, I.; Kaban, M. K.; Cloetingh, S.
2012-12-01
We present a new model of P-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle beneath Eurasia constructed by merging several existing models and by computing new results for a number of gap areas. The models were computed based on tomographic inversions of travel-time data from the worldwide catalogues (ISC, 2001). The calculations were performed in a series of overlapping circular areas of 700-1000 km size. All data with rays corresponding to sources and/or stations in the areas traveling through the target volume were, at least partly, used in the inversions. In case of lack of stations and events, the calculations were based on PP-rays with reflection points in the target area. The new model of Eurasia resolves connections between upper mantle structures and main tectonic units. Cratonic blocks in Eurasia, such as the East-European, Siberian, Indian and Arabian cratons are detected in terms of high-velocity patterns down to 250-300 km depth. The subduction zones in the western Pacific, Burma and the Mediterranean are robustly resolved, consistent with previous studies. In zones of continental collision, we observe traces of mantle delamination as drops of high-velocity material in the mantle. Sites of intraplate volcanism in Europe, Siberia, Mongolia and Yakutia coincide with low-velocity areas, interpreted as overheated upper mantle. Digital version of the model can be downloaded at www.ivan-art.com/temp/vis_eurasia.zip. P-velocity anomalies beneath Eurasia at 100 km depth from regional tomographic inversion. Polygons indicate possible locations of cratonic lithosphere blocks; stars mark the areas of Cenozoic volcanism. P-velocity anomalies beneath Eurasia at 300 km depth from regional tomographic inversion. Polygons indicate possible locations of cratonic lithosphere blocks.
An empirical model of the drift velocity of equatorial plasma depletions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
England, S. L.; Immel, T. J.
2012-12-01
The Far-Ultraviolet Imager on the IMAGE spacecraft (IMAGE-FUV) has been used to observe O+plasma depletions in the post-sunset equatorial ionosphere. Small-scale density irregularities associated with such depletions are believed to adversely affect trans-ionospheric radio signals such as GPS. Prediction of the motion of these plasma depletions is a necessary component of the ability to forecast the occurrence of such radio signal interference. An automated method has recently been developed to identify and track the position and zonal drift velocity of these depletions. Here we use this method to create a large database of the zonal drift velocities of these depletions. We present an empirical model based on these observations that describes the observed drift velocities as a function of both local time and magnetic latitude, which is essential to represent their behavior. A comparison of the observed drift velocities with zonal winds from both an empirical model (Horizontal Wind Model; HWM07) and a first-principles model (the TIEGCM) reveals that the plasma depletions' drift velocities have a latitudinal gradient that cannot be explained solely by the F-region dynamo in the post-sunset period, at least by these climatological models. This suggests that these plasma depletions may not simply drift with the background F-region plasma. It has previously been suggested that vertical polarization electric fields associated with the plasma depletions are responsible for their zonal drifts exceeding the background flow, which may explain the previously-observed discrepancy in the drift velocities and the discrepancy in their gradients reported here.
Seismic velocity models for the Denali fault zone along the Richardson Highway, Alaska
Brocher, T.M.; Fuis, G.S.; Lutter, W.J.; Christensen, N.I.; Ratchkovski, N.A.
2004-01-01
Crustal-scale seismic-velocity models across the Denali fault zone along the Richardson Highway show a 50-km-thick crust, a near vertical fault trace, and a 5-km-wide damage zone associated with the fault near Trans-Alaska Pipeline Pump Station 10, which provided the closest strong ground motion recordings of the 2002 Denali fault earthquake. We compare models, derived from seismic reflection and refraction surveys acquired in 1986 and 1987, to laboratory measurements of seismic velocities for typical metamorphic rocks exposed along the profiles. Our model for the 1986 seismic reflection profile indicates a 5-km-wide low-velocity zone in the upper 1 km of the Denali fault zone, which we interpret as fault gouge. Deeper refractions from our 1987 line image a 40-km wide, 5-km-deep low-velocity zone along the Denali fault and nearby associated fault strands, which we attribute to a composite damage zone along several strands of the Denali fault zone and to the obliquity of the seismic line to the fault zone. Our velocity model and other geophysical data indicate a nearly vertical Denali fault zone to a depth of 30 km. After-shocks of the 2002 Denali fault earthquake and our velocity model provide evidence for a flower structure along the fault zone consisting of faults dipping toward and truncated by the Denali fault. Wide-angle reflections indicate that the crustal thickness beneath the Denali fault is transitional between the 60-km-thick crust beneath the Alaska Range to the south, and the extended, 30-km-thick crust of the Yukon-Tanana terrane to the north.
Cellular automaton model considering the velocity effect of a car on the successive car.
Li, X; Wu, Q; Jiang, R
2001-12-01
In this paper we present a cellular automata model for one-lane traffic flow. The update rules of velocity of a car depend not only on the positions of this car and the car ahead of it, but also on the velocities of the two cars. Using computer simulations we obtain some basic qualitative results and the fundamental diagram of the proposed model. In comparison with those of the existing models in the literature, we find that the fundamental diagram of the proposed model is more consistent with the results measured in the real traffic, and the model is able to reproduce some relevant macroscopic states that are found in the real traffic flow but cannot be predicted by the existing models. PMID:11736257
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, E. J.; Phanikumar, M. S.
2010-12-01
In recent years there is an increased interest in solute transport processes in large rivers given their role in delivering nutrients, bacteria and sediment to coastal regions (e.g., rivers in the US Midwest contributing to the Gulf of Mexico hypoxia). While small to medium rivers received a lot of attention in the past few decades, especially from the point of hyporheic exchange and nutrient uptake, relatively few studies have focused on solute transport in large rivers, especially on the dynamics of surface storage zones. Here we report the results of a large-scale tracer study on the St. Clair River, a large international river (discharge ~ 5000 cms) straddling the border between the U.S and Canada that serves as the outflow for Lake Huron. We first describe a fully three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and a 3D particle transport model of the St. Clair River based on FVCOM (Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model). We then use the 3D particle transport model to generate breakthrough data for evaluating the surface storage dynamics in the river using several classes of one-dimensional solute transport models. In particular, we evaluate the ability of the 1D models to describe both the magnitude and the timing of the peaks. The one-dimensional models examined include multi-rate transient storage (MRTS) models in which the storage zones are arranged either in series or in parallel as well as models based on time and space fractional derivatives. Results indicate that for the 1D models to describe data adequately, the timing of solute pulses which corresponds to various in-channel features such as sand bars or islands should be taken into account.
Saccorotti, G.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.
2003-01-01
The properties of the surface wavefield at Kilauea Volcano are analysed using data from small-aperture arrays of short-period seismometers deployed in and around the Kilauea caldera. Tremor recordings were obtained during two Japan-US cooperative experiments conducted in 1996 and 1997. The seismometers were deployed in three semi-circular arrays with apertures of 300, 300 and 400 m, and a linear array with length of 1680 m. Data are analysed using a spatio-temporal correlation technique well suited for the study of the stationary stochastic wavefields of Rayleigh and Love waves associated with volcanic activity and scattering sources distributed in and around the summit caldera. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients are obtained as a function of frequency and are inverted for the dispersion characteristics of Rayleigh and Love waves using a grid search that seeks phase velocities for which the L-2 norm between data and forward modelling operators is minimized. Within the caldera, the phase velocities of Rayleigh waves range from 1400 to 1800 m s-1 at 1 Hz down to 300-400 m s-1 at 10 Hz, and the phase velocities of Love waves range from 2600 to 400 m s-1 within the same frequency band. Outside the caldera, Rayleigh wave velocities range from 1800 to 1600 m s-1 at 1 Hz down to 260-360 m s-1 at 10 Hz, and Love wave velocities range from 600 to 150 m s-1 within the same frequency band. The dispersion curves are inverted for velocity structure beneath each array, assuming these dispersions represent the fundamental modes of Rayleigh and Love waves. The velocity structures observed at different array sites are consistent with results from a recent 3-D traveltime tomography of the caldera region, and point to a marked velocity discontinuity associated with the southern caldera boundary.
The SCEC Southern California Reference Three-Dimensional Seismic Velocity Model Version 2
Harold Magistrale; Steven Day; Robert W. Clayton; Robert Graves
2000-01-01
We describe Version 2 of the three-dimensional (3D) seismic velocity model of southern California developed by the Southern California Earthquake Cen- ter and designed to serve as a reference model for multidisciplinary research activities in the area. The model consists of detailed, rule-based representations of the major southern California basins (Los Angeles basin, Ventura basin, San Gabriel Valley, San Fernando
Modeling continuous seismic velocity changes due to ground shaking in Chile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gassenmeier, Martina; Richter, Tom; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Korn, Michael; Tilmann, Frederik
2015-04-01
In order to investigate temporal seismic velocity changes due to earthquake related processes and environmental forcing, we analyze 8 years of ambient seismic noise recorded by the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) network in northern Chile between 18° and 25° S. The Mw 7.7 Tocopilla earthquake in 2007 and the Mw 8.1 Iquique earthquake in 2014 as well as numerous smaller events occurred in this area. By autocorrelation of the ambient seismic noise field, approximations of the Green's functions are retrieved. The recovered function represents backscattered or multiply scattered energy from the immediate neighborhood of the station. To detect relative changes of the seismic velocities we apply the stretching method, which compares individual autocorrelation functions to stretched or compressed versions of a long term averaged reference autocorrelation function. We use time windows in the coda of the autocorrelations, that contain scattered waves which are highly sensitive to minute changes in the velocity. At station PATCX we observe seasonal changes in seismic velocity as well as temporary velocity reductions in the frequency range of 4-6 Hz. The seasonal changes can be attributed to thermal stress changes in the subsurface related to variations of the atmospheric temperature. This effect can be modeled well by a sine curve and is subtracted for further analysis of short term variations. Temporary velocity reductions occur at the time of ground shaking usually caused by earthquakes and are followed by a recovery. We present an empirical model that describes the seismic velocity variations based on continuous observations of the local ground acceleration. Our hypothesis is that not only the shaking of earthquakes provokes velocity drops, but any small vibrations continuously induce minor velocity variations that are immediately compensated by healing in the steady state. We show that the shaking effect is accumulated over time and best described by the integrated envelope of the ground acceleration over 1 day which is the discretization interval of the velocity measurements. In our model the amplitude of the velocity reduction as well as the recovery time are proportional to the size of the excitation. This model with the two free scaling parameters for the shaking induced velocity variation fits the data in remarkable detail. Additionally, a linear trend is observed that might be related to a recovery process from one or more earthquakes before our measurement period. For the Tocopilla earthquake in 2007 and the Iquique earthquake in 2014 velocity reductions are also observed at other stations of the IPOC network. However, a clear relationship between the ground shaking and the induced velocity reductions is not visible at other stations. We attribute the outstanding sensitivity of PATCX to ground shaking to the special geological setting of the station, where the material consists of relatively loose conglomerate with high pore volume.
Stabilization of traffic flow in optimal velocity model via delayed-feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Yanfei; Hu, Haiyan
2013-04-01
Traffic jams may occur due to various reasons, such as traffic accidents, lane reductions and on-ramps. In order to suppress the traffic congestion in an optimal velocity traffic model without any driver's delay taken into account, a delayed-feedback control of both displacement and velocity differences is proposed in this study. By using the delay-independent stability criteria and the H?-norm, the delayed-feedback control can be determined to stabilize the unstable traffic flow and suppress the traffic jam. The numerical case studies are given to demonstrate and verify the new control method. Furthermore, a comparison is made between the new control method and the method proposed by Konishi et al. [K. Konishi, M. Hirai, H. Kokame, Decentralized delayed-feedback control of an optimal velocity traffic model, Eur. Phys. J. B 15 (2000) 715-722]. The results show that the new control method makes the traffic flow more stable and improves the control performance.
Isotropic and anisotropic shear velocity model of the NA upper mantle using EarthScope data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leiva, J.; Clouzet, P.; French, S. W.; Yuan, H.; Romanowicz, B. A.
2013-12-01
The EarthScope TA deployment has provided dense array coverage across the continental US and with it, the opportunity for high resolution 3D seismic velocity imaging of both lithosphere and asthenosphere in the continent. Building upon our previous work, we present a new 3D isotropic, radially and azimuthally anisotropic shear wave model of the North American (NA) lithospheric mantle, using full waveform tomography and shorter-period (40 s) waveform data. Our isotropic velocity model exhibits pronounced spatial correlation between major tectonic localities of the eastern NA continent, as evidenced in the geology, and seismic anomalies, suggesting recurring episodes of tectonic events not only are well exposed at the surface, but also leave persistent scars in the continental lithosphere mantle, marked by isotropic and radially anisotropic velocity anomalies that reach as deep as 100-150 km. In eastern North America, our Vs images distinguish the fast velocity cratonic NA from the deep rooted large volume high velocity blocks which are east of the continent rift margin and extend 200-300 km offshore into Atlantic. In between is a prominent narrow band of low velocities that roughly follows the south and eastern Laurentia rift margin and extends into New England. The lithosphere associated with this low velocity band is thinned likely due to combined effects of repeated rifting processes along the rift margin and northward extension of the Bermuda low-velocity channel across the New England region. Deep rooted high velocity blocks east of the Laurentia margin are proposed to represent the Proterozoic Gondwanian terranes of pan-African affinity, which were captured during the Rodinia formation but left behind during the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The anisotropy model takes advantage of the up-to-date SKS compilation in the continent and new splitting results from Greenland. The new joint waveform and SKS splitting data inversion is carried out with a 2° horizontal resolution throughout the continental US, and 4° in Canada and northwestern Atlantic. Our preliminary results confirm prevailing depth dependent layering in azimuthal anisotropy observed in our previous work, and show also in greater details anisotropy lateral variations in the craton and across the margins. Tectonic implications of the new model are discussed in light of regional tectonics.
Three-lane changing behaviour simulation using a modified optimal velocity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Wei; Song, Wei-guo; Fang, Zhi-ming
2011-06-01
In real urban traffic, roadways are usually multilane and are divided into fast, medium and slow lanes according to different velocity restrictions. Microscopic modelling of single lane has been studied widely using discrete cellular automata and continuous optimal velocity models. In this paper, we extend the continuous single-lane models (OV model and FVD model) to simulate the lane-changing behaviour on an urban roadway that consists of three lanes. Considering headway difference, velocity difference, safety distance, and the probability of lane-changing intention, a comprehensive lane-changing rule set is constructed. We analyse the fundamental diagram and reveal the faster-is-slower effect in urban traffic induced by lane-changing behaviour. We also investigate the effect of lane-changing behaviour on the distribution of vehicles, velocity, flow and headway. Asymmetrical phenomenon with symmetrical rules on urban roadway and density inversion on the slow lane were also found. The simulation results indicate that lane-changing behaviour is not advisable on crowded urban roadway. It is hoped that information from this study may be useful for traffic control and individual moving strategy on urban roadway.
Velocity profile method for time varying resistance in minimal cardiovascular system models.
Smith, Bram W; Chase, J Geoffrey; Nokes, Roger I; Shaw, Geoffrey M; David, Tim
2003-10-21
This paper investigates the fluid dynamics governing arterial flow used in lumped parameter cardiovascular system (CVS) models, particularly near the heart where arteries are large. Assumptions made in applying equations conventionally used in lumped parameter models are investigated, specifically that of constant resistance to flow. The Womersley number is used to show that the effects of time varying resistance must be modelled in the pulsatile flow through the large arteries near the heart. It is shown that the equation commonly used to include inertial effects in fluid flow calculations is inappropriate for including time varying resistance. A method of incorporating time varying resistance into a lumped parameter model is developed that uses the Navier-Stokes equations to track the velocity profile. Tests on a single-chamber model show a 17.5% difference in cardiac output for a single-chamber ventricle model when comparing constant resistance models with the velocity profile tracking method modelling time varying resistance. This increase in precision can be achieved using 20 nodes with only twice the computational time required. The method offers a fluid dynamically and physiologically accurate method of calculating large Womersley number pulsatile fluid flows in large arteries around the heart and valves. The proposed velocity profile tracking method can be easily incorporated into existing lumped parameter CVS models, improving their clinical application by increasing their accuracy. PMID:14620064
Macgregor-Scott, N.; Walter, A.
1988-01-01
Crustal velocity structure for the region near Coalinga, California, has been derived from both earthquake and explosion seismic phase data recorded along a NW-SE seismic-refraction profile on the western flank of the Great Valley east of the Diablo Range. Comparison of the two data sets reveals P-wave phases in common which can be correlated with changes in the velocity structure below the earthquake hypocenters. In addition, the earthquake records reveal secondary phases at station ranges of less than 20 km that could be the result of S- to P-wave conversions at velocity interfaces above the earthquake hypocenters. Two-dimensional ray-trace modeling of the P-wave travel times resulted in a P-wave velocity model for the western flank of the Great Valley comprised of: 1) a 7- to 9-km thick section of sedimentary strata with velocities similar to those found elsewhere in the Great Valley (1.6 to 5.2 km s-1); 2) a middle crust extending to about 14 km depth with velocities comparable to those reported for the Franciscan assemblage in the Diablo Range (5.6 to 5.9 km s-1); and 3) a 13- to 14-km thick lower crust with velocities similar to those reported beneath the Diablo Range and the Great Valley (6.5 to 7.30 km s-1). This lower crust may have been derived from subducted oceanic crust that was thickened by accretionary underplating or crustal shortening. -Authors
Ramachandran, K.; Dosso, S.E.; Spence, G.D.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.
2005-01-01
This paper presents a three-dimensional compressional wave velocity model of the forearc crust and upper mantle and the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath southwestern British Columbia and the adjoining straits of Georgia and Juan de Fuca. The velocity model was constructed through joint tomographic inversion of 50,000 first-arrival times from earthquakes and active seismic sources. Wrangellia rocks of the accreted Paleozoic and Mesozoic island arc assemblage underlying southern Vancouver Island in the Cascadia forearc are imaged at some locations with higher than average lower crustal velocities of 6.5-7.2 km/s, similar to observations at other island arc terranes. The mafic Eocene Crescent terrane, thrust landward beneath southern Vancouver Island, exhibits crustal velocities in the range of 6.0-6.7 km/s and is inferred to extend to a depth of more than 20 km. The Cenozoic Olympic Subduction Complex, an accretionary prism thrust beneath the Crescent terrane in the Olympic Peninsula, is imaged as a low-velocity wedge to depths of at least 20 km. Three zones with velocities of 7.0-7.5 km/s, inferred to be mafic and/or ultramafic units, lie above the subducting Juan de Fuca plate at depths of 25-35 km. The forearc upper mantle wedge beneath southeastern Vancouver Island and the Strait of Georgia exhibits low velocities of 7.2-7.5 km/s, inferred to correspond to ???20% serpentinization of mantle peridotites, and consistent with similar observations in other warm subduction zones. Estimated dip of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath southern Vancouver Island is ???11??, 16??, and 27?? at depths of 30, 40, and 50 km, respectively. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.
Wágner, Dorottya S; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter; Dechesne, Arnaud; Plósz, Benedek Gy
2015-07-01
The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through altering the hindered settling velocity and yield stress parameter. Strikingly, this is not the case for Chloroflexi, occurring in more than double the abundance of M. parvicella, and forming filaments primarily protruding from the flocs. The transient and compression settling parameters show a comparably high variability, and no significant association with filamentous abundance. A two-dimensional, axi-symmetrical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to assess calibration scenarios to model filamentous bulking. Our results suggest that model predictions can significantly benefit from explicitly accounting for filamentous bulking by calibrating the hindered settling velocity function. Furthermore, accounting for the transient and compression settling velocity in the computational domain is crucial to improve model accuracy when modelling filamentous bulking. However, the case-specific calibration of transient and compression settling parameters as well as yield stress is not necessary, and an average parameter set - obtained under bulking and good settling conditions - can be used. PMID:25935367
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmitt, G. A.; Abreu, V. J.; Hays, P. B.
1981-01-01
Thermal and nonthermal O(1D) number density profiles are calculated. The two populations are assumed to be coupled by a thermalization cross-section which determines the loss and production in the nonthermal and thermal populations, respectively. The sources, sinks and transport of the two populations are used to model volume emission rate profiles at 6300 A. The 6300 A brightness measured by the Visible Airglow Experiment is then used to establish the presence of the nonthermal population and to determine the thermalization cross-section.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valstar, Johan; Rowe, Ed; Konstantina, Moirogiorgou; Giannakis, Giorgos; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos
2014-05-01
Soil develops as a result of interacting processes, many of which have been described in more or less detailed models. A key challenge in developing predictive models of soil function is to integrate processes that operate across a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Many soil functions could be classified as "emergent", since they result from the interaction of subsystems. For example, soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics are commonly considered in relation to carbon storage, but can have profound effects on soil hydraulic properties that are conventionally considered to be static. Carbon fixed by plants enters the soil as litterfall, root turnover or via mycorrhizae. Plants need water and nutrients to grow, and an expanding root system provides access to a larger volume of soil for uptake of water and nutrients. Roots also provide organic exudates, such as oxalate, which increase nutrient availability. Carbon inputs are transformed at various rates into soil biota, CO2, and more persistent forms of organic matter. The SOM is partly taken up into soil aggregates of variable sizes, which slows down degradation. Water availability is an important factor as both plant growth and SOM degradation can be limited by shortage of water. Water flow is the main driver for transport of nutrients and other solutes. The flow of water in turn is influenced by the presence of SOM as this influences soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity. Towards the top of the unsaturated zone, bioturbation by the soil fauna transports both solid material and solutes. Weathering rates of minerals determine the availability of many nutrients and are in turn dependent on parameters such as pH, water content, CO2 pressure and oxalate concentration. Chemical reactions between solutes, dissolution and precipitation, and exchange on adsorption sites further influence solute concentrations. Within the FP7 SoilTrEC project, we developed a model that incorporates all of these processes, to explore the complex interactions involved in soil development and change. We were unable to identify appropriately-detailed existing models for plant productivity and for the dynamics of soil aggregation and porosity, and so developed the PROSUM and CAST models, respectively, to simulate these subsystems. Moreover, we applied the BRNS generator to obtain a chemical equilibrium model. These were combined with HYDRUS-1D (water and solute transport), a weathering model (derived from the SAFE model) and a simple bioturbation model. The model includes several feedbacks, such as the effect of soil organic matter on water retention and hydraulic conductivity. We encountered several important challenges when building the integrated model. First, a mechanism was developed that initiates the execution of a single time step for an individual sub-model and accounts for the relevant mass transfers between sub-models. This allows for different and sometimes variable time step duration in the submodels. Secondly, we removed duplicated processes and identified and included relevant solute production terms that had been neglected. The model is being tested against datasets obtained from several Soil Critical Zone Observatories in Europe. This contribution focuses on the design strategy for the model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yee, Patrick Ping
The primary goal of this dissertation is to develop a subgrid scale model for large eddy simulations of high Reynolds number homogeneous isotropic turbulence which attempts to model the velocity field up to twice the cutoff wavenumber and does not require a priori knowledge of the flow characteristics. There are many subgrid scale models for large eddy simulations of turbulence which produce good results within a limited range of Reynolds numbers; however, as the Reynolds number changes, the constants often require adjustment based upon some a priori knowledge or the model may not be applicable. One of the models which did not require any a priori insight was the velocity estimation model developed by Domaradzki and Saiki (1997). This model also had limitations on the range of applicability in terms of Reynolds number. This study extends the basic concepts of the original velocity estimation model to moderate and high Reynolds number isotropic turbulence. The results from four test cases show a good match to the theoretical or experimental data upon which they are based.
Finite element modelling of low velocity impact of composite sandwich panels
T Besant; G. A. O Davies; D Hitchings
2001-01-01
This paper outlines a finite element procedure for predicting the behaviour under low velocity impact of sandwich panels consisting of brittle composite skins supported by a ductile core. The modelling of the impact requires a dynamic analysis that can also handle non-linearities caused by large deflections, plastic deformation of the core and in-plane degradation of the composite skins. Metal honeycomb,
Borehole velocity-prediction models and estimation of fluid saturation effects
Zandong Sun; Stephen R. Stretch; R. James Brown
Three types of elastic-wave velocity-prediction models were analyzed by means of well logs and seismic section ties by considering fluid saturation in five wells which include two different reservoir types, clastic and carbonate, in two different areas. The bulk and shear moduli of a formation are functions of the bulk and shear moduli of of the matrix and fluid components.
Models for Gas Hydrate-Bearing Sediments Inferred from Hydraulic Permeability and Elastic Velocities
Lee, Myung W.
2008-01-01
Elastic velocities and hydraulic permeability of gas hydrate-bearing sediments strongly depend on how gas hydrate accumulates in pore spaces and various gas hydrate accumulation models are proposed to predict physical property changes due to gas hydrate concentrations. Elastic velocities and permeability predicted from a cementation model differ noticeably from those from a pore-filling model. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log provides in-situ water-filled porosity and hydraulic permeability of gas hydrate-bearing sediments. To test the two competing models, the NMR log along with conventional logs such as velocity and resistivity logs acquired at the Mallik 5L-38 well, Mackenzie Delta, Canada, were analyzed. When the clay content is less than about 12 percent, the NMR porosity is 'accurate' and the gas hydrate concentrations from the NMR log are comparable to those estimated from an electrical resistivity log. The variation of elastic velocities and relative permeability with respect to the gas hydrate concentration indicates that the dominant effect of gas hydrate in the pore space is the pore-filling characteristic.
Peter Schuck
2000-01-01
A new method for the size-distribution analysis of polymers by sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation is described. It exploits the ability of Lamm equation modeling to discriminate between the spreading of the sedimentation boundary arising from sample heterogeneity and from diffusion. Finite element solutions of the Lamm equation for a large number of discrete noninteracting species are combined with maximum entropy
Velocity and diffusion coefficient of a random asymmetric one-dimensional hopping model
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂŠ de
899 Velocity and diffusion coefficient of a random asymmetric one-dimensional hopping model C hopping rates are calculated in a simple way through a recursion relation method, which allows of drift and diffusion on one-dimensional lattices with random asymmetric hopping rates has recently
Parameterization of Submesoscale Eddy-Rich Flows Using a Stochastic Velocity Model MINE AG LAR
Ozgökmen, Tamay M.
Parameterization of Submesoscale Eddy-Rich Flows Using a Stochastic Velocity Model MINE ÇAG LAR the Florida Current and the coast, an objective method of detecting eddies and estimating their parameters It is believed that eddy dynamics play a key role in understanding different physical regimes of turbulent flows
Empirical model to compute the velocity histories of flyers driven by electrically exploding foils
S. C. Schmidt; W. L. Seitz; J. Wackerle
1977-01-01
A modification of the gas gun (Gurney) formulation is used to compute the velocity and position histories of flyers driven by electrically exploded metal foils. The model is based on a numerical time integration of an energy conservation statement for the flyer and the expanding high-pressure metal vapor. Empirically altered, experimental power curves are used for the time-dependent energy term
Simoncelli, Eero
representation, in which the entire distribution may be interpolated from a sparse set of samples. WeMIT Media Laboratory Vision and Modeling Technical Report 202. Distributed Representation of Image, Massachusetts 02139 October 1992 Abstract We describe a new form of representation of image velocities, which
Inelastic clump collision model for non-Gaussian velocity distribution in molecular clouds
Shigeru Ida; Y-h. Taguchi
1995-09-11
Non-Gaussian velocity distribution in star forming region is reproduced by inelastic clump collision model. We numerically calculated the evolution of inelastic hard spheres in sheared flow, which corresponds to cloud clumps in differential galactic rotation. This system fluctuates largely around equilibrium state, creating clusters with inelastic collisions and destroying them with shear motion. The fluctuation makes spheres have non-Gaussian velocity distribution with nearly exponential tail. How far from Gaussian distribution depends upon coefficient of restitution, which can produce the variety of degree of deviation from Gaussian among regions.
Traffic jam and discontinuity induced by slowdown in two-stage optimal-velocity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Katsunori; Nagai, Ryoichi; Nagatani, Takashi
2006-10-01
We study the traffic states and jams induced by a slowdown of vehicles in a single-lane highway. The two-stage optimal velocity model is used in which the optimal velocity function has two turning points. The fundamental (flow-density) diagrams are calculated. At low density, the flow (current) increases linearly with density, while it saturates at some values of intermediate density. When the flow saturates, the discontinuous front (stationary shock wave) appears before or within the section of slowdown. The values of saturated flow are determined by the extreme values of theoretical current curves. The relationship between the densities is derived before and after the discontinuity.
Kang Il Lee; Victor F. Humphrey; Timothy G. Leighton; Suk Wang Yoon
2007-01-01
The modified BiotAttenborough (MBA) model for acoustic wave propagation in porous media has been found useful to predict wave properties in cancellous bone. The present study is aimed at applying the MBA model to predict the dependence of phase velocity on porosity in cancellous bone. The MBA model predicts a phase velocity that decreases nonlinearly with porosity. The optimum values
The large-scale peculiar velocity field in flat models of the universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vittorio, Nicola; Turner, Michael S.
1987-01-01
The inflationary universe scenario predicts a flat universe and both adiabatic and isocurvature primordial density perturbations with the Zel'dovich spectrum. The two simplest realizations, models dominated by hot or cold dark matter, seem to be in conflict with observations. Flat models with two components of mass density, where one of the components of mass density is smoothly distributed, are examined, and the large-scale peculiar velocity field for these models is computed. For the smooth component the authors consider relativistic particles, a relic cosmological term, and light strings. At present the observational situation is unsettled, but, in principle, the large-scale peculiar velocity field is a very powerful discriminator between these different models.
Elastic-wave velocity in marine sediments with gas hydrates: Effective medium modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helgerud, M. B.; Dvorkin, J.; Nur, A.; Sakai, A.; Collett, T.
1999-07-01
We offer a first-principle-based effective medium model for elastic-wave velocity in unconsolidated, high porosity, ocean bottom sediments containing gas hydrate. The dry sediment frame elastic constants depend on porosity, elastic moduli of the solid phase, and effective pressure. Elastic moduli of saturated sediment are calculated from those of the dry frame using Gassmann's equation. To model the effect of gas hydrate on sediment elastic moduli we use two separate assumptions: (a) hydrate modifies the pore fluid elastic properties without affecting the frame; (b) hydrate becomes a component of the solid phase, modifying the elasticity of the frame. The goal of the modeling is to predict the amount of hydrate in sediments from sonic or seismic velocity data. We apply the model to sonic and VSP data from ODP Hole 995 and obtain hydrate concentration estimates from assumption (b) consistent with estimates obtained from resistivity, chlorinity and evolved gas data.
Elastic-wave velocity in marine sediments with gas hydrates: Effective medium modeling
Helgerud, M.B.; Dvorkin, J.; Nur, A.; Sakai, A.; Collett, T.
1999-01-01
We offer a first-principle-based effective medium model for elastic-wave velocity in unconsolidated, high porosity, ocean bottom sediments containing gas hydrate. The dry sediment frame elastic constants depend on porosity, elastic moduli of the solid phase, and effective pressure. Elastic moduli of saturated sediment are calculated from those of the dry frame using Gassmann's equation. To model the effect of gas hydrate on sediment elastic moduli we use two separate assumptions: (a) hydrate modifies the pore fluid elastic properties without affecting the frame; (b) hydrate becomes a component of the solid phase, modifying the elasticity of the frame. The goal of the modeling is to predict the amount of hydrate in sediments from sonic or seismic velocity data. We apply the model to sonic and VSP data from ODP Hole 995 and obtain hydrate concentration estimates from assumption (b) consistent with estimates obtained from resistivity, chlorinity and evolved gas data. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.
Exact realization of integer and fractional quantum Hall phases in U(1)×U(1) models in (2+1)d
Geraedts, Scott D., E-mail: sgeraedt@caltech.edu; Motrunich, Olexei I.
2013-07-15
In this work we present a set of microscopic U(1)×U(1) models which realize insulating phases with a quantized Hall conductivity ?{sub xy}. The models are defined in terms of physical degrees of freedom, and can be realized by local Hamiltonians. For one set of these models, we find that ?{sub xy} is quantized to be an even integer. The origin of this effect is a condensation of objects made up of bosons of one species bound to a single vortex of the other species. For other models, the Hall conductivity can be quantized as a rational number times two. For these systems, the condensed objects contain bosons of one species bound to multiple vortices of the other species. These systems have excitations carrying fractional charges and non-trivial mutual statistics. We present sign-free reformulations of these models which can be studied in Monte Carlo, and we use such reformulations to numerically detect a gapless boundary between the quantum Hall and trivial insulator states. We also present the broader phase diagrams of the models. -- Highlights: We present a set of models of two species of bosons which realize topological phases. The models exist on a lattice, and can be realized by local Hamiltonians. These models exhibit both integer and fractional bosonic Hall effects. The models can be studied in sign-free Monte Carlo.
Low Velocity Impact Experiments plus Modeling of the Resulting Reaction Violence in LX-10 Charges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chidester, Steven; Garcia, Frank; Vandersall, Kevin; Tarver, Craig
2011-06-01
A new gas gun facility and improved instrumentation were used to study the mechanisms of low velocity impact ignition and growth of violent reaction. Cylindrical charges of the HMX based explosive LX-10 (95% HMX, 5% Viton binder) encased by lexan were impacted by 6.35 mm diameter hardened steel projectiles at velocities ranging from 47 to 500 m/s. Fast Phantom v12 cameras were employed to capture the times of first ignition. The degrees of resulting reaction violence were determined using Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes to measure the free surface velocity histories of attached aluminum foils. Analytical and hydrodynamic reactive flow models were used to estimate the relative violence of these LX-10 reactions compared to the intentional detonation of an equivalent LX-10 charge. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Elastic-wave velocity in marine sediments with gas hydrates: Effective medium modeling
M. B. Helgerud; J. Dvorkin; A. Nur; A. Sakai; T. Collett
1999-01-01
We offer a first-principle-based effective medium model for elastic-wave velocity in unconsolidated, high porosity, ocean bottom sediments containing gas hydrate. The dry sediment frame elastic constants depend on porosity, elastic moduli of the solid phase, and effective pressure. Elastic moduli of saturated sediment are calculated from those of the dry frame using Gassmann's equation. To model the effect of gas
Numerical modelling of foam-cored sandwich plates under high-velocity impact
I. Ivańez; C. Santiuste; E. Barbero; S. Sanchez-Saez
2011-01-01
This paper studies the high-velocity impact response of sandwich plates, with E-glass fibre\\/polyester face-sheets and foam core, using finite-element models developed in ABAQUS\\/explicit code. The failure of the face-sheets was predicted by implementing Hou failure criteria and a procedure to degrade material properties in a user subroutine (VUMAT). The foam core was modelled as a crushable foam material. The numerical
A model for the two-point velocity correlation function in turbulent channel flow
Sahay, A.; Sreenivasan, K.R. [Mason Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8286 (United States)
1996-06-01
A relatively simple analytical expression is presented to approximate the equal-time, two-point, double-velocity correlation function in turbulent channel flow. To assess the accuracy of the model, we perform the spectral decomposition of the integral operator having the model correlation function as its kernel. Comparisons of the empirical eigenvalues and eigenfunctions with those constructed from direct numerical simulations data show good agreement. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Velocity Measurements Near the Empennage of a SmallScale Helicopter Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gorton, Susan Althoff; Meyers, James F.; Berry, John D.
1996-01-01
A test program was conducted in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to measure the flow near the empennage of a small-scale powered helicopter model with an operating tail fan. Three-component velocity profiles were measured with Laser Velocimetry (LV) one chord forward of the horizontal tail for four advance ratios to evaluate the effect of the rotor wake impingement on the horizontal tail angle of attack. These velocity data indicate the horizontal tail can experience unsteady downwash angle variations of over 30 degrees due to the rotor wake influence. The horizontal tail is most affected by the rotor wake above advance ratios of 0.10. Velocity measurements of the flow on the inlet side of the fan were made for a low-speed flight condition using both conventional LV techniques and a promising, non-intrusive, global, three-component velocity measurement technique called Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV). The velocity data show an accelerated flow near the fan duct, and vorticity calculations track the passage of main rotor wake vortices through the measurement plane. DGV shows promise as an evolving tool for rotor flowfield diagnostics.
Mass Distribution of Spiral Galaxies in a Thin Disk Model with Velocity Curve Extrapolation
Valentin Kostov
2006-04-18
We model a spiral galaxy by a thin axially symmetric disk that includes both visible and dark matter. The surface mass density of the disk is calculated directly from the rotational velocity curve without extra assumptions. We simplify the standard application of the model. Since most velocity curves are known out to some radius, r_{max}, we extrapolate them by attaching a Keplerian tail. The numerical procedure and the extrapolation are tested with a known toy mass density and shown to reconstruct it with a good precision if r_{max} includes a sufficient part of the velocity curve. Mass density curves are calculated for Milky Way and NGC 3198. We vary the extent of the flat part of the velocity curves from 30 kpc to 200 kpc and show that does not affect appreciably the calculated mass density inside r_{max}=30 kpc. The reconstructed masses for Milky Way are 15 x 10^10 solar masses inside the visible disk and 23 x 10^10 solar masses inside 30 kpc. For NGC 3198, the reconstructed mass inside the visible disk is 6.5 x 10^10 solar masses and 11 x 10^10 solar masses inside 30 kpc. The total galactic masses are roughly proportional to the extent of the flat part of the velocity curves which is currently unknown. The high light-to-mass ratios obtained for the visible disks of the galaxies - 11 solar units for Milky way and 9.3 for NGC 3198 - suggest presence of dark matter. The method is also applied to NGC 3031 - a spiral galaxy with a declining velocity curve in which case it is able to reconstruct both the mass density curve and the total mass (14 x 10^10 solar masses).
Acoustic velocity and attenuation of unconsolidated sands: An experimental and modeling study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhuping
I have developed a sonic frequency apparatus (1--10 kHz) that utilizes resonance to measure the acoustic velocities and attenuation of both extensional and torsional waves in unconsolidated materials (e.g., sands, clays and sediments) under hydrostatic confinement. The basic equations and methodology for correcting these effects are given and applied to a dry Monterey sand to determine the shear and Young's moduli and attenuation over an effective pressure range of 0--9 MPa. Comparison of my measured data with theoretical granular contact models gives insight into the seismic wave propagation in unconsolidated sands. The effects of water saturation and pressure on the velocity and attenuation of seismic waves in unconsolidated sands are investigated using the newly-designed apparatus and methodology in the laboratory. Two kinds of pore fluid distribution are achieved with water injection and de-gassing methods, and an X-ray CT scanner is used to obtain the images of pore fluid distribution. There is not significant difference in velocities for the different pore fluid distributions. Measured velocities are in favorable agreement with theoretical predictions based on Gassmann's equations. At all effective pressures, V P of the fully-water-saturated sand is larger than that of the dry sand, implying that water in pore space stiffens the rock, causing an increase in the rock's bulk modulus. For the partially-saturated sand, the attenuation of compressional wave is larger than that of torsional wave, and both of them increase with water saturation. The effects of pore fluid saturation and distribution on seismic velocities are further studied based on numerical simulations of seismic wave propagation in fluid-saturated porous media. The calculated results indicate that numerical modeling based on Biot theory gives the same compressional velocity VP as Gassmann's equations if the pore fluids are mixed in such a fine scale that the induced pore pressure increments can equilibrate with each other. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the San Francisco Bay region, California
Thurber, C.H.; Brocher, T.M.; Zhang, H.; Langenheim, V.E.
2007-01-01
A new three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the greater San Francisco Bay region has been derived using the double-difference seismic tomography method, using data from about 5,500 chemical explosions or air gun blasts and approximately 6,000 earthquakes. The model region covers 140 km NE-SW by 240 km NW-SE, extending from 20 km south of Monterey to Santa Rosa and reaching from the Pacific coast to the edge of the Great Valley. Our model provides the first regional view of a number of basement highs that are imaged in the uppermost few kilometers of the model, and images a number of velocity anomaly lows associated with known Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins in the study area. High velocity (Vp > 6.5 km/s) features at ???15-km depth beneath part of the edge of the Great Valley and along the San Francisco peninsula are interpreted as ophiolite bodies. The relocated earthquakes provide a clear picture of the geometry of the major faults in the region, illuminating fault dips that are generally consistent with previous studies. Ninety-five percent of the earthquakes have depths between 2.3 and 15.2 km, and the corresponding seismic velocities at the hypocenters range from 4.8 km/s (presumably corresponding to Franciscan basement or Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Great Valley Sequence) to 6.8 km/s. The top of the seismogenic zone is thus largely controlled by basement depth, but the base of the seismogenic zone is not restricted to seismic velocities of ???6.3 km/s in this region, as had been previously proposed. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwata, Tomotaka; Kagawa, Takao; Petukhin, Anatoly; Ohnishi, Yoshihiro
2008-04-01
We constructed a prototype of the basin and crustal structure model for the Kinki area, southwest of Japan, for the simulation of strong ground motions of hypothetical crustal and subduction earthquakes. We collected results of the deep seismic velocity profiles obtained by the reflection experiments and seismic imaging results, which were conducted in the Kinki area. The obtained profiles give underground velocity structures of the crust, from the surface to the subducting slab. We also gather the basin velocity structure information of the Osaka, Kyoto, Nara, and Ohmi basins. To examine the applicability of the constructed velocity structure model to the ground motion simulation, we simulated waveforms of an intermediate size event occurred near the source area of the hypothetical subduction earthquakes. Simulated ground motions using the basin and crustal velocity structure model are fairly well reproducing the observations at most of stations, and the constructed basin and crustal velocity structure model is applicable for the long-period ground motion simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, J. E.; Arola, A.; Blumthaler, M.; Fitzka, M.; Kift, R.; Kreuter, A.; Rieder, H. E.; Simic, S.; Webb, A.; Weihs, P.
2009-04-01
Since the discovery of anthropogenic ozone depletion more than 30 year ago, the scientific community has shown an increasing interest in UV-B radiation. Nowadays, ground-based high quality measurements of spectrally resolved UV-radiation are available. On the other hand, 1-D- and 3-D models have been developed, that describe the radiative transfer through the atmosphere physically very accurately. Another approach for determining the UV-irradiance at the surface of the earth is the use of satellite-based reflectance measurements as input for retrieval algorithms. At the moment, the research focuses on the impact of clouds on UV-radiation, but the impact of mountains on UV-radiation, especially in combination with high surface albedo due to snowcover, is also very strong and detailed comparisons between measurements and modelling are lacking. Therefore, three measurement campaigns had been conducted in alpine areas of Austria (Innsbruck and Hoher Sonnblick). The goal was to investigate the impact of alpine terrain in combination with snowcover on spectral UV-irradiance and actinic flux. This contribution uses the ground-based UV-irradiance measurements to evaluate three different UV-irradiance calculation methods. Results from three different calculation methods (satellite retrieval, 1-D- and 3-D radiative transfer model) for UV radiation in terms of UV-Index, erythemally weighted daily doses and spectrally resolved UV-Irradiance at 305, 310, 324 and 380nm are presented and compared with ground-based high quality measurements. The real case study is performed in very inhomogenous terrain under clear sky conditions. The values of the different methods are not only compared for the measurements sites, but additionally the impact of altitude is investigated. So far it seems, that 1-D simulations show the best agreement (ą10%) with the measurements whereas the 3-D model simulations and satellite retrieved values differ much more. Satellite retrieved values significantly underestimate radiation at most stations. All three approaches show an increase of UV radiation with altitude. There are big uncertainties, since high surface albedo and obstraction of the horizon has a big impact and is difficult to take into account. The 3-D-model enables a more detailed study of the altitude effect. The separation of sun facing and sun averted slopes shows increasing UV radiation for sun facing and decreasing UV radiation for sun averted slopes with altitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanorio, T.; Virieux, J.; Latorre, D.
2004-12-01
The estimation of physical properties of rocks is a task showing manifold applications in studies of the Earth's crust. Joint P- and S- travel time tomography from microearthquake travel times is a basic tool to assess the local velocity structure in seismically active areas and thus, it provides the spatial distribution of elastic properties at a specific time moment. To characterize porosity and fluid content within the shallow crust, both P- and S-wave velocities are required because P-waves are sensitive to changes in pore fluid, whereas being S-waves mainly depending on rock matrix properties they are relatively unaffected by the pore fluid. Specifically, the translation of velocity images into lithology, porosity and pore filling phase images requires quantitative relations relating the rock elastic properties to its bulk properties and pressure conditions: this goal can be achieved by rock physics effective-medium modeling. We present a methodology to estimate the petrophysical properties from passive seismic data by linking, at the tomographic resolution, P- and S- wave velocities to lithology, porosity and fluid phases. To reconstruct rock velocities, models use the Hertz-Mindlin contact theory and the modified Hashin-Shtrikman bounds both for consolidated and unconsolidated rocks as described in Dvorkin et al. 1999. Models require knowledge of both the shear, bulk moduli, and density of the matrix which are computed from those of the individual constituents using the Hill's average formula and those of fluid phases which are determined on pressure and temperature based equations. Before inversion, trends for dry rocks were compared with laboratory measurements at crustal conditions for site-relevant rocks. The effect of the pore fluid is calculated at different reservoir conditions in the low-frequency domain through the Gassmann's poroelastic theory. Rock property images are finally determined by minimizing the difference between the tomographic and the modeled velocities through the use of local and semi-global inversion scheme. The presented technique is applied to the passive dataset collected in the Campi Flegrei hydrothermal system where the seismic velocity structures recovered by delay time tomography now fit the bulk physical properties of three different rock types.
An extension of the Savage-Hutter gravity driven granular flow model on arbitrary topography in 1D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fellin, Wolfgang; Ostermann, Alexander; Staggl, Gregor
2015-04-01
In an implementation of the Savage-Hutter model in a GIS (geographic information system, e.g. GRASS GIS) curvature terms must be accounted for. We extend the work of Bouchut et al. (2003) to include friction between flowing mass and bed, as well as the active/passive earth pressure coefficient to model the behavior of the granular flow according to the original Savage-Hutter idea. Conservation of mass and momentum in curvilinear coordinates are integrated over the flow height yielding a shallow water model. This work is part of the project avaflow: http://www.avaflow.org/ References: F. Bouchut, A. Mangeney-Castelnau, B. Perthame, J.-P. Vilotte, A new model of Saint Venant and Savage-Hutter type for gravity driven shallow water flows, C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, série I 336 (2003), 531-536.
Loya, Sudarshan Kedarnath
2011-12-31
these postulations have been effective in the past, they might not work with new versions of catalytic converters and the architectures being proposed. In particular, classical models neglect viscosity, conductivity and diffusion in the bulk gas phase. However...
Super-allowed beta-decay rates in 1d5/2 shell in Coriolis coupling model
M. Sultan Parvez; F. Bary Malik
2009-04-03
The expression for super-allowed beta-decay transition rates have been derived within the context of Coriolis coupling model. The derived expressions, valid for the beta-decay between any two mirror nuclei, has been applied to calculate super-allowed beta-decay transition rates of 21Na, 21Mg, 21Al, and 21Si. The calculated rates agree well with the data and the calculations done using the shell model with configuration admixture.
Origin of localized fast mantle flow velocity in numerical models of subduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Billen, Magali I.; Jadamec, Margarete
2012-01-01
The origin of localized fast mantle flow near subduction zones found in regional (Jadamec and Billen, 2010, 2012) and global (Stadler et al., 2010; Alisic et al., 2010) numerical models using non-Newtonian rheology is explored using 3D models with simple geometry. Two suites of models, using both a free slab and a slab attached to a lithospheric layer, are presented to determine (1) the origin of high magnitudes of mantle flow (>50 cm/yr) and (2) focusing of flow within the mantle wedge, with mantle wedge velocities up to two times higher than slab sinking velocities. The rheology in the models is either Newtonian with a prescribed low viscosity wedge (LVW) or non-Newtonian wherein low viscosity regions form in response to high stress surrounding the sinking slab. The results show that there are two aspects of the models that lead to localized fast velocities: reduction in the mantle viscosity surrounding the sinking slab leads to faster overall flow rates induced by the negative buoyancy of the sinking slab; and geometric effects that are caused by lateral variations in viscosity, including retrograde pivoting motion of the slab.
Comparative Experimental and Modeling Study of Fluid Velocities in Heterogeneous Rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hingerl, F.; Romanenko, K.; Pini, R.; Balcom, B.; Benson, S. M.
2013-12-01
Understanding the spatial distribution of fluid velocities and effective porosities in rocks is crucial for predicting kinetic reaction rates and fluid-rock interactions in a plethora of geo-engineering applications, ranging from geothermal systems, Enhanced Oil Recovery to Carbon Capture and Storage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging can be used to measure spatially resolved porosities and fluid velocities in porous media. Large internal field gradients and short spin relaxation times, however, constrain the usability of the conventional MRI technique in natural rock samples. The combination of three-dimensional Single Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement (SPRITE) and the 13-interval Alternating-Pulsed-Gradient Stimulated-Echo (APGSTE) scheme - a method developed at the UNB MRI Center - is able to compensate for those challenges and quantitative 3 dimensional maps of porosities and fluid velocities can be obtained. In this study we measured velocities and porosities using MRI in a sandstone rock sample showing meso-scale heterogeneities. Then we generated permeabilities using three independent approaches, employed them to model single-phase fluid flow in the measured rock sample and compared the generated velocity maps with the respective MRI measurements. For the first modeling approach, we applied the Kozeny-Carman relationship to create a permeability map based on porosities measured using MRI. For the second approach we used permeabilities derived from CO2-H2O multi-phase experiments performed in the same rock sample assuming the validity of the J-Leverett function. The permeabilities in the third approach were generated by applying a new inverse iterative-updating technique. The resulting three permeability maps were then used as input for a CFD simulation - using the Stanford CFD code AD-GPRS - to create a respective velocity map, which in turn was then compared to the measured velocity map. The results of the different independent methods for generating permeability maps as well as their correlation with the measured velocity maps are evaluated. Furthermore the implication of this study on understanding kinetic reaction rates and fluid-rock interaction is discussed.
A Velocity Shear Driven Turbulence Model for Recent ACE Magnetometer Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, S.; Roelof, E. C.; Smith, C. W.
2012-12-01
Recent magnetometer measurements from the ACE spacecraft show magnetic fluctuation enhancements above the normal Kolmogorov cascade levels adjacent the Doppler-shifted proton gyro-scales. It has been suggested that enhanced wave activity associated with a large solar wind structure, such as glancing passage of a CME, could explain the observations; however to date, a physical process has not been explored aside from conjectures that velocity shear-based Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities may be present. Here we use a two-and-one-half dimensional compressible MHD code, initialized with plasma parameters and initial conditions consistent with the observations, to show that large-scale velocity shears can lead to spectral enhancements adjacent the proton gyro-scales for appropriate orientations of the solar wind magnetic field and the normal plane of the velocity shears. Our model includes finite frequency (Hall) and finite wavenumber (Finite Larmor Radius) effects. The development of spectral anisotropies due to velocity shears appears as a natural consequence of wave advection and does not depend on threshold conditions of the KH instability. Thus, the range of applicability for our model is somewhat broader than the KH instability.
Thurber, C.; Zhang, H.; Brocher, T.; Langenheim, V.
2009-01-01
We present a three-dimensional (3D) tomographic model of the P wave velocity (Vp) structure of northern California. We employed a regional-scale double-difference tomography algorithm that incorporates a finite-difference travel time calculator and spatial smoothing constraints. Arrival times from earthquakes and travel times from controlled-source explosions, recorded at network and/or temporary stations, were inverted for Vp on a 3D grid with horizontal node spacing of 10 to 20 km and vertical node spacing of 3 to 8 km. Our model provides an unprecedented, comprehensive view of the regional-scale structure of northern California, putting many previously identified features into a broader regional context and improving the resolution of a number of them and revealing a number of new features, especially in the middle and lower crust, that have never before been reported. Examples of the former include the complex subducting Gorda slab, a steep, deeply penetrating fault beneath the Sacramento River Delta, crustal low-velocity zones beneath Geysers-Clear Lake and Long Valley, and the high-velocity ophiolite body underlying the Great Valley. Examples of the latter include mid-crustal low-velocity zones beneath Mount Shasta and north of Lake Tahoe. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.
Time-dependent three dimensional P-wave velocity models derived for the Geysers geothermal field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friberg, P. A.; Roecker, S. W.; Dricker, I. G.; Lisowski, S.; Hellman, S. B.
2011-12-01
The Geysers geothermal field is a source of significant small earthquake (M< 2.0) seismicity in northern California. The region has been actively monitored for seismicity, both natural and induced, since the geothermal field has been put into production. A modern digital seismic monitoring network in the area consists of 34 LBNL/Calpine (BG) borehole short-period and 12 Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) network surface short-period seismic stations. The USGS has auto-located approximately 25,033 earthquakes (NCEDC catalog) for the years 2009 and 2010 combined from the composite seismic network. Using the auto-located solutions and a Geysers specific one-dimensional velocity model (Eberhart-Philips and Oppenheimer, 1984) as a starting point, we have simultaneously inverted for three dimensional P-wave velocities for each year's data set. Before beginning the inversion we established that the automatic S-phase picks were too unstable and thus focused only on the P-wave velocities. After culling events with initial RMS uncertainty greater than 0.06 seconds, we start with 7,403 earthquakes in 2009 and 11,199 earthquakes in 2010. The technique we use is a finite-difference travel time technique that Roecker et al. (Tectonophysics, 2006) used for the Parkfield SAFOD site. We will present the results of the simultaneous inversion for each of the 2009 and 2010 years along with plots of the seismicity relocated using these new velocity models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thurber, Clifford; Zhang, Haijiang; Brocher, Thomas; Langenheim, Victoria
2009-01-01
We present a three-dimensional (3D) tomographic model of the P wave velocity (Vp) structure of northern California. We employed a regional-scale double-difference tomography algorithm that incorporates a finite-difference travel time calculator and spatial smoothing constraints. Arrival times from earthquakes and travel times from controlled-source explosions, recorded at network and/or temporary stations, were inverted for Vp on a 3D grid with horizontal node spacing of 10 to 20 km and vertical node spacing of 3 to 8 km. Our model provides an unprecedented, comprehensive view of the regional-scale structure of northern California, putting many previously identified features into a broader regional context and improving the resolution of a number of them and revealing a number of new features, especially in the middle and lower crust, that have never before been reported. Examples of the former include the complex subducting Gorda slab, a steep, deeply penetrating fault beneath the Sacramento River Delta, crustal low-velocity zones beneath Geysers-Clear Lake and Long Valley, and the high-velocity ophiolite body underlying the Great Valley. Examples of the latter include mid-crustal low-velocity zones beneath Mount Shasta and north of Lake Tahoe.
Cheng, Z; Juli, C; Wood, N B; Gibbs, R G J; Xu, X Y
2014-09-01
Aortic dissection is a life-threatening process in which the weakened wall develops a tear, causing separation of wall layers. The dissected layers separate the original true aortic lumen and a newly created false lumen. If untreated, the condition can be fatal. Flow rate in the false lumen is a key feature for false lumen patency, which has been regarded as one of the most important predictors of adverse early and later outcomes. Detailed flow analysis in the dissected aorta may assist vascular surgeons in making treatment decisions, but computational models to simulate flow in aortic dissections often involve several assumptions. The purpose of this study is to assess the computational models adopted in previous studies by comparison with in vivo velocity data obtained by means of phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI). Aortic dissection geometry was reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) images, while PC-MRI velocity data were used to define inflow conditions and to provide distal velocity components for comparison with the simulation results. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation incorporated a laminar-turbulent transition model, which is necessary for adequate flow simulation in aortic conditions. Velocity contours from PC-MRI and CFD in the two lumens at the distal plane were compared at four representative time points in the pulse cycle. The computational model successfully captured the complex regions of flow reversal and recirculation qualitatively, although quantitative differences exist. With a rigid wall assumption and exclusion of arch branches, the CFD model over-predicted the false lumen flow rate by 25% at peak systole. Nevertheless, an overall good agreement was achieved, confirming the physiological relevance and validity of the computational model for type B aortic dissection with a relatively stiff dissection flap. PMID:25070022
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ireland, Gareth; Petropoulos, George P.; Carlson, Toby N.; Purdy, Sarah
2015-04-01
Sensitivity analysis (SA) consists of an integral and important validatory check of a computer simulation model before it is used to perform any kind of analysis. In the present work, we present the results from a SA performed on the SimSphere Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) model utilising a cutting edge and robust Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) approach, based on the use of the Gaussian Emulation Machine for Sensitivity Analysis (GEM-SA) tool. The sensitivity of the following model outputs was evaluated: the ambient CO2 concentration and the rate of CO2 uptake by the plant, the ambient O3 concentration, the flux of O3 from the air to the plant/soil boundary, and the flux of O3 taken up by the plant alone. The most sensitive model inputs for the majority of model outputs were related to the structural properties of vegetation, namely, the Leaf Area Index, Fractional Vegetation Cover, Cuticle Resistance and Vegetation Height. External CO2 in the leaf and the O3 concentration in the air input parameters also exhibited significant influence on model outputs. This work presents a very important step towards an all-inclusive evaluation of SimSphere. Indeed, results from this study contribute decisively towards establishing its capability as a useful teaching and research tool in modelling Earth's land surface interactions. This is of considerable importance in the light of the rapidly expanding use of this model worldwide, which also includes research conducted by various Space Agencies examining its synergistic use with Earth Observation data towards the development of operational products at a global scale. This research was supported by the European Commission Marie Curie Re-Integration Grant "TRANSFORM-EO". SimSphere is currently maintained and freely distributed by the Department of Geography and Earth Sciences at Aberystwyth University (http://www.aber.ac.uk/simsphere). Keywords: CO2 flux, ambient CO2, O3 flux, SimSphere, Gaussian process emulators, BACCO GEM-SA, TRANSFORM-EO.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibert, G.; Gerbault, M.; Hassani, R.; Tric, E.
2012-05-01
The aim of this study is to quantify the relationship between the kinematics of subduction, deformation in the overriding plate and the evolution of slab geometry. A 2-D finite element numerical code is used, and a first objective consists in benchmarking previously published analogue models. Far-field plate velocities are applied, and once the subducting plate reaches the 660 km discontinuity, modelled as a rigid base, we obtain two different forms or styles of subduction that depend on the overriding plate velocity vop: if vop > 0, the slab lies forwards on the 660 km discontinuity (style 1), and if vop? 0, the slab lies backwards on the discontinuity (style 2). We also obtain a cyclic pattern with the slab folding on itself repeatedly when vsp > 0 and 2vop+vsp > 0 (where vsp is the subducting plate velocity). These conditions result from the analysis of several simulations in which the subduction velocities and plate viscosities are varied. When the slab periodically folds on the 660 km discontinuity, periods of shallow slab dip and compression in the overriding plate are followed by periods of slab steepening and relative extension in the overriding plate. Folding periodicity is controlled by the slab viscosity and subduction velocity. When a low-viscosity zone is included in the overriding plate, the trench motion is effectively decoupled from the overriding plate velocity, therefore allowing it to be directly controlled by the deep dynamics of the slab. For the cyclic style 2 corresponding to forward folding of the slab, the low-viscosity region in the overriding plate increases the stress amplitudes oscillations, the trench motion and the folding periodicity with time. Therefore the strength of the entire overriding plate is shown to directly control the dynamics of subduction. Using the Nazca and South American plate velocities we produce models of cyclic folding with a period of ca. 22 Ma and a minimal dip angle of ca. 10°. Episodic folding of the slab on the 660 km discontinuity would produce the necessary changes in slab dip and overriding plate deformation that explain episodes of volcanic quiescence alternating with greater rates of shortening along the Andes.
Engineering model for low-velocity impacts of multi-material cylinder on a rigid boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchely, M. F.; Maranon, A.; Delvare, F.
2012-08-01
Modern ballistic problems involve the impact of multi-material projectiles. In order to model the impact phenomenon, different levels of analysis can be developed: empirical, engineering and simulation models. Engineering models are important because they allow the understanding of the physical phenomenon of the impact materials. However, some simplifications can be assumed to reduce the number of variables. For example, some engineering models have been developed to approximate the behavior of single cylinders when impacts a rigid surface. However, the cylinder deformation depends of its instantaneous velocity. At this work, an analytical model is proposed for modeling the behavior of a unique cylinder composed of two different metals cylinders over a rigid surface. Material models are assumed as rigid-perfectly plastic. Differential equation systems are solved using a numerical Runge-Kutta method. Results are compared with computational simulations using AUTODYN 2D hydrocode. It was found a good agreement between engineering model and simulation results. Model is limited by the impact velocity which is transition at the interface point given by the hydro dynamical pressure proposed by Tate.
A New Open-Loop Fiber Optic Gyro Error Compensation Method Based on Angular Velocity Error Modeling
Zhang, Yanshun; Guo, Yajing; Li, Chunyu; Wang, Yixin; Wang, Zhanqing
2015-01-01
With the open-loop fiber optic gyro (OFOG) model, output voltage and angular velocity can effectively compensate OFOG errors. However, the model cannot reflect the characteristics of OFOG errors well when it comes to pretty large dynamic angular velocities. This paper puts forward a modeling scheme with OFOG output voltage u and temperature T as the input variables and angular velocity error ?? as the output variable. Firstly, the angular velocity error ?? is extracted from OFOG output signals, and then the output voltage u, temperature T and angular velocity error ?? are used as the learning samples to train a Radial-Basis-Function (RBF) neural network model. Then the nonlinear mapping model over T, u and ?? is established and thus ?? can be calculated automatically to compensate OFOG errors according to T and u. The results of the experiments show that the established model can be used to compensate the nonlinear OFOG errors. The maximum, the minimum and the mean square error of OFOG angular velocity are decreased by 97.0%, 97.1% and 96.5% relative to their initial values, respectively. Compared with the direct modeling of gyro angular velocity, which we researched before, the experimental results of the compensating method proposed in this paper are further reduced by 1.6%, 1.4% and 1.2%, respectively, so the performance of this method is better than that of the direct modeling for gyro angular velocity. PMID:25734642
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graeber, Frank M.; Asch, Günter
1999-09-01
The PISCO'94 (Proyecto de Investigatión Sismológica de la Cordillera Occidental, 1994) seismological network of 31 digital broad band and short-period three-component seismometers was deployed in northern Chile between the Coastal Cordillera and the Western Cordillera. More than 5300 local seismic events were observed in a 100 day period. A subset of high-quality P and S arrival time data was used to invert simultaneously for hypocenters and velocity structure. Additional data from two other networks in the region could be included. The velocity models show a number of prominent anomalies, outlining an extremely thickened crust (about 70 km) beneath the forearc region, an anomalous crustal structure beneath the recent magmatic arc (Western Cordillera) characterized by very low velocities, and a high-velocity slab. A region of an increased Vp/Vs ratio has been found directly above the Wadati-Benioff zone, which might be caused by hydration processes. A zone of lower than average velocities and a high Vp/Vs ratio might correspond to the asthenospheric wedge. The upper edge of the Wadati-Benioff zone is sharply defined by intermediate depth hypocenters, while evidence for a double seismic zone can hardly be seen. Crustal events between the Precordillera and the Western Cordillera have been observed for the first time and are mainly located in the vicinity of the Salar de Atacama down to depths of about 40 km.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
del Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo; Vazquez, Gerardo J.; Cocoletzi, Gregorio H.
2001-03-01
We investigate the hydrodynamic response functions for degenerate free-electron gases confined in low dimensional systems (2D and 3D) when collisions are included. Expressions for the complex stiffness parameter of the nonlocal dielectric functions between high- and low-frequency limits are obtained from the Boltzmann model with the Mermin correction which guarantees local conservation of particles.
The (O1D) 630.0 nm thermospheric dayglow measured by WINDII and modeled by TRANSCAR
F. Culot; C. Lathuillčre; J. Lilensten; O. Witasse
2003-01-01
A key problem in aeronomic research is the study of airglow emissions. They are observed by a large range of techniques such as rockets, ground-based and space instruments. They provide a better understanding of the processes controling the state of the upper mesosphere and thermosphere. The modeling of those emissions is a complementary approach. It involves a wide variety of
Study of fog characteristics by using the 1-D COBEL model at the airport of Thessaloniki, Greece
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stolaki, S.; Pytharoulis, I.; Karacostas, T.
2010-07-01
An attempt is made to couple the one dimensional COBEL - ISBA (COuche Brouillard Eau Liquide - Interactions Soil Biosphere Atmosphere) model with the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) numerical weather prediction model. This accomplishment will improve the accuracy on the short-term forecasting of fog events, which is of paramount importance -mainly to the airway companies, the airports functioning and the community as well- and will provide the means for the implementation of extensive studies of fog events formed at the "Macedonia" airport of Thessaloniki. Numerical experiments have been performed to study in depth the thermodynamic structure and the microphysical characteristics of the fog event that was formed on 06/01/2010. Moreover, the meteorological conditions -under the influence of which- the fog event was formed are also investigated. Sensitivity tests with respect to the initial conditions of temperature, relative humidity and geostrophic wind speed profiles have been performed to illustrate the models performance. Dew deposition rates have also been examined in order to test the importance of it on controlling the fog formation. The numerical results have been compared with actual measurements and the findings have been evaluated and discussed.
Gravity Modeling of a Batholith and Low-Velocity Mantle Zone Beneath the Colorado Mineral Belt
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCoy, A. M.; Roy, M.; Trevino, L.; Keller, R.
2003-12-01
The Colorado Mineral Belt (CMB) is delineated as a belt of mostly Laramide mineralization within a broader zone of Laramide and older magmatism in central Colorado. One of North America's largest Bouguer gravity anomalies coincides with this broad NE-trending zone of protracted magmatic activity. Seismic studies suggest that parts of the CMB region are underlain by anomalously low-density crust and that the CMB lies within a broad zone of low seismic velocities in the uppermost mantle. Our gravity modeling explores simple distributions of subsurface mass deficits that can explain the CMB negative Bouguer gravity anomaly, and are constrained by geologic estimates of the extent of crustal plutonic bodies and by seismically-inferred crustal and upper mantle velocity anomalies. Specifically, our forward models include (1) a low-density batholithic body in a 20-km thick upper crust with a density contrast of 150 kg/m3, (2) a 25-km thick lower crust with a potential low-density body of density contrast 150 kg/m3, and (3) an upper mantle with a low-density body of variable density contrast placed at variable depth. The viability of the crust and mantle low-density bodies in our first-order forward models is tied to their consistency with seismic observations, and we work toward refinement of the models using empirical density/velocity relationships and the upper crustal structure established by the CDROM seismic refraction line.
Acoustic reconstruction of the velocity field in a furnace using a characteristic flow model.
Li, Yanqin; Zhou, Huaichun; Chen, Shiying; Zhang, Yindi; Wei, Xinli; Zhao, Jinhui
2012-06-01
An acoustic method can provide a noninvasive, efficient and full-field reconstruction of aerodynamic fields in a furnace. A simple yet reasonable model is devised for reconstruction of a velocity field in a cross section of a tangential furnace from acoustic measurements based on typical physical characteristics of the field. The solenoidal component of the velocity field is modeled by a curved surface, derived by rotating a curve of Gaussian distribution, determined by six characteristic parameters, while the nonrotational component is governed by a priori knowledge. Thus the inverse problem is translated into determination of the characteristic parameters using a set of acoustic projection data. First numerical experiments were undertaken to simulate the acoustic measurement, so as to preliminarily validate the effectiveness of the model. Based on this, physical experiments under different operating conditions were performed in a pilot-scale setup to provide a further test. Hot-wire anemometry and strip floating were applied to compare with acoustic measurements. The acoustic measurements provided satisfactory consistency with both of these approaches. Nevertheless, for a field with a relatively large magnitude of air velocities, the acoustic measurement can give more reliable reconstructions. Extension of the model to measurements of hot tangential furnaces is also discussed. PMID:22712914
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angus, D. A.; Aljaafari, A.; Usher, P.; Verdon, J. P.
2014-12-01
Seismic forward modeling is an integral component of microseismic location algorithms, yet there is generally no one correct approach, but rather a range of acceptable approaches that can be used. Since seismic signals are band limited, the length scale of heterogeneities can significantly influence the seismic wavefronts and waveforms. This can be especially important for borehole microseismic monitoring, where subsurface heterogeneity can be strong and/or vary on length scales equivalent to or less than the dominant source wavelength. In this paper, we show that ray-based approaches are not ubiquitously suitable for all borehole microseismic applications. For unconventional reservoir settings, ray-based algorithms may not be suitably accurate for advanced microseismic imaging. Here we focus on exploring the feasibility of using one-way wave equations as forward propagators for full waveform event location techniques. As a feasibility study, we implement an acoustic wide-angle wave equation and use a velocity model interpolation approach to explore the computational efficiency and accuracy of the solution. We compare the results with an exact solution to evaluate travel-time and amplitude errors. The results show that accurate travel-times can be predicted to within 2 ms of the true solution for modest velocity model interpolation. However, for accurate amplitude prediction or for higher dominant source frequencies, a larger number of velocity model interpolations is required.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parey, A.; Tandon, N.
2007-01-01
Gears are one of the most common elements in any rotating machinery. If gear defect can be assessed, gearbox maintenance schedule can be optimally planned. This paper presents an impact velocity model relating measurable vibration signal to the defect size on the gear tooth flank. The analytical model was verified experimentally. The experimental results support the effectiveness of the analytical model in estimating defect size. In addition, experimental vibration signals were decomposed using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique. These decomposed oscillatory functions are called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Kurtosis value of selected IMF was calculated for early detection of fault.
Velocity selection at large undercooling in a two-dimensional nonlocal model of solidification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barbieri, Angelo
1987-01-01
The formation of needle-crystal dendrites from an undercooled melt is investigated analytically, applying the method of Caroli et al. (1986) to Langer's (1980) symmetric two-dimensional nonlocal model of solidification with finite anisotropy in the limit of large undercooling. A solution based on the WKB approximation is obtained, and a saddle-point evaluation is performed. It is shown that needle-crystal solutions exist only if the capillary anisotropy is nonzero, in which case a particular value of the growth velocity can be selected. This finding and the expression for the dependence of the selected velocity on the singular perturbation parameter and the strength of the anisotropy are found to be in complete agreement with the results of a boundary-layer model (Langer and Hong, 1986).
A Gaussian process framework for modelling stellar activity signals in radial velocity data
Rajpaul, Vinesh; Osborne, Michael A; Reece, Steven; Roberts, Stephen J
2015-01-01
To date, the radial velocity (RV) method has been one of the most productive techniques for detecting and confirming extrasolar planetary candidates. Unfortunately, stellar activity can induce RV variations which can drown out or even mimic planetary signals - and it is notoriously difficult to model and thus mitigate the effects of these activity-induced nuisance signals. This is expected to be a major obstacle to using next-generation spectrographs to detect lower mass planets, planets with longer periods, and planets around more active stars. Enter Gaussian processes (GPs) which, we note, have a number of attractive features that make them very well suited to disentangling stellar activity signals from planetary signals. We present here a GP framework we developed to model RV time series jointly with ancillary activity indicators (e.g. bisector velocity spans, line widths, chromospheric activity indices), allowing the activity component of RV time series to be constrained and disentangled from e.g. planeta...
Numerical Modelling of Glass Fibre Reinforced Laminates Subjected to a Low Velocity Impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, J. Y.; Guana, Z. W.; Cantwell, W. J.
2010-05-01
This paper presents a series of numerical predictions of the perforation behaviour of glass fibre laminates subjected to quasi-static and low-velocity impact loading. Both shear and tensile failure criteria were used in the finite element models to simulate the post-failure processes via an automatic element removal procedure. The appropriate material properties, obtained through a series of uniaxial tension and bending tests on the composites, were used in the numerical models. Four, eight and sixteen ply glass fibre laminates panels were perforated at quasi-static rates and under low-velocity impact loading. Reasonably good correlation was obtained between the numerical simulations and the experimental results, both in terms of the failure modes and the load-deflection relationships before and during the penetration phase. The predicted impact energies of the GFRP panels were compared with the experimental data and reasonable agreement was observed.
Numerical Modelling of Glass Fibre Reinforced Laminates Subjected to a Low Velocity Impact
Fan, J. Y.; Guana, Z. W.; Cantwell, W. J. [University of Liverpool, Department of Engineering, Liverpool L69 3GQ (United Kingdom)
2010-05-21
This paper presents a series of numerical predictions of the perforation behaviour of glass fibre laminates subjected to quasi-static and low-velocity impact loading. Both shear and tensile failure criteria were used in the finite element models to simulate the post-failure processes via an automatic element removal procedure. The appropriate material properties, obtained through a series of uniaxial tension and bending tests on the composites, were used in the numerical models. Four, eight and sixteen ply glass fibre laminates panels were perforated at quasi-static rates and under low-velocity impact loading. Reasonably good correlation was obtained between the numerical simulations and the experimental results, both in terms of the failure modes and the load-deflection relationships before and during the penetration phase. The predicted impact energies of the GFRP panels were compared with the experimental data and reasonable agreement was observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Jun; Liu, Hongyi; Han, Ting; Chen, Yijian
2015-03-01
In this paper, a stitch database is built from various identified stitching structures in an open-cell layout library. The corresponding stitching yield models are developed for the hybrid optical and self-aligned multiple patterning (hybrid SAMP). Based on the concept of probability-of-success (POS) function, we first develop a single-stitching yield model to quantify the effects of overlay errors and cut-hole CD variations. The overhang distance designed in a stitching process (or its mean value ?) is found to be critical to the stitching yield performance and can be optimized using this yield model. We also investigate the physical significance of several process parameters such as half pitch (HP), standard deviation (?) of the random overhang distribution, and cut-hole CD (CL). Our study shows that certain types of stitching yield are sensitive to ? and HP, while in general high yield can be achieved for a large number of stitching types we examined. To improve the yield of certain challenging stitching structures, various layout modification strategies are proposed and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larour, E.; Rignot, E.; Seroussi, H.; Morlighem, M.
2012-04-01
Constraining ice flow models for continental ice sheets such as Antarctica or Greenland can be difficult, especially regarding the specification of basal friction at the ice/bed interface. Historically, two approches have been taken: 1) model the basal hydrology of the ice sheet, and relate the resulting basal water pressure to the basal drag coefficient and 2) invert for the basal drag coefficient using InSAR surface velocities, and infer the resulting basal hydrology. Here, we use both approaches within the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), the JPL/UCI developed ice flow model, for which we have developed a new hydrological model based on LeBrocq et al, 2009. We compare this model against a large scale inversion of Antarctica's basal drag coefficient using new InSAR surface velocities from Rignot et al 2011. We discuss the potential for this model to improve constraints on basal friction evolution, and implications for projections of ice flow dynamics in a changing climate. We also discuss relevance for calibrating thermal models of Antarctica. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.
Velocity and pressure characteristics of a model SSME high pressure fuel turbopump
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tse, D. G-N.; Sabnis, J. S.; Mcdonald, H.
1991-01-01
Under the present effort an experiment rig has been constructed, an instrumentation package developed and a series of mean and rms velocity and pressure measurements made in a turbopump which modelled the first stage of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump. The rig was designed so as to allow initial experiments with a single configuration consisting of a bell-mouth inlet, a flight impeller, a vaneless diffuser and a volute. Allowance was made for components such as inlet guide vanes, exit guide vanes, downstream pumps, etc. to be added in future experiments. This flexibility will provide a clear baseline set of experiments and allow evaluation in later experiments of the effect of adding specific components upon the pump performance properties. The rotational speed of the impeller was varied between 4260 and 7680 rpm which covered the range of scaled SSME rotation speeds when due allowance is made for the differing stagnation temperature, model to full scale. The results at the inlet obtained with rotational speeds of 4260, 6084 and 7680 rpm showed that the axial velocity at the bell-mouth inlet remained roughly constant at 2.2 of the bulk velocity at the exit of the turbopump near the center of the inlet, but it decreased rapidly with increasing radius at all three speeds. Reverse flow occurred at a radius greater than 0.9 R for all three speeds and the maximum negative velocity reduced from 1.3 of the bulk velocity at the exit of the turbopump at 4260 rpm to 0.35 at 7680 rpm, suggesting that operating at a speed closer to the design condition of 8700 rpm improved the inlet characteristics. The reverse flow caused positive prerotation at the impeller inlet which was negligibly small near the center but reached 0.7 of the impeller speed at the outer annulus. The results in the diffuser and the volute obtained at 7680 rpm show that the hub and shroud walls of the diffuser were characterized by regions of transient reverse flow with negative revolution-averaged velocity of 8 percent of the maximum forward revolution-averaged velocity at the center of the diffuser passage near the shroud wall.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunthawin, Sakshin; Ritchie, Raymond J.
2013-01-01
Proper models of cell geometry are needed for biophysical analysis of cellular electrical phenomena. This work compares various mathematical volume-models for normal human erythrocytes (discocyte) possessing biconcave-discoid form to simulate translational dielectrophoretic velocity spectra of erythrocyte suspensions induced in a traveling electric field over a frequency range from 1 kHz to 15 MHz. The non-spherical volumes of the oblate-spheroid, the prolate-spheroid, and the oval of Cassini and the "Bun-model" were numerically evaluated according to the normal range of cellular dimension values for mammalian erythrocytes. The latter model is the novel approach derived to provide a more realistic model for the shape of discocytes in the thin biconcave-disc form with a toroidal rim. The bun model is also more rugged than the Cassini equation. Using the actual cell dimensions for calculations, the numerical results among these calculated cell volumes revealed large and significant differences with respect to the Bun-model of +32.09%, +8.95%, and -8.45% for prolate-spheroid, Cassini's equation, and oblate-spheroid, respectively. These large volume deviations shift the magnitude of the sharp peak in dielectrophoretic velocity spectra to lower values with differences of +189.28%, +7.66%, and -9.49%, respectively. For traveling wave dielectrophoresis, similar results were found for the sharp peak of +145.76%, +7.71%, and -9.50%, respectively. The suitability of the Bun-model was verified by curve-fitting of the cell velocity spectra between experimental and theoretical curves, which gave the maximum discrepancies of less than ą10%.
A Stochastic Non-Gaussian Velocity Model for Tracer Dispersion in Heterogeneous Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, D. W.; Tchelepi, H. A.
2009-12-01
To model tracer transport in porous media, computationally expensive Monte Carlo (MC) techniques or low-order approximation methods (LOAM) are applicable [1]. The latter are inexpensive but limited to relatively homogeneous media with low conductivity or transmissivity variations, and approximately Gaussian one-point velocity statistics. MC studies have shown that heterogeneous media lead to distinctly skewed non-Gaussian velocity distributions [2]. In addition to MC and LOAM, continuous time random walk (CTRW) or Lévy motion (LM) approaches were proposed for the modeling of dispersion in highly heterogeneous media, e.g, fractured rock [3,4]. Both models involve discontinuous stochastic processes for the displacement of tracer particles. The parameters that determine these processes, however, are not always easy to identify. In this work, a new particle-based model for the simulation of tracer dispersion in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media is presented. Other than in CTRW or LM models, a continuous stochastic process for the Lagrangian velocity of a tracer particle is formulated. The suggested formulation encompasses Gaussian and skewed velocity statistics, and the model parameters can be related more easily to medium characteristics. Numerical simulations of the tracer plume evolution in the Borden tracer experiment and of breakthrough curves in homogeneous and uniformly heterogeneous sand packs are successfully validated with experimental data [5,6]. Non-Fickian dispersion behavior resulting from the scale effect (plume-size dependent dispersivities) and skewed velocity statistics is demonstrated and analyzed. [1] Zhang, Y. K. and D. Zhang (2004). "Forum: The state of stochastic hydrology." Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 18(4): 265-265. [2] Salandin, P. and V. Fiorotto (1998). "Solute transport in highly heterogeneous aquifers." Water Resources Research 34(5): 949-961. [3] Benson, D. A., R. Schumer, et al. (2001). "Fractional Dispersion, Lévy Motion, and the MADE Tracer Tests." Transport in Porous Media 42(1): 211-240. [4] Berkowitz, B., A. Cortis, et al. (2006). "Modeling non-Fickian transport in geological formations as a continuous time random walk." Reviews of Geophysics 44(2). [5] Freyberg, D. L. (1986). "A Natural Gradient Experiment on Solute Transport in a Sand Aquifer. 2. Spatial Moments and the Advection and Dispersion of Nonreactive Tracers." Water Resources Research 22(13): 2031-2046. [6] Silliman, S. E. and E. S. Simpson (1987). "Laboratory Evidence of the Scale Effect in Dispersion of Solutes in Porous-Media." Water Resources Research 23(8): 1667-1673.
Unsteady Velocity Measurements Taken Behind a Model Helicopter Rotor Hub in Forward Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, John D.
1997-01-01
Drag caused by separated flow behind the hub of a helicopter has an adverse effect on aerodynamic performance of the aircraft. To determine the effect of separated flow on a configuration used extensively for helicopter aerodynamic investigations, an experiment was conducted using a laser velocimeter to measure velocities in the wake of a model helicopter hub operating at Mach-scaled conditions in forward flight. Velocity measurements were taken using a laser velocimeter with components in the vertical and downstream directions. Measurements were taken at 13 stations downstream from the rotor hub. At each station, measurements were taken in both a horizontal and vertical row of locations. These measurements were analyzed for harmonic content based on the rotor period of revolution. After accounting for these periodic velocities, the remaining unsteady velocities were treated as turbulence. Turbulence intensity distributions are presented. Average turbulent intensities ranged from approximately 2 percent of free stream to over 15 percent of free stream at specific locations and azimuths. The maximum average value of turbulence was located near the rear-facing region of the fuselage.
Evaluation of an imputed pitch velocity model of the auditory tau effect
Molly J. Henry; J. Devin McAuley; Marta Zaleha
2009-01-01
This article extends an imputed pitch velocity model of the auditory kappa effect proposed by Henry and McAuley (2009a) to\\u000a the auditory tau effect. Two experiments were conducted using an AXB design in which listeners judged the relative pitch of\\u000a a middle target tone (X) in ascending and descending three-tone sequences. In Experiment 1, sequences were isochronous, establishing\\u000a constant fast,
Julio Chanamé; Jan Kleyna; Roeland van der Marel
2008-04-21
(ABRIDGED) We present a new Schwarzschild orbit-superposition code designed to model discrete datasets composed of velocities of individual kinematic tracers in a dynamical system. This constitutes an extension of previous implementations that can only address continuous data in the form of (the moments of) velocity distributions, thus avoiding potentially important losses of information due to data binning. Furthermore, the code can handle any combination of available velocity components, i.e., only line-of-sight velocities, only proper motions, or a combination of both. It can also handle a combination of discrete and continuous data. The code finds the distribution function (DF, a function of the three integrals of motion E, Lz, and I3) that best reproduces the available kinematic and photometric observations in a given axisymmetric gravitational potential. The fully numerical approach ensures considerable freedom on the form of the DF f(E,Lz,I3). This allows a very general modeling of the orbital structure, thus avoiding restrictive assumptions about the degree of (an)isotropy of the orbits. We describe the implementation of the discrete code and present a series of tests of its performance based on the modeling of simulated datasets generated from a known DF. We find that the discrete Schwarzschild code recovers the original orbital structure, M/L ratios, and inclination of the input datasets to satisfactory accuracy, as quantified by various statistics. The code will be valuable, e.g., for modeling stellar motions in Galactic globular clusters, and those of individual stars, planetary nebulae, or globular clusters in nearby galaxies. This can shed new light on the total mass distributions of these systems, with central black holes and dark matter halos being of particular interest.
Velocity-Dependent Potentials and the Shell Model of Oxygen18
Bruce H. McKellar
1964-01-01
An expansion of the shell-model matrix elements of the velocity-dependent potential m-1[p2V(r)+V(r)p2] in the Talmi integrals of V is derived and applied to calculate the energy levels of O18 using the nucleon-nucleon potential of Green. It is found that the correct ordering of the levels is obtained but the potential must be altered slightly to obtain agreement comparable with that
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petropoulos, George P.; Carlson, Toby N.
2013-04-01
Earth Observation (EO) has played an imperative role in extending our abilities for obtaining information on the spatio-temporal distribution of surface soil moisture (SSM). A wide range of techniques have been proposed for this purpose, utilising spectral information acquired from remote sensing instruments operating in different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some of these methods have been based on the integration of satellite-derived estimates of Fractional Vegetation Cover (Fr) and Land Surface Temperature (Ts) in the form of a scatterplot domain, often combining simulations from land surface process model. In this work we present results from the evaluation of one such technique implemented using ENVISAT's Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) medium resolution sensor imagery and SimSphere land surface model. Validation of the derived SMC maps was undertaken in different sites in Europe representing a variety of climatic, topographic and environmental conditions, for which validated in-situ observations from diverse operational ground observational networks were available. Our results indicated a generally close agreement between the inverted SMC maps and the in-situ observations, with accuracies often comparable to previous studies implemented using different types of EO data. Comparisons of the derived SMC maps regionally against other satellite-derived products also showed largely an explainable distribution of SMC in relation to surface heterogeneity. The present work was conducted in the framework of the PROgRESSIon (Prototyping the Retrievals of Energy Fluxes and Soil Moisture Content) project, funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) Support to Science Element (STSE). The project aims at exploring the development of a series of prototype products for the estimation of turbulent heat fluxes and SMC derived from the synergy of SimSphere land surface model with EO observations from advanced technologically designed medium resolution ESA-funded or co-funded instruments. KEYWORDS: surface soil moisture, remote sensing, triangle, SimSphere, AATSR.
Huynh, Long Quang
1994-01-01
An empirical model has been developed to predict the mean-velocity profile of a turbulent boundary layer under the influence of surface curvature. The model proposed is able to determine the profiles for both a convex and concave curvature...
Analytical study on the criticality of the stochastic optimal velocity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanai, Masahiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Tokihiro, Tetsuji
2006-03-01
In recent works, we have proposed a stochastic cellular automaton model of traffic flow connecting two exactly solvable stochastic processes, i.e., the asymmetric simple exclusion process and the zero range process, with an additional parameter. It is also regarded as an extended version of the optimal velocity model, and moreover it shows particularly notable properties. In this paper, we report that when taking optimal velocity function to be a step function, all of the flux-density graph (i.e. the fundamental diagram) can be estimated. We first find that the fundamental diagram consists of two line segments resembling an inversed-? form, and next identify their end-points from a microscopic behaviour of vehicles. It is notable that by using a microscopic parameter which indicates a driver's sensitivity to the traffic situation, we give an explicit formula for the critical point at which a traffic jam phase arises. We also compare these analytical results with those of the optimal velocity model, and point out the crucial differences between them.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Parker, Linda N.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.
2007-01-01
The NUMIT 1-dimensional bulk charging model is used as a screening to ol for evaluating time-dependent bulk internal or deep dielectric) ch arging of dielectrics exposed to penetrating electron environments. T he code is modified to accept time dependent electron flux time serie s along satellite orbits for the electron environment inputs instead of using the static electron flux environment input originally used b y the code and widely adopted in bulk charging models. Application of the screening technique ts demonstrated for three cases of spacecraf t exposure within the Earth's radiation belts including a geostationa ry transfer orbit and an Earth-Moon transit trajectory for a range of orbit inclinations. Electric fields and charge densities are compute d for dielectric materials with varying electrical properties exposed to relativistic electron environments along the orbits. Our objectiv e is to demonstrate a preliminary application of the time-dependent e nvironments input to the NUMIT code for evaluating charging risks to exposed dielectrics used on spacecraft when exposed to the Earth's ra diation belts. The results demonstrate that the NUMIT electric field values in GTO orbits with multiple encounters with the Earth's radiat ion belts are consistent with previous studies of charging in GTO orb its and that potential threat conditions for electrostatic discharge exist on lunar transit trajectories depending on the electrical proper ties of the materials exposed to the radiation environment.
Karoutas, Zeses E.; Liu, Bin; Dzodzo, Milorad; Joffre, Paul F. [Westinghouse Electric Company (United States)
2006-07-01
A numerical investigation was performed to study the variation in axial velocity profiles occurring downstream of the inlet nozzle region of Nuclear PWR fuel assemblies. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models were prepared for the inlet nozzle region of a section of fuel assembly, simulating the lower support plate located under the fuel assembly, the inlet nozzle of the fuel and the downstream fuel region. Two different nozzle designs were modeled to study how each nozzle impacts the dissipation of the jet velocity profiles occurring downstream of the nozzle. The two different nozzle designs included a standard round chamfered hole flow plate and a chamfered slotted flow plate. The evaluation of the axial velocity profiles occurring downstream of the nozzle flow plate is critical in understanding the fuel rod vibration and rod fretting in the first grid span. Excessive rod vibration in this region can occur due to high axial jet velocities and steep axial velocity gradients generated from the holes in the lower support plate. The excessive rod vibration can lead to fuel rod wear and fuel failure. Axial velocity profiles were predicted for the different nozzle designs using the CFX code. These velocity profiles were compared to air test velocity measurements for the same nozzle designs. Velocity measurements were made in a 3.763/1 over-scale air test section simulating a 6 x 6 rod array of the inlet nozzle region and downstream fuel region. Reasonable agreement was observed between the velocity measurements and CFD model predictions. The results also indicate that nozzle flow plate geometry can have a significant affect on the dissipation of the jet axial velocity profiles and the steepness of the axial velocity gradients downstream on the inlet nozzle. The application of CFD tools can be used to optimize the inlet nozzle geometry to better dissipate jets and reduce axial velocity gradients downstream of the nozzle at a minimal increase in pressure drop. This will help reduce fuel rod vibration and rod fretting. (authors)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larour, E. Y.; Rignot, E. J.; Seroussi, H. L.; Morlighem, M.
2011-12-01
Constraining ice flow models for continental ice sheets such as Antarctica or Greenland can be difficult, especially regarding the specification of basal friction at the ice/bed interface. Historically, two approches have been taken: 1) model the basal hydrology of the ice sheet, and relate the resulting basal water pressure to the basal drag coefficient and 2) invert for the basal drag coefficient using InSAR surface velocities, and infer the resulting basal hydrology. Here, we use both approaches within the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), the JPL/UCI developed ice flow model, for which we develop a new hydrological model based on Johnson et al 2002. We compare this model against a massive inversion of Antarctica's basal drag coefficient using new InSAR surface velocities from Rignot et al 2011. We discuss the potential for this model to improve constraints on basal friction evolution, and implications for projections of ice flow dynamics in a changing climate. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.
Block modeling of crustal deformation in Tierra del Fuego from GNSS velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendoza, L.; Richter, A.; Fritsche, M.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Perdomo, R.; Dietrich, R.
2015-05-01
The Tierra del Fuego (TDF) main island is divided by a major transform boundary between the South America and Scotia tectonic plates. Using a block model, we infer slip rates, locking depths and inclinations of active faults in TDF from inversion of site velocities derived from Global Navigation Satellite System observations. We use interseismic velocities from 48 sites, obtained from field measurements spanning 20 years. Euler vectors consistent with a simple seismic cycle are estimated for each block. In addition, we introduce far-field information into the modeling by applying constraints on Euler vectors of major tectonic plates. The difference between model and observed surface deformation near the Magallanes Fagnano Fault System (MFS) is reduced by considering finite dip in the forward model. For this tectonic boundary global plate circuits models predict relative movements between 7 and 9 mm yr- 1, while our regional model indicates that a strike-slip rate of 5.9 ą 0.2 mm yr- 1 is accommodated across the MFS. Our results indicate faults dipping 66- 4+ 6° southward, locked to a depth of 11- 5+ 5 km, which are consistent with geological models for the MFS. However, normal slip also dominates the fault perpendicular motion throughout the eastern MFS, with a maximum rate along the Fagnano Lake.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arcos, M. E. M.; LeVeque, Randall J.
2015-03-01
The ability to measure, predict, and compute tsunami flow velocities is of importance in risk assessment and hazard mitigation. Substantial damage can be done by high velocity flows, particularly in harbors and bays, even when the wave height is small. Moreover, advancing the study of sediment transport and tsunami deposits depends on the accurate interpretation and modeling of tsunami flow velocities and accelerations. Until recently, few direct measurements of tsunami velocities existed to compare with model results. During the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Tsunami, 328 current meters were in place around the Hawaiian Islands, USA, that captured time series of water velocity in 18 locations, in both harbors and deep channels, at a series of depths. We compare several of these velocity records against numerical simulations performed using the GeoClaw numerical tsunami model, based on solving the depth-averaged shallow water equations with adaptive mesh refinement, to confirm that this model can accurately predict velocities at nearshore locations. Model results demonstrate tsunami current velocity is more spatially variable than waveform or height and, therefore, may be a more sensitive variable for model validation.
Santini, E.; Steinheimer, J.; Bleicher, M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Schramm, S. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2011-07-15
We analyze dilepton emission from hot and dense matter using a hybrid approach based on the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) transport model with an intermediate hydrodynamic stage for the description of heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energies. During the hydrodynamic stage, the production of lepton pairs is described by radiation rates for a strongly interacting medium in thermal equilibrium. In the low-mass region, hadronic thermal emission is evaluated by assuming vector meson dominance including in-medium modifications of the {rho} meson spectral function through scattering from nucleons and pions in the heat bath. In the intermediate-mass region, the hadronic rate is essentially determined by multipion annihilation processes. Emission from quark-antiquark annihilation in the quark gluon plasma (QGP) is taken into account as well. When the system is sufficiently dilute, the hydrodynamic description breaks down and a transition to a final cascade stage is performed. In this stage dimuon emission is evaluated as commonly done in transport models. By focusing on the enhancement with respect to the contribution from long-lived hadron decays after freezeout observed at the SPS in the low-mass region of the dilepton spectra, the relative importance of the different thermal contributions and of the two dynamical stages is investigated. We find that three separated regions can be identified in the invariant mass spectra. Whereas the very low and the intermediate-mass regions mostly receive contribution from the thermal dilepton emission, the region around the vector meson peak is dominated by the cascade emission. Above the {rho}-peak region the spectrum is driven by QGP radiation. Analysis of the dimuon transverse mass spectra reveals that the thermal hadronic emission shows an evident mass ordering not present in the emission from the QGP. A comparison of our calculation to recent acceptance-corrected NA60 data on invariant as well as transverse mass spectra is performed.
Shuai, Z.; Bredas, J.L. [Universite de Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Saxena, A.; Gammel, J.T.; Bishop, A.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
1994-10-01
Within a two-band model, the authors investigate the electroabsorption (EA) and third-harmonic generation (THG) processes in halogen-bridged mixed-valence Pt complexes: PtCl, PtBr and Ptl. For PtCl, the theoretical THG spectrum shows three peaks, corresponding to (i) a three-photon resonance at 0.83 eV originating in a M(etal)-M(etal) transition; (ii) a two-photon resonance at 1.5 eV from an M-M band-edge transition; and (iii) a three-photon resonance at 1.6 eV from an M-X transition. The latter two peaks account well for the twin-peak structure seen experimentally. They show that the twin-peak intensity strongly decreases from PtCl to PtBr and disappears for PtI. They also discuss the theoretical EA spectra due to localized defects (polarons, bipolarons, kinks, and excitons).
Wardaya, P. D., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my; Noh, K. A. B. M., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my; Yusoff, W. I. B. W., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my [Petroleum Geosciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak, 31750 (Malaysia); Ridha, S. [Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak, 31750 (Malaysia); Nurhandoko, B. E. B. [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Dept. of Physics, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia and Rock Fluid Imaging Lab, Bandung (Indonesia)
2014-09-25
This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic wave velocity of rock.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wardaya, P. D.; Noh, K. A. B. M.; Yusoff, W. I. B. W.; Ridha, S.; Nurhandoko, B. E. B.
2014-09-01
This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic wave velocity of rock.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marc, Mallet; Chami, Malik; Gentili, Bernard; Sempéré, Richard; Dubuisson, P.
2009-08-01
The impact of the dust sea-surface forcing (DSSF) on the oceanic Primary Production (PP) is investigated here by using 1D modelling approach coupling an atmospheric radiative transfer model and a simple PP model. Simulations reveal that dust are able to induce a significant decrease of PP due to the attenuation of light by about 15-25% for dust optical depth (DOD) larger than 0.6-0.7 (at 550 nm). For DOD lower than 0.2-0.3, the influence of dust on PP is weak (5%). In addition to DOD, the important role played by dust single scattering albedo (DSSA) is also shown. Realistic applications over the Senegal coast are studied using SeaWiFS and AERONET observations. The analysis showed that PP could be reduced by about 15-20% during the spring period. This study highlights that dust/light interactions need to be parameterized in coupled ocean-atmosphere models used to estimate PP at regional scales.
A fractal velocity model for Ellis fluid flow in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yun, Mei-Juan
2013-10-01
In this paper, we present a fractal model for the flow velocity for an Ellis fluid based on the fractal properties of porous media. The proposed expression quantitatively describes the relation between the properties of the Ellis fluid and the parameters of the micro structure of the porous medium. The model prediction is compared with experimental data, and good agreement between them is found. The analytical expression reveals the physical principles for the flow of Ellis fluids and other non-Newtonian fluids in porous media.
Discrete Kinetic Models for Molecular Motors: Asymptotic Velocity and Gaussian Fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faggionato, Alessandra; Silvestri, Vittoria
2014-12-01
We consider random walks on quasi one dimensional lattices, as introduced in Faggionato and Silvestri (Random Walks on Quasi One Dimensional Lattices: Large Deviations and Fluctuation Theorems, 2014). This mathematical setting covers a large class of discrete kinetic models for non-cooperative molecular motors on periodic tracks. We derive general formulas for the asymptotic velocity and diffusion coefficient, and we show how to reduce their computation to suitable linear systems of the same degree of a single fundamental cell, with possible linear chain removals. We apply the above results to special families of kinetic models, also catching some errors in the biophysics literature.
Spectral analysis of surface waves method to assess shear wave velocity within centrifuge models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murillo, Carol Andrea; Thorel, Luc; Caicedo, Bernardo
2009-06-01
The method of the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is tested out on reduced scale centrifuge models, with a specific device, called the mini Falling Weight, developed for this purpose. Tests are performed on layered materials made of a mixture of sand and clay. The shear wave velocity VS determined within the models using the SASW is compared with the laboratory measurements carried out using the bender element test. The results show that the SASW technique applied to centrifuge testing is a relevant method to characterize VS near the surface.
Cappellari, Michele
2015-01-01
Cappellari (2008) presented a flexible and efficient method to model the stellar kinematics of anisotropic axisymmetric and spherical stellar systems. The spherical formalism could be used to model the line-of-sight velocity second moments allowing for essentially arbitrary radial variation in the anisotropy and general luminous and total density profiles. Here we generalize the spherical formalism by providing the expressions for all three components of the projected second moments, including the two proper motion components. A reference implementation is now included in the public JAM package available at http://purl.org/cappellari/software
Stephenson, William J.
2007-01-01
INTRODUCTION In support of earthquake hazards and ground motion studies in the Pacific Northwest, three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity (3D Vp and Vs) and density (3D rho) models incorporating the Cascadia subduction zone have been developed for the region encompassed from about 40.2?N to 50?N latitude, and from about -122?W to -129?W longitude. The model volume includes elevations from 0 km to 60 km (elevation is opposite of depth in model coordinates). Stephenson and Frankel (2003) presented preliminary ground motion simulations valid up to 0.1 Hz using an earlier version of these models. The version of the model volume described here includes more structural and geophysical detail, particularly in the Puget Lowland as required for scenario earthquake simulations in the development of the Seattle Urban Hazards Maps (Frankel and others, 2007). Olsen and others (in press) used the model volume discussed here to perform a Cascadia simulation up to 0.5 Hz using a Sumatra-Andaman Islands rupture history. As research from the EarthScope Program (http://www.earthscope.org) is published, a wealth of important detail can be added to these model volumes, particularly to depths of the upper-mantle. However, at the time of development for this model version, no EarthScope-specific results were incorporated. This report is intended to be a reference for colleagues and associates who have used or are planning to use this preliminary model in their research. To this end, it is intended that these models will be considered a beginning template for a community velocity model of the Cascadia region as more data and results become available.
Ballard, Sanford; Encarnacao, Andre Villanova; Begnaud, Michael A. (Los Alamos National Laboratories); Rowe, Charlotte A. (Los Alamos National Laboratories); Lewis, Jennifer E.; Young, Christopher John; Chang, Marcus C.; Hipp, James Richard
2010-05-01
To test the hypothesis that high quality 3D Earth models will produce seismic event locations which are more accurate and more precise, we are developing a global 3D P wave velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle using seismic tomography. In this paper, we present the most recent version of our model, SALSA3D (SAndia LoS Alamos) version 1.4, and demonstrate its ability to reduce mislocations for a large set of realizations derived from a carefully chosen set of globally-distributed ground truth events. Our model is derived from the latest version of the Ground Truth (GT) catalog of P and Pn travel time picks assembled by Los Alamos National Laboratory. To prevent over-weighting due to ray path redundancy and to reduce the computational burden, we cluster rays to produce representative rays. Reduction in the total number of ray paths is > 55%. The model is represented using the triangular tessellation system described by Ballard et al. (2009), which incorporates variable resolution in both the geographic and radial dimensions. For our starting model, we use a simplified two layer crustal model derived from the Crust 2.0 model over a uniform AK135 mantle. Sufficient damping is used to reduce velocity adjustments so that ray path changes between iterations are small. We obtain proper model smoothness by using progressive grid refinement, refining the grid only around areas with significant velocity changes from the starting model. At each grid refinement level except the last one we limit the number of iterations to prevent convergence thereby preserving aspects of broad features resolved at coarser resolutions. Our approach produces a smooth, multi-resolution model with node density appropriate to both ray coverage and the velocity gradients required by the data. This scheme is computationally expensive, so we use a distributed computing framework based on the Java Parallel Processing Framework, providing us with {approx}400 processors. Resolution of our model is assessed using a variation of the standard checkerboard method, as well as by directly estimating the diagonal of the model resolution matrix based on the technique developed by Bekas, et al. We compare the travel-time prediction and location capabilities of this model over standard 1D models. We perform location tests on a global, geographically-distributed event set with ground truth levels of 5 km or better. These events generally possess hundreds of Pn and P phases from which we can generate different realizations of station distributions, yielding a range of azimuthal coverage and proportions of teleseismic to regional arrivals, with which we test the robustness and quality of relocation. The SALSA3D model reduces mislocation over standard 1D ak135, especially with increasing azimuthal gap. The 3D model appears to perform better for locations based solely or dominantly on regional arrivals, which is not unexpected given that ak135 represents a global average and cannot therefore capture local and regional variations.
Modeling Biot's Coefficient for High Porosity Sediments From P Wave Velocity and Density Data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabricius, I. L.
2006-12-01
The effective stress coefficient predicts to which extent the fluid pressure in a given sediment counteracts the load of overlying sediments. When monitoring changes in fluid pressure and fluid composition from seismic data, the effective stress coefficient may be approximated by Biot's coefficient, ?. ? is under assumption of hydrostatic stress and linear elasticity defined as: ? = 1 - Kdry/Kmin where Kdry is bulk modulus of the dry sediment and Kmin is the mineral bulk modulus. In heavily cemented sedimentary rocks ? is close to porosity. In lightly cemented sediments Biot's coefficient is close to one and the effective stress, ?' is then predicted from Terzaghi's law: ?' = ? - U where ? is the stress due to the total load of the overburden and U is pore pressure. When ? is taken into account we get the equivalent expression: ?' = ? - ? U For calculation of ? we need information on Kdry. It may be calculated from density, ?dry, P wave velocity vP-dry and shear velocity vS-dry for the dry sediment: Kdry = ?dry (vP-dry2 - 4/3 vS-dry2) In many cases only wet density and P wave velocity are known, and then a possibility is to use Castagna's relations for predicting wet shear wave velocity and then using Gassmann's equations to predict the sonic velocities of the dry sediment. An alternative, which also works outside the range of Castagna's relations is to calculate the isoframe value from wet density and wet P-wave velocity and then use the isoframe value to model Kdry. The isoframe value, IF, is derived from a Hashin-Shtrikman model: K = ((? + (1-IF)(1-?))/(Ksus + 4/3Gmin) + (IF(1-?))/(Kmin + 4/3Gmin))-1 - 4/3Gmin G = ((? + (1-IF)(1-?))/? + (IF(1-?))/(Gmin + ?))-1 - ? ? = Gmin/6 ((9Kmin + 8 Gmin)/(Kmin + 2Gmin)) M = K + 4/3G = ? vP2 Where: K is bulk modulus, G is shear modulus, ? is porosity, Gmin is mineral shear modulus, Kfluid is bulk modulus of pore fluid, Kair is bulk modulus of air, and where for wet sediments: Ksus = (?/Kfluid + ((1-?)(1-IF))/ Kmin)-1 and for dry sediments: Ksus = Kair
Jiang, Beihan; Yang, Kejun; Cao, Shuyou
2015-01-01
Based on the momentum transfer theory, an analytical model is proposed for the velocity and discharge distributions in compound channels with submerged vegetation on the floodplain. The partially vegetated channel was divided into three sub-regions, i.e. the main channel region, the floodplain region with submerged vegetation and the floodplain region without vegetation. For each region, the force balance relationship was established, and the momentum transfer between different regions was presented. Verification by the experimental data and comparison with the traditional method shows that the proposed method is capable of predicting for the velocity and discharge distributions in compound channels with submerged vegetation and is superior to the conventional method. The results also show that when the momentum transfer between different regions is ignored, the computed discharge will be much lager than the measured data, and the error increases with the discharge, especially in the floodplain region. PMID:26161661
A Wiener-Laguerre model of VIV forces given recent cylinder velocities
Maincon, Philippe
2010-01-01
Slender structures immersed in a cross flow can experience vibrations induced by vortex shedding (VIV), which cause fatigue damage and other problems. VIV models in engineering use today tend to operate in the frequency domain. A time domain model would allow to capture the chaotic nature of VIV and to model interactions with other loads and non-linearities. Such a model was developed in the present work: for each cross section, recent velocity history is compressed using Laguerre polynomials. The compressed information is used to enter an interpolation function to predict the instantaneous force, allowing to step the dynamic analysis. An offshore riser was modeled in this way: Some analyses provided an unusually fine level of realism, while in other analyses, the riser fell into an unphysical pattern of vibration. It is concluded that the concept is promissing, yet that more work is needed to understand orbit stability and related issues, in order to further progress towards an engineering tool.
Velocity anomaly of a driven tracer in a confined crowded environment.
Illien, Pierre; Bénichou, Olivier; Oshanin, Gleb; Voituriez, Raphaël
2014-07-18
We consider a discrete model in which a tracer performs a random walk biased by an external force, in a dense bath of particles performing symmetric random walks constrained by hard-core interactions. We reveal the emergence of a striking velocity anomaly in confined geometries: in quasi-1D systems such as stripes or capillaries, the velocity of the tracer displays a long-lived plateau before ultimately dropping to a lower value. We develop an analytical solution that quantitatively accounts for this intriguing behavior. Our analysis suggests that such a velocity anomaly could be a generic feature of driven dynamics in quasi-1D crowded systems. PMID:25083625
Vorontsov, Sergei V. [Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Jefferies, Stuart M., E-mail: S.V.Vorontsov@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: stuartj@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 34 Ohia Ku Street, Pukalani, HI 96768 (United States)
2013-11-20
We describe a global parametric model for the observed power spectra of solar oscillations of intermediate and low degree. A physically motivated parameterization is used as a substitute for a direct description of mode excitation and damping as these mechanisms remain poorly understood. The model is targeted at the accurate fitting of power spectra coming from Doppler-velocity measurements and uses an adaptive response function that accounts for both the vertical and horizontal components of the velocity field on the solar surface and for possible instrumental and observational distortions. The model is continuous in frequency, can easily be adapted to intensity measurements, and extends naturally to the analysis of high-frequency pseudomodes (interference peaks at frequencies above the atmospheric acoustic cutoff).
SALSA3D - A Global 3D P-Velocity Model of the Earth's Crust and Mantle for Improved Event Location
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballard, S.; Begnaud, M. L.; Young, C. J.; Hipp, J. R.; Chang, M.; Encarnacao, A. V.; Rowe, C. A.; Phillips, W. S.; Steck, L.
2010-12-01
To test the hypothesis that high quality 3D Earth models will produce seismic event locations which are more accurate and more precise, we are developing a global 3D P wave velocity model of the Earths crust and mantle using seismic tomography. In this paper, we present the most recent version of our model, SALSA3D version 1.5, and demonstrate its ability to reduce mislocations for a large set of realizations derived from a carefully chosen set of globally-distributed ground truth events. Our model is derived from the latest version of the Ground Truth (GT) catalog of P and Pn travel time picks assembled by Los Alamos National Laboratory. To prevent over-weighting due to ray path redundancy and to reduce the computational burden, we cluster rays to produce representative rays. Reduction in the total number of ray paths is ~50%. The model is represented using the triangular tessellation system described by Ballard et al. (2009), which incorporates variable resolution in both the geographic and radial dimensions.. For our starting model, we use a simplified two layer crustal model derived from the Crust 2.0 model over a uniform AK135 mantle. Sufficient damping is used to reduce velocity adjustments so that ray path changes between iterations are small. We obtain proper model smoothness by using progressive grid refinement, refining the grid only around areas with significant velocity changes from the starting model. At each grid refinement level except the last one we limit the number of iterations to prevent convergence thereby preserving aspects of broad features resolved at coarser resolutions. Our approach produces a smooth, multi-resolution model with node density appropriate to both ray coverage and the velocity gradients required by the data. This scheme is computationally expensive, so we use a distributed computing framework based on the Java Parallel Processing Framework, providing us with ~400 processors. Resolution of our model is assessed using a variation of the standard checkerboard method. We compare the travel-time prediction and location capabilities of SALSA3D to standard 1D models via location tests on a global event set with GT of 5 km or better. These events generally possess hundreds of Pn and P picks from which we generate different realizations of station distributions, yielding a range of azimuthal coverage and ratios of teleseismic to regional arrivals, with which we test the robustness and quality of relocation. The SALSA3D model reduces mislocation over standard 1D ak135 regardless of Pn to P ratio, with the improvement being most pronounced at higher azimuthal gaps. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energys National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Velocity dependence of kinetic friction in the Prandtl-Tomlinson model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müser, Martin H.
2011-09-01
The Prandtl-Tomlinson model for friction has been used extensively for the interpretation of atomic force microscopy data during the past decade. Up to this point, the kinetic friction Fk has nevertheless not been studied in a range of velocities v that would be sufficiently broad to cover the crossover from the high-velocity logarithmic to the low-velocity linear Fk(v) dependence. This gap will be closed here through a combination of an asymptotic analysis and direct simulations of the relevant Langevin equation. The simulations span three decades in temperature T and up to six decades in v. All numerical data can be fit quite accurately with a Fk=a(T)arsinh[v/vc(T)] law, where the prefactor a(T) scales with T2/3. Correction terms proportional to odd powers of arsinh(v/vc), only need to be included at v?vc. Reasons are given as to why it is difficult to confirm meticulously the (lnv)2/3 dependence of kinetic friction predicted by recent rate theories, although they can be easily modified to produce the correct prefactor to the a(T)?T2/3 law.
Maximum group velocity in a one-dimensional model with a sinusoidally varying staggered potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nag, Tanay; Sen, Diptiman; Dutta, Amit
2015-06-01
We use Floquet theory to study the maximum value of the stroboscopic group velocity in a one-dimensional tight-binding model subjected to an on-site staggered potential varying sinusoidally in time. The results obtained by numerically diagonalizing the Floquet operator are analyzed using a variety of analytical schemes. In the low-frequency limit we use adiabatic theory, while in the high-frequency limit the Magnus expansion of the Floquet Hamiltonian turns out to be appropriate. When the magnitude of the staggered potential is much greater or much less than the hopping, we use degenerate Floquet perturbation theory; we find that dynamical localization occurs in the former case when the maximum group velocity vanishes. Finally, starting from an "engineered" initial state where the particles (taken to be hard-core bosons) are localized in one part of the chain, we demonstrate that the existence of a maximum stroboscopic group velocity manifests in a light-cone-like spreading of the particles in real space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, H.; Cox, D. T.; Lynett, P. J.; Wiebe, D. M.; Shin, S.
2012-12-01
A laboratory benchmark test for tsunami inundation through an urban waterfront including free surface elevation, velocity, and momentum flux is presented and compared with numerical model (COULWAVE). The physical model was a 1:50 scale idealization of the town Seaside, Oregon, designed to observe the complex tsunami flow around the macro-roughness such as buildings idealized as impermeable, rectangular blocks. Free surface elevation and velocity time series were measured and analyzed at 31 points over the land. Optical measurements of the leading bore front were used in conjunction with the in-situ velocity and free surface measurements to estimate the time-dependent momentum flux at each location. The experimental results show that the maximum momentum flux is overestimated by 60 to 260%, if it is calculated using the each maximum values of the free surface elevation and cross-shore velocity. The maximum free surface elevation and momentum flux sharply decrease from the shoreline as measurement location moves landward, while the cross-shore velocity slowly decreases linearly. Comparisons show that the numerical model is in good agreement with physical model at most locations when tuned to a friction factor of 0.005. When the friction factor decreases by a factor of 10 (from 0.01 to 0.001), the average maximum free surface elevation increased 15%, and the average cross-shore velocity and momentum flux increased 95% and 208%, respectively. This highlights the importance of comparing velocity in the validation and verification process of numerical models of tsunami inundation.; Measured and calculated inundation flow data. (a): Ensemble averaged free surface elevation (dot), ensemble averaged velocity (circle), ensemble averaged momentum flux (thick line), leading wave velocity from optical measurement (filled circle), fitted curve for ensemble averaged velocity (slender line). (b): Number of data recorded at each time step from USWG (dot) and ADV (circle).
An Improved Parameterization of Dust Dry Deposition Velocity for Climate Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamecki, M.; Souza Freire, L.
2014-12-01
The parameterization of dry deposition fluxes in climate models is an important component of the dust model, since it is one of the main processes responsible for the removal of aerosol particles from the atmosphere. The parameterization currently used in most climate models is obtained from a two-layer approach in which the physical domain between the first grid point and the ground surface is divided into an upper and a lower layer. The lower layer is the region where Brownian diffusion is relevant, and where particles interact with the surface roughness elements. In this layer important processes such as impaction, interception, and rebound of particles on the surface are parameterized. In the upper layer turbulent transport and gravitational settling determine the particle flux, and the effects of atmospheric stability become relevant. In the usual two-layer model, mean vertical gradients of particle concentration are approximated using a first order finite-difference approach, resulting in a set of two algebraic equations. The solution of these equations yields the desired parameterization for the deposition velocity. We argue that in the upper model, the finite-difference approximation is the largest source of error. In addition, the error introduced by this approximation is grid-dependent, increasing with increasing distance between the first grid point and the ground. We develop a new model in which the finite-difference approximation is not invoked. Instead, the analytical solution for the differential equation is obtained. This solution can be seen as a generalization of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory to concentration of settling particles. We use large-eddy simulations to show the validity of the analytical solution for a range of particle sizes. The final expression obtained for the deposition velocity is as simple as the one currently used, and the parameterizations of impaction, interception, and rebound in the lower layer can be introduced in the same way. Compared to the proposed model, the deposition velocity parameterization currently used in climate models over predicts fluxes by as much as 30%. The errors tend to be largest in the range of particle sizes between one and ten micrometers, a range of critical importance for dust modeling.
S-wave velocity self-adaptive prediction based on a variable dry rock frame equivalent model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng-Ying, Yang; Xing-Yao, Yin; Bo, Liu
2014-08-01
Seismic velocities are important reservoir parameters in seismic exploration. The Gassmann theory has been widely used to predict velocities of fluid-saturated isotropic reservoirs at low frequency. According to Gassmann theory, dry rock frame moduli are essential input parameters for estimating reservoir velocities. A variable dry rock frame equivalent model called VDEM based on the differential effective medium (DEM) theory is constructed in this paper to obtain the dry rock frame moduli. We decouple the DEM equations by introducing variable parameters, then simplify these decoupled equations to get the equivalent dry rock fame model. The predicted dry rock frame moduli by the VDEM are in good agreement with the laboratory data. The VDEM is also utilized to predict S-wave velocity combined with Gassmann theory. A self-adaptive inversion method is applied to fit the variable parameters with the constraint of P-wave velocity from well logging data. The S-wave velocity is estimated from these inversed parameters. A comparison between the self-adaptive method and the Xu-White model on S-wave velocity estimation is made. The results corroborate that the self-adaptive method is flexible and effective for S-wave velocity prediction.
A Three-Dimensional Seismic Velocity Model of the Arabian Plate, Iranian and Turkish Plateaus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghalib, Hafidh; Gritto, Roland; Sibol, Matthew; Herrmann, Robert; Aleqabi, Ghassan; Carron, Pierre; Wagner, Robert; Ali, Bakir; Ali, Ali
2010-05-01
Translational and rotational interaction between the Arabian, African and Eurasian plates over time has resulted in a challenging seismotectonic framework that is least understood in the Middle East region, in particular. Sea floor spreading along the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, transform faulting along the Dead Sea and Own fracture zone, and compressional suture zones form the seismic and tectonic boundaries between the Arabian plate, the Iranian and Turkish plateaus. One objective of this effort is to map the three-dimensional shear-wave velocity variation using surface waves recorded by the broadband stations of North Iraq Seismographic Network (NISN), re-established Iraq Seismographic Network (ISN), and local stations of the Global Seismographic Network (GSN). Analysis of the seismograms netted a new seismicity map for the region consisting of about 2000 well located small to medium size earthquakes using all available phase arrivals including those published by the neighboring Syrian, Iranian and Turkish networks. Analysis of Rayleigh wave pure-path dispersion curves produced detailed maps showing the lateral and vertical variation of seismic velocities throughout the Middle East. These maps show a thick (10-15km) sedimentary layer that overlay the crystalline basement and a Conrad and Moho discontinuities at depths of 20-25km and 45-55km, respectively. The maps also show that the Arabian plate exhibits higher shear-wave velocities than found across the Turkish and Iranian plateaus; imprint of the Zagros Mountain roots extends down as deep as the Moho; and that the tectonic boundaries along the Dead Sea, Taurus and Zagros are more pronounced with depth describing a 60km or thicker Arabian plate. Future plans involving body wave velocity tomography modeling, high frequency wave attenuation, and moment tensor analysis to estimate the focal mechanism and magnitude of events are in preparation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ammirati, Jean-Baptiste; Alvarado, Patricia; Beck, Susan
2015-07-01
In the central Andes, the Nazca plate displays large along strike variations in dip with a near horizontal subduction angle between 28 and 32°S referred to the Pampean flat slab segment. The upper plate above the Pampean flat slab has high rates of crustal seismicity and active basement cored uplifts. The SIEMBRA experiment, a 43-broad-band-seismic-station array was deployed to better characterize the Pampean flat slab region around 31°S. In this study, we explore the lithospheric structure above the flat slab as a whole and its relation to seismicity. We use the SIEMBRA data to perform a joint inversion of teleseismic receiver functions and Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion to constrain the shear wave velocity variations in the lithosphere. Our joint inversion results show: (1) the presence of several upper-plate mid-crustal discontinuities and their lateral extent that are probably related to the terrane accretion history; (2) zones of high shear wave velocity in the upper-plate lower crust associated with a weak Moho signal consistent with the hypothesis of partial eclogitization in the lower crust; (3) the presence of low shear-wave velocities at 100 km depth interpreted as the subducting oceanic crust. Finally, in order to investigate the relation of the lithospheric structure to seismicity, we determine an optimal velocity-depth model based on the joint inversion results and use it to perform regional moment tensor inversions (SMTI) of crustal and slab earthquakes. The SMTI for 18 earthquakes that occurred between 2007 and 2009 in the flat slab region below Argentina, indicates systematically shallower focal depths for slab earthquakes (compared with inversions using previous velocity models). This suggests that the slab seismicity is concentrated mostly between 90 and 110 km depths within the subducting Nazca plate's oceanic crust and likely related to dehydration. In addition, the slab earthquakes exhibit extensional focal mechanisms suggesting new faulting at the edges of the flat portion of the slab. SMTI solutions for upper-plate crustal earthquakes match well the geological observations of reactivated structures and agree with crustal shortening. Our new constraints on flat slab structure can aid earthquake characterization for regional seismic hazard assessment and efforts to help understand the mechanisms for slab flattening in the central Andes.
Marc Dupuis; Valdis Bojarevics
The main goal of a cell stability MHD model like MHD-Valdis is to help locate the busbars around the cell in a way that leads to the generation of a magnetic field inside the cell that itself leads to a stable cell operation. Yet, as far as the cell stability is concerned, the uniformity of the current density in the
Toward Understanding and Modeling Compressibility Effects on Velocity Gradients in Turbulence
Suman, Sawan
2011-02-22
: : : 37 A. Homogenized Euler equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 1. Equation for the velocity gradients . . . . . . . . . . . 39 2. Central assumption of HEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3. Velocity gradient dynamics in Burgers turbulence...) EHEE simulation at MM = 0:01. : : : : : : : : : : : 84 20 PDF of strain-rate eigenvalues for particles undergoing gradient steepening (velocity gradient magnitude 10 times the initial value) in (a) Burgers velocity gradient dynamics, and (b) EHEE simula...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minjeaud, Sebastian
2013-03-01
In this article, we propose to study two issues associated with the use of the incremental projection method for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. The first one is the combination of this time splitting algorithm with an adaptive local refinement method. The second one is the reduction of spurious velocities due to the right-hand side of the momentum balance. We propose a new variant of the incremental projection method for solving the Navier-Stokes equations with variable density and illustrate its behavior with the example of two phase flows simulations using a Cahn-Hilliard/Navier-Stokes model.
A model of the near-surface seismic velocity: southern San Joaqin Valley, California
Ferry, James Gerard
1987-01-01
/Z?) ~ . The corresponding traveltime equation, for subsurface depth D? is: 1! 6 T(D, ') = ? (D, ) '; D, ( D, ?. 3 f sing the parameters 1; = 431 m!'6 and Z, = 1 m svhich svere determined theoretically by Gassmann. this model has an RAIS error of 1. 9 ms compared... and 8. The R'AIS error was l7 n&s for the fit to the total set of rlata shoran in Figures 7 and 8. 24 indicated by the optimum parameter V, is 2170 m/s (Figure 8). With further analysis, variations in velocity were identified which are dependent...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smithyman, B.; Clowes, R. M.
2009-12-01
Multichannel vibroseis reflection surveys are prevalent in the land exploration seismic industry because of benefits in speed and cost, along with reduced environmental impact when compared to explosive sources. Since the downgoing energy must travel through the shallow subsurface, an improved model of near-surface velocity can in theory substantially improve the resolution of deeper reflections. We describe techniques aimed at allowing the use of vibroseis data for long-offset refraction processing of first-arrival traveltimes and waveforms. Refraction processing of surface vibroseis data is typically limited to near-offset refraction statics. Velocity models of the shallow subsurface can be built to facilitate CDP stacking and migration, but these models are typically coarse and of limited use for interpretation. Waveform tomography combines inversion of first-arrival traveltime data with full waveform inversion of densely-sampled refracted arrivals. Since inversion of the waveform amplitude and phase is not limited by the ray-theory approximation, identification of low-velocity zones and small scattering targets is possible. Incorporating a wide range of offsets is critical for a more complete characterization of the near-surface. Because of the use of a non-linear frequency-domain approach to the solution of this inverse problem, low data frequencies are important in comparison with conventional reflection processing. Through the use of waveform tomography, we plan to build useful, detailed near-surface velocity models for both the reflection work flow and direct interpretation. Several difficulties exist in first-arrival analysis and waveform inversion of vibroseis data. The mixed-phase vibroseis source signature exhibits variations in phase with offset that are difficult to quantify without detailed a priori knowledge of the near-surface. This causes difficulties with picking and initial model building, which is critical for non-linear waveform inversion. A sufficiently accurate starting model must be provided to allow convergence to an accurate final model. The Q-filter and deconvolution effects are theoretically accounted for in the waveform inversion process, once a starting model of sufficient quality is realized. To make this possible, preprocessing for waveform inversion is also necessary. It is designed to allow the use of the 2D, acoustic approximation to the wave equation in the waveform inversion implementation. The use of a 2D approximation to the true 3D geometry introduces AVO (Amplitude Variation with Offset) errors that must be accounted for in order for attenuation inversion to be possible. The acoustic approximation means that elastic propagation modes and mode-converted arrivals must be considered as systematic noise, with appropriate preprocessing steps to reduce their effects. Careful analysis of the early-arriving waveforms is necessary to deal with approximations due to the waveform inversion implementation, which are not easily separable from the approximations implicit in vibroseis acquisition. However, the potential benefits in near-surface velocity characterization and their wide applicability make the results of this research important for seismic processing and near-surface geological interpretation.
Some recent results on discrete velocity models and ramifications for lattice Boltzmann equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Li-Shi
2000-07-01
Some rigorous results on discrete velocity models are briefly reviewed and their ramifications for the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) are discussed. In particular, issues related to thermodynamics and H-theorem of the lattice Boltzmann equation are addressed. It is argued that for the lattice Boltzmann equation satisfying the correct hydrodynamic equations, there cannot exist an H-theorem. Nevertheless, the equilibrium distribution function of the lattice Boltzmann equation can closely approximate the genuine equilibrium which minimizes the H-function of the corresponding continuous Boltzmann equation. It is also pointed out that the "equilibrium" in the LBE models is an attractor rather than a true equilibrium in the rigorous sense of H-theorem. Since there is no H-theorem to guarantee the stability of the LBE models at the attractor, the stability of the attractor can only be studied by means other than proving an H-function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khosravi, M.; Baron, P.; Urban, J.; Froidevaux, L.; Jonsson, A. I.; Kasai, Y.; Kuribayashi, K.; Mitsuda, C.; Murtagh, D. P.; Sagawa, H.; Santee, M. L.; Sato, T. O.; Shiotani, M.; Suzuki, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Walker, K. A.; Wang, S.
2013-08-01
The diurnal variation of HOCl and the related species ClO, HO2 and HCl measured by satellites has been compared with the results of a one-dimensional photochemical model. The study compares the data from various limb-viewing instruments with model simulations from the middle stratosphere to the lower mesosphere. Data from three sub-millimetre instruments and two infrared spectrometers are used, namely from the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) on board Odin, the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board Aura, the Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) on the International Space Station, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on board ENVISAT, and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) on board SCISAT. Inter-comparison of the measurements from instruments on sun-synchronous satellites (SMR, MLS, MIPAS) and measurements from solar occultation instruments (ACE-FTS) is challenging since the measurements correspond to different solar zenith angles (or local times). However, using a model which covers all solar zenith angles and data from the SMILES instrument which measured at all local times over a period of several months provides the possibility to verify the model and to indirectly compare the diurnally variable species. The satellite data were averaged for latitudes of 20° S to 20° N for the SMILES observation period from November 2009 to April 2010 and were compared at three altitudes: 35, 45 and 55 km. Besides presenting the SMILES data, the study also shows a first comparison of the latest MLS data (version 3.3) of HOCl, ClO, and HO2 with other satellite observations, as well as a first evaluation of HO2 observations made by Odin/SMR. The MISU-1D model has been carefully initialised and run for conditions and locations of the observations. The diurnal cycle features for the species investigated here are generally well reproduced by the model. The satellite observations and the model agree well in terms of absolute mixing ratios. The differences between the day and night values of the model are in good agreement with the observations although the amplitude of the HO2 diurnal variation is 10-20% lower in the model than in the observations. In particular, the data offered the opportunity to study the reaction ClO+HO2 ? HOCl+O2 in the lower mesosphere at 55 km. At this altitude the HOCl night-time variation depends only on this reaction. The result of this analysis points towards a value of the rate constant within the range of the JPL 2006 recommendation and the upper uncertainty limit of the JPL 2011 recommendation at 55 km.
Three-dimensional shear velocity structure of the African lithosphere from Rayleigh wave tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raveloson, A.; Nyblade, A.; Mangongolo, A.
2013-12-01
We investigate the lithospheric structure beneath Africa using a shear wave velocity model of the upper mantle derived from an inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocity measurements. Our data set consists of a large number of regional seismic events recorded from 1990 until present on many available stations belonging to permanent or temporary networks. To minimize contribution from outside structure, we only use seismic events within the African plate or along the African plate boundary. With magnitude greater than 4.5 and depths shallower than 100 km Rayleigh wave group velocity measurements from 10s to 125s periods have been made using multiple narrow band filter and phase matching method. First, we measure group velocities of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves. Secondly, for each pair station events, we extract the group velocity value at each period to obtain dispersion curves and inverted them to obtain maps of Rayleigh wave group velocities. To evaluate the resolution of the group velocity tomography, the standard checkerboard resolution technique was performed. Finally, we inverted the dispersion curves, using a linear tomographic inversion over a grid of 1o x 1o cells to create 1-D shear wave velocity models. Our 3D shear wave velocity model is then obtained from combining these 1-D models at a regular spatial interval. Prominent features in our 3D model include a newly identified center of deposition in the northern part of the Congo Basin, fast cratonic keels, and slower uppermost mantle velocities beneath the Proterozoic mobile belts.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dobson, Chris C.; Hrbud, Ivana
2004-01-01
Electron density measurements have been made in steady-state plasmas in a spherical inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) discharge using microwave interferometry. Plasma cores interior to two cathodes, having diameters of 15 and 23 cm, respectively, were probed over a transverse range of 10 cm with a spatial resolution of about 1.4 cm for buffer gas pressures from 0.2 to 6 Pa in argon and deuterium. The transverse profiles are generally flat, in some cases with eccentric symmetric minima, and give mean densities of from approx. = 0.4 to 7x 10(exp 10)/cu cm, the density generally increasing with the neutral gas pressure. Numerical solutions of the 1-D Poisson equation for EC plasmas are reviewed and energy distribution functions are identified which give flat transverse profiles. These functions are used with the plasma approximation to obtain solutions which also give densities consistent with the measurements, and a double potential well solution is obtained which has minima qualitatively similar to those observed. Explicit consideration is given to the compatibility of the solutions interior and exterior to the cathode, and to grid transparency. Deuterium fusion neutron emission rates were also measured and found to be isotropic, to within the measurement error, over two simultaneous directions. Anisotropy was observed in residual emissions during operation with non-fusing hydrogen-1. The deuterium rates are consistent with predictions from the model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kang Il
2013-01-01
The present study aims to investigate the influence of the pore fluid on the phase velocity in bovine trabecular bone in vitro. The frequency-dependent phase velocity was measured in 20 marrow-filled and water-filled bovine femoral trabecular bone samples. The mean phase velocities at frequencies between 0.6 and 1.2 MHz exhibited significant negative dispersions for both the marrow-filled and the water-filled samples. The magnitudes of the dispersions showed no significant differences between the marrow-filled and the water-filled samples. In contrast, replacement of marrow by water led to a mean increase in the phase velocity of 27 m/s at frequencies from 0.6 to 1.2 MHz. The theoretical phase velocities of the fast wave predicted by using the Biot model for elastic wave propagation in fluid-saturated porous media showed good agreements with the measurements.
Lipciuc, M Laura; Rakitzis, T Peter; Meerts, W Leo; Groenenboom, Gerrit C; Janssen, Maurice H M
2011-05-14
In this paper we report slice imaging polarization experiments on the state-to-state photodissociation at 42,594 cm(-1) of spatially oriented OCS(v(2) = 1|JlM = 111) ? CO(J) + S((1)D(2)). Slice images were measured of the three-dimensional recoil distribution of the S((1)D(2)) photofragment for different polarization geometries of the photolysis and probe laser. The high resolution slice images show well separated velocity rings in the S((1)D(2)) velocity distribution. The velocity rings of the S((1)D(2)) photofragment correlate with individual rotational states of the CO(J) cofragment in the J(CO) = 57-65 region. The angular distribution of the S((1)D(2)) velocity rings are extracted and analyzed using two different polarization models. The first model assumes the nonaxial dynamics evolves after excitation to a single potential energy surface of an oriented OCS(v(2) = 1|JlM = 111) molecule. The second model assumes the excitation is to two potential energy surfaces, and the OCS molecule is randomly oriented. In the high J region (J(CO) = 62-65) it appears that both models fit the polarization very well, in the region J(CO) = 57-61 both models seem to fit the data less well. From the molecular frame alignment moments the m-state distribution of S((1)D(2)) is calculated as a function of the CO(J) channel. A comparison is made with the theoretical m-state distribution calculated from the long-range electrostatic dipole-dipole plus quadrupole interaction model. The S((1)D(2)) photofragment velocity distribution shows a very pronounced strong peak for S((1)D(2)) fragments born in coincidence with CO(J = 61). PMID:21431125
Cluster/Peace Electrons Velocity Distribution Function: Modeling the Strahl in the Solar Wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Figueroa-Vinas, Adolfo; Gurgiolo, Chris; Goldstein, Melvyn L.
2008-01-01
We present a study of kinetic properties of the strahl electron velocity distribution functions (VDF's) in the solar wind. These are used to investigate the pitch-angle scattering and stability of the population to interactions with electromagnetic (whistler) fluctuations. The study is based on high time resolution data from the Cluster/PEACE electron spectrometer. Our study focuses on the mechanisms that control and regulate the pitch-angle and stability of strahl electrons in the solar wind; mechanisms that are not yet well understood. Various parameters are investigated such as the electron heat-flux and temperature anisotropy. The goal is to check whether the strahl electrons are constrained by some instability (e.g., the whistler instability), or are maintained by other types of processes. The electron heat-flux and temperature anisotropy are determined by fitting the VDF's to a spectral spherical harmonic model from which the moments are derived directly from the model coefficients.
Mandroyan, A; Hihn, J-Y; Doche, M-L; Pothier, J-M
2010-08-01
In the specific applications of surface cleaning and electrochemistry which consist of processes implanting surface irradiation by ultrasound, design of large-scale devices requires us to understand acoustic field distribution together with its quantification. This observation allows systematic measurement of ultrasonic stirring throughout electrochemical determination of "equivalent" flow velocity versus various operating parameters (powers, electrode-horn distances, reactor geometry, frequencies, etc.). A numerical model was proposed to fit our curves and to identify some parameters by taking into account the characteristics of the ultrasonic wave (absorption coefficient, rate of cavitation bubbles and acoustic power). Nevertheless, the flicked behavior of the ultrasonic processes in the vicinity of the electrode as well as bubble presence which induce non-linearities in wave propagation lead us to propose a new approach based on parameter identification by methods currently used in chemical engineering. These parameters were related to physical criteria, and the global model was evaluated throughout analysis of its sensibility criteria. PMID:20071207
Continuous Attractor Network Model for Conjunctive Position-by-Velocity Tuning of Grid Cells
Si, Bailu; Romani, Sandro; Tsodyks, Misha
2014-01-01
The spatial responses of many of the cells recorded in layer II of rodent medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) show a triangular grid pattern, which appears to provide an accurate population code for animal spatial position. In layer III, V and VI of the rat MEC, grid cells are also selective to head-direction and are modulated by the speed of the animal. Several putative mechanisms of grid-like maps were proposed, including attractor network dynamics, interactions with theta oscillations or single-unit mechanisms such as firing rate adaptation. In this paper, we present a new attractor network model that accounts for the conjunctive position-by-velocity selectivity of grid cells. Our network model is able to perform robust path integration even when the recurrent connections are subject to random perturbations. PMID:24743341
EFFICIENT FITTING OF MULTIPLANET KEPLERIAN MODELS TO RADIAL VELOCITY AND ASTROMETRY DATA
Wright, J. T. [226 Space Sciences Building, Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Howard, A. W. [601 Campbell Hall, Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: jtwright@astro.cornell.edu
2009-05-15
We describe a technique for solving for the orbital elements of multiple planets from radial velocity (RV) and/or astrometric data taken with 1 m s{sup -1} and {mu}as precision, appropriate for efforts to detect Earth-massed planets in their stars' habitable zones, such as NASA's proposed Space Interferometry Mission. We include details of calculating analytic derivatives for use in the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm for the problems of fitting RV and astrometric data separately and jointly. We also explicate the general method of separating the linear and nonlinear components of a model fit in the context of an LM fit, show how explicit derivatives can be calculated in such a model, and demonstrate the speed up and convergence improvements of such a scheme in the case of a five-planet fit to published RV data for 55 Cnc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Driba, D. L.; De Lucia, M.; Peiffer, S.
2014-12-01
Fluid-rock interactions in geothermal reservoirs are driven by the state of disequilibrium that persists among solid and solutes due to changing temperature and pressure. During operation of enhanced geothermal systems, injection of cooled water back into the reservoir disturbs the initial thermodynamic equilibrium between the reservoir and its geothermal fluid, which may induce modifications in permeability through changes in porosity and pore space geometry, consequently bringing about several impairments to the overall system.Modeling of fluid-rock interactions induced by injection of cold brine into Groß Schönebeck geothermal reservoir system situated in the Rotliegend sandstone at 4200m depth have been done by coupling geochemical modeling Code Phreeqc with OpenGeoSys. Through batch modeling the re-evaluation of the measured hydrochemical composition of the brine has been done using Quintessa databases, the results from the calculation indicate that a mineral phases comprising of K-feldspar, hematite, Barite, Calcite and Dolomite was found to match the hypothesis of equilibrium with the formation fluid, Reducing conditions are presumed in the model (pe = -3.5) in order to match the amount of observed dissolved Fe and thus considered as initial state for the reactive transport modeling. based on a measured composition of formation fluids and the predominant mineralogical assemblage of the host rock, a preliminary 1D Reactive transport modeling (RTM) was run with total time set to 30 years; results obtained for the initial simulation revealed that during this period, no significant change is evident for K-feldspar. Furthermore, the precipitation of calcite along the flow path in the brine results in a drop of pH from 6.2 to a value of 5.2 noticed over the simulated period. The circulation of cooled fluid in the reservoir is predicted to affect the temperature of the reservoir within the first 100 -150m from the injection well. Examination of porosity change in this simulation reveals that, porosity and permeability near the wellbore are enhanced after injection. This is chiefly due to the dissolution of calcite near the injection well and less extent by dolomite The porosity is improved by more than 14% at the injection well, but then decreases away from the well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khosravi, M.; Baron, P.; Urban, J.; Froidevaux, L.; Jonsson, A. I.; Kasai, Y.; Kuribayashi, K.; Mitsuda, C.; Murtagh, D. P.; Sagawa, H.; Santee, M. L.; Sato, T. O.; Shiotani, M.; Suzuki, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Walker, K. A.; Wang, S.
2012-08-01
The diurnal variation of HOCl and the related species ClO, HO2 and HCl measured by satellites has been compared with the results of a one-dimensional photochemical model. The study compares the data from various limb-viewing instruments with model simulations from the middle stratosphere to the lower mesosphere. Data from three sub-millimeter instruments and two infrared spectrometers are used, namely from the Sub-Millimeter Radiometer (SMR) on board Odin, the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board Aura, the Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) on the International Space Station, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on board ENVISAT, and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) on board SCISAT. Inter-comparison of the measurements from instruments on sun-synchronous satellites (SMR, MLS, MIPAS) and measurements from solar occultation instruments (ACE-FTS) is challenging since the measurements correspond to different solar zenith angles (or local times). However, using a model which covers all solar zenith angles and the new SMILES instrument which measures at all local times over a period of several months provides the possibility to indirectly compare the diurnally variable species. The satellite data were averaged for latitudes of 20° S to 20° N for the SMILES observation period from November 2009 to April 2010 and were compared at three altitudes: 35, 45 and 55 km. This study presents the first evaluation of HO2 Odin/SMR data and also the first comparison of the new SMILES data and the latest version of MLS (version 3.3) with other satellite observations. The MISU-1D model has been run for conditions and locations of the observations. The diurnal cycle features for the species investigated here are generally well reproduced by the model. The satellite observations and the model generally agree well in terms of absolute mixing ratios as well as differences between the day and night values. This confirms that gas phase chemistry of these species based on latest recommendations of reaction rate constants is fairly well understood.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Font, Yvonne; Segovia, Monica; Vaca, Sandro; Theunissen, Thomas
2013-04-01
To improve earthquake location, we create a 3-D a priori P-wave velocity model (3-DVM) that approximates the large velocity variations of the Ecuadorian subduction system. The 3-DVM is constructed from the integration of geophysical and geological data that depend on the structural geometry and velocity properties of the crust and the upper mantle. In addition, specific station selection is carried out to compensate for the high station density on the Andean Chain. 3-D synthetic experiments are then designed to evaluate the network capacity to recover the event position using only P arrivals and the MAXI technique. Three synthetic earthquake location experiments are proposed: (1) noise-free and (2) noisy arrivals used in the 3-DVM, and (3) noise-free arrivals used in a 1-DVM. Synthetic results indicate that, under the best conditions (exact arrival data set and 3-DVM), the spatiotemporal configuration of the Ecuadorian network can accurately locate 70 per cent of events in the frontal part of the subduction zone (average azimuthal gap is 289° ą 44°). Noisy P arrivals (up to ą 0.3 s) can accurately located 50 per cent of earthquakes. Processing earthquake location within a 1-DVM almost never allows accurate hypocentre position for offshore earthquakes (15 per cent), which highlights the role of using a 3-DVM in subduction zone. For the application to real data, the seismicity distribution from the 3-D-MAXI catalogue is also compared to the determinations obtained in a 1-D-layered VM. In addition to good-quality location uncertainties, the clustering and the depth distribution confirm the 3-D-MAXI catalogue reliability. The pattern of the seismicity distribution (a 13 yr record during the inter-seismic period of the seismic cycle) is compared to the pattern of rupture zone and asperity of the Mw = 7.9 1942 and the Mw = 7.7 1958 events (the Mw = 8.8 1906 asperity patch is not defined). We observe that the nucleation of 1942, 1958 and 1906 events coincides with areas of positive Simple Bouguer anomalies and areas where marine terraces are still preserved on the coastal morphology. From north to south: (1) the 1958 rupture zone is almost aseismic and is attributed to a zone of high coupling; (2) south of the Galera alignment (perpendicular to the trench), the 1942 rupture zone presents moderate seismicity, deeper on the seismogenic interplate zone, and abutting on the Jama cluster (to the south). This cluster is facing the Cabo Pasado cap and positive Bouguer anomalies on the overriding margin. We suspect that this cluster reflects a zone of local asperity (partial coupling). South of the Jama cluster, the spherical aseismic zone in the Bahia area is interpreted as having a low seismic coupling (steady creep motion or slow slip events). We suspect that the site that generated the three M > 7 events (1896, 1956 and 1998) correspond to a small patch of strong coupling. To the south, in the Manta-Puerto Lopez zone, the seismicity is mainly organized in earthquake swarms (1998, 2002, 2005). Although slow slip events have been observed in the area (Vallée et al. submitted), we infer from the coastline shape, the marine terraces and the high positive Bouguer anomalies that the seismicity here might reveal a significant amount of seismic coupling.
The asperity-deformation model improvements and its applications to velocity inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bui, Hoa Quang
Quantifying the influence of pressure on the effective elastic rock properties is important for applications in rock physics and reservoir characterization. Here I investigate the relationship between effective pressure and seismic velocities by performing inversion on the laboratory-measured data from a suite of clastic, carbonate and igneous rocks, using different analytic and discrete inversion schemes. I explore the utility of a physical model that models a natural fracture as supported by asperities of varying heights, when an effective pressure deforms the tallest asperities, bringing the shorter ones into contact while increasing the overall fracture stiffness. Thus, the model is known as the "asperity-deformation" (ADM) or "bed-of-nails" (BNM) model. Existing analytic solutions include one that assumes the host rock is infinitely more rigid than the fractures, and one that takes the host-rock compliance into account. Inversion results indicate that although both solutions can fit the data to within first-order approximation, some systematic misfits exist as a result of using the rigid-host solution, whereas compliant-host inversion returns smaller and random misfits, yet out-of-range parameter estimates. These problems indicate the effects of nonlinear elastic deformation whose degree varies from rock to rock. Consequently, I extend the model to allow for the pressure dependence of the host rock, thereby physically interpreting the nonlinear behaviors of deformation. Furthermore, I apply a discrete grid-search inversion scheme that generalizes the distribution of asperity heights, thus accurately reproduces velocity profiles, significantly improves the fit and helps to visualize the distribution of asperities. I compare the analytic and numerical asperity-deformation models with the existing physical model of elliptical "penny-shape" cracks with a pore-aspect-ratio (PAR) spectrum in terms of physical meaning and data-fitting ability. The comparison results provide a link and demonstrate the consistency between the use of the two physical models, making a better understanding of the microstructure as well as the contact mechanism and physical behaviors of rocks under pressure. ADM-based solutions, therefore, have the potential to facilitate modeling and interpretation of applications such as time-lapse seismic investigations of fractured reservoirs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trumbull, Robert B.; Franke, Dieter; Bauer, Klaus; Sobolev, Stephan V.
2015-04-01
Lower crustal bodies with high seismic velocity (Vp > 7km/s) underlie seaward-dipping reflector wedges on both margins of the South Atlantic, as on many other volcanic rifted margins worldwide. A comprehensive geophysical study of the South Atlantic margins by Becker et al. (Solid Earth, 5: 1011-1026, 2014) showed a strong asymmetry in the development of high-velocity lower crust (HVLC), with about 4 times larger volumes of HVLC on the African margin. That study also found interesting variations in the vertical position of HVLC relative to seaward-dipping reflectors which question a simple intrusive vs. extrusive relationship between these lower- and upper crustal features. The asymmetry of HVLC volumes on the conjugate margins is paradoxically exactly the opposite to that of surface lavas in the Paraná-Etendeka flood basalt province, which are much more voluminous on the South American margin. This contribution highlights the asymmetric features of magma distribution on the South Atlantic margins and explores their geodynamic significance. Petrophysical models of the HVLC are presented in the context of mantle melt generation, based on thickness-velocity (H-Vp) relations. These suggest that the greater volumes and average Vp values of HVLC on the African margin are due to active upwelling and high temperature, whereas passive upwelling under a thick lithospheric lid suppressed magma generation on the South American margin. The contrast in mantle upwelling rate and lithospheric thickness on the two margins predictably causes differential uplift, and this may help explain the greater accomodation space for surface lavas on the South American side although melt generation was strongest under the African margin.
Modeling of Sediment Bed Behavior for Critical Velocity in Horizontal Piping
Rector, David R.; Stewart, Mark L.; Poloski, Adam P.
2009-10-01
This paper compares results from a predictive tool for modeling transport of a multiphase mixture (solids in a liquid) in a pipeline, (up to and including plugging) with experiments performed to support the Hanford sites Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The treatment of high-level waste at the DOE Office of River Protections WTP will involve the transfer of high solid content suspensions through pipelines. Pipeline plugging was identified as a significant potential issue by a panel of external experts. In response to their concerns an experimental effort was initiated at PNNL to determine the critical velocities for a variety of operating conditions. A computational method has been developed to predict the dynamic behavior of a sediment bed in response to the surrounding suspension flow. The flow field is modeled using a lattice kinetics method, similar to the lattice Boltzmann method, which scales very well on highly parallel computers. Turbulent quantities are calculated using a k-epsilon RANS model. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a process simulation capability for a wide range of applications. Solids are represented using two different continuum fields. The suspended solids are treated as passive scalars in the flow field, including terms for hindered settling and Brownian diffusion. Normal stresses created by the irreversible collisions of particles during shearing are added to the pressure tensor. The sediment bed interface is represented using a continuum phase field with a diffuse interface. The bed may change with time due to settling, erosion and deposition through convection. The erosion rates are calculated using the local shear stress obtained from the turbulence model. The method is compared with data from the PNNL pipeline experiments conducted at PNNL (Poloski et al. 2008). The experimental flow loop consists of 3-inch schedule 40 piping with instrumentation for determining flow rate and pressure gradient. The simulant test particles ranged in density from 2.5 to 8 g/cc while the nominal particle size ranged from 10 to 100 ?m. At the beginning of each test, the slurry flow velocity was nominally set to 8 ft/sec. The flow was incrementally ramped down, and a steady-state pressure gradient was obtained at each flow condition. A rise in pressure gradient as the flow rate drops indicates that the pipe cross-sectional area is beginning to fill with sediment. This point is referred to as the critical velocity. Visualization information is provided using Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT). The paper will show favorable comparison of results with data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shia, R.
2012-12-01
The haze layer in Titan's upper atmosphere absorbs 90% of the solar radiation, but is inefficient for trapping infrared radiation generated by the surface. Its existence partially compensates for the greenhouse warming and keeps the surface approximately 9°C cooler than would otherwise be expected from the greenhouse effect alone. This is the so called anti-greenhouse effect (McKay et al., 1991). This effect can be used to alleviate the warming caused by the increasing level of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. A one-dimensional radiative convective model (Kasting et al., 2009 and references listed there) is used to investigate the anti-greenhouse effect in the Earth atmosphere. Increasing of solar absorbers, e.g. aerosols and ozone, in the stratosphere reduces the surface solar flux and cool the surface. However, the absorption of the solar flux also increases the temperature in the upper atmosphere, while reduces the temperature at the surface. Thus, the temperature profile of the atmosphere changes and the regions with positive vertical temperature gradient are expanded. According to Shia (2010) the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases is directly related to the vertical temperature gradient. Under the new temperature profile increases of greenhouse gases should have less warming effect. When the solar absorbers keep increasing, eventually most of the atmosphere has positive temperature gradient and increasing greenhouse gases would cool the surface (Shia, 2011). The doubling CO2 scenario in the Earth atmosphere is simulated for different levels of solar absorbers using the 1-D RC model. The model results show that if the solar absorber increases to a certain level that less than 50% solar flux reaching the surface, doubling CO2 cools the surface by about 2 C. This means if the snowball Earth is generated by solar absorbers in the stratosphere, increasing greenhouse gases would make it freeze even more (Shia, 2011). References: Kasting, J. et al. 2009, http://vpl.astro.washington.edu/sci/AntiModels/models09.html McKay, C.P. et al. 1991, Titan: Greenhouse and Anti-greenhouse Effects on Titan. Science 253 (5024), 1118-21 Shia, R. 2011, Climate Effect of Greenhouse Gas: Warming or Cooling is Determined by Temperature Gradient, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2012, abstract #A51A-0274 Shia, R. 2010, Mechanism of Radiative Forcing of Greenhouse Gas and its Implication to the Global Warming, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010, abstract #A11J-02
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henke, D.; Schubert, A.; Small, D.; Meier, E.; Lüthi, M. P.; Vieli, A.
2014-12-01
A new method for glacier surface velocity (GSV) estimates is proposed here which combines ground- and space-based measurements with hidden state space modeling (HSSM). Examples of such a fusion of physical models with remote sensing (RS) observations were described in (Henke & Meier, Hidden State Space Models for Improved Remote Sensing Applications, ITISE 2014, p. 1242-1255) and are currently adapted for GSV estimation. GSV can be estimated using in situ measurements, RS methods or numerical simulations based on ice-flow models. In situ measurements ensure high accuracy but limited coverage and time consuming field work, while RS methods offer regular observations with high spatial coverage generally not possible with in situ methods. In particular, spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can obtain useful images independent of daytime and cloud cover. A ground portable radar interferometer (GPRI) is useful for investigating a particular area in more detail than is possible from space, but provides local coverage only. Several processing methods for deriving GSV from radar sensors have been established, including interferometry and offset tracking (Schubert et al, Glacier surface velocity estimation using repeat TerraSAR-X images. ISPRS Journal of P&RS, p. 49-62, 2013). On the other hand, it is also possible to derive glacier parameters from numerical ice-flow modeling alone. Given a well-parameterized model, GSV can in theory be derived and propagated continuously in time. However, uncertainties in the glacier flow dynamics and model errors increase with excessive propagation. All of these methods have been studied independently, but attempts to combine them have only rarely been made. The HSSM we propose recursively estimates the GSV based on 1) a process model making use of temporal and spatial interdependencies between adjacent states, and 2) observations (RS and optional in situ). The in situ and GPRI images currently being processed were acquired in the Swiss Alps (Jungfrau-Aletsch) and Greenland (Eqip Sermia). TerraSAR-X satellite images were acquired and processed over the Aletsch Glacier during the same period. For the Eqip Sermia glacier, data from the new Sentinel-1 satellite will be available soon, providing a high revisit time near the pole, increasing the expected accuracy of GSV estimates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oppenheimer, David H.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.
1981-07-01
The analysis of travel time delays from 94 teleseisms recorded at The Geysers-Clear Lake, California, region reveals a broad area of delay centered at Mount Hannah and encompassing The Geysers geothermal field. A three-dimensional velocity inversion of the delays indicates that the source of the delays is a low-velocity body largely within the top 30 km of the lithosphere. Velocity decreases of as much as 20% are observed in the top 15 km near Mount Hannah and diminish with depth. No significant velocity fluctuations are observed below 60 km. The block model of velocity perturbations resulting from the teleseismic residual inversion is used to predict the observed Bouguer gravity field by solving for the relation between velocity and density perturbation. Comparison between the predicted gravity and observed gravity indicates that the same body responsible for the teleseismic delays accounts for the long-wave-length 30-mGal Bouguer gravity minima at Mount Hannah. The results of the velocity-density modeling suggest that the material beneath Mount Hannah and The Geysers may be partially molten and somewhat more silicic than the surrounding medium. Supplemental table is available with entire article on microfiche. Order from American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. Document J81-006; $1.00. Payment must accompany order.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashida, T.; Tajima, F. C.; Nakajima, J.; Mori, J. J.
2011-12-01
In southwestern (SW) Japan, the dip of the subducting Philippine Sea Plate (PHSP) varies significantly along the trench strike and the configuration of the PHSP beneath the Chugoku region is unclear due to the lack of seismicity below about 40 km depth. In our previous study we pointed out that the slab configuration plays an important role for explaining arrival times of seismic waves and thus it is necessary to use a 3D reference velocity model with a slab configuration for carrying out tomography inversions (Hayashida et al., 2010). Here we derive a new 3D velocity structure using a forward waveform modeling combined with a travel-time inversion for studying the the PHSP configuration in SW Japan. First we constructed a 3D velocity structure from an existing high resolution travel-time tomography model (Nakajima and Hasegawa, 2007). With this model, we calculated synthetic seismograms for the largest aftershock of the 2010 Geiyo earthquake (Mw5.1) using the 3D finite-difference code e3d (Larsen and Schultz, 1995). The calculated P-wave arrival times are consistent with the observed data, and the agreement of the synthetic waveforms with the data is generally good in the frequency range up to 0.2 Hz. However, the agreement is not satisfactory for sP and S waves at most of the stations in the higher frequency range (>0.2 Hz). The discrepancies may be attributed not only to the uncertainty in determining S-wave travel times but also to the initial layered velocity model used in the tomographic inversion. Next, we constructed a 3D reference structure using forward waveform modeling, in which the PHSP configuration is included, as seen from seismicity and receiver functions. We modified the configuration of PHSP to improve the fit of the arrival times of P, sP and S waves in the synthetics. The agreement between the data and synthetics calculated with the constructed reference model was good in the frequency range up to 0.5 Hz for event the Geiyo aftershock. The results show that the PHSP structure, the deeper slab where there is limited seismicity, plays an important role for calculating arrival times at some stations. However, the agreement between the data and the synthetics for other earthquakes was not always satisfactory at stations where the propagation paths are different from those of the Geiyo aftershock. To further improve the model, we performed another travel-time inversion using the constructed 3D reference model as the new starting model. The newly derived velocity model, 3DM_SWJ from the tomographic inversion yielded distinct images of the subducting PHSP and can produce synthetics in better agreement with data in the frequency range up to 0.5 Hz for other events at stations where the agreement of synthetics with the data was previously poor. Our results show that the combined approach of forward waveform modeling with iterative tomographic travel time inversions can provide a better 3D model of the subducting slab configuration.
M. Sekhar; G. Suresh Kumar
2006-01-01
The asymptotic behavior of the solute velocity and dispersivity for a system of parallel fractures with matrix diffusion is\\u000a made using numerical modeling and theoretical analyses. The study is limited to linearly sorbing solutes with a constant continuous\\u000a source boundary condition. Expressions are provided for solute velocity and effective dispersivity in terms of fracture porosity\\u000a during asymptotic stage using spatial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mogensen, Ditte; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Gierens, Rosa; Smolander, Sampo; Kulmala, Markku; Boy, Michael
2015-04-01
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted from the biosphere and can work as precursor gases for aerosol particles that can affect the climate (e.g. Makkonen et al., ACP, 2012). VOC emissions from needles and leaves have gained the most attention, however other parts of the ecosystem also have the ability to emit a vast amount of VOCs. This, often neglected, source can be important e.g. at periods where leaves are absent. Both sources and drivers related to forest floor emission of VOCs are currently limited. It is thought that the sources are mainly due to degradation of organic matter (Isidorov and Jdanova, Chemosphere, 2002), living roots (Asensio et al., Soil Biol. Biochem., 2008) and ground vegetation. The drivers are biotic (e.g. microbes) and abiotic (e.g. temperature and moisture). However, the relative importance of the sources and the drivers individually are currently poorly understood. Further, the relative importance of these factors is highly dependent on the tree species occupying the area of interest. The emission of isoprene and monoterpenes where measured from the boreal forest floor at the SMEAR II station in Southern Finland (Hari and Kulmala, Boreal Env. Res., 2005) during the snow-free period in 2010-2012. We used a dynamic method with 3 automated chambers analyzed by Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometer (Aaltonen et al., Plant Soil, 2013). Using this data, we have developed empirical parameterizations for the emission of isoprene and monoterpenes from the forest floor. These parameterizations depends on abiotic factors, however, since the parameterizations are based on field measurements, biotic features are captured. Further, we have used the 1D chemistry-transport model SOSAA (Boy et al., ACP, 2011) to test the seasonal relative importance of inclusion of these parameterizations of the forest floor compared to the canopy crown emissions, on the atmospheric reactivity throughout the canopy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michelioudakis, Dimitrios; Hobbs, Richard; Caiado, Camila
2015-04-01
Determining the depths of key horizons from seismic reflection data is one of the most important aspects of exploration geophysics. Here, we present Bayesian methods based on an elicitation tool and Gaussian processes to build a detailed and robust velocity model of the Mentelle Basin, located south west of Australia, with the ultimate goal to identify possible drilling targets for the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). The Mentelle Basin is a deep water sedimentary basin located between the Naturaliste Plateau and the southern part of the Western Australian Shelf. It is among the few regions of the world where we can investigate the effects of the Cretaceous hot-house and its collapse at high latitude. The Mentelle Basin hosts a continuous shale sequence for this period that it is over a kilometer thick, the study of which, is crucial for the correlation between the paleoclimate conditions and the tectonic history of the region. By reprocessing 2D multichannel seismic reflection profiles around the proposed drill - sites, we create a detailed subsurface velocity model which is used as a priori input to the Bayesian approach. The final goal is to build a multi-layered model to estimate the depth and the root mean square velocity of each layer, both for the isotropic and anisotropic cases in terms of a multivariate posterior distribution. Having determined the RMS velocities for each layer, we can calculate, by inference, their interval velocities and finally estimate the depth of each sequence of interest with improved accuracy. The key advantage of the Bayesian approach and the major difference compared to the traditional semblance spectrum velocity analysis procedure is the calculation of uncertainty of the output model. As a result, our statistical approach can construct a robust velocity model which encompasses the noise and the band-limited nature of the data as an error function. We use this model to control the depth migration of the seismic data and estimate the depths and its uncertainty to the drilling targets.
Matching perceived depth from disparity and from velocity: Modeling and psychophysics.
Domini, Fulvio; Caudek, Corrado
2010-01-01
We asked observers to match in depth a disparity-only stimulus with a velocity-only stimulus. The observers' responses revealed systematic biases: the two stimuli appeared to be matched in depth when they were produced by the projection of different distal depth extents. We discuss two alternative models of depth recovery that could account for these results. (1) Depth matches could be obtained by scaling the image signals by constants not specified by optical information, and (2) depth matches could be obtained by equating the stimuli in terms of their signal-to-noise ratios (see Domini & Caudek, 2009). We show that the systematic failures of shape constancy revealed by observers' judgments are well accounted for by the hypothesis that the apparent depth of a stimulus is determined by the magnitude of the retinal signals relative to the uncertainty (i.e., internal noise) arising from the measurement of those signals. PMID:19963200
Velocity-based movement modeling for individual and population level inference
Hanks, Ephraim M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Johnson, Devin S.; Sterling, Jeremy T.
2011-01-01
Understanding animal movement and resource selection provides important information about the ecology of the animal, but an animal's movement and behavior are not typically constant in time. We present a velocity-based approach for modeling animal movement in space and time that allows for temporal heterogeneity in an animal's response to the environment, allows for temporal irregularity in telemetry data, and accounts for the uncertainty in the location information. Population-level inference on movement patterns and resource selection can then be made through cluster analysis of the parameters related to movement and behavior. We illustrate this approach through a study of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) movement in the Bering Sea, Alaska, USA. Results show sex differentiation, with female northern fur seals exhibiting stronger response to environmental variables.
Huang, Rongzong; Wu, Huiying
2015-03-01
A lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for the convection-diffusion equation (CDE) with divergence-free velocity field is proposed, and the Chapman-Enskog analysis shows that the CDE can be recovered correctly. In the present model, the convection term is treated as a source term in the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) rather than being directly recovered by LBE; thus the CDE is intrinsically solved as a pure diffusion equation with a corresponding source term. To avoid the adoption of a nonlocal finite-difference scheme for computing the convection term, a local scheme is developed based on the Chapman-Enskog analysis. Most importantly, by properly specifying the discrete source term in the moment space, the local scheme can reach the same order (?^{2}) at which the CDE is recovered by a LB model. Numerical tests, including a one-dimensional periodic problem, diffusion of a Gaussian hill, diffusion of a rectangular pulse, and natural convection in a square cavity, are carried out to verify the present model. Numerical results are satisfactorily consistent with analytical solutions or previous numerical results, and show higher accuracy due to the correct recovery of CDE. PMID:25871241
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouillot, Vincent R.; Alimi, Jean-Michel; Corasaniti, Pier-Stefano; Rasera, Yann
2015-06-01
Observations of colliding galaxy clusters with high relative velocity probe the tail of the halo pairwise velocity distribution with the potential of providing a powerful test of cosmology. As an example it has been argued that the discovery of the Bullet Cluster challenges standard ? cold dark matter (?CDM) model predictions. Halo catalogues from N-body simulations have been used to estimate the probability of Bullet-like clusters. However, due to simulation volume effects previous studies had to rely on a Gaussian extrapolation of the pairwise velocity distribution to high velocities. Here, we perform a detail analysis using the halo catalogues from the Dark Energy Universe Simulation Full Universe Runs (DEUS-FUR), which enables us to resolve the high-velocity tail of the distribution and study its dependence on the halo mass definition, redshift and cosmology. Building upon these results, we estimate the probability of Bullet-like systems in the framework of Extreme Value Statistics. We show that the tail of extreme pairwise velocities significantly deviates from that of a Gaussian, moreover it carries an imprint of the underlying cosmology. We find the Bullet Cluster probability to be two orders of magnitude larger than previous estimates, thus easing the tension with the ?CDM model. Finally, the comparison of the inferred probabilities for the different DEUS-FUR cosmologies suggests that observations of extreme interacting clusters can provide constraints on dark energy models complementary to standard cosmological tests.
Particle velocity interpolation in block-centered finite difference groundwater flow models
Goode, D.J.
1990-01-01
Reviews linear and bilinear interpolation of velocity and introduces a new interpolation scheme. Linear interpolation of velocity is consistent with the numerical solution of the flow equation and preserves discontinuities in velocity caused by abrupt (blocky) changes in transmissivity or hydraulic conductivity. However, linear interpolation yields discontinuous and somewhat unrealistic velocities in homogeneous aquifers. Bilinear interpolation of velocity yields continuous and realistic velocities in homogeneous and smoothly heterogeneous aquifers but does not preserve discontinuities in velocity at abrupt transmissivity boundaries. The new scheme uses potentiometric head gradients and offers improved accuracy for nonuniform flow in heterogeneous aquifers with abrupt changes in transmissivity. It is equivalent to bilinear interpolation in homogeneous media and is equivalent to linear interpolation where gradients are uniform. -from Author
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weifeng, Yuan; Kang Hai, Tan
2007-06-01
A cellular automata (CA) model, which adopts the findings of tenability analysis, is proposed to simulate the evacuation from a smoke-filled room. Two algorithms, viz., direct algorithm and indirect algorithm, are used to model the behavior of a crowd consisting of people with different movement velocities. In the indirect algorithm, the movement velocity is related to probability so that the CPU time is greatly reduced. Another novelty is that an experimental formula for estimating the survival duration when exposed to constant concentration of toxic gases in a static environment is extended to one that involves varying degree of toxic gases. This has been incorporated into the CA model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roche, Olivier
2015-05-01
Deposits of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) often contain accidental lithic clasts of typical size of 0.1-1 m captured from an underlying substrate by the parent flows at distances up to several tens of kilometers from the eruptive vent. In order to gain insights into the nature of PDCs, this study investigates the conditions required for entrainment of particles from a granular substrate by a gas-particle density current, with special emphasis to ignimbrite-forming currents whose dynamics are controversial. The two types of physics of emplacement of PDCs proposed in literature are considered. The first model deals with a hydraulically rough, dilute turbulent PDC of bulk density of ?1-10 kg/m3 and considers that entrainment through both traction and saltation is controlled by a Shield criterion at high (>104) particle Reynolds number. The second model considers entrainment by a PDC consisting of a dense basal flow of bulk density of the order of 103 kg /m3 and with high interstitial gas pore pressure. This model involves uplift of substrate particles, caused by an upward pressure gradient at the flow-substrate interface, and then transport and deposition on the aggrading basal deposit of the flow as demonstrated by recent laboratory experiments. Results show that a dilute PDC can entrain blocks of maximum size of ?10-15 cm (for a block density of 2000-3000 kg/m3) if maximum current velocities up to ?100 m/s are taken into account. This, in turn, suggests that larger (heavier) blocks found in deposits were captured by PDCs if these had a dense basal flow. The dense flow model predicts that PDCs have the potential to entrain metric blocks, whose maximum size (up to ?2-5 m) decreases with decreasing atmospheric pressure (i.e. increasing altitude). Application of the model considering published data on the characteristics of accidental blocks in several well-studied ignimbrites indicates that the velocity of the parent dense PDCs was up to ?25-30 m/s.
Alexander L. Kurapov; J. S. Allen; G. D. Egbert; R. N. Miller; P. M. Kosro; M. D. Levine; T. Boyd; J. A. Barth
2005-01-01
Horizontal current measurements from an array of moored acoustic Doppler profilers are assimilated sequentially into a model of coastal wind-driven circulation off Oregon during the upwelling season of May-August 2001. Model results are compared against independent moored and ship survey data to document a positive effect of velocity data assimilation (DA) on other oceanic variables of interest such as the
Feltham, Daniel
Optimization of a Sea Ice Model Using Basinwide Observations of Arctic Sea Ice Thickness, Extent 2004, in final form 27 June 2005) ABSTRACT A stand-alone sea ice model is tuned and validated using satellite-derived, basinwide observations of sea ice thickness, extent, and velocity from the years 1993
Arthur J. Rodgers; William R. Walter; Robert J. Mellors; Abdullah M. S. Al-Amri; Yu-Shen Zhang
1999-01-01
SUMMARY Regional seismic waveforms reveal significant differences in the structure of the Arabian Shield and the Arabian Platform. We estimate lithospheric velocity structure by modelling regional waveforms recorded by the 1995-1997 Saudi Arabian Temporary Broadband Deployment using a grid search scheme. We employ a new method whereby we narrow the waveform modelling grid search by first fitting the fundamental mode
Arthur J. Rodgers; William R. Walter; Robert J. Mellors; Abdullah M. S. Al-Amri; Yu-Shen Zhang
1999-01-01
Regional seismic waveforms reveal significant differences in the structure of the Arabian Shield and the Arabian Platform. We estimate lithospheric velocity structure by modelling regional waveforms recorded by the 1995-1997 Saudi Arabian Temporary Broadband Deployment using a grid search scheme. We employ a new method whereby we narrow the waveform modelling grid search by first fitting the fundamental mode Love
T. Kagawa; A. Petukhin; K. Koketsu; H. Miyake; S. Murotani; M. Tsurugi
2010-01-01
Three dimensional velocity structure model of southwest Japan is provided to simulate long-period ground motions due to the hypothetical subduction earthquakes. The model is constructed from numerous physical explorations conducted in land and offshore areas and observational study of natural earthquakes. Any available information is involved to explain crustal structure and sedimentary structure. Figure 1 shows an example of cross
Ida Bonzani; Lorenzo Mussone
2009-01-01
This paper deals with derivation of the fundamental diagram by modelling the individual driver behavior that adjusts the velocity to the density of vehicles in order to respect the braking distance. A parameter is properly introduced to model the quality of the drivervehicle subsystem referred to the environmental conditions. Subsequently, it is shown how to use this result in order
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Size-velocity correlations in high order moment methods for polydisperse evaporating sprays developed the Eulerian Multi-Size Moment model (EMSM) which tackles the modeling and numerical simulation and realizable NDF, potentially in several size intervals, thus leading to an hybrid method between Multifluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonangeli, Daniele; Ohtani, Eiji
2015-12-01
Determining the sound velocity of iron under extreme thermodynamic conditions is essential for a proper interpretation of seismic observations of the Earth's core but is experimentally challenging. Here, we review techniques and methodologies used to measure sound velocities in metals at megabar pressures, with specific focus on the compressional sound velocity of hexagonal close-packed iron. A critical comparison of literature results, coherently analyzed using consistent metrology (pressure scale, equation of state), allows us to propose reference relations for the pressure and density dependence of the compressional velocity of hexagonal close-packed iron at ambient temperature. This provides a key base line upon which to add complexity, including high-temperature effects, pre-melting effects, effects of nickel and/or light element incorporation, necessary for an accurate comparison with seismic models, and ultimately to constrain Earth's inner core composition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonangeli, D.; Ohtani, E.
2014-12-01
Sound velocity determination of iron under extreme thermodynamic conditions is essential for a proper interpretation of seismic observations of the Earth's core, but static high-pressure measurements proven to be an experimental challenge. Here we review techniques and methodologies used to measure sound velocities in metals at Mbar pressures, with specific focus on the compressional sound velocity of hexagonal close-packed iron. A critical comparison of literature results, coherently analyzed using the same metrology (pressure scale, equation of state,), allowed us to propose reference relations for the pressure and density evolution of the compressional velocity of hexagonal close-packed iron at ambient temperature. This provides a key base line upon which build on complexity, including high-temperature effects, pre-melting effects, effects of nickel and/or light element inclusion, necessary for an accurate comparison with seismic models, and ultimately to constrain Earth's inner core composition.
Measuring and modelling the frictional velocity u*, turbulence and heat fluxes above the North Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tambke, Jens; Bye, John A. T.; Schmidt, Michael; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf
2014-05-01
In this study, we analyse the frictional velocity u*, drag coefficient, vertical wind speed and turbulence profiles observed at different met-masts in the German North and Baltic Sea. We present an analysis of different models for the frictional velocity u* in convective, neutral and stable thermal stratification of the atmosphere. Atmospheric turbulent momentum and heat flux measurements performed with ultra-sonic anemometers are compared to profile-derived values and a bulk Richardson number formulation of the atmospheric thermal stability. Modelling: An improved approach to model the vertical wind speed profile is presented and compared against meso-scale model results (WRF, COSMO): Bye-Ekman-Coupling (BEC) describes the flux of momentum from the Ekman layer of the atmosphere through the Prandtl layer down to the air-sea interface by a modified wave boundary layer with enhanced Charnock dynamics (Bye et al. 2010). The BEC model is based on the coupled pair of similarity relations for "aerodynamically rough flow" in both fluids (air and sea). The derived drag law is of Charnock form, almost independent of the wave age and consistent with the transfer of momentum to the wave spectrum - which takes place in the smaller rather than the dominant wavelengths. Measurements: It was found that the frictional velocity u* is considerably smaller than predicted by conventional approaches using the Charnock relation: For wind speeds between 10 m/s and 15 m/s at 40 m height above the sea surface, u*(observed) is 14% smaller than u*(Charnock). Most important, we found unexpected, strong and obviously artificial distortions concerning the three wind speed components in the 10Hz data of the three ultra-sonic anemometers at the offshore met-mast FINO1 at 40 m, 60 m and 80 m height. The pattern of these distortions is independent from different post-processing procedures (planar-fit etc.). We anticipate that these artefacts imply severe problems for the eddy covariance technique. Moreover, these artefacts may be relevant in other (previous and on-going) ultra-sonic measurement campaigns where turbulent parameters such as u* and heat fluxes are derived. A simple, but innovative analysis is proposed to check ultra-sonic measurements with respect to these artefacts, using the original temporal 10Hz resolution of the data: The instantaneous vertical wind speed component w is analysed versus the instantaneous wind direction (called wind.dir in the following), computed from the instantaneous horizontal components u and v. The observational density is then plotted in the (w; wind.dir)-space. We found a pattern of stripes of very strong densities for specific wind direction bins, which are thinner than 1° and which cannot be attributed directly to the geometry of the anemometer (transducers, physical structure etc.). The source of this artificial pattern is still unclear and open for discussion. References: Bye JAT, Ghantous M, Wolff J-O (2010) On the variability of the Charnock constant and the functional dependence of the drag coefficient on wind speed. Ocean Dynamics 60(4) 851-860
Lee, Benjamin C.
simulation times by simulating memory array components separately based on their contribution to the worst retention and access times of a 3T1D memory array with a median error of 7.39%. I. INTRODUCTION For decades exploration by architects. To be widely adopted by architects and to be integrated into chip- level simulators
Modeling the effects of water velocity on TiO2 nanoparticles transport in saturated porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toloni, Ivan; Lehmann, François; Ackerer, Philippe
2014-12-01
The transport of manufactured titanium dioxide (TiO2, rutile) nanoparticles (NP) in porous media was investigated under saturated conditions. Experiments were carried out with different fluid velocities, with values in the range of observed velocities in alluvial aquifers. As reported on the literature for different kinds of NPs, the amount of retained NPs decreased when the water velocity increased. Moreover, no retention was observed for ionic strength values smaller than 5 mM. A transport model coupling convective-dispersive transport with a Langmuirian kinetic deposition was used to fit the BTCs. Empirical linear equations were developed to estimate the attachment rate ka and the maximal solid phase concentration smax. Both parameters were found to be linearly depending on the collector efficiency (?0). It was also observed that attachment efficiency (?) did not change with increase of water velocity under the given experimental conditions and that the model had a low sensitivity to ?. Based on these estimates of the retention parameters, the classical dispersion-convection model coupled with a Langmuir type adsorption model was able to reproduce quite well the observed TiO2 breakthrough curves for every fluid velocity used in the experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mordret, Aurélien; Rivet, Diane; Landčs, Matthieu; Shapiro, Nikolaď M.
2015-01-01
We cross correlate 4 years of seismic noise from the seismic network of Piton de la Fournaise Volcano (La Réunion Island) to measure the group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves. We average measurements from vertical and radial components to obtain 577 Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. The transverse components provided 395 Love wave dispersion curves. We regionalize the group velocities measurements into 2-D velocity maps between 0.4 and 8 s. Finally, we locally inverted these maps for a pseudo 3-D anisotropic shear-velocity model down to 3 km below the sea level using a Neighborhood Algorithm. The 3-D isotropic shear-wave model shows three distinct high-velocity anomalies surrounded by a low-velocity ring. The anomaly located below the present "Plaine des Sables" could be related to an old intrusive body at the location of the former volcanic center before it migrated toward its present location. The second high-velocity body located below the summit of the volcano likely corresponds to the actual preferential dyke intrusion zone as highlighted by the seismicity. The third high-velocity anomaly located below the "Grandes Pentes" and the "Grand Brűlé" areas and is an imprint of the solidified magma chamber of the dismantled "Les Alizés" Volcano. Radial anisotropy shows two main anomalies: positive anisotropy above sea level highlighting the recent edifice of Piton de la Fournaise with an accumulation of horizontal lava flows and the second one below the sea level with a negative anisotropy corresponding to the ancient edifice of Piton de la Fournaise dominated by intrusions of vertical dykes.
Modelling and Simulation of Tensile Fracture in High Velocity Compacted Metal Powder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jonsén, P.; Häggblad, H.-A.?.
2007-05-01
In cold uniaxial powder compaction, powder is formed into a desired shape with rigid tools and a die. After pressing, but before sintering, the compacted powder is called green body. A critical property in the metal powder pressing process is the mechanical properties of the green body. Beyond a green body free from defects, desired properties are high strength and uniform density. High velocity compaction (HVC) using a hydraulic operated hammer is a production method to form powder utilizing a shock wave. Pre-alloyed water atomised iron powder has been HVC-formed into circular discs with high densities. The diametral compression test also called the Brazilian disc test is an established method to measure tensile strength in low strength material like e.g. rock, concrete, polymers and ceramics. During the test a thin disc is compressed across the diameter to failure. The compression induces a tensile stress perpendicular to the compressed diameter. In this study the test have been used to study crack initiation and the tensile fracture process of HVC-formed metal powder discs with a relative density of 99%. A fictitious crack model controlled by a stress versus crack-width relationship is utilized to model green body cracking. Tensile strength is used as a failure condition and limits the stress in the fracture interface. The softening rate of the model is obtained from the corresponding rate of the dissipated energy. The deformation of the powder material is modelled with an elastic-plastic Cap model. The characteristics of the tensile fracture development of the central crack in a diametrically loaded specimen is numerically studied with a three dimensional finite element simulation. Results from the finite element simulation of the diametral compression test shows that it is possible to simulate fracturing of HVC-formed powder. Results from the simulation agree reasonably with experiments.
Microseismic monitoring and velocity model building at the Longyearbyen CO2-Lab, Svalbard
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oye, V.; Zhao, P.; Lecomte, I.; Braathen, A.; Olaussen, S.
2012-04-01
The Longyearbyen CO2 storage lab project addresses the problem to turn Svalbard into a CO2 neutral community. The project has now confirmed that an injective reservoir (800-1000 m depth) and a sealing cap rock section exist around Longyearbyen, and will proceed towards demonstration and monitoring studies of sub surface CO2 storage over time. The progressive construction of the Longyearbyen CO2 storage lab is currently addressing detailed properties and geometry of the reservoir. Liquids other than CO2 have been used in this initial phase (water, brine, gel). The reservoir below Longyearbyen is considered physically open, and, therefore, will likely experience drift of the injected CO2 towards the Northeast, through gradual mixing and expulsion of saline groundwater. This offers a unique opportunity for studying the behavior of CO2 in subsurface saline aquifers. Four wells have been drilled so far and several new monitoring wells are planned for this purpose. In this study, we try to use induced seismicity to monitor the injection fluid in the test site. A precise estimation of the location and magnitude of the microearthquake will be important to investigate the link between the injection and the sudden stress release as a microearthquake. In August 2010 a fluid injection experiment was carried out at the CO2 lab. In parallel, a microseismic monitoring network was deployed close to the injection well. The network consists of a 5-level string of 3-component geophones in a vertical observation well, with 50m distance between the instruments and a maximum depth of 294 meters. In addition, three shallow boreholes of 12 m depth have been drilled at about 500 m distance to the injection well. These additional surface stations are intended to provide more accurate locations for microearthquakes that are large enough to be recorded at the surface. Approximately 17 hours after the 5-days water injection test (from 20th to 25th August, 2010), a relatively strong microseismic event has been recorded at all 8 geophones and is located close to the injection well. An accurate location of this seismic event was not possible yet, due to high uncertainties in our velocity model, affecting mainly the depth of the location. In addition, we use the waveforms of this event as a template (i.e., the "master" event) and search for other events with similar waveforms at lower signal-to-noise ratios based on the matched filter method. After scanning through 78-days of continuous data (10th August to 26th October, 2010), we have detected seven events, with a statistically high correlation coefficient from network average. In order to record any potential seismicity during new injection tests, additional two surface geophones are deployed near the injection well to improve constraining the microearthquake locations. Further improvements on the velocity model are also ongoing, using 2D seismic lines, well logs, VSP and additional explosions at the surface observed with the vertical array. Most improvement of the velocity model is expected in the shallow part of the model, directly enhancing the location accuracy and help to track fluid injection interpreted from microseismicity.
A fast iterative model for discrete velocity calculations on triangular grids
Szalmas, Lajos [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, Volos 38334 (Greece); Valougeorgis, Dimitris [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, Volos 38334 (Greece)], E-mail: diva@mie.uth.gr
2010-06-01
A fast synthetic type iterative model is proposed to speed up the slow convergence of discrete velocity algorithms for solving linear kinetic equations on triangular lattices. The efficiency of the scheme is verified both theoretically by a discrete Fourier stability analysis and computationally by solving a rarefied gas flow problem. The stability analysis of the discrete kinetic equations yields the spectral radius of the typical and the proposed iterative algorithms and reveal the drastically improved performance of the latter one for any grid resolution. This is the first time that stability analysis of the full discrete kinetic equations related to rarefied gas theory is formulated, providing the detailed dependency of the iteration scheme on the discretization parameters in the phase space. The corresponding characteristics of the model deduced by solving numerically the rarefied gas flow through a duct with triangular cross section are in complete agreement with the theoretical findings. The proposed approach may open a way for fast computation of rarefied gas flows on complex geometries in the whole range of gas rarefaction including the hydrodynamic regime.
A mathematical model for Tsunami generation using a conservative velocity-pressure hyperbolic system
Roux, Alain-Yves Le
2009-01-01
By using the Hugoniot curve in detonics as a Riemann invariant of a velocity-pressure model, we get a conservative hyperbolic system similar to the Euler equations. The only differences are the larger value of the adiabatic constant (= 8.678 instead of 1.4 for gas dynamics) and the mass density replaced by a strain density depending on the pressure. The model is not homogeneous since it involves a gravity and a friction term. After the seismic wave reaches up the bottom of the ocean, one gets a pressure wave propagating toward the surface, which is made of a frontal shock wave followed by a regular decreasing profile. Since this regular profile propagates faster than the frontal shock waves, the amplitude of the pressure wave is strongly reduced when reaching the surface. Only in the case of a strong earth tremor the residual pressure wave is still sufficient to generate a water elevation with a sufficient wavelengths enable to propagate as a SaintVenant water wave and to become a tsunami when reaching the sh...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westhoff, D.; van Franeker, J. J.; Brereton, T.; Kroese, D. P.; Janssen, R. A. J.; Schmidt, V.
2015-06-01
A parametric stochastic model of the morphology of thin polymer:fullerene films is developed. This model uses a number of tools from stochastic geometry and spatial statistics. The fullerene-rich phase is represented by random closed sets and the polymer-rich phase is given by their complement. The model has three stages. First, a point pattern is used to model the locations of fullerene-rich domains. Second, domains are formed at these points. Third, the domains are rearranged to ensure a realistic configuration. The model is fitted to polymer:fullerene films produced using seven different spin coating velocities and validated using a variety of morphological characteristics. The model is then used to simulate morphologies corresponding to spin velocities for which no empirical data exists. The viability of this approach is demonstrated using cross-validation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergamo, Paolo; Bodet, Ludovic; Socco, Laura Valentina; Mourgues, Régis; Tournat, Vincent
2014-04-01
Laboratory experiments using laser-based ultrasonic techniques can be used to simulate seismic surveys on highly controlled small-scale physical models of the subsurface. Most of the time, such models consist in assemblies of homogeneous and consolidated materials. To enable the physical modelling of unconsolidated, heterogeneous and porous media, the use of granular materials is suggested here. We describe a simple technique to build a two-layer physical model characterized by lateral variations, strong property contrasts and velocity gradients. We use this model to address the efficiency of an innovative surface-wave processing technique developed to retrieve 2-D structures from a limited number of receivers. A step by step inversion procedure of the extracted dispersion curves yields accurate results so that the 2-D structure of the physical model is satisfactorily reconstructed. The velocity gradients within each layer are accurately retrieved as well, confirming current theoretical and experimental studies regarding guided surface acoustic modes in unconsolidated granular media.
A Reference Crustal and Plate-Boundary Velocity Model of Japan
M. Ishise; K. Koketsu; H. Miyake
2007-01-01
The study of velocity structure using earthquake data has been remarkably progressed by development of seismic observation networks, improvement of the methodology, and increase in processing power. Recent studies on 3D velocity structures have produced tomographic images with resolution of a few kilometers (e.g., Matsubara et al., 2005; Nakamichi et al., 2007). In addition to these traveltime analyses, waveform studies
A Model for the Estimate of Local Image Velocity by Cells in the Visual Cortex
Norberto M. Grzywacz; A. L. Yuille
1990-01-01
Some computational theories of motion perception assume that the first stage en route to this perception is the local estimate of image velocity. However, this assumption is not supported by data from the primary visual cortex. Its motion sensitive cells are not selective to velocity, but rather are directionally selective and tuned to spatio-temporal frequencies. Accordingly, physiologically based theories start
A consistent geodynamic model for predicting the velocity and plate-internal deformation of Eurasia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govers, Rob; Garcia-Sancho, Candela; Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin; van der Burgt, Janneke; Wortel, Rinus
2015-04-01
The motion and deformation of tectonic plates is driven by gravity and resisted by frictional forces. In principle it should thus be possible to build mechanical models that reproduce plate velocities and surface deformation. Here we present a new approach that overcomes many of the previous obstacles to achieving this goal. Our approach to quantify the forces is based on mechanical equilibrium of the whole Eurasian plate, meaning that an increase in, for instance collision, forces must be matched by other plate tectonic forces. We first focus on present-day Eurasia. We include basal tractions from a global convection model, lithospheric body forces, and edge forces resulting from the interaction of the Eurasian plate with neighboring plates. The resulting force distribution is constrained by observed plate motion and by stress observations. Eurasia's stress field turns out to be most sensitive to the distribution of collision forces on the plate's southern margin and, to a lesser extent, to lithospheric density structure and normal pressure from mantle flow. Stress observations require collision forces on the India-Eurasia boundary of 7.0 - 10.5 TN/m. A similar analysis is performed for Eurasia at 20 Ma and 40 Ma. Plate geometry is taken from the global Lausanne (Stampfli) reconstruction, as are plate velocities and oceanic ages. Lithospheric body forces are accounted for in a simplified way because we lack detailed enough information on the plate scale topography. For the Miocene, we find 1.2 TN/m for the collision force on the India-Eurasia boundary. In the Eocene, the collision force we find is 0.4 TN/m. We conclude that the magnitude of the collision force on Tibet increased significantly after 20 Ma: from 40-20 Ma, the plate contact force on the India/Tibet plate boundary segment was of the same order of magnitude as resistive forces on subduction plate boundaries elsewhere. Our timing of the collision force on Eurasia, is substantially younger than the often quoted collision age of 50Ma. Forces (and the corresponding stresses) drive permanent deformation on both geological time scales and short time scales, e.g., earthquakes. Low stress magnitudes may result in strain if the material is weak, high stresses may give no strain in strong materials. Our next step therefore is to use geological information on the strength of the lithosphere. We show new results of our work on using estimates of the mechanical properties of the lithosphere to predict surface deformation.
Leo J. Donner; Charles J. Seman; Richard S. Hemler; Songmiao Fan
2001-01-01
A cumulus parameterization based on mass fluxes, convective-scale vertical velocities, and mesoscale effects has been incorporated in an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). Most contemporary cumulus param- eterizations are based on convective mass fluxes. This parameterization augments mass fluxes with convective- scale vertical velocities as a means of providing a method for incorporating cumulus microphysics using vertical velocities at physically
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres, R. J. G.; Furtado, J. A.; Silva, H. G.; Borges, J. F.; Caldeira, B.; Bezzeghoud, M.; Cancela Pinto, C.; Carvalho, J.
2012-04-01
Along his history the Lower Tagus Valley (LTV) region was shaken by several earthquakes, some of them were produced in large ruptures of offshore structures located southwest of the Portuguese coastline, among these we the Lisbon earthquake of 1 November 1755; other moderates earthquakes were produced by local sources such as the 1344, 1531 and the 1909 Benavente earthquake. In order to promote an improved assessment of the seismic hazard in this region, we propose the introduction of realistic methods on the prediction of ground motion produced by moderate to large earthquakes in LTV. This process involves the establishment of a structural 3D model based on all the available geophysical and geotechnical data on the area (seismic, gravimetric, deep wells and geological outcrops) and the determination of wave propagation from a finite difference method: by applying the E3D program [1,2]. To confirm this model we use broadband ambient noise measurements collected in two profiles with azimuth perpendicular to the basin axis and we applied the horizontal to vertical (H/V) spectral ratio method [3] to the recordings in order to estimate the amplification of the basin. The H/V curves obtained reveals the existence of two low frequency peaks centered on 0.2 a 1 Hz frequencies[4]. These peaks are strongly related with the thickness of Cenozoic and alluvial sediments. By inversion of the H/V curve, we obtain a more detailed velocity model for the region where the profile were determined, which is in good agreement with borehole data and other results obtained with magnetic and seismic reflection methods.
Karen L. Masters
2008-03-27
We only see a small fraction of the matter in the universe, but the rest gives itself away by the impact of its gravity. The distortions from pure Hubble flow (or peculiar velocities) that this matter creates have the potential to be a powerful cosmological tool, but are also a nuisance for extragalactic astronomers who wish to use redshifts to estimate distances to local galaxies. We provide a quick overview of work on the local peculiar velocity field, discussing both simple spherical infall models, non-parametric modeling using redshifts surveys, and full velocity and density field reconstruction from peculiar velocities. We discuss results from a multiattractor model fit to data from the SFI++ sample of peculiar velocities - the best peculiar velocity data currently available. We also talk about the future of samples for the study of the local velocity field, especially the 2MASS Tully-Fisher (2MTF) survey.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kang Il
2012-08-01
The present study aims to provide insight into the relationships of the phase velocity with the microarchitectural parameters in bovine trabecular bone in vitro. The frequency-dependent phase velocity was measured in 22 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using a pair of transducers with a diameter of 25.4 mm and a center frequency of 0.5 MHz. The phase velocity exhibited positive correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.32 with the ratio of bone volume to total volume and the trabecular thickness, respectively, but a negative correlation coefficient of -0.62 with the trabecular separation. The best univariate predictor of the phase velocity was the trabecular separation, yielding an adjusted squared correlation coefficient of 0.36. The multivariate regression models yielded adjusted squared correlation coefficients of 0.21-0.36. The theoretical phase velocity predicted by using a stratified model for wave propagation in periodically stratified media consisting of alternating parallel solid-fluid layers showed reasonable agreements with the experimental measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Huaiyu; Romanowicz, Barbara; Fischer, Karen M.; Abt, David
2011-03-01
Using a combination of long period seismic waveforms and SKS splitting measurements, we have developed a 3-D upper-mantle model (SAWum_NA2) of North America that includes isotropic shear velocity, with a lateral resolution of 250 km, as well as radial and azimuthal anisotropy, with a lateral resolution of 500 km. Combining these results, we infer several key features of lithosphere and asthenosphere structure. A rapid change from thin (70-80 km) lithosphere in the western United States (WUS) to thick lithosphere (200 km) in the central, cratonic part of the continent closely follows the Rocky Mountain Front (RMF). Changes with depth of the fast axis direction of azimuthal anisotropy reveal the presence of two layers in the cratonic lithosphere, corresponding to the fast-to-slow discontinuity found in receiver functions. Below the lithosphere, azimuthal anisotropy manifests a maximum, stronger in the WUS than under the craton, and the fast axis of anisotropy aligns with the absolute plate motion, as described in the hotspot reference frame (HS3-NUVEL 1A). In the WUS, this zone is confined between 70 and 150 km, decreasing in strength with depth from the top, from the RMF to the San Andreas Fault system and the Juan de Fuca/Gorda ridges. This result suggests that shear associated with lithosphere-asthenosphere coupling dominates mantle deformation down to this depth in the western part of the continent. The depth extent of the zone of increased azimuthal anisotropy below the cratonic lithosphere is not well resolved in our study, although it is peaked around 270 km, a robust result. Radial anisotropy is such that, predominantly, ? > 1, where ?= (Vsh/Vsv)2, under the continent and its borders down to 200 km, with stronger ? in the bordering oceanic regions. Across the continent and below 200 km, alternating zones of weaker and stronger radial anisotropy, with predominantly ? < 1, correlate with zones of small lateral changes in the fast axis direction of anisotropy, and faster than average Vs below the LAB, suggesting the presence of small scale convection with a wavelength of 2000 km. Finally, in the western United States, complex 3-D patterns of isotropic velocity and anisotropy reflect mantle dynamics associated with the rich tectonic history of the region.
A. Vaz; H. Kansal; A. Singla
2003-01-01
The paper discusses certain issues involved in the modelling of robotic manipulators using bond graphs. The time rates of joint variables are related to the rates of Cartesian variables using modulated transformers, which are obtained from respective Jacobian matrices. A symbolic approach to derive these matrices is presented, with derivations. The Jacobian relating the angular velocities with joint rates can
Active transport on disordered microtubule networks: The generalized random velocity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kahana, Aviv; Kenan, Gilad; Feingold, Mario; Elbaum, Michael; Granek, Rony
2008-11-01
The motion of small cargo particles on microtubules by means of motor proteins in disordered microtubule networks is investigated theoretically using both analytical tools and computer simulations. Different network topologies in two and three dimensions are considered, one of which has been recently studied experimentally by Salman [Biophys. J. 89, 2134 (2005)]. A generalization of the random velocity model is used to derive the mean-square displacement of the cargo particle. We find that all cases belong to the class of anomalous superdiffusion, which is sensitive mainly to the dimensionality of the network and only marginally to its topology. Yet in three dimensions the motion is very close to simple diffusion, with sublogarithmic corrections that depend on the network topology. When details of the thermal diffusion in the bulk solution are included, no significant change to the asymptotic time behavior is found. However, a small asymmetry in the mean microtubule polarity affects the corresponding long-time behavior. We also study a three-dimensional model of the microtubule network in living animal cells. Three first-passage-time problems of intracellular transport are simulated and analyzed for different motor processivities: (i) cargo that originates near the nucleus and has to reach the membrane, (ii) cargo that originates from the membrane and has to reach the nucleus, and (iii) cargo that leaves the nucleus and has to reach a specific target in the cytoplasm. We conclude that while a higher motor processivity increases the transport efficiency in cases (i) and (ii), in case (iii) it has the opposite effect. We conjecture that the balance between the different network tasks, as manifested in cases (i) and (ii) versus case (iii), may be the reason for the evolutionary choice of a finite motor processivity.
Farid Taherkhani; Hadi Abroshan; Hamed Akbarzadeh; Alessandro Fortunelli
2011-01-01
The effects of second-neighbor spin coupling interactions and a magnetic field are investigated on the free energies of a finite-size 1-D Ising model. For both ferromagnetic of nearest neighbor (NN) and next-nearest neighbor (NNN) spin coupling interactions, the finite-size free energy first increases and then approaches a constant value for any size of the spin chain. In contrast, when NNN
Farid Taherkhani; Hadi Abroshan; Hamed Akbarzadeh; Alessandro Fortunelli
2012-01-01
The effects of second-neighbor spin coupling interactions and a magnetic field are investigated on the free energies of a finite-size 1-D Ising model. For both ferromagnetic of nearest neighbor (NN) and next-nearest neighbor (NNN) spin coupling interactions, the finite-size free energy first increases and then approaches a constant value for any size of the spin chain. In contrast, when NNN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legendre, C. P.; Meier, T.; Lebedev, S.; Friederich, W.; Viereck-Götte, L.
2012-10-01
We present a new, S-velocity model of the European upper mantle, constrained by inversions of seismic waveforms from broad-band stations in Europe and surrounding regions. We collected seismograms for the years 1990-2007 from all permanent stations in Europe for which data were available. In addition, we incorporated data from temporary experiments. Automated multimode inversion of surface and S-wave forms was applied to extract structural information from the seismograms, in the form of linear equations with uncorrelated uncertainties. The equations were then solved for seismic velocity perturbations in the crust and mantle with respect to a 3-D reference model with a realistic crust. We present two versions of the model: one for the entire European upper mantle and another, with the highest resolution, focused on the upper 200 km of the mantle beneath western and central Europe and the circum Mediterranean. The mantle lithosphere and asthenosphere are well resolved by both models. Major features of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in Europe and the Mediterranean are indentified. The highest velocities in the mantle lithosphere of the East European Craton (EEC) are found at about 150 km depth. There are no indications for a deep cratonic root below about 330 km depth. Lateral variations within the cratonic mantle lithosphere are resolved as well. The locations of kimberlites correlate with reduced S-wave velocities in the shallow cratonic mantle lithosphere. This anomaly is present in regions of both Proterozoic and Archean crust, pointing to an alteration of the mantle lithosphere after the formation of the craton. Strong lateral changes in S-wave velocity are found at the northwestern margin of the EEC and may indicate erosion of cratonic mantle lithosphere beneath the Scandes by hot asthenosphere. The mantle lithosphere beneath western Europe and between the Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone and the Elbe Line shows moderately high velocities and is of an intermediate character, between cratonic lithosphere and the thin lithosphere of central Europe. In central Europe, Caledonian and Variscian sutures are not associated with strong lateral changes in the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. Cenozoic anorogenic intraplate volcanism in central Europe and the circum Mediterranean is found in regions of shallow asthenosphere and close to changes in the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Very low velocities at shallow upper-mantle depths are present from eastern Turkey towards the Dead Sea transform fault system and Sinai, beneath locations of recent volcanism. Low-velocity anomalies extending vertically from shallow upper mantle down to the transition zone are found beneath the Massif Central, Sinai and the Dead Sea, the Canary Islands and Iceland.
Genova Barazarte, Ezequiel
2009-05-15
. The dependence of permeability and velocity on effective pressure has previously been modeled using the Bed-of-Nails asperity-deformation model. The main objective of this research was to explore the sensitivity of the Bed-of-Nails and effective-pressure models...
Genova Barazarte, Ezequiel
2009-05-15
. The dependence of permeability and velocity on effective pressure has previously been modeled using the Bed-of-Nails asperity-deformation model. The main objective of this research was to explore the sensitivity of the Bed-of-Nails and effective-pressure models...
1D Uniformly Accelerated Motion
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The representation depicts an object moving along a "track" marked in .5 meter intervals. As the object moves, displacement-time, velocity-time, and acceleration-time graphs record the motion in real time. The user may select various types of motion to be depicted, as well as edit a velocity-time graph and have the resulting motion depicted. As the object moves, color coded vectors display its displacement, velocity and acceleration.
Zelt, Colin A.; Haines, Seth; Powers, Michael H.; Sheehan, Jacob; Rohdewald, Siegfried; Link, Curtis; Hayashi, Koichi; Zhao, Don; Zhou, Hua-wei; Burton, Bethany L.; Petersen, Uni K.; Bonal, Nedra D.; Doll, William E.
2013-01-01
Seismic refraction methods are used in environmental and engineering studies to image the shallow subsurface. We present a blind test of inversion and tomographic refraction analysis methods using a synthetic first-arrival-time dataset that was made available to the community in 2010. The data are realistic in terms of the near-surface velocity model, shot-receiver geometry and the data's frequency and added noise. Fourteen estimated models were determined by ten participants using eight different inversion algorithms, with the true model unknown to the participants until it was revealed at a session at the 2011 SAGEEP meeting. The estimated models are generally consistent in terms of their large-scale features, demonstrating the robustness of refraction data inversion in general, and the eight inversion algorithms in particular. When compared to the true model, all of the estimated models contain a smooth expression of its two main features: a large offset in the bedrock and the top of a steeply dipping low-velocity fault zone. The estimated models do not contain a subtle low-velocity zone and other fine-scale features, in accord with conventional wisdom. Together, the results support confidence in the reliability and robustness of modern refraction inversion and tomographic methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palomeras, I.; Villasenor, A.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; Harnafi, M.
2014-12-01
The westernmost Mediterranean comprises the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, separated by the Alboran Sea and the Algerian Basin. From north to south this region consists of the Pyrenees, resulting from Iberia-Eurasia collision; the Iberian Massif, which has been undeformed since the end of the Paleozoic; the Central System and Iberian Chain, regions with intracontinental Oligocene-Miocene deformation; the Gibraltar Arc (Betics, Rif and Alboran terranes), resulting from post-Oligocene subduction roll-back; and the Atlas Mountains. We analyzed data from recent broad-band array deployments and permanent stations in the area (IberArray and Siberia arrays, the PICASSO array, the University of Munster array, and the Spanish, Portuguese and Moroccan National Networks) to characterize its lithospheric structure. The combined array of 350 stations has an average interstation spacing of ~60 km. We calculated the Rayleigh waves phase velocities from ambient noise (periods 4 to 40 s) and teleseismic events (periods 20 to 167 s). We inverted the phase velocities to obtain a shear velocity model for the lithosphere to ~200 km depth. Our results correlate well with the surface expression of the main structural units with higher crustal velocity for the Iberian Massif than for the Alpine Iberia and Atlas Mountains. The Gibraltar Arc has lower crustal shear velocities than the regional average at all crustal depths. It also shows an arc shaped anomaly with high upper mantle velocities (>4.6 km/s) at shallow depths (<65 km) interpreted as the subducting Alboran slab. The hanging slab is depressing the crust of the Gibraltar arc to ~55 km depth, as seen in receiver function data and active source seismic profiles. Low upper mantle velocities (<4.2 km/s) are observed beneath the Atlas, the northeastern end of the Betic Mountains and the Late Cenozoic volcanic fields in Iberia and Morocco, indicative of high temperatures at relatively shallow depths, and suggesting that the lithosphere has been removed beneath these areas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Floriane, Provost; Jean-Philippe, Malet; Cécile, Doubre; Julien, Gance; Alessia, Maggi; Agnčs, Helmstetter
2015-04-01
Characterizing the micro-seismic activity of landslides is an important parameter for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling landslide behaviour. However, the location of the seismic sources on landslides is a challenging task mostly because of (a) the recording system geometry, (b) the lack of clear P-wave arrivals and clear wave differentiation, (c) the heterogeneous velocities of the ground. The objective of this work is therefore to test whether the integration of a 3D velocity model in probabilistic seismic source location codes improves the quality of the determination especially in depth. We studied the clay-rich landslide of Super-Sauze (French Alps). Most of the seismic events (rockfalls, slidequakes, tremors...) are generated in the upper part of the landslide near the main scarp. The seismic recording system is composed of two antennas with four vertical seismometers each located on the east and west sides of the seismically active part of the landslide. A refraction seismic campaign was conducted in August 2014 and a 3D P-wave model has been estimated using the Quasi-Newton tomography inversion algorithm. The shots of the seismic campaign are used as calibration shots to test the performance of the different location methods and to further update the 3D velocity model. Natural seismic events are detected with a semi-automatic technique using a frequency threshold. The first arrivals are picked using a kurtosis-based method and compared to the manual picking. Several location methods were finally tested. We compared a non-linear probabilistic method coupled with the 3D P-wave model and a beam-forming method inverted for an apparent velocity. We found that the Quasi-Newton tomography inversion algorithm provides results coherent with the original underlaying topography. The velocity ranges from 500 m.s-1 at the surface to 3000 m.s-1 in the bedrock. For the majority of the calibration shots, the use of a 3D velocity model significantly improve the results of the location procedure using P-wave arrivals. All the shots were made 50 centimeters below the surface and hence the vertical error could not be determined with the seismic campaign. We further discriminate the rockfalls and the slidequakes occurring on the landslide with the depth computed thanks to the 3D velocity model. This could be an additional criteria to automatically classify the events.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaviani, A.; Sandvol, E. A.; Bao, X.; Gok, R.; Rumpker, G.
2014-12-01
We present an approach for understanding the origin and nature of seismic anomalies in the continental crust of the Northern Middle East. We have constructed detailed models of crustal attenuation and velocity structure for the Northern Middle East based on the analysis of waveforms of the regional seismic phases Lg and Pg from regional earthquakes recorded at more than 550 stations in Turkish and Iranian Plateaus and the surrounding regions. The attenuation and velocity models are assumed to serve as proxies for the bulk average effective crustal P-wave and S-wave attenuation (Qa and Qb) and velocities (Vp and Vs). About 30000 reliable spectra were collected for both Lg and Pg phases and used to measure the Two-Station Method (TSM) and Reverse Two-station/event Method (RTM) Lg and Pg Q at 1 Hz (QLg0 and QPg0) and their frequency dependence factor (?). The QLg0 and QPg0 and ? values measured over the individual TSM and RTM paths are then used to perform an LSQR tomographic inversion for lateral variations in Q0 and ?. We observe a strong correlation between the effective Q and velocity models. Our models show lateral variations that coincide with the major tectonic boundaries in the region. The tomographic models as well as the individual TSM and RTM measurements show lower values of QLg0 and QPg0 over the Turkish-Anatolian Plateau (QLg0<150 and QPg0<200) than those observed over the Iranian Plateau (150< QLg0<300 and 150< QPg0<400). Furthermore, we obtained the Lg and Pg group velocity models (VLg and VPg) by inverting the time of the first arrival of the Lg and Pg envelopes. Our QLg0 and QPg0 models are strongly correlated with the VLg and VPg models suggesting that the source of many of the low Q and velocity anomalies is likely the same. Our Q models have implication for any hazard assessment in different regions of the northern Middle-East and can also be used for the magnitude determination of the local and regional seismic events. A combined knowledge about the attenuation of Pg and Lg waves has also application in developing reliable seismic discriminants.
Yan Chen; Changyun Wen; Guocai Tao; Min Bi; Guoqi Li
2009-01-01
In this paper, we aim to establish a new mathematical model that relates pulse wave velocity (PWV) to blood pressure (BP)\\u000a for continuous and noninvasive BP measurement. For the first time, we derive an ordinary differential equation (ODE) expressing\\u000a the fundamental relation between BP, elastic modulus G and PWV. The general solution of this ODE is the mathematical BP-PWV model.
Francesco De Leonardis; Vittorio M. N. Passaro
2007-01-01
In this paper, we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, the detailed modeling and design of a guided-wave optical angular-velocity sensor based on Raman amplification in a silicon-on-insulator resonant cavity. Theoretical results for continuous-wave Raman laser emission are compared with experiments in the literature, demonstrating very good agreement. The model includes the influence of a
Janji?, Nataa J; Kapor, Darko V; Doder, Dragan V; Doder, Radoslava Z; Savi?, Biljana V
2014-12-01
Temporal patterns of running velocity is of profound interest for coaches and researchers involved in sprint racing. In this study, we applied a nonhomogeneous differential equation for the motion with resistance force proportional to the velocity for the determination of the instantaneous velocity and instantaneous and average acceleration in the sprinter discipline at 100 m. Results obtained for the instantaneous velocity in this study using the presented model indicate good agreement with values measured directly, which is a good verification of the proposed procedure. To perform a comprehensive analysis of the applicability of the results obtained, the harmonic canon of running for the 100-m sprint discipline was formed. Using the data obtained by the measurement of split times for segments of 100-m run of the sprinters K. Lewis (1988), M. Green (2001), and U. Bolt (2009), the method described yielded results that enable comparative analysis of the kinematical parameters for each sprinter. Further treatment allowed the derivation of the ideal harmonic velocity canon of running, which can be helpful to any coach in evaluating the results achieved at particular distances in this and other disciplines. The method described can be applied for the analysis of any race. PMID:24983854
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raef, A. E.; Isham, R.; Watney, W. L.; Hallberg, K.
2012-12-01
Robust quantitative verification and monitoring of CO2 sequestration in geological formations based on surface seismic methods poses significant challenges. In our study we developed an analysis and modeling workflow that enables synergistic incorporation of laboratory ultrasonic velocity measurements into both characterization of a saline aquifer, targeted for pilot CO2 injection, and fluid replacement modeling, In this study, ultrasonic measurements, well logs, thin sections and the results of Gassmann fluid replacement modeling have been integrated and analyzed and effects of varying levels of effective pressure on ultrasonic velocities of various petrophysical facies have been laboratory simulated with the aim of developing a quantitative estimates of a presumed CO2 leakage (increase in effective pressure and decrease of CO2 saturations). Ultrasonic velocity measurements were carried out through the use of the Ultrasonic Velocity Measurement System manufactured by GCTS Testing Systems. The set of core plugs samples used in this study are from the deep saline aquifer of Arbuckle, Sumner County, Kansas, from a newly drilled well (Wellington KGS 1-32). We compared ultrasonic velocities calculated from first arrival-time picks of P- and S-wave propagation through core plugs samples were compared with P- and S-wave velocities calculated from in situ sonic and dipole sonic well logs. Gassman fluid replacement modeling was then performed based on sonic and dipole sonic velocities and compared with results from theoretical modeling assuming different porosities. The ultrasonic velocity measurements made in this study facilitate a better understanding of modeled time lapse responses due to a number of CO2 saturations and leakage scenarios. From the integration and analysis of the measurements and data used in this study there are implications that using time lapse-seismic monitoring and verification for CO2 geosequestration is a feasible option for the Arbuckle saline aquifer. The use of Gassmann modeling for the different petrophysical properties is permitted through understanding of the rock data and elastic moduli, which are derived from the dry rock frame. This study provides baseline data for modeling fluid replacement effects, and also notes the change in seismic amplitude and velocity response as a function of a change in effective stress. This response makes the use of time lapse-seismic monitoring of CO2Ź injection (in terms of leakage or saturation) a feasible option. Fluid replacement modeling for the two main petrophysical facies for the Wellington field was completed. The significance of this work lies in the integration of this modeling with the ongoing lithofacies mapping efforts of the Arbuckle and Mississippian groups. This integration will enable the study of the viability of time-lapse monitoring of CO2 geosequestration in the Arbuckle Group. This study provided significant insight into the feasibility of achieving improved rock formation characterization and fluid replacement modeling for pilot carbon geological sequestration in a previously far less known saline aquifer than in cases of depleted hydrocarbon reservoir settings.
Ruetz, C. R., III; Jennings, C.A.
2000-01-01
The robust redhorse Moxostoma robustum occurs in an 85-km stretch of the Oconee River, Georgia, downstream of a hydropower dam. The population consists primarily of older individuals and recruitment in recent years has been minimal. Operation of the hydropower dam may have affected recruitment negatively by displacing newly hatched larvae downstream and away from nursery habitats. Our null hypothesis was that larval robust redhorse can tolerate water velocities that occur in the Oconee River during peak river discharge related to hydropower generation. We measured swimming speeds for three size-classes of larvae (means: 13.1, 16.2, and 20.4 mm total length) and modeled low-velocity habitat (i.e., as defined by larval swimming speeds) in the Oconee River. We used logistic regression to calculate prolonged swimming speeds (i.e., water velocity at which 50% of fish failed to swim for 1 h) for each size-class and to predict the proportion of larvae in the water column that could maintain their position in the river. Prolonged swimming speeds were 6.9, 10.6, and 11.7 cm/s for 13.1-, 16.2-, and 20.4-mm fish, respectively. Habitat modeling suggested that low-velocity areas were present in the river and that there was not a strong relationship between low-velocity habitat and discharge. However, low-velocity habitats were dynamic during fluctuating discharge, and the ability of larval robust redhorse to access these dynamic areas is unknown. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malavelle, Florent F.; Haywood, Jim M.; Field, Paul R.; Hill, Adrian A.; Abel, Steven J.; Lock, Adrian P.; Shipway, Ben J.; McBeath, Kirsty
2014-04-01
Updraft velocities strongly control the activation of aerosol particles or that component that act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For kilometer-scale models, vertical motions are partially resolved but the subgrid-scale (SGS) contribution needs to be parametrized or constrained to properly represent the activation of CCNs. This study presents a method to estimate the missing SGS (or unresolved) contribution to vertical velocity variability in models with horizontal grid sizes up to 2 km. A framework based on Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and high-resolution aircraft observations of stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds has been developed and applied to output from the United Kingdom Met Office Unified Model (UM) operating at kilometer-scale resolutions in numerical weather prediction configuration. For a stratocumulus deck simulation, we show that the UM 1 km model underestimates significantly the variability of updraft velocity with an averaged cloud base standard deviation between 0.04 and 0.05 m s-1 compared to LES and aircraft estimates of 0.38 and 0.54 m s-1, respectively. Once the SGS variability is considered, the UM corrected averages are between 0.34 and 0.44 m s-1. Off-line calculations of CCN-activated fraction using an activation scheme have been performed to illustrate the implication of including the SGS vertical velocity. It suggests increased CCN-activated fraction from 0.52 to 0.89 (respectively, 0.10 to 0.54) for a clean (respectively, polluted) aerosol environment for simulations with a 1 km horizontal grid size. Our results highlight the importance of representing the SGS vertical velocity in kilometer-scale simulations of aerosol-cloud interactions.
An evaluation of 3-D velocity models of the Kanto basin for long-period ground motion simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhakal, Yadab P.; Yamanaka, Hiroaki
2013-07-01
We performed three-dimensional (3-D) finite difference simulations of long-period ground motions (2-10 s) in the Kanto basin using the Japan Seismic Hazard Information Station (J-SHIS 2009), Yamada and Yamanaka (Exploration Geophysics 65(3):139-150, 2012) (YY), and Head Quarter for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP 2012) velocity models for two intermediate depth (68-80 km) moderate earthquakes (Mw 5.8-5.9), which occurred beneath the Kanto basin. The models primarily differ in the basic data set used in the construction of the velocity models. The J-SHIS and HERP models are the results of integration of mainly geological, geophysical, and earthquake data. On the other hand, the YY model is oriented towards the microtremor-array-observation data. We obtained a goodness of fit between the observed and synthetic data based on three parameters, peak ground velocities (PGVs), smoothed Fourier spectra (FFT), and cross-correlations, using an algorithm proposed by Olsen and Mayhew (Seism Res Lett 81:715-723, 2010). We found that the three models reproduced the PGVs and FFT satisfactorily at most sites. However, the models performed poorly in terms of cross-correlations especially at the basin edges. We found that the synthetics using the YY model overestimate the observed waveforms at several sites located in the areas having V s 0.3 km/s in the top layer; on the other hand, the J-SHIS and HERP models explain the waveforms better at the sites and perform similarly at most sites. We also found that the J-SHIS and HERP models consist of thick sediments beneath some sites, where the YY model is preferable. Thus, we have concluded that the models require revisions for the reliable prediction of long-period ground motions from future large earthquakes.
Surface Wave/Dispersion Curves For A Velocity Model Of The Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fletcher, J. B.; Seats, K.; Lawrence, J. F.; Teel, A.
2012-12-01
Using ambient noise tomography we have obtained Rayleigh wave dispersion curves to determine the velocity structure of the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta. The velocity structure is a first step in using simulations to better estimate of seismic hazard for the Delta. We have combined ray paths for stations from the Earthscope/Transportable array, Berkeley Digital Seismic Network, and the USGS portable network in the Delta to determine dispersion curves for ray paths that travel through the western Central Valley near the Delta. Ground motion from broad band velocity sensors, originally sampled at 100 Hz, was decimated to 20 Hz and filtered to provide data between about 3 and 20s. Coherence was determined between stations from the three networks using hour-long records and then stacked over two or three months. We recovered 134 paths over a maximum dimension of about 250 km, but most paths are concentrated near the Delta. For travel paths that travel through the Delta north of the Lower Jones tract, the group velocities are usually lower than 1 km/s at periods of 3 to 8s. At longer periods (or deeper depths) the velocities are still low, but usually reach 2 km/s at a period of 18s. This compared with travel paths in the Sierra foothills that are more scattered, but have velocities exceeding 3 km/s at periods of 10 to 18s. Preliminary images show basin-like patches of slow velocities near the Delta, that when strung together, are roughly shaped like an L with one arm pointing back into the Central Valley and one arm pointing south southeast along the western margin of the Central Valley. The basins in these images have dimensions of about 20 to 40 km. More stations are being deployed to increase the resolution and stability of these images.
Giancarlo Neri; Barbara Orecchio; Debora Presti; Cristina Totaro
2010-01-01
We present a new 3D P-wave velocity model of the Calabrian Arc lithosphere obtained from the integration of seismic velocity data using a method conceptually similar to the one of Waldhauser et al. (GJI, 1998 and 2002). They obtained an integrated 3D P-velocity model of the Alpine region by combining published controlled-source seismic (CSS) and local earthquake tomographic data. Their
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek
2015-04-01
The 3D P-wave seismic velocity model was obtained by combining data from multiple studies during past 50 years. Data sources included refraction seismology, reflection seismology, geological boreholes, vertical seismic profiling, magnetotellurics and gravimetry. Use of many data sources allowed creation of detailed 3D P-wave velocity model that reaches to depth of 60 km and includes 6-layers of sediments and 3-layers of the crust. Purpose of this study is to analyze how 3D model influences local (accuracy of location and source time estimation for local events), regional (identification of wide-angle seismic phases) and global (teleseismic tomography) seismic travel times. Additionally we compare results of forward seismic wave propagation with signals observed on short period and broadband stations. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hubbard, Alexander
2012-10-01
To understand the earliest stages of planet formation, it is crucial to be able to predict the rate and the outcome of dust grains collisions, be it sticking and growth, bouncing or fragmentation. The outcome of such collisions depends on the collision speed, so we need a solid understanding of the rate and velocity distribution of turbulence-induced dust grain collisions. The rate of the collisions depends on both the speed of the collisions and the degree of clustering experienced by the dust grains, which is a known outcome of turbulence. We evolve the motion of dust grains in simulated turbulence, an approach that allows a large turbulent inertial range making it possible to investigate the effect of turbulence on meso-scale grains (millimetre and centimetre). We find three populations of dust grains: one highly clustered, cold and collisionless; one warm; and the third 'hot'. Our results can be fitted by a simple formula, and predict both significantly slower typical collisional velocities for a given turbulent strength than previously considered, and modest effective clustering of the collisional populations, easing difficulties associated with bouncing and fragmentation barriers to dust grain growth. Nonetheless, the rate of high-velocity collisions falls off merely exponentially with relative velocity so some mid- or high-velocity collisions will still occur, promising some fragmentation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chao; Luo, Xian; Liu, Xingnian; Yang, Kejun
2013-10-01
This paper presents an approach to modeling the depth-averaged velocity and bed shear stress in compound channels with emergent and submerged vegetation. The depth-averaged equation of vegetated compound channel flow is given by considering the drag force and the blockage effect of vegetation, based on the Shiono and Knight method (1991) [40]. The analytical solution to the transverse variation of depth-averaged velocity is presented, including the effects of bed friction, lateral momentum transfer, secondary flows and drag force due to vegetation. The model is then applied to compound channels with completely vegetated floodplains and with one-line vegetation along the floodplain edge. The modeled results agree well with the available experimental data, indicating that the proposed model is capable of accurately predicting the lateral distributions of depth-averaged velocity and bed shear stress in vegetated compound channels with secondary flows. The secondary flow parameter and dimensionless eddy viscosity are also discussed and analyzed. The study shows that the sign of the secondary flow parameter is determined by the rotational direction of secondary current cells and its value is dependent on the flow depth. In the application of the model, ignoring the secondary flow leads to a large computational error, especially in the non-vegetated main channel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, M. D.; Bowden, D. C.; Tsai, V. C.; Weeraratne, D. S.
2014-12-01
The Pacific-North America plate boundary in Southern California extends far west of the coastline, and a 12-month ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) array spanned the western side of the plate boundary in order to image seismic velocities in the lithosphere. Velocities are modeled through stacked cross correlations of ambient noise data. The offshore data come primarily from the OBS array that collected 12 months of continuous data during 2010-2011, combined with Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) station data. The cross correlations were stacked for noise correlation functions and examined using standard time- and frequency-domain methods to determine phase velocity and group velocity dispersion curves. Signals between the vertical-component OBS and co-located horizontal-component OBS observations associated with tilt noise, and pressure gauge observations associated with infragravity waves, were examined to further improve signals. The non-elastic noise was estimated by calculating the transfer functions between the vertical-to-horizontal and vertical-to-pressure components, and subtracting the coherent signal between the two from the vertical-component time series. We find that these effects are small in our dataset. We are simultaneously inverting all measureable dispersion curves to solve for 3D crustal velocity structure. Shear-wave velocities comprise the direct solution, and Vp/Vs ratios are constrained as much as the data allow. Calculations on data from 780 OBS-OBS, SCSN-SCSN, and OBS-SCSN pairs filtered around multiple narrow bands between 5 and 50 s show clear propagating waves traveling at group velocities between 1.2 and 3.5 km/s. The longer-term outcome of this work will comprise a 3D crustal and uppermost mantle velocity model with areal coverage not attainable before the deployment of the ocean bottom seismometers. The results define the transition in three dimensions from continental lithospheric structure in the near-shore region to oceanic structure west of the continental borderland, and will provide new constraints for determination of earthquake relocations and rupture styles, and in particular the degree to which offshore faults produce dip-slip rupture.
High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey
Pasyanos, M; Gok, R; Zor, E; Walter, W
2004-09-03
We investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet and form a complex tectonic structure. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provided a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure. Zor et al. found an average 46 km thick crust in Anatolian plateau using six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver function alone with many-layered parameterization may result in an apparent depth-velocity tradeoff. In order to improve previous velocity model, we employed the joint inversion method with many layered parameterization of Julia et al. (2000) to the ETSE receiver functions. In this technique, the receiver function and surface-wave observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. We consider azimuthal changes of receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups. We calculated the receiver functions using iterative time-domain deconvolution technique and surface wave group velocity dispersion curves between 10-100 sec. We are making surface wave dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and have incorporated them into a regional group velocity model. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocity in the northeast. This indicates slow upper mantle velocities in the region consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. We started with both the 1-D model that is obtained with the 12 tones dam explosion shot data recorded by ETSE network and the existing receiver function inversion results. In fact, we observe that the inversion results are independent at the starting model and converges well to the same final model. We don't observe a significant change at the first order discontinuities of model (e.g. Moho depth), but we obtain better defined depths to low velocity layers.
The Enhanced-model Ladar Wind Sensor and Its Application in Planetary Wind Velocity Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soreide, D. C.; Mcgann, R. L.; Erwin, L. L.; Morris, D. J.
1993-01-01
For several years we have been developing an optical air-speed sensor that has a clear application as a meteorological wind-speed sensor for the Mars landers. This sensor has been developed for aircraft use to replace the familiar, pressure-based Pitot probe. Our approach utilizes a new concept in the laser-based optical measurement of air velocity (the Enhanced-Mode Ladar), which allows us to make velocity measurements with significantly lower laser power than conventional methods. The application of the Enhanced-Mode Ladar to measuring wind speeds in the martian atmosphere is discussed.
S-wave velocity structure of the North China from inversion of Rayleigh wave phase velocity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Hao-peng; Zhu, Liang-bao; Wang, Qing-dong; Zhang, Pan; Yang, Ying-hang
2014-07-01
We constructed the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle (10-100 km) beneath the North China based on the teleseismic data recorded by 187 portable broadband stations deployed in this region. The traditional two-step inversion scheme was adopted. Firstly, we measured the interstation fundamental Rayleigh wave phase velocity of 10-60 s and imaged the phase velocity distributions using the Tarantola inversion method. Secondly, we inverted the 1-D S-wave velocity structure with a grid spacing of 0.25° × 0.25° and constructed the 3-D S-wave velocity structure of the North China. The 3-D S-wave velocity model provides valuable information about the destruction mechanism and geodynamics of the North China Craton (NCC). The S-wave velocity structures in the northwestern and southwestern sides of the North-South Gravity Lineament (NSGL) are obviously different. The southeastern side is high velocity (high-V) while the northeastern side is low velocity (low-V) at the depth of 60-80 km. The upwelling asthenosphere above the stagnated Pacific plate may cause the destruction of the Eastern Block and form the NSGL. A prominent low-V anomaly exists around Datong from 50 to 100 km, which may due to the upwelling asthenosphere originating from the mantle transition zone beneath the Western Block. The upwelling asthenosphere beneath the Datong may also contribute to the destruction of the Eastern Block. The Zhangjiakou-Penglai fault zone (ZPFZ) may cut through the lithosphere and act as a channel of the upwelling asthenosphere. A noticeable low-V zone also exists in the lower crust and upper mantle lid (30-50 km) beneath the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan (BTT) region, which may be caused by the upwelling asthenosphere through the ZPFZ.
Eric Deleersnijder
1994-01-01
The main features of the general circulation in the region of the Bering Strait are summarized. This flow has been simulated by a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, which is briefly described with some emphasis on the initial and boundary conditions. The modelled vertical velocity field is analysed. First, it is suggested to regard the vertical velocity as the sum of two
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calň, Marco; Parisi, Laura; Luzio, Dario
2013-10-01
We present 3-D models of the P- and S-wave velocity distributions in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Sicily, Calabria (Southern Italy), and surrounding submerged areas, obtained by tomographic inversion of traveltimes of regional body waves phases. Our method combines double-difference tomographic inversion with a post-processing procedure [Weighted Average Model method (WAM)]. This procedure was applied to a set of models consistent with the experimental data. We tested the ability of the WAM procedure to mitigate the uncertainty associated with the arbitrary nature of the many input parameters required for each inversion. The local reliability and resolution of the obtained models have been assessed through: synthetic tests, experimental tests carried out with independent data sets and unconventional tests based on the analysis of the internal consistency of the P- and S-velocity models. The tomographic images provide a detailed sketch of P- and S-wave velocity anomalies. These clearly show the shape of the Sicilian-Maghrebian belt beneath Sicily and Calabrian Arc at different depths. Low V
HIGH-RESOLUTION SEISMIC VELOCITY AND ATTENUATION MODELS OF THE CAUCASUS-CASPIAN REGION
Robert J. Mellors; R Gok; M Pasyanos; G Skobeltsyn; U Teoman; T Godoladze; E Sandvol
2008-01-01
The southwest edge of Eurasia is a tectonically and structurally complex region that includes the Caspian and Black Sea basins, the Caucasus Mountains, and the high plateaus south of the Caucasus. Using data from 25 broadband stations located in the region, new estimates of crustal and upper mantle thickness, velocity structure, and attenuation are being developed. Receiver functions have been
COMPUTATION OF REGIONAL TRAVEL TIMES AND STATION CORRECTIONS FROM THREE-DIMENSIONAL VELOCITY MODELS
Ritzwolle, Mike
1 COMPUTATION OF REGIONAL TRAVEL TIMES AND STATION CORRECTIONS FROM THREE-DIMENSIONAL VELOCITY We have investigated the performance of a variety of methods to compute travel times at regional-predicted station correction surfaces. The differences in travel times are mostly caused by the diversity
Nalin A. Chaturvedi; Amit K. Sanyal; Madhusudhan Chellappa; Jean Luc Valk; Jinglai Shen; Jasim Ahmed; N. Harris McClamroch; Dennis S. Bernstein
The problem of a rigid body, with unknown inertia parameter, tracking a desired angular ve- locity trajectory is addressed using adaptive feedback control. An adaptive controller is developed for a planar rotating body tracking a desired angular velocity command. Lyapunov analysis is used to show that tracking is achieved globally. Furthermore, sucient conditions on the reference signal for estimation of
Globally convergent adaptive control of spacecraft angular velocity without inertia modeling
Jasim Ahmed; Dennis S. Bernstein
1999-01-01
The problem of a spacecraft tracking a desired angular velocity trajectory is addressed using adaptive feedback control. The control law, which has the form of a sixth-order dynamic compensator, does not require knowledge of the inertia or center of mass of the spacecraft. A Lyapunov argument is used to show that tracking is achieved globally. A constant spin about a
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Short, B. J.; Jacobsen, R. A.
1979-01-01
Simultaneous measurements were made of the upset responses experienced and the wake velocities encountered by an instrumented Learjet probe aircraft behind a Boeing 747 vortex-generating aircraft. The vortex-induced angular accelerations experienced could be predicted within 30% by a mathematical upset response model when the characteristics of the wake were well represented by the vortex model. The vortex model used in the present study adequately represented the wake flow field when the vortices dissipated symmetrically and only one vortex pair existed in the wake.
Magnetic Raman Scattering from 1D Antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Rajiv R.; Prelovek, Peter; Shastry, B. Sriram
1996-11-01
We study Raman scattering from 1D antiferromagnets within the Fleury-Loudon scheme by applying a finite temperature Lanczos method to a 1D spin-half Heisenberg model with nearest-neighbor ( J1) and second-neighbor ( J2) interactions. The low-temperature spectra are analyzed in terms of the known elementary excitations of the system for J2 = 0 and J2 = 1/2. We find that the low- T Raman spectra are very broad for \\|J2/J1\\|<=0.3. This broad peak gradually diminishes and shifts with temperature, so that at T>J1 the spectra are narrower and peaked at low frequencies. The experimental spectra for CuGeO3 are discussed in light of our calculations.
Hongpeng Wang; Baojiong Li; Jingtai Liu; Yun Yang; Yi Zhang
2011-01-01
Wheel Skid-steered Mobile Robots(WMSR) are widely used because of the simplicity of mechanism and high reliability. At present, the most research concentrate on the suppose that each side's two wheels rotate at the same speed. In this paper, we present the dynamic modeling of WSMR with the different angular velocities of four wheels. Simulation results based on a four-wheel robot
S. Gu; D. G. McCartney; C. N. Eastwick; K. Simmons
2004-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to predict particle dynamic behavior in a high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF)\\u000a thermal spray gun in which premixed oxygen and propylene are burnt in a combustion chamber linked to a long, parallel-sided\\u000a nozzle. The particle transport equations are solved in a Lagrangian manner and coupled with the two-dimensional, axisymmetric,\\u000a steady state, chemically reacting, turbulent
S. Gu; D. G. McCartney; C. N. Eastwick; K. Simmons
2004-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to predict particle dynamic behavior in a high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) thermal spray gun in which premixed oxygen and propylene are burnt in a combustion chamber linked to a long, parallel-sided nozzle. The particle transport equations are solved in a Lagrangian manner and coupled with the two-dimensional, axisymmetric, steady state, chemically reacting, turbulent
Lifshutz, N.; Pierce, M. [Hollingsworth & Vose Company, West Groton, MA (United States)
1997-08-01
The CertiTest 8160 is a Condensation Nucleus Counter (CNC) based filtration test stand which permits measurement of penetration as a function of particle size. The Model 8140 is also a CNC based filtration test stand which provides a single penetration measurement for a fixed particle distribution aerosol challenge. A study was carried out measuring DOP penetration on a broad range of flat filtration media at various face velocities to compare these two instruments. The tests done on the CertiTest 8160 incorporated a range of particle sizes which encompassed the most penetrating particle size (MPPS). In this paper we present a correlation between the MPPS penetration as measured by the CertiTest 8160 and the penetration values obtained on the Model 8140. We observed that at the lowest air face velocities of the study the Model 8140 tended to overpredict the MPPS penetration as measured by the CertiTest 8160. We also present a correlation of MPPS penetration with face velocity which may be of use for extrapolation purposes. 5 refs., 8 figs.