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1

Binary total pressure measurements for methanol with 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-2-butanol at 313.15 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total pressure measurements at 313.15 K are reported for binary systems of methanol with each of seven pentanol isomers: 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-2-butanol. The results were obtained using a Van Ness apparatus and were fitted to the four-suffix Margules equation using Barker`s method. The four-suffix Margules equation represents the data to within an average of approximately

Demensio P. Barton; Venkat R. Bhethanabotla; Scott W. Campbell

1996-01-01

2

Henry’s law constants and infinite dilution activity coefficients of cis-2-butene, dimethylether, chloroethane, and 1,1-difluoroethane in methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-methyl-2-butanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Henry’s law constants and infinite dilution activity coefficients of cis-2-butene, dimethylether, chloroethane, and 1,1-difluoroethane in methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-methyl-2-butanol in the temperature range of 250K to 330K were measured by a gas stripping method and partial molar excess enthalpies were calculated from the activity coefficients. A rigorous formula for evaluating

Yoshimori Miyano; Takahiro Kobashi; Hiroshi Shinjo; Shinya Kumada; Yusuke Watanabe; Wataru Niya; Yoko Tateishi

2006-01-01

3

High-pressure phase equilibria for the carbon dioxide + 3-pentanol and carbon dioxide + 3-pentanol + water systems  

SciTech Connect

High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria for the binary carbon dioxide + 3-pentanol system were measured at 313.2 K. The phase equilibrium apparatus used in this work was of the circulation type in which the coexisting phases were recirculated, on-line sampled, and analyzed. The critical pressure and corresponding mole fraction of carbon dioxide at 313.2 K were found to be 8.22 MPa and 0.974, respectively, for this binary system. The phase equilibria for the ternary carbon dioxide + 3-pentanol + water system were also measured at 313.2 K and pressures of 2.00, 4.00, 6.00, 8.00, and 8.25 MPa. This ternary system showed the liquid-liquid-vapor (LLV) phase behavior over the range of pressure up to the critical pressure of 8.25 MPa. The binary equilibrium data were all reasonably well-correlated with the Redlich-Kwong, Soave-Redlich-Kwong, Peng-Robinson, and Patel-Teja equations of state incorporated with the eight different mixing rules: the van der Waals, Panagiotopoulos-Reic, and six modified Huron-Vidal mixing rules with UNIQUAC parameters. For the prediction of high-pressure phase equilibria for the systems containing carbon dioxide and alcohols, the SRK-MHV2 might reproduce many features of the measured behavior although further tests are needed with other systems.

Lee, H.S.; Mun, S.Y.; Lee, H. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-05-01

4

Thermal decomposition of 1-pentanol and its isomers: a theoretical study.  

PubMed

Pentanol is one of the promising "next generation" alcohol fuels with high energy density and low hygroscopicity. In the present work, dominant reaction channels of thermal decomposition of three isomers of pentanol: 1-pentanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol were investigated by CBS-QB3 calculations. Subsequently, the temperature- and pressure-dependent rate constants for these channels were computed by RRKM/master equation simulations. The difference between the thermal decomposition behavior of pentanol and butanol were discussed, while butanol as another potential alternative alcohol fuel has been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically. Rate constants of barrierless bond dissociation reactions of pentanol isomers were treated by the variational transition state theory. The comparison between various channels revealed that the entropies of variational transition states significantly impact the rate constants of pentanol decomposition reactions. This work provides sound quality kinetic data for major decomposition channels of three pentanol isomers in the temperature range of 800-2000 K with pressure varying from 7.6 to 7.6 × 10(4) Torr, which might be valuable for developing detailed kinetic models for pentanol combustion. PMID:22909118

Zhao, Long; Ye, Lili; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Lidong

2012-09-20

5

Phase equilibria of the ternary system water + acetic acid + 1-pentanol  

SciTech Connect

The recovery of organic acids from dilute solutions resulting from fermentation processes is becoming very important and many solvents have been tried to improve such recovery. Liquid-liquid equilibria for the ternary system water + acetic acid + 1-pentanol were measured over a temperature range of (288 to 323) K. The results were used to estimate the interaction parameters between each of the three compounds for the NRTL and UNIQUAC models and between each of the main groups of H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 2} (paraffinic CH{sub 2}), OH, and COOH for the UNIFAC model as a function of temperature. The estimated interaction parameters were successfully used to predict the equilibrium compositions by the three models. The NRTL and UNIQUAC models were almost equally good in predicting the overall equilibrium compositions of the studied system. The UNIFAC model satisfactorily predicted the equilibrium compositions. On the basis of this work, the distribution coefficients were also calculated and compared with the experimental values.

Fahim, M.A.; Al-Muhtaseb, S.A.; Al-Nashef, I.M. [U.A.E. Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering] [U.A.E. Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

1996-05-01

6

Effect of temperature on the properties of mixed normal micelles in sodium octanoate-1-pentanol-water systems studied by positron annihilation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positron annihilation technique was applied to the study of structural properties of mixed normal micelles in sodium octanoate-1-pentanol-water systems. Measurements of positron annihilation parameters over a wide range of temperature and surfactant concentrations demonstrate the extreme sensitivity of the technique toward the structural changes associated with the second and third critical concentrations. While the third critical concentration appears to be

Ali Boussaha; Hans J. Ache

1981-01-01

7

Viscosities and densities for heptane + 1-pentanol, + 1-hexanol, + 1-heptanol, + 1-octanol, + 1-decanol, and + 1-dodecanol at 298.15 K and 308.15 K  

SciTech Connect

Densities and viscosities for heptane + 1-pentanol, + 1-hexanol, + 1-heptanol, + 1-octanol, + 1-decanol, and + 1-dodecanol are reported at (298.15 K and 308.15) K. The viscosity deviations were calculated. The mixture viscosity data were fitted to the semiempirical equations of Grunberg-Nissan, Heric, McAllister, and Auslander.

Sastry, N.V.; Valand, M.K. [Sardar Patel Univ., Gujarat (India). Dept. of Chemistry] [Sardar Patel Univ., Gujarat (India). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-11-01

8

Solvent effects on the enantioselectivity of the thermophilic lipase QLM in the resolution of ( R, S)-2-octanol and ( R, S)-2-pentanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermophilic lipase QLM-catalyzed resolution of (R, S)-2-octanol and (R, S)-2-pentanol via transesterification was carried out in various organic solvents, and the solvent effects on the enzyme's enantioselectivity were investigated. A significant negative correlation between the enantiomeric ratio, E, and the size of the solvent molecules was observed. The highest E value, 21, was obtained in the small molecular-sized solvent

Yuanhong Wang; Quanshun Li; Zuoming Zhang; Jiutong Ma; Yan Feng

2009-01-01

9

Chromatographic separation of diastereoisomeric esters-II Mandelates and lactates of 2-methylbutanol-1, 3-methylbutanol-2, pentanol-2 and hexanol-2.  

PubMed

The racemic alcohols, 2-methylbutanol-l, 3-methylbutanol-2, pentanol-2 and hexanol-2 have been esterified with optically active mandelic or lactic acid, and the resultant mixtures of diastereoisomeric esters separated chromatographically with an optically inactive sulphonated polystyrene resin as the stationary phase and water or dilute aqueous sodium sulphate as the mobile phase. Lactate esters were more easily separated than mandelate esters. The Chromatographic separation of 26 mmole of (+/-)-3-methyl-2-butyl(+)-lactate and subsequent hydrolysis of the fractions containing only the ester of the (+)-alcohol yielded 1-2 mmole of pure 3-methyl-2-butanol. PMID:18960282

Leitch, R E; Rothbart, H L; Rieman, W

1968-02-01

10

Absolute and relative rate constants for the reactions of OH and Cl with pentanols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate constants for the reactions of OH with three pentanols have been determined in the range 267-373 K and P = 100 Torr. The data obtained were (in units of cm3molecule-1s-1): k(1-pentanol) = (6.7 ± 3.8) × 10-12 exp [(132 ± 176)/T], k(2-pentanol) = (5.2 ± 1.8) × 10-12 exp [(218 ± 116)/T], k(3-pentanol) = (5.8 ± 2.3) × 10-12 exp [(164 ± 118)/T]. The present work provides the first temperature dependence data on these reactions. In addition, using the relative rate method, the rate constants for OH and Cl with these pentanols have been measured. The results are compared with the literature data and discussed with respect to atmospheric chemistry.

Lendar, M.; Aissat, A.; Cazaunau, M.; Daële, V.; Mellouki, A.

2013-09-01

11

Composition and Process for Retarding the Premature Aging of PMR Monomer Solutions and PMR Prepegs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyimides are derived from solutions of at least one low-boiling organic solvent, e.g. isopropanol containing a mixture of polyimide-forming monomers. The monomeric solutions have an extended shelf life at ambient (room) temperatures as high as 80 C, and consist essentially of a mixture of monoalkyl ester-acids, alkyl diester-diacids and aromatic polyamines wherein the alkyl radicals of the esteracids are derived from lower molecular weight aliphatic secondary alcohols having 3 to 5 carbon atoms per molecule such as isopropanol, secondary butanol, 2-methyl-3-butanol, 2 pentanol or 3-pentanol. The solutions of the polyimide-forming monomers have a substantially improved shelf-life and are particularly useful in the aerospace and aeronautical industry for the preparation of polyimide reinforced fiber composites such as the polyimide cured carbon composites used in jet engines, missiles, and for other high temperature applications.

Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gahn, Gloria S. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

12

An investigation of bubble coalescence and post-rupture oscillation in non-ionic surfactant solutions using high-speed cinematography.  

PubMed

Most processes involving bubbling in a liquid require small bubbles to maximise mass/energy transfer. A common method to prevent bubbles from coalescing is by the addition of surfactants. In order to get an insight into the coalescence process, capillary bubbles were observed using a high speed cinematography. Experiments were performed in solutions of 1-pentanol, 4-methyl-2-pentanol, tri(propylene glycol) methyl ether, and poly(propylene glycol) for which information such as the coalescence time and the deformation of the resultant bubble upon coalescence was extracted. It is shown in this study that the coalescence time increases with surfactant concentration until the appearance of a plateau. The increase in coalescence time with surfactant concentration could not be attributed only to surface elasticity. The oscillation of the resultant bubble was characterised by the damping of the oscillation. The results suggested that a minimum elasticity is required to achieve an increased damping and considerable diffusion has a detrimental effect on the dynamic response of the bubble, thereby reducing the damping. PMID:24231084

Bournival, G; Ata, S; Karakashev, S I; Jameson, G J

2014-01-15

13

Ligand rearrangement reactions of Cr(CO)6 in alcohol solutions: experiment and theory.  

PubMed

The ligand rearrangement reaction of Cr(CO)6 is studied in a series of alcohol solutions using ultrafast infrared spectroscopy and Brownian dynamics simulations. Excitation with 266 nm light gives Cr(CO)5 which is quickly solvated by a ligand from the bath. In alcohol solutions, solvation by an alkyl or hydroxyl site can occur; all alkyl bound complexes eventually rearrange to hydroxyl bound complexes. This rearrangement has been described using both an intermolecular (stochastic) and intramolecular (chainwalk) mechanism. Experiments alone do not allow for characterization of the mechanism, and therefore, theoretical calculations were carried out for the first time by modeling the ligand rearrangement as a diffusive walk along a potential defined by the different interaction possibilities. Experiments and simulations were carried out for Cr(CO)6 in 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, 2-methylbutanol, and 3-methylbutanol. The trends in the theoretical and experimental rearrangement times are similar for all simulations carried out indicating that the two mechanisms have very similar ensemble behavior when bath effects are taken into account. The nature of the mechanism responsible for motion along the alcohol chain is not of primary importance in isolating the kinetic behavior because of the highly diffusive nature of the reaction. Future experimental and theoretical work will be directed at identifying a definitive assignment of the reaction mechanism. PMID:16471634

Shanoski, Jennifer E; Glascoe, Elizabeth A; Harris, Charles B

2006-01-19

14

Relative contribution of oxygenated hydrocarbons to the total biogenic VOC emissions of selected mid-European agricultural and natural plant species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission rates of more than 50 individual VOCs were determined for eight plant species and three different types of grass land typical for natural deciduous and agricultural vegetation in Austria. In addition to the emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes, 33 biogenic oxygenated volatile organic compounds (BOVOCs) were detected. Of these, 2-methyl-l-propanol, 1-butanal, 2-butanal, 1-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, butanal and ethylhexylacetate were observed for the first time as plant emissions. In terms of prevalence of one of the groups of emitted VOCs (isoprene, terpenes, BOVOCs) the grain plants wheat and rye, grape, oilseed rape and the decidous trees hombeam and birch could be classified as "BOVOC"-emitters. For the grass plots examined, BOVOCs and terpenes appear to be of equal importance. The emission rates of the total assigned organic plant emissions ranged from 0.01 ? g -1 h -1 for wheat to 0.8 ?g g -1 h -1 for oak (based on dry leaf weight). Intercomparison with available data from other studies show that our emission rates are rather at the lower end of reported ranges. The influence of the stage of growth was examined for rye, rape (comparing emissions of blossoming and nonblossoming plants) and for grape (with and without fruit). Emission rate differences for different stages of growth varied from nondetectable for blossoming and nonblossoming rye to a factor of six for the grape with fruits vs grape without fruits (emission rate based on dry leaf weight). The major decidous tree in Austria (beech) is a terpene emitter, with the contribution of BOVOCs below 5% of the total assigned emissions of 0.2 ?g g -1 h -1 for the investigations of 20°C.

König, Georg; Brunda, Monika; Puxbaum, Hans; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Duckham, S. Craig; Rudolph, Jochen

15

EFFECTS OF COSURFACTANT AND OIL CHAIN LENGTH ON PHASE BEHAVIOR AND SOLUBILIZATION IN ALCOHOL AND GLYCOL ETHER MICROEMULSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase behavior and oil solubilization capacities of a series of model microemulsion systems have been studied. Phase behavior was studied in systems composed of NaCl brine, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and either 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, diethylene glycol monobutyl ether, ethylene glycol monohexyl ether, or diethylene glycol monohexyl ether. It was found that longer chained cosurfactant systems exhibit

S. T. Adamy

1994-01-01

16

Removal of PAHs from highly contaminated soils found at prior manufactured gas operations.  

PubMed

Removal of PAHs from highly contaminated soil found at a manufactured gas site was evaluated using solvent washing with mixed solvents. The following solvents were considered as water miscible co-solvents in mixed solvents: ethanol, 2-propanol, acetone, and 1-pentanol. In batch solvent extraction of soil, ethanol and 2-propanol were selected as primary components of mixed solvents in addition to 1-pentanol. Using ternary solutions containing either ethanol or 2-propanol with a volume fraction of 1-pentanol ranging from 5 to 25% and a water volume fraction ranging from 5 to 30%, ethanol was more effective than 2-propanol in extracting PAHs from soil. A solvent mixture of 5% 1-pentanol, 10% water and 85% ethanol was selected as the extraction solvent. Using a 1g:4ml soil:solvent extraction ratio, extraction kinetics showed that from 65 to 90% of the extractable PAHs were removed within an hour of contact between soil and solvent. Using this 1g:4ml extraction ratio, PAHs were removed in a three-stage cross-current solvent washing process where the same batch of soil was extracted with clean solvent for 1h in each stage. PAH removals in three-stage cross-current solvent washing were comparable to PAH removals obtained with Soxhlet extraction. PMID:11080576

Khodadoust, A P; Bagchi, R; Suidan, M T; Brenner, R C; Sellers, N G

2000-12-30

17

Urinary excretion of the metabolites of n-hexane and its isomers during occupational exposure.  

PubMed Central

Environmental exposure to commercial hexane (n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, and 3-methylpentane) was tested in several work places in five shoe factories by taking three grap-air samples during the afternoon shift. Individual exposure ranges were 32-500 mg/m3 for n-hexane, 11-250 mg/m3 for 2-methylpentane, and 10-204 mg/m3 for 3-methylpentane. The metabolites of commercial hexane in the urine of 41 workers were measured at the end of the work shift. 2-Hexanol, 2,5-hexanedione, 2,5-dimethylfuran, and gamma-valerolactone were found as n-hexane metabolites and 2-methyl-2-pentanol and 3-methyl-2-pentanol as 2-methylpentane and 3-methylpentane metabolites. The presence of metabolites in the urine was correlated with occupational exposure to solvents. n-Hexane exposure was correlated more positively with 2-hexanol and 2,5-hexanedione than with 2,5-dimethylfuran and gamma-valerolactone. A good correlation was also found between total n-hexane metabolites and n-hexane exposure. 2-Methyl-2-pentanol and 3-methyl-2-pentanol were highly correlated with 2-methylpentane and 3-methylpentane exposure. The results suggest that the urinary excretion of hexane metabolites may be used for monitoring occupational exposure to n-hexane and its isomers.

Perbellini, L; Brugnone, F; Faggionato, G

1981-01-01

18

Preparation of 2-Bromopentane.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that the preparation of 2-bromopentane from 2-pentanol might represent an instructive addition to a published description of pheromone synthesis in that it is economical, extends the synthetic nature of the problem, and amplifies the mechanistic vagaries of the substitution reaction. Theory, procedures used, and safety considerations are…

Howell, B. A.; Kohrman, R. E.

1984-01-01

19

Determination of some banned stimulants in sports by micellar liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A procedure has been developed for the determination, in <12 min, of several stimulants (amphetamine, ephedrine, methoxyphenamine,\\u000a phenylephrine and phenylpropanolamine) in spiked urine samples after direct injection, using a hybrid micellar mobile phase\\u000a of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulfate and 3% pentanol at pH 7, on a C18 column with UV detection. Recoveries were 94–102% and limits of detection 4.5

M. Gil-Agustí; M. E. Capella-Peiró; A. Martinavarro-Domínguez; J. Esteve-Romero

2003-01-01

20

Study of the resolution of amino acids and aminoalcohols in organic solvents.  

PubMed

The enzymatic resolution of racemic phenylglycine, phenylglycinol and phenylalaninol has been studied in organic solvents under a variety of experimental conditions. Subtilisin in 3-methyl-3-pentanol was effective for the resolution of phenylglycine esters, via N-acylation with trifluoroethyl butyrate. Porcine pancreatic lipase in ethyl acetate gave satisfactory results in the resolution of phenylglycinol and phenylalaninol; the? or? position of the phenyl group was found to influence both the rate and the chemioselectivity of the reaction. PMID:24178813

Orsini, F; Pelizzoni, F; Ghioni, C

1995-06-01

21

Heat transfer in pool boiling of binary and ternary non-azeotropic mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat transfer coefficients in nucleate pool boiling of binary and ternary non-azeotropic hydrocarbon mixtures were obtained experimentally using a vertical electrically heated cylindrical carbon steel surface at atmospheric pressure with several surface roughness. The fluids used were Methanol/1-Pentanol and Methanol/1-Pentanol/1,2-Propandiol at constant 1,2-Propandiol mole fraction of 30%. Heat fluxes were varied in the range 25-235 kW/m2. The cylindrical heater surface was polished to an average surface roughness of 0.2 ?m, and sandblasted yielding surface roughness of 2.98 and 4.35 ?m, respectively. The experimental results were compared to available prediction correlations, indicating that the correlations based on the boiling range are in better qualitative agreement than correlations based on the phase envelope. Increasing surface roughness resulted in an increase in the heat transfer coefficient, and the effect was observed to be dependent on the heat flux and fluid composition.

Nahra, Ziad; Næss, Erling

2009-05-01

22

Comparative Experiments of Protein Denaturation for Studying Structural Difference of Homologous Membrane Proteins: P-450scc and P-45011?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topological difference between two homologous membrane proteins, cytochromes P-450scc and P-45011 ? in the inner membrane of bovine adrenocortical mitochondria, was studied by denaturation experiments, using urea and 1-pentanol as denaturants. Both P-450s denatured at the urea concentration of about 2.5 M that is in the concentration range of the denaturation of soluble proteins. In contrast, P-45011 ? was denatured by 1-pentanol, which is an efficient denaturant of membrane proteins, at a much lower concentration than P-450scc. These results suggested that the membrane domain is more strongly coupled with the soluble functional domain in P-45011 ? than P-450scc. It was also indicated that the comparative experiments of protein denaturation by urea and alcohol provide a simple method to identify the structural difference of homologous membrane proteins.

Suzuki-Tomii, Keiko; Ohta, Yoshihiro; Kawato, Suguru; Mitaku, Shigeki

1999-01-01

23

Chlorotrimethylsilane, a reagent for the direct quantitative analysis of fats and oils present in vegetable and meat samples.  

PubMed

Acylglycerides present in oil seeds and meat can be transformed into volatile fatty esters using chlorotrimethylsilane (CTMS) and 1-pentanol as reagents. The volatile esters can then be analysed by GC. The method is quantitative and involves only minor sample manipulation. It often permits major recoveries of the total saponifiable lipids present in solid samples. A 40 min reaction time is enough to ensure the total conversion of saponifiable lipids to the corresponding FAPEs. PMID:15481471

Eras, Jordi; Ferran, Javier; Perpiña, Belén; Canela, Ramon

2004-08-20

24

Influence of the addition of modifiers on solute-micelle interaction in hybrid micellar liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In reversed-phase micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) organic modifiers are usually added to the mobile phase to modify the\\u000a eluent strength and to increase the efficiency of the chromatographic peaks. The effect of the modifiers methanol, ethanol,\\u000a 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, acetonitrile and tetrahydrofuran on the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) has been studied to enable

S. López-Grío; J. J. Baeza-Baeza; M. C. García-Alvarez-Coque

1998-01-01

25

Standard Gibbs energies of transfer of potassium tetraphenylborate from water to straight-chain n-alkanols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solubilities of potassium tetraphenylborate in water, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, and 1-octanol at 15, 25, 35, 45, 55°C have been determined by spectrophotometry. The standard Gibbs energy of transfer of potassium tetraphenylborate form water to straightchain n-alkanols and the medium effect of potassium tetraphenylborate from 15 to 55°C have been calculated. Furthermore, the contribution of microscopic interactions to

Li-Zhuang Zou; Xiao-ling Wang; Bao-Xue Zhou; Da-Cheng Li; Lin-Wei Li; Song-Sheng Qu

1995-01-01

26

Do the interfacial fluidities of cationic reverse micelles enhance with an increase in the water content?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of cosurfactant and water on the interfacial fluidities of reverse micelles formed with the cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has been examined by measuring the fluorescence anisotropies of two structurally similar ionic solutes, rhodamine 110 and fluorescein. For this purpose, reverse micellar systems with (CTAB\\/1-pentanol\\/cyclohexane\\/water) and without a cosurfactant (CTAB\\/chloroform–isooctane\\/water) have been chosen. In this study, the mole

K. S. Mali; G. B. Dutt

2009-01-01

27

Do the interfacial fluidities of cationic reverse micelles enhance with an increase in the water content?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of cosurfactant and water on the interfacial fluidities of reverse micelles formed with the cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has been examined by measuring the fluorescence anisotropies of two structurally similar ionic solutes, rhodamine 110 and fluorescein. For this purpose, reverse micellar systems with (CTAB/1-pentanol/cyclohexane/water) and without a cosurfactant (CTAB/chloroform-isooctane/water) have been chosen. In this study, the mole ratio of water to surfactant W has been varied in the region of 4-25. Experimental results indicate that the average reorientation time of the probe, which is a measure of the fluidity near the interfacial region, decreases by a factor of 1.5 and 1.4 for rhodamine 110 and fluorescein, respectively, as W goes up from 5 to 25 in CTAB/1-pentanol/cyclohexane/water reverse micellar system. In contrast, the average reorientation time, remains invariant for both the probe molecules in CTAB/chloroform-isooctane/water reverse micellar system despite an increase in W from 4 to 24. In case of CTAB/1-pentanol/cyclohexane/water reverse micellar system, the added water binds to bromide counter ions and also the hydroxyl groups of the cosurfactant, 1-pentanol, which results in an increase in the effective head group area. Such an increase in the effective head group area leads to a decrease in the packing parameter, and hence an increase in the interfacial fluidity. On the other hand, in CTAB/chloroform-isooctane/water system, the added water merely hydrates the bromide ions, thereby leaving the effective head group area unchanged. Thus, the interfacial fluidities remain invariant upon the addition of water in the absence of a cosurfactant.

Mali, K. S.; Dutt, G. B.

2009-11-01

28

Study on the Extraction and Back Extraction of Bovine Serum Albumin using Reversed Micelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction and back extraction of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) using a new reversed micelle system of CTAB\\/isooctane\\/1?pentanol have been investigated. Under the optimal operating conditions in this study, the extraction ratio of BSA reaches as high as 98%. The back extraction ratio can reach 80% as pH in stripping phase approaches to the isoelectric point (pI) of BSA. UV?spectra

Xiangcun Li; Gaohong He; Chang Lin; Hongjing Liu

2007-01-01

29

Do the interfacial fluidities of cationic reverse micelles enhance with an increase in the water content?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of cosurfactant and water on the interfacial fluidities of reverse micelles formed with the cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has been examined by measuring the fluorescence anisotropies of two structurally similar ionic solutes, rhodamine 110 and fluorescein. For this purpose, reverse micellar systems with (CTAB\\/1-pentanol\\/cyclohexane\\/water) and without a cosurfactant (CTAB\\/chloroform-isooctane\\/water) have been chosen. In this study, the mole

K. S. Mali; G. B. Dutt

2009-01-01

30

Phase separation phenomena of polysulfone\\/solvent\\/organic nonsolvent and polyethersulfone\\/solvent\\/organic nonsolvent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precipitation values (PVs) of several organic nonsolvents in polysulfone (PSf)\\/solvent and polyethersulfone (PESf)\\/solvent systems were measured in temperatures ranging from 10 to 80 C by the direct titration method and compared with those of water in the same systems. The solvents used were N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAC); the organic nonsolvents employed were methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, ethylene

Dongliang Wang; K. Li; S. Sourirajan; W. K. Teo

1993-01-01

31

Sol-gel derived TiO[sub 2] microemulsion gels and coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microemulsion gels and coatings have been obtained by the sol-gel method using titanium(IV) isopropoxide. Three types of fine water dispersions have been used as the basis sol: reverse Triton X-100 micelles in cyclohexane; quaternary water-in-oil microemulsions containing cyclohexane, 1-pentanol, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and water; and dispersions of water in pentanol in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Titanium(IV) isopropoxide was

D. Papoutsi; P. Lianos; P. Yianoulis; P. Koutsoukos

1994-01-01

32

Polyethersulfone hollow fiber gas separation membranes prepared from NMP\\/alcohol solvent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyethersulfone (PESf) asymmetric hollow fiber membranes were prepared by the dry\\/wet and the wet-phase inversion processes from spinning solutions containing N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and an alcohol as a nonsolvent-additive (NSA). Two grades of polyethersulfones. Victrex 4800P and Radel A-300, were used. The alcohols used in this study include five aliphatic alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol) and two polyhydric alcohols (ethylene

Dongliang Wang; K. Li; W. K. Teo

1996-01-01

33

Excess molar volumes of binary mixtures of aliphatic alcohols (C 1–C 5) with Nitromethane over the temperature range 293.15 to 308.15 K: Application of the ERAS model and cubic EOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Densities were measured for the binary mixtures of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol with nitromethane at temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15) K and for 1-pentanol with nitromethane at temperatures (303.15 and 308.15) K and atmospheric pressure. Densities were determined using a vibrating-tube densimeter. Excess molar volumes as a function of mole fraction were derived, and the computed results were fitted

M. Almasi; L. Mousavi

2011-01-01

34

Excess molar volumes of diisopropylamine + (C 1–C 5) alkan-1-ols: Application of the ERAS model and cubic EOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Densities of the binary mixtures consist of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol with diisopropylamine were measured at temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 313.15) K and atmospheric pressure. Data were used to calculate the excess molar volumes. All the excess molar volumes are large and negative over the whole range of mole fraction, indicating strong interactions between unlike molecules. The

Mohammad Almasi; Maryam Shojabakhtiar

2011-01-01

35

Headspace Analysis of Croton lechleri L. Sap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Headspace of Croton lechleri L. (Euphorbiaceae) sap was analyzed by GC\\/MS to determine the volatile constituents. The major components were: ethyl acetate (39.68%), ethyl propionate (14.03 %), 2-methyl butanol (9.06%), 2-methyl-butyl acetate (6.00%), propyl acetate (5.05%), 3-methyl-butyl acetate (3.47%), eucaliptol (3.02%), 1-butyl acetate (2.51%), and 3-methyl-2-pentanol (1.99%).

Franco F. Bellesia; Adriano A. Pinetti; Bruno B. Tirillini

1996-01-01

36

High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of piperacillin in plasma.  

PubMed Central

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the quantitative determination of piperacillin in plasma. The compound is first extracted from acid-treated plasma into chloroform: 1-pentanol (3:1) and reextracted into a small volume of an aqueous phase at pH 7, which is injected in the chromatographic column (microgram-Bondapack C18; 10 micrometers). The mobile phase is a mixture of 0.01 M acetate buffer (pH 4.8) and methanol. The method is accurate and reproducible with a sensitivity of about 50 ng of piperacillin per ml of serum.

Brisson, A M; Fourtillan, J B

1982-01-01

37

Correlation between the physicochemical properties of organic solvents and their biocompatibility toward epoxide hydrolase activity in whole-cells of a yeast, Rhodotorula sp.  

PubMed

Epoxides are often highly hydrophobic substrates and the presence of an organic co-solvent within an aqueous bioreactor is in such cases indicated. The effect of 40 water-miscible and -immiscible organic solvents on epoxide hydrolase activity in whole-cells of the yeast Rhodotorula sp. UOFS Y-0448 was investigated. No formal correlation between solvent biocompatibility and physicochemical properties was deductible, although the introduction of hydroxyl groups increased biocompatibility. 1-Pentanol, 2-methylcyclohexanol and 1-octanol were the most biocompatible resulting in relatively low activity losses when used at up to 20% (v/v). PMID:15289672

Lotter, Jeanette; Botes, Adriana L; Van Dyk, Martha S; Breytenbach, Jaco C

2004-08-01

38

Application of refractive index mixing rules in binary systems of hexadecane and heptadecane with n -alkanols at different temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density and refractive index have been experimentally determined for binary liquid mixtures of hexadecane and heptadecane\\u000a with 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 1-heptanol at 298.15, 308.15 and 318.15 K. A comparative study of Lorentz—Lorenz\\u000a (L-L), Weiner (W) and Heller (H), and Gladstone-Dale (G-D) relations for predicting the refractive index of a liquid has been\\u000a carried out to test their validity for

Rita Mehra; Maharshi Dayanand

2003-01-01

39

Simultaneous hydrogenolysis of p-nitrobenzyl esters and carbamates side-chains in the THF 1beta-carbapenem OCA-983 in biphasic media.  

PubMed

Deprotection of p-nitrobenzyl esters and valyl carbamates in carbapenem CL 192,276 produced the active compound OCA-983 in excellent yields. Straight chain alkanols such as 1-butanol, 1-pentanol and 1-hexanol in water at certain ratios were effective solvent systems. Alkyl acetates in water also resulted in simultaneous deprotection of PNB and PNZ side-chains albeit at slower rates. The deprotected carbapenem was isolated in excellent yield and purity after removal of the aqueous media. This procedure is applicable to sensitive compounds that are soluble in water without the need to use a buffer and allows for ease of isolation from the aqueous phase. PMID:16787352

Mansour, Tarek S; Sum, Phaik-Eng; Lin, Yang-I; How, David; Li, Zhong

2006-01-01

40

Study of Dipolar Association in Binary System Acetyl Acetone in Aliphatic Alcohols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric constant (\\varepsilonm) of binary mixtures of acetylacetone (HAA) with aliphatic alcohols viz. 1-pentanol, 1-butanol, 1-propanol has been measured at temperature 303.16 K and frequency 455 kHz. The data of dielectric constant are used to compute mutual correlation factor (gab), excess molar polarization (? P) and excess free energy of mixing (? Gab) to study the molecular interaction. The study reveals that interaction is maximum for HAA + pentanol system and microheterogeneous ?-clusters with antiparallel orientation of dissimilar molecules predominate in it.

Acharya, Swaroop; Mishra, Sarmistha; Mohanty, Gouranga Charan

2005-06-01

41

Substrate specificity of human cutaneous alcohol dehydrogenase and erythema provoked by lower aliphatic alcohols.  

PubMed

The substrate utilization rates of human cutaneous alcohol dehydrogenase were determined for 7 lower aliphatic primary alcohols: ethanol, propanol, butanol, pentanol, 2-methylpropanol, 3-methylbutanol, and 2,2-dimethyl-propanol. 1-Pentanol gave the highest relative activity and 2,2-dimethylpropanol the lowest. The frequency of erythemogenesis was determined in vivo for these 7 lower aliphatic primary alcohols. The frequency of erythemogenesis correlated strongly and significantly with the rate of substrate utilization by alcohol dehydrogenase. These results are consistent with the view that the reaction to primary alcohols applied topically to human skin is provoked, in large part, by the corresponding aldehyde. PMID:3559273

Wilkin, J K; Stewart, J H

1987-04-01

42

Nucleation rates in a new phenomenological model.  

PubMed

In this paper we develop a new theory to evaluate the nucleation rate in the framework of the EMLD-DNT model. Beyond the model, our theory deals with cluster translation and exclusion, effects that have been virtually ignored in classical nucleation theory. We apply the model to the case of 1-pentanol, and compare the predictions with experimental results. We find an excellent agreement between the nucleation rate predicted by our theory and experimental data. The distinguishing feature of the model is its ability to predict successfully the rate of formation of the critical nucleus without the use of an intermolecular potential, employing only macroscopic thermodynamic properties. PMID:17078666

Zandi, Roya; Reguera, David; Reiss, Howard

2006-11-01

43

Experimental determination and modeling of densities and refractive indices of the binary systems alcohol + dicyclohexylamine at T = (288.15–323.15) K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental density ? and refractive index nD data have been determined for the systems of dicyclohexilamine with 1-propanol, or 1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or 1-pentanol, in the temperature range (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15 and 323.15)K, and at (303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15 and 323.15)K for the system 2-methyl-2-propanol+dicyclohexylamine. All measurements have been performed at atmospheric pressure, using an

Mirjana Lj. Kijev?anin; Ivona R. Radovi?; Bojan D. Djordjevi?; Aleksandat Ž. Tasi?; Slobodan P. Šerbanovi?

2011-01-01

44

Influence of chain length and degree of branching of alcohol + chlorobenzene mixtures on determination and modelling of V E by CEOS and CEOS\\/ G E mixing rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The densities of binary mixtures of (1-propanol, or 1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or 1-pentanol+chlorobenzene) have been measured at temperatures 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15K and atmospheric pressure while for the system (2-methyl-2-propanol+chlorobenzene) measurements were performed at the same pressure and temperatures 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15 and 323.15K. All measurements were performed by means of an Anton Paar DMA 5000

Ivona R. Radovi?; Mirjana Lj. Kijev?anin; Emila M. Djordjevi?; Bojan D. Djordjevi?; Slobodan P. Šerbanovi?

2008-01-01

45

Effect of release rate and enantiomeric composition on response to pheromones of Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis) in poplar plantations of Argentina and Italy.  

PubMed

Megaplatypus mutatus (=Platypus sulcatus Chapuis) is an Ambrosia beetle native to South America, which was recently introduced in Italy and its presence there is causing severe damage to the local poplar plantations. The male M. mutatus pheromone is composed of (S)-(+)-6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol [(+)-sulcatol], 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone) and 3-pentanol. A series of field trials testing dose, blend and enantiomer composition performed in Argentina and Italy evaluated attraction and found that the optimal release rate of pheromone components as baits in cross vane baited traps (CIPEIN-CV) was 6, 6 and 30 mg day?1 of sulcatone, (+)-sulcatol and 3-pentanol, respectively. It was also determined that racemic sulcatol is as effective as the pure (+)-isomer for the purpose of beetle catch, due to the inert nature of the (?)-isomer allowing the usage of low cost racemic sulcatol instead of highly expensive (+)-sulcatol. The results of our work contribute to the development of pheromone-based local technologies with low environmental impact and low cost for control or monitoring of an important pest. PMID:23590828

Funes, Hernán; Zerba, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Audino, Paola

2013-10-01

46

Solubility of simvastatin: A theoretical and experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solubility experimental data from Simvastatin in a family of alcohols were obtained at different temperatures. Simvastatin was characterized by using thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. From the experimental solubility data an anomalous behavior was observed, since an increase the number of alcohol carbon atoms shows an increase in solubility only for the three first alcohols, ethanol, 1-propanol and 1-butanol. A decrease in solubility was obtained for 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 1-octanol. Van't·Hoff equation was used to obtain the theoretical solubility value and the ideal activity coefficient. Experimental error was very low and does not affect the plots and equations used. No polymorphic phenomenon was found from the Simvastatin characterization. Theoretical calculations were carried out in order to corroborate the experimental solubility data. Trends and results are similar in both cases. The geometry optimizations of Simvastatin was carried out using density functional theory with Becke's three parameter hybrid method and correlation functional of Lee, Yang and Parr (B3LYP) with 6-311++G?? basis set. The solvent effect was treated using a continuum model as modeled in water, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 1-octanol. Moreover, dielectric constant, dipolar moment and solubility in the solvents were obtained for explaining the former behavior.

Aceves-Hernández, Juan M.; Hinojosa-Torres, Jaime; Nicolás-Vázquez, Inés; Ruvalcaba, Rene Miranda; García, Rosa María Lima

2011-05-01

47

Effect of specific wavelengths on light-induced quality changes in Havarti cheese.  

PubMed

The effects of exposure of slices of Havarti cheeses to monochromatic light of wavelengths 366 nm, 405 nm, and 436 nm, respectively, were studied by tristimulus colorimetry, solid-phase microextraction gas chromatographic analysis of volatiles, and open-end fluorescence spectroscopy. Having determined the photon fluxes of the three wavelengths by ferrioxalate actinometry, it was possible to quantify the effects of light exposure in an absolute manner. For all analyses, the most severe effects were caused by visible light, leading to colour bleaching, change in hue, riboflavin degradation, and formation of the secondary oxidation products hexanal, 1-pentanol, and 1-hexanol. Apparent quantum yields for formation of hexanal and 1-pentanol were found to be insignificantly different for 405 nm and 436 nm exposures, having values of (3-5) x 10(-5) mol x einstein(-1) and (9-13) x 10(-5) mol x einstein(-1), respectively. These compounds were not formed when exposed to 366 nm light. In contrast, 1-hexanol was formed when exposing cheese to all three wavelengths, resulting in apparent quantum yields of (2-6) x 10(-5) mol x einstein(-1). The results obtained are discussed in relation to the interplay between inherent product colorants, light sources, and transmission characteristics of the packaging materials. PMID:14649412

Mortensen, Grith; Sørensen, John; Danielsen, Bente; Stapelfeldt, Henrik

2003-11-01

48

Copper(II) benzoate dimers coordinated by different linear alcohols – A systematic study of crystal structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three new copper(II) benzoates coordinated by 1-propanol, [Cu2(PhCOO)4(1-PrOH)2] [Cu2(PhCOO)4(H2O)2] (3), 1-butanol, [Cu2(PhCOO)4(1-BuOH)2] (4) and 1-pentanol, [Cu2(PhCOO)4(1-PentOH)2] (5) at the available metal coordination sites, have been prepared and investigated with reference to their X-ray crystal structures. In all cases, dimeric paddle-wheel complexes where two copper(II) ions are held together by four benzoates were found. Moreover, the complexes show 1-propanol and water (3), 1-butanol (4) and 1-pentanol (5) coordinated to the free coordination sites of the Cu(II) ions. The dimeric complex units are connected with each other by strong OH⋯O hydrogen bonds to form strands linked together via weaker CH⋯O and CH⋯? interactions. Comparative discussion including the redetermined crystal structures obtained from copper(II) benzoate in the presence of methanol (1) or ethanol (2) allows to draw argumentation regarding the coordination of linear alcohols in corresponding crystals of paddle-wheel complexes.

Katzsch, Felix; Münch, Alexander S.; Mertens, Florian O. R. L.; Weber, Edwin

2014-05-01

49

Determination of volatile metabolites originating from mould growth on wall paper and synthetic media.  

PubMed

Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) emitted from the mould species Penicillium expansum, P. chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, A. fumigatus, A. niger and Cladosporium cladosporoides were analyzed by means of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and GCMS. The mould species were cultivated on the synthetic agar dichloran chloramphenicol (DG 18) and on wet wall paper. The production of MVOCs was monitored over several weeks to detect changes in the emission rates between the initial stage and later periods of growth. The cultivation on the synthetic agar resulted in MVOC patterns with a wide variety of signals. In contrast, the growth on wet wall paper led to changed MVOC patterns with less signals. The emission rates were drastically reduced. Components emitted by all six fungi species on wall paper were 2-pentanol and 2-pentanone. 1-Octen-3-ol was emitted by five fungi species. 2-Pentanol was only detected in considerable amounts during the first days of growth whereas 1-octen-3-ol had a more constant emission rate over the whole period of growth. On the basis of our studies some MVOCs could be proposed as specific for single fungi on wall paper, e.g. 1,3-dimethoxybenzene for A. versicolor and 2,4-pentandione for A. fumigatus. PMID:18577403

Matysik, Silke; Herbarth, Olf; Mueller, Andrea

2008-10-01

50

n-pentyl N-acetylprolinate. A new skin penetration enhancer.  

PubMed

The activity of n-pentyl N-acetylprolinate (PNAP) as a transdermal penetration enhancer was investigated. PNAP was synthesized from L-proline by acetylation with acetic anhydride, followed by acid-catalyzed esterification with 1-pentanol. Structure confirmation was accomplished by IR and NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Benzoic acid (BA) was used as a model drug, and the effect of PNAP on the flux of BA through human cadaver skin was evaluated. The central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of PNAP was evaluated by comparing the effects of intraperitoneal administration of PNAP to mice with those of laurocapram (Azone), a known penetration enhancer. Based on preliminary studies, PNAP appears to be an effective transdermal penetration enhancer, is nontoxic at low doses, and exhibits dose-related CNS toxicity at higher doses. PMID:7658358

Harris, W T; Tenjarla, S N; Holbrook, J M; Smith, J; Mead, C; Entrekin, J

1995-05-01

51

Monte Carlo simulation of optical clearing of paper in optical coherence tomography  

SciTech Connect

Signals of an optical coherence tomograph from paper samples are calculated by the Monte Carlo method before and after the action of different immersion liquids such as ethanol, glycerol, benzyl alcohol, and 1-pentanol. It is shown within the framework of the model used that all these liquids reduce the contrast of the inhomogeneity image in upper layers of the samples, considerably improving, however, the visibility of lower layers, allowing the localisation of the rear boundary of a medium being probed, which is important for precision contactless measuring a paper sheet thickness, for example, during the manufacturing process. The results of calculations are in well agreement with experimental data. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Kirillin, M Yu; Priezzhev, A V [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Hast, J; Myllylae, Risto [Optoelectronics and Measurements Techniques Laboratory, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu and Infotech Oulu (Finland)

2006-02-28

52

High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria for mixtures containing a supercritical fluid  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical fluid extraction has been proven as an efficient separation method for some specific industrial applications. The knowledge of the phase behavior of supercritical systems plays an important role in the process design. High pressure vapor-liquid phase equilibrium compositions were measured for the binary systems of carbon dioxide + 2-methyl-1-pentanol, carbon dioxide + 1-octanol, and carbon dioxide + 1-decanol over a temperature range between 348.15 and 453.15 K. In addition to the new data, a variety of supercritical fluid systems was used to test the validity of the Peng-Robinson and Patel-Teja equations of state accompanied by several types of mixing rules. In general, the Peng-Robinson equation incorporated with the cubic mixing rule yielded the best representation.

Weng, W.L. (Ming-Hsin Engineering College, Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Chen, J.T.; Lee, M.J. (National Taiwan Inst. of Technology, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-08-01

53

Energy Transfer of CdSe/ZnS Nanocrystals Encapsulated with Rhodamine-Dye Functionalized Poly(acrylic acid)  

PubMed Central

Energy transfer between a CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal (NC) donor and a rhodamine isothiocyanate (RITC) acceptor has been achieved via a functionalized poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) encapsulating layer over the surface of the NC. The modification of PAA with both N-octylamine (OA) and 5-amino-1-pentanol (AP), [PAA-OA-AP], allows for the simultaneous water-solubilization and functionalization of the NCs, underscoring the ease of synthesizing NC-acceptor conjugates with this strategy. Photophysical studies of the NC-RITC constructs showed that energy transfer is efficient, with kFRET approaching 108 s?1. The ease of the covalent conjugation of molecules to NCs with PAA-OA-AP coating, together with efficient energy transfer, makes the NCs encapsulated with PAA-OA-AP attractive candidates for sensing applications.

Somers, Rebecca C.; Snee, Preston T.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Nocera, Daniel G.

2014-01-01

54

Development of a new in-vial standard gas system for calibrating solid-phase microextraction in high-throughput and on-site applications.  

PubMed

In this work, an innovative, reproducible, and reusable standard generator vial is presented. The standard generator vial consists of vacuum-pump oil doped with McReynolds probes (benzene, 2-pentanone, pyridine, nitropropane, 1-pentanol, and n-octane) mixed with a polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin without functional groups. The evaluation of this vial was fully automated on a multifiber exchanger system and the extraction/desorption cycle, together with the programmed GC-qMS analysis, did not exceed 13 min. The results showed that after 160 extraction/injections cycles of the vial the relative SDs were smaller than 4% for all the standards. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the inter and intravial repeatability, and at 95% level of confidence nonstatistical differences among vials were found. Because of its compacted granular appearance this vial is easy to transport, and it is an ideal calibration standard for bench and field instruments and devices. PMID:23636846

Gómez-Ríos, German A; Reyes-Garcés, Nathaly; Pawliszyn, Janusz

2013-09-01

55

Quantum-chemical modeling of energy parameters and vibrational spectra of chain and cyclic clusters of monohydric alcohols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The specific peculiarities of alcohols such as heightened viscosity, boiling temperature and surface tension can be explained by the capability of their molecules to form relatively stable associates named clusters due to hydrogen bonding. In present work the stability of different chain-like and cyclic clusters of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol and 1-hexanol was investigated by means of quantum-chemical simulation and particular by recently developed DFT exchange-correlation functional M06-2X. The relative stability of the cluster structure was evaluated by the total energy per molecule at low temperatures (where all alcohols exist in solid state) and by the changing of the free Gibbs energy upon cluster formation at the room temperature. For the verification of revealed results the conformity of calculated IR spectra of the most stable cluster structures with the experimental IR spectra at different temperatures was analyzed.

Golub, P.; Doroshenko, I.; Pogorelov, V.

2014-05-01

56

Effect of five enological practices and of the general phenolic composition on fermentation-related aroma compounds in Mencia young red wines.  

PubMed

The effects of five technological procedures and of the contents of total anthocyanins and condensed tannins on 19 fermentation-related aroma compounds of young red Mencia wines were studied. Multifactor ANOVA revealed that levels of those volatiles changed significantly over the length of storage in bottles and, to a lesser extent, due to other technological factors considered; total anthocyanins and condensed tannins also changed significantly as a result of the five practices assayed. Five aroma compounds possessed an odour activity value >1 in all wines, and another four in some wines. Linear correlation among volatile compounds and general phenolic composition revealed that total anthocyanins were highly related to 14 different aroma compounds. Multifactor ANOVA, considering the content of total anthocyanins as a sixth random factor, revealed that this parameter affected significantly the contents of ethyl lactate, ethyl isovalerate, 1-pentanol and ethyl octanoate. Thus, the aroma of young red Mencia wines may be affected by levels of total anthocyanins. PMID:24262556

Añón, Ana; López, Jorge F; Hernando, Diego; Orriols, Ignacio; Revilla, Eugenio; Losada, Manuel M

2014-04-01

57

Real-time feedback control using online attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy for continuous flow optimization and process knowledge.  

PubMed

The use of automated continuous flow reactors is described, with real-time online Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis to enable rapid optimization of reaction yield using a self-optimizing feedback algorithm. This technique has been applied to the solvent-free methylation of 1-pentanol with dimethyl carbonate using a ?-alumina catalyst. Calibration of the FT-IR signal was performed using gas chromatography to enable quantification of yield over a wide variety of flow rates and temperatures. The use of FT-IR as a real-time analytical technique resulted in an order of magnitude reduction in the time and materials required compared to previous studies. This permitted a wide exploration of the parameter space to provide process understanding and validation of the optimization algorithms. PMID:24067568

Skilton, Ryan A; Parrott, Andrew J; George, Michael W; Poliakoff, Martyn; Bourne, Richard A

2013-10-01

58

Synergism between microwave irradiation and enzyme catalysis in transesterification of ethyl-3-phenylpropanoate with n-butanol.  

PubMed

Lipase catalyzed transesterification was investigated to study the synergistic effect of microwave irradiation and enzyme catalysis. Transesterification of ethyl-3-phenylpropanoate with n-butanol was chosen as the model reaction using immobilized enzymes such as Novozyme 435, Lipozyme RMIM and Lipozyme TL IM with microwave irradiation. Novozyme 435 was the best catalyst. The effect of various parameters affecting the conversion and initial rates of transesterification were studied to establish kinetics and mechanism. There is synergism between enzyme catalysis and microwave irradiation. The analysis of initial rate data and progress curve data showed that the reaction obeys the Ping-Pong bi-bi mechanism with inhibition by n-butanol. The theoretical predictions and experimental data match very well. These studies were also extended to other alcohols such as 2-phenyl-1-propanol, n-octanol, benzyl alcohol, iso-amyl alcohol, 2-hexanol and 2-pentanol under otherwise similar conditions. PMID:22305539

Yadav, Ganapati D; Pawar, Sandip V

2012-04-01

59

Atmospheric reactions Cl+CH3-(CH2)n-OH (n=0-4): A kinetic and theoretical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reactions of Cl with a series of linear alcohols: methanol (k1), ethanol (k2), 1-propanol (k3), 1-butanol (k4), and 1-pentanol (k5) were investigated as a function of temperature in the range of 264-382 K by laser photolysis-resonance fluorescence. The obtained kinetic data were used to derive the following Arrhenius expressions: k1=(3.55+/-0.22)×10-10 exp[-(559+/-40)/T], k2=(5.25+/-0.52)×10-11 exp[(190+/-68)/T], k3=(2.63+/-0.21)×10-11 exp[(525+/-51)/T], k4=(3.12+/-0.31)×10-11 exp[(548+/-65)/T], and k5=(3.97+/-0.48)×10-11 exp[(533+/-77)/T] (in units of cm3 molecule-1 s-1). To our knowledge, these are the first absolute kinetic data reported for 1-butanol and 1-pentanol and also the first kinetic study as a function of temperature for these two compounds. Results, mechanism, and tropospheric implications are discussed and compared with the reported reactivity with OH radicals. Moreover, a theoretical insight into the mechanisms of these reactions has also been pursued through ab initio Möller-Plesset second-order perturbation treatment calculations with 6-311G** basis sets. Optimized geometries and vibrational frequencies have been obtained for transition states and molecular complexes appearing along the different reaction pathways. Furthermore, molecular energies have been calculated at quadratic configuration interaction with single, double, and triple excitations level in order to get an estimation of the activation energies.

Garzón, Andrés; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Ceacero, Antonio A.; Notario, Alberto; Albaladejo, José; Fernández-Gómez, Manuel

2006-09-01

60

Relative and absolute kinetic studies of 2-butanol and related alcohols with tropospheric Cl atoms.  

PubMed

A newly constructed chamber/Fourier transform infrared system was used to determine the relative rate coefficient, k(i), for the gas-phase reaction of Cl atoms with 2-butanol (k(1)), 2-methyl-2-butanol (k(2)), 3-methyl-2-butanol (k(3)), 2,3-dimethyl-2-butanol (k(4)) and 2-pentanol (k(5)). Experiments were performed at (298 +/- 2) K, in 740 Torr total pressure of synthetic air, and the measured rate coefficients were, in cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) units (+/-2sigma): k(1)=(1.32 +/- 0.14) x 10(-10), k(2)=(7.0 +/- 2.2) x 10(-11), k(3)=(1.17 +/- 0.14) x 10(-10), k(4)=(1.03 +/- 0.17) x 10(-10) and k(5)=(2.18 +/- 0.36) x 10(-10), respectively. Also, all the above rate coefficients (except for 2-pentanol) were investigated as a function of temperature (267-384 K) by pulsed laser photolysis-resonance fluorescence (PLP-RF). The obtained kinetic data were used to derive the Arrhenius expressions: k(1)(T)=(6.16 +/- 0.58) x 10(-11)exp[(174 +/- 58)/T], k(2)(T)=(2.48 +/- 0.17) x 10(-11)exp[(328 +/- 42)/T], k(3)(T)=(6.29 +/- 0.57) x 10(-11)exp[(192 +/- 56)/T], and k(4)(T)=(4.80 +/- 0.43) x 10(-11)exp[(221 +/- 56)/T](in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and +/-sigma). Results and mechanism are discussed and compared with the reported reactivity with OH radicals. Some atmospheric implications derived from this study are also reported. PMID:17325767

Ballesteros, Bernabé; Garzón, Andrés; Jiménez, Elena; Notario, Alberto; Albaladejo, José

2007-03-14

61

Aroma enhancement and enzymolysis regulation of grape wine using ?-glycosidase.  

PubMed

Adding ?-glycosidase into grape wine for enhancing aroma was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Kramer sensory evaluation. Compared with the extract from control wines, the extract from enzyme-treated wines increased more aromatic compounds using steam distillation extraction (SDE) and GC-MS analyses. Theses aromatic compounds were as follows: 3-methyl-1-butanol formate, 3-pentanol, furfural, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-butanoic acid ethyl ester, hexanoic acid, hexanoic acid ethyl ester, benzyl alcohol, octanoic acid, octanoic acid ethyl ester, dodecanoic acid, and ethyl ester. The enzymolysis regulation conditions, including enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis time, and enzyme amount, were optimized through L9(3(4)) orthogonal test. Kramer sensory evaluation was performed by an 11-man panel of judges. The optimum enzymolysis regulation conditions were found to be temperature of 45°C, enzymolysis time of 90 min, and enzyme amount of 58.32 U/mL grape wine, respectively. The Kramer sensory evaluation supported that the enzyme-treated wines produced a stronger fragrance. PMID:24804072

Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

2014-03-01

62

Synthesis of Short-Chain Diols and Unsaturated Alcohols from Secondary Alcohol Substrates by the Rieske Nonheme Mononuclear Iron Oxygenase MdpJ  

PubMed Central

The Rieske nonheme mononuclear iron oxygenase MdpJ of the fuel oxygenate-degrading bacterial strain Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 has been described to attack short-chain tertiary alcohols via hydroxylation and desaturation reactions. Here, we demonstrate that also short-chain secondary alcohols can be transformed by MdpJ. Wild-type cells of strain L108 converted 2-propanol and 2-butanol to 1,2-propanediol and 3-buten-2-ol, respectively, whereas an mdpJ knockout mutant did not show such activity. In addition, wild-type cells converted 3-methyl-2-butanol and 3-pentanol to the corresponding desaturation products 3-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and 1-penten-3-ol, respectively. The enzymatic hydroxylation of 2-propanol resulted in an enantiomeric excess of about 70% for the (R)-enantiomer, indicating that this reaction was favored. Likewise, desaturation of (R)-2-butanol to 3-buten-2-ol was about 2.3-fold faster than conversion of the (S)-enantiomer. The biotechnological potential of MdpJ for the synthesis of enantiopure short-chain alcohols and diols as building block chemicals is discussed.

Schafer, Franziska; Schuster, Judith; Wurz, Birgit; Hartig, Claus; Harms, Hauke; Muller, Roland H.

2012-01-01

63

Two Volatile Organic Compounds Trigger Plant Self-Defense against a Bacterial Pathogen and a Sucking Insect in Cucumber under Open Field Conditions.  

PubMed

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a plant self-defense mechanism against a broad-range of pathogens and insect pests. Among chemical SAR triggers, plant and bacterial volatiles are promising candidates for use in pest management, as these volatiles are highly effective, inexpensive, and can be employed at relatively low concentrations compared with agrochemicals. However, such volatiles have some drawbacks, including the high evaporation rate of these compounds after application in the open field, their negative effects on plant growth, and their inconsistent levels of effectiveness. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of volatile organic compound (VOC)-mediated induced resistance against both the bacterial angular leaf spot pathogen, Pseudononas syringae pv. lachrymans, and the sucking insect aphid, Myzus persicae, in the open field. Using the VOCs 3-pentanol and 2-butanone where fruit yields increased gave unexpectedly, a significant increase in the number of ladybird beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, a natural enemy of aphids. The defense-related gene CsLOX was induced by VOC treatment, indicating that triggering the oxylipin pathway in response to the emission of green leaf volatiles can recruit the natural enemy of aphids. These results demonstrate that VOCs may help prevent plant disease and insect damage by eliciting induced resistance, even in open fields. PMID:23698768

Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Choong-Min

2013-01-01

64

Dislodgement effect of natural semiochemicals released by disturbed triatomines: a possible alternative monitoring tool.  

PubMed

The quick detection of domestic and peridomestic triatomines in their environments becomes difficult without the use of dislodgement substances that flush them out from their shelters. At present, tetramethrin 0.2% is being widely used in control programs. Although it is an efficient dislodging agent, its toxicity might affect the health of captured triatomines, of other insects and, to a lesser extent, of other animals, including humans. Here, we tested if semiochemicals released by disturbed adults of Triatoma infestans and/or Rhodnius prolixus can make larvae of the same species exit from their refuges. In a walking olfactometer we found that: 1) larvae of T. infestans were repelled by the odors released by disturbed adults of their own species and of R. prolixus, 2) larvae of R. prolixus did not change their behavior in the presence of odors released by adults of both species, and 3) activity levels were not modulated by these odors in any of both species. Besides, in pseudo-natural conditions we found an increased flushing-out activity of larvae of T. infestans when their shelters were sprayed with isobutyric acid or 3-pentanol, and of larvae of R. prolixus when sprayed with 3-methyl-1-butanol. We succeeded in this work to dislodge larvae of triatomines from artificial shelters using natural volatile compounds, allowing the capture of live bugs for further investigations (e.g., xenodiagnosis or genetic studies) and favoring ecological aspects (e.g., minimizing environmental insecticide-contamination and non-targeted mortality). PMID:24581366

Minoli, Sebastián; Palottini, Florencia; Crespo, Jose Guillermo; Manrique, Gabriel

2013-12-01

65

OH clock determination by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry at an environmental chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydroxyl free radical (OH) is the major oxidizing species in the lower atmosphere. Measuring the OH concentration is generally difficult and involves elaborate, expensive, custom-made experimental setups. Thus other more economical techniques, capable of determining OH concentrations at environmental chambers, would be valuable. This work is based on an indirect method of OH concentration measurement, by monitoring an appropriate OH tracer by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). 3-pentanol, 3-pentanone and pinonaldehyde (PA) were used as OH tracers in ?-pinene (AP) secondary organic aerosol (SOA) aging studies. In addition we tested butanol-d9 as a potential "universal" OH tracer and determined its reaction rate constant with OH: kbutanol-d9 = 3.4(±0.88) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. In order to make the chamber studies more comparable among each other as well as to atmospheric measurements we suggest the use of a chemical (time) dimension: the OH clock, which corresponds to the integrated OH concentration over time.

Barmet, P.; Dommen, J.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Tritscher, T.; Praplan, A. P.; Platt, S. M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Donahue, N. M.; Baltensperger, U.

2012-03-01

66

Aroma enhancement and enzymolysis regulation of grape wine using ?-glycosidase  

PubMed Central

Adding ?-glycosidase into grape wine for enhancing aroma was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Kramer sensory evaluation. Compared with the extract from control wines, the extract from enzyme-treated wines increased more aromatic compounds using steam distillation extraction (SDE) and GC-MS analyses. Theses aromatic compounds were as follows: 3-methyl-1-butanol formate, 3-pentanol, furfural, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-butanoic acid ethyl ester, hexanoic acid, hexanoic acid ethyl ester, benzyl alcohol, octanoic acid, octanoic acid ethyl ester, dodecanoic acid, and ethyl ester. The enzymolysis regulation conditions, including enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis time, and enzyme amount, were optimized through L9(34) orthogonal test. Kramer sensory evaluation was performed by an 11-man panel of judges. The optimum enzymolysis regulation conditions were found to be temperature of 45°C, enzymolysis time of 90 min, and enzyme amount of 58.32 U/mL grape wine, respectively. The Kramer sensory evaluation supported that the enzyme-treated wines produced a stronger fragrance.

Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

2014-01-01

67

Removal of acrylic coatings from works of art by means of nanofluids: understanding the mechanism at the nanoscale.  

PubMed

Conservation of works of art often involves the inappropriate application of synthetic polymers. We have proposed the use of alternative methodologies for conservation and formulated innovative cleaning nanostructured systems to remove previously applied polymer films and grime from painted surfaces. In particular, a novel "micellar system" composed of water, SDS, 1-pentanol, ethyl acetate and propylene carbonate was recently formulated and successfully used to remove acrylic and vinyl/acrylic copolymers from Mesoamerican wall paintings in the archeological site of Cholula, Mexico. This contribution reports on the mechanism of the interaction process that takes place between the nanostructured fluid and the polymer coating at the nanoscale. The structural properties of the "micellar solution" and of the polymer film are investigated before, during and after the interaction process using several surface and solution techniques. Rather than a classical detergency mechanism, we demonstrate that micelles act as solvent containers and interact with the polymer film leading to its swelling and detachment from the surface and to its segregation in a liquid droplet, which phase-separates from the aqueous bulk. After the removal process the micelles become smaller in size and undergo a structural re-arrangement due to the depletion of the organic solvents. These findings can be framed in an interaction mechanism which describes the removal process, opening up new perspectives in the design and formulation of new cleaning systems specifically tailored for intervention on particular conservation issues. PMID:20820703

Baglioni, Michele; Rengstl, Doris; Berti, Debora; Bonini, Massimo; Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Piero

2010-09-01

68

Dielectric barrier discharge carbon atomic emission spectrometer: universal GC detector for volatile carbon-containing compounds.  

PubMed

It was found that carbon atomic emission can be excited in low temperature dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), and an atmospheric pressure, low power consumption, and compact microplasma carbon atomic emission spectrometer (AES) was constructed and used as a universal and sensitive gas chromatographic (GC) detector for detection of volatile carbon-containing compounds. A concentric DBD device was housed in a heating box to increase the plasma operation temperature to 300 °C to intensify carbon atomic emission at 193.0 nm. Carbon-containing compounds directly injected or eluted from GC can be decomposed, atomized, and excited in this heated DBD for carbon atomic emission. The performance of this new optical detector was first evaluated by determination of a series of volatile carbon-containing compounds including formaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol, and absolute limits of detection (LODs) were found at a range of 0.12-0.28 ng under the optimized conditions. Preliminary experimental results showed that it provided slightly higher LODs than those obtained by GC with a flame ionization detector (FID). Furthermore, it is a new universal GC detector for volatile carbon-containing compounds that even includes those compounds which are difficult to detect by FID, such as HCHO, CO, and CO2. Meanwhile, hydrogen gas used in conventional techniques was eliminated; and molecular optical emission detection can also be performed with this GC detector for multichannel analysis to improve resolution of overlapped chromatographic peaks of complex mixtures. PMID:24328147

Han, Bingjun; Jiang, Xiaoming; Hou, Xiandeng; Zheng, Chengbin

2014-01-01

69

Removal of acrylic coatings from works of art by means of nanofluids: understanding the mechanism at the nanoscale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conservation of works of art often involves the inappropriate application of synthetic polymers. We have proposed the use of alternative methodologies for conservation and formulated innovative cleaning nanostructured systems to remove previously applied polymer films and grime from painted surfaces. In particular, a novel ``micellar system'' composed of water, SDS, 1-pentanol, ethyl acetate and propylene carbonate was recently formulated and successfully used to remove acrylic and vinyl/acrylic copolymers from Mesoamerican wall paintings in the archeological site of Cholula, Mexico. This contribution reports on the mechanism of the interaction process that takes place between the nanostructured fluid and the polymer coating at the nanoscale. The structural properties of the ``micellar solution'' and of the polymer film are investigated before, during and after the interaction process using several surface and solution techniques. Rather than a classical detergency mechanism, we demonstrate that micelles act as solvent containers and interact with the polymer film leading to its swelling and detachment from the surface and to its segregation in a liquid droplet, which phase-separates from the aqueous bulk. After the removal process the micelles become smaller in size and undergo a structural re-arrangement due to the depletion of the organic solvents. These findings can be framed in an interaction mechanism which describes the removal process, opening up new perspectives in the design and formulation of new cleaning systems specifically tailored for intervention on particular conservation issues.

Baglioni, Michele; Rengstl, Doris; Berti, Debora; Bonini, Massimo; Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Piero

2010-09-01

70

Nucleation of ethanol, propanol, butanol, and pentanol: a systematic experimental study along the homologous series.  

PubMed

We present homogeneous vapor-liquid nucleation rates of the 1-alcohols (C(n)H(2n+1)OH, n = 2-4) measured in the well-established two-valve nucleation pulse chamber as well as in a novel one-piston nucleation pulse chamber at temperatures between 235 and 265 K. The nucleation rates and critical cluster sizes show a very systematic behavior with respect to the hydrocarbon chain length of the alcohol, just as their thermo-physical parameters such as surface tension, vapor pressure, and density would suggest. For all alcohols, except ethanol, predictions of classical nucleation theory lie several orders of magnitude below the experimental results and show a strong temperature-dependence typically found in nucleation experiments. The more recent Reguera-Reiss theory [J. Phys. Chem. B 108(51), 19831 (2004)] achieves reasonably good predictions for 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol, and independent of the temperature. Ethanol, however, clearly shows the influence of strong association between molecules even in the vapor phase. We also scaled all experimental results with classic nucleation theory to compare our data with other data from the literature. We find the same overall temperature trend for all measurement series together but inverted and inconsistent temperature trends for individual 1-propanol and 1-butanol measurements in other devices. Overall, our data establishe a comprehensive and reliable data set that forms an ideal basis for comparison with nucleation theory. PMID:22894357

Manka, Alexandra A; Wedekind, Jan; Ghosh, David; Höhler, Kristina; Wölk, Judith; Strey, Reinhard

2012-08-01

71

Micro-electromembrane extraction across free liquid membranes. Instrumentation and basic principles.  

PubMed

A micro-electromembrane extraction (?-EME) technique using electrically induced transfer of charged analytes across free liquid membranes (FLMs) was presented. A disposable extraction unit was proposed and it was made of a short segment of transparent perfluoroalkoxy tubing, which was successively filled with three liquid plugs serving as acceptor solution, FLM and donor solution. These plugs formed a three-phase extraction system, which was precisely defined, that was stable and required ?L to sub-?L volumes of all respective solutions. Basic instrumental set-up and extraction principles of ?-EME were examined using an anionic and a cationic dye, 4,5-dihydroxy-3-(p-sulfophenylazo)-2,7-naphthalene disulfonic acid trisodium salt (SPADNS) and crystal violet, respectively. Transfers of the charged dyes from donor into acceptor solutions across FLMs consisting of 1-pentanol were visualized by a microscope camera and quantitative measurements were performed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The effects of operational parameters of ?-EME system were comprehensively investigated and experimental measurements were accompanied with theoretical calculations. Extraction recoveries above 60% were achieved for 5min ?-EME of 1mM SPADNS at 100V with repeatability values below 5%. Selectivity of FLMs was additionally examined by capillary electrophoretic analyses of acceptor solutions and the potential of FLMs for ?-EME pretreatment of samples with artificial complex matrices was demonstrated. PMID:24792701

Kubá?, Pavel; Bo?ek, Petr

2014-06-13

72

From sample processing to quantification: a full electrochemical approach for neutral analyte derivatization, capillary electrophoresis separation, and contactless conductivity detection.  

PubMed

A thin-layer electrochemical flow cell coupled to capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection (EC-CE-C(4)D) was applied for the first time to the derivatization and quantification of neutral species using aliphatic alcohols as model compounds. The simultaneous electrooxidation of four alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol) to the corresponding carboxylates was carried out on a platinum working electrode in acid medium. The derivatization step required 1 min at 1.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl under stopped flow conditions, which was preceded by a 10 s activation at 0 V. The solution close to the electrode surface was then hydrodynamically injected into the capillary, and a 2.5 min electrophoretic separation was carried out. The fully automated flow system operated at a frequency of 12 analyses per hour. Simultaneous determination of the four alcohols presented detection limits of about 5 × 10(-5) mol L(-1). As a practical application with a complex matrix, ethanol concentrations were determined in diluted pale lager beer and in nonalcoholic beer. No statistically significant difference was observed between the EC-CE-C(4)D and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) results for these samples. The derivatization efficiency remained constant over several hours of continuous operation with lager beer samples (n = 40). PMID:22931091

Santos, Mauro Sérgio Ferreira; Lopes, Fernando Silva; Vidal, Denis Tadeu Rajh; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio; Gutz, Ivano Gebhardt Rolf

2012-09-18

73

Enantiomeric separation of imidazolinone herbicides using chiral high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is one of the most powerful tools to prepare enantiopure standards of chiral compounds. In this study, the enantiomeric separation of imidazolinone herbicides, i.e., imazethapyr, imazapyr, and imazaquin, was investigated using chiral HPLC. The enantioselectivity of Chiralpak AS, Chiralpak AD, Chiralcel OD, and Chiralcel OJ columns for the three analytes was compared under similar chromatographic conditions. Chiralcel OJ column showed the best chiral resolving capacity among the test columns. The resolved enantiomers were distinguished by their signs of circular dichroism detected at 275 nm and their structures confirmed with LC-mass spectrometric analysis. Factors affecting the chiral separation of imidazolinones on Chiralcel OJ column were characterized. Ethanol acted as a better polar modifier than the other alcohols including 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol. Although the acidic modifier in the mobile phase did not influence chiral recognition, it was necessary for reducing the retention time of enantiomers and suppressing their peak tailing. Thermodynamic evaluation suggests that enantiomeric separation of imidazolinones on Chiralcel OJ column is an enthalpy-driven process from 10 to 40 degrees C. This study also shows that small amounts of pure enantiomers of imidazolinones may be obtained by using the analytical chiral HPLC approach. PMID:17167748

Lin, Kunde; Xu, Chao; Zhou, Shanshan; Liu, Weiping; Gan, Jay

2007-03-01

74

Selective detection of alkanolamine vapors by ion mobility spectrometry with ketone reagent gases.  

PubMed

The ion mobility (IMS) spectra of the alkanolamines, monoethanolamine (MEA), 3-amino-1-propanol (PRA), 4-amino-1-butanol (BUA), and 5-amino-1-pentanol (PEA) with acetone and 4-heptanone reagent gases have been measured using a hand-held spectrometer. Monomer and dimer peak patterns were observed for all the alkanolamines with acetone reagent gas. Drift times of monomer and dimer ion clusters for each alkanolamine increased linearly in order of size of alkyl group. Ammonia, Freon 22, and F76 diesel vapors, having similar or coincident mobilities, caused severe interference. Replacement of acetone with 4-heptanone reagent gas resulted in good separation by the altering drift times of product ions. The limit of detection was 0.005 ppm having a linear range of 0.005-0.7 ppm, and signal saturation occurred above 0.88 ppm. Detection was reversible, with a response time of 4 min and a slower recovery time of > 60 min, at vapor levels of 0.7 ppm and ambient nozzle and drift-region temperatures. In contrast to acetone chemistry, single-peak patterns were observed for the alkanolamines with the 4-heptanone reagent. Further, drift times unexpectedly remained stagnant with increasing alkyl-group size. From atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APcI) tandem mass spectral identifications and collision induced studies, dynamic changes in product-ion equilibria in the IMS drift region compensated by differences in collision cross sections were suggested as the governing causes of the unusual mobility effect. PMID:10701266

Gan, T H; Corino, G

2000-02-15

75

Validation of techniques for the destruction of dimethyl sulfate.  

PubMed

It has been reported that dimethyl sulfate (DMS) can be degraded with sodium hydroxide solution (1 mol/L), sodium carbonate solution (1 mol/L), or ammonium hydroxide solution (1.5 mol/L). This has now been confirmed. Complete destruction of undiluted DMS or DMS in solvents miscible with water (methanol, ethanol, DMSO, DMF, acetone) or solvents partially miscible or immiscible with water (toluene, p-xylene, benzene, 1-pentanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, acetonitrile) could be obtained using any of the above methods. Reaction times were 15 min after homogeneity was obtained for undiluted DMS, 15 min for solutions in methanol, ethanol, DMSO, and DMF, one hour for solutions in acetone, three hours for acetonitrile, and one day for the other solvents listed above. The final reaction mixtures were tested for mutagenicity, and when the solutions were not cytotoxic, no mutagenic response was obtained. DMS in solution was determined by a colorimetric method. The products of the reactions were found to be methanol when NaOH and Na2CO3 were used and methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, and methanol when ammonium hydroxide was used. The stability of DMS in various solvents was also determined. PMID:3993540

Lunn, G; Sansone, E B

1985-03-01

76

Profile of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath changes as a result of gluten-free diet.  

PubMed

In the present longitudinal study, we followed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) excreted in exhaled breath of 20 healthy individuals over time, while adhering to a gluten-free diet for 4 weeks prior to adherence to a normal diet. We used gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (TD-GC-tof-MS) in combination with chemometric analysis to detect an array of VOCs in exhaled breath. Multivariate analysis was applied to extract the maximal information from the obtained data. Dietary intake was assessed to verify adherence to the diet and to get insight into macronutrient intake during the intervention period. A set of 12 volatile compounds distinguished the samples obtained during the gluten-free diet from those obtained during a normal diet. Seven compounds could be chemically identified (2-butanol, octane, 2-propyl-1pentanol, nonanal, dihydro-4-methyl-2(3H)-furanone, nonanoic acid and dodecanal) and speculated on a possible origin. Our findings suggest that a gluten-free dietary period had a reversible impact on participants' excreted metabolites visible in their breath. Several explanations are proposed of influencing metabolic status through dietary interventions. Although the exact origin of the discriminating compounds is not yet known, the main goal of this paper was to share a new potential use of exhaled air analysis and might become a useful tool in fields of nutrition and metabolism. PMID:23774130

Baranska, Agnieszka; Tigchelaar, Ettje; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Dallinga, Jan W; Moonen, Edwin J C; Dekens, Jackie A M; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zhernakova, Alexandra; van Schooten, Frederik J

2013-09-01

77

Surface Tension Characteristics of Aqueous Lithium Bromide Solution with Alcoholic Surfactant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, the combination of aqueous lithium bromide (LiBr) solution as an absorbent and water as a refrigerant have widely been used as the working fluid for absorption refrigerating machines. In order to obtain absorption enhancement of water vapor into the LiBr solution by Marangoni convection, an alcoholic surfactant is being added in the LiBr solution. In that case, the surface tension of the LiBr solution with the surfactant plays an important role for the vapor absorption. In this study, the surface tensions of the LiBr solution with several alcoholic surfactants such as 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 2-ethyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-pentanol, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were measured by Wilhelmy plate method. As a result, the surface tensions of 50 wt% LiBr solution with several surfactants were obtained over the LiBr solution temperature range from 298 K to 318 K and the surfactant concentration range from 0 to 104 ppm by mass. The measured surface tension has decreased with the increasing number of carbons included in the surfactant at constant concentration, and the surface tension has increased with the increasing temperature of 50 wt% LiBr solution. The surface tension increase of 1-octanol became greater than any other surfactant used in this work. The effective carbon number of the surfactant for the absorption enhancement was in the range from 7 to 8.

Sasaki, Naoe; Ogawa, Kiyoshi

78

All-catalytic, efficient, and asymmetric synthesis of alpha,omega-diheterofunctional reduced polypropionates via "one-pot" Zr-catalyzed asymmetric carboalumination-Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling tandem process.  

PubMed

A highly efficient method for the synthesis of stereochemically pure (>/=99% ee and >50/1 dr) alpha,omega-diheterofunctional reduced polypropionates has been developed. The essential features of the method are represented by the conversion of inexpensive styrene into 2-methyl-4-phenyl-1-pentanol (1) in 50% yield over two steps from styrene via Zr-catalyzed asymmetric carboalumination (ZACA) reaction in the presence of (NMI)2ZrCl2 and Pd-catalyzed vinylation of the in situ generated isoalkylalanes in the presence of Zn(OTf)2 and a catalytic amount of Pd(DPEphos)Cl2. This ZACA-Pd-catalyzed vinylation may be repeated as needed without purification. After the final ZACA reaction, oxidation with O2 provides alpha-hydroxy-omega-phenyl reduced polypropionates, which can be fully or partially purified by chromatography. After acetylation, Ru-catalyzed oxidative cleavage of the Ph ring, and reduction with BH3.THF, the second chromatographic purification provides stereoisomerically pure alpha,omega-diheterofunctional reduced polypropionates (e.g., 9 and 11) that can be further converted to key intermediates 6 and 7 for the synthesis of ionomycin (4) and borrelidin (5), respectively, by known reactions. PMID:15740104

Novak, Tibor; Tan, Ze; Liang, Bo; Negishi, Ei-Ichi

2005-03-01

79

Simultaneous convective heat and mass transfer in impingement ink drying  

SciTech Connect

Effective and economical drying of thin ink films is essential in the printing, packaging and coating industries. In evaporative drying, high heat and mass transfer rates are commonly achieved by means of high velocity impinging air jets. To provide data for dryer design a program of research has been implemented to study the heat and mass transfer processes which underlie the drying of thin ink films. The heat transfer situation under impinging air jets is outlined and some experimental results are presented. Optimization of nozzle arrays for impinging air jets is analyzed for practical applications. A non-contact infra-red technique for continuously monitoring the ink drying process is described and drying curves for an ink based on a single solvent (4-Methyl-2-pentanol-MIBC) are presented. Heat and mass transfer theory has been used to predict drying times in the constant rate drying period. These predictions have been compared with experimentally determined drying times. This research has served to confirm the fundamental importance of the drying curve as a basis for dryer design.

Can, M. [Univ. of Uldag, Bursa (Turkey)] [Univ. of Uldag, Bursa (Turkey)

1998-08-01

80

A Long-Chain Secondary Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277  

PubMed Central

A NAD-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase has been purified from the alkane-degrading bacterium, Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277. The enzyme was found to be active against a broad range of substrates, particularly long-chain secondary aliphatic alcohols. Although optimal activity was observed with linear 2-alcohols containing between 6 and 11 carbon atoms, secondary alcohols as long as 2-tetradecanol were oxidized at 25% of the rate seen with mid-range alcohols. The purified enzyme was specific for the S-(+) stereoisomer of 2-octanol and had a specific activity for 2-octanol of over 200 (mu)mol/min/mg of protein at pH 9 and 37(deg)C, 25-fold higher than that of any previously reported S-(+) secondary alcohol dehydrogenase. Linear primary alcohols containing between 3 and 13 carbon atoms were utilized 20- to 40-fold less efficiently than the corresponding secondary alcohols. The apparent K(infm) value for NAD(sup+) with 2-octanol as the substrate was 260 (mu)M, whereas the apparent K(infm) values for the 2-alcohols ranged from over 5 mM for 2-pentanol to less than 2 (mu)M for 2-tetradecanol. The enzyme showed moderate thermostability (half-life of 4 h at 60(deg)C) and could potentially be useful for the synthesis of optically pure stereoisomers of secondary alcohols.

Ludwig, B.; Akundi, A.; Kendall, K.

1995-01-01

81

Determination of trimebutine and desmethyl-trimebutine in human plasma by HPLC.  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive HPLC method has been developed to measure trimebutine (CAS 39133-31-8, maleate: CAS 34140-59-5) and its main metabolite desmethyl-trimebutine in human plasma. The method was validated according to the Washington Consensus Conference on the Validation of Analytical Methods. It involved extraction of the plasma with n-hexane containing 2-pentanol, followed by reversed-phase HPLC using a Partisil ODS2 10 microns column and UV detection at 265 nm. The retention times of the internal standard (procaine), desmethyl-trimebutine and trimebutine were 2.4, 4.3 and 6.5 min, respectively. The standard curves were linear from 20 ng.ml-1 (limit of quantitation) to 5000 ng.ml-1 for both compounds. The coefficient of variation for all the criteria of validation were less than 15%. The extraction recoveries obtained for trimebutine and desmethyl-trimebutine were about 90%. Both compounds were very stable upon storage in plasma. The method was tested by measuring the plasma concentrations following oral administration to humans during a bioequivalence study and was shown suitable for pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:10965422

Lavit, M; Saivin, S; Boudra, H; Michel, F; Martin, A; Cahiez, G; Labaune, J P; Chomard, J M; Houin, G

2000-07-01

82

Aroma composition changes in early season grapefruit juice produced from thermal concentration.  

PubMed

Differences in aroma components and total volatiles between a single unpasteurized Marsh grapefruit juice and its 65 Brix concentrate reconstituted to 10 Brix were examined using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-FID. Total volatiles (FID) in the reconstituted concentrate were reduced to less than 5% of initial values, but 57% of total aroma (GC-O) remained. Forty-one aroma-active compounds were observed in unpasteurized single strength juice, whereas 27 components were found in the unflavored reconstituted concentrate. Aroma-active compounds were classified into grapefruit/sulfury, sweet/fruity, fresh/citrusy, green/fatty/metallic, and cooked/meaty groups. Five of six components in the sweet/fruity and 14 of 18 green/fatty/metallic components survived thermal concentration. However, only 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone in the grapefruit/sulfury group, and linalool and nootkatone from the fresh/citrusy group, were found in the reconstituted concentrate. Methional was the only aroma compound in the cooked/meaty category found in both juice types. beta-Damascenone and 1-p-menthen-8-thiol were found only in the reconstituted concentrate. 4-Mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanol was found for the first time in grapefruit juice. PMID:11829649

Lin, Jianming; Rouseff, Russell L; Barros, Sandy; Naim, Michael

2002-02-13

83

A Long-Chain Secondary Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277.  

PubMed

A NAD-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase has been purified from the alkane-degrading bacterium, Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277. The enzyme was found to be active against a broad range of substrates, particularly long-chain secondary aliphatic alcohols. Although optimal activity was observed with linear 2-alcohols containing between 6 and 11 carbon atoms, secondary alcohols as long as 2-tetradecanol were oxidized at 25% of the rate seen with mid-range alcohols. The purified enzyme was specific for the S-(+) stereoisomer of 2-octanol and had a specific activity for 2-octanol of over 200 (mu)mol/min/mg of protein at pH 9 and 37(deg)C, 25-fold higher than that of any previously reported S-(+) secondary alcohol dehydrogenase. Linear primary alcohols containing between 3 and 13 carbon atoms were utilized 20- to 40-fold less efficiently than the corresponding secondary alcohols. The apparent K(infm) value for NAD(sup+) with 2-octanol as the substrate was 260 (mu)M, whereas the apparent K(infm) values for the 2-alcohols ranged from over 5 mM for 2-pentanol to less than 2 (mu)M for 2-tetradecanol. The enzyme showed moderate thermostability (half-life of 4 h at 60(deg)C) and could potentially be useful for the synthesis of optically pure stereoisomers of secondary alcohols. PMID:16535152

Ludwig, B; Akundi, A; Kendall, K

1995-10-01

84

Headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry dilution analysis of young and aged Chinese "Yanghe Daqu" liquors.  

PubMed

The aroma compounds of young and aged Chinese "Yanghe Daqu" liquor samples were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-olfactometry dilution analysis. The original liquor samples were diluted with deionized water to give a final alcohol content of 14% (v/v). The samples were stepwise diluted (1:1) with 14% (by volume) ethanol-water solution and then extracted by headspace SPME. The samples were preequilibrated at 50 degrees C for 15 min and extracted with stirring at the same temperature for 30 min prior to injection into GC. The aroma compounds were identified by both GC-MS and GC-olfactometry using DB-Wax and DB-5 columns. The results suggested that esters were the major contributors to Yanghe Daqu liquor aroma. Ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, and ethyl pentanoate had very high flavor dilution values in both young and aged liquors (FD > 8192). Methyl hexanoate, ethyl heptanoate, ethyl benzoate, and butyl hexanoate could also be very important because of their high flavor dilution values (FD > or = 256). Moreover, two acetals, 1,1-diethoxyethane and 1,1-diethoxy-3-methylbutane, also were shown high flavor dilution values in Yanghe Daqu liquors (FD > or = 256). Other aroma compounds having moderate flavor dilution values included acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanol, and 2-pentanol (FD > or = 32). Comparing young and aged liquors, the aroma profiles were similar, but the aroma compounds in the aged sample had higher flavor dilution values than in the young ones. PMID:16190652

Fan, Wenlai; Qian, Michael C

2005-10-01

85

Preparation of passion fruit-typical 2-alkyl ester enantiomers via lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution.  

PubMed

The preparation of ester enantiomers (acetates, butanoates, hexanoates and octanoates) of the secondary alcohols 2-pentanol, 2-heptanol and 2-nonanol via lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolutions was investigated. Conversion rates and stereochemical courses of esterification and hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by commercially available enzyme preparations were followed for the homologous series of these passion fruit-typical 2-alkyl esters by capillary gas chromatography using heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin as chiral stationary phase. An efficient method was developed to prepare the ester enantiomers via lipase-catalyzed esterifications: optically pure (R)-2-alkyl esters (ee > 99.9%) were obtained by esterification of the racemic alcohols with enantioselective Candida antarctica lipase B (immobilized) as catalyst. The subsequent esterification of the unreacted alcohols using lipase from Candida cylindracea yielded the optically enriched (S)-esters (ee > 81.4%). The separation of the products via liquid solid chromatography using a mixture of silica gel and aluminum oxide (basic) resulted in high chemical purities and yields (> 40 mol %). PMID:20415422

Strohalm, Hedwig; Dold, Susanne; Pendzialek, Kathrin; Weiher, Monika; Engel, Karl-Heinz

2010-05-26

86

Bacterial Degradation of tert-Amyl Alcohol Proceeds via Hemiterpene 2-Methyl-3-Buten-2-ol by Employing the Tertiary Alcohol Desaturase Function of the Rieske Nonheme Mononuclear Iron Oxygenase MdpJ  

PubMed Central

Tertiary alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA) and higher homologues, are only slowly degraded microbially. The conversion of TBA seems to proceed via hydroxylation to 2-methylpropan-1,2-diol, which is further oxidized to 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid. By analogy, a branched pathway is expected for the degradation of TAA, as this molecule possesses several potential hydroxylation sites. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, a likely candidate catalyst for hydroxylations is the putative tertiary alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ. However, by comparing metabolite accumulations in wild-type strains of L108 and PM1 and in two mdpJ knockout mutants of strain L108, we could clearly show that MdpJ is not hydroxylating TAA to diols but functions as a desaturase, resulting in the formation of the hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The latter is further processed via the hemiterpenes prenol, prenal, and 3-methylcrotonic acid. Likewise, 3-methyl-3-pentanol is degraded via 3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol. Wild-type strain L108 and mdpJ knockout mutants formed isoamylene and isoprene from TAA and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, respectively. It is likely that this dehydratase activity is catalyzed by a not-yet-characterized enzyme postulated for the isomerization of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and prenol. The vitamin requirements of strain L108 growing on TAA and the occurrence of 3-methylcrotonic acid as a metabolite indicate that TAA and hemiterpene degradation are linked with the catabolic route of the amino acid leucine, including an involvement of the biotin-dependent 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A (3-methylcrotonyl-CoA) carboxylase LiuBD. Evolutionary aspects of favored desaturase versus hydroxylation pathways for TAA conversion and the possible role of MdpJ in the degradation of higher tertiary alcohols are discussed.

Schuster, Judith; Schafer, Franziska; Hubler, Nora; Brandt, Anne; Rosell, Monica; Hartig, Claus; Harms, Hauke; Muller, Roland H.

2012-01-01

87

Can volatile organic metabolites be used to simultaneously assess microbial and mite contamination level in cereal grains and coffee beans?  

PubMed

A novel approach based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS) was developed for the simultaneous screening of microbial and mite contamination level in cereals and coffee beans. The proposed approach emerges as a powerful tool for the rapid assessment of the microbial contamination level (ca. 70 min versus ca. 72 to 120 h for bacteria and fungi, respectively, using conventional plate counts), and mite contamination (ca. 70 min versus ca. 24 h). A full-factorial design was performed for optimization of the SPME experimental parameters. The methodology was applied to three types of rice (rough, brown, and white rice), oat, wheat, and green and roasted coffee beans. Simultaneously, microbiological analysis of the samples (total aerobic microorganisms, moulds, and yeasts) was performed by conventional plate counts. A set of 54 volatile markers was selected among all the compounds detected by GC×GC-ToFMS. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied in order to establish a relationship between potential volatile markers and the level of microbial contamination. Methylbenzene, 3-octanone, 2-nonanone, 2-methyl-3-pentanol, 1-octen-3-ol, and 2-hexanone were associated to samples with higher microbial contamination level, especially in rough rice. Moreover, oat exhibited a high GC peak area of 2-hydroxy-6-methylbenzaldehyde, a sexual and alarm pheromone for adult mites, which in the other matrices appeared as a trace component. The number of mites detected in oat grains was correlated to the GC peak area of the pheromone. The HS-SPME/GC×GC-ToFMS methodology can be regarded as the basis for the development of a rapid and versatile method that can be applied in industry to the simultaneous assessment the level of microbiological contamination and for detection of mites in cereals grains and coffee beans. PMID:23613710

Salvador, Angelo C; Baptista, Inês; Barros, António S; Gomes, Newton C M; Cunha, Angela; Almeida, Adelaide; Rocha, Silvia M

2013-01-01

88

Kinetic limitations on tracer partitioning in ganglia dominated source zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of the relationship between dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source strength, source longevity and spatial distribution is increasingly recognized as important for effective remedial design. Partitioning tracers are one tool that may permit interrogation of DNAPL architecture. Tracer data are commonly analyzed under the assumption of linear, equilibrium partitioning, although the appropriateness of these assumptions has not been fully explored. Here we focus on elucidating the nonlinear and nonequilibrium partitioning behavior of three selected alcohol tracers — 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 2-octanol in a series of batch and column experiments. Liquid-liquid equilibria for systems comprising water, TCE and the selected alcohol illustrate the nonlinear distribution of alcohol between the aqueous and organic phases. Complete quantification of these equilibria facilitates delineation of the limits of applicability of the linear partitioning assumption, and assessment of potential inaccuracies associated with measurement of partition coefficients at a single concentration. Column experiments were conducted under conditions of non-equilibrium to evaluate the kinetics of the reversible absorption of the selected tracers in a sandy medium containing a uniform entrapped saturation of TCE-DNAPL. Experimental tracer breakthrough data were used, in conjunction with mathematical models and batch measurements, to evaluate alternative hypotheses for observed deviations from linear equilibrium partitioning behavior. Analyses suggest that, although all tracers accumulate at the TCE-DNAPL/aqueous interface, surface accumulation does not influence transport at concentrations typically employed for tracer tests. Moreover, results reveal that the kinetics of the reversible absorption process are well described using existing mass transfer correlations originally developed to model aqueous boundary layer resistance for pure-component NAPL dissolution.

Ervin, Rhiannon E.; Boroumand, Ali; Abriola, Linda M.; Ramsburg, C. Andrew

2011-11-01

89

Binding of higher alcohols onto Mn(12) single-molecule magnets (SMMs): access to the highest barrier Mn(12) SMM.  

PubMed

Two new members of the Mn(12) family of single-molecule magnets (SMMs), [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CCH(2)Bu(t))(16)(Bu(t)OH)(H(2)O)(3)].2Bu(t)OH (3.2Bu(t)OH) and [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CCH(2)Bu(t))(16)(C(5)H(11)OH)(4)] (4) (C(5)H(11)OH is 1-pentanol), are reported. They were synthesized from [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CMe)(16)(H(2)O)(4)].2MeCO(2)H.4H(2)O (1) by carboxylate substitution and crystallization from the appropriate alcohol-containing solvent. Complexes 3 and 4 are new members of the recently established [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CCH(2)Bu(t))(16)(solv)(4)] (solv = H(2)O, alcohols) family of SMMs. Only one bulky Bu(t)OH can be accommodated into 3, and even this causes significant distortion of the [Mn(12)O(12)] core. Variable-temperature, solid-state alternating current (AC) magnetization studies were carried out on complexes 3 and 4, and they established that both possess an S = 10 ground state spin and are SMMs. However, the magnetic behavior of the two compounds was found to be significantly different, with 4 showing out-of-phase AC peaks at higher temperatures than 3. High-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) studies were carried out on single crystals of 3.2Bu(t)OH and 4, and these revealed that the axial zero-field splitting constant, D, is very different for the two compounds. Furthermore, it was established that 4 is the Mn(12) SMM with the highest kinetic barrier (U(eff)) to date. The results reveal alcohol substitution as an additional and convenient means to affect the magnetization relaxation barrier of the Mn(12) SMMs without major change to the ligation or oxidation state. PMID:20092341

Lampropoulos, Christos; Redler, Gage; Data, Saiti; Abboud, Khalil A; Hill, Stephen; Christou, George

2010-02-15

90

Nanostructured surfactant-based systems for the removal of polymers from wall paintings: a small-angle neutron scattering study.  

PubMed

Nanostructured soft matter systems represent effective and long-lasting solutions with respect to traditional and often obsolete methodologies for the conservation of works of art. In particular, complex fluids such as micelles and microemulsions are the most performing media for the removal of organic materials from porous supports, like wall paintings or stones. In this Article, we report on the characterization of two systems, EAPC and XYL, which have shown good to optimal performances in the removal of organic polymers from wall paintings. EAPC is a five-components fluid composed of water, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), 1-pentanol (PeOH), propylene carbonate (PC), and ethyl acetate (EA), while XYL is a "classical" o/w microemulsion, where p-xylene droplets are stabilized in water by SDS and PeOH. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with contrast variation is used to infer a detailed picture of the structure of these complex fluids, with a particular focus on the partition of the components between the bulk phase and the nanocompartments. We found that, differently from XYL, the EAPC system is neither a microemulsion nor a simple micellar solution, with the cosolvents partitioned between the dispersing phase and the disperse droplets. These different structural features play a key role in defining the cleaning effectiveness and specifically the kinetics of interaction between the nanofluid and the polymeric coating to be removed, which is of paramount importance for the application in the field. Both of these nanofluids are effective in polymer removal, but EAPC is considerably more efficient and versatile. The composition and the structure at the nanoscale determine the capability of removing a broad range of different polymer coatings from porous materials. A representative case study is here described, addressing a particularly challenging conservative issue, which is the removal of a multilayered aged coating that was irreversibly damaging the pictorial layer of the Annunciation Basilica in Nazareth. PMID:23025287

Baglioni, Michele; Berti, Debora; Teixeira, José; Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Piero

2012-10-30

91

Determination of volatile compounds in wine by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection: comparison between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 3sigma approach and Hubaux-Vos calculation of detection limits using ordinary and bivariate least squares.  

PubMed

A capillary GC-flame ionization detection (FID) method to determine volatile compounds (ethyl acetate, 1,1-diethoxyethane, methyl alcohol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-butanol, and 2-butanol) in wine was investigated in terms of calculation of detection limits and calibration method. The main objectives were: (1) calculation of regression coefficient parameters by ordinary least-squares (OLS) and bivariate least-squares (BLS) regression models, taking into account errors in both axes; (2) estimation of linear dynamic range (LDR) according to International Conference on Harmonization recommendations; (3) performance evaluation of a method by using three different internal standards (ISs) such as acetonitrile, acetone, and 1-pentanol; (4) evaluation of LODs according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 3sigma approach and the Hubaux-Vos (H-V) method; (5) application of H-V theory to a gas chromatographic analytical method and to a food matrix; and (6) accuracy assessment of the method relative to methyl alcohol content through a Unione Italiana Vini (UIV) interlaboratory proficiency test. Calibration curves calculated via BLS and OLS show similar slopes, while intercepts are closer to zero in the first case, independent of the chosen IS. The studied ISs show a substantially equivalent behavior, even though the IS closer to the analyte retention time seems to be more appropriate in terms of LDR and LOD. Results indicate an underestimation of LODs using the EPA 3sigma approach instead of the more realistic H-V method, both with OLS and BLS regression models. Methanol contents compared with UIV average values indicate recovery between 90 and 110%. PMID:22649934

Caruso, Rosario; Scordino, Monica; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

2012-01-01

92

Gas-Phase Reactivity of Protonated 2-, 3- and 4-Dehydropyridine Radicals Toward Organic Reagents  

PubMed Central

In order to explore the effects of the electronic nature of charged phenyl radicals on their reactivity, reactions of the three distonic isomers of ndehydropyridinium cation (n = 2, 3 or 4) have been investigated in the gas phase by using Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. All three isomers react with cyclohexane, methanol, ethanol and 1-pentanol exclusively via hydrogen atom abstraction, and with allyl iodide mainly via iodine atom abstraction, with a reaction efficiency ordering: 2 > 3 > 4. The observed reactivity ordering correlates well with the calculated vertical electron affinities of the charged radicals (i.e., the higher the vertical electron affinity, the faster the reaction). Charged radicals 2 and 3 also react with tetrahydrofuran exclusively via hydrogen atom abstraction, but the reaction of 4 with tetrahydrofuran yields products arising from nonradical reactivity. The unusual reactivity of 4 is likely to result from the contribution of an ionized carbene-type resonance structure that facilitates nucleophilic addition to the most electrophilic carbon atom (C-4) in this charged radical. The influence of such a resonance structure on the reactivity of 2 is not obvious, and this may be due to stabilizing hydrogen-bonding interactions in the transition states for this molecule. Charged radicals 2 and 3 abstract a hydrogen atom from the substituent in both phenol and toluene, but 4 abstracts a hydrogen atom from the phenyl ring – a reaction that is unprecedented for phenyl radicals. Charged radical 4 reacts with tert-butyl isocyanide mainly by hydrogen cyanide (HCN) abstraction while CN abstraction is the principal reaction for 2 and 3. The different reactivity observed for 4 (compared to 2 and 3) is likely to result from different charge and spin distributions of the reaction intermediates for these charged radicals.

Adeuya, Anthony; Price, Jason M.; Jankiewicz, Bartlomiej J.; Nash, John J.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

2009-01-01

93

Physicochemical investigation of mixed surfactant microemulsions: water solubilization, thermodynamic properties, microstructure, and dynamics.  

PubMed

In this contribution, we report on a systematic investigation of phase behavior and solubilization of water in water-in-heptane or decane aggregates stabilized by mixtures of polyoxyethylene (20) cetyl ether (Brij-58) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactants with varying compositions in conjugation with 1-pentanol (Pn) at fixed surfactant(s)/Pn ratio and temperature. Synergism in water solubilization was evidenced by the addition of CTAB to Brij-58 stabilized system in close proximity of equimolar composition in both oils. An attempt has been made to correlate composition dependent water solubilization and volume induced conductivity studies to provide insight into the solubilization mechanism of these mixed systems. Conductivity studies reveal the ascending curve in water solubilization capacity-(Brij-58:CTAB, w/w) profile as the interdroplet interaction branch indicating percolation of conductance and the descending curve is a curvature branch due to the rigidity of the interface in these systems. The microstructure of these systems as a function of surfactant composition has been determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. FTIR study reveals increase and decrease in relative population of bound and bulk-like water, respectively, with increase in Brij-58:CTAB (w/w). DLS measurements showed that the droplet hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) decreases significantly with the increase in Brij-58:CTAB (w/w). Further, the interfacial composition and energetic parameters for the transfer of Pn from bulk oil to the interface were evaluated by the dilution method. Formation of temperature-insensitive microemulsions and temperature invariant droplet sizes are evidenced in the vicinity of the equimolar composition. The results are interpreted in terms of a proposed mechanism. PMID:24064004

Bardhan, Soumik; Kundu, Kaushik; Saha, Swapan K; Paul, Bidyut K

2013-12-01

94

Kinetic limitations on tracer partitioning in ganglia dominated source zones.  

PubMed

Quantification of the relationship between dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source strength, source longevity and spatial distribution is increasingly recognized as important for effective remedial design. Partitioning tracers are one tool that may permit interrogation of DNAPL architecture. Tracer data are commonly analyzed under the assumption of linear, equilibrium partitioning, although the appropriateness of these assumptions has not been fully explored. Here we focus on elucidating the nonlinear and nonequilibrium partitioning behavior of three selected alcohol tracers - 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 2-octanol in a series of batch and column experiments. Liquid-liquid equilibria for systems comprising water, TCE and the selected alcohol illustrate the nonlinear distribution of alcohol between the aqueous and organic phases. Complete quantification of these equilibria facilitates delineation of the limits of applicability of the linear partitioning assumption, and assessment of potential inaccuracies associated with measurement of partition coefficients at a single concentration. Column experiments were conducted under conditions of non-equilibrium to evaluate the kinetics of the reversible absorption of the selected tracers in a sandy medium containing a uniform entrapped saturation of TCE-DNAPL. Experimental tracer breakthrough data were used, in conjunction with mathematical models and batch measurements, to evaluate alternative hypotheses for observed deviations from linear equilibrium partitioning behavior. Analyses suggest that, although all tracers accumulate at the TCE-DNAPL/aqueous interface, surface accumulation does not influence transport at concentrations typically employed for tracer tests. Moreover, results reveal that the kinetics of the reversible absorption process are well described using existing mass transfer correlations originally developed to model aqueous boundary layer resistance for pure-component NAPL dissolution. PMID:22115085

Ervin, Rhiannon E; Boroumand, Ali; Abriola, Linda M; Ramsburg, C Andrew

2011-11-01

95

Phenolic and volatile compounds of extra virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cornicabra) with regard to fruit ripening and irrigation management.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of both the degree of ripening of the olive fruit and irrigation management-rain-fed, two different regulated deficit irrigations (RDI), the method proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (known as FAO), and 125 FAO (125% FAO)-on the phenolic and volatile composition of Cornicabra virgin olive oils obtained during two crop seasons. Secoiridoid phenolic derivatives greatly decreased upon increase of both irrigation and ripening, for example, the 3,4-DHPEA-EDA content decreased from 770 to 450 mg/kg through fruit ripening under rain-fed conditions and from 676 to 388 mg/kg from rain-fed conditions to FAO irrigation treatment (at a ripeness index of approximately 4). Moreover, secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol decreased more than those of tyrosol. The levels of major volatile components decreased in the course of ripening but were higher in irrigated olive oils: for example, the E-2-hexenal content ranged between 4.2 and 2.6 mg/kg (expressed as 4-methyl-2-pentanol) over fruit maturation under rain-fed conditions and between 8.0 and 3.5 mg/kg under FAO scheduling. It is important to note that where water was applied only from the beginning of August (RDI-2), when oil begins to accumulate in the fruit, the resulting virgin olive oil presented a phenol and volatile profile similar to those of the FAO and 125 FAO methods, but with a considerable reduction in the amount of water supplied to the olive orchard. PMID:16968073

Gómez-Rico, Aurora; Salvador, M Desamparados; La Greca, Marta; Fregapane, Giuseppe

2006-09-20

96

Chemical characterization of fruit and fungal volatiles attractive to dried-fruit beetle,Carpophilus hemipterus (L.) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).  

PubMed

The chemical basis underlying orientation to fruit and fungal odors was investigated for the dried-fruit beetle,Carpophilus hemipterus (L.). In wind-tunnel bioassays of walking and flight response from 1.8 m, beetles were attracted to odors of the yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae on agar, aseptic banana, or banana inoculated withS. cerevisiae, although both banana substrates elicited greater response than the yeast alone. When presented in a two-choice bioassay, the yeast-inoculated banana attracted approximately twice as many beetles as did the aseptic banana. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles above these odor sources revealed a somewhat more complex and concentrated volatile profile for yeast-inoculated banana than for aseptic banana. The odor from yeast on agar had fewer components, and these were present at lower concentrations than the odors of either banana substrate. By blending mineral-oil or aqueous solutions of the 18 components of inoculated-banana odor in varying concentrations, it was possible to mimic closely the headspace profile of the natural odor. This synthetic odor also elicited beetle attraction in the wind tunnel at levels comparable to the inoculated banana. Through a series of bioassays in which individual components were subtracted from or added to a synthetic odor blend, it was determined that ethyl acetate, acetaldehyde, 2-pentanol, and 3-methylbutanol comprised the simplest blend of compounds evoking full behavioral response. However, 2-methylpropanol or butanol were apparently interchangeable with 3-methylbutanol in this blend, and comparable response could also be elicited by replacing acetaldehyde with a combination of both 2-pentanone and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. Thus, our results suggest that this generalist insect herbivore locates its hosts by a long-range response to a variety of blends of common fruit volatiles, whose concentrations are enhanced by fungi. PMID:24259182

Phelan, P L; Lin, H

1991-06-01

97

An examination of the H/D isotope substitution effect on selectivity and activity in the cavitating ultrasound hydrogenation of aqueous 3-buten-2-ol and 1,4-pentadien-3-ol on Pd-black  

SciTech Connect

An H/D isotope effect study of the (H2 versus D2) hydrogenation of the aqueous substrates 3-buten-2-ol (3B2OL) and 1,4-pentadien-3-ol (14PD3OL) was performed using Pd-black catalyst. Either H2O or D2O solvents were employed (for alcohol H/D isotope substitution). Two experimental processing conditions of cavitating ultrasound (CUS) and stirred/silent (SS) methods were used. Products formed include 2-butanol and 2-butanone for the former, and 3-pentanol and 3-pentanone for the latter. The observed selectivity and pseudo-first order reaction rate coefficients (e.g., activity) to these products enabled a mechanistic interpretation of the various reaction conditions to be proposed. Experiments utilized a 50 mL batch reactor maintained at 298 K, employed 5.4 atm of H2 or D2 gas, while seven aliquots were collected during the course of the reaction. We have utilized 1-propanol as an inert dopant in all experiments to enable the rapid onset of cavitation in the CUS systems as described earlier [R.S. Disselkamp et al., J. Catal., 227, 552 (2004)]. The following conclusions were noted. First, the activity of the CUS compared to SS processing were ~100-fold larger. Second, variable catalyst loading experiments for stirred/silent D2 hydrogenation processing indicated that mass transfer of hydrogen gas to the Pd-surface played a role such that higher catalyst loading reduced surface D-atom concentrations and reduced saturated alcohol formation (e.g., via reduced H-addition to surface alkyl radicals). Third, for CUS processing the ketone selectivities for experiments employing water compared to D2O indicated that 3B2OL were twice as large, whereas for 14PD3OL they were comparable. This suggests, somewhat surprisingly, that for 3B2OL enol tautomerization to ketone is a slow, and possibly rate-controlling, process. Finally, again for CUS processing, the similarity in ketone selectivities (all ~17%) for H2 compared to D2 hydrogenation for both 3B2OL and 14PD3OL suggest that both H/D isotopes have rapid surface diffusion and hence give rise to nearly equal selectivies. Restated, the thermal or cavitating ultrasound activation is much greater than the surface H/D diffusion barrier.

Boyles, Kelly R.; Chajkowski, Sarah M.; Disselkamp, Robert S.; Peden, Charles HF

2006-05-24

98

Sensory and physicochemical evolution of tropical cooked peeled shrimp inoculated by Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactococcus piscium CNCM I-4031 during storage at 8°C.  

PubMed

This study investigated the sensory quality and physicochemical evolution (pH, glucose, l-lactic acid, biogenic amine, free amino-acids and volatile compounds) during storage at 8°C of cooked peeled shrimp inoculated with the specific spoilage bacteria Brochothrix thermosphacta alone or mixed with the protective strain Lactococcus piscium CNCM I-4031. Growth of both bacteria was monitored at regular intervals during storage by microbial counts and the thermal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) technique. Bacterial counts showed that L. piscium and B. thermosphacta inoculated at 7 log CFU/g and 3 log CFU/g were well adapted to shrimp, reaching a maximum level of 9 log CFU/g after 4days and 10days respectively. In mixed culture, the growth of B. thermosphacta was reduced by 3.2±0.1 log CFU/g. The TTGE technique allowed monitoring the colonisation of the strains on the shrimp matrix and confirming the dominance of L. piscium in mixed culture throughout the experiment. Sensory analysis confirmed that B. thermosphacta spoiled the product after 11days, when its cell number attained 8 log CFU/g with the emission of strong butter/caramel off-odours. This sensory profile could be linked to the production of 2,3 butanedione, cyclopentanol, 3-methylbutanol, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, 4-methyl-3-chloro-3-pentanol and ethanol, which were produced in more significant quantities in the B. thermosphacta batch than in the batches in which the protective strain was present. On the contrary, TVBN and TMA were not suitable as quality indicators for B. thermosphacta spoilage activity. In the products where the protective L. piscium strain was present, no adverse effect on sensory quality was noted by the sensory panels. Moreover, biogenic amine assessment did not show any histamine or tyramine production by this strain, underlining its safety profile. Both strains produced lactic acid (1850mg/kg in L. piscium and B. thermosphacta batch on days 3 and 10 respectively; 3830mg/kg on day 7 in mixed culture) and the pH decrease from 6.6±0.0 to 5.9±0.1 was similar in all batches. Lactic acid production or competition for free amino-acid was not involved in the inhibition mechanism; however rapid glucose consumption by L. piscium could partially explain the growth limitation of the spoilage micro-organism. This study demonstrated the spoilage characteristic of B. thermosphacta and the usefulness of L. piscium as a bioprotective culture for tropical cooked peeled shrimp without any adverse effect on the sensory quality of the product. PMID:21835482

Fall, Papa Abdoulaye; Pilet, Marie France; Leduc, François; Cardinal, Mireille; Duflos, Guillaume; Guérin, Camille; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; Leroi, Françoise

2012-01-16

99

The effect of cavitating ultrasound on the aqueous phase hydrogenation of cis-2-buten-1-ol and cis-2-penten-1-ol on Pd-black  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the effect of cavitating ultrasound on the heterogeneous aqueous hydrogenation of cis-2-buten-1-ol (C4 olefin) and cis-2-penten-1-ol (C5 olefin) on Pd-black to form the trans-olefins (trans-2-buten-1-ol and trans-2-penten-1-ol) and saturated alcohols (1-butanol and 1-pentanol, respectively). Silent (and magnetically stirred) experiments served as control experiments. As described in an earlier publication by our group, we have added an inert dopant, 1-propanol, in the reaction mixture to ensure the rapid onset of cavitation in the ultrasound-assisted reactions that can lead to altered selectivity compared to silent reaction systems [R.S. Disselkamp, Ya-Huei Chin, C.H.F. Peden, J. Catal. 227 (2004) 552]. The motivation for this study is to examine whether cavitating ultrasound can reduce the [trans-olefin/saturated alcohol] molar ratio during the course of the reaction. This could have practical application in that it may offer an alternative processing methodology of synthesizing healthier edible seed oils by reducing trans-fat content.We have observed that cavitating ultrasound results in a [(trans-olefin/saturated alcohol)ultrasound/(trans-olefin/saturated alcohol)silent] ratio quantity less than 0.5 at the reaction mid-point for both the C4 and C5 olefin systems. This indicates that ultrasound reduces trans-olefin production compared to the silent control experiment. Furthermore, there is an added 30% reduction for the C5 versus C4 olefin compounds again at reaction mid-point. We attribute differences in the ratio quantity as a moment of inertia effect. In principle, the C4 versus C5 olefins has a {approx}52% increase in moment of inertia about C2 C3 double bond slowing isomerization. Since seed oils are C18 multiple cis-olefins and have a moment of inertia even greater than our C5 olefin here, our study suggests that even a greater reduction in trans-olefin content may occur for partial hydrogenation of C18 seed oils.

Disselkamp, Robert S.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Hart, Todd R.; White, James F.; Peden, Charles HF.

2005-07-15

100

The Effect of Cavitating Ultrasound on the Aqueous Phase Hydrogenation of Cis-2-buten-1-ol and Cis-2-penten-1-ol on Pd-black  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the effect of cavitating ultrasound on the heterogeneous aqueous hydrogenation of cis-2-buten-1-ol (C4 olefin) and cis-2-penten-1-ol (C5 olefin) on Pd-black to form the trans-olefins (trans-2-buten-1-ol and trans-2-penten-1-ol) and saturated alcohols (1-butanol and 1-pentanol, respectively). Silent (and magnetically stirred) experiments served as control experiments. As described in an earlier publication by our group, we have added an inert dopant, 1-propanol, in the reaction mixture to ensure the rapid onset of cavitation in the ultrasound-assisted reactions that can lead to altered selectivity compared to silent reaction systems [Disselkamp et al., J. Catal., 227 (2004) 552]. The motivation for this study is to examine whether cavitating ultrasound can reduce the [trans-olefin/saturated alcohol] molar ratio during the course of the reaction. This could have practical application in that it may offer an alternative processing methodology of synthesizing healthier edible seed oils by reducing trans-fat content. We have observed that cavitating ultrasound results in a [(trans-olefin/saturated alcohol)ultrasound/(trans-olefin/saturated alcohol)silent] ratio quantity less than 0.5 at the reaction mid-point for both the C4 and C5 olefin systems. This indicates that ultrasound reduces trans-olefin production compared to the silent control experiment. Furthermore, there is an added 30% reduction for the C5 versus C4 olefin compounds again at reaction mid-point. We attribute differences in the ratio quantity as a moment of inertia effect. In principle, the C4 versus C5 olefins has a {approx}52% increase in moment of inertia about C2=C3 double bond slowing isomerization. Since seed oils are C18 multiple cis olefins and have an moment of inertia even greater than our C5 olefin here, our study suggests that even a greater reduction in trans-olefin content may occur for partial hydrogenation of C18 seed oils.

Disselkamp, Robert S.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Hart, Todd R.; White, James F.; Peden, Charles HF.

2005-07-15

101

Volatile metabolite production of spoilage micro-organisms on a mixed-lettuce agar during storage at 7 degrees C in air and low oxygen atmosphere.  

PubMed

This paper describes the volatile metabolite production of spoilage bacteria (Pantoea agglomerans and Rahnella aquatilis) and spoilage yeasts (Pichia fermentans and Cryptococcus laurentii), previously isolated from mixed lettuce, on a simulation medium of shredded mixed lettuce (mixed-lettuce agar) both under air conditions and modified atmosphere (MA)-conditions at 7 degrees C. These latter conditions simulated the equilibrium modified atmosphere packaging, which is used to extend the shelf-life of shredded mixed lettuce. Besides volatile metabolites, organic acid metabolites and consumption of sugars were measured. Microbiological growth on the mixed-lettuce agar resulted in metabolite production and consumption of sugars. Bacteria and yeasts produced a range of volatile organic compounds both under air conditions and MA-conditions: ethanol, ethyl acetate, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2,3-butanedione, 3-methyl-1-pentanol, 1-butanol and 1-hexanol. Under MA-conditions, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and ethanol were the first compounds that were detected in the headspace as being produced by the inoculated micro-organisms. In the case of the yeast P. fermentans, production of these compounds was detected from a count of 5.0+/-0.1 log cfu/cm(2) with a fast increase when exceeding 6.0-6.5 log cfu/cm(2). Unlike P. fermentans, the yeast C. laurentii showed a slow metabolism under MA-conditions, compared to air conditions. In the case of the bacteria, production of 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol was detected starting from a count of 6.7+/-0.1 log cfu/cm(2) in the case of R. aquatilis and from a count of 7.1+/-0.4 log cfu/cm(2) in the case of P. agglomerans with a fast increase when exceeding 8 log cfu/cm(2). No production of ethanol by the bacteria under MA-conditions was detected in contradiction to air conditions. It could be concluded that, if these counts are reached on the cut surfaces of shredded mixed lettuce which are simulated by the mixed-lettuce agar, sensorial quality of shredded mixed lettuce could be influenced by the microbiological production of metabolites. PMID:16860421

Ragaert, P; Devlieghere, F; Devuyst, E; Dewulf, J; Van Langenhove, H; Debevere, J

2006-11-01

102

Milk volatile organic compounds and fatty acid profile in cows fed timothy as hay, pasture, or silage.  

PubMed

Nutrient composition and organoleptic properties of milk can be influenced by cow diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the forage type effects on volatile organic compounds, fatty acid (FA) profile, and organoleptic properties of milk. Timothy grass was fed as hay, pasture, or silage during a period of 27 d to a group of 21 cows in a complete block design based on days in milk. Each cow also received 7.2 kg/d of a concentrate mix to meet their nutrient requirements. Forage dry matter intake averaged 13.9 kg/d and was not different among treatments. Milk yield was higher for cows fed pasture, intermediate for cows fed silage, and lowest for cows fed hay. However, milk fat content was higher for cows fed hay and silage, compared with cows fed pasture. As a result, fat-corrected milk and fat yield were not different among treatments. Increasing the supply of dietary cis-9,cis-12 18:2 (linoleic acid) and cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 (?-linolenic acid) when feeding pasture enhanced the concentration of these 2 essential FA in milk fat compared with feeding hay or silage. Moreover, the ratio of 16:0 (palmitic acid) to cis-9 18:1 (oleic acid), which is closely related to the melting properties of milk fat, was lower in milk from cows on pasture than in milk from cows fed hay or silage. Cows fed hay produced milk with higher levels of several free FA and ?-lactones, but less pentanal and 1-pentanol. More dimethyl sulfone and toluene were found in milk of cows on pasture. Cows fed silage produced milk with higher levels of acetone, 2-butanone, and ?-pinene. Results from a sensory evaluation showed that panelists could not detect a difference in flavor between milk from cows fed hay compared with silage. However, a significant number of assessors perceived a difference between milk from cows fed hay compared with milk from cows fed pasture. In a sensory ranking test, the percentage of assessors ranking for the intensity of total (raw milk, fresh milk, and farm milk), sweet (empyreumatic, vanilla, caramel, and sugar), and grassy (grass, leafy vegetable, and plant) flavors was higher for milk from cows fed pasture compared with hay and silage. Using timothy hay, pasture, or silage harvested at a similar stage of development, the current study shows that the taste of milk is affected by the forage type fed to cows. More research is, however, needed to establish a link between the sensory attributes of milk and the observed changes in volatile organic compounds and FA profile. PMID:24035021

Villeneuve, M-P; Lebeuf, Y; Gervais, R; Tremblay, G F; Vuillemard, J C; Fortin, J; Chouinard, P Y

2013-11-01

103

Catalytic characterization of lithium aluminum oxides: Including a study of both the cation replacement chemistry and the structure of the [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2]/[open quotes]HAlO[sub 2][close quotes] system  

SciTech Connect

Cation replacement is a low temperature synthetic technique used to replace most of the lithium cations in [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2] with protons without significantly modifying the structure of the reactant. Lauric acid worked well as a proton source because it was capable of 90% replacement without significant dissolution of [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2]. High pressure CO[sub 2]/H[sub 2]O treatment of the cation replaced product resulted in the decomposition of the reactant to form boehmite and Li[sub 2]CO[sub 3]. The XRD characterization of a series of partially replaced samples from the [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2]/HAlO[sub 2] system was used to develop an understanding of the cation replacement mechanism. A two phase mechanism is proposed, which consists of particles with an outer shell of lithiated HAlO[sub 2] and an inner core of [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2] (for 0.0 < x < 0.90). A model for the structure of HAlO[sub 2] was developed to describe the location of the protons and the lithium cations. The 3,3-dimethyl-1-isomerization reaction did not detect any intrinsic acidity on HAlO[sub 2] and detected only small amounts on calcined HAlO[sub 2] at 350[degrees]C. Lithium free [gamma]-alumina was extremely active for 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene isomerization demonstrating that the small concentration of lithium in both HAlO[sub 2] and calcined HAlO[sub 2] is sufficient to neutralize strong acid sites. The conversion of isopropyl alcohol produces propylene on acid-base sites and acetone on basic sites. [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2], [gamma]LiAlO[sub 2], and calcined HAlO[sub 2], produced varying amounts of propylene and acetone. [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2] and calcined HAlO[sub 2] produced a C6 diene, which indicates the presence of basic sites stronger than those needed for acetone formation. [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2] was the only sample that produced 4-methyl-2-pentanone and 4-methyl-2-pentanol.

Tomczak, D.C.

1993-01-01

104

Initial Studies Using Aliphatic ?-Nitro Alcohols for Therapeutic Corneal Cross-Linking  

PubMed Central

Purpose Corneal collagen cross-linking through UVA-riboflavin photochemistry (UVAR) has been shown to be an effective treatment for keratoconus and related keratectasias. In recent studies using sclera, the authors observed that short-chain aliphatic ?-nitro alcohols can cross-link collagenous tissue under physiologic conditions. Thus, this study was undertaken to evaluate these agents as potential pharmacologic alternatives to UVAR. Methods Porcine corneal strips (8 × 4 mm) and corneoscleral complexes were cross-linked using 1 to 100 mM 2-nitroethanol (2ne), 2-nitro-1-propanol (2nprop), and 3-nitro-2-pentanol (3n2pent) at pH 7.4, 34°C. Cross-linking by UVAR was carried out for comparison. Thermal shrinkage temperature analysis was used to evaluate cross-linking effects, and changes in corneal light transmission were determined with a fiber-optic spectrophotometer. Results At 10 and 100 mM for 96 hours, initial shrinkage temperature (Ti) was shifted by 3.3°C (P < 0.001) and 9.8°C (P < 0.001) for 2ne, 2.9°C (P = 0.008) and 4.9°C (P < 0.001) for 2nprop, and 3.8°C (P = 0.003) and 4.9°C (P < 0.001) for 3n2pent. Reacting at 1 mM through daily exchange of fluid over 7 days shifted Ti by 3.8°C (P < 0.001), 4.4°C (P = 0.002), and 3.2°C (P = 0.005), for 2ne, 2nprop, and 3n2pent, respectively. These shifts were greater than cross-linking using UVAR (Ti = 1.9°C; P = 0.012). In the blue light region (400?500 nm), transmission was decreased by 5.6% (P = 0.003), 2.1% (P = 0.260), and 0% (P = 0.428) for 2ne, 2nprop, and 3n2pent, respectively. Conclusions ?-Nitro alcohols can induce corneal cross-linking in vitro better than the UVAR technique and can induce negligible effects on light transmission. These early results suggest that such compounds could be used as topical stiffening agents for keratoconus and related disorders.

Paik, David C.; Wen, Quan; Braunstein, Richard E.; Airiani, Suzanna; Trokel, Stephen L.

2009-01-01

105

Kinetics of n-butoxy and 2-pentoxy isomerization and detection of primary products by infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The primary products of n-butoxy and 2-pentoxy isomerization in the presence and absence of O(2) have been detected using pulsed laser photolysis-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (PLP-CRDS). Alkoxy radicals n-butoxy and 2-pentoxy were generated by photolysis of alkyl nitrite precursors (n-butyl nitrite or 2-pentyl nitrite, respectively), and the isomerization products with and without O(2) were detected by infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy 20 ?s after the photolysis. We report the mid-IR OH stretch (?(1)) absorption spectra for ?-HO-1-C(4)H(8)•, ?-HO-1-C(4)H(8)OO•, ?-HO-1-C(5)H(10)•, and ?-HO-1-C(5)H(10)OO•. The observed ?(1) bands are similar in position and shape to the related alcohols (n-butanol and 2-pentanol), although the HOROO• absorption is slightly stronger than the HOR• absorption. We determined the rate of isomerization relative to reaction with O(2) for the n-butoxy and 2-pentoxy radicals by measuring the relative ?(1) absorbance of HOROO• as a function of [O(2)]. At 295 K and 670 Torr of N(2) or N(2)/O(2), we found rate constant ratios of k(isom)/k(O(2)) = 1.7 (±0.1) × 10(19) cm(-3) for n-butoxy and k(isom)/k(O(2)) = 3.4(±0.4) × 10(19) cm(-3) for 2-pentoxy (2? uncertainty). Using currently known rate constants k(O(2)), we estimate isomerization rates of k(isom) = 2.4 (±1.2) × 10(5) s(-1) and k(isom) ? 3 × 10(5) s(-1) for n-butoxy and 2-pentoxy radicals, respectively, where the uncertainties are primarily due to uncertainties in k(O(2)). Because isomerization is predicted to be in the high pressure limit at 670 Torr, these relative rates are expected to be the same at atmospheric pressure. Our results include corrections for prompt isomerization of hot nascent alkoxy radicals as well as reaction with background NO and unimolecular alkoxy decomposition. We estimate prompt isomerization yields under our conditions of 4 ± 2% and 5 ± 2% for n-butoxy and 2-pentoxy formed from photolysis of the alkyl nitrites at 351 nm. Our measured relative rate values are in good agreement with and more precise than previous end-product analysis studies conducted on the n-butoxy and 2-pentoxy systems. We show that reactions typically neglected in the analysis of alkoxy relative kinetics (decomposition, recombination with NO, and prompt isomerization) may need to be included to obtain accurate values of k(isom)/k(O(2)). PMID:22530669

Sprague, Matthew K; Garland, Eva R; Mollner, Andrew K; Bloss, Claire; Bean, Brian D; Weichman, Marissa L; Mertens, Laura A; Okumura, Mitchio; Sander, Stanley P

2012-06-21

106

Aliphatic ?-Nitroalcohols for Therapeutic Corneoscleral Cross-linking: Chemical Mechanisms and Higher Order Nitroalcohols  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The recent tissue cross-linking studies indicate that aliphatic ?-nitroalcohols (BNAs) may be useful as pharmacologic corneoscleral cross-linking agents. The present study was performed to identify the specific chemistry involved under physiologic conditions, with the intent of identifying more effective agents. Methods. The mechanism of chemical cross-linking at pH 7.4 and 37°C was studied using three techniques. The colorimetric Griess assay was used to follow the release of nitrite from three mono-nitroalcohols (2-nitroethanol [2ne], 2-nitro-1-propanol [2nprop]), and 3-nitro-2-pentanol [3n2pent]). Second, the evolution of 2nprop in 0.2 M NaH2PO4/Na2HPO4/D2O was studied using 1H-NMR. Third, thermal shrinkage temperature analysis (Ts), a measure of tissue cross-linking, was used to support information from 1the H-NMR studies. Results. A time-dependent release of nitrite was observed for all three mono-nitroalcohols studied. The maximum levels were comparable using either 2ne or 2nprop (?30%). However, much less (?10%) was observed from 3n2pent. Using 1H-NMR, 2nprop evolved into a unique splitting pattern. No match was observed with reference spectra from three possible products of denitration. In contrast, 2-methyl-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol (MNPD), a nitro-diol, was identified, implying the formation of formaldehyde from a retro-nitroaldol (i.e., reverse Henry) reaction. In support of this mechanism, Ts shifts induced by the nitro-triol 2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol (HNPD) were superior to the nitro-diol MNPD which were superior to the mono nitroalcohol 2nprop. Conclusions. BNAs function as both formaldehyde and nitrite donors under physiologic conditions to cross-link collagenous tissue. Higher order BNAs are more effective than mono nitroalcohols, raising the possibility of using these agents for therapeutic corneoscleral cross-linking.

Solomon, Marissa R.; Wen, Quan; Turro, Nicholas J.; Trokel, Stephen L.

2010-01-01

107

Airborne molds and bacteria, microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC), plasticizers and formaldehyde in dwellings in three North European cities in relation to sick building syndrome (SBS).  

PubMed

There are few studies on associations between airborne microbial exposure, formaldehyde, plasticizers in dwellings and the symptoms compatible with the sick building syndrome (SBS). As a follow-up of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS II), indoor measurements were performed in homes in three North European cities. The aim was to examine whether volatile organic compounds of possible microbial origin (MVOCs), and airborne levels of bacteria, molds, formaldehyde, and two plasticizers in dwellings were associated with the prevalence of SBS, and to study associations between MVOCs and reports on dampness and mold. The study included homes from three centers included in ECRHS II. A total of 159 adults (57% females) participated (19% from Reykjavik, 40% from Uppsala, and 41% from Tartu). A random sample and additional homes with a history of dampness were included. Exposure measurements were performed in the 159 homes of the participants. MVOCs were analyzed by GCMS with selective ion monitoring (SIM). Symptoms were reported in a standardized questionnaire. Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. In total 30.8% reported any SBS (20% mucosal, 10% general, and 8% dermal symptoms) and 41% of the homes had a history of dampness and molds There were positive associations between any SBS and levels of 2-pentanol (P=0.002), 2-hexanone (P=0.0002), 2-pentylfuran (P=0.009), 1-octen-3-ol (P=0.002), formaldehyde (P=0.05), and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate (Texanol) (P=0.05). 1-octen-3-ol (P=0.009) and 3-methylfuran (P=0.002) were associated with mucosal symptoms. In dwellings with dampness and molds, the levels of total bacteria (P=0.02), total mold (P=0.04), viable mold (P=0.02), 3-methylfuran (P=0.008) and ethyl-isobutyrate (P=0.02) were higher. In conclusion, some MVOCs like 1-octen-3-ol, formaldehyde and the plasticizer Texanol, may be a risk factor for sick building syndrome. Moreover, concentrations of airborne molds, bacteria and some other MVOCs were slightly higher in homes with reported dampness and mold. PMID:23280302

Sahlberg, Bo; Gunnbjörnsdottir, Maria; Soon, Argo; Jogi, Rain; Gislason, Thorarinn; Wieslander, Gunilla; Janson, Christer; Norback, Dan

2013-02-01

108

Influence of Mass Transfer Kinetics on Interpretation of Push-Pull Partitioning Tracer Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is now considerable interest in predicting plume response to various levels of treatment applied within a DNAPL source zone. An important component to the development of this predictive capability is the ability to characterize the distribution of DNAPL within the source zone. Metrics developed for description of source zone architecture are frequently based upon some combination of downgradient contaminant concentrations and in source testing. One option for in source testing is the use of partition tracers in either interwell or push-pull test configurations. Push-pull tracer tests are advantageous for obtaining more localized information that can be integrated with other observations to reduce the uncertainty related the links between the architecture of a source and its associated plume. Here we examined push-pull tracer tests in a series of aquifer cell experiments to evaluate the potential of this type of test to quantify metrics of the DNAPL distribution at the local-scale (i.e., 1 m flow path). Three DNAPL architectures were characterized by conducting push-pull tracer tests using a solution which comprised three partitioning tracers (1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, and 2-octanol) and one non-partitioning tracer (bromide). Each architecture was characterized using three flow regimes that employed combinations of fast (~30 cm/hr) and slow (~2 cm/hr) velocities. Production curves (i.e., tracer concentrations during the pull phase of the test) for the partitioning tracers were found to be asymmetric. This asymmetry severely degraded the ability of an analytical solution employing the local equilibrium assumption to predict the overall saturations. Saturation estimates from the analytical solution were found to be improved when the application of the model was restricted to later time data (Vext/Vinj >1). This observation suggests it is important to better understand the factors influencing the early time data. Experiments were also simulated using a numerical model containing a linear driving force expression to describe the tracer mass transfer. Mass transfer coefficients in all simulations were produced using available correlations for pool dissolution. Perfect knowledge of the DNAPL and permeability distributions, as well as relative permeability effects enabled the numerical model to better capture the asymmetry observed in the production curves. We then began to systematically simplify the numerical model to explore which assumptions associated with the analytical solution cause its poor performance. These assumptions include: uniform packing distribution, uniform DNAPL distribution, equilibrium partitioning, and no permeability reduction due to the presence of the DNAPL. Results suggest only limited degradation in model performance when the medium permeability and DNAPL saturation are assumed to be uniform, and relative permeability effects are neglected. In contrast, model performance was considerably poorer when mass transfer kinetics were neglected. These results highlight the importance of including mass transfer kinetics when characterizing local-scale DNAPL architecture.

Ervin, R. E.; Boroumand, A.; Abriola, L. M.; Ramsburg, C. A.

2012-12-01

109

Decontamination of Tritiated-Water Using Super-hydrophobic Pt-Catalyst Synthesized with Water-in-Supercritical CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Tritium, {sup 3}H, is one of the hydrogen isotopes, created in coolant of a fission reactor and to be utilized as fuel for nuclear fusion reactors. Since a large amount of tritium will be contained in a fusion reactor or in a fission reactor, a small fraction of the tritiated chemical species, in most cases, tritiated water, may leak to the environment. Tritium is, however, a radioactive isotope whose specific radioactivity is 4 x 10{sup 17} Bq kg{sup -1}, and easy to transfer in human body, its confinement is very important from the safety aspect. One of the problems of tritium confinement and decontamination of tritiated chemical species is related with necessity of its isotope separation from lighter hydrogen isotopes, {sup 2}H and {sup 1}H. Most of principles for the isotope separations are based on fractionations of isotopes in different chemical species. A large fractionation for hydrogen isotopes is observed in a chemical exchange of hydrogen atoms between water, Q{sub 2}O, and hydrogen gas, Q{sub 2}, where 'Q' denotes one of the hydrogen isotopes. Heavier isotopes are enriched significantly into Q{sub 2}O rather than Q{sub 2}. Therefore practical method of tritium removal would be established by hydrogen isotope separation with chemical exchange of water and hydrogen gas. At first, we prepared a catalyst, by reducing Pt{sup 4+} in reversed micelles where the reducing agent, aqueous solution of sodium tetra borohydrate, NaBH{sub 4} was also contained in reversed micelles prepared separately. In this situation, micelles containing Pt{sup 4+} and reducing reagent collided and produced Pt nanoparticles, which were expected to be impregnated in the hydrophobic structure after depressurization. After this type of earlier experiment we determined a mass of impregnated Pt by total dissolution of gauze with aqua regia followed by concentration measurement of Pt with ICP-AES. We performed several trials, unfortunately, however, the mass of Pt deposited on the gauze was very small to detect, and this approach turns to be not successful. As the second approach, we utilize CO{sub 2} soluble Pt precursor, CODMe{sub 2}Pt purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co. and H{sub 2} gas as reducing agent, which could be completely mixed with SC-CO{sub 2}. This system was well-known for Pt particle formation by auto-catalytic growth. The second approach was aiming at increasing Pt amount deposited in the gauze. This approach was successful in increasing Pt amount, but the Pt particle size also increased to be more than 50 nm, which was not suitable for catalyst. Finally, we synthesized the catalyst by the following procedure: firstly, a reducing agent of NaBH{sub 4} was deposited on the nano-textured hydrophobic layer on the gauze. This step was realized by forming reversed micelles of aqueous NaBH{sub 4} solution using a surfactant AOT and a co-surfactant 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,-octafluoro-1-pentanol (F-pentanol) in SC-CO{sub 2}. This system of surfactant combination of AOT and F-pentanol has been found to work successfully in recent studies. In the second step, the gauze was contacted with CODMe{sub 2}Pt dissolved in SC-CO{sub 2} to synthesize seeds of Pt particles for the auto-catalytic reaction proceeding by CODMe{sub 2}Pt with hydrogen. The seeds were formed by the reaction between deposited NaBH{sub 4} and CODMe{sub 2}Pt in SC-CO{sub 2}. The physical characterization of this catalyst was performed by SEM-EDS. By this procedure, the Pt hydrophobic catalyst where Pt nanoparticle of 10 nm in diameter was locally deposited in the nano-textured layer was successfully prepared. Hydrophobicity after the chemical Pt deposition was tested by measurement of water absorbed on the gauze and the catalyst performance was evaluated by {sup 1}H{sup 2}H formation through the scrambling reaction from {sup 1}H{sub 2} and {sup 2}H{sub 2} and the reaction was successfully observed. We demonstrated a new hydrophobic catalyst preparation using SC-CO{sub 2} effectively. We can conclude that the approach of creating Pt nanoparticles in SC-CO{sub 2} and depositing them in

Youichi Enokida; Kayo Sawada [EcoTopia Science Institute (Japan)]|[Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, 1 furo-cho, Nagoya 463-8603, Aichi-ken (Japan); Ryosuke Shimizu [EcoTopia Science Institute (Japan); Ichiro Yamamoto [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, 1 furo-cho, Nagoya 463-8603, Aichi-ken (Japan)

2008-01-15