Sample records for 1-pentanol 2-pentanol 3-pentanol

  1. 3-pentanol: a new attractant present in volatile emissions from the ambrosia beetle, Megaplatypus mutatus.


    Gatti Liguori, Pablo; Zerba, Eduardo; Alzogaray, Raul A; Gonzalez Audino, Paola


    Megaplatypus mutatus (=Platypus mutatus) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) is an ambrosia beetle that is native to South America. It attacks only standing live trees and causes severe stem breakage and death in commercial poplar (Populus) plantations. Previous work showed that male M. mutatus emits a sex pheromone composed mainly of (+)-sulcatol and sulcatone. We collected male volatile emissions during the hours of maximum emergence by using a specific polar microextraction phase; analyzed the extract by GC-MS; and tested the biological activity of selected compounds in the extract with a walking behavioral assay. Female M. mutatus emerged primarily between 7 and 11 h. In the chemical analyses of volatiles, a third compound, 3-pentanol, was identified in a small percentage of samples. Walking behavioral bioassays with video image analysis showed that at the doses tested, 3-pentanol elicited an attractive response from females. PMID:18850328

  2. Field evaluation of the bacterial volatile derivative 3-pentanol in priming for induced resistance in pepper.


    Choi, Hye Kyung; Song, Geun Cheol; Yi, Hwe-Su; Ryu, Choong-Min


    Plants are defended from attack by emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can act directly against pathogens and herbivores or indirectly by recruiting natural enemies of herbivores. However, microbial VOC have been less investigated as potential triggers of plant systemic defense responses against pathogens in the field. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain IN937a, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that colonizes plant tissues, stimulates induced systemic resistance (ISR) via its emission of VOCs. We investigated the ISR capacity of VOCs and derivatives collected from strain IN937a against bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in pepper. Of 15 bacterial VOCs and their derivatives, 3-pentanol, which is a C8 amyl alcohol reported to be a component of sex pheromones in insects, was selected for further investigation. Pathogens were infiltrated into pepper leaves 10, 20, 30, and 40 days after treatment and transplantation to the field. Disease severity was assessed 7 days after transplantation. Treatment with 3-pentanol significantly reduced disease severity caused by X. axonopodis and naturally occurring Cucumber mosaic virus in field trials over 2 years. We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain analysis to examine Pathogenesis-Related genes associated with salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene defense signaling. The expression of Capsicum annuum Pathogenesis-Related protein 1 (CaPR1), CaPR2, and Ca protease inhibitor2 (CaPIN2) increased in field-grown pepper plants treated with 3-pentanol. Taken together, our results show that 3-pentanol triggers induced resistance by priming SA and JA signaling in pepper under field conditions. PMID:25149655

  3. Enthalpies of formation for water + sodium dodecyl sulfate + 1-pentanol + triethanolamine mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batov, D. V.


    The enthalpies of mixing of water (H2O) + sodium dodecyl sulfate (NaDDS) + 1-pentanol (PeOH) + triethanolamine (TEA) mixtures with different compositions at 298.15 K are determined using the thermochemical cycle. The enthalpies of dissolution of NaDDS, H2O, PeOH, TEA, and H2O + TEA + PeOH + NaDDS mixtures in 2-propanol are measured by means of calorimetry. The formation of the studied mixtures from neat components is shown to be mainly an exothermic process. The influence of the nature of components and a mixture's composition on the enthalpies of mixing is discussed.

  4. Temperature dependence of the volumetric properties of binary mixtures containing alcohols (1-propanol, 1-pentanol, 1-heptanol) + heptane

    SciTech Connect

    Romani, L.; Peleteiro, J.; Iglesias, T.P.; Carballo, E.; Escudero, R.; Legido, J.L. . Dept. de Fisica Aplicada)


    Excess molar volumes of mixtures of heptane + 1-propanol, 1-pentanol, or 1-heptanol were determined from density measurements at 278.15, 288.15, 298.15, and 308.15 K. From these results ([delta]V[sup E]/[delta]T)[sub P] and ([delta]H[sup E]/[delta]P)[sub T] at 298.15 K were calculated. The results were compared with the values calculated using the Nitta-Chao theory of liquid mixtures.

  5. Viscosities and densities for heptane + 1-pentanol, + 1-hexanol, + 1-heptanol, + 1-octanol, + 1-decanol, and + 1-dodecanol at 298.15 K and 308.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, N.V.; Valand, M.K.


    Densities and viscosities for heptane + 1-pentanol, + 1-hexanol, + 1-heptanol, + 1-octanol, + 1-decanol, and + 1-dodecanol are reported at (298.15 K and 308.15) K. The viscosity deviations were calculated. The mixture viscosity data were fitted to the semiempirical equations of Grunberg-Nissan, Heric, McAllister, and Auslander.

  6. Solubility of anthracene in binary alcohol + 3-methoxy-1-butanol solvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    McHale, M.E.R.; Horton, A.S.M.; Padilla, S.A.; Trufant, A.L.; Sancha, N.U. De La; Vela, E.; Powell, J.R.; Acree, W.E. Jr. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    Experimental solubilities are reported for anthracene dissolved in ten binary mixtures containing 3-methoxy-1-butanol with 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 4-methyl-2-pentanol, 1-octanol, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol at 25 C. Results of these measurements are used to test two mathematical representations based upon the combined nearly ideal binary solvent (NIBS)/Redlich-Kister equation and modified Wilson model. For the ten systems studied, both equations were found to provide an accurate mathematical representation of the experimental data, with an overall average absolute deviation between measured and calculated values being 0.4% and 0.5% for the combined NIBS/Redlich-Kister and modified Wilson equations, respectively.

  7. Composition and Process for Retarding the Premature Aging of PMR Monomer Solutions and PMR Prepegs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gahn, Gloria S. (Inventor)


    Polyimides are derived from solutions of at least one low-boiling organic solvent, e.g. isopropanol containing a mixture of polyimide-forming monomers. The monomeric solutions have an extended shelf life at ambient (room) temperatures as high as 80 C, and consist essentially of a mixture of monoalkyl ester-acids, alkyl diester-diacids and aromatic polyamines wherein the alkyl radicals of the esteracids are derived from lower molecular weight aliphatic secondary alcohols having 3 to 5 carbon atoms per molecule such as isopropanol, secondary butanol, 2-methyl-3-butanol, 2 pentanol or 3-pentanol. The solutions of the polyimide-forming monomers have a substantially improved shelf-life and are particularly useful in the aerospace and aeronautical industry for the preparation of polyimide reinforced fiber composites such as the polyimide cured carbon composites used in jet engines, missiles, and for other high temperature applications.

  8. Relative contribution of oxygenated hydrocarbons to the total biogenic VOC emissions of selected mid-European agricultural and natural plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Georg; Brunda, Monika; Puxbaum, Hans; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Duckham, S. Craig; Rudolph, Jochen

    Emission rates of more than 50 individual VOCs were determined for eight plant species and three different types of grass land typical for natural deciduous and agricultural vegetation in Austria. In addition to the emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes, 33 biogenic oxygenated volatile organic compounds (BOVOCs) were detected. Of these, 2-methyl-l-propanol, 1-butanal, 2-butanal, 1-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, butanal and ethylhexylacetate were observed for the first time as plant emissions. In terms of prevalence of one of the groups of emitted VOCs (isoprene, terpenes, BOVOCs) the grain plants wheat and rye, grape, oilseed rape and the decidous trees hombeam and birch could be classified as "BOVOC"-emitters. For the grass plots examined, BOVOCs and terpenes appear to be of equal importance. The emission rates of the total assigned organic plant emissions ranged from 0.01 ? g -1 h -1 for wheat to 0.8 ?g g -1 h -1 for oak (based on dry leaf weight). Intercomparison with available data from other studies show that our emission rates are rather at the lower end of reported ranges. The influence of the stage of growth was examined for rye, rape (comparing emissions of blossoming and nonblossoming plants) and for grape (with and without fruit). Emission rate differences for different stages of growth varied from nondetectable for blossoming and nonblossoming rye to a factor of six for the grape with fruits vs grape without fruits (emission rate based on dry leaf weight). The major decidous tree in Austria (beech) is a terpene emitter, with the contribution of BOVOCs below 5% of the total assigned emissions of 0.2 ?g g -1 h -1 for the investigations of 20°C.

  9. Preparation of 2-Bromopentane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, B. A.; Kohrman, R. E.


    Suggests that the preparation of 2-bromopentane from 2-pentanol might represent an instructive addition to a published description of pheromone synthesis in that it is economical, extends the synthetic nature of the problem, and amplifies the mechanistic vagaries of the substitution reaction. Theory, procedures used, and safety considerations are…

  10. Removal of PAHs from highly contaminated soils found at prior manufactured gas operations.


    Khodadoust, A P; Bagchi, R; Suidan, M T; Brenner, R C; Sellers, N G


    Removal of PAHs from highly contaminated soil found at a manufactured gas site was evaluated using solvent washing with mixed solvents. The following solvents were considered as water miscible co-solvents in mixed solvents: ethanol, 2-propanol, acetone, and 1-pentanol. In batch solvent extraction of soil, ethanol and 2-propanol were selected as primary components of mixed solvents in addition to 1-pentanol. Using ternary solutions containing either ethanol or 2-propanol with a volume fraction of 1-pentanol ranging from 5 to 25% and a water volume fraction ranging from 5 to 30%, ethanol was more effective than 2-propanol in extracting PAHs from soil. A solvent mixture of 5% 1-pentanol, 10% water and 85% ethanol was selected as the extraction solvent. Using a 1g:4ml soil:solvent extraction ratio, extraction kinetics showed that from 65 to 90% of the extractable PAHs were removed within an hour of contact between soil and solvent. Using this 1g:4ml extraction ratio, PAHs were removed in a three-stage cross-current solvent washing process where the same batch of soil was extracted with clean solvent for 1h in each stage. PAH removals in three-stage cross-current solvent washing were comparable to PAH removals obtained with Soxhlet extraction. PMID:11080576

  11. Separation of thorium and rare earth salts by solvent extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Asselin; L. F. Audrieth; E. W. Comings


    Rare earth chlorides are extracted very slightly from aqueous solutions by 1-butanol and no separation is feasible under these conditions. Rare earth and thorium nitrates are extracted to a significant extent from aqueous solutions by 1-butanol. The order of decreasing extractability is given by neodymium through ytterbium and then thorium. Rare earths are extracted to a reasonable extent by 1-pentanol

  12. Floatabilities of Treated Coal in Water at Room Temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Kwon; R. L. Rohrer; R. W. Lai; D. H. Finseth


    Experiments on equilibrium adsorption loadings of various probe cormpounds on 60–200 mesh Illinois #6 coal (PSOC-1539), Adaville #1 coal (PSOC-1544), Wyodak coal (PSOC-1545), and Pittsburh #8 coal (PSOC-1549) were erformed. The probe compounds incqude 2-methyl-1-pentanol (2MfP), 1-heptanol, benzene, and toluene. Equilibrium adsorption loadings of aromatic compounds such as toluene and benzene on the four chosen coals obey the Langmuir isotherm

  13. Synthesis of ZnO nanostructures in organic solvents and their photoluminescence properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. R. Hu; S. L. Wang; P. Jiang; H. Xu; Y. Zhang; W. H. Tang


    Various zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were prepared in different polar organic solution of NaOH via a facile self-assembly solvothermal growth process. ZnO nanoparticles, nanowires, nanorods and nanoneedles with different sizes were fabricated depending on the properties of polar organic solvents. The effects of polar organic solvents including methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, acetone and isopropanol on the forms and

  14. Studies on the phase behavior of the system non-ionic surfactant\\/alcohol\\/alkane\\/H 2O

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuksel Bayrak; Mehmet Iscan


    Microemulsions with 1-butanol, 1-pentanol and 1-hexanol as cosurfactants, Triton X-100, -114, -405 or mixtures of non-ionic surfactants as surfactants and, n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane and n-decane as oils were investigated. The effects of polyoxyethylene chain length, chain length of the oil, surfactant to cosurfactant ratio, mixing of surfactants, type of cosurfactant and concentration of salt have been studied. Maximization of solubilization

  15. A biofuel cell in non-aqueous solution.


    Xiao, Xinxin; Magner, Edmond


    We report the first example of a biofuel cell operating in organic solvents. The cell utilises glucose oxidase and bilirubin oxidase immobilised on nanoporous gold. The power output of the cell decreases with increasing solvent hydrophobicity in the alcohols, methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), 1-propanol (PrOH), 1-butanol (BuOH) and 1-pentanol (PeOH). PMID:26214173

  16. Synergic effects in the extraction of paracetamol from aqueous NaCl solution by the binary mixtures of diethyl ether and low molecular weight primary alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoli?, G. M.; Živkovi?, J. V.; Atanaskovi?, D. S.; Nikoli?, M. G.


    Liquid-liquid extraction of paracetamol from aqueous NaCl solutions was performed with diethyl ether, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 1-pentanol, and binary mixtures diethyl ether/1-propanol, diethyl ether/1-butanol, and diethyl ether/isobutanol. Among the pure solvents investigated in this study best extraction efficacy was obtained with 1-butanol. Synergic effects in the extraction with binary mixtures was investigated and compared with some other systems used for the extraction of poorly extractable compounds. Results obtained in this study may be of both fundamental and practical importance.

  17. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Monte Carlo simulation of optical clearing of paper in optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, M. Yu; Priezzhev, A. V.; Hast, J.; Myllylä, Risto


    Signals of an optical coherence tomograph from paper samples are calculated by the Monte Carlo method before and after the action of different immersion liquids such as ethanol, glycerol, benzyl alcohol, and 1-pentanol. It is shown within the framework of the model used that all these liquids reduce the contrast of the inhomogeneity image in upper layers of the samples, considerably improving, however, the visibility of lower layers, allowing the localisation of the rear boundary of a medium being probed, which is important for precision contactless measuring a paper sheet thickness, for example, during the manufacturing process. The results of calculations are in well agreement with experimental data.

  18. Regioselective alkane hydroxylation with a mutant CYP153A6 enzyme


    Koch, Daniel J.; Arnold, Frances H.


    Cytochrome P450 CYP153A6 from Myobacterium sp. strain HXN1500 was engineered using in-vivo directed evolution to hydroxylate small-chain alkanes regioselectively. Mutant CYP153A6-BMO1 selectively hydroxylates butane and pentane at the terminal carbon to form 1-butanol and 1-pentanol, respectively, at rates greater than wild-type CYP153A6 enzymes. This biocatalyst is highly active for small-chain alkane substrates and the regioselectivity is retained in whole-cell biotransformations.

  19. Using vertical circulation wells for partitioning tracer tests and remediation of DNAPLs

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Knox, R.C.


    Two different vertical circulation well (VCW) systems (Type A and Type B) were used to detect and subsequently remove tetrachloroethylene (PCE) spilled in a three-dimensional sand tank. The Type A system has one injection interval and one extraction interval. The Type B system has two injection intervals separated by an intermediate extraction interval. PCE was detected through partitioning tracer tests using ethanol and 2,2-dimethyl-3-pentanol as the non-partitioning and partitioning tracers, respectively. The concentration breakthrough curves for the tracers exhibited significant chromatographic separation due to partitioning of the 2,2-dimethyl-3-pentanol into the PCE. Because of the unique streamline distribution generated by the VCW systems, injected solutions did not sweep through the entire contaminated pore volume, which resulted in less than 100% detection of the spilled PCE. However, multiple tests along the borehole of the well were used to delineate the vertical profile of PCE residual saturation. Three food-grade surfactants were used to remediate the spilled PCE.

  20. Effect of release rate and enantiomeric composition on response to pheromones of Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis) in poplar plantations of Argentina and Italy.


    Funes, Hernán; Zerba, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Audino, Paola


    Megaplatypus mutatus (=Platypus sulcatus Chapuis) is an Ambrosia beetle native to South America, which was recently introduced in Italy and its presence there is causing severe damage to the local poplar plantations. The male M. mutatus pheromone is composed of (S)-(+)-6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol [(+)-sulcatol], 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone) and 3-pentanol. A series of field trials testing dose, blend and enantiomer composition performed in Argentina and Italy evaluated attraction and found that the optimal release rate of pheromone components as baits in cross vane baited traps (CIPEIN-CV) was 6, 6 and 30 mg day?1 of sulcatone, (+)-sulcatol and 3-pentanol, respectively. It was also determined that racemic sulcatol is as effective as the pure (+)-isomer for the purpose of beetle catch, due to the inert nature of the (?)-isomer allowing the usage of low cost racemic sulcatol instead of highly expensive (+)-sulcatol. The results of our work contribute to the development of pheromone-based local technologies with low environmental impact and low cost for control or monitoring of an important pest. PMID:23590828

  1. Purification and properties of nitroalkane oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum.


    Kido, T; Hashizume, K; Soda, K


    A nitroalkane-oxidizing enzyme, which was inducibly formed by addition of nitroethane to the medium was purified to homogeneity from an extract of Fusarium oxysporum (IFO 5942) with an overall yield of about 20%. The enzyme catalyzed the oxidative denitrification of 1-nitropropane as follows: CH2(NO2)CH2CH3 + O2 + H2O leads to OHCCH2CH3 + HNO2 + H2O2. In addition to 1-nitropropane, 3-nitro-2-pentanol, 2-nitropropane, and nitrocyclohexane are good substrates; the enzyme is designated "nitroalkane oxidase" (EC class 1.7.3). The enzyme has a molecular weight of approximately 185,000 and consists of four subunits identical in molecular weight (47,000). Flavin adenine dinucleotide was required for the enzyme activity and could be replaced in part by riboflavin 5'-phosphate. The maximum reactivity was found at about pH 8.0. The enzyme was inhibited significantly by HgCl2, KCN, p-chloromercuribenzoate, and N-ethylmaleimide. The Michaelis constants are as follows: 1-nitropropane, 1.54 mM; 2-nitropropane, 7.40 mM; nitroethane, 1.00 mM; 3-nitro-2-pentanol, 3.08 mM; nitrocyclohexane, 0.90 mM; and flavin adenine dinucleotide, 1.33 micrometer. PMID:22538

  2. Metabolites of lesser grain borer in grains.


    Seitz, Larry M; Ram, M S


    Many volatile alcohol and ester metabolites of the lesser grain borer (LGB, Rhyzopertha dominica) cultured on wheat grain were identified. Volatiles from infested samples at 80 degrees C were collected on Tenax absorbent, thermally desorbed, and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) using infrared (IR) and mass (MS) detectors for component identification. A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique was used to analyze selected samples with a GC-MS system set up for obtaining chemical ionization mass spectra. SPME was also used in a synthesis process required to identify ester metabolites. Predominant compounds in LGB-infested grains were 2-pentanol and its esters of 2-methyl-2-pentenoic (A) and 2,4-dimethyl-2-pentenoic (B) acids, which are known aggregation pheromones, dominicalures 1 and 2. 2-Pentanol esters of saturated A, beta-keto- and beta-hydroxy derivatives of A and B, homologues of A and B, and acid moieties lacking the 2-methyl substitution were found. Other straight- and branched-chain secondary alcohols and their esters were also observed. Reexamination of GC-MS-IR data acquired in previous investigations of LGB cultured on sorghum grain and commercial samples in a grain odor study showed the presence of many LGB metabolites in addition to the known dominicalures. PMID:14969548

  3. Solubility of simvastatin: A theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceves-Hernández, Juan M.; Hinojosa-Torres, Jaime; Nicolás-Vázquez, Inés; Ruvalcaba, Rene Miranda; García, Rosa María Lima


    Solubility experimental data from Simvastatin in a family of alcohols were obtained at different temperatures. Simvastatin was characterized by using thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. From the experimental solubility data an anomalous behavior was observed, since an increase the number of alcohol carbon atoms shows an increase in solubility only for the three first alcohols, ethanol, 1-propanol and 1-butanol. A decrease in solubility was obtained for 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 1-octanol. Van't·Hoff equation was used to obtain the theoretical solubility value and the ideal activity coefficient. Experimental error was very low and does not affect the plots and equations used. No polymorphic phenomenon was found from the Simvastatin characterization. Theoretical calculations were carried out in order to corroborate the experimental solubility data. Trends and results are similar in both cases. The geometry optimizations of Simvastatin was carried out using density functional theory with Becke's three parameter hybrid method and correlation functional of Lee, Yang and Parr (B3LYP) with 6-311++G?? basis set. The solvent effect was treated using a continuum model as modeled in water, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 1-octanol. Moreover, dielectric constant, dipolar moment and solubility in the solvents were obtained for explaining the former behavior.

  4. Enhancement of nitrate-induced bioremediation in marine sediments contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons by using microemulsions.


    Zhang, Zhen; Zheng, Guanyu; Lo, Irene M C


    The effect of microemulsion on the biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in nitrate-induced bioremediation of marine sediment was investigated in this study. It was shown that the microemulsion formed with non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), 1-pentanol, linseed oil, and either deionized water or seawater was stable when subjected to dilution by seawater. Desorption tests revealed that microemulsion was more effective than the Tween 80 solution or the solution containing Tween 80 and 1-pentanol to desorb TPH from marine sediment. In 3 weeks of bioremediation treatment, the injection of microemulsion and NO3 (-) seems to have delayed the autotrophic denitrification between NO3 (-) and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) in sediment compared to the control with NO3 (-) injection alone. However, after 6 weeks of treatment, the delaying effect of microemulsion on the autotrophic denitrification process was no longer observed. In the meantime, the four injections of microemulsion and NO3 (-) resulted in as high as 29.73 % of TPH degradation efficiency, higher than that of two injections of microemulsion and NO3 (-) or that of four or two injections of NO3 (-) alone. These results suggest that microemulsion can be potentially applied to enhance TPH degradation in the nitrate-induced bioremediation of marine sediment. PMID:25529494

  5. Copper(II) benzoate dimers coordinated by different linear alcohols - A systematic study of crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzsch, Felix; Münch, Alexander S.; Mertens, Florian O. R. L.; Weber, Edwin


    Three new copper(II) benzoates coordinated by 1-propanol, [Cu2(PhCOO)4(1-PrOH)2] [Cu2(PhCOO)4(H2O)2] (3), 1-butanol, [Cu2(PhCOO)4(1-BuOH)2] (4) and 1-pentanol, [Cu2(PhCOO)4(1-PentOH)2] (5) at the available metal coordination sites, have been prepared and investigated with reference to their X-ray crystal structures. In all cases, dimeric paddle-wheel complexes where two copper(II) ions are held together by four benzoates were found. Moreover, the complexes show 1-propanol and water (3), 1-butanol (4) and 1-pentanol (5) coordinated to the free coordination sites of the Cu(II) ions. The dimeric complex units are connected with each other by strong OH⋯O hydrogen bonds to form strands linked together via weaker CH⋯O and CH⋯? interactions. Comparative discussion including the redetermined crystal structures obtained from copper(II) benzoate in the presence of methanol (1) or ethanol (2) allows to draw argumentation regarding the coordination of linear alcohols in corresponding crystals of paddle-wheel complexes.

  6. Disposition of short-chain aliphatic alcohols in rabbit vitreous by ocular microdialysis.


    Atluri, Harisha; Mitra, Ashim K


    Anatomic and physiological barriers limit drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye via topical or systemic administration. Intravitreal administration has proven to be a safe and effective means of treating various posterior segment diseases. Elimination of a compound from the vitreous chamber may depend on lipophilicity, diffusivity, and aqueous solubility. This information is critical for optimizing intravitreal dosing which in turn can aid in the design of drug delivery systems. The purpose of this study is to determine the vitreous disposition of an ascending homologous series of short chain aliphatic alcohols ranging from hydrophilic methanol to lipophilic 1-heptanol by microdialysis. Radiolabelled 14C-methanol, 14C-1-propanol, 14C-1-pentanol, and 14C-1-heptanol with log partition coefficient values ranging from -0.77 to 2.7 were studied. Microdialysis probes were implanted in both anterior and vitreous chamber of the rabbit eye to sample aqueous and vitreous humors simultaneously. Concentric probe was implanted in vitreous chamber about 3mm below the cornealscleral limbus. Linear probe was implanted in the anterior chamber using a 25-guage needle. Isotonic phosphate buffer saline (IPBS) (pH 7.4) was perfused through the probe with a flow rate of 2 microlml(-1). Alcohols (2.0 microg-130.72 microg) were injected into the vitreous body. In vitro recovery for the probes was calculated using respective alcohols in IPBS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by non-compartmental analysis. Vitreal elimination half-lives of methanol, 1-propanol, 1-pentanol and 1-heptanol are 52.0+/-5.7, 58.5+/-5.8, 72.9+/-5.8 and 153.7+/-21.6 min, respectively. Dose normalized area under the aqueous concentration time curve values of methanol, 1-propanol and 1-pentanol are 33.8+/-13.4, 28.3+/-11.9 and 29.2+/-4.9 microgminml(-1)microg(-1)10(-2), respectively. Time taken to reach maximum concentration in the anterior chamber for methanol, 1-propanol and 1-pentanol is 120+/-42, 160+/-26, and 260+/-26 min, respectively. The maximum concentration of methanol, 1-propanol and 1-pentanol achieved in the anterior chamber is 18.6+/-10.3, 9.4+/-3.2, and 5.9+/-1.3 microgml(-1)10(-4) respectively. Detectable 1-heptanol levels were not observed in the anterior chamber with the intravitreal dose administered. The shorter vitreal elimination half-lives of the alcohols studied suggest retina as major route of elimination from the vitreous body. The elimination rate constants of alcohols from the vitreous appear to be progressively decreasing with ascending chain length and lipophilicity (methanol to 1-heptanol). Among the alcohols studied, methanol produced the highest concentration in the anterior chamber following vitreal administration. PMID:12573660

  7. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.


    Experiments on equilibrium adsorption of various alcohols on 60--200 mesh Illinois No. 6 coal (DECS-2; Randolph county) were performed during the July--September period. The alcohols include ethanol, methanol, isobutanol, t-butanol, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol, 1-hexadecanol, 4-methyl-2-pentanol, and 2-methyl-l-pentanol. Amounts of equilibrium adsorption of alcohols (ALCO) on 60--200 mesh Illinois No. 6 coal are 1 - 230 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} mg-ALCO/g-coal, whereas equilibrium concentrations of alcohols are 3--40 ppM. Relations between equilibrium loadings of alcohols on the coal and equilibrium concentrations of alcohols in aqueous solutions are shown to be linear.

  8. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.


    Experiments on equilibrium adsorption of various alcohols on 60--200 mesh Illinois No. 6 coal (DECS-2; Randolph county) were performed during the July--September period. The alcohols include ethanol, methanol, isobutanol, t-butanol, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol, 1-hexadecanol, 4-methyl-2-pentanol, and 2-methyl-l-pentanol. Amounts of equilibrium adsorption of alcohols (ALCO) on 60--200 mesh Illinois No. 6 coal are 1 - 230 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] mg-ALCO/g-coal, whereas equilibrium concentrations of alcohols are 3--40 ppM. Relations between equilibrium loadings of alcohols on the coal and equilibrium concentrations of alcohols in aqueous solutions are shown to be linear.

  9. Two new natural products from the fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla with inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cells.


    Qing, Zhang Jun; Yong, Wang; Hui, Li Yong; Yong, Lai Wei; Long, Li Hai; Ao, Duan Jin; Xia, Pei Li


    Chemical investigation of the fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla led to an isolation of the two new natural products, 9-hydroxy epinootkatol (1) and (S)-2-pentanol-2-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), in addition to the nine known compounds, pinocembrin (3), tectochrysin (4), izalpinin (5), nookatone (6), yakuchinone A (7), protocatechuic acid (8), ?-sitosterol (9), daucosterol (10) and ?-sitosterol palmitate (11). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical constants and NMR spectral data analysis. The effects of the isolated components on nitric oxide production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages were examined. The two new natural compounds showed inhibitory activities with IC(50) values of 21.8 and 32.8 ?g/mL, respectively. PMID:23263808

  10. Binary mutual diffusion coefficients of aqueous alcohols. Methanol to 1-heptanol

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, L.; Leaist, D.G.


    Mutual diffusion coefficients, measured by Taylor dispersion at 25 C, are reported for binary aqueous solutions of methanol, ethanol, isomeric propanols and butanols, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, and 1-heptanol. Limiting diffusion coefficients (D{sup 0}) for the 1-alkanols are found to decrease with alcohol molar volume V approximately as V{sup {minus}1/2}. Although values of D{sup 0} for aqueous 1-propanol and 2-propanol are nearly identical within experimental error, the limiting diffusion coefficients of the isomeric butanols differ by up to 10% and increase in the order D{sup 0}(2-methyl-2-propanol) < D{sup 0}(2-butanol) {approx} D{sup 0}(2-methyl-1-propanol) < D{sup 0}(1-butanol). The butanol results illustrate the difficulty of predicting accurate diffusion coefficients for aqueous solutions.

  11. Real-time feedback control using online attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy for continuous flow optimization and process knowledge.


    Skilton, Ryan A; Parrott, Andrew J; George, Michael W; Poliakoff, Martyn; Bourne, Richard A


    The use of automated continuous flow reactors is described, with real-time online Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis to enable rapid optimization of reaction yield using a self-optimizing feedback algorithm. This technique has been applied to the solvent-free methylation of 1-pentanol with dimethyl carbonate using a ?-alumina catalyst. Calibration of the FT-IR signal was performed using gas chromatography to enable quantification of yield over a wide variety of flow rates and temperatures. The use of FT-IR as a real-time analytical technique resulted in an order of magnitude reduction in the time and materials required compared to previous studies. This permitted a wide exploration of the parameter space to provide process understanding and validation of the optimization algorithms. PMID:24067568

  12. Expanding metabolism for biosynthesis of nonnatural alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kechun; Sawaya, Michael R.; Eisenberg, David S.; Liao, James C.


    Nature uses a limited set of metabolites to perform all of the biochemical reactions. To increase the metabolic capabilities of biological systems, we have expanded the natural metabolic network, using a nonnatural metabolic engineering approach. The branched-chain amino acid pathways are extended to produce abiotic longer chain keto acids and alcohols by engineering the chain elongation activity of 2-isopropylmalate synthase and altering the substrate specificity of downstream enzymes through rational protein design. When introduced into Escherichia coli, this nonnatural biosynthetic pathway produces various long-chain alcohols with carbon number ranging from 5 to 8. In particular, we demonstrate the feasibility of this approach by optimizing the biosynthesis of the 6-carbon alcohol, (S)-3-methyl-1-pentanol. This work demonstrates an approach to build artificial metabolism beyond the natural metabolic network. Nonnatural metabolites such as long chain alcohols are now included in the metabolite family of living systems. PMID:19064911

  13. Bioethanol production optimization: a thermodynamic analysis.


    Alvarez, Víctor H; Rivera, Elmer Ccopa; Costa, Aline C; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Wolf Maciel, Maria Regina; Aznar, Martín


    In this work, the phase equilibrium of binary mixtures for bioethanol production by continuous extractive process was studied. The process is composed of four interlinked units: fermentor, centrifuge, cell treatment unit, and flash vessel (ethanol-congener separation unit). A proposal for modeling the vapor-liquid equilibrium in binary mixtures found in the flash vessel has been considered. This approach uses the Predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state, with original and modified molecular parameters. The congeners considered were acetic acid, acetaldehyde, furfural, methanol, and 1-pentanol. The results show that the introduction of new molecular parameters r and q in the UNIFAC model gives more accurate predictions for the concentration of the congener in the gas phase for binary and ternary systems. PMID:18418747

  14. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of volatile compounds from wine samples: optimisation of the method.


    Cabredo-Pinillos, S; Cedrón-Fernández, T; González-Briongos, M; Puente-Pascual, L; Sáenz-Barrio, C


    This study describes a liquid-liquid extraction technique for extracting volatile compounds from wine using dichloromethane and ultrasounds. This technique permits the simultaneous extraction of different samples with high reproducibility. After the preliminary tests, several parameters (sample volume, solvent volume and extraction time) were optimised using a factorial design to obtain the most relevant variables. The analytical characteristics were obtained such as calibration graphs, detection limits ranging from 0.0238 mg L(-1) for 1-pentanol to 0.261 mg L(-1) for octanoic acid, quantification limits and relative standard deviation from 2.1 to 6.2%. Extraction yields were calculated giving a range 9.16-1.2%. The optimised conditions were applied to the extraction of samples of young wines from the Denominación de Origen Calificada Rioja category using gas chromatography and a flame ionisation detector. PMID:18970692

  15. Optical constants of alcohols in the infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sethna, P. P.; Williams, D.


    The spectral reflectances at near-normal incidence for methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol are reported for the spectral range 6700-350 kaysers. The real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction of these liquids are obtained in the range 4000-400 kaysers by use of Kramers-Kronig phase-shift analysis. For all of the alcohols studied, the strength for the OH-stretch bands is directly proportional to the number of OH groups per unit volume; similar relations are established for CH- and CO-stretch bands. Absorption cross sections for stretch vibrations of the three groups are considered, and the role of characteristic group intensities in intensity spectroscopy is discussed.

  16. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Characterisation of optically cleared paper by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabritius, T.; Alarousu, E.; Prykäri, T.; Hast, J.; Myllylä, Risto


    Due to the highly light scattering nature of paper, the imaging depth of optical methods such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) is limited. In this work, we study the effect of refractive index matching on improving the imaging depth of OCT in paper. To this end, four different refractive index matching liquids (ethanol, 1-pentanol, glycerol and benzyl alcohol) with a refraction index between 1.359 and 1.538 were used in experiments. Low coherent light transmission was studied in commercial copy paper sheets, and the results indicate that benzyl alcohol offers the best improvement in imaging depth, while also being sufficiently stable for the intended purpose. Constructed cross-sectional images demonstrate visually that the imaging depth of OCT is considerably improved by optical clearing. Both surfaces of paper sheets can be detected along with information about the sheet's inner structure.

  17. Solvent optimization for niacinamide adsorption on organo-functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Micha?


    This work describes the application of organo-modified SBA-15 siliceous materials as the carrier for niacinamide. The surface functionalization of SBA-15 by a grafting strategy with triethoxyphenylsilane, triethoxy(4-methoxyphenyl)silane, triethoxymethylsilane and (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane as modifying agents has been successfully achieved. The adsorption process was performed in acetonitrile, methanol, 2-propanol, 1-pentanol and ethyl acetate. The obtained results indicated a promote niacinamide adsorption on sulfopropyl-modified (119 mg/g) and non-modified (78 mg/g) SBA-15 from ethyl acetate. The pure and derivatized SBA-15 products have been characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetry, nitrogen adsorption and diffuse reflectance UV spectroscopy. After niacinamide adsorption the textural parameters of mesoporous carriers such as BET surface area, pore volume and microporosity were reduced. The mesoporous matrices loaded with niacinamide exhibited prolonged-release kinetics of this vitamin, especially from sulfopropyl-modified SBA-15 carrier.

  18. Protonation and silver(I) complex-formation equilibria of some amino-alcohols.


    Canepari, S; Carunchio, V; Castellano, P; Messina, A


    Formation constants of the silver(I) complexes with some amino-alcohols have been determined at 25 degrees C in 0.5 M KNO(3) by means of two independent potentiometric measurements employing glass and silver electrode. The ligands considered are: sec-butylamine, 2-amino-1-propanol, 2-amino-1-methoxy-propane, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-amino-1-butanol, 2-amino-1-pentanol, 2-amino-1-hexanol, 2-amino-1,3-propanediol, 2-amino-1,3-hexandiol, 2-amino-2-methyl-1,3-propanediol and Tris(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane. Protonation constants of the selected ligands have also been determined. Calculations were made using HYPERQUAD computer program. The influence exerted by the introduction of hydroxy groups and by the presence of alkyl residuals in the ligand structure on the formation equilibria, is discussed. PMID:18966953

  19. Bioethanol Production Optimization: A Thermodynamic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Víctor H.; Rivera, Elmer Ccopa; Costa, Aline C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Aznar, Martín

    In this work, the phase equilibrium of binary mixtures for bioethanol production by continuous extractive process was studied. The process is composed of four interlinked units: fermentor, centrifuge, cell treatment unit, and flash vessel (ethanol-congener separation unit). A proposal for modeling the vapor-liquid equilibrium in binary mixtures found in the flash vessel has been considered. This approach uses the Predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state, with original and modified molecular parameters. The congeners considered were acetic acid, acetaldehyde, furfural, methanol, and 1-pentanol. The results show that the introduction of new molecular parameters r and q in the UNIFAC model gives more accurate predictions for the concentration of the congener in the gas phase for binary and ternary systems.

  20. Atmospheric reactions Cl+CH3-(CH2)n-OH (n=0-4): A kinetic and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzón, Andrés; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Ceacero, Antonio A.; Notario, Alberto; Albaladejo, José; Fernández-Gómez, Manuel


    The reactions of Cl with a series of linear alcohols: methanol (k1), ethanol (k2), 1-propanol (k3), 1-butanol (k4), and 1-pentanol (k5) were investigated as a function of temperature in the range of 264-382K by laser photolysis-resonance fluorescence. The obtained kinetic data were used to derive the following Arrhenius expressions: k1=(3.55±0.22)×10-10exp[-(559±40)/T], k2=(5.25±0.52)×10-11exp[(190±68)/T], k3=(2.63±0.21)×10-11exp[(525±51)/T], k4=(3.12±0.31)×10-11exp[(548±65)/T], and k5=(3.97±0.48)×10-11exp[(533±77)/T] (in units of cm3molecule-1s-1). To our knowledge, these are the first absolute kinetic data reported for 1-butanol and 1-pentanol and also the first kinetic study as a function of temperature for these two compounds. Results, mechanism, and tropospheric implications are discussed and compared with the reported reactivity with OH radicals. Moreover, a theoretical insight into the mechanisms of these reactions has also been pursued through ab initio Möller-Plesset second-order perturbation treatment calculations with 6-311G** basis sets. Optimized geometries and vibrational frequencies have been obtained for transition states and molecular complexes appearing along the different reaction pathways. Furthermore, molecular energies have been calculated at quadratic configuration interaction with single, double, and triple excitations level in order to get an estimation of the activation energies.

  1. A new oxygenase, 2-nitropropane dioxygenase of Hansenula mrakii. Enzymologic and spectrophotometric properties.


    Kido, T; Soda, K; Suzuki, T; Asada, K


    2-Nitropropane dioxygenase, purified to homogeneity from Hansenula mrakii (IFO 0895), has a molecular weight of approximately 62,000 and consists of two subunits nonidentical in molecular weight (39,000 and 25,000). Stoichiometrical studies and the results obtained with 18O2 showed that 2 atoms of molecular oxygen are incorporated into 2 molecules of acetone formed from 2-nitropropane. In addition to 2-nitropropane, nitroethane, 3-nitro-2-pentanol, and 1-nitropropane are oxidatively dentrified. The enzyme, which exhibits absorption maxima at 274, 370, 415, and 440 nm and a shoulder at 470 nm, contains 1 mol of FAD and 1 g atom of non-heme iron per mol of enzyme. The enzyme-bound FAD is reduced by 2-nitropropane under anaerogic conditions, but the enzyme-bound Fe3+ is not affected. The introduction of oxygen to the reduced form of enzyme causes reoxidation of the enzyme. The bound FAD and Fe3+ are reduced by the addition of nitromethane, which is not a substrate, under anaerobic conditions. The aerobic dialysis of the enzyme treated with nitromethane causes reoxidation of only the Fe2+. Sodium dithionite also reduces both the enzyme-bound FAD and Fe3+ under anaerobic conditions. When the enzyme is dialyzed against 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) immediately after reduction by dithionite, the absorption spectrum similar to that of the native enzyme appeared with concomitant restoration of approximately 80% of the activity. The enzyme activity is significantly inhibited by pyrocatechol-3,5-disulfonate disodium salt, 8-hydroxyquinoline, reducing agents such as 2-mercaptoethanol, and HgCl2. The Michaelis constants are as follows: 2-nitropropane (2.13 X 10(-2) M), nitroethane (2.43 X 10(-2) M), 3-nitro-2-pentanol (6.8 X 10(-3) M), 1-nitropropane (2.56 X 10(-2) M), and oxygen (3.03 X 10(-4) M, with 2-nitropropane). PMID:11214

  2. Kinetics and products of the reactions of hydroxyl radicals with selected volatile organic compounds, including oxygenated compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethel, Heidi Lynn

    Kinetics, products and reaction mechanisms of the OH radical-initiated reactions of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated compounds were examined. These compounds are important smog forming chemicals that are found in gasoline and many consumer products. Smog is created by the interaction of these VOCs with oxides of nitrogen in the presence of sunlight. The hydroxyl (OH) radical is a daytime species and a key initiator of the VOC reactions which lead to photochemical smog formation. Chapter II investigates the OH radical-initiated reactions of p-xylene, 1,2,3-, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene which are components of gasoline fuels, vehicle exhaust and ambient air in urban areas. Experiments were conducted at varying NO2 concentrations in indoor environmental chambers in order to determine the dependence of the product yields as a function of NO2 concentrations. From these experiments and previous literature yields, a majority of the products from these reactions under atmospheric conditions have now been elucidated. Chapter III examines the OH radical-initiated reaction of 3-hexene-2,5-dione which is formed from the reactions of p-xylene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (Chapter II). Due to its polar nature, 3-hexene-2,5-dione and its reaction products are difficult to handle experimentally. Products identified from this reaction through the use of in situ atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry were CH3C(O)CH(OH)CHO and CH 3C(O)CH(OH)CH(ONO2)C(O)CH3. Chapters IV, V, and VI examine the OH radical-initiated reactions of 6 different alcohols, including diols. The products examined in Chapters IV and V are those from 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol and 1,2-, 1,3-, and 2,3-butanediol, which are found in various solvents. Reaction rates were determined using a relative rate method. Hydroxyaldehyde and hydroxyketone products from these reactions were also quantified. Chapter VI examined the reaction rates and products formed from the OH radical-initiated reactions of 2-methyl-2-pentanol and 4-methyl-2-pentanol. These compounds were studied in order to investigate the formation of alkoxy radicals (RO•) and their subsequent reactions through isomerization, decomposition or reaction with O2 . Experiments of the type detailed here allow the determination of kinetics and products of the atmospheric reactions of VOCs and provide input for mechanistic models of photochemical smog formation.

  3. Development and evaluation of novel sensing materials for detecting food contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Sindhuja

    Rapid detection of food-borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as organic acids and alcohols released by bacterial pathogens is being used as an indicator for detecting bacterial contamination in food by our research group. One of our current research thrusts is to develop novel sensors that will be sensitive to specific compounds (at low operating temperature) associated with food safety. This study evaluates two approaches employed to develop sensors for detecting acid and alcohols at low concentrations. Chemoresistive and piezoelectric sensors were developed based on metal oxides and olfactory system based biomaterials, respectively to detect acetic acid, butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-pentanol, and 1-hexanol. The metal oxide based sensors were developed by the sol-gel method. A zinc oxide (ZnO) sensor was found to be sensitive to acetic acid with lower detection limit ranging from 13-40 ppm. The three-layered dip-coated gold electrode based ZnO sensors had a LDL of 18 ppm for acetic acid detection. The ZnO-iron oxide (Fe2O3) based nanocomposite sensors were developed to detect butanol operating at 100°C. The 5% Fe/Zn mole ratio based ZnO-Fe2O3 nanocomposite sensors had high correlation coefficients (>0.90) of calibration curves, low butanol LDLs (26 +/- 7 ppm), and lower variation among the sensor responses. The ZnO and ZnO-Fe2O3 nanocomposite sensors showed potential to detect acetic acid and butanol at low concentrations, respectively at 100°C. QCM based olfactory sensors were developed from olfactory receptor and odorant binding protein based sequences to detect low concentrations of acetic acid and alcohols (3-methyl-1-butanol and 1-hexanol), respectively. The average LDLs for acetic acid as well as alcohols detection of the QCM sensors were < 5 ppm. The linear calibration curve based correlation coefficients of the QCM sensors were > 0.80. Finally, a computational simulation based peptide sequences was designed from olfactory receptors and evaluated as sensor material for the detection of alcohols at low concentrations. The results indicated that the QCM sensors exhibited a good sensitivity to 1-hexanol and 1-pentanol with the estimated LDLs in the range of 2-3 ppm and 3-5 ppm, respectively. This research work was successful in developing multiple novel sensing materials to detect alcohols and acid associated with meat contaminations at low concentrations.

  4. Synthesis of Short-Chain Diols and Unsaturated Alcohols from Secondary Alcohol Substrates by the Rieske Nonheme Mononuclear Iron Oxygenase MdpJ

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Franziska; Schuster, Judith; Würz, Birgit; Härtig, Claus; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H.


    The Rieske nonheme mononuclear iron oxygenase MdpJ of the fuel oxygenate-degrading bacterial strain Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 has been described to attack short-chain tertiary alcohols via hydroxylation and desaturation reactions. Here, we demonstrate that also short-chain secondary alcohols can be transformed by MdpJ. Wild-type cells of strain L108 converted 2-propanol and 2-butanol to 1,2-propanediol and 3-buten-2-ol, respectively, whereas an mdpJ knockout mutant did not show such activity. In addition, wild-type cells converted 3-methyl-2-butanol and 3-pentanol to the corresponding desaturation products 3-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and 1-penten-3-ol, respectively. The enzymatic hydroxylation of 2-propanol resulted in an enantiomeric excess of about 70% for the (R)-enantiomer, indicating that this reaction was favored. Likewise, desaturation of (R)-2-butanol to 3-buten-2-ol was about 2.3-fold faster than conversion of the (S)-enantiomer. The biotechnological potential of MdpJ for the synthesis of enantiopure short-chain alcohols and diols as building block chemicals is discussed. PMID:22752178

  5. Dislodgement effect of natural semiochemicals released by disturbed triatomines: a possible alternative monitoring tool.


    Minoli, Sebastián; Palottini, Florencia; Crespo, Jose Guillermo; Manrique, Gabriel


    The quick detection of domestic and peridomestic triatomines in their environments becomes difficult without the use of dislodgement substances that flush them out from their shelters. At present, tetramethrin 0.2% is being widely used in control programs. Although it is an efficient dislodging agent, its toxicity might affect the health of captured triatomines, of other insects and, to a lesser extent, of other animals, including humans. Here, we tested if semiochemicals released by disturbed adults of Triatoma infestans and/or Rhodnius prolixus can make larvae of the same species exit from their refuges. In a walking olfactometer we found that: 1) larvae of T. infestans were repelled by the odors released by disturbed adults of their own species and of R. prolixus, 2) larvae of R. prolixus did not change their behavior in the presence of odors released by adults of both species, and 3) activity levels were not modulated by these odors in any of both species. Besides, in pseudo-natural conditions we found an increased flushing-out activity of larvae of T. infestans when their shelters were sprayed with isobutyric acid or 3-pentanol, and of larvae of R. prolixus when sprayed with 3-methyl-1-butanol. We succeeded in this work to dislodge larvae of triatomines from artificial shelters using natural volatile compounds, allowing the capture of live bugs for further investigations (e.g., xenodiagnosis or genetic studies) and favoring ecological aspects (e.g., minimizing environmental insecticide-contamination and non-targeted mortality). PMID:24581366

  6. Importance of the Debye interaction in organic solutions: Henry's law constants for polar liquids in nonpolar solvents and vice versa

    SciTech Connect

    Rytting, J.H.; McHan, D.R.; Higuchi, T.; Grant, D.J.W.


    Henry's law constants have been determined for ..gamma..-butyrolactone (BL), ethyl acetate (EA), and 2-methyl-3-pentanol (MEP) in mixtures of iso-octane (ISO) and toluene (TOL), for BL, EA, TOL, and ISO in cinnamaldehyde (CIN) and for TOL and ISO in each other and in BL. From these data and published vapor pressures, the activity coefficients at infinite dilution and the standard molar Gibbs free energy of transfer, 2/..pi.. of the solutes from dilute solution in ISO to dilute solution in each solvent medium have been calculated. The different behavior patterns of BL and EA are attributed to differences in their abilities to exist in different conformations possessing different dipole moments. For polar solutes, 2//sup 0/ decreases with increasing polarizability of the solvent and with increasing dipole moment of the solute, suggesting increased contributions from dipole-induced dipole (Debye) interactions. The sigmoidal plot of 2//sup 0/ against the change in pair potential energy calculated from the classical expressions suggests that 2//sup 0/ seriously underestimates the strength of the Debye interactions in comparison with the London interactions.

  7. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Male Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-Induced Mulberry (Morus alba) Leaf Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

  8. Two Volatile Organic Compounds Trigger Plant Self-Defense against a Bacterial Pathogen and a Sucking Insect in Cucumber under Open Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Choong-Min


    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a plant self-defense mechanism against a broad-range of pathogens and insect pests. Among chemical SAR triggers, plant and bacterial volatiles are promising candidates for use in pest management, as these volatiles are highly effective, inexpensive, and can be employed at relatively low concentrations compared with agrochemicals. However, such volatiles have some drawbacks, including the high evaporation rate of these compounds after application in the open field, their negative effects on plant growth, and their inconsistent levels of effectiveness. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of volatile organic compound (VOC)-mediated induced resistance against both the bacterial angular leaf spot pathogen, Pseudononas syringae pv. lachrymans, and the sucking insect aphid, Myzus persicae, in the open field. Using the VOCs 3-pentanol and 2-butanone where fruit yields increased gave unexpectedly, a significant increase in the number of ladybird beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, a natural enemy of aphids. The defense-related gene CsLOX was induced by VOC treatment, indicating that triggering the oxylipin pathway in response to the emission of green leaf volatiles can recruit the natural enemy of aphids. These results demonstrate that VOCs may help prevent plant disease and insect damage by eliciting induced resistance, even in open fields. PMID:23698768

  9. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male fall webworm moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-induced mulberry (Morus alba) leaf volatiles.


    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

  10. Aroma enhancement and enzymolysis regulation of grape wine using ?-glycosidase

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun


    Adding ?-glycosidase into grape wine for enhancing aroma was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Kramer sensory evaluation. Compared with the extract from control wines, the extract from enzyme-treated wines increased more aromatic compounds using steam distillation extraction (SDE) and GC-MS analyses. Theses aromatic compounds were as follows: 3-methyl-1-butanol formate, 3-pentanol, furfural, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-butanoic acid ethyl ester, hexanoic acid, hexanoic acid ethyl ester, benzyl alcohol, octanoic acid, octanoic acid ethyl ester, dodecanoic acid, and ethyl ester. The enzymolysis regulation conditions, including enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis time, and enzyme amount, were optimized through L9(34) orthogonal test. Kramer sensory evaluation was performed by an 11-man panel of judges. The optimum enzymolysis regulation conditions were found to be temperature of 45°C, enzymolysis time of 90 min, and enzyme amount of 58.32 U/mL grape wine, respectively. The Kramer sensory evaluation supported that the enzyme-treated wines produced a stronger fragrance. PMID:24804072

  11. Deuterium-Labeling Study of the Hydrogenation of 2-Methylfuran and 2,5-Dimethylfuran over Carbon-Supported Noble Metal Catalysts.


    Kang, Jungshik; Vonderheide, Anne; Guliants, Vadim V


    2-Methylfuran and 2,5-dimethylfuran were deuterated over Pd and Pt catalysts at 90-220?°C. Furan ring saturation over a Pd/C catalyst occurred at low reaction temperatures, which led to deuterated THFs, followed by progressive D exchange in the THF ring at higher temperatures. Finally, H/D exchange occurred in the methyl groups on the THF ring. Cleavage of the C?O bond also occurred over a Pd/C catalyst at elevated temperatures, which resulted in deuterated ketones, for which all H atoms were exchanged for D. Alcohols were produced over a Pt/C catalyst at low temperatures because they are more stable than the corresponding ketones. D replaced H on all carbon atoms of the furan ring and saturated the O and C atoms of the broken C?O bond in both deuterated 2-pentanol and 2-hexanol. At low temperatures (90-105?°C), all H atoms in the deuterated alcohols were exchanged for D except for the last two hydrogen atoms on the methyl groups. PMID:26373360

  12. Simultaneous convective heat and mass transfer in impingement ink drying

    SciTech Connect

    Can, M. [Univ. of Uldag, Bursa (Turkey)] [Univ. of Uldag, Bursa (Turkey)


    Effective and economical drying of thin ink films is essential in the printing, packaging and coating industries. In evaporative drying, high heat and mass transfer rates are commonly achieved by means of high velocity impinging air jets. To provide data for dryer design a program of research has been implemented to study the heat and mass transfer processes which underlie the drying of thin ink films. The heat transfer situation under impinging air jets is outlined and some experimental results are presented. Optimization of nozzle arrays for impinging air jets is analyzed for practical applications. A non-contact infra-red technique for continuously monitoring the ink drying process is described and drying curves for an ink based on a single solvent (4-Methyl-2-pentanol-MIBC) are presented. Heat and mass transfer theory has been used to predict drying times in the constant rate drying period. These predictions have been compared with experimentally determined drying times. This research has served to confirm the fundamental importance of the drying curve as a basis for dryer design.

  13. Interplay of Metalloligand and Organic Ligand to Tune Micropores within Isostructural Mixed-Metal Organic Frameworks (M MOFs) for Their Highly Selective Separation of Chiral and Achiral Small Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Madhab, Das [University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA); He, Yabing [University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA); Kim, Jaheon [Soongsil University, Korea; Guo, Qunsheng [University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA); Zhao, Cong-Gui [University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA); Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Xiang, Sheng-Chang [University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA); Zhang, Zhangjing [University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA); Thomas, K Mark [University of Newcastle upon Tyne; Krishna, Rajamani [Universitate Amsterdam; Chen, Banglin [University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA)


    Four porous isostructural mixed-metal-organic frameworks (M'MOFs) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The pores within these M'MOFs are systematically tuned by the interplay of both the metalloligands and organic ligands which have enabled us not only to direct their highly selective separation of chiral alcohols 1-phenylethanol (PEA), 2-butanol (BUT), and 2-pentanol (2-PEN) with the highest ee up to 82.4% but also to lead highly selective separation of achiral C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 4} separation. The potential application of these M'MOFs for the fixed bed pressure swing adsorption (PSA) separation of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 4} has been further examined and compared by the transient breakthrough simulations in which the purity requirement of 40 ppm in the outlet gas can be readily fulfilled by the fixed bed M'MOF-4a adsorber at ambient conditions.

  14. Coupling of alcohols to ethers: The dominance of the surface S{sub N}2 reaction pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.; Herman, R.G. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)


    Coupling of alcohols to ethers, important high value oxygenates, proceeds on acid catalysts via general pathways that uniquely control product composition, oxygen retention, chirality inversion, and kinetics. The dominant pathway is the S{sub N}2 reaction with competition of the alcohols for the surface acid sites. This is exemplified by formation of methyl(ethyl) isobutylether (M(E)IBE) from methanol(ethanol)/isobutanol mixtures, retention of oxygen ({sup 18}O) of the heavier alcohol, and optimum rate as a function of concentration of either reactant alcohol. The S{sub N}2 pathway in the confinement of zeolite pores exhibits additional features of a near-100% selectivity to dimethylether (DME) in H-mordenite and a near-100% selectivity to chiral inversion in 2-pentanol/ethanol coupling to 2-ethoxypentane in HZSM-5. A minor reaction pathway entails olefin or carbenium intermediates, as exemplified by the formation of methyl tertiarybutyl ether (MTBE) from methanol/isobutanol mixtures with oxygen retention of the lighter alcohol. Calculations of transition state and molecular modeling of the oxonium-involving pathways dramatically demonstrate how the reaction path selects the products.

  15. Effect of paper porosity on OCT images: Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, Mikhail Yu.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Myllylä, Risto


    Non-invasive measurement of paper porosity is an important problem for papermaking industry. Presently used techniques are invasive and require long time for processing the sample. In recent years optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been proved to be an effective tool for non-invasive study of optically non-uniform scattering media including paper. The aim of present work is to study the potential ability of OCT for sensing the porosity of a paper sample by means of numerical simulations. The paper sample is characterized by variation of porosity along the sample while numerical simulations allow one to consider the samples with constant porosity which is useful for evaluation of the technique abilities. The calculations were performed implementing Monte Carlo-based technique developed earlier for simulation of OCT signals from multilayer paper models. A 9-layer model of paper consisting of five fiber layers and four air layers with non-planar boundaries was considered. The porosity of the samples was varied from 30 to 80% by varying the thicknesses of the layers. The simulations were performed for model paper samples without and with optical clearing agents (benzyl alcohol, 1-pentanol, isopropanol) applied. It was shown that the simulated OCT images of model paper with various porosities significantly differ revealing the potentiality of the OCT technique for sensing the porosity. When obtaining the images of paper samples with optical clearing agents applied, the inner structure of the samples is also revealed providing additional information about the samples under study.

  16. Retention prediction in reversed-phase liquid chromatography systems with methanol/water mobile phases containing different alkanols as additives.


    Pappa-Louisi, Adriani; Agrafiotou, Panagiota; Fasoula, Stella


    In an effort to gain enhancement of selectivity in reversed-phase liquid chromatography, retention was tuned in this study by introducing short and medium straight-chained-length alkanol additives (methanol (MeOH), ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol or 1-heptanol) at low concentrations in mobile phases containing MeOH as the main organic solvent. A six-parameter retention model considering simultaneously the contents of the main organic modifier and of the alcohol additive as well as of the number of alkyl chain of additive was developed by a direct combination of equations expressing separately a linear dependence of the retention upon each of these factors. The effectiveness of the above model was tested in the retention prediction of a mixture of six alkylbenzenes under isocratic conditions with mobile phases containing as an additive any member of the homologues series of alkanols (with 1-7 carbon atoms) at different low concentrations in a wide range of MeOH-water mixtures. The prediction was excellent in all cases even when the alkanol additives used in experiments for the fitting procedure are different than those used in chromatographic runs done for testing the prediction ability of the proposed model. PMID:21268247

  17. Pentynyl dextran as a support matrix for immobilization of serine protease subtilisin Carlsberg and its use for transesterification of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester in organic media.


    Tahir, Muhammad Nazir; Cho, Eunae; Mischnick, Petra; Lee, Jae Yung; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Jung, Seunho


    In this study, serine protease (subtilisin Carlsberg) was immobilized on pentynyl dextran (PyD, O-alkynyl ether of dextran, 1) and used for the transesterification of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester (2) with different aliphatic (1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol) and aromatic (benzyl alcohol, 2-phenyl ethanol, 4-phenyl-1-butanol) alcohols in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The effect of carbon chain length in aliphatic and aromatic alcohols on initial and average transesterification rate, transesterification activity of immobilized enzyme and yield of the reaction under selected reaction conditions was investigated. The transesterification reactivity of the enzyme and yield of the reaction increased as the chain length of the alcohols decreased. Furthermore, almost no change in yield was observed when the immobilized enzyme was repeatedly used for selected alcohols over six cycles. Intrinsic fluorescence analysis showed that the catalytic activity of the immobilized enzyme in THF was maintained due to retention of the tertiary structure of the enzyme after immobilization on PyD (1). PMID:23978850

  18. Biodegradation of random copolypeptide membranes consisting of N-hydroxyalkyl L-glutamine as one component.


    Hayashi, T; Iizuka, Y; Oya, M; Iwatsuki, M


    Two component random copolypeptide membranes, consisting of N-hydroxyalkyl L-glutamine and L-alanine or L-leucine were prepared by carrying out aminolysis reactions with 2-amino-1-ethanol (E) or 5-amino-1-pentanol (Pe), together with a cross-linking reaction with 1,8-octamethylenediamine (OMDA) on membranes of the starting copolymers consisting of gamma-benzyl L-glutamate (B) and L-alanine (A) or L-leucine (L). The relationships between their bulk structure and membrane properties were investigated, such as the swelling ratio in water, aqueous vapour permeability, tensile properties and enzymatic degradation behaviour of the membranes in a pseudo-extracellular fluid (PECF). The tensile properties of the hydrophilic membranes were highly dependent on the swelling ratio of PECF, and the hydrophobicity of the side chains, whose behaviour was typical of an elastomer. We showed that a common relation was obtained between the rate of water vapour permeability and the swelling ratio of membranes in PECF despite the difference of the nature of the side chains. Biodegradation of these membranes in vitro by bromelain indicated that the degradation was a bulk rather than a surface phenomenon, and that the rate of degradation was also highly dependent on the swelling ratio of samples and on the hydrophobicity of the side chains of samples. PMID:8329521

  19. Dielectric barrier discharge carbon atomic emission spectrometer: universal GC detector for volatile carbon-containing compounds.


    Han, Bingjun; Jiang, Xiaoming; Hou, Xiandeng; Zheng, Chengbin


    It was found that carbon atomic emission can be excited in low temperature dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), and an atmospheric pressure, low power consumption, and compact microplasma carbon atomic emission spectrometer (AES) was constructed and used as a universal and sensitive gas chromatographic (GC) detector for detection of volatile carbon-containing compounds. A concentric DBD device was housed in a heating box to increase the plasma operation temperature to 300 °C to intensify carbon atomic emission at 193.0 nm. Carbon-containing compounds directly injected or eluted from GC can be decomposed, atomized, and excited in this heated DBD for carbon atomic emission. The performance of this new optical detector was first evaluated by determination of a series of volatile carbon-containing compounds including formaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol, and absolute limits of detection (LODs) were found at a range of 0.12-0.28 ng under the optimized conditions. Preliminary experimental results showed that it provided slightly higher LODs than those obtained by GC with a flame ionization detector (FID). Furthermore, it is a new universal GC detector for volatile carbon-containing compounds that even includes those compounds which are difficult to detect by FID, such as HCHO, CO, and CO2. Meanwhile, hydrogen gas used in conventional techniques was eliminated; and molecular optical emission detection can also be performed with this GC detector for multichannel analysis to improve resolution of overlapped chromatographic peaks of complex mixtures. PMID:24328147

  20. An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds.


    Qadri, Masroor; Deshidi, Ramesh; Shah, Bhawal Ali; Bindu, Kushal; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed


    An endophytic fungus, PR4 was found in nature associated with the rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, a high altitude medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. The fungus was found to inhibit the growth of several phyto-pathogens by virtue of its volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Molecular phylogeny, based on its ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence, revealed the identity of the fungus as Phomopsis/Diaporthe sp. This endophyte was found to produce a unique array of VOCs, particularly, menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, (+)-isomenthol, ?-phellandrene, ?-bisabolene, limonene, 3-pentanone and 1-pentanol. The purification of compounds from the culture broth of PR4 led to the isolation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) as a major metabolite. This is the first report of a fungal culture producing a combination of biologically and industrially important metabolites-menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA. The investigation into the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway of PR4 led to the partial characterization of isopiperitenone reductase (ipr) gene, which seems to be significantly distinct from the plant homologue. The biosynthesis of plant-like-metabolites, such as menthol, is of significant academic and industrial significance. This study indicates that PR4 is a potential candidate for upscaling of menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA, as well as for understanding the menthol/monoterpene biosynthetic pathway in fungi. PMID:26220851

  1. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and characterisation of its blend with oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers.


    Salim, Yoga Sugama; Abdullah, Amirul Al-Ashraf; Nasri, Coswald Stephen Sipaut Mohd; Ibrahim, Mohamad Nasir Mohamad


    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-38 mol%-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-38mol%-3HV)] was produced by Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 in the presence of oleic acid and 1-pentanol. Due to enormous production of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in the oil palm plantation and high production cost of P(3HB-co-3HV), oil palm EFB fibers were used for biocomposites preparation. In this study, maleic anhydride (MA) and benzoyl peroxide (DBPO) were used to improve the miscibility between P(3HB-co-3HV) and EFB fibers. Introduction of MA into P(3HB-co-3HV) backbone reduced the molecular weight and improved the thermal stability of P(3HB-co-3HV). Thermal stability of P(3HB-co-3HV)/EFB composites was shown to be comparable to that of commercial packaging product. Composites with 35% EFB fibers content have the highest tensile strength compared to 30% and 40%. P(3HB-co-3HV)/EFB blends showed less chemicals leached compared to commercial packaging. PMID:21115240

  2. Volatile Compounds Originating from Mixed Microbial Cultures on Building Materials under Various Humidity Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Korpi, Anne; Pasanen, Anna-Liisa; Pasanen, Pertti


    We examined growth of mixed microbial cultures (13 fungal species and one actinomycete species) and production of volatile compounds (VOCs) in typical building materials in outside walls, separating walls, and bathroom floors at various relative humidities (RHs) of air. Air samples from incubation chambers were adsorbed on Tenax TA and dinitrophenylhydrazine cartridges and were analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Metabolic activity was measured by determining CO2 production, and microbial concentrations were determined by a dilution plate method. At 80 to 82% RH, CO2 production did not indicate that microbial activity occurred, and only 10% of the spores germinated, while slight increases in the concentrations of some VOCs were detected. All of the parameters showed that microbial activity occurred at 90 to 99% RH. The microbiological analyses revealed weak microbial growth even under drying conditions (32 to 33% RH). The main VOCs produced on the building materials studied were 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, and 1-octen-3-ol. In some cases fungal growth decreased aldehyde emissions. We found that various VOCs accompany microbial activity but that no single VOC is a reliable indicator of biocontamination in building materials. PMID:9687450

  3. Molecular Interaction Study of N-Benzylformamide with 1-ALCOHOLS Using X-Band Microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjunath, M. S.; Sannappa, J.

    The secondary amide unit is a subject of particular interest, because of its occurrence in peptides and proteins. Molecular interaction between N-benzylformamide (NBF) with 1-alcohols (1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol) has been studied in carbon tetrachloride by using X-band microwave bench at 936 GHz. Dielectric constant (?') and dielectric loss (??) of alcohol and NBF and their binary mixture for different mole fractions of NBF have been determined. Dielectric relaxation time (?) of the binary system is obtained by both Higasi's method and the Gopalakrishna single-frequency concentration variational method. The results show that the most likely interaction between alcohols and NBF is 1:1 complex for binary mixture through the free hydroxyl group of the alcohol and the carbonyl group of NBF. The alkyl chain-length of both alcohol and amide plays an important role in the determination of the strength of hydrogen bond (O-H: C=O) formed. The variation of relaxation time of NBF+1-alcohol mixtures in CCl4 indicates a weak solute-solvent type of molecular association. The result shows that as the relaxation time of the proton acceptor increases, the donating ability of the solute environment increase.

  4. Improvement of the Dimensional Stability of Powder Injection Molded Compacts by Adding Swelling Inhibitor into the Debinding Solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yang-Liang; Hwang, Kuen-Shyang; Su, Shao-Chin


    Defects are frequently found in powder injection molded (PIM) compacts during solvent debinding due to the swelling of the binders. This problem can be alleviated by adjusting the composition of the debinding solvent. In this study, 10 vol pct swelling inhibitors were added into heptane, and the in-situ amounts of swelling and sagging of the specimen in the solvent were recorded using a noncontacting laser dilatometer. The results show that the addition of ethanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol reduced the amounts of swelling by 31, 21, 17, and 11 pct, respectively. This was because the small molecule alcohols, which do not dissolve paraffin wax (PW) or stearic acid (SA) in the binder system, could diffuse easily into the specimen and increased the portion of the swelling inhibitor inside. The amount of the extracted PW and SA also decreased, but only by 8.3, 6.1, 4.3, and 2.4 pct, respectively. The solubility parameters of 1-bromopropane (n-PB) and ethyl acetate (EA) are between those of heptane and alcohols, and they also yielded a slight reduction in the amounts of swelling by 6 and 11 pct, respectively. These results suggest that to reduce defects caused by binder swelling during solvent debinding, alcohols with high solubility parameters can be added into heptane without sacrificing significantly on the debinding rate.

  5. Implementation of multivariate techniques for the selection of volatile compounds as indicators of sensory quality of raw beef.


    Saraiva, Cristina; Oliveira, I; Silva, J A; Martins, C; Ventanas, J; García, C


    This study was performed in order to select volatile compounds to predict the off-odour and overall assessment of raw beef's freshness Maronesa breed, using multivariate analysis. M. longissimus dorsi packed in vacuum and MAP (70 % O2/20 % CO2/10 % N2) stored at 4?ºC were examined for off-odour perception as well as the overall assessment of freshness at 10 and 21 days post mortem. The results achieved in this study demonstrated that the selected volatile compounds could be considered as volatile indicators of beef spoilage, enclosing information for discrimination of Maronesa beef samples in sensory classes of odour corresponding to unspoiled and spoiled levels. Fifty-four volatile compounds were detected. A significant increase of aldehydes, ketones and alcohols were observed during storage in MAP. 2 and 3-methylbutanal, 2 and 3-methylbutanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 2,3-octanedione, 3,5-octanedione, octanal and nonanal were suggested as indicators of beef spoilage. 3-methylpentane was considered as a marker in the first stages of spoilage in beef, decreasing during storage. Data were examined using PCR and PLSR models for different optimal subsets of volatile compounds. The simplicity and usefulness of the technique in using 0/1 data in preserving high levels of accuracy was also prevalent. The powerful analytical methodologies for reducing variables and the choice of optimal subsets could be advantageous in both basic research and the routine quality control of chilled beef. PMID:26028774

  6. Nucleation of ethanol, propanol, butanol, and pentanol: A systematic experimental study along the homologous series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manka, Alexandra A.; Wedekind, Jan; Ghosh, David; Höhler, Kristina; Wölk, Judith; Strey, Reinhard


    We present homogeneous vapor-liquid nucleation rates of the 1-alcohols (CnH2n+1OH, n = 2-4) measured in the well-established two-valve nucleation pulse chamber as well as in a novel one-piston nucleation pulse chamber at temperatures between 235 and 265 K. The nucleation rates and critical cluster sizes show a very systematic behavior with respect to the hydrocarbon chain length of the alcohol, just as their thermo-physical parameters such as surface tension, vapor pressure, and density would suggest. For all alcohols, except ethanol, predictions of classical nucleation theory lie several orders of magnitude below the experimental results and show a strong temperature-dependence typically found in nucleation experiments. The more recent Reguera-Reiss theory [J. Phys. Chem. B 108(51), 19831 (2004)] achieves reasonably good predictions for 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol, and independent of the temperature. Ethanol, however, clearly shows the influence of strong association between molecules even in the vapor phase. We also scaled all experimental results with classic nucleation theory to compare our data with other data from the literature. We find the same overall temperature trend for all measurement series together but inverted and inconsistent temperature trends for individual 1-propanol and 1-butanol measurements in other devices. Overall, our data establishe a comprehensive and reliable data set that forms an ideal basis for comparison with nucleation theory.

  7. Control over the color transition behavior of polydiacetylene vesicles using different alcohols.


    Pattanatornchai, Thanutpon; Charoenthai, Nipaphat; Wacharasindhu, Sumrit; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol; Traiphol, Rakchart


    In this contribution, we investigate the color transition behavior of polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles upon exposure to different chemical stimuli. A series of linear and branched alcohols are used as model additives, allowing systematic control of their molecular shape and polarity. The PDA vesicles are fabricated by using three monomers, 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA), 10,12-tricosadyinoic acid (TCDA), and N-(2-amino ethyl)pentacosa-10,12-dyinamide (AEPCDA). When a series of linear alcohols is used, the longer alcohol length causes color transition of all PDA vesicles. In this system, the penetration of linear alcohols into the inner layer of PDA vesicles is dictated by their polarity. The change of -OH position within the alcohol molecule also affects the degree of penetration. It requires a higher amount of the 2-propanol to induce color transitions of the PDAs compared to that of the 1-propanol. The addition of methyl branches into the hydrophobic tail of alcohols causes an increase in steric effect, which hinders the penetration as well. When the 2,2-dimethyl-1-propanol is used as a stimulus, the color transition of PDAs occurs at much higher alcohol concentration compared to 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 1-pentanol. The variation of PDA structures also affects their ability to interact with the alcohols. The modified head group of poly(AEPCDA) promotes the ability to distinguish between 1-propanol and 2-propanol or 1-propanol and ethanol. PMID:23123029

  8. Metabolic conversion of 2-propylpentanal acetals to valproic acid in vitro. Model prodrugs of carboxylic acid agents.


    Vicchio, D; Callery, P S


    As part of an investigation to test the feasibility of using acetals as precursors of acidic drugs, the dimethyl, diethyl, [2H10]diethyl, and diisopropyl acetals of 2-propylpentanal were synthesized and their metabolic conversion to the anticonvulsant, valproic acid (2-propylpentanoic acid), was investigated. The acetals were incubated with either 10,000g supernatant or microsomes isolated from rat liver. Data from the measurement of the metabolite, valproic acid, with selected ion monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometry indicated that the dimethyl, diethyl, [2H10]diethyl, and diisopropyl acetals were substrates. The amount of valproic acid produced from the incubation of 2-propylpentanal diethyl acetal with 10,000g supernatant was reduced by the cytochrome P-450 inhibitor, SKF-525A. The production of acid was also decreased by lack of NADPH or oxygen. These data are consistent with a cytochrome P-450 mediated reaction. 2-Propyl-1-pentanol was the major metabolite identified from microsomal preparations free of soluble fraction enzymes. A deuterium isotope effect calculated as the ratio of the amount of valproic acid produced from unlabeled and [2H5]ethyl-labeled substrate was 1.2. Failure to detect an ester as a metabolite of 3-phenylpropanal diethyl acetal along with the results of the isotope effect studies suggest that the mechanistic pathway of acyclic acetal metabolism involves oxidation of an ether methylene and not oxidation at the acetal carbon. PMID:2573494

  9. Removal of acrylic coatings from works of art by means of nanofluids: understanding the mechanism at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglioni, Michele; Rengstl, Doris; Berti, Debora; Bonini, Massimo; Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Piero


    Conservation of works of art often involves the inappropriate application of synthetic polymers. We have proposed the use of alternative methodologies for conservation and formulated innovative cleaning nanostructured systems to remove previously applied polymer films and grime from painted surfaces. In particular, a novel ``micellar system'' composed of water, SDS, 1-pentanol, ethyl acetate and propylene carbonate was recently formulated and successfully used to remove acrylic and vinyl/acrylic copolymers from Mesoamerican wall paintings in the archeological site of Cholula, Mexico. This contribution reports on the mechanism of the interaction process that takes place between the nanostructured fluid and the polymer coating at the nanoscale. The structural properties of the ``micellar solution'' and of the polymer film are investigated before, during and after the interaction process using several surface and solution techniques. Rather than a classical detergency mechanism, we demonstrate that micelles act as solvent containers and interact with the polymer film leading to its swelling and detachment from the surface and to its segregation in a liquid droplet, which phase-separates from the aqueous bulk. After the removal process the micelles become smaller in size and undergo a structural re-arrangement due to the depletion of the organic solvents. These findings can be framed in an interaction mechanism which describes the removal process, opening up new perspectives in the design and formulation of new cleaning systems specifically tailored for intervention on particular conservation issues.

  10. Production and Utilization of Ethanol by the Homoacetogen Acetobacterium woodii

    PubMed Central

    Buschhorn, Heike; Dürre, Peter; Gottschalk, Gerhard


    Acetobacterium woodii formed ethanol as a fermentation product in addition to acetate when the phosphate concentration of the medium was between 0.2 and 8.4 mM. Considerable amounts of alanine were also found (2 to 11 mM). Supplementation with phosphate caused a shift to acetate as the only end product. Ethanol could also serve as a substrate for A. woodii. The fermentation yielded predominantly acetate and was strictly dependent on high bicarbonate concentrations. 1-Propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol were converted to the corresponding fatty acids but allowed only marginal growth. A. wieringae and A. carbinolicum grown under identical conditions were also able to form ethanol, and A. wieringae could use ethanol as a substrate, too. Alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities were determined in A. woodii. Activity stains of polyacrylamide gels with crude extracts allowed the detection of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase but not of alcohol dehydrogenase. Trace amounts of methane were detected during growth of A. woodii on glucose and ethanol. Images PMID:16347978

  11. 'Microsmatic' primates revisited: olfactory sensitivity in the squirrel monkey.


    Laska, M; Seibt, A; Weber, A


    Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of three squirrel monkeys to nine odorants representing different chemical classes as well as members of a homologous series of substances was investigated. The animals significantly discriminated dilutions as low as 1:10,000 n-propionic acid, 1:30,000 n-butanoic acid and n-pentanoic acid, 1:100,000 n-hexanoic acid, 1:1Mio n-heptanoic acid, 1:30, 000 1-pentanol, 1:300,000 1,8-cineole, 1:1Mio n-heptanal and 1:30Mio amyl acetate from the near-odorless solvent, with single individuals scoring even slightly better. The results showed (i) the squirrel monkey to have an unexpectedly high olfactory sensitivity, which for some substances matches or even is better than that of species such as the rat or the dog, and (ii) a significant negative correlation between perceptibility in terms of olfactory detection thresholds and carbon chain length of carboxylic acids. These findings support the assumptions that olfaction may play a significant and hitherto underestimated role in the regulation of primate behavior, and that the concept of primates as primarily visual and 'microsmatic' animals needs to be revised. PMID:10667993

  12. Influence of Feeding and Controlled Dissolved Oxygen Level on the Production of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate-co-3-Hydroxyvalerate) Copolymer by Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 and Its Characterization.


    Shantini, K; Yahya, A R M; Amirul, A A


    Copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] has been the center of attention in the bio-industrial fields, as it possesses superior mechanical properties compared to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)]. The usage of oleic acid and 1-pentanol was exploited as the carbon source for the production of P(3HB-co-3HV) copolymer by using a locally isolated strain Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4. In this study, the productivity of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) was improved by varying the frequency of feeding in fed-batch culture. The highest productivity (0.48 g/L/h) that represents 200 % increment was obtained by feeding the carbon source and nitrogen source three times and also by considering the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and oxygen transfer rate (OTR). A significantly higher P(3HB-co-3HV) concentration of 25.7 g/L and PHA content of 66 wt% were obtained. The 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) monomer composition obtained was 24 mol% with the growth of 13.3 g/L. The different frequency of feeding carried out has produced a blend copolymer and has broadened the monomer distribution. In addition, increase in number of granules was also observed as the frequency of feeding increases. In general, the most glaring increment in productivity offer advantage for industrial P(3HB-co-3HV) production, and it is crucial in developing cost-effective processes for commercialization. PMID:25951779

  13. Determination of paroxetine in blood and urine using micellar liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.


    Agrawal, Nitasha; Marco-Peiró, Sergio; Esteve-Romero, Josep; Durgbanshi, Abhilasha; Bose, Devasish; Peris-Vicente, Juan; Carda-Broch, Samuel


    Paroxetine is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used for the treatment of depression and related mood disorders. A micellar liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of paroxetine in serum and urine. Detection of paroxetine was carried out using a C18 column and a mobile phase of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulfate, 6% 1-pentanol at pH 3 (buffer salt 0.01 M NaH2PO4) running under isocratic mode at 1.0 mL/min and electrochemical detection at 0.8 V. The analyte was eluted without interferences in <15 min. The proposed methodology was validated under the guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use in matrix in terms of specificity, linearity (r(2) > 0.9999; 0.5-5 ?g/mL range), accuracy (88-97.5%, recovery), repeatability (RSD < 0.54%), intermediate precision (RSD < 0.54%), limit of detection and quantification (0.001 and 0.005 ?g/mL, respectively) and robustness (RSD < 3.63%). Developed method was successfully applied to real blood and urine samples as well as in spiked serum and urine samples. The developed method was specific, rapid, precise, reliable, accurate, inexpensive and then suitable for routine analysis of paroxetine in monitorized samples. PMID:24448669

  14. Higher order structure of Mucor miehei lipase and micelle size in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide reverse micellar system.


    Naoe, Kazumitsu; Takeuchi, Chihiro; Kawagoe, Mikio; Nagayama, Kazuhito; Imai, Masanao


    The higher order structure of Mucor miehei lipase and micelle size in a cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) reverse micellar system was investigated. Circular dichroic (CD) measurement revealed that the lipase far-UV CD spectra changed markedly, going from buffer solution to the reverse micellar solution, and were very similar for any organic solvent used. The ellipticity of the solubilized lipase in the far-UV region markedly decreased with increasing water content (W(0): molar ratio of water to CTAB), indicating that the secondary structure of lipase changed with the water content. The linear correlation between the W(0) and the micelle size was obtained by measuring dynamic light scattering. From the linear correlation between the micelle size and W(0), the higher order structure of the solubilized lipase appears to be affected directly by the micellar interface. The species and concentration of alcohol as a cosurfactant had an inferior effect on lipase structure. Especially, at ratios of 1-pentanol to CTAB of less than 8, the secondary and tertiary structures of lipase were preserved in the reverse micelles. The CTAB concentration had little effect on the lipase structure in the micelles. The catalytic activity of the lipase solubilized in the CTAB reverse micelles increased with increasing the W(0). PMID:17169622

  15. Male and female noctuid moths attracted to synthetic lures in Europe.


    Tóth, Miklós; Szarukán, István; Dorogi, Béla; Gulyás, Attila; Nagy, Pál; Rozgonyi, Zoltán


    In field tests in Europe, traps baited with a blend of isoamyl alcohol, acetic acid, and isobutanol (compounds previously found attractive to a number of noctuids in North America) caught the following noctuid moths: Agrotis segetum Schiff., Agrotis crassa Hbn., Agrotis exclamationis L., Amathes (Xestia) c-nigrum L., Apatele rumicis L., Amphipyra pyramidea L., Dipterygia scabriuscula L., Discestra trifolii Hfn., Euxoa aquilina Schiff., Euclidia glyphica L., Mamestra brassicae L., Mamestra oleracea L., Mamestra suasa Schiff., Mythimna albipuncta Den. & Schiff., Mythimna l-album L., Noctua pronuba L., and Trachea atriplicis L. A substantial percentage of the catch of each species of moths was females. The presence of isobutanol in the mixture was important for catching A. rumicis, D. trifolii, and E. glyphica. The addition of 3-methyl-1-pentanol to the ternary mixture did not increase trap captures of any of the moths. Traps baited with the floral attractant phenylacetaldehyde alone caught several species of noctuid moths. However, when phenylacetaldehyde was added to the isoamyl-alcohol ternary blend, no increases in catches of any of the species, relative to the ternary blend or phenyacetaldehyde alone, were observed, with catches of most species being depressed. Comparing the noctuid species attracted to the phenylacetaldehyde- and isoamyl alcohol-based lures showed that phenylacetaldehyde attracted predominantly Plusiinae and Melicleptriinae spp., while isoamyl alcohol-based lures attracted species mostly from the Noctuinae or Hadeninae subfamilies. PMID:20449640

  16. Effect of possible interferences on the extraction of 1-butanol from aqueous solution by the ethyl esters of soybean oil fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.


    The methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl esters of vegetable and tree oils are effective solvent extractants for 1-butanol from aqueous solution. Early applications of this process will probably involve bacterial mixed solvent fermentations of relatively impure waste and low-valued carbohydrates. Two types of materials, salts and solvents, could be expected to affect the extraction of 1-butanol from such industrial fermentation systems. The effect of four salts, three alcohols, and a ketone were evaluated using factorial experiments. Variations in NaCl, Na2SO4, Na2SO3, and KHPO4 from 0 to 0.15 M on the extraction of 0.1 to 4.1% 1-butanol from aqueous solutions at 25, 40, and 55 C gave small changes in distribution coefficient. Mild in creases occurred with increasing temperature and increasing NaCl, Na2SO4, and KH2PO4. Mild decreases in 1-butanol extraction occurred with increasing Na2SO3. Variations in acetone, ethanol, and 2-propanol concentrations ranging between 0 and 4% w/v at 25, 40 and 55 C gave small changes in distribution coefficient at 1-butanol concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 4.1% w/v had little effect. A slight increase in 1-butanol extraction was observed with increasing 1-pentanol under similar conditions.

  17. Oil-in-water microemulsions enhance the biodegradation of DDT by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.


    Zheng, Guanyu; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C


    A novel approach was developed using oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsions formed with non-ionic surfactant, cosurfactant (1-pentanol) and linseed oil, at the cosurfactant to surfactant ratio (C/S ratio, w/w) of 1:3 and oil to surfactant ratio (O/S ratio, w/w) of 1:10, to enhance the biodegradation of DDT by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Results showed that microemulsions formed with Tween 80 effectively enhanced the biodegradation of DDT by P. chrysosporium and the enhancement was about two times that of Tween 80 solution, while microemulsion formed with Triton X-100 exhibited negative effect. Further studies revealed that microemulsion formed with Tween 80 enhanced the biodegradation of DDT through transporting DDT from crystalline phase to mycelium as well as their positive effect on the growth of P. chrysosporium; of these, the former is likely the most important and pre-requisite for the biodegradation of DDT by P. chrysosporium. PMID:22520221

  18. Contribution of liver alcohol dehydrogenase to metabolism of alcohols in rats.


    Plapp, Bryce V; Leidal, Kevin G; Murch, Bruce P; Green, David W


    The kinetics of oxidation of various alcohols by purified rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were compared with the kinetics of elimination of the alcohols in rats in order to investigate the roles of ADH and other factors that contribute to the rates of metabolism of alcohols. Primary alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol) and diols (1,3-propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol) were eliminated in rats with zero-order kinetics at doses of 5-20 mmol/kg. Ethanol was eliminated most rapidly, at 7.9 mmol/kgh. Secondary alcohols (2-propanol-d7, 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 3-pentanol, cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol) were eliminated with first order kinetics at doses of 5-10 mmol/kg, and the corresponding ketones were formed and slowly eliminated with zero or first order kinetics. The rates of elimination of various alcohols were inhibited on average 73% (55% for 2-propanol to 90% for ethanol) by 1 mmol/kg of 4-methylpyrazole, a good inhibitor of ADH, indicating a major role for ADH in the metabolism of the alcohols. The Michaelis kinetic constants from in vitro studies (pH 7.3, 37 °C) with isolated rat liver enzyme were used to calculate the expected relative rates of metabolism in rats. The rates of elimination generally increased with increased activity of ADH, but a maximum rate of 6±1 mmol/kg h was observed for the best substrates, suggesting that ADH activity is not solely rate-limiting. Because secondary alcohols only require one NAD(+) for the conversion to ketones whereas primary alcohols require two equivalents of NAD(+) for oxidation to the carboxylic acids, it appears that the rate of oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) is not a major limiting factor for metabolism of these alcohols, but the rate-limiting factors are yet to be identified. PMID:25641189

  19. Chemical communication in Chagas disease vectors. Source, identity, and potential function of volatiles released by the metasternal and Brindley's glands of Triatoma infestans adults.


    Manrique, Gabriel; Vitta, Ana C R; Ferreira, Raquel A; Zani, Carlos L; Unelius, C Rikard; Lazzari, Claudio R; Diotaiuti, Lileia; Lorenzo, Marcelo G


    Compounds from the metasternal and Brindley's glands of the blood-sucking bug, Triatoma infestans, were identified by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Volatile compounds released by adult bugs during copulation or after mechanical disturbance were also characterized. Six compounds were identified and found consistently in all samples from metasternal glands. The most abundant were 3-pentanone, 2-methylbutanol, 3-pentanol, and an unidentified compound. The metasternal gland blends did not differ qualitatively between sexes. Compounds found in Brindley's glands were short chain acids, alcohols, esters, and a ketone with no qualitative differences between sexes. Isobutyric acid was the main component of this blend, and two new confirmed compounds were described as products of these glands: 2-butanone and 2-methylbutyric acid. 3-Pentanone was collected from the headspace over 33% of the copulating pairs of T. infestans. Volatiles found in the headspace of disturbed T. infestans adults included short-chain fatty acids, alcohols, esters, and ketones, with no qualitative differences between sexes. Both types of glands apparently discharge their contents after disturbance. However, most of the volatiles released by bugs after disturbance came from Brindley's glands. The locomotor activity of fourth instars increased significantly after stimulation with the odors emitted by disturbed adults, as compared with larvae stimulated by the odor of undisturbed adults or by clean air. We also studied the directional behavioral response of fifth instars to the disturbance scent in a locomotion compensator. Larvae exposed to volatiles released by disturbed adults walked away from the direction of the odor. The results suggest that this blend or part of it functions as an alarm pheromone for T. infestans. We suggest that the metasternal glands of this species are involved both in the sexual and the alarm contexts, and that the Brindley's glands probably have both alarm and defensive roles. PMID:16902820

  20. Can Volatile Organic Metabolites Be Used to Simultaneously Assess Microbial and Mite Contamination Level in Cereal Grains and Coffee Beans?

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Ângelo C.; Baptista, Inês; Barros, António S.; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Cunha, Ângela; Almeida, Adelaide; Rocha, Silvia M.


    A novel approach based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC–ToFMS) was developed for the simultaneous screening of microbial and mite contamination level in cereals and coffee beans. The proposed approach emerges as a powerful tool for the rapid assessment of the microbial contamination level (ca. 70 min versus ca. 72 to 120 h for bacteria and fungi, respectively, using conventional plate counts), and mite contamination (ca. 70 min versus ca. 24 h). A full-factorial design was performed for optimization of the SPME experimental parameters. The methodology was applied to three types of rice (rough, brown, and white rice), oat, wheat, and green and roasted coffee beans. Simultaneously, microbiological analysis of the samples (total aerobic microorganisms, moulds, and yeasts) was performed by conventional plate counts. A set of 54 volatile markers was selected among all the compounds detected by GC×GC–ToFMS. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied in order to establish a relationship between potential volatile markers and the level of microbial contamination. Methylbenzene, 3-octanone, 2-nonanone, 2-methyl-3-pentanol, 1-octen-3-ol, and 2-hexanone were associated to samples with higher microbial contamination level, especially in rough rice. Moreover, oat exhibited a high GC peak area of 2-hydroxy-6-methylbenzaldehyde, a sexual and alarm pheromone for adult mites, which in the other matrices appeared as a trace component. The number of mites detected in oat grains was correlated to the GC peak area of the pheromone. The HS-SPME/GC×GC–ToFMS methodology can be regarded as the basis for the development of a rapid and versatile method that can be applied in industry to the simultaneous assessment the level of microbiological contamination and for detection of mites in cereals grains and coffee beans. PMID:23613710

  1. Bacterial Degradation of tert-Amyl Alcohol Proceeds via Hemiterpene 2-Methyl-3-Buten-2-ol by Employing the Tertiary Alcohol Desaturase Function of the Rieske Nonheme Mononuclear Iron Oxygenase MdpJ

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Judith; Schäfer, Franziska; Hübler, Nora; Brandt, Anne; Rosell, Mònica; Härtig, Claus; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H.


    Tertiary alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA) and higher homologues, are only slowly degraded microbially. The conversion of TBA seems to proceed via hydroxylation to 2-methylpropan-1,2-diol, which is further oxidized to 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid. By analogy, a branched pathway is expected for the degradation of TAA, as this molecule possesses several potential hydroxylation sites. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, a likely candidate catalyst for hydroxylations is the putative tertiary alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ. However, by comparing metabolite accumulations in wild-type strains of L108 and PM1 and in two mdpJ knockout mutants of strain L108, we could clearly show that MdpJ is not hydroxylating TAA to diols but functions as a desaturase, resulting in the formation of the hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The latter is further processed via the hemiterpenes prenol, prenal, and 3-methylcrotonic acid. Likewise, 3-methyl-3-pentanol is degraded via 3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol. Wild-type strain L108 and mdpJ knockout mutants formed isoamylene and isoprene from TAA and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, respectively. It is likely that this dehydratase activity is catalyzed by a not-yet-characterized enzyme postulated for the isomerization of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and prenol. The vitamin requirements of strain L108 growing on TAA and the occurrence of 3-methylcrotonic acid as a metabolite indicate that TAA and hemiterpene degradation are linked with the catabolic route of the amino acid leucine, including an involvement of the biotin-dependent 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A (3-methylcrotonyl-CoA) carboxylase LiuBD. Evolutionary aspects of favored desaturase versus hydroxylation pathways for TAA conversion and the possible role of MdpJ in the degradation of higher tertiary alcohols are discussed. PMID:22194447

  2. Floatabilities of treated coal in water at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C. [Tuskegee Univ., Tuskegee, AL (United States); Rohrer, R.L.; Lai, R.W. [DOE, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others


    Experiments on equilibrium adsorption loadings of various probe compounds on 60-200 mesh Illinois No. 6 coal (PSOC-1539), Adaville No. 1 coal (PSOC-1544), Wyodak coal (PSOC-1545), and Pittsburgh No. 8 coal (PSOC-1549) were performed. The probe compounds include 2-methyl-1-pentanol (2M1P), 1-heptanol, benzene, and toluene. Equilibrium adsorption loadings of aromatic compounds such as toluene and benzene on the four chosen coals obey the Langmuir isotherm model up to 100 ppm in concentrations of probe compounds. Equilibrium adsorption loadings of higher aliphatic alcohols such as 2M1P and 1-heptanol on the four chosen coals do not follow both the Langmuir isotherm model and the Freundlich empirical adsorption model. Flotation of the coals, equilibrated with aqueous solutions of 2M1P and 1-heptanol, increases linearly with equilibrium adsorption loadings of these probe compounds on the coals. The chosen coals were treated with nitrogen and air at 1 atm and 125-225{degrees}C for 24 h. Flotation experiments of the treated coals were conducted at room temperature, using distilled water only as a flotation medium. Flotation of Adaville No. 1 coal and Wyodak coal treated with nitrogen gas is higher than that of the untreated coals and increases with treatment temperatures. Flotation of Adaville No. 1 coal treated with air at 125-225{degrees}C is not significantly different from that of untreated coal. Flotation of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal treated with air is lower than that of untreated coal and decreases with treatment temperatures. Flotation of Illinois No. 6 coal treated with nitrogen with nitrogen only is higher than that of untreated coal. Flotation of Illinois No. 6 coal treated with nitrogen at 125-175{degrees}C increases with treatment temperatures, whereas flotation of Illinois No. 6 coal treated with nitrogen at 174-225{degrees}C decreases with treatment temperatures.

  3. Nanostructured surfactant-based systems for the removal of polymers from wall paintings: a small-angle neutron scattering study.


    Baglioni, Michele; Berti, Debora; Teixeira, José; Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Piero


    Nanostructured soft matter systems represent effective and long-lasting solutions with respect to traditional and often obsolete methodologies for the conservation of works of art. In particular, complex fluids such as micelles and microemulsions are the most performing media for the removal of organic materials from porous supports, like wall paintings or stones. In this Article, we report on the characterization of two systems, EAPC and XYL, which have shown good to optimal performances in the removal of organic polymers from wall paintings. EAPC is a five-components fluid composed of water, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), 1-pentanol (PeOH), propylene carbonate (PC), and ethyl acetate (EA), while XYL is a "classical" o/w microemulsion, where p-xylene droplets are stabilized in water by SDS and PeOH. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with contrast variation is used to infer a detailed picture of the structure of these complex fluids, with a particular focus on the partition of the components between the bulk phase and the nanocompartments. We found that, differently from XYL, the EAPC system is neither a microemulsion nor a simple micellar solution, with the cosolvents partitioned between the dispersing phase and the disperse droplets. These different structural features play a key role in defining the cleaning effectiveness and specifically the kinetics of interaction between the nanofluid and the polymeric coating to be removed, which is of paramount importance for the application in the field. Both of these nanofluids are effective in polymer removal, but EAPC is considerably more efficient and versatile. The composition and the structure at the nanoscale determine the capability of removing a broad range of different polymer coatings from porous materials. A representative case study is here described, addressing a particularly challenging conservative issue, which is the removal of a multilayered aged coating that was irreversibly damaging the pictorial layer of the Annunciation Basilica in Nazareth. PMID:23025287

  4. Effect of Selected Volatiles on Two Stored Pests: The Fungus Fusarium verticillioides and the Maize Weevil Sithophilus zeamais.


    Zunino, María P; Herrera, Jimena M; Pizzolitto, Romina P; Rubinstein, Héctor R; Zygadlo, Julio A; Dambolena, José S


    New agronomic practices and technology enabled Argentina a larger production of cereal grains, reaching a harvest yield of 26.5 million metric tons of maize, of which, about 40% was exported. However, much of the maize production is lost annually by the attack of fungi and insects (2.6 million tons). In this study, the antifungal effect of selected volatiles on Fusarium verticillioides, its mycotoxin production, and the repellent and insecticidal activities against the weevill Sithophilus zeamais, an insect vector of F. verticillioides, were evaluated. The compounds tested were (2E)-2-hexenal, (2E)-2-nonenal, (2E,6Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, pentanal, 2-decanone, and 3-decanone, which occur in the blend of volatile compounds emitted by various cereal grains. The most active antifungals were the aldehydes (2E)-2-nonenal, (2E)-2-hexenal, and (2E,6Z)-2,6-nonadienal (minimum inhibitory concentration values of <0.03, 0.06, and 0.06 mM, respectively). The occurrence of fumonisin B1 also was prevented because these compounds completely inhibited fungal growth. The best insecticidal fumigant activities against the maize weevil were shown by 2-decanone and 3-decanone (lethal concentration ? 54.6 ?L/L (<0.28 mM)). Although, all tested compounds showed repellent activity against S. zeamais at a concentration of 4 ?L/L, (2E,6Z)-2,6-nonadienal was the most active repellent compound. These results demonstrate the potential of (2E,6Z)-2,6-nonadienal to be used as a natural alternative to synthetic pesticides on F. verticillioides and S. zeamais. PMID:26257042

  5. Development of a standard gas generating vial comprised of a silicon oil-polystyrene/divinylbenzene composite sorbent.


    Grandy, Jonathan J; Gómez-Ríos, German A; Pawliszyn, Janusz


    In this work, a highly reproducible standard gas generating vial is proposed. The vial is comprised of a silicon diffusion pump oil spiked with an appropriate calibration compound, such as modified McReynolds probes (benzene, 2-pentanone, pyridine, 1-nitropropane, 1-pentanol, and n-octane), and then mixed with polystyrene/divinylbenzene (PS/DVB) particles. The concentrations of these compounds in gaseous headspace were found to substantially decrease in comparison to previously developed hydrocarbon pump oil based vials; hence, the amount of standard loaded onto SPME fibers was at most, half that of the previous vial design. Depletion for all compounds after 208 successive extractions was shown to be less than 3.5%. Smaller quantities of standards being used resulted in a vial that depleted slower while remaining statistically repeatable over a wider number of runs. Indeed, it was found that depletion could be largely predicted by using a mass balance theoretical model. This behavior allowed a further increase in the number of loadings that could be performed repeatedly. At a 95% level of confidence, the ANOVA test demonstrated that the prepared vials were statistically identical, with no significant intra- or inter-batch differences. In addition, it was found that vials stored under different conditions (e.g. under light exposure, room temperature, and within a refrigerator) were stable over 10 weeks. Silicon based vials proved to be ideal for performing instrument quality control and loading of internal standards onto fibers, both of which are of great importance when performing on-site analysis using portable GC-MS instrumentation and high throughput determinations in laboratory. PMID:26243704

  6. Purification and Properties of Primary and Secondary Alcohol Dehydrogenases from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Frank O.; Wiegel, Juergen; Ljungdahl, Lars G.


    Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus (ATCC 31550) has primary and secondary alcohol dehydrogenases. The two enzymes were purified to homogeneity as judged from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration. The apparent Mrs of the primary and secondary alcohol dehydrogenases are 184,000 and 172,000, respectively. Both enzymes have high thermostability. They are tetrameric with apparently identical subunits and contain from 3.2 to 5.5 atoms of Zn per subunit. The two dehydrogenases are NADP dependent and reversibly convert ethanol and 1-propanol to the respective aldehydes. The Vm values with ethanol as a substrate are 45.6 ?mol/min per mg for the primary alcohol dehydrogenase and 13 ?mol/min per mg for the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase at pH 8.9 and 60°C. The primary enzyme oxidizes primary alcohols, including up to heptanol, at rates similar to that of ethanol. It is inactive with secondary alcohols. The secondary enzyme is inactive with 1-pentanol or longer chain alcohols. Its best substrate is 2-propanol, which is oxidized 15 times faster than ethanol. The secondary alcohol dehydrogenase is formed early during the growth cycle. It is stimulated by pyruvate and has a low Km for acetaldehyde (44.8 mM) in comparison to that of the primary alcohol dehydrogenase (210 mM). The latter enzyme is formed late in the growth cycle. It is postulated that the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase is largely responsible for the formation of ethanol in fermentations of carbohydrates by T. ethanolicus. Images PMID:16347559

  7. Isoform selectivity of adenylyl cyclase inhibitors: characterization of known and novel compounds.


    Brand, Cameron S; Hocker, Harrison J; Gorfe, Alemayehu A; Cavasotto, Claudio N; Dessauer, Carmen W


    Nine membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms catalyze the production of the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) in response to various stimuli. Reduction of AC activity has well documented benefits, including benefits for heart disease and pain. These roles have inspired development of isoform-selective AC inhibitors, a lack of which currently limits exploration of functions and/or treatment of dysfunctions involving AC/cAMP signaling. However, inhibitors described as AC5- or AC1-selective have not been screened against the full panel of AC isoforms. We have measured pharmacological inhibitor profiles for all transmembrane AC isoforms. We found that 9-(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)-9H-purin-6-amine (SQ22,536), 2-amino-7-(furanyl)-7,8-dihydro-5(6H)-quinazolinone (NKY80), and adenine 9-?-d-arabinofuranoside (Ara-A), described as supposedly AC5-selective, do not discriminate between AC5 and AC6, whereas the putative AC1-selective inhibitor 5-[[2-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)ethyl]amino]-1-pentanol (NB001) does not directly target AC1 to reduce cAMP levels. A structure-based virtual screen targeting the ATP binding site of AC was used to identify novel chemical structures that show some preference for AC1 or AC2. Mutation of the AC2 forskolin binding pocket does not interfere with inhibition by SQ22,536 or the novel AC2 inhibitor, suggesting binding to the catalytic site. Thus, we show that compounds lacking the adenine chemical signature and targeting the ATP binding site can potentially be used to develop AC isoform-specific inhibitors, and discuss the need to reinterpret literature using AC5/6-selective molecules SQ22,536, NKY80, and Ara-A. PMID:24006339

  8. Exhalation pattern changes during fasting and low dose glucose treatment in rats.


    Fink, Tobias; Albrecht, Frederic W; Maurer, Felix; Kleber, Astrid; Hüppe, Tobias; Schnauber, Kristina; Wolf, Beate; Baumbach, Jörg I; Volk, Thomas; Kreuer, Sascha


    The analysis of exhaled metabolites has become a promising field of research in recent decades. Several volatile organic compounds reflecting metabolic disturbance and nutrition status have even been reported. These are particularly important for long-term measurements, as needed in medical research for detection of disease progression and therapeutic efficacy. In this context, it has become urgent to investigate the effect of fasting and glucose treatment for breath analysis. In the present study, we used a model of ventilated rats that fasted for 12 h prior to the experiment. Ten rats per group were randomly assigned for continuous intravenous infusion without glucose or an infusion including 25 mg glucose per 100 g per hour during an observation period of 12 h. Exhaled gas was analysed using multicapillary column ion-mobility spectrometry. Analytes were identified by the BS-MCC/IMS database (version 1209; B & S Analytik, Dortmund, Germany). Glucose infusion led to a significant increase in blood glucose levels (p?1-pentanol, 1-propanol, and 2-heptanol. Our results indicate that for long-term measurement, fasting and the withholding of glucose could contribute to changes of volatile metabolites in exhaled air. PMID:25808025

  9. Determination of volatile compounds in wine by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection: comparison between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 3sigma approach and Hubaux-Vos calculation of detection limits using ordinary and bivariate least squares.


    Caruso, Rosario; Scordino, Monica; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo


    A capillary GC-flame ionization detection (FID) method to determine volatile compounds (ethyl acetate, 1,1-diethoxyethane, methyl alcohol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-butanol, and 2-butanol) in wine was investigated in terms of calculation of detection limits and calibration method. The main objectives were: (1) calculation of regression coefficient parameters by ordinary least-squares (OLS) and bivariate least-squares (BLS) regression models, taking into account errors in both axes; (2) estimation of linear dynamic range (LDR) according to International Conference on Harmonization recommendations; (3) performance evaluation of a method by using three different internal standards (ISs) such as acetonitrile, acetone, and 1-pentanol; (4) evaluation of LODs according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 3sigma approach and the Hubaux-Vos (H-V) method; (5) application of H-V theory to a gas chromatographic analytical method and to a food matrix; and (6) accuracy assessment of the method relative to methyl alcohol content through a Unione Italiana Vini (UIV) interlaboratory proficiency test. Calibration curves calculated via BLS and OLS show similar slopes, while intercepts are closer to zero in the first case, independent of the chosen IS. The studied ISs show a substantially equivalent behavior, even though the IS closer to the analyte retention time seems to be more appropriate in terms of LDR and LOD. Results indicate an underestimation of LODs using the EPA 3sigma approach instead of the more realistic H-V method, both with OLS and BLS regression models. Methanol contents compared with UIV average values indicate recovery between 90 and 110%. PMID:22649934

  10. Analysis of thiabendazole, 4-tert-octylphenol and chlorpyrifos in waste and sewage water by direct injection – micellar liquid chromatography.


    Romero-Cano, Ricard; Kassuha, Diego; Peris-Vicente, Juan; Roca-Genovés, Pasqual; Carda-Broch, Samuel; Esteve-Romero, Josep


    A micellar liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of the pesticides thiabendazole and chlorpyrifos, as well as an alkylphenol, which is included in pesticide formulations, i.e., 4-tert-octylphenol, in water. A sample was filtered and directly injected, avoiding large extraction steps using toxic solvents, thus expediting the experimental procedure. The contaminants were eluted without interferences in <17 min, using a mobile phase of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulfate – 6% 1-pentanol buffered at pH 3, running through a C18 column at 1 mL min(-1) under the isocratic mode. This optimal mobile phase was selected using a statistical approach, which considers the retention factor, efficiency and peak shape of the analytes measured in only a few mobile phases. The detection was carried out by measuring absorbance at 220 nm. The method was successfully validated in terms of specificity, calibration range (0.5-10 mg L(-1)), linearity (r(2) > 0.994), limit of detection and quantification (0.2-0.3; and 0.5-0.8 mg L(-1), respectively), intra- and interday accuracy (95.2-102.9%), precision (<8.3%), and ruggedness (<9.3%). The stability in storage conditions (at least 14 days) was studied. The method was safe, inexpensive, produced little pollutant and has a short analysis time, thus it is useful for the routine analysis of samples. Finally, the method was applied to analyse wastewater from the fruit-processing industry, wastewater treatment plants, and in sewage water belonging to the Castelló area (Spain). The results were similar to those obtained by an already reliable method. PMID:25604004

  11. Solid-phase dynamic extraction for the enrichment of polar volatile organic compounds from water.


    Jochmann, Maik A; Kmiecik, Magda P; Schmidt, Torsten C


    Headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPDE-GC/MS) was evaluated for the trace determination of polar volatile organic compounds (PVOC) from aqueous matrices. The target compounds included 3 ethers and 12 alcohols. Four SPDE needle coatings with different phase polarities and sorption properties (WAX, 1701, PDMS, PDMS/AC) were tested. The effects of extraction temperature, number of extraction cycles, and ionic strength on partitioning of the target compounds have been investigated in detail, including the determination of salting-out constants for the investigated compounds. Lowest method detection limits (MDLs) were obtained with the WAX and the PDMS/AC phase. The WAX phase showed MDLs for ethers in the range of 0.06 microg/L (MTBE) to 0.8 microg/L (1,4-dioxane) and for alcohols between 0.02 microg/L (3-methyl-1-pentanol) and 3.5 microg/L (1-propanol). The evaluated MDLs for ethers with the PDMS/AC were in the range 0.06 microg/L (MTBE) to 1.2 microg/L (1,4-dioxane) and for alcohols between 0.004 microg/L (1-hexanol) and 4.9 microg/L (ethanol). Using either of these two phases, SPDE provides comparable or better sensitivities for the investigated compounds than other enrichment techniques, high sample throughput because of full automation, and short extraction times as well as a high robustness of the extraction phase because of its protection inside the steel needle. SPDE applicability has been demonstrated for the determination of fusel oils in different alcoholic beverages. PMID:16530775

  12. Sensory and physicochemical evolution of tropical cooked peeled shrimp inoculated by Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactococcus piscium CNCM I-4031 during storage at 8°C.


    Fall, Papa Abdoulaye; Pilet, Marie France; Leduc, François; Cardinal, Mireille; Duflos, Guillaume; Guérin, Camille; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; Leroi, Françoise


    This study investigated the sensory quality and physicochemical evolution (pH, glucose, l-lactic acid, biogenic amine, free amino-acids and volatile compounds) during storage at 8°C of cooked peeled shrimp inoculated with the specific spoilage bacteria Brochothrix thermosphacta alone or mixed with the protective strain Lactococcus piscium CNCM I-4031. Growth of both bacteria was monitored at regular intervals during storage by microbial counts and the thermal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) technique. Bacterial counts showed that L. piscium and B. thermosphacta inoculated at 7 log CFU/g and 3 log CFU/g were well adapted to shrimp, reaching a maximum level of 9 log CFU/g after 4days and 10days respectively. In mixed culture, the growth of B. thermosphacta was reduced by 3.2±0.1 log CFU/g. The TTGE technique allowed monitoring the colonisation of the strains on the shrimp matrix and confirming the dominance of L. piscium in mixed culture throughout the experiment. Sensory analysis confirmed that B. thermosphacta spoiled the product after 11days, when its cell number attained 8 log CFU/g with the emission of strong butter/caramel off-odours. This sensory profile could be linked to the production of 2,3 butanedione, cyclopentanol, 3-methylbutanol, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, 4-methyl-3-chloro-3-pentanol and ethanol, which were produced in more significant quantities in the B. thermosphacta batch than in the batches in which the protective strain was present. On the contrary, TVBN and TMA were not suitable as quality indicators for B. thermosphacta spoilage activity. In the products where the protective L. piscium strain was present, no adverse effect on sensory quality was noted by the sensory panels. Moreover, biogenic amine assessment did not show any histamine or tyramine production by this strain, underlining its safety profile. Both strains produced lactic acid (1850mg/kg in L. piscium and B. thermosphacta batch on days 3 and 10 respectively; 3830mg/kg on day 7 in mixed culture) and the pH decrease from 6.6±0.0 to 5.9±0.1 was similar in all batches. Lactic acid production or competition for free amino-acid was not involved in the inhibition mechanism; however rapid glucose consumption by L. piscium could partially explain the growth limitation of the spoilage micro-organism. This study demonstrated the spoilage characteristic of B. thermosphacta and the usefulness of L. piscium as a bioprotective culture for tropical cooked peeled shrimp without any adverse effect on the sensory quality of the product. PMID:21835482

  13. Characterization of the 2-[(R)-2-hydroxypropylthio]ethanesulfonate dehydrogenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2: product inhibition, pH dependence of kinetic parameters, site-directed mutagenesis, rapid equilibrium inhibition, and chemical modification.


    Clark, Daniel D; Ensign, Scott A


    Although the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily contains a very large number of members defined in annotated databases and by biochemical and structural studies, very few SDR enzymes have been identified that have a homologous partner catalyzing the same reaction but with an opposite stereospecificity. In the present study we have cloned and expressed one of these enzymes, the 2-[(R)-2-hydroxypropylthio]ethanesulfonate (R-HPC) dehydrogenase, that is part of the coenzyme M-dependent pathway of alkene and epoxide metabolism in Xanthobacter strain Py2. Investigation of the kinetic mechanism using product inhibition suggested that a compulsory-ordered ternary complex mechanism was followed. The pH dependence of k(cat)/K(m) indicated the presence of a single ionizable residue of catalytic importance (pK(a) = 6.9) that was proposed to be Y155 of the catalytic triad. Amino acid substitutions of the putative catalytic triad residues produced inactive enzymes (S142C, Y155F, Y155E, and K159A) or enzyme with a greatly decreased activity (S142A). Inhibitors were investigated as probes of the molecular features of R-HPC that contribute to substrate binding. 2-[(S)-2-Hydroxypropylthio]ethanesulfonate (S-HPC) and 2-(2-methyl-2-hydroxypropylthio)ethanesulfonate were found to be competitive inhibitors of R-HPC with K(ic) values close to the K(m) for R-HPC. The arginine-specific modifiers 2,3-butanedione and phenylglyoxal were found to be inactivators, and inactivation could be protected against by the addition of R-HPC. 2,3-Butanedione was found to reduce enzyme activity with R-HPC as a substrate much more dramatically than with substrates that lacked a sulfonate moiety [e.g., 2-propanol, (R)-2-pentanol, and (R)-2-heptanol]. Amino acid analyses of enzyme modified by 2,3-butanedione in the presence and absence of S-HPC suggested protection of a single arginine residue. On the basis of these results, we propose that one or more active site arginines play a key role in substrate binding via an ionic interaction with the sulfonate moiety of R-HPC. PMID:11851420

  14. Aliphatic ?-Nitroalcohols for Therapeutic Corneoscleral Cross-linking: Chemical Mechanisms and Higher Order Nitroalcohols

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Marissa R.; Wen, Quan; Turro, Nicholas J.; Trokel, Stephen L.


    Purpose. The recent tissue cross-linking studies indicate that aliphatic ?-nitroalcohols (BNAs) may be useful as pharmacologic corneoscleral cross-linking agents. The present study was performed to identify the specific chemistry involved under physiologic conditions, with the intent of identifying more effective agents. Methods. The mechanism of chemical cross-linking at pH 7.4 and 37°C was studied using three techniques. The colorimetric Griess assay was used to follow the release of nitrite from three mono-nitroalcohols (2-nitroethanol [2ne], 2-nitro-1-propanol [2nprop]), and 3-nitro-2-pentanol [3n2pent]). Second, the evolution of 2nprop in 0.2 M NaH2PO4/Na2HPO4/D2O was studied using 1H-NMR. Third, thermal shrinkage temperature analysis (Ts), a measure of tissue cross-linking, was used to support information from 1the H-NMR studies. Results. A time-dependent release of nitrite was observed for all three mono-nitroalcohols studied. The maximum levels were comparable using either 2ne or 2nprop (?30%). However, much less (?10%) was observed from 3n2pent. Using 1H-NMR, 2nprop evolved into a unique splitting pattern. No match was observed with reference spectra from three possible products of denitration. In contrast, 2-methyl-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol (MNPD), a nitro-diol, was identified, implying the formation of formaldehyde from a retro-nitroaldol (i.e., reverse Henry) reaction. In support of this mechanism, Ts shifts induced by the nitro-triol 2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol (HNPD) were superior to the nitro-diol MNPD which were superior to the mono nitroalcohol 2nprop. Conclusions. BNAs function as both formaldehyde and nitrite donors under physiologic conditions to cross-link collagenous tissue. Higher order BNAs are more effective than mono nitroalcohols, raising the possibility of using these agents for therapeutic corneoscleral cross-linking. PMID:19797229

  15. Initial Studies Using Aliphatic ?-Nitro Alcohols for Therapeutic Corneal Cross-Linking

    PubMed Central

    Paik, David C.; Wen, Quan; Braunstein, Richard E.; Airiani, Suzanna; Trokel, Stephen L.


    Purpose Corneal collagen cross-linking through UVA-riboflavin photochemistry (UVAR) has been shown to be an effective treatment for keratoconus and related keratectasias. In recent studies using sclera, the authors observed that short-chain aliphatic ?-nitro alcohols can cross-link collagenous tissue under physiologic conditions. Thus, this study was undertaken to evaluate these agents as potential pharmacologic alternatives to UVAR. Methods Porcine corneal strips (8 × 4 mm) and corneoscleral complexes were cross-linked using 1 to 100 mM 2-nitroethanol (2ne), 2-nitro-1-propanol (2nprop), and 3-nitro-2-pentanol (3n2pent) at pH 7.4, 34°C. Cross-linking by UVAR was carried out for comparison. Thermal shrinkage temperature analysis was used to evaluate cross-linking effects, and changes in corneal light transmission were determined with a fiber-optic spectrophotometer. Results At 10 and 100 mM for 96 hours, initial shrinkage temperature (Ti) was shifted by 3.3°C (P < 0.001) and 9.8°C (P < 0.001) for 2ne, 2.9°C (P = 0.008) and 4.9°C (P < 0.001) for 2nprop, and 3.8°C (P = 0.003) and 4.9°C (P < 0.001) for 3n2pent. Reacting at 1 mM through daily exchange of fluid over 7 days shifted Ti by 3.8°C (P < 0.001), 4.4°C (P = 0.002), and 3.2°C (P = 0.005), for 2ne, 2nprop, and 3n2pent, respectively. These shifts were greater than cross-linking using UVAR (Ti = 1.9°C; P = 0.012). In the blue light region (400?500 nm), transmission was decreased by 5.6% (P = 0.003), 2.1% (P = 0.260), and 0% (P = 0.428) for 2ne, 2nprop, and 3n2pent, respectively. Conclusions ?-Nitro alcohols can induce corneal cross-linking in vitro better than the UVAR technique and can induce negligible effects on light transmission. These early results suggest that such compounds could be used as topical stiffening agents for keratoconus and related disorders. PMID:18836172

  16. The Effect of Cavitating Ultrasound on the Aqueous Phase Hydrogenation of Cis-2-buten-1-ol and Cis-2-penten-1-ol on Pd-black

    SciTech Connect

    Disselkamp, Robert S.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Hart, Todd R.; White, James F.; Peden, Charles HF.


    We have studied the effect of cavitating ultrasound on the heterogeneous aqueous hydrogenation of cis-2-buten-1-ol (C4 olefin) and cis-2-penten-1-ol (C5 olefin) on Pd-black to form the trans-olefins (trans-2-buten-1-ol and trans-2-penten-1-ol) and saturated alcohols (1-butanol and 1-pentanol, respectively). Silent (and magnetically stirred) experiments served as control experiments. As described in an earlier publication by our group, we have added an inert dopant, 1-propanol, in the reaction mixture to ensure the rapid onset of cavitation in the ultrasound-assisted reactions that can lead to altered selectivity compared to silent reaction systems [Disselkamp et al., J. Catal., 227 (2004) 552]. The motivation for this study is to examine whether cavitating ultrasound can reduce the [trans-olefin/saturated alcohol] molar ratio during the course of the reaction. This could have practical application in that it may offer an alternative processing methodology of synthesizing healthier edible seed oils by reducing trans-fat content. We have observed that cavitating ultrasound results in a [(trans-olefin/saturated alcohol)ultrasound/(trans-olefin/saturated alcohol)silent] ratio quantity less than 0.5 at the reaction mid-point for both the C4 and C5 olefin systems. This indicates that ultrasound reduces trans-olefin production compared to the silent control experiment. Furthermore, there is an added 30% reduction for the C5 versus C4 olefin compounds again at reaction mid-point. We attribute differences in the ratio quantity as a moment of inertia effect. In principle, the C4 versus C5 olefins has a {approx}52% increase in moment of inertia about C2=C3 double bond slowing isomerization. Since seed oils are C18 multiple cis olefins and have an moment of inertia even greater than our C5 olefin here, our study suggests that even a greater reduction in trans-olefin content may occur for partial hydrogenation of C18 seed oils.

  17. The effect of cavitating ultrasound on the aqueous phase hydrogenation of cis-2-buten-1-ol and cis-2-penten-1-ol on Pd-black

    SciTech Connect

    Disselkamp, Robert S.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Hart, Todd R.; White, James F.; Peden, Charles HF.


    We have studied the effect of cavitating ultrasound on the heterogeneous aqueous hydrogenation of cis-2-buten-1-ol (C4 olefin) and cis-2-penten-1-ol (C5 olefin) on Pd-black to form the trans-olefins (trans-2-buten-1-ol and trans-2-penten-1-ol) and saturated alcohols (1-butanol and 1-pentanol, respectively). Silent (and magnetically stirred) experiments served as control experiments. As described in an earlier publication by our group, we have added an inert dopant, 1-propanol, in the reaction mixture to ensure the rapid onset of cavitation in the ultrasound-assisted reactions that can lead to altered selectivity compared to silent reaction systems [R.S. Disselkamp, Ya-Huei Chin, C.H.F. Peden, J. Catal. 227 (2004) 552]. The motivation for this study is to examine whether cavitating ultrasound can reduce the [trans-olefin/saturated alcohol] molar ratio during the course of the reaction. This could have practical application in that it may offer an alternative processing methodology of synthesizing healthier edible seed oils by reducing trans-fat content.We have observed that cavitating ultrasound results in a [(trans-olefin/saturated alcohol)ultrasound/(trans-olefin/saturated alcohol)silent] ratio quantity less than 0.5 at the reaction mid-point for both the C4 and C5 olefin systems. This indicates that ultrasound reduces trans-olefin production compared to the silent control experiment. Furthermore, there is an added 30% reduction for the C5 versus C4 olefin compounds again at reaction mid-point. We attribute differences in the ratio quantity as a moment of inertia effect. In principle, the C4 versus C5 olefins has a {approx}52% increase in moment of inertia about C2 C3 double bond slowing isomerization. Since seed oils are C18 multiple cis-olefins and have a moment of inertia even greater than our C5 olefin here, our study suggests that even a greater reduction in trans-olefin content may occur for partial hydrogenation of C18 seed oils.

  18. Experimental study of the effect of test-well arrangement for partitioning interwell tracer test on the estimation of NAPL saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Kim, Y.; Yeo, I.; Yongcheol Kim, In Wook Yeo


    Partitioning interwell tracer test (PITT) is a method to quantify and qualify a contaminated site with NAPLs through a degree of retardation of partitioning tracers compared to a conservative one. Although PITT is known to be a more effective method to measure the saturation of spatially-distributed NAPL contaminant than the point investigation method, the saturation estimation from PITT is reported to be underestimated due to various factors including heterogeneity of the media, adsorption, source zone NAPL architecture, and long tailing in breakthrough curves of partitioning tracers. Analytical description of PITT assumes that the injection-pumping well pair is on the line of ambient groundwater flow direction, but the test-well pair could easily be off the line in the field site, which could be another erroneous factor in analyzing PITT data. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of the angle of the test-well pair to ambient groundwater flow direction based on the result from PITT. The experiments were conducted in a small-scale 3D sandbox with dimensions of 0.5 m × 0.4 m × 0.15 m (LWH) of stainless steel. The surface is covered and sealed with a plexiglass plate to make the physical model a confined aquifer. Eight full-screened wells of Teflon material were installed along the perimeter of a 50 mm circle with 45 degree intervals in the middle of the physical model. Both ends of the sand box are connected to constant head reservoirs. The physical model was wet-packed with sieved and washed sand. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and bromide were used as the contaminant and the conservative tracer, respectively. Hexanol, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol and 6-methyl-2-heptanol were used as partitioning tracers. Before the injection of TCE, a PITT was conducted to measure adsorption coefficient of partitioning tracers to the sand material. TCE of 4.5 mL, dyed with Sudan IV, was injected into the inner part of the circle of the wells. PITTs using the test-well pair parallel and with angles of 45 and 90 degrees to ambient flow direction were performed. Another PITT was conducted at an increased pumping rate with the test-well pair at a 45 degree angle to examine the effect of pumping rate. From the experiments, it was found that as the angles of the test-well pair to ambient groundwater flow direction increased, the estimated NAPL saturation decreased. Although the increase in pumping rate in this experiment reduces the effect of the obliqueness of the test-well arrangement, the effect of rate-limited transfer of partitioning tracers due to the increased pumping rate on the PITT should be examined in the interpretation. The results of these experiments revealed that the arrangement of the test-well pair is another controlling factor in performing and interpreting PITT in the field, in addition to the factors such as heterogeneity, source zone architecture, and tailing. Key words: PITT, test-well arrangement, ambient groundwater flow direction, NAPL saturation Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Basic Research Project of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy of Korea. 11-3414

  19. Safety assessment of MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone).


    Johnson, Wilbur


    MIBK (Methyl Isobutyl Ketone) is an aliphatic ketone that functions as both a denaturant and solvent in cosmetic products. Current use in cosmetic products is very limited, but MIBK is reported to be used in one nail correction pen (volume = 3 ml) at a concentration of 21%. The maximum percutaneous absorption rate in guinea pigs is 1.1 micromol/min/cm2 at 10 to 45 min. Metabolites include 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (oxidation product) and 4-methyl-2-pentanol (4-MPOL) (reduction product). Values for the serum half-life and total clearance time of MIBK in animals were 66 min and 6 h, respectively. In clinical tests, most of the absorbed MIBK had been eliminated from the body 90 min post exposure. MIBK was not toxic via the oral or dermal route of exposure in acute, short-term, or subchronic animal studies, except that nephrotoxicity was observed in rats dosed with 1 g/kg in a short-term study. MIBK was an ocular and skin irritant in animal tests. Ocular irritation was noted in 12 volunteers exposed to 200 ppm MIBK for 15 min in a clinical test. A depression of the vestibulo-oculomotor reflex was seen with intravenous infusion of MIBK (in an emulsion) at 30 microM/kg/min in female rats. The no-observed-effect level in rats exposed orally to MIBK was 50 mg/kg. Both gross and microscopic evidence of lung damage were reported in acute inhalation toxicity studies in animals. Short-term and subchronic inhalation exposures (as low as 100 ppm) produced effects in the kidney and liver that were species and sex dependent. Dermal doses of 300 or 600 mg/kg for 4 months in rats produced reduced mitotic activity in hair follicles, increased thickness of horny and granular cell layers of the epidermis, a decrease in the number of reactive centers in follicles (spleen), an increase in the number of iron-containing pigments in the area of the red pulp (spleen), and a reduction in the lipid content of the cortical layer of the adrenal glands. Neuropathological changes in the most distal portions of the tibial and ulnar nerves were observed in young adult rats which inhaled 1500 ppm MIBK for up to 5 months. No adverse effects were seen in any other neurological end point by any route of exposure in other studies using rats or other animal species. Clinical tests demonstrated a threshold for MIBK-induced irritation of the lungs at 0.03 to 0.1 mg/L after 1 min of respiration. MIBK was not mutagenic in the Ames test or in a mitotic gene-conversion assay in bacteria. Mammalian mutagenicity test results were also negative in the following assays: mouse lymphoma, unscheduled DNA synthesis, micronucleus, cell transformation, and chromosome damage. MIBK did not induce any treatment-related increases in embryotoxicity or fetal malformations in pregnant Fischer 344 rats or CD-1 mice that inhaled MIBK at concentrations of 300, 1000, or 3000 ppm. There was evidence of treatment-related maternal toxicity only at the highest concentration tested. MIBK applied to the tail of rats daily at doses of 300 or 600 mg/kg for 4 months produced changes in the testes, including a reduction in the number of spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa. An ongoing carcinogenicity study of MIBK being conducted by the National Toxicology Program will be considered when the results are available. On the basis of the information that is currently available, MIBK is considered safe as used in nail polish removers and as an alcohol denaturant in cosmetic products. PMID:15162837

  20. A Unique Equation to Estimate Flash Points of Selected Pure Liquids Application to the Correction of Probably Erroneous Flash Point Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catoire, Laurent; Naudet, Valérie


    A simple empirical equation is presented for the estimation of closed-cup flash points for pure organic liquids. Data needed for the estimation of a flash point (FP) are the normal boiling point (Teb), the standard enthalpy of vaporization at 298.15 K [?vapH°(298.15 K)] of the compound, and the number of carbon atoms (n) in the molecule. The bounds for this equation are: -100?FP(°C)?+200; 250?Teb(K)?650; 20??vap H°(298.15 K)/(kJ mol-1)?110; 1?n?21. Compared to other methods (empirical equations, structural group contribution methods, and neural network quantitative structure-property relationships), this simple equation is shown to predict accurately the flash points for a variety of compounds, whatever their chemical groups (monofunctional compounds and polyfunctional compounds) and whatever their structure (linear, branched, cyclic). The same equation is shown to be valid for hydrocarbons, organic nitrogen compounds, organic oxygen compounds, organic sulfur compounds, organic halogen compounds, and organic silicone compounds. It seems that the flash points of organic deuterium compounds, organic tin compounds, organic nickel compounds, organic phosphorus compounds, organic boron compounds, and organic germanium compounds can also be predicted accurately by this equation. A mean absolute deviation of about 3 °C, a standard deviation of about 2 °C, and a maximum absolute deviation of 10 °C are obtained when predictions are compared to experimental data for more than 600 compounds. For all these compounds, the absolute deviation is equal or lower than the reproductibility expected at a 95% confidence level for closed-cup flash point measurement. This estimation technique has its limitations concerning the polyhalogenated compounds for which the equation should be used with caution. The mean absolute deviation and maximum absolute deviation observed and the fact that the equation provides unbiaised predictions lead to the conclusion that several flash points have been reported erroneously, whatever the reason, in one or several reference compilations. In the following lists, the currently accepted flash points for bold compounds err, or probably err, on the hazardous side by at least 10 °C and for the nonbolded compounds, the currently accepted flash points err, or probably err, on the nonhazardous side by at least 10 °C: bicyclohexyl, sec-butylamine, tert-butylamine, 2-cyclohexen-1-one, ethanethiol, 1,3-cyclohexadiene, 1,4-pentadiene, methyl formate, acetonitrile, cinnamaldehyde, 1-pentanol, diethylene glycol, diethyl fumarate, diethyl phthalate, trimethylamine, dimethylamine, 1,6-hexanediol, propylamine, methanethiol, ethylamine, bromoethane, 1-bromopropane, tert-butylbenzene, 1-chloro-2-methylpropane, diacetone alcohol, diethanolamine, 2-ethylbutanal, and formic acid. For some other compounds, no other data than the currently accepted flash points are available. Therefore, it cannot be assessed that these flash point data are erroneous but it can be stated that they are probably erroneous. At least, they need experimental re-examination. They are probably erroneous by at least 15 °C: 1,3-cyclopentadiene, di-tert-butyl sulfide, dimethyl ether, dipropyl ether, 4-heptanone, bis(2-chloroethyl)ether, 1-decanol, 1-phenyl-1-butanone, furan, ethylcyclopentane, 1-heptanethiol, 2,5-hexanediol, 3-hexanone, hexanoic acid methyl ester, 4-methyl-1,3-pentadiene, propanoyl chloride, tetramethylsilane, thiacyclopentane, 1-chloro-2-methyl-1-propene, trans-1,3-pentadiene, 2,3-dimethylheptane, triethylenetetramine, methylal, N-ethylisopropylamine, 3-methyl-2-pentene, and 2,3-dimethyl-1-butene.

  1. Influence of Mass Transfer Kinetics on Interpretation of Push-Pull Partitioning Tracer Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ervin, R. E.; Boroumand, A.; Abriola, L. M.; Ramsburg, C. A.


    There is now considerable interest in predicting plume response to various levels of treatment applied within a DNAPL source zone. An important component to the development of this predictive capability is the ability to characterize the distribution of DNAPL within the source zone. Metrics developed for description of source zone architecture are frequently based upon some combination of downgradient contaminant concentrations and in source testing. One option for in source testing is the use of partition tracers in either interwell or push-pull test configurations. Push-pull tracer tests are advantageous for obtaining more localized information that can be integrated with other observations to reduce the uncertainty related the links between the architecture of a source and its associated plume. Here we examined push-pull tracer tests in a series of aquifer cell experiments to evaluate the potential of this type of test to quantify metrics of the DNAPL distribution at the local-scale (i.e., 1 m flow path). Three DNAPL architectures were characterized by conducting push-pull tracer tests using a solution which comprised three partitioning tracers (1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, and 2-octanol) and one non-partitioning tracer (bromide). Each architecture was characterized using three flow regimes that employed combinations of fast (~30 cm/hr) and slow (~2 cm/hr) velocities. Production curves (i.e., tracer concentrations during the pull phase of the test) for the partitioning tracers were found to be asymmetric. This asymmetry severely degraded the ability of an analytical solution employing the local equilibrium assumption to predict the overall saturations. Saturation estimates from the analytical solution were found to be improved when the application of the model was restricted to later time data (Vext/Vinj >1). This observation suggests it is important to better understand the factors influencing the early time data. Experiments were also simulated using a numerical model containing a linear driving force expression to describe the tracer mass transfer. Mass transfer coefficients in all simulations were produced using available correlations for pool dissolution. Perfect knowledge of the DNAPL and permeability distributions, as well as relative permeability effects enabled the numerical model to better capture the asymmetry observed in the production curves. We then began to systematically simplify the numerical model to explore which assumptions associated with the analytical solution cause its poor performance. These assumptions include: uniform packing distribution, uniform DNAPL distribution, equilibrium partitioning, and no permeability reduction due to the presence of the DNAPL. Results suggest only limited degradation in model performance when the medium permeability and DNAPL saturation are assumed to be uniform, and relative permeability effects are neglected. In contrast, model performance was considerably poorer when mass transfer kinetics were neglected. These results highlight the importance of including mass transfer kinetics when characterizing local-scale DNAPL architecture.

  2. Decontamination of Tritiated-Water Using Super-hydrophobic Pt-Catalyst Synthesized with Water-in-Supercritical CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Youichi Enokida; Kayo Sawada |; Ryosuke Shimizu; Ichiro Yamamoto


    Tritium, {sup 3}H, is one of the hydrogen isotopes, created in coolant of a fission reactor and to be utilized as fuel for nuclear fusion reactors. Since a large amount of tritium will be contained in a fusion reactor or in a fission reactor, a small fraction of the tritiated chemical species, in most cases, tritiated water, may leak to the environment. Tritium is, however, a radioactive isotope whose specific radioactivity is 4 x 10{sup 17} Bq kg{sup -1}, and easy to transfer in human body, its confinement is very important from the safety aspect. One of the problems of tritium confinement and decontamination of tritiated chemical species is related with necessity of its isotope separation from lighter hydrogen isotopes, {sup 2}H and {sup 1}H. Most of principles for the isotope separations are based on fractionations of isotopes in different chemical species. A large fractionation for hydrogen isotopes is observed in a chemical exchange of hydrogen atoms between water, Q{sub 2}O, and hydrogen gas, Q{sub 2}, where 'Q' denotes one of the hydrogen isotopes. Heavier isotopes are enriched significantly into Q{sub 2}O rather than Q{sub 2}. Therefore practical method of tritium removal would be established by hydrogen isotope separation with chemical exchange of water and hydrogen gas. At first, we prepared a catalyst, by reducing Pt{sup 4+} in reversed micelles where the reducing agent, aqueous solution of sodium tetra borohydrate, NaBH{sub 4} was also contained in reversed micelles prepared separately. In this situation, micelles containing Pt{sup 4+} and reducing reagent collided and produced Pt nanoparticles, which were expected to be impregnated in the hydrophobic structure after depressurization. After this type of earlier experiment we determined a mass of impregnated Pt by total dissolution of gauze with aqua regia followed by concentration measurement of Pt with ICP-AES. We performed several trials, unfortunately, however, the mass of Pt deposited on the gauze was very small to detect, and this approach turns to be not successful. As the second approach, we utilize CO{sub 2} soluble Pt precursor, CODMe{sub 2}Pt purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co. and H{sub 2} gas as reducing agent, which could be completely mixed with SC-CO{sub 2}. This system was well-known for Pt particle formation by auto-catalytic growth. The second approach was aiming at increasing Pt amount deposited in the gauze. This approach was successful in increasing Pt amount, but the Pt particle size also increased to be more than 50 nm, which was not suitable for catalyst. Finally, we synthesized the catalyst by the following procedure: firstly, a reducing agent of NaBH{sub 4} was deposited on the nano-textured hydrophobic layer on the gauze. This step was realized by forming reversed micelles of aqueous NaBH{sub 4} solution using a surfactant AOT and a co-surfactant 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,-octafluoro-1-pentanol (F-pentanol) in SC-CO{sub 2}. This system of surfactant combination of AOT and F-pentanol has been found to work successfully in recent studies. In the second step, the gauze was contacted with CODMe{sub 2}Pt dissolved in SC-CO{sub 2} to synthesize seeds of Pt particles for the auto-catalytic reaction proceeding by CODMe{sub 2}Pt with hydrogen. The seeds were formed by the reaction between deposited NaBH{sub 4} and CODMe{sub 2}Pt in SC-CO{sub 2}. The physical characterization of this catalyst was performed by SEM-EDS. By this procedure, the Pt hydrophobic catalyst where Pt nanoparticle of 10 nm in diameter was locally deposited in the nano-textured layer was successfully prepared. Hydrophobicity after the chemical Pt deposition was tested by measurement of water absorbed on the gauze and the catalyst performance was evaluated by {sup 1}H{sup 2}H formation through the scrambling reaction from {sup 1}H{sub 2} and {sup 2}H{sub 2} and the reaction was successfully observed. We demonstrated a new hydrophobic catalyst preparation using SC-CO{sub 2} effectively. We can conclude that the approach of creating Pt nanoparticles in SC-CO{sub 2} and depositing them in