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Sample records for 1-year interval mri

  1. Reference Intervals of Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Analytes for 1-Year-Old Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ryun; Roh, Eun Youn; Chang, Ju Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference intervals need to be established according to age. We established reference intervals of hematology and chemistry from community-based healthy 1-yr-old children and analyzed their iron status according to the feeding methods during the first six months after birth. Methods A total of 887 children who received a medical check-up between 2010 and 2014 at Boramae Hospital (Seoul, Korea) were enrolled. A total of 534 children (247 boys and 287 girls) were enrolled as reference individuals after the exclusion of data obtained from children with suspected iron deficiency. Hematology and clinical chemistry analytes were measured, and the reference value of each analyte was estimated by using parametric (mean±2 SD) or nonparametric methods (2.5-97.5th percentile). Iron, total iron-binding capacity, and ferritin were measured, and transferrin saturation was calculated. Results As there were no differences in the mean values between boys and girls, we established the reference intervals for 1-yr-old children regardless of sex. The analysis of serum iron status according to feeding methods during the first six months revealed higher iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation levels in children exclusively or mainly fed formula than in children exclusively or mainly fed breast milk. Conclusions We established reference intervals of hematology and clinical chemistry analytes from community-based healthy children at one year of age. These reference intervals will be useful for interpreting results of medical check-ups at one year of age. PMID:27374715

  2. Repaired Supraspinatus Tendons in Clinically Improving Patients: Early Postoperative Findings and Interval Changes on MRI

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Eun; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Rhee, Yong Girl; Yoon, So Hee; Park, So Young; Jin, Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate and further determine the incidences of repaired supraspinatus tendons on early postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in clinically improving patients and to evaluate interval changes on follow-up MRIs. Materials and Methods Fifty patients, who showed symptomatic and functional improvements after supraspinatus tendon repair surgery and who underwent postoperative MRI twice with a time interval, were included. The first and the second postoperative MRIs were obtained a mean of 4.4 and 11.5 months after surgery, respectively. The signal intensity (SI) patterns of the repaired tendon on T2-weighted images from the first MRI were classified into three types of heterogeneous high SI with fluid-like bright high foci (type I), heterogeneous high SI without fluid-like bright high foci (type II), and heterogeneous or homogeneous low SI (type III). Interval changes in the SI pattern, tendon thickness, and rotator cuff interval thickness between the two postoperative MRIs were evaluated. Results The SI patterns on the first MRI were type I or II in 45 tendons (90%) and type III in five (10%). SI decreased significantly on the second MRI (p < 0.050). The mean thickness of repaired tendons and rotator cuff intervals also decreased significantly (p < 0.050). Conclusion Repaired supraspinatus tendons exhibited high SI in 90% of clinically improving patients on MRI performed during the early postsurgical period. The increased SI and thickness of the repaired tendon decreased on the later MRI, suggesting a gradual healing process rather than a retear. PMID:25741199

  3. Birth records from Swiss married couples analyzed over the past 35 years reveal an aging of first-time mothers by 5.1 years while the interpregnancy interval has shortened.

    PubMed

    Kalberer, Urs; Baud, David; Fontanet, Arnaud; Hohlfeld, Patrick; de Ziegler, Dominique

    2009-12-01

    Although the general trend for delaying childbearing is generally viewed as causing infertility, its consequences on the interpregnancy interval have been unknown. A study of birth records for Swiss married women from 1969 to 2006 revealed that the woman's age at first birth has increased from 25.0 to 30.1 years, whereas calculated theoretical interpregnancy intervals after the first and second child decreased from 23.2 to 13 and from 22.4 to 7.9 months, respectively. PMID:19608170

  4. Natural history of small index lesions suspicious for prostate cancer on multiparametric MRI: recommendations for interval imaging follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Türkbey, Barış; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R.; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Hoang, Anthony N.; Siddiqui, M. Minhaj; Stamatakis, Lambros; Truong, Hong; Nix, Jeffrey W.; Vourganti, Srinivas; Grant, Kinzya B.; Merino, Maria J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Choyke, Peter L.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to determine the natural history of small index lesions identified on multiparametric-magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) of the prostate by evaluating lesion-specific pathology and growth on serial MP-MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a retrospective review of 153 patients who underwent a minimum of two MP-MRI sessions, on an institutional review board-approved protocol. Index lesion is defined as the lesion(s) with the highest cancer suspicion score based on initial MP-MRI of a patient, irrespective of size. Two study cohorts were identified: (1) patients with no index lesion or index lesion(s) ≤7 mm and (2) a subset with no index lesion or index lesion(s) ≤5 mm. Pathological analysis of the index lesions was performed following magnetic resonance/ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy. Growth rate of the lesions was calculated based on MP-MRI follow-up. RESULTS Patients with small index lesions measuring ≤7 mm (n=42) or a subset with lesions ≤5 mm (n=20) demonstrated either benign findings (86.2% and 87.5%, respectively) or low grade Gleason 6 prostate cancer (13.8% and 12.5%, respectively) on lesion-specific targeted biopsies. These lesions demonstrated no significant change in size (P = 0.93 and P = 0.36) over a mean imaging period of 2.31±1.56 years and 2.40±1.77 years for ≤7 mm and ≤5 mm index lesion thresholds, respectively. These findings held true on subset analyses of patients who had a minimum of two-year interval follow-up with MP-MRI. CONCLUSION Small index lesions of the prostate are pathologically benign lesions or occasionally low-grade cancers. Slow growth rate of these small index lesions on serial MP-MRI suggests a surveillance interval of at least two years without significant change. PMID:24808435

  5. Are early MRI findings correlated with long-lasting symptoms following whiplash injury? A prospective trial with 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Joan S.; Andersen, Hans; Keseler, Bjarne; Jensen, Troels S.; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Neck pain is the cardinal symptom following whiplash injuries. The trauma mechanism could theoretically lead to both soft tissue and bone injury that could be visualised by means of MRI. From previous quite small trials it seems that MRI does not demonstrate significant tissue damage. Large prospectively followed cohorts are needed to identify possible clinically relevant MRI findings. The objective of this trial was to evaluate (1) the predictive value of cervical MRI after whiplash injuries and (2) the value of repeating MRI examinations after 3 months including sequences with flexion and extension of the cervical spine. Participants were included after rear-end or frontal car collisions. Patients with fractures or dislocations diagnosed by standard procedures at the emergency unit were not included. MRI scans of the cervical spine were performed at baseline and repeated after 3 months. Clinical follow-ups were performed after 3 and 12 months. Outcome parameters were neck pain, headache, neck disability and working ability. A total of 178 participants had a cervical MRI scan on average 13 days after the injury. Traumatic findings were observed in seven participants. Signs of disc degeneration were common and most frequent at the C5–6 and C6–7 levels. Findings were not associated with outcome after 3 or 12 months. The population had no considerable neck trouble prior to the whiplash injury and the non-traumatic findings represent findings to be expected in the background population. Trauma-related MRI findings are rare in a whiplash population screened for serious injuries in the emergency unit and not related to a specific symptomatology. Also, pre-existing degeneration is not associated with prognosis. PMID:18512085

  6. In Emergency Department Patients with Acute Chest Pain, Stress Cardiac MRI Observation Unit Care Reduces 1- year Cardiac-Related Health Care Expenditures: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Chadwick D.; Hwang, Wenke; Case, Doug; Hoekstra, James W.; Lefebvre, Cedric; Blumstein, Howard; Hamilton, Craig A.; Harper, Erin N.; Hundley, W. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the direct cost of medical care and clinical events during the first year after patients with intermediate risk acute chest pain were randomized to stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) observation unit (OU) testing, versus inpatient care. Background In a recent study, randomization to OU-CMR reduced median index hospitalization cost compared to inpatient care in patients presenting to the emergency department with intermediate risk acute chest pain. Methods Emergency department patients with intermediate risk chest pain were randomized to OU-CMR (OU care, cardiac markers, stress CMR) or inpatient care (admission, care per admitting provider). This analysis reports the direct cost of cardiac-related care and clinical outcomes (MI, revascularization, cardiovascular death) during the first year of follow-up subsequent to discharge. Consistent with health economics literature, provider cost was calculated from work-related relative value units using the Medicare conversion factor; facility charges were converted to cost using departmental specific cost-to-charge ratios. Linear models were used to compare cost accumulation among study groups. Results One-hundred nine (109) randomized subjects were included in this analysis (52 OU-CMR, 57 inpatient care). The median age was 56 years; baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. At 1 year, 6% of OU-CMR and 9% of inpatient care participants experienced a major cardiac event (p=0.72) with 1 patient in each group experiencing a cardiac event after discharge. First-year cardiac-related costs were significantly lower for participants randomized to OU-CMR compared to participants receiving inpatient care (geometric mean = $3101 vs $4742 including the index visit (p = .004) and $29 vs $152 following discharge (p = .012)). During the year following randomization, 6% of OU-CMR and 9% of inpatient care participants experienced a major cardiac event (p=0.72). Conclusions An OU-CMR strategy

  7. MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... scan is an imaging test that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  8. Postmortem interval alters the water relaxation and diffusion properties of rat nervous tissue--implications for MRI studies of human autopsy samples.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Timothy M; Flint, Jeremy J; Thelwall, Peter E; Stanisz, Greg J; Mareci, Thomas H; Yachnis, Anthony T; Blackband, Stephen J

    2009-02-01

    High-resolution imaging of human autopsy tissues may improve our understanding of in vivo MRI findings, but interpretation is complicated because samples are obtained by immersion fixation following a postmortem interval (PMI). This study tested the hypotheses that immersion fixation and PMI's from 0-24 h would alter the water relaxation and diffusion properties in rat cortical slice and spinal cord models of human nervous tissue. Diffusion data collected from rat cortical slices at multiple diffusion times (10-60 ms) and b-values (7-15,000 s/mm(2)) were analyzed using a two-compartment model with exchange. Rat spinal cords were characterized with standard diffusion tensor imaging (21 directions, b=1250 s/mm(2)). Switching from perfusion- to immersion-fixation at 0 h PMI altered most MRI properties of rat cortical slices and spinal cords, including a 22% decrease in fractional anisotropy (P<0.001). After 4 h PMI, cortical slice T(1) and T(2) increased 22% and 65% respectively (P<0.001), transmembrane water exchange decreased 23% (P<0.001) and intracellular proton fraction increased 25% (P=0.002). After 6 h PMI, spinal cord white matter fractional anisotropy had decreased 38% (P<0.001). MRI property changes were observed for PMIs up to 24 h. The MRI changes correlated with protease activity and histopathological signs of autolysis. Thus, immersion fixation and/or even short PMIs (4-6 h) altered the MRI properties of rat nervous tissue. This suggests comparisons between in vivo clinical MRI and MRI data from human autopsy tissues should be interpreted with caution. PMID:18996206

  9. Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds Page Content Article Body Throughout her ... for shelter. She may seem to change from one moment to the next, or she may seem ...

  10. Social Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Fitness Nutrition Toilet Training Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Social Development: 1 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Español ...

  11. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... tell your health care provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips Certain types of artificial heart valves ...

  12. Interval Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Regardless of the type of physical activity used, interval training is simply repeated periods of physical stress interspersed with recovery periods during which activity of a reduced intensity is performed. During the recovery periods, the individual usually keeps moving and does not completely recover before the next exercise interval (e.g.,…

  13. Interbirth intervals

    PubMed Central

    Haig, David

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Interbirth intervals (IBIs) mediate a trade-off between child number and child survival. Life history theory predicts that the evolutionarily optimal IBI differs for different individuals whose fitness is affected by how closely a mother spaces her children. The objective of the article is to clarify these conflicts and explore their implications for public health. Methodology: Simple models of inclusive fitness and kin conflict address the evolution of human birth-spacing. Results: Genes of infants generally favor longer intervals than genes of mothers, and infant genes of paternal origin generally favor longer IBIs than genes of maternal origin. Conclusions and implications: The colonization of maternal bodies by offspring cells (fetal microchimerism) raises the possibility that cells of older offspring could extend IBIs by interfering with the implantation of subsequent embryos. PMID:24480612

  14. Traumatic spinal epidural hematoma in a 1-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Tarbé de Saint Hardouin, A-L; Grévent, D; Sainte-Rose, C; Angoulvant, F; Chéron, G

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic spinal epidural hematoma is uncommon in children, making rapid diagnosis difficult. In this report, we present a case of traumatic cervical epidural hematoma in a 1-year-old boy, diagnosed with computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Management was conservative and the lesion regressed spontaneously. The presentation in childhood is often nonspecific. MRI is the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing these lesions. Conservative treatment has to be considered in cases with a benign clinical course and provided that the patient is followed up neurologically with repeated MRI. PMID:27266638

  15. Increased BOLD activation in the left parahippocampal cortex after 1 year of medical school: an association with cumulative verbal memory learning.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Michaël; Gauvreau, Claudie; Theriault, Denis; Madrolle, Stéphanie; Lepage, Jean-François; Whittingstall, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have shown left-right hippocampus asymmetry during learning, it is unclear whether such asymmetry also exists for the parahippocampal cortex, a structure within the limbic system that is also involved in memory and learning. Using a common mental navigation task known to activate the bilateral parahippocampal cortex, this study aimed at determining how BOLD activation in these two areas changes after 1 year of medical school, a program characterized by intensive verbal learning. Fifteen first-year medical students participated in this study and underwent two sessions of functional MRI, at a 1-year interval. In the first session, we observed marginal differences between left and right parahippocampal cortex activity. However, 1 year later, left parahippocampal activation significantly increased (+4.7%), whereas the right remained stable. These results bring new information as to how intensive learning can modify regional metabolism in the human brain and how the left parahippocampal region is particularly important for cumulative verbal memory. PMID:26606418

  16. MRI Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from torn ...

  17. Heart MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe kidney problems. People have been harmed in MRI machines when they did not remove metal objects from their clothes or when metal objects were left in the room by others. MRI is most often not recommended for traumatic injuries. ...

  18. MRI findings of neuro-Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Borhani Haghighi, Afshin; Sarhadi, Sirous; Farahangiz, Siamak

    2011-06-01

    Neurological manifestations present in 5% to 30% of patients with Behçet's disease. We studied consecutive patients with relapsing--remitting or progressive neuro-Behcet's disease who referred from January 2002 to January 2009 to Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz, southern Iran. Sequential MRIs were performed during clinical relapses in patients with relapsing--remitting course or during relentless progression after first referral of patients with progressive course. We reviewed 55 MRIs of 17 patients (ten men and seven women) with age of 36.4 ± 8.1 years at the time of first MRI. Nine (53%) patients had a relapsing-remitting course and eight (47%) had a progressive course. The initial and last follow-up studies had a mean interval of 29.2 months (range, 24 to 84). Of the patients with progressive neuro-Behcet's disease, 50% had brainstem atrophy and 75% had black holes in their last follow-up MRIs. The respective prevalence rates for those with relapsing--remitting neuro-Behcet's disease were 0% and 11%. In the total population of patients with neuro-Behcet's disease, the number of lesions (p = 0.002) and MRI burden (p = 0.016) had a significant increase in the last follow-up studies in comparison to the initial studies. Incremental pattern in the number of lesions and MRI burdens in patients with parenchymal neuro-Behcet's disease in our longitudinal study may imply an ongoing pathologic process. PMID:21165752

  19. Choking - unconscious adult or child over 1 year

    MedlinePlus

    Choking - unconscious adult or child over 1 year; First aid - choking - unconscious adult or child over 1 year; ... or the local emergency number while you begin first aid and CPR. If you are alone, shout for ...

  20. Choking - unconscious adult or child over 1 year

    MedlinePlus

    ... choking - unconscious adult or child over 1 year; CPR - choking - unconscious adult or child over 1 year ... emergency number while you begin first aid and CPR. If you are alone, shout for help and ...

  1. Musculoskeletal MRI.

    PubMed

    Sage, Jaime E; Gavin, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    MRI has the unique ability to detect abnormal fluid content, and is therefore unparalleled in its role of detection, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment planning and follow-up evaluation of musculoskeletal disease. MRI in companion animals should be considered in the following circumstances: a definitive diagnosis cannot be made on radiographs; a patient is nonresponsive to medical or surgical therapy; prognostic information is desired; assessing surgical margins and traumatic and/or infectious joint and bone disease; ruling out subtle developmental or early aggressive bone lesions. The MRI features of common disorders affecting the shoulder, elbow, stifle, carpal, and tarsal joints are included in this chapter. PMID:26928749

  2. Heart MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... an imaging method that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the heart. It does ... radiation involved in MRI. The magnetic fields and radio waves used during the scan have not been shown ...

  3. Obstetric MRI.

    PubMed

    Levine, Deborah

    2006-07-01

    Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice for pregnant patients. However, MRI is increasingly utilized in patients in whom the sonographic diagnosis is unclear. These include maternal conditions unique to pregnancy such as ectopic pregnancy, placenta accreta, and uterine dehiscence. MRI is also being increasingly utilized in the assessment of abdominopelvic pain in pregnancy, in particular in assessment for appendicitis. Fetal MRI is performed to assess central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities and patients who are considering fetal surgery for conditions such as neural tube defects, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and masses that obstruct the airway. In the future, functional MRI and fetal volumetry may provide additional information that can aid in our care of complicated pregnancies. PMID:16736491

  4. Portable MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle A.

    2012-06-29

    This project proposes to: (1) provide the power of MRI to situations where it presently isn't available; (2) perform the engineering required to move from lab to a functional prototype; and (3) leverage significant existing infrastructure and capability in ultra-low field MRI. The reasons for doing this: (1) MRI is the most powerful tool for imaging soft-tissue (e.g. brain); (2) Billions don't have access due to cost or safety issues; (3) metal will heat/move in high magnetic fields; (4) Millions of cases of traumatic brain injury in US alone; (5) even more of non-traumatic brain injury; (6) (e.g. stroke, infection, chemical exposure); (7) Need for early diagnostic; (8) 'Signature' wound of recent conflicts; (9) 22% of injuries; (10) Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder; and (11) chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

  5. Programming with Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsakis, Nicholas D.; Gross, Thomas R.

    Intervals are a new, higher-level primitive for parallel programming with which programmers directly construct the program schedule. Programs using intervals can be statically analyzed to ensure that they do not deadlock or contain data races. In this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of intervals by showing how to use them to emulate common parallel control-flow constructs like barriers and signals, as well as higher-level patterns such as bounded-buffer producer-consumer. We have implemented intervals as a publicly available library for Java and Scala.

  6. Interval polynomial positivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, N. K.; Kim, K. D.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that a univariate interval polynomial is globally positive if and only if two extreme polynomials are globally positive. It is shown that the global positivity property of a bivariate interval polynomial is completely determined by four extreme bivariate polynomials. The cardinality of the determining set for k-variate interval polynomials is 2k. One of many possible generalizations, where vertex implication for global positivity holds, is made by considering the parameter space to be the set dual of a boxed domain.

  7. Choking first aid - adult or child over 1 year - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100222.htm Choking first aid - adult or child over 1 year - series—Part ... occur in as little as 4 minutes. Rapid first aid for choking can save a life. The universal ...

  8. Choking first aid - infant under 1 year - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100221.htm Choking first aid - infant under 1 year - series—Part 1 To ... Loss of consciousness if blockage is not cleared FIRST AID 1. DO NOT perform these steps if the ...

  9. Battlefield MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging is the best method for non-invasive imaging of soft tissue anatomy, saving countless lives each year. It is regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis of mild to moderate traumatic brain injuries. Furthermore, conventional MRI relies on very high, fixed strength magnetic fields (> 1.5 T) with parts-per-million homogeneity, which requires very large and expensive magnets.

  10. Frequency of dementia syndromes with a potentially treatable cause in geriatric in-patients: analysis of a 1-year interval.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Marija; Wedekind, Dirk; Franz, Almuth; Gremke, Melanie; Nau, Roland

    2015-08-01

    In addition to neurodegenerative and vascular causes of dementia, in the differential diagnosis potentially reversible conditions of dementia also must be assessed. Routine laboratory parameters and neuroimaging, which are recommended for the differential diagnosis of suspected dementia by the German S3 Guideline "Dementia", were retrospectively studied in 166 geriatric patients with suspected dementia. Delirium was diagnosed in six patients (3.6%). These six patients were excluded from the study. Of the 160 remaining patients, there were 99 (59.6%) with an already known dementia. In this subgroup of patients, we found a potentially treatable cause of dementia in 18.2%. In the remaining 61 patients (36.8%), the newly diagnosed dementia syndrome was established according to ICD-10 criteria. Potentially reversible causes of the dementia syndrome were found in 19 of these patients (31.1%). The most common cause was depressive pseudodementia in eight patients followed by vitamin B12 deficiency in six patients. A significant amount of our patients showed laboratory or imaging changes suggestive of potentially reversible causes of the dementia syndrome upon admission. The results of our study indicate the importance of careful differential diagnosis of dementia based on the recommendations of guidelines. Although therapy of these potential causes is not always accompanied by a full recovery, the identification and therapy of treatable causes of cognitive deficits are possible even for general practitioners, who often are the primary contact persons of affected individuals. PMID:25716929

  11. Fathers' Depression Related to Positive and Negative Parenting Behaviors With 1-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew M.; Freed, Gary L.; Clark, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between depression in fathers of 1-year-old children and specific positive and negative parenting behaviors discussed by pediatric providers at well-child visits. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional secondary analysis by using interview data from 1746 fathers of 1-year-old children in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Positive parenting behaviors included fathers' reports of playing games, singing songs, and reading stories to their children ≥3 days in a typical week. Negative parenting behavior included fathers' reports of spanking their 1-year-old children in the previous month. Depression was assessed by using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form. Weighted bivariate and multivariate analyses of parenting behaviors were performed while controlling for demographics and paternal substance abuse. RESULTS: Overall, 7% of fathers had depression. In bivariate analyses, depressed fathers were more likely than nondepressed fathers to report spanking their 1-year-old children in the previous month (41% compared with 13%; P < .01). In multivariate analyses, depressed fathers were less likely to report reading to their children ≥3 days in a typical week (adjusted odds ratio: 0.38 [95% confidence interval: 0.15–0.98]) and much more likely to report spanking (adjusted odds ratio: 3.92 [95% confidence interval: 1.23–12.5]). Seventy-seven percent of depressed fathers reported talking to their children's doctor in the previous year. CONCLUSIONS: Paternal depression is associated with parenting behaviors relevant to well-child visits. Pediatric providers should consider screening fathers for depression, discussing specific parenting behaviors (eg, reading to children and appropriate discipline), and referring for treatment if appropriate. PMID:21402627

  12. Interval neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    Traditional neural networks like multi-layered perceptrons (MLP) use example patterns, i.e., pairs of real-valued observation vectors, ({rvec x},{rvec y}), to approximate function {cflx f}({rvec x}) = {rvec y}. To determine the parameters of the approximation, a special version of the gradient descent method called back-propagation is widely used. In many situations, observations of the input and output variables are not precise; instead, we usually have intervals of possible values. The imprecision could be due to the limited accuracy of the measuring instrument or could reflect genuine uncertainty in the observed variables. In such situation input and output data consist of mixed data types; intervals and precise numbers. Function approximation in interval domains is considered in this paper. We discuss a modification of the classical backpropagation learning algorithm to interval domains. Results are presented with simple examples demonstrating few properties of nonlinear interval mapping as noise resistance and finding set of solutions to the function approximation problem.

  13. Proper Interval Vertex Deletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanger, Yngve

    Deleting a minimum number of vertices from a graph to obtain a proper interval graph is an NP-complete problem. At WG 2010 van Bevern et al. gave an O((14k + 14) k + 1 kn 6) time algorithm by combining iterative compression, branching, and a greedy algorithm. We show that there exists a simple greedy O(n + m) time algorithm that solves the Proper Interval Vertex Deletion problem on \\{claw,net,allowbreak tent,allowbreak C_4,C_5,C_6\\}-free graphs. Combining this with branching on the forbidden structures claw,net,tent,allowbreak C_4,C_5, and C 6 enables us to get an O(kn 6 6 k ) time algorithm for Proper Interval Vertex Deletion, where k is the number of deleted vertices.

  14. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... imaging - leg; Magnetic resonance imaging - lower extremity; MRI - ankle; Magnetic resonance imaging - ankle; MRI - femur; MRI - leg ... or bone scan Birth defects of the leg, ankle, or foot Bone pain and fever Broken bone ...

  15. MRI Safety during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... during the exam? Contrast material MRI during pregnancy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) If you are pregnant and your doctor wants to perform a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exam, there is a possibility that your ...

  16. Subclinical Rejection Phenotypes at 1 Year Post-Transplant and Outcome of Kidney Allografts.

    PubMed

    Loupy, Alexandre; Vernerey, Dewi; Tinel, Claire; Aubert, Olivier; Duong van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Rabant, Marion; Verine, Jérôme; Nochy, Dominique; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Martinez, Frank; Glotz, Denis; Jouven, Xavier; Legendre, Christophe; Lefaucheur, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Kidney allograft rejection can occur in clinically stable patients, but long-term significance is unknown. We determined whether early recognition of subclinical rejection has long-term consequences for kidney allograft survival in an observational prospective cohort study of 1307 consecutive nonselected patients who underwent ABO-compatible, complement-dependent cytotoxicity-negative crossmatch kidney transplantation in Paris (2000-2010). Participants underwent prospective screening biopsies at 1 year post-transplant, with concurrent evaluations of graft complement deposition and circulating anti-HLA antibodies. The main analysis included 1001 patients. Three distinct groups of patients were identified at the 1-year screening: 727 (73%) patients without rejection, 132 (13%) patients with subclinical T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR), and 142 (14%) patients with subclinical antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). Patients with subclinical ABMR had the poorest graft survival at 8 years post-transplant (56%) compared with subclinical TCMR (88%) and nonrejection (90%) groups (P<0.001). In a multivariate Cox model, subclinical ABMR at 1 year was independently associated with a 3.5-fold increase in graft loss (95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 5.7) along with eGFR and proteinuria (P<0.001). Subclinical ABMR was associated with more rapid progression to transplant glomerulopathy. Of patients with subclinical TCMR at 1 year, only those who further developed de novo donor-specific antibodies and transplant glomerulopathy showed higher risk of graft loss compared with patients without rejection. Our findings suggest that subclinical TCMR and subclinical ABMR have distinct effects on long-term graft loss. Subclinical ABMR detected at the 1-year screening biopsy carries a prognostic value independent of initial donor-specific antibody status, previous immunologic events, current eGFR, and proteinuria. PMID:25556173

  17. Memantine and brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease: a 1-year randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, David; Fox, Nick C; Barkhof, Frederik; Phul, Ravinder; Lemming, Ole; Scheltens, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of total brain atrophy (TBA) with serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using the Brain Boundary Shift Integral (BBSI), in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) over the course of 52 weeks of treatment with memantine or placebo. This was a multi-national, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose 1-year study. Patients were randomized (1 : 1) to treatment with placebo or memantine. Patients randomized to memantine were up-titrated to the target dose of 20 mg/day over 4 weeks. MRI scans were collected at screening and at Weeks 4, 42, and 52. Secondary efficacy assessments included several cognitive and behavioral scales. 518 patients were screened, 278 patients were randomized, and 217 patients completed the study. In the primary efficacy analysis, the differences in TBA rates between memantine (15.2 mL/year) and placebo (15.3 mL/year) were not statistically significant (-0.04 mL/year [(95% CI: -2.60, 2.52), p = 0.98]). There was a statistically significant correlation between change in TBA and change in most cognitive and behavioral scale scores. Patients who were not treated with acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) showed a significantly lower TBA rate than patients treated with AChEIs. Memantine had a placebo-level incidence of adverse events. There were no statistically significant differences between memantine and placebo in total brain or hippocampal atrophy rates in patients with probable AD treated for 1 year. The biological relevance of cerebral atrophy was supported by a significant correlation between rate of atrophy and decline in cognitive and behavioral outcomes. PMID:22269160

  18. Sexual function 1-year after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Noerskov, K H; Schjødt, I; Syrjala, K L; Jarden, M

    2016-06-01

    Treatment with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with short and long-term toxicities that can result in alterations in sexual functioning. The aims of this prospective evaluation were to determine: (1) associations between HSCT and increased sexual dysfunction 1 year after treatment; and (2) associations between sexual dysfunction, body image, anxiety and depression. This controlled prospective cohort study was conducted from October 2010 to November 2013. Patients completed assessments 2-3 weeks before HSCT (N=124) and 1 year after treatment (N=63). Assessment included descriptive data, Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, Body Image Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The results showed a significant decline in overall sexual function in both men and women (P=<0.001, P=0.010, respectively), although men generally scored higher than women. Forty-seven percent of men and 60% of women reported at least one physical sexual problem 1 year after HSCT. Patients with chronic GVHD trended toward reporting lower levels of sexual function. Finally, women with chronic GVHD scored lower than those without chronic GVHD on the sexual function problem subscale (P=0.008). Sexual dysfunction remains a major problem for men and women 1 year after HSCT and requires routine evaluation and treatment after HSCT. PMID:26878660

  19. Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Attacks: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…

  20. Association of Postpartum Depression With Weight Retention 1 Year After Childbirth

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Sharon J.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Oken, Emily; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the extent to which early postpartum depression is associated with weight retention 1 year after childbirth. Methods and Procedures In a prospective cohort study of 850 women enrolled in Project Viva, mothers reported depressive symptoms on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at midpregnancy and 6 months postpartum. A score >12 indicated probable depression. We assessed associations of antenatal and postpartum depression with risk of substantial weight retention (at least 5 kg) 1 year after childbirth. Results Seven-hundred thirty-six women (87%) were not depressed during or after pregnancy, 55 (6%) experienced antenatal depression only, 22 (3%) experienced both antenatal and postpartum depression, and 37 (4%) experienced postpartum depression only. At 1 year, participants retained a mean of 0.6 kg (range −16.4 to 25.5), and 12% retained at least 5 kg. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, after adjustment for weight-related covariates, maternal sociodemographics, and parity, new-onset postpartum depression was associated with more than a doubling of risk of retaining at least 5 kg (odds ratio (OR): 2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 6.09). Antenatal depression, either alone or in combination with postpartum depression, was not associated with substantial weight retention. Discussion New-onset postpartum depression was associated with substantial weight retention in the first postpartum year. Interventions to manage depressive symptoms may help reduce excess weight retained postpartum and aid in the prevention of obesity among women. PMID:18369338

  1. The clinical outcome of scaphoid fracture malunion at 1 year.

    PubMed

    Forward, D P; Singh, H P; Dawson, S; Davis, T R C

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of malunion of scaphoid fractures on the clinical outcome at 1 year. Forty-two consecutive patients with united scaphoid waist fractures which had been treated non-operatively underwent longitudinal CT scans to confirm union and assess malunion at 12 to 18 weeks after injury. A blind clinical assessment was made and the Patient Evaluation Measure (PEM) and DASH questionnaires were completed by all the patients 1 year after injury. The group consisted of 38 men and four women with a mean age of 31 years at the time of injury. Correlation analysis revealed no significant relationships between any of the outcome measures (range of motion, grip strength and PEM and DASH scores) and any of the three measures of malunion (height-to-length ratio, the dorsal cortical angle and the lateral intra-scaphoid angle). PMID:19129358

  2. Secondary preventive medication persistence and adherence 1 year after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Olson, D.M.; Zhao, X.; Pan, W.; Zimmer, L.O.; Goldstein, L.B.; Alberts, M.J.; Fagan, S.C.; Fonarow, G.C.; Johnston, S.C.; Kidwell, C.; LaBresh, K.A.; Ovbiagele, B.; Schwamm, L.; Peterson, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Data on long-term use of secondary prevention medications following stroke are limited. The Adherence eValuation After Ischemic stroke–Longitudinal (AVAIL) Registry assessed patient, provider, and system-level factors influencing continuation of prevention medications for 1 year following stroke hospitalization discharge. Methods: Patients with ischemic stroke or TIA discharged from 106 hospitals participating in the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines–Stroke program were surveyed to determine their use of warfarin, antiplatelet, antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and diabetes medications from discharge to 12 months. Reasons for stopping medications were ascertained. Persistence was defined as continuation of all secondary preventive medications prescribed at hospital discharge, and adherence as continuation of prescribed medications except those stopped according to health care provider instructions. Results: Of the 2,880 patients enrolled in AVAIL, 88.4% (2,457 patients) completed 1-year interviews. Of these, 65.9% were regimen persistent and 86.6% were regimen adherent. Independent predictors of 1-year medication persistence included fewer medications prescribed at discharge, having an adequate income, having an appointment with a primary care provider, and greater understanding of why medications were prescribed and their side effects. Independent predictors of adherence were similar to those for persistence. Conclusions: Although up to one-third of stroke patients discontinued one or more secondary prevention medications within 1 year of hospital discharge, self-discontinuation of these medications is uncommon. Several potentially modifiable patient, provider, and system-level factors associated with persistence and adherence may be targets for future interventions. PMID:21900638

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) KidsHealth > For Teens > Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Print A A A Text Size What's ... Exam Safety Getting Your Results What Is MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a type of safe, painless testing ...

  4. Interval arithmetic operations for uncertainty analysis with correlated interval variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Fu, Chun-Ming; Ni, Bing-Yu; Han, Xu

    2016-08-01

    A new interval arithmetic method is proposed to solve interval functions with correlated intervals through which the overestimation problem existing in interval analysis could be significantly alleviated. The correlation between interval parameters is defined by the multidimensional parallelepiped model which is convenient to describe the correlative and independent interval variables in a unified framework. The original interval variables with correlation are transformed into the standard space without correlation, and then the relationship between the original variables and the standard interval variables is obtained. The expressions of four basic interval arithmetic operations, namely addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, are given in the standard space. Finally, several numerical examples and a two-step bar are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Interval-valued random functions and the kriging of intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, P.

    1988-04-01

    Estimation procedures using data that include some values known to lie within certain intervals are usually regarded as problems of constrained optimization. A different approach is used here. Intervals are treated as elements of a positive cone, obeying the arithmetic of interval analysis, and positive interval-valued random functions are discussed. A kriging formalism for interval-valued data is developed. It provides estimates that are themselves intervals. In this context, the condition that kriging weights be positive is seen to arise in a natural way. A numerical example is given, and the extension to universal kriging is sketched.

  6. Intracranial idiopathic hypertension: 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, D; Curone, M; Erbetta, A; Farago', G; Bianchi-Marzoli, S; Ciasca, P; Bussone, G; Chiapparini, L

    2014-05-01

    Standard guidelines for ongoing management, as well as definitive data about the long-term course of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) are not available. The aim of this study was to compare several clinical and instrumental variables as assessed at the time of diagnosis and then after 1 year in a sample of IIH patients. A total of 21 patients were studied. Our results confirmed that headache and TVO are the most frequent symptoms in IIH patients, and that overweight is a very common feature. A trend towards a favorable outcome in patients followed for 1 year and treated by usual medical therapy was found: intracranial pressure was lower at follow-up; improvement of headache and transient visual obscurations, as well as of papilledema, was reported in most patients. On the other hand, neuroradiological findings (such as empty sella, perioptic subarachnoid space distension, narrowing of the transverse sinuses) were substantially stable at follow. These findings may be relevant for future research as far as understanding the role of different clinical and instrumental findings as diagnostic items as well as predictors of outcome in IIH. PMID:24867861

  7. Experimenting with musical intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2003-07-01

    When two tuning forks of different frequency are sounded simultaneously the result is a complex wave with a repetition frequency that is the fundamental of the harmonic series to which both frequencies belong. The ear perceives this 'musical interval' as a single musical pitch with a sound quality produced by the harmonic spectrum responsible for the waveform. This waveform can be captured and displayed with data collection hardware and software. The fundamental frequency can then be calculated and compared with what would be expected from the frequencies of the tuning forks. Also, graphing software can be used to determine equations for the waveforms and predict their shapes. This experiment could be used in an introductory physics or musical acoustics course as a practical lesson in superposition of waves, basic Fourier series and the relationship between some of the ear's subjective perceptions of sound and the physical properties of the waves that cause them.

  8. Anhedonia Predicts Major Adverse Cardiac Events and Mortality in Patients 1 Year After Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Karina W.; Burg, Matthew M.; Kronish, Ian M.; Shimbo, Daichi; Dettenborn, Lucia; Mehran, Roxana; Vorchheimer, David; Clemow, Lynn; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Lespérance, Francois; Rieckmann, Nina

    2010-01-01

    Context Depression is a consistent predictor of recurrent events and mortality in ACS patients, but it has 2 core diagnostic criteria with distinct biological correlates—depressed mood and anhedonia. Objective To determine if depressed mood and/or anhedonia (loss of pleasure or interest) predict 1-year medical outcomes for patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). Design Observational cohort study of post-ACS patients hospitalized between May 2003 and June 2005. Within one week of admission, patients underwent a structured psychiatric interview to assess clinically impairing depressed mood, anhedonia, and major depressive episode (MDE); also assessed were the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score, Charlson comorbidity index, left ventricular ejection fraction, antidepressant use, and depressive symptom severity. Setting Coronary care and cardiac care step-down units of 3 university hospitals in New York and Connecticut. Participants Consecutive sample of 453 ACS patients (aged 25–93 years; 42% women). Main Outcomes Measures All-cause mortality (ACM) and documented major adverse cardiac events (MACE; myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, or urgent revascularization) were actively surveyed for 1 year after admission. Results There were 67 events (16 deaths and 51 MACE; 14.8%). 108 (24%) and 77 (17%) patients with anhedonia and depressed mood, respectively. After controlling for sex, age, and medical covariates, anhedonia (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.16–2.14; P<.01) and MDE (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–2.04; P=.02) were significant predictors of combined MACE/ACM, but depressed mood was not. Anhedonia continued to significantly predict outcomes controlling for MDE diagnosis and depressive symptom severity, each of which were no longer significant. Conclusions Anhedonia identifies risk for MACE/ACM beyond that of established medical prognostic indicators

  9. The Effect of Body Mass Index on Pelvic Floor Support 1 Year Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Johnson, Benjamin; Li, Fangyong; King, William C; Connell, Kathleen A; Guess, Marsha K

    2016-02-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with the incidence, prevalence, and progression of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This study investigated the effect of peripartum BMI on pelvic floor support 1 year postpartum (PP1y). One hundred eight nulliparous women had their BMI recorded and underwent POP assessments using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification System at baseline, third trimester (36th to 38th week of pregnancy [G36-38w]), and PP1y. Pelvic organ prolapse was defined as ≥stage II. Women gained on average 1.9 kg between baseline and PP1y. After adjustment, increasing BMI PP1y was associated with increasing anterior wall descent (P < .0001) and higher odds of having POP PP1y (odds ratio: 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.97, P = .045). Trial of labor compared to unlabored cesarean delivery, POP G36-38w, and decreased fetal weight were independently associated with anterior vaginal wall laxity PP1y. Our finding suggests that postpartum BMI influences pelvic floor laxity 1 year after delivery. Postpartum weight reduction may serve as a strategy for POP prevention in some women. PMID:26494698

  10. Residual skin damage in rats 1 year after exposure to x rays or accelerated heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, J.T.; McDonald, M.; Howard, J.

    1982-01-01

    In conjunction with a study on the biological effects of accelerated heavy ions on rat spinal cord, we were able to assess the residual skin damage remaining 1 year postirradiation. In this study, rats were irradiated with 230-kVp fractionated doses of either X rays, carbon ions, or neon ions. Four radiation fractions were given at daily intervals. For the carbon and neon ion exposures, rats were irradiated in both the plateau and spread Bragg peak (4 cm) regions of ionization. Comparing doses that produced complete epilation with a slight suggestion of a residual radiation scar, it was found that the relative biological effectivesness (RBE) values 1 year postirradiation for the four fraction irradiations were: carbon ions (plateau ionization region), 1.06; carbon ions (spread Bragg peak ionization region), 1.88; neon ions (plateau region of ionization), 1.55; and neon ions (spread Bragg peak ionization region), 2.26. RBE values for production of paralysis after spinal cord irradiation (using the same X-ray total dose levels for comparison purposes) were in all cases higher than the RBE values obtained from assessment of residual skin injury.

  11. Otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year

    PubMed Central

    Di Francesco, Renata Cantisani; Barros, Vivian Boschesi; Ramos, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year and its association with the season of the year, artificial feeding, environmental and perinatal factors. Methods: Retrospective study of 184 randomly included medical records from a total of 982 healthy infants evaluated for hearing screening tests. Diagnosis of otitis media with effusion was based on otoscopy (amber-gold color, fluid level, handle of malleus position), type B tympanometric curves and absence of otoacoustic emissions. Incomplete medical records or those describing acute otitis media, upper respiratory tract infections on the assessment day or in the last 3 months, neuropathies and craniofacial anomalies were excluded. Data such as gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, type of feeding and day care attendance were compared between children with and without otitis media with effusion through likelihood tests and multivariate analysis. Results: 25.3% of 184 infants had otitis media with bilateral effusion; 9.2% had unilateral. In infants with otitis media, the following were observed: chronological age of 9.6±1.7 months; gestational age >38 weeks in 43.4% and birth weight >2500g in 48.4%. Otitis media with effusion was associated with winter/fall, artificial feeding, Apgar score <7 and day care attendance. The multivariate analysis showed that artificial feeding is the factor most often associated to otitis media with effusion. Conclusions: Otitis media with effusion was found in about one third of children younger than 1 year and was mainly associated with artificial feeding. PMID:26559603

  12. What Is Chest MRI?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Chest MRI? Chest MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a safe, noninvasive ... creates detailed pictures of the structures in your chest, such as your chest wall, heart, and blood ...

  13. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the upper and lower ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  14. Breast MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast MRI may be done in combination with mammography or ultrasound . It is not a replacement for mammography. ... breast screening with MRI as an adjunct to mammography. CA Cancer J Clin . 2007;57:75-89. ...

  15. Pelvis MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... The table slides into the middle of the MRI machine. Small devices, called coils, may be placed around ... anxious. Or your provider may suggest an open MRI in which the machine is not as close to the body. Before ...

  16. Lumbar MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging (MRI) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the lower part of ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  17. Effect of iodine supplementation during pregnancy on infant neurodevelopment at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Estarlich, Marisa; Plaza, Belén; Barona-Vilar, Carmen; Espada, Mercedes; Vioque, Jesús; Ballester, Ferran

    2011-04-01

    Iodine is the main constituent of thyroid hormones, which in turn are required for fetal brain development. However, the relation between iodine intake during pregnancy, thyroid function, and child neurodevelopment needs further evaluation. The authors assessed the association of maternal iodine intake from diet and supplements during pregnancy and of maternal and neonatal thyroid function with infant neurodevelopment. The Mental Development Index and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) for 691 children were obtained between 2005 and 2007 using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at age 1 year in a prebirth cohort in Valencia, Spain. In multivariate analyses, a maternal thyrotropin level >4 μU/mL was associated with an increased risk of a PDI <85 (odds ratio = 3.5, P = 0.02). Maternal intake of ≥150 μg/day, compared with <100 μg/day, of iodine from supplements was associated with a 5.2-point decrease in PDI (95% confidence interval: -8.1, -2.2) and a 1.8-fold increase in the odds of a PDI <85 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 3.3). When analyses were stratified by sex, this association was intensified for girls but was not observed for boys. Further evidence on the safety and effectiveness of iodine supplementation during pregnancy is needed before it is systematically recommended in iodine-sufficient or mildly deficient areas. PMID:21385833

  18. MRI in cranial tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Just, M; Higer, H P; Betting, O; Bockenheimer, S; Pfannenstiel, P

    1987-11-01

    A case of multiple intracranial tuberculomas is presented. CT and MRI findings are discussed and compared. MRI showed multiple tuberculomas characterised by the same signal intensity as the surrounding brain parenchyma. Differentiation could be achieved only by the perifocal oedema of high signal intensity. Changes of the lesions during chemotherapy were monitored by CT and MRI and the results are presented. PMID:3691545

  19. Health Care Costs 1 Year After Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rivara, Frederick P.; Vavilala, Monica S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to estimate total health care costs for mild, moderate, and severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to compare individual- and population-level costs across levels of TBI severity. Methods. Using 2007 to 2010 MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters data, we estimated total quarterly health care costs 1 year after TBI among enrollees (aged < 18 years). We compared costs across levels of TBI severity using generalized linear models. Results. Mild TBI accounted for 96.6% of the 319 103 enrollees with TBI; moderate and severe TBI accounted for 1.7% and 1.6%, respectively. Adjusted individual health care costs for moderate and severe TBI were significantly higher than mild TBI in the year after injury (P < .01). At the population level, moderate and severe TBI costs were 88% and 75% less than mild TBI, respectively. Conclusions. Individually, moderate and severe TBI initially generated costs that were markedly higher than those of mild TBI. At the population level, costs following mild TBI far exceeded those of more severe cases, a result of the extremely high population burden of mild TBI. PMID:26270293

  20. Caregiver burden at 1 year following severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Marsh, N V; Kersel, D A; Havill, J H; Sleigh, J W

    1998-12-01

    Sixty-nine primary caregivers of adults with a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) were assessed at 1-year post-injury. Caregivers completed questionnaires on the physical, cognitive, emotional, behavioural, and social functioning of the person with TBI. Caregiver objective burden, psychosocial functioning, and subjective burden were also assessed. Clinically significant levels of anxiety and depression were evident in over a third of the caregivers. Similarly, a quarter of the caregivers reported poor social adjustment. There was no consistent relationship between the prevalence of various types of objective burden and the level of subjective distress that resulted from these changes. The person with TBI's emotional difficulties, in particular their anger, apathy, and dependency, caused the greatest distress for caregivers. With regard to the impact that caregiving had on their own lives, caregivers were most distressed by the loss of personal free time. Results from a regression analysis indicated that the person with TBI's physical impairment, number of behavioural problems, and social isolation were the strongest predictors of caregiver burden. The impact that caring for a person with severe TBI can have on the extended family unit is discussed. PMID:9876864

  1. An interval model updating strategy using interval response surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Sheng-En; Zhang, Qiu-Hu; Ren, Wei-Xin

    2015-08-01

    Stochastic model updating provides an effective way of handling uncertainties existing in real-world structures. In general, probabilistic theories, fuzzy mathematics or interval analyses are involved in the solution of inverse problems. However in practice, probability distributions or membership functions of structural parameters are often unavailable due to insufficient information of a structure. At this moment an interval model updating procedure shows its superiority in the aspect of problem simplification since only the upper and lower bounds of parameters and responses are sought. To this end, this study develops a new concept of interval response surface models for the purpose of efficiently implementing the interval model updating procedure. The frequent interval overestimation due to the use of interval arithmetic can be maximally avoided leading to accurate estimation of parameter intervals. Meanwhile, the establishment of an interval inverse problem is highly simplified, accompanied by a saving of computational costs. By this means a relatively simple and cost-efficient interval updating process can be achieved. Lastly, the feasibility and reliability of the developed method have been verified against a numerical mass-spring system and also against a set of experimentally tested steel plates.

  2. Varicella paediatric hospitalisations in Belgium: a 1-year national survey

    PubMed Central

    Blumental, Sophie; Sabbe, Martine; Lepage, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background Varicella universal vaccination (UV) has been implemented in many countries for several years. Nevertheless, varicella UV remains debated in Europe and few data are available on the real burden of infection. We assessed the burden of varicella in Belgium through analysis of hospitalised cases during a 1-year period. Methods Data on children admitted to hospital with varicella were collected through a national network from November 2011 to October 2012. Inclusion criteria were either acute varicella or related complications up to 3 weeks after the rash. Results Participation of 101 hospitals was obtained, covering 97.7% of the total paediatric beds in Belgium. 552 children were included with a median age of 2.1 years. Incidence of paediatric varicella hospitalisations reached 29.5/105 person-years, with the highest impact among those 0–4 years old (global incidence and odds of hospitalisation: 79/105 person-years and 1.6/100 varicella cases, respectively). Only 14% (79/552) of the cohort had an underlying chronic condition. 65% (357/552) of children had ≥1 complication justifying their admission, 49% were bacterial superinfections and 10% neurological disorders. Only a quarter of children (141/552) received acyclovir. Incidence of complicated hospitalised cases was 19/105 person-years. Paediatric intensive care unit admission and surgery were required in 4% and 3% of hospitalised cases, respectively. Mortality among Belgian paediatric population was 0.5/106 and fatality ratio 0.2% among our cohort. Conclusions Varicella demonstrated a substantial burden of disease in Belgian children, especially among the youngest. Our thorough nationwide study, run in a country without varicella UV, offers data to support varicella UV in Belgium. PMID:26130380

  3. Effect Sizes, Confidence Intervals, and Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The present article provides a primer on (a) effect sizes, (b) confidence intervals, and (c) confidence intervals for effect sizes. Additionally, various admonitions for reformed statistical practice are presented. For example, a very important implication of the realization that there are dozens of effect size statistics is that "authors must…

  4. Weight changes in children in foster care for 1 year

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Smith, Caitlin; Arnold, Janet S.; Fuentes, Jorge; Duan, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study of predominately racial/ethnic minority children in foster care (N = 360, birth to 19 years old) in Los Angeles, CA were to examine the (1) prevalence of obesity (≥ 95 percentile) and overweight/obese(≥ 85 percentile) upon entrance to foster care (T1) and after 1 year in foster care (T2); (2) comparison of high weight categories to national statistics; (3) relationship of changes in weight status to age, reason for entry into foster care, and placement. Methods Chi-square test and McNemar test comparing paired proportions were used to determine whether there were significant changes in the proportion of high weight categories between T1 and T2. Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test were used to evaluated the association between age, placement, and reason for foster care with the change in weight category. Changes in weight were categorized as (1) decreased in weight, (2) remained at overweight or obese, (3) increased in weight, or (4) remained normal. Results The proportion of obese and obese/overweight children between age 2 and 5 were significantly lower at T2 than T1. There were no significant changes in the prevalence of obesity for the total population at T2. Children age 6 or older had a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight/obesity compared to national statistics. Of children at all ages, 64.7% of children of all ages entered foster care with a normal weight and stayed in the normal range during their first year in foster care, 12.2% decreased their weight, 15.4% remained overweight or obese, and 7.7% increased their weight. Age and parental substance use was related to change in weight category from T1 to T2. Conclusions Children did not become more overweight or obese in foster care; however 28% of the children were obese or overweight upon entry into foster care. Children who are 6 years or older and obese upon entering foster care should be targeted for weight reduction. The pediatric community and child

  5. [Birth interval differentials in Rwanda].

    PubMed

    Ilinigumugabo, A

    1992-01-01

    Data from the 1983 Rwanda Fertility Survey are the basis for this study of variations in birth intervals. An analysis of the quality of the Rwandan birth data showed it to be relatively good. The life table technique utilized in this study is explained in a section on methodology, which also describes the Rwanda Fertility Survey questionnaires. A comparison of birth intervals in which live born children died before their first birthday or survived the first birthday shows that infant mortality shortens birth intervals by an average of 5 months. The first birth interval was almost 28 months when the oldest child survived, but declined to 23 months when the oldest child died before age 1. The effect of mortality on birth intervals increased with parity, from 5 months for the first birth interval to 5.5 months for the second and third and 6.4 months for subsequent intervals. The differences amounted to 9 or 10 months for women separating at parities under 4 and over 14 months for women separating at parities of 4 or over. Birth intervals generally increased with parity, maternal age, and the duration of the union. But women entering into unions at higher ages had shorter birth intervals. In the absence of infant mortality and dissolution of the union, women attending school beyong the primary level had first birth intervals 6 months shorter on average than other women. Controlling for infant mortality and marital dissolution, women working for wages had average birth intervals of under 2 years for the first 5 births. Father's occupation had a less marked influence on birth intervals. Urban residence was associated with a shortening of the average birth interval by 6 months between the first and second birth and 5 months between the second and third births. In the first 5 births, Tutsi women had birth intervals 1.5 months longer on average than Hutu women. Women in polygamous unions did not have significantly different birth intervals except perhaps among older women

  6. Teaching Confidence Intervals Using Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagtvedt, Reidar; Jones, Gregory Todd; Jones, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Confidence intervals are difficult to teach, in part because most students appear to believe they understand how to interpret them intuitively. They rarely do. To help them abandon their misconception and achieve understanding, we have developed a simulation tool that encourages experimentation with multiple confidence intervals derived from the…

  7. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  8. Explorations in Statistics: Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of "Explorations in Statistics" investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence, to include the true value of a population parameter…

  9. A Review of Confidence Intervals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauk, Anne-Marie Kimbell

    This paper summarizes information leading to the recommendation that statistical significance testing be replaced, or at least accompanied by, the reporting of effect sizes and confidence intervals. It discusses the use of confidence intervals, noting that the recent report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on Statistical…

  10. Children's Discrimination of Melodic Intervals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E.

    1996-01-01

    Adults and children listened to tone sequences and were required to detect changes either from intervals with simple frequency ratios to intervals with complex ratios or vice versa. Adults performed better on changes from simple to complex ratios than on the reverse changes. Similar performance was observed for 6-year olds who had never taken…

  11. VARIABLE TIME-INTERVAL GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gross, J.E.

    1959-10-31

    This patent relates to a pulse generator and more particularly to a time interval generator wherein the time interval between pulses is precisely determined. The variable time generator comprises two oscillators with one having a variable frequency output and the other a fixed frequency output. A frequency divider is connected to the variable oscillator for dividing its frequency by a selected factor and a counter is used for counting the periods of the fixed oscillator occurring during a cycle of the divided frequency of the variable oscillator. This defines the period of the variable oscillator in terms of that of the fixed oscillator. A circuit is provided for selecting as a time interval a predetermined number of periods of the variable oscillator. The output of the generator consists of a first pulse produced by a trigger circuit at the start of the time interval and a second pulse marking the end of the time interval produced by the same trigger circuit.

  12. MRI of the shoulder

    SciTech Connect

    Zlatkin, M.B.; Iannotti, J.P.; Schnall, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating shoulder disorders. The book gives detailed information on MRI techniques and shoulder anatomy, describes and illustrates MRI findings for a wide range of shoulder disorders, and explains how abnormalities seen on MIR images relate to pathophysiology and clinical signs. Special attention is given to imaging of rotator cuff disease and shoulder instability conditions for which MRI is the imaging procedure of choice. Complementing the text are 365 high-quality scans depicting normal shoulder anatomy and showing the wide variety of pathologic findings encountered in practice.

  13. Image magnification using interval information.

    PubMed

    Jurio, Aranzazu; Pagola, Miguel; Mesiar, Radko; Beliakov, Gleb; Bustince, Humberto

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a simple and effective image-magnification algorithm based on intervals is proposed. A low-resolution image is magnified to form a high-resolution image using a block-expanding method. Our proposed method associates each pixel with an interval obtained by a weighted aggregation of the pixels in its neighborhood. From the interval and with a linear K(α) operator, we obtain the magnified image. Experimental results show that our algorithm provides a magnified image with better quality (peak signal-to-noise ratio) than several existing methods. PMID:21632304

  14. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in temporary settlement residents 1 year after the Sichuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Ma, Ning; Yang, Lei; Agho, Kingsley; Stevens, Garry; Raphael, Beverley; Cui, Lijun; Liu, Yongqiao; Yan, Baoping; Ma, Hong; Yu, Xin

    2015-03-01

    The authors sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors for major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among survivors living in temporary accommodation in the Yongxing settlement in Mianyang city 1 year after the Sichuan earthquake for further interventions. They interviewed 182 residents, using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and a self-report questionnaire. The 12-month prevalence of depressive disorder and PTSD were 48.9% and 39.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that bereaved survivors were 5.51 times (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.14-14.22) more likely to report PTSD and 2.42 times (AOR = 2.42; 95%CI =1.00-5.48) more likely to report depressive disorder than nonbereaved survivors. Older age and receipt of government financial support were significantly associated with 12-month PTSD. Depressive disorder 12 months after the earthquake was associated with receipt of government financial support, pre-earthquake physical illness, single marital status, being currently employed, and Han ethnicity. PMID:23666829

  15. TIME-INTERVAL MEASURING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Gross, J.E.

    1958-04-15

    An electronic device for measuring the time interval between two control pulses is presented. The device incorporates part of a previous approach for time measurement, in that pulses from a constant-frequency oscillator are counted during the interval between the control pulses. To reduce the possible error in counting caused by the operation of the counter gating circuit at various points in the pulse cycle, the described device provides means for successively delaying the pulses for a fraction of the pulse period so that a final delay of one period is obtained and means for counting the pulses before and after each stage of delay during the time interval whereby a plurality of totals is obtained which may be averaged and multplied by the pulse period to obtain an accurate time- Interval measurement.

  16. Interval estimates and their precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Luboš; Vrabec, Michal

    2015-06-01

    A task very often met in in practice is computation of confidence interval bounds for the relative frequency within sampling without replacement. A typical situation includes preelection estimates and similar tasks. In other words, we build the confidence interval for the parameter value M in the parent population of size N on the basis of a random sample of size n. There are many ways to build this interval. We can use a normal or binomial approximation. More accurate values can be looked up in tables. We consider one more method, based on MS Excel calculations. In our paper we compare these different methods for specific values of M and we discuss when the considered methods are suitable. The aim of the article is not a publication of new theoretical methods. This article aims to show that there is a very simple way how to compute the confidence interval bounds without approximations, without tables and without other software costs.

  17. Simple Interval Timers for Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, M.; Burgess, G.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses simple interval timers for microcomputers, including (1) the Jiffy clock; (2) CPU count timers; (3) screen count timers; (4) light pen timers; and (5) chip timers. Also examines some of the general characteristics of all types of timers. (JN)

  18. QT interval in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, R A; Chambers, J B; Singh, R; Todd, G J; Smeeton, N C; Treasure, J; Treasure, T

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the incidence of a long QT interval as a marker for sudden death in patients with anorexia nervosa and to assess the effect of refeeding. To define a long QT interval by linear regression analysis and estimation of the upper limit of the confidence interval (95% CI) and to compare this with the commonly used Bazett rate correction formula. DESIGN--Prospective case control study. SETTING--Tertiary referral unit for eating disorders. SUBJECTS--41 consecutive patients with anorexia nervosa admitted over an 18 month period. 28 age and sex matched normal controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--maximum QT interval measured on 12 lead electrocardiograms. RESULTS--43.6% of the variability in the QT interval was explained by heart rate alone (p < 0.00001) and group analysis contributed a further 5.9% (p = 0.004). In 6 (15%) patients the QT interval was above the upper limit of the 95% CI for the prediction based on the control equation (NS). Two patients died suddenly; both had a QT interval at or above the upper limit of the 95% CI. In patients who reached their target weights the QT interval was significantly shorter (median 9.8 ms; p = 0.04) relative to the upper limit of the 60% CI of the control regression line, which best discriminated between patients and controls. The median Bazett rate corrected QT interval (QTc) in patients and controls was 435 v 405 ms.s-1/2 (p = 0.0004), and before and after refeeding it was 435 v 432 ms.s1/2 (NS). In 14(34%) patients and three (11%) controls the QTc was > 440 ms.s-1/2 (p = 0.053). CONCLUSIONS--The QT interval was longer in patients with anorexia nervosa than in age and sex matched controls, and there was a significant tendency to reversion to normal after refeeding. The Bazett rate correction formula overestimated the number of patients with QT prolongation and also did not show an improvement with refeeding. PMID:8068473

  19. Outcomes of minimally 1 year follow-up for the arthroscopic Remplissage technique with Hill–Sachs lesion

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sang-Hun; Shin, Seung-Myeong; Jo, Beom-Geon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated minimal 1 year follow-up results for the Remplissage technique to fill a Hill–Sachs lesion with anterior instability. Methods The subjects were 12 patients, who could be followed-up for more than 12 months after the ”Remplissage” procedures in our hospital from August 2008 to May 2010. Their mean age was 28.6 years old and the mean follow-up was 19 months. The evaluations included the ROM, the ASES score, the KSSI score, the ROWE score and postoperative MRI. Results On the postoperative functional evaluation after an average 16 months, the ASES score improved 51.4 in preoperative to 86.6 in postoperatively, the KSSI score improved from 46.6 preoperatively to 84.9 postoperatively and the ROWE score improved from 43.6 preoperatively to 91.4 postoperatively. After an average 14 months for all the cases, the range of movement was nearly in the normal range which is 174.3 ± 5.04 (170–180) degrees in foreward flexion, and 56.4 ± 9.60 (50–60) degrees in external rotation. Conclusion For recurrent shoulder instability with a large Hill–Sachs lesion, the Remplissage technique has a good outcome after more than 1 year follow-up in terms of shoulder stability, and the clinical and functional results. Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series PMID:24403747

  20. Observational Study of 1-Year Mortality Rates Before and After a Major Earthquake Among Chinese Nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Birong; Wu, Hongmei; Zhang, Yanling; Guralnik, Jack M.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Morley, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Little is known about mortality among nonagenarians after an earthquake. Methods. Using secondary data analyses from the 2005 study called the Project of Longevity and Aging in Dujiangyan(n = 870), 1-year mortality rates were compared among a pre-earthquake group and a post-earthquake group of nonagenarians. All participants were from Dujiangyan, 50 km from the epicenter of the May 12, 2008 earthquake, in China. The pre-earthquake group was a subset of the 870 Project of Longevity and Aging in Dujiangyan participants, ages 93–95 years at the beginning of “Time Frame 1” (July 2005 through June 2006; n = 228). The post-earthquake group was a different subset of the 870 Project of Longevity and Aging in Dujiangyan participants, ages 93–95 years and alive at the beginning of Time Frame 2 (July 2008 through June 2009; n = 235). Time Frame 2 excluded a 7-week period following the earthquake in order to account for deaths due to trauma. Pre-earthquake health assessment data from the 2005 Project of Longevity and Aging in Dujiangyan study were used to calculate unadjusted/adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality. Results. One-year mortality rates were 8.3% (19/228) and 16.2% (38/235) in the pre-earthquake group and the post-earthquake group, respectively (p =.01). In unadjusted analyses, only “being in the post-earthquake group” was associated with death (HR = 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17–3.53; p = .011). In the multivariable Cox regression model, being in the post-earthquake group continued to be the strongest risk factor associated with mortality (HR = 2.47; 95% CI, 1.39–4.40; p = .002). Other significant risk factors included impaired cognition (HR = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.10–3.53; p = .024), serum albumin (HR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82–0.98; p < .015), and serum triglycerides (HR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.15–1.99; p = .003). Conclusion. The May 12, 2008 earthquake in Wenchuan, China, was associated with a twofold increase in the 1-year

  1. Generalized Confidence Intervals and Fiducial Intervals for Some Epidemiological Measures.

    PubMed

    Bebu, Ionut; Luta, George; Mathew, Thomas; Agan, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    For binary outcome data from epidemiological studies, this article investigates the interval estimation of several measures of interest in the absence or presence of categorical covariates. When covariates are present, the logistic regression model as well as the log-binomial model are investigated. The measures considered include the common odds ratio (OR) from several studies, the number needed to treat (NNT), and the prevalence ratio. For each parameter, confidence intervals are constructed using the concepts of generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities. Numerical results show that the confidence intervals so obtained exhibit satisfactory performance in terms of maintaining the coverage probabilities even when the sample sizes are not large. An appealing feature of the proposed solutions is that they are not based on maximization of the likelihood, and hence are free from convergence issues associated with the numerical calculation of the maximum likelihood estimators, especially in the context of the log-binomial model. The results are illustrated with a number of examples. The overall conclusion is that the proposed methodologies based on generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities provide an accurate and unified approach for the interval estimation of the various epidemiological measures in the context of binary outcome data with or without covariates. PMID:27322305

  2. Generalized Confidence Intervals and Fiducial Intervals for Some Epidemiological Measures

    PubMed Central

    Bebu, Ionut; Luta, George; Mathew, Thomas; Agan, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    For binary outcome data from epidemiological studies, this article investigates the interval estimation of several measures of interest in the absence or presence of categorical covariates. When covariates are present, the logistic regression model as well as the log-binomial model are investigated. The measures considered include the common odds ratio (OR) from several studies, the number needed to treat (NNT), and the prevalence ratio. For each parameter, confidence intervals are constructed using the concepts of generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities. Numerical results show that the confidence intervals so obtained exhibit satisfactory performance in terms of maintaining the coverage probabilities even when the sample sizes are not large. An appealing feature of the proposed solutions is that they are not based on maximization of the likelihood, and hence are free from convergence issues associated with the numerical calculation of the maximum likelihood estimators, especially in the context of the log-binomial model. The results are illustrated with a number of examples. The overall conclusion is that the proposed methodologies based on generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities provide an accurate and unified approach for the interval estimation of the various epidemiological measures in the context of binary outcome data with or without covariates. PMID:27322305

  3. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  4. Interval From Imaging to Treatment Delivery in the Radiation Surgery Age: How Long Is Too Long?

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, Zachary A.; Fogh, Shannon E.; Westcott, Sarah K.; Braunstein, Steve; Larson, David A.; Barani, Igor J.; Nakamura, Jean; Sneed, Penny K.

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate workflow and patient outcomes related to frameless stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS) for brain metastases. Methods and Materials: We reviewed all treatment demographics, clinical outcomes, and workflow timing, including time from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) simulation, insurance authorization, and consultation to the start of SRS for brain metastases. Results: A total of 82 patients with 151 brain metastases treated with SRS were evaluated. The median times from consultation, insurance authorization, CT simulation, and MRI for treatment planning were 15, 7, 6, and 11 days to SRS. Local freedom from progression (LFFP) was lower in metastases with MRI ≥14 days before treatment (P=.0003, log rank). The 6- and 12-month LFFP rate were 95% and 75% for metastasis with interval of <14 days from MRI to treatment compared to 56% and 34% for metastases with MRI ≥14 days before treatment. On multivariate analysis, LFFP remained significantly lower for lesions with MRI ≥14 days at SRS (P=.002, Cox proportional hazards; hazard ratio: 3.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.6-7.3). Conclusions: Delay from MRI to SRS treatment delivery for brain metastases appears to reduce local control. Future studies should monitor the timing from imaging acquisition to treatment delivery. Our experience suggests that the time from MRI to treatment should be <14 days.

  5. Updating representations of temporal intervals.

    PubMed

    Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2015-12-01

    Effectively engaging with the world depends on accurate representations of the regularities that make up that world-what we call mental models. The success of any mental model depends on the ability to adapt to changes-to 'update' the model. In prior work, we have shown that damage to the right hemisphere of the brain impairs the ability to update mental models across a range of tasks. Given the disparate nature of the tasks we have employed in this prior work (i.e. statistical learning, language acquisition, position priming, perceptual ambiguity, strategic game play), we propose that a cognitive module important for updating mental representations should be generic, in the sense that it is invoked across multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. To date, the majority of our tasks have been visual in nature. Given the ubiquity and import of temporal information in sensory experience, we examined the ability to build and update mental models of time. We had healthy individuals complete a temporal prediction task in which intervals were initially drawn from one temporal range before an unannounced switch to a different range of intervals. Separate groups had the second range of intervals switch to one that contained either longer or shorter intervals than the first range. Both groups showed significant positive correlations between perceptual and prediction accuracy. While each group updated mental models of temporal intervals, those exposed to shorter intervals did so more efficiently. Our results support the notion of generic capacity to update regularities in the environment-in this instance based on temporal information. The task developed here is well suited to investigations in neurological patients and in neuroimaging settings. PMID:26303026

  6. Music Therapy Using Singing Training Improves Psychomotor Speed in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Neuropsychological and fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Masayuki; Yuba, Toru; Tabei, Ken-ichi; Okubo, Yukari; Kida, Hirotaka; Sakuma, Hajime; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims To investigate the effect of singing training on the cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Methods Ten AD patients (mean age 78.1 years) participated in music therapy using singing training once a week for 6 months (music therapy group). Each session was performed with professional musicians using karaoke and a unique voice training method (the YUBA Method). Before and after the intervention period, each patient was assessed by neuropsychological batteries, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed while the patients sang familiar songs with a karaoke device. As the control group, another 10 AD patients were recruited (mean age 77.0 years), and neuropsychological assessments were performed twice with an interval of 6 months. Results In the music therapy group, the time for completion of the Japanese Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices was significantly reduced (p = 0.026), and the results obtained from interviewing the patients' caregivers revealed a significant decrease in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory score (p = 0.042) and a prolongation of the patients' sleep time (p = 0.039). The fMRI study revealed increased activity in the right angular gyrus and the left lingual gyrus in the before-minus-after subtraction analysis of the music therapy intervention. Conclusion Music therapy intervention using singing training may be useful for dementia patients by improving the neural efficacy of cognitive processing. PMID:26483829

  7. Implantable medical devices MRI safe.

    PubMed

    Dal Molin, Renzo; Hecker, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Pacemakers, ICDs, neurostimulators like deep brain stimulator electrodes, spiral cord stimulators, insulin pumps, cochlear implants, retinal implants, hearing aids, electro cardio gram (ECG) leads, or devices in interventional MRI such as vascular guide wires or catheters are affected by MRI magnetic and electromagnetic fields. Design of MRI Safe medical devices requires computer modeling, bench testing, phantom testing, and animal studies. Implanted medical devices can be MRI unsafe, MRI conditional or MRI safe (see glossary). In the following paragraphs we will investigate how to design implanted medical devices MRI safe. PMID:23739365

  8. Knee MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the knee joint and ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  9. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  10. Cervical MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the part of the ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  11. Lumbar MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... may need a lumbar MRI if you have: Low back pain that does not get better after treatment Leg ... spine Injury or trauma to the lower spine Low back pain and a history or signs of cancer Multiple ...

  12. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    MedlinePlus

    ... some MRI exams, intravenous (IV) drugs, such as gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are used to change the contrast of the MR image. Gadolinium-based contrast agents are rare earth metals that ...

  13. MRI of the Breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a supplemental tool to breast screening with mammography or ultrasound. It may be used to screen ... following diagnosis, or further evaluate abnormalities seen on mammography. Breast MRI does not use ionizing radiation, and ...

  14. Towards MRI microarrays.

    PubMed

    Hall, Andrew; Mundell, Victoria J; Blanco-Andujar, Cristina; Bencsik, Martin; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I; Cave, Gareth W V

    2010-04-14

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanometre scale particles have been utilised as contrast agents to image staked target binding oligonucleotide arrays using MRI to correlate the signal intensity and T(2)* relaxation times in different NMR fluids. PMID:20379545

  15. Sinus MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thomsen HS, Reimer P. Intravascular contrast media for radiology, CT, and MRI. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, ... JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  16. Shoulder MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... an imaging test that uses energy from powerful magnets and to create pictures of the shoulder area. ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed in the room ...

  17. Uniform Continuity on Unbounded Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouso, Rodrigo Lopez

    2008-01-01

    We present a teaching approach to uniform continuity on unbounded intervals which, hopefully, may help to meet the following pedagogical objectives: (i) To provide students with efficient and simple criteria to decide whether a continuous function is also uniformly continuous; and (ii) To provide students with skill to recognize graphically…

  18. Biparametric versus multiparametric MRI in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Logager, Vibeke; Baslev, Ingerd; Møller, Jakob M; Hansen, Rasmus Hvass; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2016-01-01

    Background Since multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) of the prostate exceeds 30 min, minimizing the evaluation time of significant (Gleason scores > 6) prostate cancer (PCa) would be beneficial. A reduced protocol might be sufficient for the diagnosis. Purpose To study whether a short unenhanced biparametric MRI (bp-MRI) matches mp-MRI in detecting significant PCa. Material and Methods A total of 204 men (median age, 65 years; mean ± SD, 64.1; range 45–75 years; median serum PSA level, 14 ng/mL; range, 2.2–120 ng/mL; median prostate volume, 60 mL; range, 23–263 mL) fulfilled the criteria for being enrolled. They underwent mp-MRI and prostate biopsy from January through June 2014. Of the included patients, 9.3% underwent prostatectomy, 90.7% had TRUS-bx, and 10.8 had MRI-targeted TRUS-bx. Two radiologists separately assessed the mp-MRI examination (T2-weighted [T2W] imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI], apparent diffusion coefficient map [ADC-map] and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging [DCE]). Two months later, the bp-MRI version (T2W imaging, DWI, and ADC-map) was evaluated. Results Reader 1: Assessing mp-MRI: 0 false negatives, sensitivity of 1, and specificity 0.04. Assessing bp-MRI: four false negatives, sensitivity of 0.94, and specificity 0.15. Reader 2: Assessing mp-MRI: five false negatives, sensitivity of 0.93, and specificity 0.16. Assessing bp-MRI: three false negatives, sensitivity of 0.96, and specificity 0.15. Intra-reader agreement Cohen’s Kappa (κ) was 0.87 for reader 1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83–0.92) and 0.84 for reader 2 (95% CI 0.78–0.89). Conclusion Bp-MRI is as good as mp-MRI at detecting PCa. A large prospective study seems to be strongly warranted. PMID:27583170

  19. Optogenetic Functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Peter; Fang, Zhongnan; Liu, Jia; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the functional connectivity of precise neural circuits across the entire intact brain can be achieved through optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging (ofMRI), which is a novel technique that combines the relatively high spatial resolution of high-field fMRI with the precision of optogenetic stimulation. Fiber optics that enable delivery of specific wavelengths of light deep into the brain in vivo are implanted into regions of interest in order to specifically stimulate targeted cell types that have been genetically induced to express light-sensitive trans-membrane conductance channels, called opsins. fMRI is used to provide a non-invasive method of determining the brain's global dynamic response to optogenetic stimulation of specific neural circuits through measurement of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal, which provides an indirect measurement of neuronal activity. This protocol describes the construction of fiber optic implants, the implantation surgeries, the imaging with photostimulation and the data analysis required to successfully perform ofMRI. In summary, the precise stimulation and whole-brain monitoring ability of ofMRI are crucial factors in making ofMRI a powerful tool for the study of the connectomics of the brain in both healthy and diseased states. PMID:27167840

  20. Optogenetic Functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peter; Fang, Zhongnan; Liu, Jia; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the functional connectivity of precise neural circuits across the entire intact brain can be achieved through optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging (ofMRI), which is a novel technique that combines the relatively high spatial resolution of high-field fMRI with the precision of optogenetic stimulation. Fiber optics that enable delivery of specific wavelengths of light deep into the brain in vivo are implanted into regions of interest in order to specifically stimulate targeted cell types that have been genetically induced to express light-sensitive trans-membrane conductance channels, called opsins. fMRI is used to provide a non-invasive method of determining the brain's global dynamic response to optogenetic stimulation of specific neural circuits through measurement of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal, which provides an indirect measurement of neuronal activity. This protocol describes the construction of fiber optic implants, the implantation surgeries, the imaging with photostimulation and the data analysis required to successfully perform ofMRI. In summary, the precise stimulation and whole-brain monitoring ability of ofMRI are crucial factors in making ofMRI a powerful tool for the study of the connectomics of the brain in both healthy and diseased states. PMID:27167840

  1. Fourier Analysis of Musical Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2008-11-01

    Use of a microphone attached to a computer to capture musical sounds and software to display their waveforms and harmonic spectra has become somewhat commonplace. A recent article in The Physics Teacher aptly demonstrated the use of MacScope2 in just such a manner as a way to teach Fourier analysis.3 A logical continuation of this project is to use MacScope not just to analyze the Fourier composition of musical tones but also musical intervals.

  2. Assessment of radiofrequency ablation margin by MRI-MRI image fusion in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Li; Li, Kai; Su, Zhong-Zhen; Huang, Ze-Ping; Wang, Ping; Zheng, Rong-Qin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility and clinical value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-MRI image fusion in assessing the ablative margin (AM) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A newly developed ultrasound workstation for MRI-MRI image fusion was used to evaluate the AM of 62 tumors in 52 HCC patients after radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The lesions were divided into two groups: group A, in which the tumor was completely ablated and 5 mm AM was achieved (n = 32); and group B, in which the tumor was completely ablated but 5 mm AM was not achieved (n = 29). To detect local tumor progression (LTP), all patients were followed every two months by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, contrast-enhanced MRI or computed tomography (CT) in the first year after RFA. Then, the follow-up interval was prolonged to every three months after the first year. RESULTS: Of the 62 tumors, MRI-MRI image fusion was successful in 61 (98.4%); the remaining case had significant deformation of the liver and massive ascites after RFA. The time required for creating image fusion and AM evaluation was 15.5 ± 5.5 min (range: 8-22 min) and 9.6 ± 3.2 min (range: 6-14 min), respectively. The follow-up period ranged from 1-23 mo (14.2 ± 5.4 mo). In group A, no LTP was detected in 32 lesions, whereas in group B, LTP was detected in 4 of 29 tumors, which occurred at 2, 7, 9, and 15 mo after RFA. The frequency of LTP in group B (13.8%; 4/29) was significantly higher than that in group A (0/32, P = 0.046). All of the LTPs occurred in the area in which the 5 mm AM was not achieved. CONCLUSION: The MRI-MRI image fusion using an ultrasound workstation is feasible and useful for evaluating the AM after RFA for HCC. PMID:25954109

  3. Management and 1-year outcomes of patients with atrial fibrillation in the Middle East: Gulf survey of atrial fibrillation events.

    PubMed

    Zubaid, Mohammad; Rashed, Wafa A; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; AlMahmeed, Wael; Shehab, Abdullah; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Qudaimi, Ahmed Al; Asaad, Nidal; Amin, Haitham

    2015-05-01

    We describe management and outcomes of patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Middle East. Consecutive patients with AF presenting to emergency departments (EDs) were prospectively enrolled. Among 1721 patients with nonvalvular AF, mean age was 59 ± 16 years and 44% were women. Comorbidities were common such as hypertension (59%), diabetes (33%), and coronary artery disease (33%). Warfarin was not prescribed to 40% of patients with Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age, Diabetes mellitus, Stroke/TIA2 score of ≥2. One-year rates of stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) and all-cause mortality were 4.2% and 15.3%, respectively. Warfarin use at hospital-ED discharge was independently associated with lower 1-year rate of stroke/TIA (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.85; P = .015) and all-cause mortality (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.32-0.83; P = .006). Prior history of heart failure and peripheral vascular disease was independent mortality predictors. Our patients are relatively young with significant cardiovascular risk. Their anticoagulation treatment is suboptimal, and 1-year all-cause mortality and stroke/TIA event rates are relatively high. PMID:24904179

  4. An Event Restriction Interval Theory of Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Brandon Robert

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents a novel theory of tense and tense-like constructions. It is named after a key theoretical component of the theory, the event restriction interval. In Event Restriction Interval (ERI) Theory, sentences are semantically evaluated relative to an index which contains two key intervals, the evaluation interval and the event…

  5. Radiotherapy planning using MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Maria A.; Payne, Geoffrey S.

    2015-11-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiotherapy (RT) planning is rapidly expanding. We review the wide range of image contrast mechanisms available to MRI and the way they are exploited for RT planning. However a number of challenges are also considered: the requirements that MR images are acquired in the RT treatment position, that they are geometrically accurate, that effects of patient motion during the scan are minimized, that tissue markers are clearly demonstrated, that an estimate of electron density can be obtained. These issues are discussed in detail, prior to the consideration of a number of specific clinical applications. This is followed by a brief discussion on the development of real-time MRI-guided RT.

  6. MRI-Based Assessment of Safe Margins in Tumor Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bellanova, Laura; Schubert, Thomas; Cartiaux, Olivier; Lecouvet, Frédéric; Galant, Christine; Banse, Xavier; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In surgical oncology, histological analysis of excised tumor specimen is the conventional method to assess the safety of the resection margins. We tested the feasibility of using MRI to assess the resection margins of freshly explanted tumor specimens in rats. Materials and Methods. Fourteen specimen of sarcoma were resected in rats and analysed both with MRI and histologically. Slicing of the specimen was identical for the two methods and corresponding slices were paired. 498 margins were measured in length and classified using the UICC classification (R0, R1, and R2). Results. The mean difference between the 498 margins measured both with histology and MRI was 0.3 mm (SD 1.0 mm). The agreement interval of the two measurement methods was [−1.7 mm; 2.2 mm]. In terms of the UICC classification, a strict correlation was observed between MRI- and histology-based classifications (κ = 0.84, P < 0.05). Discussion. This experimental study showed the feasibility to use MRI images of excised tumor specimen to assess the resection margins with the same degree of accuracy as the conventional histopathological analysis. When completed, MRI acquisition of resected tumors may alert the surgeon in case of inadequate margin and help advantageously the histopathological analysis. PMID:24701131

  7. MRI-Based Assessment of Safe Margins in Tumor Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bellanova, Laura; Schubert, Thomas; Cartiaux, Olivier; Lecouvet, Frédéric; Galant, Christine; Banse, Xavier; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In surgical oncology, histological analysis of excised tumor specimen is the conventional method to assess the safety of the resection margins. We tested the feasibility of using MRI to assess the resection margins of freshly explanted tumor specimens in rats. Materials and Methods. Fourteen specimen of sarcoma were resected in rats and analysed both with MRI and histologically. Slicing of the specimen was identical for the two methods and corresponding slices were paired. 498 margins were measured in length and classified using the UICC classification (R0, R1, and R2). Results. The mean difference between the 498 margins measured both with histology and MRI was 0.3 mm (SD 1.0 mm). The agreement interval of the two measurement methods was [-1.7 mm; 2.2 mm]. In terms of the UICC classification, a strict correlation was observed between MRI- and histology-based classifications (κ = 0.84, P < 0.05). Discussion. This experimental study showed the feasibility to use MRI images of excised tumor specimen to assess the resection margins with the same degree of accuracy as the conventional histopathological analysis. When completed, MRI acquisition of resected tumors may alert the surgeon in case of inadequate margin and help advantageously the histopathological analysis. PMID:24701131

  8. MRI Catheterization in Cardiopulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Toby; Ratnayaka, Kanishka

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognostication in patients with complex cardiopulmonary disease can be a clinical challenge. A new procedure, MRI catheterization, involves invasive right-sided heart catheterization performed inside the MRI scanner using MRI instead of traditional radiographic fluoroscopic guidance. MRI catheterization combines simultaneous invasive hemodynamic and MRI functional assessment in a single radiation-free procedure. By combining both modalities, the many individual limitations of invasive catheterization and noninvasive imaging can be overcome, and additional clinical questions can be addressed. Today, MRI catheterization is a clinical reality in specialist centers in the United States and Europe. Advances in medical device design for the MRI environment will enable not only diagnostic but also interventional MRI procedures to be performed within the next few years. PMID:24394821

  9. Gadofullerene MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Bolskar, Robert D

    2008-04-01

    A promising new class of MRI contrast-enhancing agents with high relaxivities is based on gadolinium-containing metallofullerenes, which are also termed gadofullerenes. Detailed study of the water-proton relaxivity properties and intermolecular nanoclustering behavior of gadofullerene derivatives has revealed valuable information about their relaxivity mechanisms and given a deeper understanding of this new class of paramagnetic contrast agent. Here, the latest findings on water-solubilized gadofullerene materials and how these findings relate to their future applications in MRI are reviewed and discussed. PMID:18373426

  10. Biomimetic phantom for cardiac diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Irvin; Zhou, Feng‐Lei; Hubbard Cristinacce, Penny L.; Parker, Geoffrey J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to characterize cardiac tissue microstructure, necessitating the use of physiologically relevant phantoms for methods development. Existing phantoms are generally simplistic and mostly simulate diffusion in the brain. Thus, there is a need for phantoms mimicking diffusion in cardiac tissue. Materials and Methods A biomimetic phantom composed of hollow microfibers generated using co‐electrospinning was developed to mimic myocardial diffusion properties and fiber and sheet orientations. Diffusion tensor imaging was carried out at monthly intervals over 4 months at 9.4T. 3D fiber tracking was performed using the phantom and compared with fiber tracking in an ex vivo rat heart. Results The mean apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy of the phantom remained stable over the 4‐month period, with mean values of 7.53 ± 0.16 × 10‐4 mm2/s and 0.388 ± 0.007, respectively. Fiber tracking of the 1st and 3rd eigenvectors generated analogous results to the fiber and sheet‐normal direction respectively, found in the left ventricular myocardium. Conclusion A biomimetic phantom simulating diffusion in the heart was designed and built. This could aid development and validation of novel diffusion MRI methods for investigating cardiac microstructure, decrease the number of animals and patients needed for methods development, and improve quality control in longitudinal and multicenter cardiac diffusion MRI studies. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2016;43:594–600. PMID:26213152

  11. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  12. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  13. MRI driven magnetic microswimmers.

    PubMed

    Kósa, Gábor; Jakab, Péter; Székely, Gábor; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2012-02-01

    Capsule endoscopy is a promising technique for diagnosing diseases in the digestive system. Here we design and characterize a miniature swimming mechanism that uses the magnetic fields of the MRI for both propulsion and wireless powering of the capsule. Our method uses both the static and the radio frequency (RF) magnetic fields inherently available in MRI to generate a propulsive force. Our study focuses on the evaluation of the propulsive force for different swimming tails and experimental estimation of the parameters that influence its magnitude. We have found that an approximately 20 mm long, 5 mm wide swimming tail is capable of producing 0.21 mN propulsive force in water when driven by a 20 Hz signal providing 0.85 mW power and the tail located within the homogeneous field of a 3 T MRI scanner. We also analyze the parallel operation of the swimming mechanism and the scanner imaging. We characterize the size of artifacts caused by the propulsion system. We show that while the magnetic micro swimmer is propelling the capsule endoscope, the operator can locate the capsule on the image of an interventional scene without being obscured by significant artifacts. Although this swimming method does not scale down favorably, the high magnetic field of the MRI allows self propulsion speed on the order of several millimeter per second and can propel an endoscopic capsule in the stomach. PMID:22037673

  14. Teratoma - MRI scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This MRI scan shows a tumor (teratoma) at the base of the spine (seen on the left lower edge of the screen), located in the sacrum and coccyx (sacrococcygeal) area. Teratomas are present at birth and may contain hair, teeth, and other tissues.

  15. Orders on Intervals Over Partially Ordered Sets: Extending Allen's Algebra and Interval Graph Results

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, Francisco; Kreinovich, Vladik; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.

    2013-08-01

    To make a decision, we need to compare the values of quantities. In many practical situations, we know the values with interval uncertainty. In such situations, we need to compare intervals. Allen’s algebra describes all possible relations between intervals on the real line, and ordering relations between such intervals are well studied. In this paper, we extend this description to intervals in an arbitrary partially ordered set (poset). In particular, we explicitly describe ordering relations between intervals that generalize relation between points. As auxiliary results, we provide a logical interpretation of the relation between intervals, and extend the results about interval graphs to intervals over posets.

  16. Pigeons' Choices between Fixed-Interval and Random-Interval Schedules: Utility of Variability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E.; Cardinal, Claudia D.; Field, Douglas P.; Flannery, Barbara A.; Johnson, Michael; Bailey, Kathleen; Hineline, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    Pigeons' choosing between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules of reinforcement was investigated in three experiments using a discrete-trial procedure. In all three experiments, the random-interval schedule was generated by sampling a probability distribution at an interval (and in multiples of the interval) equal to that of the…

  17. High-quality breast MRI.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, R Edward

    2014-05-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demands the competing factors of high spatial resolution, good temporal resolution, high signal-to-noise ratios, and complete bilateral breast coverage. Achieving these competing factors requires modern MRI equipment with high magnetic field strength and homogeneity, high maximum gradient strength with short rise times, dedicated multichannel bilateral breast coils with prone patient positioning, and 3D (volume) gradient-echo MRI pulse sequences with short TR, short TE, high spatial resolution, and reasonably short acquisition times. This article discusses the equipment and pulse sequences needed to achieve high-quality breast MRI and summarizes requirements of the ACR Breast MRI Accreditation Program. PMID:24792656

  18. Mortality in primary angioplasty patients starting antiplatelet therapy with prehospital prasugrel or clopidogrel: a 1-year follow-up from the European MULTIPRAC Registry

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Patrick; Grieco, Niccolò; Ince, Hüseyin; Danchin, Nicolas; Ramos, Yvonne; Goedicke, Jochen; Clemmensen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Aim MULTIPRAC was designed to provide insights into the use and outcomes associated with prehospital initiation of antiplatelet therapy with either prasugrel or clopidogrel in the context of primary percutaneous coronary intervention. After a previous report on efficacy and safety outcomes during hospitalization, we report here the 1-year follow-up data, including cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Methods and results MULTIPRAC is a multinational, prospective registry of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) from 25 hospitals in nine countries, all of which had an established practice of prehospital start of dual antiplatelet therapy in place. The key outcome was CV death at 1 year. Among 2,036 patients followed-up through 1 year, 49 died (2.4%), 10 during the initial hospitalization and 39 within 1 year after hospital discharge. The primary analysis was based on the P2Y12-inhibitor, used from prehospital loading dose through hospital discharge. Prasugrel (n=824) was more commonly used than clopidogrel (n=425). The observed 1-year rates for CV death were 0.5% with prasugrel and 2.6% with clopidogrel. After adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics, treatment with prasugrel was associated with a significantly lower risk of CV death than treatment with clopidogrel (odds ratio 0.248; 95% confidence interval 0.06–0.89). Conclusion In STEMI patients from routine practice undergoing primary angioplasty, who were able to start oral antiplatelet therapy prehospital, treatment with prasugrel as compared to clopidogrel was associated with a lower risk of CV death at 1-year follow-up. PMID:27143908

  19. Min and Max Extreme Interval Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha L.; Thomopoulos, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows how to find the min and max extreme interval values for the exponential and triangular distributions from the min and max uniform extreme interval values. Tables are provided to show the min and max extreme interval values for the uniform, exponential, and triangular distributions for different probabilities and observation sizes.

  20. Familiarity-Frequency Ratings of Melodic Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Thomas B.

    1972-01-01

    Objective of this study was to determine subjects' reliability in rating randomly played ascending and descending melodic intervals within the octave on the basis of their familiarity with each type of interval and the frequency of their having experienced each type of interval in music. (Author/CB)

  1. MRI of the penis

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, A

    2012-01-01

    MRI of the penis is an expensive test that is not always superior to clinical examination or ultrasound. However, it shows many of the important structures, and in particular the combination of tumescence from intracavernosal alprostadil, and high-resolution T2 sequences show the glans, corpora and the tunica albuginea well. In this paper we summarise the radiological anatomy and discuss the indications for MRI. For penile cancer, it may be useful in cases where the local stage is not apparent clinically. In priapism, it is an emerging technique for assessing corporal viability, and in fracture it can in most cases make the diagnosis and locate the injury. In some cases of penile fibrosis and Peyronie's disease, it may aid surgical planning, and in complex pelvic fracture may replace or augment conventional urethrography. It is an excellent investigation for the malfunctioning penile prosthesis. PMID:23118102

  2. Occupational exposure in MRI.

    PubMed

    McRobbie, D W

    2012-04-01

    This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B(0), imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B(0) fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2-0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42 ± 24% of B(0), with time-averaged exposures of 5.2 ± 2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6-4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B(0) fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s(-1). Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

  3. [MRI in coma survivors].

    PubMed

    Tshibanda, L; Vanhaudenhuyse, A; Bruno, M A; Boly, M; Soddu, A; Laureys, S; Moonen, G

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic and non-traumatic brain injured disorders of consciousness patients are still challenging for diagnosis, prognosis, ethical and socio-economic reasons. Currently, there remains a high rate of misdiagnosis of the vegetative state (Schnakers, et al. 2009). Recent advances in MRI techniques (diffusion tensor, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional imaging) provide data that could improve the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation and management of these patients. PMID:20085015

  4. MRI Anatomy of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    McCarley, Robert W.; Wible, Cynthia G.; Frumin, Melissa; Hirayasu, Yoshio; Levitt, James J.; Fischer, Iris A.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2010-01-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data have provided much evidence in support of our current view that schizophrenia is a brain disorder with altered brain structure, and consequently involving more than a simple disturbance in neurotransmission. This review surveys 118 peer–reviewed studies with control group from 1987 to May 1998. Most studies (81%) do not find abnormalities of whole brain/intracranial contents, while lateral ventricle enlargement is reported in 77%, and third ventricle enlargement in 67%. The temporal lobe was the brain parenchymal region with the most consistently documented abnormalities. Volume decreases were found in 62% of 37 studies of whole temporal lobe, and in 81% of 16 studies of the superior temporal gyrus (and in 100% with gray matter separately evaluated). Fully 77% of the 30 studies of the medial temporal lobe reported volume reduction in one or more of its constituent structures (hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus). Despite evidence for frontal lobe functional abnormalities, structural MRI investigations less consistently found abnormalities, with 55% describing volume reduction. It may be that frontal lobe volume changes are small, and near the threshold for MRI detection. The parietal and occipital lobes were much less studied; about half of the studies showed positive findings. Most studies of cortical gray matter (86%) found volume reductions were not diffuse, but more pronounced in certain areas. About two thirds of the studies of subcortical structures of thalamus, corpus callosum and basal ganglia (which tend to increase volume with typical neuroleptics), show positive findings, as do almost all (91%) studies of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP). Most data were consistent with a developmental model, but growing evidence was compatible also with progressive, neurodegenerative features, suggesting a “two– hit” model of schizophrenia, for which a cellular hypothesis is discussed. The relationship of

  5. A 1-year randomized controlled trial of deferasirox vs deferoxamine for myocardial iron removal in β-thalassemia major (CORDELIA)

    PubMed Central

    Porter, John B.; Piga, Antonio; Lai, Yongrong; El-Beshlawy, Amal; Belhoul, Khawla M.; Elalfy, Mohsen; Yesilipek, Akif; Kilinç, Yurdanur; Lawniczek, Tomasz; Habr, Dany; Weisskopf, Marianne; Zhang, Yiyun; Aydinok, Yesim

    2014-01-01

    Randomized comparison data on the efficacy and safety of deferasirox for myocardial iron removal in transfusion dependent patients are lacking. CORDELIA was a prospective, randomized comparison of deferasirox (target dose 40 mg/kg per day) vs subcutaneous deferoxamine (50-60 mg/kg per day for 5-7 days/week) for myocardial iron removal in 197 β-thalassemia major patients with myocardial siderosis (T2* 6-20 milliseconds) and no signs of cardiac dysfunction (mean age, 19.8 years). Primary objective was to demonstrate noninferiority of deferasirox for myocardial iron removal, assessed by changes in myocardial T2* after 1 year using a per-protocol analysis. Geometric mean (Gmean) myocardial T2* improved with deferasirox from 11.2 milliseconds at baseline to 12.6 milliseconds at 1 year (Gmeans ratio, 1.12) and with deferoxamine (11.6 milliseconds to 12.3 milliseconds; Gmeans ratio, 1.07). The between-arm Gmeans ratio was 1.056 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.998, 1.133). The lower 95% CI boundary was greater than the prespecified margin of 0.9, establishing noninferiority of deferasirox vs deferoxamine (P = .057 for superiority of deferasirox). Left ventricular ejection fraction remained stable in both arms. Frequency of drug-related adverse events was comparable between deferasirox (35.4%) and deferoxamine (30.8%). CORDELIA demonstrated the noninferiority of deferasirox compared with deferoxamine for myocardial iron removal. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00600938. PMID:24385534

  6. A 1-year randomized controlled trial of deferasirox vs deferoxamine for myocardial iron removal in β-thalassemia major (CORDELIA).

    PubMed

    Pennell, Dudley J; Porter, John B; Piga, Antonio; Lai, Yongrong; El-Beshlawy, Amal; Belhoul, Khawla M; Elalfy, Mohsen; Yesilipek, Akif; Kilinç, Yurdanur; Lawniczek, Tomasz; Habr, Dany; Weisskopf, Marianne; Zhang, Yiyun; Aydinok, Yesim

    2014-03-01

    Randomized comparison data on the efficacy and safety of deferasirox for myocardial iron removal in transfusion dependent patients are lacking. CORDELIA was a prospective, randomized comparison of deferasirox (target dose 40 mg/kg per day) vs subcutaneous deferoxamine (50-60 mg/kg per day for 5-7 days/week) for myocardial iron removal in 197 β-thalassemia major patients with myocardial siderosis (T2* 6-20 milliseconds) and no signs of cardiac dysfunction (mean age, 19.8 years). Primary objective was to demonstrate noninferiority of deferasirox for myocardial iron removal, assessed by changes in myocardial T2* after 1 year using a per-protocol analysis. Geometric mean (Gmean) myocardial T2* improved with deferasirox from 11.2 milliseconds at baseline to 12.6 milliseconds at 1 year (Gmeans ratio, 1.12) and with deferoxamine (11.6 milliseconds to 12.3 milliseconds; Gmeans ratio, 1.07). The between-arm Gmeans ratio was 1.056 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.998, 1.133). The lower 95% CI boundary was greater than the prespecified margin of 0.9, establishing noninferiority of deferasirox vs deferoxamine (P = .057 for superiority of deferasirox). Left ventricular ejection fraction remained stable in both arms. Frequency of drug-related adverse events was comparable between deferasirox (35.4%) and deferoxamine (30.8%). CORDELIA demonstrated the noninferiority of deferasirox compared with deferoxamine for myocardial iron removal. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00600938. PMID:24385534

  7. MRI Findings in Neuroferritinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Emiko; Takiyama, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Neuroferritinopathy is a neurodegenerative disease which demonstrates brain iron accumulation caused by the mutations in the ferritin light chain gene. On brain MRI in neuroferritinopathy, iron deposits are observed as low-intensity areas on T2WI and as signal loss on T2∗WI. On T2WI, hyperintense abnormalities reflecting tissue edema and gliosis are also seen. Another characteristic finding is the presence of symmetrical cystic changes in the basal ganglia, which are seen in the advanced stages of this disorder. Atrophy is sometimes noted in the cerebellar and cerebral cortices. The variety in the MRI findings is specific to neuroferritinopathy. Based on observations of an excessive iron content in patients with chronic neurologic disorders, such as Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease, the presence of excess iron is therefore recognized as a major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. The future development of multimodal and advanced MRI techniques is thus expected to play an important role in accurately measuring the brain iron content and thereby further elucidating the neurodegenerative process. PMID:21808735

  8. Confidence Intervals in Qtl Mapping by Bootstrapping

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, P. M.; Thompson, R.; Haley, C. S.

    1996-01-01

    The determination of empirical confidence intervals for the location of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) was investigated using simulation. Empirical confidence intervals were calculated using a bootstrap resampling method for a backcross population derived from inbred lines. Sample sizes were either 200 or 500 individuals, and the QTL explained 1, 5, or 10% of the phenotypic variance. The method worked well in that the proportion of empirical confidence intervals that contained the simulated QTL was close to expectation. In general, the confidence intervals were slightly conservatively biased. Correlations between the test statistic and the width of the confidence interval were strongly negative, so that the stronger the evidence for a QTL segregating, the smaller the empirical confidence interval for its location. The size of the average confidence interval depended heavily on the population size and the effect of the QTL. Marker spacing had only a small effect on the average empirical confidence interval. The LOD drop-off method to calculate empirical support intervals gave confidence intervals that generally were too small, in particular if confidence intervals were calculated only for samples above a certain significance threshold. The bootstrap method is easy to implement and is useful in the analysis of experimental data. PMID:8725246

  9. Factors associated with postoperative complications and 1-year mortality after surgery for colorectal cancer in octogenarians and nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Wan; Kim, Ik Yong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the factors affecting 30-day postoperative complications and 1-year mortality after surgery for colorectal cancer in octogenarians and nonagenarians. Methods Between 2005 and 2014, a total of 204 consecutive patients aged ≥80 years who underwent major colorectal surgery were included. Results One hundred patients were male (49%) and 52 patients had American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥3 (25%). Combined surgery was performed in 32 patients (16%). Postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery occurred in 54 patients (26%) and 30-day mortality occurred in five patients (2%). Independent risk factors affecting 30-day postoperative complications were older age (≥90 years, hazard ratio [HR] with 95% confidence interval [CI] =4.95 [1.69−14.47], P=0.004), an ASA score ≥3 (HR with 95% CI =4.19 [1.8−9.74], P=0.001), performance of combined surgery (HR with 95% CI =3.1 [1.13−8.46], P=0.028), lower hemoglobin level (<10 g/dL, HR with 95% CI =7.56 [3.07−18.63], P<0.001), and lower albumin level (<3.4 g/dL, HR with 95% CI =3.72 [1.43−9.69], P=0.007). An ASA score ≥3 (HR with 95% CI =2.72 [1.15−6.46], P=0.023), tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage IV (HR with 95% CI =3.47 [1.44−8.39], P=0.006), and occurrence of postoperative complications (HR with 95% CI =4.42 [1.39−14.09], P=0.012) were significant prognostic factors for 1-year mortality. Conclusion Patient-related factors (older age, higher ASA score, presence of anemia, and lower serum albumin) and procedure-related factors (performance of combined surgical procedure) increased postoperative complications. Avoidance of 30-day postoperative complications may decrease 1-year mortality. PMID:27279741

  10. Restoration of the Ellipsoid Zone and Visual Prognosis at 1 Year after Surgical Macular Hole Closure

    PubMed Central

    Hasebe, Hiruma; Matsuoka, Naoki; Terashima, Hiroko; Sasaki, Ryo; Ueda, Eriko; Fukuchi, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the restoration of the ellipsoid zone (EZ) and its influence on visual prognosis 1 year after surgical macular hole (MH) closure. Method. Subjects were patients with stage 2, 3, or 4 idiopathic MH who underwent primary vitrectomy that resulted in successful hole closure. Nineteen eyes with both EZ disruption with foveal detachment and a continuous external limiting membrane on optical coherence tomography during the early postoperative period were included in this study. Result. EZ disruption was restored in 10 eyes (53%, Group A) and remained in 9 eyes (47%, Group B) at 1 year after surgery. In Group B, the diameter of the residual EZ disruption was 54.7 ± 33.1 μm. LogMAR visual acuity (VA) 1 year after surgery was significantly better than preoperative VA in each group (Group A: −0.007 ± 0.102; P < 0.001; Group B: 0.051 ± 0.148; P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (P = 0.332). There was no significant correlation between logMAR VA and EZ disruption diameter at 1 year after surgery. Conclusion. EZ was restored in 53% of eyes at 1 year after surgical closure of idiopathic MH. Mean residual EZ disruption diameter was 54.7 ± 33.1 μm. Neither resolved nor residual EZ disruption influenced postoperative VA. PMID:26941999

  11. Sodium MRI: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-05-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges, limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  12. Sodium MRI: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-01-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges and limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  13. Intervals in evolutionary algorithms for global optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    Optimization is of central concern to a number of disciplines. Interval Arithmetic methods for global optimization provide us with (guaranteed) verified results. These methods are mainly restricted to the classes of objective functions that are twice differentiable and use a simple strategy of eliminating a splitting larger regions of search space in the global optimization process. An efficient approach that combines the efficient strategy from Interval Global Optimization Methods and robustness of the Evolutionary Algorithms is proposed. In the proposed approach, search begins with randomly created interval vectors with interval widths equal to the whole domain. Before the beginning of the evolutionary process, fitness of these interval parameter vectors is defined by evaluating the objective function at the center of the initial interval vectors. In the subsequent evolutionary process the local optimization process returns an estimate of the bounds of the objective function over the interval vectors. Though these bounds may not be correct at the beginning due to large interval widths and complicated function properties, the process of reducing interval widths over time and a selection approach similar to simulated annealing helps in estimating reasonably correct bounds as the population evolves. The interval parameter vectors at these estimated bounds (local optima) are then subjected to crossover and mutation operators. This evolutionary process continues for predetermined number of generations in the search of the global optimum.

  14. Evaluation of the management of Hr-HPV+/PapTest- women: results at 1-year recall

    PubMed Central

    Chiappetta, Caterina; Puggioni, Chiara; Lendaro, Eugenio; Cacciotti, Jessica; Zaralli, Roberto; Migliore, Giovanna; Bellardini, Paola; Petrozza, Vincenzo; Della Rocca, Carlo; Di Cristofano, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    With cervical cancer screening the choice of 1-year as a period of follow-up in positive high-risk HPV women without cytological lesions is still under discussion. We evaluated the management of these women and the role of HPV genotyping test. We did a cervical cancer screening study of women aged 35-64 with primary high-risk HPV test. Women positive for high-risk HPV with negative cytology were followed-up after 1 year. In this study we selected women with high-risk HPV+/PapTest- resulted high-risk HPV+ at recall and performed the PapTest and HPV genotyping test. The detection rate of squamous high grade (CIN2+) relative to the total screened cohort was 2.1‰, and it was 0.2‰ at the 1-year recall. The colposcopy performed in women referred at the 1-year recall accounted for 48.8% of the total (baseline + 1-year recall), and 84.3% of these women had no cytological lesions. The most frequent hr-HPV genotype detected was HPV16 and 66.7% of co-infections were due to HPV16 and HPV18. 54.5% of women presented a persistent infection at 1-year recall with the same HPV subtype, 50% of persistent infections was due to HPV16 and 16.7% of these were determined to be CIN2+ histological lesions. Our data show that it may be useful to extend the period of follow-up for women hr-HPV+/PapTest- so as to reduce the number of unnecessary colposcopies due to the transitory infections and that the genotyping test could help to identify the persistent infections in which HPV16 is involved. PMID:26884886

  15. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is Associated With Higher 1-year All-Cause Rehospitalization Rates in Patients Admitted for Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Valbusa, Filippo; Bonapace, Stefano; Grillo, Cristina; Scala, Luca; Chiampan, Andrea; Rossi, Andrea; Zoppini, Giacomo; Lonardo, Amedeo; Arcaro, Guido; Byrne, Christopher D; Targher, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Repeat hospitalization due to acute heart failure (HF) is a global public health problem that markedly impacts on health resource use. Identifying novel predictors of rehospitalization would help physicians to determine the optimal postdischarge plan for preventing HF rehospitalization. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging risk factor for many heart diseases, including HF. We assessed whether NAFLD at hospital admission predicts 1-year all-cause rehospitalization in patients with acute HF. We enrolled all patients consecutively admitted for acute HF to our General Medicine Division, from January 2013 to April 2014, after excluding patients with acute myocardial infarction, severe heart valve diseases, malignancy, known liver diseases, and those with volume overload related to extracardiac causes. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography and exclusion of competing etiologies. The primary outcome of the study was the 1-year all-cause rehospitalization rate. Among the 107 patients enrolled in the study, the cumulative rehospitalization rate was 12.1% at 1 month, 25.2% at 3 months, 29.9% at 6 months, and 38.3% at 1 year. Patients with NAFLD had markedly higher 1-year rehospitalization rates than those without NAFLD (58% vs 21% at 1 y; P < 0.001 by the log-rank test). Cox regression analysis revealed that NAFLD was associated with a 5.5-fold increased risk of rehospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio 5.56, 95% confidence interval 2.46-12.1, P < 0.001) after adjustment for multiple HF risk factors and potential confounders. In conclusion, NAFLD was independently associated with higher 1-year rehospitalization in patients hospitalized for acute HF. PMID:26886619

  16. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is Associated With Higher 1-year All-Cause Rehospitalization Rates in Patients Admitted for Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Valbusa, Filippo; Bonapace, Stefano; Grillo, Cristina; Scala, Luca; Chiampan, Andrea; Rossi, Andrea; Zoppini, Giacomo; Lonardo, Amedeo; Arcaro, Guido; Byrne, Christopher D.; Targher, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Repeat hospitalization due to acute heart failure (HF) is a global public health problem that markedly impacts on health resource use. Identifying novel predictors of rehospitalization would help physicians to determine the optimal postdischarge plan for preventing HF rehospitalization. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging risk factor for many heart diseases, including HF. We assessed whether NAFLD at hospital admission predicts 1-year all-cause rehospitalization in patients with acute HF. We enrolled all patients consecutively admitted for acute HF to our General Medicine Division, from January 2013 to April 2014, after excluding patients with acute myocardial infarction, severe heart valve diseases, malignancy, known liver diseases, and those with volume overload related to extracardiac causes. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography and exclusion of competing etiologies. The primary outcome of the study was the 1-year all-cause rehospitalization rate. Among the 107 patients enrolled in the study, the cumulative rehospitalization rate was 12.1% at 1 month, 25.2% at 3 months, 29.9% at 6 months, and 38.3% at 1 year. Patients with NAFLD had markedly higher 1-year rehospitalization rates than those without NAFLD (58% vs 21% at 1 y; P < 0.001 by the log-rank test). Cox regression analysis revealed that NAFLD was associated with a 5.5-fold increased risk of rehospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio 5.56, 95% confidence interval 2.46–12.1, P < 0.001) after adjustment for multiple HF risk factors and potential confounders. In conclusion, NAFLD was independently associated with higher 1-year rehospitalization in patients hospitalized for acute HF. PMID:26886619

  17. Clinical differences between opioid abuse classes ameliorated after 1 year of buprenorphine-medication assisted treatment.

    PubMed

    Tkacz, Joseph; Severt, Jamie; Kassed, Cheryl; Ruetsch, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the clinical and demographic profiles of three opioid-dependent user groups, and measured their response to 1 year of buprenorphine-medication assisted treatment. Opioid prescription, street, and combination (street + prescription) users completed the Addiction Severity Index multiple times over the course of one treatment year. Although groups differed on all measured demographics (P values <.05) and on six of seven Addiction Severity Index composite scores at induction (P values <.05), differences were ameliorated after 1 year. Findings highlight the disparities between the various opioid-dependent patient subpopulations and suggest that buprenorphine-medication assisted treatment is an effective treatment across user subtypes. PMID:22540432

  18. Iron shielded MRI optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, C. A.; Fabbri, M.

    1998-09-01

    The design of the main current systems of an actively shielded and of an iron shielded MRI device for nuclear resonance imaging, is considered. The model for the analysis of the magnetic induction produced by the current system, is based on the combination of a Boundary Element technique and of the integration of two Fredholm integral equations of the first and the second kind. The equivalent current magnetization model is used for the calculation of the magnetization produced by the iron shield. High field uniformity in a spherical region inside the device, and a low stray field in the neighborhood of the device are required. In order to meet the design requirements a multi-objective global minimization problem is solved. The minimization method is based on the combination of the filled function technique and the (1+1) evolution strategy algorithm. The multi-objective problem is treated by means of a penalty method. The actively shielded MRI system results to utilize larger amount of conductor and produce higher magnetic energy than the iron shield device. On veut étudier le projet du système des courants principaux d'un MRI à écran en fer et d'un MRI à écran actif. Le modèle d'analyse du champ magnétique produit par le système de courants est basé sur la combinaison d'une technique Boundary Element et de l'intégration de deux équations intégrales de Fredholm de première et de seconde sorte. On utilise pour calculer la magnétisation produite par l'écran en fer le modèle à cou rants de magné ti sa tion équivalents. On exige une élévation uniforme du champ dans une région sphérique au cœur de l'appareil et un bas champ magnétique dispersé à proximité de l'appareil. Dans le but de répondre aux impératifs du projet, on va résoudre un problème multiobjectif de minimisation globale. On utilise une technique de minimisation obtenue par la combinaison des méthodes “Filled Function” et “(1+1) Evolution Strategy”. Le probl

  19. Interval velocity analysis using wave field continuation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhusheng, Z. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author proposes a new interval velocity inversion method which, based on wave field continuation theory and fuzzy decision theory, uses CMP seismic gathers to automatically estimate interval velocity and two-way travel time in layered medium. The interval velocity calculated directly from wave field continuation is not well consistent with that derived from VSP data, the former is usually higher than the latter. Three major factors which influence the accuracy of interval velocity from wave field continuation are corrected, so that the two kinds of interval velocity are well consistent. This method brings better interval velocity, adapts weak reflection waves and resists noise well. It is a feasible method.

  20. Occupational exposure in MRI

    PubMed Central

    Mcrobbie, D W

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s−1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

  1. Capacitated max -Batching with Interval Graph Compatibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonner, Tim

    We consider the problem of partitioning interval graphs into cliques of bounded size. Each interval has a weight, and the weight of a clique is the maximum weight of any interval in the clique. This natural graph problem can be interpreted as a batch scheduling problem. Solving a long-standing open problem, we show NP-hardness, even if the bound on the clique sizes is constant. Moreover, we give a PTAS based on a novel dynamic programming technique for this case.

  2. A note on the path interval distance.

    PubMed

    Coons, Jane Ivy; Rusinko, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    The path interval distance accounts for global congruence between locally incongruent trees. We show that the path interval distance provides a lower bound for the nearest neighbor interchange distance. In contrast to the Robinson-Foulds distance, random pairs of trees are unlikely to be maximally distant from one another under the path interval distance. These features indicate that the path interval distance should play a role in phylogenomics where the comparison of trees on a fixed set of taxa is becoming increasingly important. PMID:27040521

  3. Cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for integrating MRI into breast cancer screening for women at high risk

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, C H; Shih, Y-C T; Dong, W; Parmigiani, G; Shen, Y

    2014-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended for women at high risk for breast cancer. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of alternative screening strategies involving MRI. Methods: Using a microsimulation model, we generated life histories under different risk profiles, and assessed the impact of screening on quality-adjusted life-years, and lifetime costs, both discounted at 3%. We compared 12 screening strategies combining annual or biennial MRI with mammography and clinical breast examination (CBE) in intervals of 0.5, 1, or 2 years vs without, and reported incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Results: Based on an ICER threshold of $100 000/QALY, the most cost-effective strategy for women at 25% lifetime risk was to stagger MRI and mammography plus CBE every year from age 30 to 74, yielding ICER $58 400 (compared to biennial MRI alone). At 50% lifetime risk and with 70% reduction in MRI cost, the recommended strategy was to stagger MRI and mammography plus CBE every 6 months (ICER=$84 400). At 75% lifetime risk, the recommended strategy is biennial MRI combined with mammography plus CBE every 6 months (ICER=$62 800). Conclusions: The high costs of MRI and its lower specificity are limiting factors for annual screening schedule of MRI, except for women at sufficiently high risk. PMID:25137022

  4. 1-year retention rates and performance ratings: comparing associate degree, baccalaureate, and accelerated baccalaureate degree nurses.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Suzanne M; Raleigh, Edith D Hunt

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine 1-year retention and managerial performance ratings of newly licensed RNs (NLRNs) according to nursing education program types (associate degree, traditional baccalaureate, and accelerated 2nd degree baccalaureate). Findings revealed retention and performance differences, suggesting the possibility of tradeoffs related to educational program type when selecting NLRNs for open positions. PMID:23958525

  5. Randomized Trial of a Gatekeeper Program for Suicide Prevention: 1-Year Impact on Secondary School Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Peter A.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Inman, Jeff; Cross, Wendi; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Guo, Jing; Pena, Juan B.

    2008-01-01

    Gatekeeper-training programs, designed to increase identification and referral of suicidal individuals, are widespread but largely untested. A group-based randomized trial with 32 schools examined impact of Question, Persuade, Refer (QPR) training on a stratified random sample of 249 staff with 1-year average follow-up. To test QPR impact, the…

  6. Thai Adolescent Survivors 1 Year after the 2004 Tsunami: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuicomepee, Arunya; Romano, John L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the 2004 Asian tsunami on 400 Thai adolescents 1 year after the disaster. Quantitative analyses showed that youth behavior problems were positively associated with tsunami experiences and negatively associated with positive family functioning. Tsunami exposure, school connectedness, religious beliefs and…

  7. The Stability and Structure of Career Decision-Making Profiles: A 1-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; Levin, Nimrod

    2012-01-01

    The Career Decision-Making Profile (CDMP) questionnaire is a multidimensional measure of the way individuals make career decisions, developed as an alternative to the single, most-dominant trait approach. Using a sample of freshmen students, the 2-week reliability (N = 273) and 1-year stability (N = 182) of the CDMP was tested for each of the 12…

  8. A Program To Promote Positive Body Image: A 1-Year Follow-Up Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVey, Gail L.; Davis, Ron

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of a program designed to promote body image satisfaction and prevent eating problems in young adolescent girls over a 1-year period. Found no program effect. Found instead, significant increases in body image satisfaction and decreases in eating problem scores over time for participants in both the prevention and…

  9. An Analysis of 1-Year Impacts of Youth Transition Demonstration Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraker, Thomas M.; Luecking, Richard G.; Mamun, Arif A.; Martinez, John M.; Reed, Deborah S.; Wittenburg, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of the Youth Transition Demonstration, an initiative of the Social Security Administration (SSA) to improve employment outcomes for youth with disabilities. Based on a random assignment design, the analysis uses data from a 1-year follow-up survey and SSA administrative records for 5,203 youth in six research…

  10. Participation as a leader in immersion weight loss treatment: a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L M; Schaumberg, K; Anderson, D A; Kirschenbaum, D S

    2016-02-01

    Non-overweight individuals may follow aggressive weight management approaches alongside overweight/obese friends or family members; thus, research has begun to evaluate subsequent effects among non-overweight populations. A prior study evaluated the short-term effects of an immersion weight loss programme on healthy young adult staff leaders. Results indicated that participation seemed to benefit, not harm, the young adults. The current investigation examined 1-year eating disorder and weight trajectories in this sample. The total sample (N = 244) consisted of staff leaders (44.3%) and demographically similar comparison participants who completed eating disorder and weight assessments across four time points: baseline, end of summer, 6-week follow-up and 1-year follow-up. Forty-seven per cent of the original sample responded to all time points (staff leaders n = 60; comparison n = 55). Over the course of 1 year, risk trajectories did not differ between groups. Staff leaders did not report significant changes in body mass index, suggesting that they maintained healthy weight over the course of 1 year. Participation as an immersion weight loss programme leader appeared to be protective against weight gain, without increasing eating disorder risk, for healthy young adults. This provides further support for using weight management interventions across a wide range of individuals. PMID:26638779

  11. A rare case of peripheral T-cell lymphoma in 1-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Kandakumar, Vignesh; Ganesan, Prasanth; Bajpai, Peush; Rajendranath, Rejiv; Tenali, Sagar; Majhi, Urmila; Sivaprakasam, Ponni

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) represents approximately 12% of lymphoid neoplasms. They are even rarer in children and represent only 1% of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in this age group. We report a case of PTCL in a 1-year-old female child for its rarity. PMID:22563159

  12. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: A 1-Year Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe an adapted version of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder. Method: The dialectical behavior therapy intervention is delivered over 1 year and consists of two modalities: family skills training (conducted with individual family units) and individual therapy. The acute treatment period (6 months)…

  13. Levels of Phonological Awareness in Korean and English: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined associations of levels of phonological awareness to word recognition in Korean and English in a 1-year longitudinal study of 91 children from Masan, Korea. With performances on tasks of speeded naming, vocabulary, and Korean Hangul in 2nd grade statistically controlled, only Korean syllable deletion predicted unique…

  14. Verbal Labels Modulate Perceptual Object Processing in 1-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliga, Teodora; Volein, Agnes; Csibra, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Whether verbal labels help infants visually process and categorize objects is a contentious issue. Using electroencephalography, we investigated whether possessing familiar or novel labels for objects directly enhances 1-year-old children's neural processes underlying the perception of those objects. We found enhanced gamma-band (20-60 Hz)…

  15. Latent Classes of Adolescent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Predict Functioning and Disorder after 1 Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayer, Lynsay; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Ruggiero, Ken; Saunders, Ben; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify latent classes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a national sample of adolescents, and to test their associations with PTSD and functional impairment 1 year later. Method: A total of 1,119 trauma-exposed youth aged 12 through 17 years (mean = 14.99 years, 51% female and 49% male) participating in the…

  16. Cardiovascular MRI with ferumoxytol.

    PubMed

    Finn, J P; Nguyen, K-L; Han, F; Zhou, Z; Salusky, I; Ayad, I; Hu, P

    2016-08-01

    The practice of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) has changed significantly in the span of a decade. Concerns regarding gadolinium (Gd)-associated nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in those with severely impaired renal function spurred developments in low-dose CEMRA and non-contrast MRA as well as efforts to seek alternative MR contrast agents. Originally developed for MR imaging use, ferumoxytol (an ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle), is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in adults with renal disease. Since its clinical availability in 2009, there has been rising interest in the scientific and clinical use of ferumoxytol as an MR contrast agent. The unique physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of ferumoxytol, including its long intravascular half-life and high r1 relaxivity, support a spectrum of MRI applications beyond the scope of Gd-based contrast agents. Moreover, whereas Gd is not found in biological systems, iron is essential for normal metabolism, and nutritional iron deficiency poses major public health challenges worldwide. Once the carbohydrate shell of ferumoxytol is degraded, the elemental iron at its core is incorporated into the reticuloendothelial system. These considerations position ferumoxytol as a potential game changer in the field of CEMRA and MRI. In this paper, we aim to summarise our experience with the cardiovascular applications of ferumoxytol and provide a brief synopsis of ongoing investigations on ferumoxytol-enhanced MR applications. PMID:27221526

  17. Spiritual absence and 1-year mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Deidre B; Christian, Lisa M; Patidar, Seema; Bishop, Michelle M; Dodd, Stacy M; Athanason, Rebecca; Wingard, John R; Reddy, Vijay S

    2010-08-01

    Religiosity and spirituality have been associated with better survival in large epidemiologic studies. This study examined the relationship between spiritual absence and 1-year all-cause mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Depression and problematic compliance were examined as possible mediators of a significant spiritual absence-mortality relationship. Eighty-five adults (mean = 46.85 years old, SD = 11.90 years) undergoing evaluation for allogeneic HSCT had routine psychologie evaluation prior to HSCT admission. The Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic was used to assess spiritual absence, depression, and problematic compliance, the psychosocial predictors of interest. Patient status at 1 year and survival time in days were abstracted from medical records. Cox regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the psychosocial factors of interest and mortality after adjusting for relevant biobehavioral factors. Twenty-nine percent (n = 25) of participants died within 1 year of HSCT. After covarying for disease type, individuals with the highest spiritual absence and problematic compliance scores were significantly more likely to die 1-year post-HSCT (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.49, P = .043 and HR = 3.74, P = .029, respectively), particularly secondary to infection, sepsis, or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (HR = 4.56, P = .01 and HR = 5.61, P = .014), relative to those without elevations on these scales. Depression was not associated with 1-year mortality, and problematic compliance did not mediate the relationship between spiritual absence and mortality. These preliminary results suggest that both spiritual absence and problematic compliance may be associated with poorer survival following HSCT. Future research should examine these relations in a larger sample using a more comprehensive assessment of spirituality. PMID:20227510

  18. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty with 1-year follow-up: factors predictive of success

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Nava, G.; Galvao, M.; Bautista-Castaño, I.; Fernandez-Corbelle, J. P.; Trell, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Bariatric endoscopy has emerged as an aid in the nonsurgical treatment of obesity. The objective of this study is to critically provide the results and follow-up of endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty 1 year after the procedure. Patients and methods: Prospective single-center follow-up study of 25 patients (5 men, 20 women) who underwent flexible endoscopic suturing for endoluminal gastric volume reduction. A multidisciplinary team provided post-procedure care. Patient outcomes were recorded at 1 year after the procedure. Linear regression analysis was done to evaluate the variables associated with best results at 1 year of follow-up. Results: Mean body mass index (BMI) was 38.5 ± 4.6 kg/m2 (range 30 – 47) and mean age 44.5 ± 8.2 years (range 29 – 60). At 1 year, 22 patients continued with the follow-up (2 dropped out at 6 months and 1 at 3 months). There were no major intra-procedural, early, or delayed adverse events. Mean BMI loss was 7.3 ± 4.2 kg/m2, and mean percentage of total body weight loss was 18.7 ± 10.7 at 1 year. In the linear regression analysis, adjusted by initial BMI, variables associated with %TBWL involved the frequency of nutritional (β = 0.563, P = 0.014) and psychological contacts (β = 0.727, P = 0.025). The number of nutritional and psychological contacts were predictive of good weight loss results. Conclusions: Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty is a feasible, reproducible, and effective procedure to treat obesity. Nutritional and psychological interaction are predictive of success. PMID:26878054

  19. Impact on Left Ventricular Function and Remodeling and on 1-Year Outcome in Patients With Left Bundle Branch Block After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Carrabba, Nazario; Valenti, Renato; Migliorini, Angela; Marrani, Marco; Cantini, Giulia; Parodi, Guido; Dovellini, Emilio Vincenzo; Antoniucci, David

    2015-07-01

    Conflicting results have been reported about the prognostic impact of left bundle branch block (LBBB) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of LBBB after TAVI on left ventricular (LV) function and remodeling and on 1-year outcomes. Of 101 TAVI patients, 9 were excluded. All complications were evaluated according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 definition. Of 92 patients, 34 developed LBBB without more advanced myocardial damage or inflammation biomarkers in comparison with patients without LBBB. The only predictor of new LBBB was larger baseline LV end-diastolic volume. LBBB plus advanced atrioventricular block was strongly correlated with permanent pacemaker implantation (p <0.0001). Patients with LBBB had a higher rate of permanent pacemaker implantation at 30 days (59% vs 19%, p <0.0001) and less recovery of LV systolic function and a trend toward a lower rate of LV reverse remodeling at 1 year. The development of acute kidney injury and the logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation score were associated with poor outcomes (all-cause mortality and heart failure) (hazard ratio 6.86, 95% confidence interval 2.51 to 18.74, p <0.0001, and hazard ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.08, p = 0.021, respectively), but not LBBB. In conclusion, after TAVI, 37% of patients developed new LBBB without more advanced myocardial damage or inflammation biomarkers. LBBB was associated with a higher rate of permanent pacemaker implantation, which negatively affected the recovery of LV systolic function. The development of acute kidney injury, rather than LBBB, increases the 1-year risk for mortality and hospitalization for heart failure. PMID:25937352

  20. Oahu Solar Measurement Grid (1-Year Archive): 1-Second Solar Irradiance; Oahu, Hawaii (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.

    2010-03-16

    Seventeen measurement stations in the south western region of the island of Oahu collected data at 1-second intervals over the course of a year. The sensors are located in a 1-kilometer grid and the information then can be used to predict what PV outputs might be at 1-second intervals for medium-sized and large PV systems. This DOE-funded study by NREL supports the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI), a multifaceted program to substantially increase the use of renewable energy in Hawaii.

  1. Interval and Contour Processing in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    High functioning children with autism and age and intelligence matched controls participated in experiments testing perception of pitch intervals and musical contours. The finding from the interval study showed superior detection of pitch direction over small pitch distances in the autism group. On the test of contour discrimination no group…

  2. Optimal Approximation of Quadratic Interval Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshelev, Misha; Taillibert, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Measurements are never absolutely accurate, as a result, after each measurement, we do not get the exact value of the measured quantity; at best, we get an interval of its possible values, For dynamically changing quantities x, the additional problem is that we cannot measure them continuously; we can only measure them at certain discrete moments of time t(sub 1), t(sub 2), ... If we know that the value x(t(sub j)) at a moment t(sub j) of the last measurement was in the interval [x-(t(sub j)), x + (t(sub j))], and if we know the upper bound D on the rate with which x changes, then, for any given moment of time t, we can conclude that x(t) belongs to the interval [x-(t(sub j)) - D (t - t(sub j)), x + (t(sub j)) + D (t - t(sub j))]. This interval changes linearly with time, an is, therefore, called a linear interval function. When we process these intervals, we get an expression that is quadratic and higher order w.r.t. time t, Such "quadratic" intervals are difficult to process and therefore, it is necessary to approximate them by linear ones. In this paper, we describe an algorithm that gives the optimal approximation of quadratic interval functions by linear ones.

  3. SINGLE-INTERVAL GAS PERMEABILITY ESTIMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Single-interval, steady-steady-state gas permeability testing requires estimation of pressure at a screened interval which in turn requires measurement of friction factors as a function of mass flow rate. Friction factors can be obtained by injecting air through a length of pipe...

  4. MRI and ultrasonography in Morton's neuroma: Diagnostic accuracy and correlation

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Claramunt, R; Ginés, A; Pidemunt, G; Puig, Ll; de Zabala, S

    2012-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of Morton's neuroma is based primarily on clinical findings. Ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) studies are considered complementary diagnostic techniques. The aim of this study was to establish the correlation and sensitivity of both techniques used to diagnose Morton's neuroma. Materials and Methods: Thirty seven patients (43 intermetatarsal spaces) with Morton's neuroma operated were retrospectively reviewed. In all cases MRI or ultrasound was performed to complement clinical diagnosis of Morton's neuroma. In all cases, a histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Estimates of sensitivity were made and correlation (kappa statistics) was assessed for both techniques. Results: Twenty seven women and 10 men participated with a mean age of 60 years. Double lesions presented in six patients. The second intermetatarsal space was affected in 10 patients and the third in 33 patients. An MRI was performed in 41 cases and a US in 23 cases. In 21 patients, both an MRI and a US were performed. With regard to the 41 MRIs performed, 34 were positive for Morton's neuroma and 7 were negative. MRI sensitivity was 82.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.679–0.929]. Thirteen out of 23 US performed were positive and 10 US were negative. US sensitivity was 56.5% (95% CI: 0.345–0.768). Relative to the 21 patients on whom both techniques were carried out, the agreement between both techniques was poor (kappa statistics 0.31). Conclusion: Although ancillary studies may be required to confirm the clinical diagnosis in some cases, they are probably not necessary for the diagnosis of Morton's neuroma. MRI had a higher sensitivity than US and should be considered the technique of choice in those cases. However, a negative result does not exclude the diagnosis (false negative 17%). PMID:22719120

  5. Comparison of CT and MRI in Diagnosis of Laryngeal Carcinoma with Anterior Vocal Commissure Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian-hui; Zhao, Jing; Li, Zeng-hong; Yang, Wei-qiang; Liu, Qi-hong; Yang, Zhi-yun; Liao, Bing; Li, Xiao-ling; Wang, Bin; Qin, Hao; Luo, Jie; Lv, Ke-xing; Wen, Wei-ping; Lei, Wen-bin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the accuracy of CT and MRI in determining the invasion of thyroid cartilage by and the T staging of laryngeal carcinoma with anterior vocal commissure (AVC) involvement. A total of 26 cases of laryngeal carcinomas with AVC involvement from May 2012 to January 2014 underwent enhanced CT and MRI scan, out of whom 6 patients also underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging(DWI). T staging and thyroid cartilage involvement were evaluated. All the surgical specimens underwent serial section and were reviewed by two senior pathologists independently. When compared with pathologic staging, the accuracy was 88.46% (23/26) of MRI scan (with a 95% confidence interval 37~77%) and 57.69% (15/26) of CT scan (with a 95% confidence interval 70~98%), respectively (P < 0.01). We also reported three cases who were misdiagnosed on CT or MRI about either the thyroid cartilage was involved or not, and one case of preliminary study of DWI. Compared to CT, MRI exhibited a higher accuracy rate on T staging of laryngeal carcinomas with AVC involvement. Combined utility of CT and MRI could help improve the accuracy of assessment of thyroid cartilage involvement and T staging of laryngeal carcinomas with AVC involvement. PMID:27480073

  6. Interval colorectal carcinoma: An unsolved debate.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Mark; Galvao Neto, Antonio; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-12-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC), as the third most common new cancer diagnosis, poses a significant health risk to the population. Interval CRCs are those that appear after a negative screening test or examination. The development of interval CRCs has been shown to be multifactorial: location of exam-academic institution versus community hospital, experience of the endoscopist, quality of the procedure, age of the patient, flat versus polypoid neoplasia, genetics, hereditary gastrointestinal neoplasia, and most significantly missed or incompletely excised lesions. The rate of interval CRCs has decreased in the last decade, which has been ascribed to an increased understanding of interval disease and technological advances in the screening of high risk individuals. In this article, we aim to review the literature with regard to the multifactorial nature of interval CRCs and provide the most recent developments regarding this important gastrointestinal entity. PMID:26668498

  7. Constructing Confidence Intervals for Qtl Location

    PubMed Central

    Mangin, B.; Goffinet, B.; Rebai, A.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a method for constructing the confidence interval of the QTL location parameter. This method is developed in the local asymptotic framework, leading to a linear model at each position of the putative QTL. The idea is to construct a likelihood ratio test, using statistics whose asymptotic distribution does not depend on the nuisance parameters and in particular on the effect of the QTL. We show theoretical properties of the confidence interval built with this test, and compare it with the classical confidence interval using simulations. We show in particular, that our confidence interval has the correct probability of containing the true map location of the QTL, for almost all QTLs, whereas the classical confidence interval can be very biased for QTLs having small effect. PMID:7896108

  8. Interval colorectal carcinoma: An unsolved debate

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Mark; Neto, Antonio Galvao; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC), as the third most common new cancer diagnosis, poses a significant health risk to the population. Interval CRCs are those that appear after a negative screening test or examination. The development of interval CRCs has been shown to be multifactorial: location of exam-academic institution versus community hospital, experience of the endoscopist, quality of the procedure, age of the patient, flat versus polypoid neoplasia, genetics, hereditary gastrointestinal neoplasia, and most significantly missed or incompletely excised lesions. The rate of interval CRCs has decreased in the last decade, which has been ascribed to an increased understanding of interval disease and technological advances in the screening of high risk individuals. In this article, we aim to review the literature with regard to the multifactorial nature of interval CRCs and provide the most recent developments regarding this important gastrointestinal entity. PMID:26668498

  9. Fast Dixon Whole-Body MRI for Detecting Distant Cancer Metastasis: A Preliminary Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Costelloe, Colleen M.; Kundra, Vikas; Ma, Jingfei; Chasen, Beth A.; Rohren, Eric M.; Bassett, Roland L.; Madewell, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of fast Dixon whole-body (WB) MRI for detecting bone and liver metastasis in clinical patients and to compare its performance with skeletal scintigraphy (SS) for detecting bone metastases using reference imaging with > 1 year followup as gold standard. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine patients with bone metastases prospectively underwent WB MRI and SS. WB MRI included coronal T2, axial T1 with and without intravenous gadolinium (including triphasic liver sequences), and axial diffusion-weighted imaging, plus spinal sagittal post-contrast T1-weighted images. The skeleton was divided into 16 segments. Reviewers blinded to other images identified up to 5 lesions per segment and rated them using a five-point confidence scale for metastatic disease. Sensitivities and specificities were compared using the McNemar test. Results The sensitivity of WB MRI and SS in detecting bone metastases was 70.8% and 59.6% (P = 0.003), respectively; specificity was 89.1% and 98.7% (P < 0.0001). WB MRI detected all livers with metastases (n= 8). One focal nodular hyperplasia was classified as a metastasis on WB MRI. Conclusion Fast Dixon WB MRI is feasible in clinical patients, highly specific and more sensitive than SS in detecting bone metastases, and can detect metastases of the liver. PMID:21990095

  10. Early Neuropsychological Tests as Correlates of Productivity 1 Year after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Won Hyung A.; Cullen, Nora K.; Bayley, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relative strength of five neuropsychological tests in correlating with productivity 1 year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Six moderate-to-severe TBI patients who returned to work at 1-year post-injury were matched with six controls who were unemployed after 1 year based on age, severity of injury, and Functional…

  11. CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AND STANDARD ERROR INTERVALS: WHAT DO THEY MEAN IN TERMS OF STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigate the use of confidence intervals and standard error intervals to draw conclusions regarding tests of hypotheses about normal population means. Mathematical expressions and algebraic manipulations are given, and computer simulations are performed to assess the usefulness of confidence ...

  12. Less is still more: maintenance of the very brief exposure effect 1 year later.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Paul; Warren, Richard

    2013-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that an immediate effect of exposure to masked phobic stimuli on avoidance of the corresponding feared object would be maintained 1 year later. Fifty-three spider-phobic participants were identified with a questionnaire and a Behavioral Avoidance Test (BAT) with a live tarantula. One week later, they were administered 1 of 3 types of exposure: very brief (25-ms, masked) or clearly visible (125-ms, unmasked) images of spiders, or very brief images of flowers. They engaged in the BAT again immediately thereafter. One year later, they returned for a follow-up BAT. The immediate effect of exposure to very brief spiders on reducing avoidance of the tarantula was still evident 1 year later. Endurance of an effect by masked stimuli of this duration has not been reported before. Potential theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:23527506

  13. MRI of plants and foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van As, Henk; van Duynhoven, John

    2013-04-01

    The importance and prospects for MRI as applied to intact plants and to foods are presented in view of one of humanity's most pressing concerns, the sustainable and healthy feeding of a worldwide increasing population. Intact plants and foods have in common that their functionality is determined by complex multiple length scale architectures. Intact plants have an additional level of complexity since they are living systems which critically depend on transport and signalling processes between and within tissues and organs. The combination of recent cutting-edge technical advances and integration of MRI accessible parameters has the perspective to contribute to breakthroughs in understanding complex regulatory plant performance mechanisms. In food science and technology MRI allows for quantitative multi-length scale structural assessment of food systems, non-invasive monitoring of heat and mass transport during shelf-life and processing, and for a unique view on food properties under shear. These MRI applications are powerful enablers of rationally (re)designed food formulations and processes. Limitations and bottlenecks of the present plant and food MRI methods are mainly related to short T2 values and susceptibility artefacts originating from small air spaces in tissues/materials. We envisage cross-fertilisation of solutions to overcome these hurdles in MRI applications in plants and foods. For both application areas we witness a development where MRI is moving from highly specialised equipment to mobile and downscaled versions to be used by a broad user base in the field, greenhouse, food laboratory or factory.

  14. fMRI adaptation revisited.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Jonas; Solomon, Samuel G; Kohn, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Adaptation has been widely used in functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) studies to infer neuronal response properties in human cortex. fMRI adaptation has been criticized because of the complex relationship between fMRI adaptation effects and the multiple neuronal effects that could underlie them. Many of the longstanding concerns about fMRI adaptation have received empirical support from neurophysiological studies over the last decade. We review these studies here, and also consider neuroimaging studies that have investigated how fMRI adaptation effects are influenced by high-level perceptual processes. The results of these studies further emphasize the need to interpret fMRI adaptation results with caution, but they also provide helpful guidance for more accurate interpretation and better experimental design. In addition, we argue that rather than being used as a proxy for measurements of neuronal stimulus selectivity, fMRI adaptation may be most useful for studying population-level adaptation effects across cortical processing hierarchies. PMID:26703375

  15. Results with SynCardia total artificial heart beyond 1 year.

    PubMed

    Torregrossa, Gianluca; Morshuis, Michiel; Varghese, Robin; Hosseinian, Leila; Vida, Vladimiro; Tarzia, Vincenzo; Loforte, Antonio; Duveau, Daniel; Arabia, Francisco; Leprince, Pascal; Kasirajan, Vigneshwa; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Musumeci, Francesco; Hetzer, Roland; Krabatsch, Thoamas; Gummert, Jan; Copeland, Jack; Gerosa, Gino

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support devices have been increasingly used for long-term support. We reviewed outcomes in all patients supported with a SynCardia total artificial heart (TAH) for more than 1 year to assess its safety in long-term support. As of December 2011, all 47 patients who received the TAH from 10 centers worldwide were included in this retrospective study. Clinical data were collected on survival, infections, thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events, device failures, and antithrombotic therapy. The mean age of patients was 50 ± 1.57 years, the median support time was 554 days (range 365-1373 days). The primary diagnosis was dilated cardiomiopathy in 23 patients, ischemic in 15, and "other" in 9. After a minimum of 1 year of support, 34 patients (72%) were successfully transplanted, 12 patients (24%) died while on device support, and 1 patient (2%) is still supported. Five patients (10%) had a device failure reported. Major complications were as follows: systemic infections in 25 patients (53%), driveline infections in 13 patients (27%), thromboembolic events in 9 patients (19%), and hemorrhagic events in 7 patients (14%). SynCardia TAH has proven to be a reliable and effective device in replacing the entire heart. In patients who reached a minimum of 1 year of support, device failure rate is acceptable and only in two cases was the leading cause of death. Infections and hemorrhagic events were the major causes of death. Patients who remain supported beyond 1 year are still likely to survive to transplantation. PMID:25158888

  16. Cognitive and affective assessment in day care versus institutionalized elderly patients: a 1-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Maseda, Ana; Balo, Aránzazu; Lorenzo–López, Laura; Lodeiro–Fernández, Leire; Rodríguez–Villamil, José Luis; Millán–Calenti, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cognitive decline and depression are two common mental health problems that may create a need for long-term care among the elderly. In the last decade, the percentage of older adults who receive health care in nursing homes, day care centers, or home support services has increased in Europe. The objectives of this descriptive and nonrandomized longitudinal study were to evaluate and to compare the cognitive and affective evolution of day care versus institutionalized older patients through a 1-year period, and to assess the presence of cognitive and affective impairment as a function of the care setting. Patients and methods Ninety-four patients were assessed at baseline, and 63 (67.0%) were reassessed 1 year later. Neuropsychological assessment included measures of cognitive performance (general cognitive status, visuospatial, and language abilities) and affective status (depressive symptoms). Results Our findings indicated that the majority of the participants (day care and institutionalized patients) had mild–moderate cognitive impairment at baseline, which significantly increased in both groups after 1-year follow-up. However, the rate of change in global cognitive function did not significantly differ between groups over time. Regarding language abilities, naming function maintained among day care patients in comparison with institutionalized patients, who showed worse performance at follow-up. As regards to affective status, results revealed that institutionalized patients had a significant reduction in depressive symptoms at follow-up, when compared to day care patients. Results also highlight the high frequency of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms regardless of the care setting. Conclusion Our findings revealed a similar global cognitive decline rate between patients receiving day care services and those residing in a nursing home at the 1-year follow-up, and slightly different trajectories in other outcomes such as naming function and

  17. Increased 1-year survival and discharge to independent living in overweight hip fracture patients.

    PubMed

    Flodin, Lena; Laurin, Agnes; Lökk, Johan; Cederholm, Tommy; Hedström, Margareta

    2016-04-01

    Background and purpose - Hip fracture patients usually have low body mass index (BMI), and suffer further postoperative catabolism. How BMI relates to outcome in relatively healthy hip fracture patients is not well investigated. We investigated the association between BMI, survival, and independent living 1 year postoperatively. Patients and methods - This prospective multicenter study involved 843 patients with a hip fracture (mean age 82 (SD 7) years, 73% women), without severe cognitive impairment and living independently before admission. We investigated the relationship between BMI and both 1-year mortality and ability to return to independent living. Results - Patients with BMI > 26 had a lower mortality rate than those with BMI < 22 and those with BMI 22-26 (6%, 16%, and 18% respectively; p = 0.006). The odds ratio (OR) for 1-year survival in the group with BMI > 26 was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2-5.5) after adjustment for age, sex, and physical status. Patients with BMI > 26 were also more likely to return to independent living after the hip fracture (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.4-5.0). Patients with BMI < 22 had similar mortality and a similar likelihood of independent living to those with BMI 22-26. Interpretation - In this selected group of patients with hip fracture, the overweight and obese patients (BMI > 26) had a higher survival rate at 1 year, and returned to independent living to a higher degree than those of normal (healthy) weight. The obesity paradox and the recommendations for optimal BMI need further consideration in patients with hip fracture. PMID:26986549

  18. A Simple Tool to Predict ESRD Within 1 Year in Elderly Patients with Advanced CKD

    PubMed Central

    Drawz, Paul E.; Goswami, Puja; Azem, Reem; Babineau, Denise C.; Rahman, Mahboob

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in older patients; currently, no tools are available to predict the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within 1 year. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a model to predict the 1 year risk for ESRD in elderly subjects with advanced CKD. DESIGN Retrospective study SETTING Veterans Affairs Medical Center PARTICIPANTS Patients over 65 years of age with CKD with an estimated (eGFR) less than 30mL/min/1.73m2. MEASUREMENTS The outcome was ESRD within 1 year of the index eGFR. Cox regression was used to develop a predictive model (VA risk score) which was validated in a separate cohort. RESULTS Of the 1,866 patients in the developmental cohort, 77 developed ESRD. Risk factors for ESRD in the final model were age, congestive heart failure, systolic blood pressure, eGFR, potassium, and albumin. In the validation cohort, the C index for the VA risk score was 0.823. The risk for developing ESRD at 1 year from lowest to highest tertile was 0.08%, 2.7%, and 11.3% (P<0.001). The C-index for the recently published Tangri model in the validation cohort was 0.780. CONCLUSION A new model using commonly available clinical measures shows excellent ability to predict the onset of ESRD within the next year in elderly subjects. Additionally, the Tangri model had very good predictive ability. Patients and physicians can use these risk models to inform decisions regarding preparation for renal replacement therapy in patients with advanced CKD. PMID:23617782

  19. Increased 1-year survival and discharge to independent living in overweight hip fracture patients

    PubMed Central

    Flodin, Lena; Laurin, Agnes; Lökk, Johan; Cederholm, Tommy; Hedström, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Hip fracture patients usually have low body mass index (BMI), and suffer further postoperative catabolism. How BMI relates to outcome in relatively healthy hip fracture patients is not well investigated. We investigated the association between BMI, survival, and independent living 1 year postoperatively. Patients and methods — This prospective multicenter study involved 843 patients with a hip fracture (mean age 82 (SD 7) years, 73% women), without severe cognitive impairment and living independently before admission. We investigated the relationship between BMI and both 1-year mortality and ability to return to independent living. Results — Patients with BMI > 26 had a lower mortality rate than those with BMI < 22 and those with BMI 22–26 (6%, 16%, and 18% respectively; p = 0.006). The odds ratio (OR) for 1-year survival in the group with BMI > 26 was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2–5.5) after adjustment for age, sex, and physical status. Patients with BMI > 26 were also more likely to return to independent living after the hip fracture (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.4–5.0). Patients with BMI < 22 had similar mortality and a similar likelihood of independent living to those with BMI 22–26. Interpretation — In this selected group of patients with hip fracture, the overweight and obese patients (BMI > 26) had a higher survival rate at 1 year, and returned to independent living to a higher degree than those of normal (healthy) weight. The obesity paradox and the recommendations for optimal BMI need further consideration in patients with hip fracture. PMID:26986549

  20. Percutaneous coronary intervention in the elderly: procedural success and 1-year outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eckart, Robert E; Shry, Eric A; Simpson, Daniel E; Stajduhar, Karl C

    2003-01-01

    Clinical trials have found increased morbidity in elderly persons presenting for percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic stable angina. Long-term follow-up is limited for the elderly following percutaneous coronary intervention. The authors reviewed all coronary interventions performed from January 1998 to August 2001. One year following the procedure, subjects were screened for death, need for revascularization, and myocardial infarction. There were 401 subjects aged >/=65 years (mean 73.4+/-6.0 years) and 479 subjects aged <65 years (mean 55.6+/-6.7 years). Although there was no difference in 1-year rate of subsequent myocardial infarction or in revascularization, the elderly were more likely to die during hospitalization (4.7% vs. 1.0%, p<0.01), and at 1 year (10.2% vs. 4.0%, p<0.01). When controlled for ejection fraction, age was no longer significant in either predischarge mortality or in 1-year mortality. Excess postpercutaneous coronary intervention mortality in the elderly may be due to underlying comorbidities and not due to subsequent myocardial infarction or revascularization. PMID:14610387

  1. Infants under 1 year of age have a significant risk of burn injury.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dai Q A; Tobin, Sean; Dickson, William A; Potokar, Tom S

    2008-09-01

    A wealth of data exists concerning paediatric burn epidemiology in general, but very little exists specifically in infants under 1 year of age, a special group in which mobility begins to develop. A retrospective study of all burn admissions of infants under 1 year old to The Welsh Centre for Burns from January 2003 to January 2006 was performed. During the 3-year period there were 104 new burns cases identified which represents 11.8% of all paediatric admissions. 63.5% (66) were treated as inpatients and 36.5% (38) treated as out-patients. Burns increased in frequency with increasing age and occurred mainly in the home. Scalds were the commonest type of burn in 65% (68) whilst the second most common was contact burns which accounted for 30% (31). The most common source of scald was from cups containing hot drinks (39%) and the most common source of contact burn was radiators/hot water pipes (30%). The mean TBSA was 2.3%, (range 0.5-38%). The frequency of burns in the under 1 year old population highlights a need for emphasis of burn prevention directed to this group. Special attention is needed to look at the specific aetiology of these burns. Starting points for prevention should address the number of burns surrounding hot drinks and bottle warming practices in the case of scalds and the dangers of household radiators and hot water pipes in the case of contact burns. PMID:18378092

  2. Corneal Biomechanical and Anterior Chamber Parameters Variations after 1-year of Transepithelial Corneal Collagen Cross-linking in Eyes of Children with Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Abdelrahman Gaber

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the changes in corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) 1-year following transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) treatment in eyes of children with keratoconus. Methods: This case series was conducted in 22 eyes of 22 children. Children aged < 18 years with progressive keratoconus were included. They were treated with transepithelial CXL. Corneal biomechanical and anterior chamber parameters such as CH, CRF, and peak 1 were noted using ocular response analyzer, Pentacam, intraocular lens master, and anterior segment optical coherence tomography before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Results: Our series had 22 eyes of 22 children with a mean age 15.7 ± 2.1 years. The CH and CRF 1-year after treatment declined (difference of mean 0.1 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04–0.24), P = 0.2] and (difference of mean 0.1 mmHg [95% CI 0.04–0.30], P = 0.3), respectively. Peak 1 and peak 2 increased (difference of mean 0.1 mmHg [95% CI 0.006–0.008], P = 0.2) and (difference of mean 0.1 mmHg [95% CI 0.007–0.006], P = 0.3), respectively. The uncorrected distance visual acuity improved from 0.95 ± 0.34 logMAR to 0.68 ± 0.45 logMAR (P < 0.05). No statistically significant changes during 12 months follow-up were observed in axial length, corneal volume, anterior chamber volume, and anterior chamber depth (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Transepithelial CXL in keratoconus in pediatric age group seems to have good stability in corneal biomechanical parameters after 1-year. Further studies with a larger sample and better study design are recommended to confirm our findings. PMID:26957852

  3. Troponin T in Prediction of Culprit Lesion Coronary Artery Disease and 1-Year Major Adverse Cerebral and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Zeus, Tobias; Ketterer, Ulrike; Leuf, Daniela; Dannenberg, Lisa; Wagstaff, Rabea; Bönner, Florian; Gliem, Michael; Jander, Sebastian; Kelm, Malte; Polzin, Amin

    2016-06-01

    Troponin T (TnT) elevation above the 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL) is considered diagnostic of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Non-specific increases of TnT are frequent in acute stroke patients. However, in these patients, correct diagnosis of MI is crucial because the antithrombotic medications used to treat acute MI might be harmful and produce intracranial bleeding. In this study, we aimed to associate enhanced TnT levels defined by different cutoff values with occurrence of culprit lesion coronary artery disease (CAD) as well as 1-year major adverse cerebral and cardiovascular events (MACCEs). In this cohort study, we investigated 84 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and concomitant MI. TnT levels were measured using a fourth-generation TnT assay. The incidence of culprit lesion CAD was determined by coronary angiography. MACCEs were recorded during 1-year follow-up. Culprit lesion CAD occurred in 55 % of patients, and 1-year MACCE in 37 %. TnT levels above the manufacturers' provided 99th URL (TnT > 0.01) were not associated with culprit lesion CAD (relative risk [RR], 1.3; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.8; P = 0.09). Slightly increased cutoff level (TnT > 0.03) increased specificity and was associated with culprit lesion CAD without decreasing sensitivity (RR, 1.5; 95 % CI 1.1-2.2; P = 0.021) and 1-year MACCE (RR, 1.7; 95 % CI 1.3-2.3; P < 0.001). Slightly increasement of the TnT cutoff level predicted MACCEs and is superior in prediction of culprit lesion CAD in stroke patients without being less sensitive. This finding has to be confirmed in large-scale clinical trials. PMID:26899027

  4. Physiology and its Importance for Reference Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Sikaris, Kenneth A

    2014-01-01

    Reference intervals are ideally defined on apparently healthy individuals and should be distinguished from clinical decision limits that are derived from known diseased patients. Knowledge of physiological changes is a prerequisite for understanding and developing reference intervals. Reference intervals may differ for various subpopulations because of differences in their physiology, most obviously between men and women, but also in childhood, pregnancy and the elderly. Changes in laboratory measurements may be due to various physiological factors starting at birth including weaning, the active toddler, immunological learning, puberty, pregnancy, menopause and ageing. The need to partition reference intervals is required when there are significant physiological changes that need to be recognised. It is important that laboratorians are aware of these changes otherwise reference intervals that attempt to cover a widened inter-individual variability may lose their usefulness. It is virtually impossible for any laboratory to directly develop reference intervals for each of the physiological changes that are currently known, however indirect techniques can be used to develop or validate reference intervals in some difficult situations such as those for children. Physiology describes our life’s journey, and it is only when we are familiar with that journey that we can appreciate a pathological departure. PMID:24659833

  5. Interval Estimates of Multivariate Effect Sizes: Coverage and Interval Width Estimates under Variance Heterogeneity and Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Melinda R.; Hogarty, Kristine Y.; Ferron, John M.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods were used to examine techniques for constructing confidence intervals around multivariate effect sizes. Using interval inversion and bootstrapping methods, confidence intervals were constructed around the standard estimate of Mahalanobis distance (D[superscript 2]), two bias-adjusted estimates of D[superscript 2], and Huberty's…

  6. MRI Meets MPI: a bimodal MPI-MRI tomograph.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Patrick; Lother, Steffen; Rückert, Martin A; Kullmann, Walter H; Jakob, Peter M; Fidler, Florian; Behr, Volker C

    2014-10-01

    While magnetic particle imaging (MPI) constitutes a novel biomedical imaging technique for tracking superparamagnetic nanoparticles in vivo, unlike magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it cannot provide anatomical background information. Until now these two modalities have been performed in separate scanners and image co-registration has been hampered by the need to reposition the sample in both systems as similarly as possible. This paper presents a bimodal MPI-MRI-tomograph that combines both modalities in a single system.MPI and MRI images can thus be acquired without moving the sample or replacing any parts in the setup. The images acquired with the presented setup show excellent agreement between the localization of the nanoparticles in MPI and the MRI background data. A combination of two highly complementary imaging modalities has been achieved. PMID:25291350

  7. Breast MRI: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Day, Deborah

    2009-12-01

    In 2007, the American Cancer Society published guidelines for using breast MRI to screen women who were at high risk for breast cancer. Although breast MRI, which is typically used as an adjunctto mammography, is highly sensitive for detecting breast cancers, its use is somewhat controversial for a number of reasons including its cost and lack of specificity. This article describes the indications for breast MRI and discusses the pros and cons of using it to screen women for cancer and evaluate the extent of disease in women who are newly diagnosed. PMID:20092173

  8. Importance of QT interval in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ambhore, Anand; Teo, Swee-Guan; Bin Omar, Abdul Razakjr; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2014-12-01

    Long QT interval is an important finding that is often missed by electrocardiogram interpreters. Long QT syndrome (inherited and acquired) is a potentially lethal cardiac channelopathy that is frequently mistaken for epilepsy. We present a case of long QT syndrome with multiple cardiac arrests presenting as syncope and seizures. The long QTc interval was aggravated by hypomagnesaemia and drugs, including clarithromycin and levofloxacin. Multiple drugs can cause prolongation of the QT interval, and all physicians should bear this in mind when prescribing these drugs. PMID:25630313

  9. Short Interval Leaf Movements of Cotton 12

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Charles S.

    1975-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Lankart plants exhibited three different types of independent short interval leaf movements which were superimposed on the circadian movements. The different types were termed SIRV (short interval rhythmical vertical), SIHM (short interval horizontal movements), and SHAKE (short stroked SIRV). The 36-minute period SIRV movements occurred at higher moisture levels. The 176-minute period SIHM occurred at lower moisture levels and ceased as the stress increased. The SHAKE movements were initiated with further stresses. The SLEEP (circadian, diurnal) movements ceased with further stress. The last to cease just prior to permanent wilting were the SHAKE movements. PMID:16659123

  10. Remembering September 11th: the role of retention interval and rehearsal on flashbulb and event memory.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Lauren R

    2006-02-01

    Retention interval and rehearsal effects on flashbulb and event memory for 11th September 2001 (9/11) were examined. In Experiment 1, college students were assessed three times (Groups 1 and 2) or once (Group 3) over 11 weeks. In Experiment 2, three new groups assessed initially at 23 weeks (Group 4), 1 year (Group 5), or 2 years (Group 6) were compared at 1 year and at 2 years with subsamples of those assessed previously. No effects of retention interval length or rehearsal were found for flashbulb memory, which contained details at each assessment. Event memory, but not consistency, was detrimentally affected by long retention intervals, but improved with rehearsal. Recall was higher for the reception event than for the main events. Also, consistency from 1 day to 11 weeks, but not 1 year to 2 years, was higher for flashbulb memory than for event memory. Event recall was enhanced when respondents conceived of their memory as vivid, frozen, and encompassing a longer period of time. Positive correlations were found for event memory with confidence in accuracy and with rehearsal through discussion at 2 years. PMID:16484105

  11. Changes in Candida spp., mutans streptococci and lactobacilli following treatment of early childhood caries: a 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Klinke, T; Urban, M; Lück, C; Hannig, C; Kuhn, M; Krämer, N

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is closely related to high numbers of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida albicans. Oral colonization of these microorganisms was monitored in a prospective clinical study in order to investigate the effect of comprehensive treatment under general anesthesia and the sustainability of microbial changes. Saliva samples were collected from 50 healthy infants with ECC before and in regular intervals up to 12 months after treatment. Microorganisms were detected by cultivation on selective agars (CRT® bacteria and Sabouraud/CandiSelect™) and scored. Additionally, plaque on upper front teeth and the dmft were recorded. Parents were repeatedly interviewed regarding the children's diet and oral hygiene, accompanied by corresponding advice. Plaque frequency and the numbers of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and yeasts were significantly reduced as a result of treatment (p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon test). Nevertheless, this effect was not permanent. An ordinal regression model on the follow-up period revealed that the odds for bacteria and yeasts to reach a higher score increased linearly over time (p < 0.01) with an odds ratio of 2.244 per year. One third (34%) of the children developed new dentinal lesions within 1 year postoperatively. High scores of lactobacilli before treatment predicted caries relapse (p < 0.05). Nutritional and oral hygiene habits changed only slightly despite advising. Elimination and restoration of ECC lesions under general anesthesia proved to be an effective procedure in reducing cariogenic bacteria and yeasts. A satisfactory and sustainable success, however, could be achieved neither regarding microbiologic parameters nor with respect to the relapse rate. More suitable strategies are needed. PMID:24216710

  12. Effect of Telmisartan on Histological Activity and Fibrosis of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis: A 1-Year Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Shahinul; Kabir, Jahangir; Mustafa, Golam; Gupta, UtpalDas; Hasan, SKMNazmul; Alam, AKMKhorshed

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Telmisartan can attenuate two hit pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aimed to observe the effect of Telmisartan on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score (NAS) and fibrosis score in NASH patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 NASH patients were randomized; 35 of group 1 were treated with Telmisartan 40/80 mg once daily with life style modification (TL) and 15 of group 2 underwent only life style modification (L) for 1 year. At the end, 20 of TL group and 10 of L group were analyzed. Those who showed NAS improvement ≥ 2 or NAS improvement ≥ 1 with fibrosis improvement ≥ 1 were considered as responders. Results: Baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), insulin resistance index, components of metabolic syndrome, age, and sex were similar in both groups. At the end of study, NAS improvement in TL and L groups was 2.15 ± 1.66 and 1.10 ± 0.57 (P = 0.017) and fibrosis improvement was 0.65 ± 0.93 and –0.30 ± 0.48 (P = 0.001), respectively. NAS improved by ≥ 2 in 13 (65%) and 2 (20%) patients and fibrosis score improved by ≥ 1 in 8 (40%) patients and none of the patients in TL group and L group, respectively. Telmisartan and life style modification could improve steatosis, ballooning, lobular inflammation, and fibrosis. Life style modification could improve ballooning only, but fibrosis deteriorated. TL group showed improvement in NAS and fibrosis score [P value: 0.035; odds ratio (OR) =92.07, confidence interval (CI) =1.39–6106] to the level of response by regression analysis. Weight reduction and improvement of metabolic syndrome did not influence the response. There were similar minor adverse events in both groups. Conclusion: Telmisartan improved NAS and fibrosis score in NASH with insignificant adverse events. PMID:26831610

  13. The Comparison of Bone Scan and MRI in Osteoporotic Compression Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Jong-In; Jang, Bo-Hoon; Seo, Jung-Gook

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To estimate the usefulness of bone scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of new fracture in osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Overview of Literature The diagnosis of new fractrure in osteoporotic vertebral fractures requires simple X-ray and supplementary studies. Methods We analyzed 87 vertebrae in 44 patients, who diagnosed with osteoporotic vertebral fractures using bone scan and MRI within 2 months interval between August 2001 and July 2008. We compared hot uptakes in bone scan with MRI findings such as new fractures, old fractures and degenerative lesions. Results Hot uptakes in bone scan was matched to 48 new fractures, 26 old fractures and 13 degenerative lesions in MRI findings. It was 55% of concordance between hot uptakes in bone scan and new fractures in MRI. The rate of new vertebral fractures confirmed by MRI according to 1 level hot uptakes in bone scan was 96%, 2 levels was 50% and 3 more levels was 36%. Conclusions The diagnosis of new fracture in osteoporotic vertebral fractures requires simple X-ray and supplementary studies such as bone scan and MRI. We recommend more careful interpretation in multiple osteoporotic vertebral fracture patients about hot uptake lesions of bone scan. PMID:21165311

  14. Correlation between MRI and Operative Findings in Bell's Palsy and Ramsay Hunt Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In Sup; Shin, Seung-Ho; Kim, Jinna; Lee, Won-Sang

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the correlation between gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance image (MRI) results and surgical findings of facial nerves in Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Materials and Methods From 1995 to 2004, MRI was performed on 13 patients with Bell's palsy or Ramsay Hunt syndrome, who were offered with surgical decompression of the facial nerve through the middle cranial fossa approach. Gadolinium enhanced MRI was performed on all patients and the enhancement of the facial nerve was evaluated by radiology specialists. Operative findings including the degree of the facial nerve segment swelling were examined. Furthermore, the time interval from the onset of palsy to surgery was evaluated. Results Swelling of facial nerve segments was found in patients with enhanced facial nerves from MRI. The swelling of the facial nerve in the labyrinthine segment in particular was identified in all patients with enhanced labyrinthine segments in MRI. The intraoperative swelling of geniculate ganglion of facial nerve was found in 78% of patients with enhanced facial segment in MRI (p = 0.01). The intraoperative swelling of tympanic segment was observed from fourth to ninth weeks after the onset of palsy. Conclusion MRI enhancement of facial nerves in Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome is associated with the extent of intratemporal lesions of facial nerves, especially in the labyrinthine segment. PMID:18159587

  15. Intact Interval Timing in Circadian CLOCK Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/− and −/− mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing. PMID:18602902

  16. Calibration intervals at Bendix Kansas City

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The calibration interval evaluation methods and control in each calibrating department of the Bendix Corp., Kansas City Division is described, and a more detailed description of those employed in metrology is provided.

  17. Combination of structural reliability and interval analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhiping; Yang, Di; Elishakoff, Isaac

    2008-02-01

    In engineering applications, probabilistic reliability theory appears to be presently the most important method, however, in many cases precise probabilistic reliability theory cannot be considered as adequate and credible model of the real state of actual affairs. In this paper, we developed a hybrid of probabilistic and non-probabilistic reliability theory, which describes the structural uncertain parameters as interval variables when statistical data are found insufficient. By using the interval analysis, a new method for calculating the interval of the structural reliability as well as the reliability index is introduced in this paper, and the traditional probabilistic theory is incorporated with the interval analysis. Moreover, the new method preserves the useful part of the traditional probabilistic reliability theory, but removes the restriction of its strict requirement on data acquisition. Example is presented to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed theory.

  18. Almost primes in almost all short intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TERÄVÄINEN, JONI

    2016-09-01

    Let $E_k$ be the set of positive integers having exactly $k$ prime factors. We show that almost all intervals $[x,x+\\log^{1+\\varepsilon} x]$ contain $E_3$ numbers, and almost all intervals $[x,x+\\log^{3.51} x]$ contain $E_2$ numbers. By this we mean that there are only $o(X)$ integers $1\\leq x\\leq X$ for which the mentioned intervals do not contain such numbers. The result for $E_3$ numbers is optimal up to the $\\varepsilon$ in the exponent. The theorem on $E_2$ numbers improves a result of Harman, which had the exponent $7+\\varepsilon$ in place of $3.51$. We will also consider general $E_k$ numbers, and find them on intervals whose lengths approach $\\log x$ as $k\\to \\infty$.

  19. Scientists attack European MRI rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2010-08-01

    A report by the European Science Foundation (ESF) has sharply criticized a European Union (EU) directive on electromagnetic fields, arguing that limits on workers' exposure will have "potentially disastrous" consequences for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  20. BOLD MRI of the Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu-Ping; Halter, Sarah; Prasad, Pottumarthi V.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Oxygenation status plays a major role in renal physiology and pathophysiology and hence has attracted considerable attention in recent years. While much of the early work and a significant amount of present work is based on invasive methods or ex vivo analysis and hence restricted to animal models, BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) MRI has been shown to extend these findings to humans. BOLD MRI is most useful in monitoring effects of physiological or pharmacological maneuvers. Several teams around the world have demonstrated reproducible data and have illustrated several useful applications. Studies supporting the use of renal BOLD MRI in characterizing disease with prognostic value have also been reported. Here, an overview of the current state-of-the art of renal BOLD MRI is provided. PMID:18926426

  1. Metalloprotein-based MRI probes

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yuri; Jasanoff, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Metalloproteins have long been recognized as key determinants of endogenous contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of biological subjects. More recently, both natural and engineered metalloproteins have been harnessed as biotechnological tools to probe gene expression, enzyme activity, and analyte concentrations by MRI. Metalloprotein MRI probes are paramagnetic and function by analogous mechanisms to conventional gadolinium or iron oxide-based MRI contrast agents. Compared with synthetic agents, metalloproteins typically offer worse sensitivity, but the possibilities of using protein engineering and targeted gene expression approaches in conjunction with metalloprotein contrast agents are powerful and sometimes definitive strengths. This review summarizes theoretical and practical aspects of metalloprotein-based contrast agents, and discusses progress in the exploitation of these proteins for molecular imaging applications. PMID:23376346

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... any recent surgeries. Some conditions, such as severe kidney disease, may prevent you from being given gadolinium ... an MRI. If you have a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will be necessary ...

  3. Analysis of regression confidence intervals and Bayesian credible intervals for uncertainty quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Hill, Mary C.

    2012-09-01

    Confidence intervals based on classical regression theories augmented to include prior information and credible intervals based on Bayesian theories are conceptually different ways to quantify parametric and predictive uncertainties. Because both confidence and credible intervals are used in environmental modeling, we seek to understand their differences and similarities. This is of interest in part because calculating confidence intervals typically requires tens to thousands of model runs, while Bayesian credible intervals typically require tens of thousands to millions of model runs. Given multi-Gaussian distributed observation errors, our theoretical analysis shows that, for linear or linearized-nonlinear models, confidence and credible intervals are always numerically identical when consistent prior information is used. For nonlinear models, nonlinear confidence and credible intervals can be numerically identical if parameter confidence regions defined using the approximate likelihood method and parameter credible regions estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo realizations are numerically identical and predictions are a smooth, monotonic function of the parameters. Both occur if intrinsic model nonlinearity is small. While the conditions of Gaussian errors and small intrinsic model nonlinearity are violated by many environmental models, heuristic tests using analytical and numerical models suggest that linear and nonlinear confidence intervals can be useful approximations of uncertainty even under significantly nonideal conditions. In the context of epistemic model error for a complex synthetic nonlinear groundwater problem, the linear and nonlinear confidence and credible intervals for individual models performed similarly enough to indicate that the computationally frugal confidence intervals can be useful in many circumstances. Experiences with these groundwater models are expected to be broadly applicable to many environmental models. We suggest that for

  4. Quantitative pharmacologic MRI in mice.

    PubMed

    Perles-Barbacaru, Teodora-Adriana; Procissi, Daniel; Demyanenko, Andrey V; Jacobs, Russell E

    2012-04-01

    Pharmacologic MRI (phMRI) uses functional MRI techniques to provide a noninvasive in vivo measurement of the hemodynamic effects of drugs. The cerebral blood volume change (ΔCBV) serves as a surrogate for neuronal activity via neurovascular coupling mechanisms. By assessing the location and time course of brain activity in mouse mutant studies, phMRI can provide valuable insights into how different behavioral phenotypes are expressed in deferring brain activity response to drug challenge. In this report, we evaluate the utility of three different intravascular ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) contrast agents for phMRI using a gradient-echo technique, with temporal resolution of one min at high magnetic field. The tissue half-life of the USPIOs was studied using a nonlinear detrending model. The three USPIOs are candidates for CBV weighted phMRI experiments, with r(2)/r(1) ratios ≥ 20 and apparent half-lives ≥ 1.5 h at the described doses. An echo-time of about 10 ms or longer results in a functional contrast to noise ratio (fCNR) > 75 after USPIO injection, with negligible decrease between 1.5-2 h. phMRI experiments were conducted at 7 T using cocaine as a psychotropic substance and acetazolamide, a global vasodilator, as a positive control. Cocaine acts as a dopamine-serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, increasing extracellular concentrations of these neurotransmitters, and thus increasing dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission. phMRI results showed that CBV was reduced in the normal mouse brain after cocaine challenge, with the largest effects in the nucleus accumbens, whereas after acetazolamide, blood volume was increased in both cerebral and extracerebral tissue. PMID:21793079

  5. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    SciTech Connect

    S. Kuzio

    2004-09-22

    Fracture spacing is a key hydrologic parameter in analyses of matrix diffusion. Although the individual fractures that transmit flow in the saturated zone (SZ) cannot be identified directly, it is possible to determine the fractured zones that transmit flow from flow meter survey observations. The fractured zones that transmit flow as identified through borehole flow meter surveys have been defined in this report as flowing intervals. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. The determination of flowing interval spacing is important because the flowing interval spacing parameter is a key hydrologic parameter in SZ transport modeling, which impacts the extent of matrix diffusion in the SZ volcanic matrix. The output of this report is input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, the analysis of data and development of a data distribution reported herein is used to develop the uncertainty distribution for the flowing interval spacing parameter for the SZ transport abstraction model. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this report to other model reports that also pertain to flow and transport in the SZ. Figure 1-1 also shows the flow of key information among the SZ reports. It should be noted that Figure 1-1 does not contain a complete representation of the data and parameter inputs and outputs of all SZ reports, nor does it show inputs external to this suite of SZ reports. Use of the developed flowing interval spacing probability distribution is subject to the limitations of the assumptions discussed in Sections 5 and 6 of this analysis report. The number of fractures in a flowing interval is not known. Therefore, the flowing intervals are assumed to be composed of one flowing zone in the transport simulations. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be

  6. Neurodevelopment at 1 year of age in infants with congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Dittrich, H; Bührer, C; Grimmer, I; Dittrich, S; Abdul-Khaliq, H; Lange, P E

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess psychomotor development and neurological sequelae in infants after surgery for congenital heart defects. Design and setting: Single institution prospective cohort study. Patients: 90 of 112 consecutive surviving infants of less than 1 year of age, without brain anomalies, conditions, or syndromes associated with delayed mental development, who underwent cardiac surgery during an 18 month period; 20 control infants with minor or no congenital heart defects. Main outcome measures: Griffiths developmental scales and standardised neurological examination at 1 year. Results: Mean (SD) developmental quotient (DQ) in index infants was 99 (10.6), compared with 106.7 (6.6) in controls (p < 0.001). DQ was lower in infants after palliative surgery (n = 16; 88 (12.2)) than after corrective surgery (n = 74; 101.4 (8.6)) (p < 0.001). Of the 90 index infants, 24 (27%) had a DQ below 93.5 (more than 2 SD below the mean of controls). Developmental delay (DQ < 93.5) was more common after palliative surgery (10/16, 63%) than after corrective surgery (14/74, 19%) (p < 0.001). Of the 90 index infants, 29 (32%) had neurological abnormalities, compared with only one of the 20 controls (5%) (p = 0.013). Neurological abnormalities were more frequent after palliative surgery (11/16, 69%) than after corrective surgery (18/74, 24%) (p < 0.001). Conclusions: There is a considerable rate of neurodevelopmental impairment at 1 year of age in infants after cardiac surgery. Psychomotor impairment and neurological sequelae are apparently more severe in infants in whom only palliative surgery is possible. PMID:12639876

  7. The value of pre-operative multicompartment pelvic floor ultrasonography: a 1-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Lone, F; Stankiewicz, A; Thakar, R

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Comprehensive assessment of the pelvic floor (PF) provides information and diagnoses of coexisting abnormalities that may affect operative decisions. Our aim was to establish if pre-operative PF ultrasonography (PFUS) in patients complaining of PF dysfunction can complement clinical findings and contribute to additional management strategies. Methods: Females were recruited from the urogynaecology/gynaecology clinics between July and October 2009 and underwent pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ) by an independent examiner. PFUS was performed using two-dimensional (2D) transperineal ultrasound (TPUS), high-frequency 2D/three-dimensional (3D) endovaginal ultrasound (EVUS) using a biplane probe with linear and transverse arrays and a 360° rotational 3D-EVUS. The clinician performing PFUS was blinded to POPQ results. POPQ and PFUS were repeated at 1 year. Two clinicians analysed the scans independently. Results: 158 of 160 females had a POPQ and PFUS. 105 females had pelvic organ prolapse and/or incontinence and 53 asymptomatic females were controls. 26 additional ultrasound diagnoses were noted at baseline and 46 at 1 year using 2D-TPUS and EVUS. Only one female with additional diagnoses on PFUS needed surgical intervention for this condition. Conclusion: Multicompartment PFUS identifies additional conditions to that diagnosed on clinical assessment. However, it neither changes the initial surgical management nor the management at 1-year follow-up and therefore clinical assessment should not be substituted by PFUS. Advances in knowledge: PFUS can be helpful in providing additional information; however, it does not change the initial management of the patient and therefore should not replace clinical assessment. PMID:24959953

  8. Brucella arthritis of the knee, 1 year after revision of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Papastergiou, S G; Koukoulias, N E; Koumis, P; Kyparlis, D; Santas, R

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. The authors report the first case in the literature of septic arthritis of the knee 1 year after revision of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Brucella melitensis biotype 3 was found in both synovial fluid and blood cultures. The patient was treated initially with arthroscopic debridement. After the diagnosis was confirmed, a second arthroscopic lavage and metal work removal was applied leaving the graft in place. Antimicrobial chemotherapy was prescribed for 3 months. The infection was fully eradicated and the patient is still asymptomatic, 4 years after the treatment. PMID:22700607

  9. Brucella arthritis of the knee, 1 year after revision of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, S G; Koukoulias, N E; Koumis, P; Kyparlis, D; Santas, R

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. The authors report the first case in the literature of septic arthritis of the knee 1 year after revision of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Brucella melitensis biotype 3 was found in both synovial fluid and blood cultures. The patient was treated initially with arthroscopic debridement. After the diagnosis was confirmed, a second arthroscopic lavage and metal work removal was applied leaving the graft in place. Antimicrobial chemotherapy was prescribed for 3 months. The infection was fully eradicated and the patient is still asymptomatic, 4 years after the treatment. PMID:22700607

  10. Necessity and Opportunity: the 1-Year Master's ABA Program at Auburn University.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James M

    2016-05-01

    The Auburn University Master of Science program in Applied Behavior Analysis was designed to accommodate not only the requirements of the Behavior Analyst Certification Board for approved course sequences and practicum training, but unavoidable limitations in faculty and other resources. These limitations were incompatible with the more traditional 2-year curriculum model, so a 1-year program was designed that met the necessary conditions. This article describes the resulting academic and practicum curriculum, the key funding mechanisms that allowed the program to develop, and the opportunities and benefits that this model afforded. PMID:27606193

  11. Coaxial waveguide MRI.

    PubMed

    Alt, Stefan; Müller, Marco; Umathum, Reiner; Bolz, Armin; Bachert, Peter; Semmler, Wolfhard; Bock, Michael

    2012-04-01

    As ultrahigh-field MR imaging systems suffer from the standing wave problems of conventional coil designs, the use of antenna systems that generate travelling waves was suggested. As a modification to the original approach, we propose the use of a coaxial waveguide configuration with interrupted inner conductor. This concept can focus the radiofrequency energy to the desired imaging region in the human body and can operate at different Larmor frequencies without hardware modifications, as it is not limited by a lower cut-off frequency. We assessed the potential of the method with a hardware prototype setup that was loaded with a tissue equivalent phantom and operated with imaging areas of different size. Signal and flip angle distributions within the phantom were analyzed, and imaging at different Larmor frequencies was performed. Results were compared to a finite difference time domain simulation of the setup that additionally provides information on the spatial distribution of the specific absorption rate load. Furthermore, simulation results with a human model (virtual family) are presented. It was found that the proposed method can be used for MRI at multiple frequencies, achieving transmission efficiencies similar to other travelling wave approaches but still suffers from several limitations due to the used mode of wave propagation. PMID:22021117

  12. Survival Analysis of Patients with Interval Cancer Undergoing Gastric Cancer Screening by Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hamashima, Chisato; Shabana, Michiko; Okamoto, Mikizo; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kishimoto, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    Aims Interval cancer is a key factor that influences the effectiveness of a cancer screening program. To evaluate the impact of interval cancer on the effectiveness of endoscopic screening, the survival rates of patients with interval cancer were analyzed. Methods We performed gastric cancer-specific and all-causes survival analyses of patients with screen-detected cancer and patients with interval cancer in the endoscopic screening group and radiographic screening group using the Kaplan-Meier method. Since the screening interval was 1 year, interval cancer was defined as gastric cancer detected within 1 year after a negative result. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the risk factors associated with gastric cancer-specific and all-causes death. Results A total of 1,493 gastric cancer patients (endoscopic screening group: n = 347; radiographic screening group: n = 166; outpatient group: n = 980) were identified from the Tottori Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The gastric cancer-specific survival rates were higher in the endoscopic screening group than in the radiographic screening group and the outpatients group. In the endoscopic screening group, the gastric cancer-specific survival rate of the patients with screen-detected cancer and the patients with interval cancer were nearly equal (P = 0.869). In the radiographic screening group, the gastric cancer-specific survival rate of the patients with screen-detected cancer was higher than that of the patients with interval cancer (P = 0.009). For gastric cancer-specific death, the hazard ratio of interval cancer in the endoscopic screening group was 0.216 for gastric cancer death (95%CI: 0.054-0.868) compared with the outpatient group. Conclusion The survival rate and the risk of gastric cancer death among the patients with screen-detected cancer and patients with interval cancer were not significantly different in the annual endoscopic screening. These results suggest the potential of

  13. Infectious complications more than 1 year after liver transplantation: a 3-decade nationwide experience.

    PubMed

    Aberg, F; Mäkisalo, H; Höckerstedt, K; Isoniemi, H

    2011-02-01

    Because few reports have addressed infections late (≥1 year) after liver transplantation (LT), we evaluated the incidence, risk factors and pathogens involved. Infection data were from the Finnish LT registry, with starting date, type and relevant pathogens for 501 Finnish adult LT patients surviving ≥1 year post-transplant. Follow-up end points were end of study, death or retransplantation. Logistic regression to assess risk factors was adjusted for age, gender and follow-up time. With 3923 person-years of follow-up, overall infection incidence was 66/1000 person-years; 155 (31%) suffered 259 infections, and two-thirds experienced only one infection. Cholangitis (20%), pneumonia (19%) and sepsis (14%) were most common. The most frequent bacteria were Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli, and the most frequent viruses cytomegalovirus and varicella zoster virus. Fungal infections were rare (n = 7). With 13 fatal infections, 17% of all late deaths involved infection. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and Roux-en-Y-type biliary anastomosis were associated with cholangitis; 18% of PSC patients suffered late cholangitis. Late acute rejection was associated with sepsis. Age, gender or cytomegalovirus did not significantly influence late infections. In conclusion, although infection risk under maintenance immunosuppression therapy is relatively low, particular vigilance regarding cholangitis, pneumonia and sepsis seems appropriate. PMID:21219571

  14. Induction of Maturogenesis by Partial Pulpotomy: 1 Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Bacaksiz, A.; Alaçam, A.

    2013-01-01

    In cariously exposed immature permanent teeth, the treatment choice is controversial in pediatric dentistry. Radical root canal treatment usually appears to be the solution for these teeth. Even partial pulpotomy is a vital treatment for traumatically exposed immature permanent teeth; extending the borders of indication towards cariously exposed immature permanent teeth with reversible pulpitis may abolish the necessity of pulpectomy. This article describes the partial pulpotomy of a cariously affected immature permanent teeth and the follow-up for 1 year. A healthy 11-year-old male patient was referred to Gazi University Faculty of Dentistry Department of Pediatric Dentistry. The patient had reversible pulpitis symptoms on teeth numbered 45. At radiographic examination, immature apex and deep caries lesion were observed and partial pulpotomy was performed by using calcium hydroxide to maintain vitality of the pulp and allow continued development of root dentin expecting the root will attain full maturity. Clinical and radiographic follow-up demonstrated a vital pulp besides not only closure of the apex (apexogenesis), but also physiologic root development (maturogenesis) after 1 year. Partial pulpotomy is an optional treatment for cariously exposed immature permanent teeth for preserving vitality and physiological root development. PMID:24324899

  15. Safety and efficacy of nurse-controlled analgesia in patients less than 1 year of age

    PubMed Central

    Walia, Hina; Tumin, Dmitry; Wrona, Sharon; Martin, David; Bhalla, Tarun; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    Background The management of acute pain presents unique challenges in the younger pediatric population. Although patient-controlled devices are frequently used in patients ≥6 years of age, alternative modes of analgesic delivery are needed in infants. Objective To examine the safety and efficacy of nurse-controlled analgesia (NCA) in neonates less than 1 year of age. Methods Data from patients <1 year of age receiving NCA as ordered by the Acute Pain Service at our institution were collected over a 5-year period and reviewed retrospectively. The primary outcomes were activation of the institution’s Rapid Response Team (RRT) or Code Blue, signifying severe adverse events. Pain score after NCA initiation was a secondary outcome. Results Among 338 girls and 431 boys, the most common opioid used for NCA was fentanyl, followed by morphine and hydromorphone. There were 39 (5%) cases involving RRT or Code Blue activation, of which only one (Code Blue) was activated due to a complication of NCA (apnea). Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated morphine NCA to be associated with greater odds of RRT activation (OR=3.29, 95% CI=1.35, 8.03, P=0.009) compared to fentanyl NCA. There were no statistically significant differences in pain scores after NCA initiation across NCA agents. Conclusion NCA is safe in neonates and infants, with comparable efficacy demonstrated for the three agents used. The elevated incidence of RRT activation in patients receiving morphine suggests caution in its use and consideration of alternative agents in this population.

  16. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement✩

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shawna J.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once in the past month. Spanking at age 1 was associated with increased odds of subsequent CPS involvement (adjusted odds ratio=1.36, 95% CI [1.08, 1.71], p<.01). When compared to non-spanked children, there was a 33% greater probability of subsequent CPS involvement for children who were spanked at age 1. Given the undesirable consequences of spanking children and a lack of empirical evidence to suggest positive effects of physical punishment, professionals who work with families should counsel parents not to spank infants and toddlers. For optimal benefits, efforts to educate parents regarding alternative forms of discipline should begin during the child's first year of life. PMID:24602690

  17. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M

    2014-05-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once in the past month. Spanking at age 1 was associated with increased odds of subsequent CPS involvement (adjusted odds ratio=1.36, 95% CI [1.08, 1.71], p<.01). When compared to non-spanked children, there was a 33% greater probability of subsequent CPS involvement for children who were spanked at age 1. Given the undesirable consequences of spanking children and a lack of empirical evidence to suggest positive effects of physical punishment, professionals who work with families should counsel parents not to spank infants and toddlers. For optimal benefits, efforts to educate parents regarding alternative forms of discipline should begin during the child's first year of life. PMID:24602690

  18. Immediate Implant Placement in a Patient With Osteoporosis Undergoing Bisphosphonate Therapy: 1-Year Preliminary Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Tomas; Jurkovic, Richard; Statelova, Dagmar; Strecha, Juraj

    2015-07-01

    The purposes of this preliminary study are to assess the risk of developing bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in a patient with osteoporosis using zoledronic acid and to report the results of a 1-year prospective clinical study regarding 5 immediately inserted implants in the anterior mandible. For this comparative prospective study, 24 female patients, aged ≥54 years, were chosen, all with partially edentulous mandibles. Group A consisted of 12 patients with osteoporosis taking zoledronic acid receiving a once-yearly intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid (5 mg). Control group B consisted of 12 other patients without osteoporosis and not taking drugs. In both groups, the remaining teeth were extracted before 120 implants, 3.7-mm wide and 16-mm long, were immediately installed in the interforaminal region of the mandibles. The 1-year implant survival rate was 100%. No apparent necrotic bone was observed among patients receiving zoledronic acid (group A) after implant surgery. Immediate implant osseointegration can be successful in a patient with osteoporosis using bisphosphonates, suggesting the safety of implantology as a treatment modality. PMID:24041299

  19. BDNF mediates improvements in executive function following a 1-year exercise intervention.

    PubMed

    Leckie, Regina L; Oberlin, Lauren E; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika S; Szabo-Reed, Amanda; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Phillips, Siobhan M; Gothe, Neha P; Mailey, Emily; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Martin, Stephen A; Pence, Brandt D; Lin, Mingkuan; Parasuraman, Raja; Greenwood, Pamela M; Fryxell, Karl J; Woods, Jeffrey A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F; Erickson, Kirk I

    2014-01-01

    Executive function declines with age, but engaging in aerobic exercise may attenuate decline. One mechanism by which aerobic exercise may preserve executive function is through the up-regulation of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), which also declines with age. The present study examined BDNF as a mediator of the effects of a 1-year walking intervention on executive function in 90 older adults (mean age = 66.82). Participants were randomized to a stretching and toning control group or a moderate intensity walking intervention group. BDNF serum levels and performance on a task-switching paradigm were collected at baseline and follow-up. We found that age moderated the effect of intervention group on changes in BDNF levels, with those in the highest age quartile showing the greatest increase in BDNF after 1-year of moderate intensity walking exercise (p = 0.036). The mediation analyses revealed that BDNF mediated the effect of the intervention on task-switch accuracy, but did so as a function of age, such that exercise-induced changes in BDNF mediated the effect of exercise on task-switch performance only for individuals over the age of 71. These results demonstrate that both age and BDNF serum levels are important factors to consider when investigating the mechanisms by which exercise interventions influence cognitive outcomes, particularly in elderly populations. PMID:25566019

  20. Determinants of telomere attrition over 1 year in healthy older women: stress and health behaviors matter.

    PubMed

    Puterman, E; Lin, J; Krauss, J; Blackburn, E H; Epel, E S

    2015-04-01

    Telomere length, a reliable predictor of disease pathogenesis, can be affected by genetics, chronic stress and health behaviors. Cross-sectionally, highly stressed postmenopausal women have shorter telomeres, but only if they are inactive. However, no studies have prospectively examined telomere length change over a short period, and if rate of attrition is affected by naturalistic factors such as stress and engagement in healthy behaviors, including diet, exercise, and sleep. Here we followed healthy women over 1 year to test if major stressors that occurred over the year predicted telomere shortening, and whether engaging in healthy behaviors during this period mitigates this effect. In 239 postmenopausal, non-smoking, disease-free women, accumulation of major life stressors across a 1-year period predicted telomere attrition over the same period-for every major life stressor that occurred during the year, there was a significantly greater decline in telomere length over the year of 35 bp (P<0.05). Yet, these effects were moderated by health behaviors (interaction B=0.19, P=0.04). Women who maintained relatively higher levels of health behaviors (1 s.d. above the mean) appeared to be protected when exposed to stress. This finding has implications for understanding malleability of telomere length, as well as expectations for possible intervention effects. This is the first study to identify predictors of telomere length change over the short period of a year. PMID:25070535

  1. Enhancing Coparenting, Parenting, and Child Self-Regulation: Effects of Family Foundations 1 Year after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Mark E.; Kan, Marni L.; Goslin, Megan C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether a psycho-educational program with modest dosage (eight sessions), delivered in a universal framework through childbirth education programs and targeting the coparenting relationship would have a positive impact on observed family interaction and child behavior at 6-month follow-up (child age 1 year). One hundred sixty-nine couples, randomized to intervention and control conditions, participated in videotaped family observation tasks at pretest (during pregnancy) and at child age 1 year (2003–2007). Coparenting, parenting, couple relationship, and child self-regulatory behaviors were coded by teams of raters. Intent-to-treat analyses of program effects controlled for age, education, and social desirability. Evidence of significant (p<0.05) program effects at follow-up emerged in all four domains. Effect sizes ranged from 0.28 to 1.01. Targeting the coparenting relationship at the transition to parenthood represents an effective, non-stigmatizing means of promoting parenting quality and child adjustment. PMID:19381809

  2. Phase Fluctuations at Goldstone Derived from 1-Year Site Testing Interferometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James A.; Acosta, Roberto J.; Morabito, David D.

    2009-01-01

    A two-element site test interferometer has been deployed at the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) tracking complex in Goldstone, California, since May 2007. The interferometer system consists of two offset-fed 1.2 m parabolic reflectors which monitor atmospheric-induced amplitude and phase fluctuations on an unmodulated beacon signal (20.199 GHz) broadcast from a geostationary satellite (Anik F2). The geometry of the satellite and the ground-based infrastructure imposes a 48.5 elevation angle with a separation distance of 256 m along an east-west baseline. The interferometer has been recording phase fluctuation data, to date, for 1 yr with an overall system availability of 95 percent. In this paper, we provide the cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) for 1 year of recorded data, including phase rms, spatial structure function exponent, and surface meteorological measurements: surface wind speed, relative humidity, temperature, barometric pressure, and rain rate. Correlation between surface measurements, phase rms, and amplitude rms at different time scales are discussed. For 1 year, phase fluctuations at the DSN site in Goldstone, are better than 23 for 90 percent of the time (at 48.5 elevation). This data will be used to determine the suitability of the Goldstone site as a location for the Next Generation Deep Space Network.

  3. Sunspot Time Series: Passive and Active Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zięba, S.; Nieckarz, Z.

    2014-07-01

    Solar activity slowly and irregularly decreases from the first spotless day (FSD) in the declining phase of the old sunspot cycle and systematically, but also in an irregular way, increases to the new cycle maximum after the last spotless day (LSD). The time interval between the first and the last spotless day can be called the passive interval (PI), while the time interval from the last spotless day to the first one after the new cycle maximum is the related active interval (AI). Minima of solar cycles are inside PIs, while maxima are inside AIs. In this article, we study the properties of passive and active intervals to determine the relation between them. We have found that some properties of PIs, and related AIs, differ significantly between two group of solar cycles; this has allowed us to classify Cycles 8 - 15 as passive cycles, and Cycles 17 - 23 as active ones. We conclude that the solar activity in the PI declining phase (a descending phase of the previous cycle) determines the strength of the approaching maximum in the case of active cycles, while the activity of the PI rising phase (a phase of the ongoing cycle early growth) determines the strength of passive cycles. This can have implications for solar dynamo models. Our approach indicates the important role of solar activity during the declining and the rising phases of the solar-cycle minimum.

  4. Natural frequencies of structures with interval parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofi, A.; Muscolino, G.; Elishakoff, I.

    2015-07-01

    This paper deals with the evaluation of the lower and upper bounds of the natural frequencies of structures with uncertain-but-bounded parameters. The solution of the generalized interval eigenvalue problem is pursued by taking into account the actual variability and dependencies of uncertain structural parameters affecting the mass and stiffness matrices. To this aim, interval uncertainties are handled by applying the improved interval analysis via extra unitary interval (EUI), recently introduced by the first two authors. By associating an EUI to each uncertain-but-bounded parameter, the cases of mass and stiffness matrices affected by fully disjoint, completely or partially coincident uncertainties are considered. Then, based on sensitivity analysis, it is shown that the bounds of the interval eigenvalues can be evaluated as solution of two appropriate deterministic eigenvalue problems without requiring any combinatorial procedure. If the eigenvalues are monotonic functions of the uncertain parameters, then the exact bounds are obtained. The accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical results concerning truss and beam structures with material and/or geometrical uncertainties.

  5. Functional MRI at the Crossroads

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, John Darrell; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the observation of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect on measured MR signal in the brain, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has rapidly become the tool of choice for exploring brain function in cognitive neuroscience. Although fMRI is an exciting and powerful means to examining the brain in vivo, the field has sometimes permitted itself to believe that patterns of BOLD activity reveal more than it is possible to measure given the method’s spatial and temporal sampling, while concurrently not fully exploring the amount of information it provides. In this article, we examine some of the constraints on the kinds of inferences that can be supported by fMRI. We critique the concept of reverse inference that is often employed to say some cognitive function must be present given activity in a specific region. We review the consideration of functional and effective connectivity that remain infrequently applied in cognitive neuroimaging, highlighting recent thinking on the ways in which functional imaging can be used to characterize inter-regional communication. Recent advances in neuroimaging that make it possible to assess anatomical connectivity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and we discuss how these may inform interpretation of fMRI results. Descriptions of fMRI studies in the media, in some instances, serve to misrepresent fMRI’s capabilities. We comment on how researchers need to faithfully represent fMRI’s promise and limitations in dealing with the media. Finally, as we stand at the crossroads of fMRI research, where one pathway leads toward a rigorous understanding of cognitive operations using fMRI and another leads us to a predictable collection of observations absent of clear insight, we offer our impressions of a fruitful path for future functional imaging research. PMID:19041348

  6. Accuracy of [18F]FDG PET/MRI for the Detection of Liver Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Beiderwellen, Karsten; Geraldo, Llanos; Ruhlmann, Verena; Heusch, Philipp; Gomez, Benedikt; Nensa, Felix; Umutlu, Lale; Lauenstein, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of [18F]FDG-PET/MRI with PET/CT for the detection of liver metastases. Methods 32 patients with solid malignancies underwent [18F]FDG-PET/CT and subsequent PET/MRI of the liver. Two readers assessed both datasets regarding lesion characterization (benign, indeterminate, malignant), conspicuity and diagnostic confidence. An imaging follow-up (mean interval: 185±92 days) and/-or histopathological specimen served as standards of reference. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for both modalities. Accuracy was determined by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Values of conspicuity and diagnostic confidence were compared using Wilcoxon-signed-rank test. Results The standard of reference revealed 113 liver lesions in 26 patients (malignant: n = 45; benign: n = 68). For PET/MRI a higher accuracy (PET/CT: 82.4%; PET/MRI: 96.1%; p<0.001) as well as sensitivity (67.8% vs. 92.2%, p<0.01) and NPV (82.0% vs. 95.1%, p<0.05) were observed. PET/MRI offered higher lesion conspicuity (PET/CT: 2.0±1.1 [median: 2; range 0–3]; PET/MRI: 2.8±0.5 [median: 3; range 0–3]; p<0.001) and diagnostic confidence (PET/CT: 2.0±0.8 [median: 2; range: 1–3]; PET/MRI 2.6±0.6 [median: 3; range: 1–3]; p<0.001). Furthermore, PET/MRI enabled the detection of additional PET-negative metastases (reader 1: 10; reader 2: 12). Conclusions PET/MRI offers higher diagnostic accuracy compared to PET/CT for the detection of liver metastases. PMID:26335246

  7. Pigeons' choices between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules: utility of variability?

    PubMed

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Cardinal, Claudia D; Field, Douglas P; Flannery, Barbara A; Johnson, Michael; Bailey, Kathleen; Hineline, Philip N

    2005-03-01

    Pigeons' choosing between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules of reinforcement was investigated in three experiments using a discrete-trial procedure. In all three experiments, the random-interval schedule was generated by sampling a probability distribution at an interval (and in multiples of the interval) equal to that of the fixed-interval schedule. Thus the programmed delays to reinforcement on the random alternative were never shorter and were often longer than the fixed interval. Despite this feature, the fixed schedule was not strongly preferred. Increases in the probability used to generate the random interval resulted in decreased preferences for the fixed schedule. In addition, the number of consecutive choices on the preferred alternative varied directly with preference, whereas the consecutive number of choices on the nonpreferred alternative was fairly constant. The probability of choosing the random alternative was unaffected by the immediately prior interval encountered on that schedule, even when it was very long relative to the average value. The results loosely support conceptions of a "preference for variability" from foraging theory and the "utility of behavioral variability" from human decision-making literatures. PMID:15828591

  8. Perceptual interference decays over short unfilled intervals.

    PubMed

    Schulkind, M D

    2000-09-01

    The perceptual interference effect refers to the fact that object identification is directly related to the amount of information available at initial exposure. The present article investigated whether perceptual interference would dissipate when a short, unfilled interval was introduced between exposures to a degraded object. Across three experiments using both musical and pictorial stimuli, identification performance increased directly with the length of the unfilled interval. Consequently, significant perceptual interference was obtained only when the interval between exposures was relatively short (< 500 msec for melodies; < 300 msec for pictures). These results are consistent with explanations that attribute perceptual interference to increased perceptual noise created by exposures to highly degraded objects. The data also suggest that perceptual interference is mediated by systems that are not consciously controlled by the subject and that perceptual interference in the visual domain decays more rapidly than perceptual interference in the auditory domain. PMID:11105520

  9. Intervality and coherence in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Johnson, Samuel; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2016-06-01

    Food webs-networks of predators and prey-have long been known to exhibit "intervality": species can generally be ordered along a single axis in such a way that the prey of any given predator tend to lie on unbroken compact intervals. Although the meaning of this axis-usually identified with a "niche" dimension-has remained a mystery, it is assumed to lie at the basis of the highly non-trivial structure of food webs. With this in mind, most trophic network modelling has for decades been based on assigning species a niche value by hand. However, we argue here that intervality should not be considered the cause but rather a consequence of food-web structure. First, analysing a set of 46 empirical food webs, we find that they also exhibit predator intervality: the predators of any given species are as likely to be contiguous as the prey are, but in a different ordering. Furthermore, this property is not exclusive of trophic networks: several networks of genes, neurons, metabolites, cellular machines, airports, and words are found to be approximately as interval as food webs. We go on to show that a simple model of food-web assembly which does not make use of a niche axis can nevertheless generate significant intervality. Therefore, the niche dimension (in the sense used for food-web modelling) could in fact be the consequence of other, more fundamental structural traits. We conclude that a new approach to food-web modelling is required for a deeper understanding of ecosystem assembly, structure, and function, and propose that certain topological features thought to be specific of food webs are in fact common to many complex networks. PMID:27368797

  10. Intervality and coherence in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Johnson, Samuel; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2016-06-01

    Food webs—networks of predators and prey—have long been known to exhibit "intervality": species can generally be ordered along a single axis in such a way that the prey of any given predator tend to lie on unbroken compact intervals. Although the meaning of this axis—usually identified with a "niche" dimension—has remained a mystery, it is assumed to lie at the basis of the highly non-trivial structure of food webs. With this in mind, most trophic network modelling has for decades been based on assigning species a niche value by hand. However, we argue here that intervality should not be considered the cause but rather a consequence of food-web structure. First, analysing a set of 46 empirical food webs, we find that they also exhibit predator intervality: the predators of any given species are as likely to be contiguous as the prey are, but in a different ordering. Furthermore, this property is not exclusive of trophic networks: several networks of genes, neurons, metabolites, cellular machines, airports, and words are found to be approximately as interval as food webs. We go on to show that a simple model of food-web assembly which does not make use of a niche axis can nevertheless generate significant intervality. Therefore, the niche dimension (in the sense used for food-web modelling) could in fact be the consequence of other, more fundamental structural traits. We conclude that a new approach to food-web modelling is required for a deeper understanding of ecosystem assembly, structure, and function, and propose that certain topological features thought to be specific of food webs are in fact common to many complex networks.

  11. Rabies cell culture vaccines reconstituted and stored at 4 degrees C for 1 year prior to use protect mice against rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Lodmell, Donald L; Ewalt, Larry C

    2004-09-01

    Human exposure to rabid dogs in developing countries is an ongoing problem that continues to demand effective, safe, and affordable post-exposure rabies vaccinations. Sheep and suckling mouse brain rabies vaccines used in developing countries are being replaced by expensive inactivated-virus cell culture vaccines. Human studies using cell culture vaccines have determined that cost is reduced and protection is maintained by injecting the unused portion of vaccines that have been reconstituted and stored refrigerated for 1 week. Here we determined whether reconstituted purified chick embryo cell and human diploid cell vaccine that had been stored at 4 degrees C for intervals up to 1 year elicit neutralizing antibody, and protect mice against rabies virus. Undiluted, or 1:5 and 1:25 dilutions of both vaccines injected immediately after reconstitution, or after reconstitution and storage at 4 degrees C for 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months or 1 year elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody and protected 100% of the mice injected with rabies virus. PMID:15308344

  12. Estimating Motion From MRI Data

    PubMed Central

    OZTURK, CENGIZHAN; DERBYSHIRE, J. ANDREW; MCVEIGH, ELLIOT R.

    2007-01-01

    Invited Paper Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an ideal imaging modality to measure blood flow and tissue motion. It provides excellent contrast between soft tissues, and images can be acquired at positions and orientations freely defined by the user. From a temporal sequence of MR images, boundaries and edges of tissues can be tracked by image processing techniques. Additionally, MRI permits the source of the image signal to be manipulated. For example, temporary magnetic tags displaying a pattern of variable brightness may be placed in the object using MR saturation techniques, giving the user a known pattern to detect for motion tracking. The MRI signal is a modulated complex quantity, being derived from a rotating magnetic field in the form of an induced current. Well-defined patterns can also be introduced into the phase of the magnetization, and could be thought of as generalized tags. If the phase of each pixel is preserved during image reconstruction, relative phase shifts can be used to directly encode displacement, velocity and acceleration. New methods for modeling motion fields from MRI have now found application in cardiovascular and other soft tissue imaging. In this review, we shall describe the methods used for encoding, imaging, and modeling motion fields with MRI. PMID:18958181

  13. [MRI-guided musculoskeletal biopsy].

    PubMed

    Daecke, W; Libicher, M; Mädler, U; Rumpf, C; Bernd, L

    2003-02-01

    MRI-guided musculoskeletal biopsy has been mentioned to be a minimally invasive method to obtain specimens for diagnostic purposes in bone tumors. To evaluate the viability, to assess the accuracy, and to record possible complications of this method, clinical data of 19 MRI-guided biopsies were analyzed. Interventions were performed on 18 patients (1-78 years) as an outpatient procedure: 15 skeletal and 4 soft tissue biopsies were taken from the pelvis, upper limb,or lower limb. We used T1-weighted gradient echoes (GE) for locating the puncture site and T2-weighted turbo spin echoes (TSE) for visualization of needle position. In 14 of 18 MRI-guided biopsies, a definite histological diagnosis was obtained. According to the pathologist, the inadequate size of the specimen was the main reason for missing the diagnoses in four cases.Long intervention time and inappropriate biopsy tools proved to be the main disadvantages of MRI-guided biopsy, but technical improvement might solve these technical problems in future.A postbiopsy hematoma was the only complication observed. Once technically improved, MRI-guided biopsy could be a precise alternative routine method for musculoskeletal biopsies in future. PMID:12607083

  14. Children's artistic responses to musical intervals.

    PubMed

    Smith, L D; Williams, R N

    1999-01-01

    In one experiment, White South African boys drew pictures in response to four musical intervals. In the second, the subjects were of both sexes and drawn from White, urban Black, and rural Black populations. Six intervals were used. Drawing content was similar cross-culturally. Consonances were perceived as generally positive; dissonances, generally negative. There was also an activity dimension. Children in a lower grade drew more concrete pictures than did those in a higher grade, regardless of age. Even young listeners were fairly consistent in their responses. This suggests that perception of musical meaning is a universal rather than culturally based phenomenon. PMID:10696271

  15. Optimal Colonoscopy Surveillance Interval after Polypectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Oh

    2016-01-01

    The detection and removal of adenomatous polyps and postpolypectomy surveillance are considered important for the control of colorectal cancer (CRC). Surveillance using colonoscopy is an effective tool for preventing CRC after colorectal polypectomy, especially if compliance is good. In current practice, the intervals between colonoscopies after polypectomy are variable. Different recommendations for recognizing at risk groups and defining surveillance intervals after an initial finding of colorectal adenomas have been published. However, high-grade dysplasia and the number and size of adenomas are known major cancer predictors. Based on this, a subgroup of patients that may benefit from intensive surveillance colonoscopy can be identified. PMID:27484812

  16. Impact of Libido at 2 Weeks after Stroke on Risk of Stroke Recurrence at 1-Year in a Chinese Stroke Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Huai-Wu; Wang, Chun-Xue; Luo, Ben-Yan; Ruan, Jie; Zhang, Ning; Shi, Yu-Zhi; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Yi-Long; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Juan; Zhao, Xing-Quan; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: There were few studies on the relation between changes in libido and incidence of stroke recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between libido decrease at 2 weeks after stroke and recurrent stroke at 1-year. Methods: It is a multi-centered, prospective cohort study. The 14th item of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 was used to evaluate changes of libido in poststroke patients at 2 weeks. Stroke recurrence was defined as an aggravation of former neurological functional deficit, new local or overall symptoms, or stroke diagnosed at re-admission. Results: Among 2341 enrolled patients, 1757 patients had completed follow-up data, 533 (30.34%) patients had decreased libido at 2 weeks, and 166 (9.45%) patients had recurrent stroke at 1-year. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, compared with patients with normal libido, the odds ratio (OR) of recurrent stroke in patients with decreased libido was reduced by 41% (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40–0.87). The correlation was more prominent among male patients (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.31–0.85) and patients of ≥60 years of age (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.35–0.93). Conclusions: One out of three stroke patients in mainland China has decreased libido at 2 weeks after stroke. Decreased libido is a protective factor for stroke recurrence at 1-year, which is more prominent among older male patients. PMID:25963346

  17. Substance use disorder counselors' job performance and turnover after 1 year: linear or curvilinear relationship?

    PubMed

    Laschober, Tanja C; de Tormes Eby, Lillian Turner

    2013-07-01

    The main goals of the current study were to investigate whether there are linear or curvilinear relationships between substance use disorder counselors' job performance and actual turnover after 1 year utilizing four indicators of job performance and three turnover statuses (voluntary, involuntary, and no turnover as the reference group). Using longitudinal data from 440 matched counselor-clinical supervisor dyads, results indicate that overall, counselors with lower job performance are more likely to turn over voluntarily and involuntarily than not to turn over. Further, one of the job performance measures shows a significant curvilinear effect. We conclude that the negative consequences often assumed to be "caused" by counselor turnover may be overstated because those who leave both voluntarily and involuntarily demonstrate generally lower performance than those who remain employed at their treatment program. PMID:22527711

  18. Predicting abuse in adolescent dating relationships over 1 year: the role of child maltreatment and trauma.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, David A; Wekerle, Christine; Scott, Katreena; Straatman, Anna-Lee; Grasley, Carolyn

    2004-08-01

    Three mediators of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and dating violence perpetration during midadolescence (i.e., trauma-related symptoms, attitudes justifying dating violence, and empathy and self-efficacy in dating relationships) were tested over 1 year with a sample of students from 10 high schools (N = 1,317). Trauma-related symptoms had a significant cross-time effect on predicting incidents of dating violence for both boys and girls. Attitudes and empathy and self-efficacy did not predict dating violence over time, although they were correlated with such behavior at both time points. Child maltreatment is a distal risk factor for adolescent dating violence, and trauma-related symptoms act as a significant mediator of this relationship. The importance of longitudinal methodology that separates correlates from predictors is discussed. PMID:15311986

  19. Whooping cough in South-East Romania: a 1-year study.

    PubMed

    Dinu, Sorin; Guillot, Sophie; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Brun, Delphine; Lazăr, Stefan; Vancea, Geta; Ionescu, Biatrice Mariana; Gherman, Mariana Felicia; Bjerkestrand, Andreea-Florina-Dana; Ungureanu, Vasilica; Guiso, Nicole; Damian, Maria

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of whooping cough in Romania is substantially underestimated, and, as noted by the health authorities, this is mostly due to the lack of both awareness and biological diagnosis. We conducted a 1-year study in Bucharest in order to assess the circulation of Bordetella pertussis, the main etiological agent of whooping cough. Fifty-one subjects suspected of whooping cough were enrolled. Culture, real-time PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for laboratory diagnosis. Whooping cough patients (63%) were distributed among all age groups, and most were unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or had been vaccinated more than 5 years previously. Bordetella holmesii DNA was detected in 22% of the bordetellosis cases; these patients included adults; teenagers; and, surprisingly, young children. B. pertussis isolates were similar to the clinical isolates currently circulating elsewhere in Europe. One isolate does not express pertactin, an antigen included in some acellular pertussis vaccines. PMID:24355701

  20. Cognitive dysfunction at baseline predicts symptomatic 1-year outcome in first-episode schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Moritz, S; Krausz, M; Gottwalz, E; Lambert, M; Perro, C; Ganzer, S; Naber, D

    2000-01-01

    The present study addresses the consequences of cognitive disturbances on symptomatic outcome. Fifty-three first-episode schizophrenics were reassessed (n = 32) 1 year after admission. Simple regression analyses revealed that several self-perceived cognitive deficits at baseline as measured with the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire significantly predicted increased Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale global scores at follow-up (p = 0.05 to p = 0.005). A stepwise regression analysis proved memory dysfunction to be the strongest predictor of symptomatic worsening (p = 0.005). It is suggested that the exploration and treatment of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia is of great clinical importance with regard to its impact on both functional and symptomatic outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:10601828

  1. [Interferon beta 1-a in multiple sclerosis: 1-year experience in 62 patients].

    PubMed

    Tilbery, C P; Felipe, E; Moreira, M A; Mendes, M F; França, A S

    2000-06-01

    We report the results of a trial of interferon beta 1-a in 62 ambulatory patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Entry criteria included EDSS of 0 to 5.5 and at least two exacerbations in the previous 2 years. The patients received 3 million international units by subcutaneous injections three times a week. The end points were differences in exacerbation rate and treatment effect on disease progression. The annual exacerbation rate for patients that did not take the interferon beta 1-a was 1.32 and for the patients under medication 0.63. The EDSS score in patients that did not take the mediaction was 4.7 and 2.0 for the patients with interferon beta 1-a. Interferon beta 1-a was well tolerated and 85% of patients completed 1 year treatment. PMID:10920406

  2. Substance Use Disorder Counselors’ Job Performance and Turnover after 1 Year: Linear or Curvilinear Relationship?1

    PubMed Central

    Laschober, Tanja C.; de Tormes Eby, Lillian Turner

    2013-01-01

    The main goals of the current study were to investigate whether there are linear or curvilinear relationships between substance use disorder counselors’ job performance and actual turnover after 1 year utilizing four indicators of job performance and three turnover statuses (voluntary, involuntary, and no turnover as the reference group). Using longitudinal data from 440 matched counselor-clinical supervisor dyads, results indicate that overall, counselors with lower job performance are more likely to turn over voluntarily and involuntarily than not to turn over. Further, one of the job performance measures shows a significant curvilinear effect. We conclude that the negative consequences often assumed to be “caused” by counselor turnover may be overstated because those who leave both voluntarily and involuntarily demonstrate generally lower performance than those who remain employed at their treatment program. PMID:22527711

  3. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in Daycare—A 1-Year Dynamic Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hebbelstrup Jensen, Betina; Stensvold, Christen R.; Struve, Carsten; Olsen, Katharina E. P.; Scheutz, Flemming; Boisen, Nadia; Röser, Dennis; Andreassen, Bente U.; Nielsen, Henrik V.; Schønning, Kristian; Petersen, Andreas M.; Krogfelt, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) has been associated with persistent diarrhea, reduced growth acceleration, and failure to thrive in children living in developing countries and with childhood diarrhea in general in industrialized countries. The clinical implications of an EAEC carrier-status in children in industrialized countries warrants clarification. To investigate the pathological significance of an EAEC carrier-state in the industrialized countries, we designed a 1-year dynamic cohort study and performed follow-up every second month, where the study participants submitted a stool sample and answered a questionnaire regarding gastrointestinal symptoms and exposures. Exposures included foreign travel, consumption of antibiotics, and contact with a diseased animal. In the capital area of Denmark, a total of 179 children aged 0–6 years were followed in a cohort study, in the period between 2009 and 2013. This is the first investigation of the incidence and pathological significance of EAEC in Danish children attending daycare facilities. Conventional microbiological detection of enteric pathogens was performed at Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark, and at Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. Parents completed questionnaires regarding gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAEC strains were further characterized by serotyping, phylogenetic analysis, and susceptibility testing. EAEC was detected in 25 (14%) of the children during the observational period of 1 year. One or more gastrointestinal symptoms were reported from 56% of the EAEC-positive children. Diarrhea was reported in six (24%) of the EAEC positive children, but no cases of weight loss, and general failure to thrive were observed. The EAEC strains detected comprised a large number of different serotypes, confirming the genetic heterogeneity of this pathotype. EAEC was highly prevalent (n = 25, 14%) in Danish children in daycare centers and was accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms in

  4. The Effect of Clozapine on Hematological Indices: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jimmy; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Fervaha, Gagan; Powell, Valerie; Bhaloo, Amaal; Bies, Robert; Remington, Gary

    2015-10-01

    Clozapine is the antipsychotic of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia and is linked to a need for mandatory hematological monitoring. Besides agranulocytosis, other hematological aberrations have resulted in premature termination in some cases. Considering clozapine's role in immunomodulation, we proceeded to investigate the impact of clozapine on the following 3 main hematological cell lines: red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells (WBCs), and its differential counts. Data were extracted from patients initiated on clozapine between January 2009 and December 2010 at a single hospital. Patients with a preclozapine complete blood count, who were receiving clozapine during the 1-year follow-up period, were included in the present investigation. Counts of red blood cells, platelets, WBC, and its differential including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils were extracted and trajectories plotted. One hundred one patients were included in this study and 66 remained on clozapine at the end of 1 year. There was a synchronized but transient increase in WBC, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and platelets beginning as early as the first week of clozapine treatment. There were no cases of agranulocytosis reported in this sample, and five developed neutropenia. A spike in neutrophils immediately preceded the onset of neutropenia in three of the five. The cumulative incidence rates were 48.9% for neutrophilia, 5.9% for eosinophilia, and 3% each for thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia. Early hematological aberrations are visible across a range of cell lines, primarily of the myeloid lineage. These disturbances are transient and are probably related to clozapine's immunomodulatory properties. We do not suggest discontinuing clozapine as a consequence of the observed aberrations. PMID:26267420

  5. Factors Associated with Caregiver Burden in Dementia: 1-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sang Hong; Kang, Hyo Shin; Kim, Ji Hae

    2016-01-01

    Objective Dementia symptoms (cognitive function, daily-living function, and neuropsychiatric symptoms) become more serious over time, which is likely to increase caregiver burden. The aim of this study is to investigate which dementia-related symptoms, and how the progression of these symptoms, have influenced caregiver burden during a 1-year follow-up assessment. Methods A total of 110 patients with dementia were assessed for their cognitive function, daily-living function, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Caregivers were assessed for their caregiver burden. Bivariate analyses were conducted between caregiver burden and dementia patients' symptoms, in order to examine which particular symptoms were significantly associated with caregiver burden at the baseline. A multiple regression analysis was then conducted with each significantly associated variable with a view to identifying determinants, influencing caregiver burden. Additionally, bivariate analyses were conducted between the changes in caregiver burden and the changes in patients' symptoms, to investigate which patient variable could best describe caregiver burden from baseline to the 1-year follow-up. A multiple regression analysis was conducted with each significantly-associated change in symptom, in order to identify determinants that influence a change in caregiver burden. Results Neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as irritability, aberrant motor-behavior, delusions and disinhibition were found to be significant predictors of caregiver burden at baseline, according to multiple regression analysis. In addition, changes in neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as delusions, agitation and memory-related functioning in daily-living significantly predict a change in caregiver burden. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that neuropsychiatric symptoms and memory impairment in daily-living functions are significant predictors of an increase in caregiver burden. PMID:26766945

  6. Glomerular filtration rate in patients with atrial fibrillation and 1-year outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Boriani, Giuseppe; Laroche, Cécile; Diemberger, Igor; Popescu, Mircea Ioachim; Rasmussen, Lars Hvilsted; Petrescu, Lucian; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Tavazzi, Luigi; Maggioni, Aldo P.; Lip, Gregory Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed 1-year outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation enrolled in the EurObservational Research Programme AF General Pilot Registry (EORP-AF), in relation to kidney function, as assessed by glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In a cohort of 2398 patients (median age 69 years; 61% male), eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) calculated using the CKD-EPI formula was ≥80 in 35.1%, 50–79 in 47.2%, 30–49 in 13.9% and <30 in 3.7% of patients. In a logistic regression analysis, eGFR category was an independent predictor of stroke/TIA or death, with elevated odds ratios associated with severe to mild renal impairment, ie. eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 [OR 3.641, 95% CI 1.572–8.433, p < 0.0001], 30–49 ml/min/1.73 m2 [OR 3.303, 95% CI 1.740–6.270, p = 0.0026] or 50–79 ml/min/1.73 m2 [OR 2.094, 95% CI 1.194–3.672, p = 0.0003]. The discriminant capability for the risk of death was tested among various eGFR calculation algorithms: the best was the Cockcroft-Gault equation adjusted for BSA, followed by Cockcroft-Gault equation, and CKD-EPI equation, while the worst was the MDRD equation. In conclusion in this prospective observational registry, renal function was a major determinant of adverse outcomes at 1 year, and even mild or moderate renal impairments were associated with an increased risk of stroke/TIA/death. PMID:27466080

  7. Perinatal dioxin exposure and the neurodevelopment of Vietnamese toddlers at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tai The; Nishijo, Muneko; Nguyen, Anh Thi Nguyet; Tran, Nghi Ngoc; Van Hoang, Luong; Tran, Anh Hai; Nguyen, Trung Viet; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-12-01

    Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in both the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. This may potentially have adverse health effects, particularly on infant neurodevelopment. We followed 214 infants whose mothers resided in a dioxin-contaminated area in Da Nang, Vietnam, from birth until 1 year of age. Perinatal exposure to dioxins was estimated from toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TetraCDD) concentrations in breast milk. In infants, daily dioxin intake (DDI) was used as an index of postnatal exposure through breastfeeding. Neurodevelopment of toddlers was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). No significant differences in neurodevelopmental scores were exhibited for cognitive, language or motor functions between four exposure groups of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ or 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD. However, social-emotional scores were decreased in the high PCDDs/Fs-TEQ group and the high 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD group compared with those with mild exposure, after adjusting for confounding factors. Cognitive scores in the mild, moderate, and high DDI groups were significantly higher than those in low DDI group, but there were no differences in cognitive scores among the three higher DDI groups. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to dioxins may affect social-emotional development of 1-year-old toddlers, without diminishing global neurodevelopmental function. PMID:26247686

  8. Metabolic Changes Following a 1-Year Diet and Exercise Intervention in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Albu, Jeanine B.; Heilbronn, Leonie K.; Kelley, David E.; Smith, Steven R.; Azuma, Koichiro; Berk, Evan S.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Ravussin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the relationships among long-term improvements in peripheral insulin sensitivity (glucose disposal rate [GDR]), fasting glucose, and free fatty acids (FFAs) and concomitant changes in weight and adipose tissue mass and distribution induced by lifestyle intervention in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured GDR, fasting glucose, and FFAs during a euglycemic clamp and adipose tissue mass and distribution, organ fat, and adipocyte size by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, CT scan, and adipose tissue biopsy in 26 men and 32 women in the Look-AHEAD trial before and after 1 year of diet and exercise aimed at weight loss. RESULTS Weight and fasting glucose decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) and significantly more in men than in women (−12 vs. −8% and −16 vs. −7%, respectively; P < 0.05), while FFAs during hyperinsulinemia decreased and GDR increased significantly (P < 0.00001) and similarly in both sexes (−53 vs. −41% and 63 vs. 43%; P = NS). Men achieved a more favorable fat distribution by losing more from upper compared with lower and from deeper compared with superficial adipose tissue depots (P < 0.01). Decreases in weight and adipose tissue mass predicted improvements in GDR but not in fasting glucose or fasting FFAs; however, decreases in FFAs during hyperinsulinemia significantly determined GDR improvements. Hepatic fat was the only regional fat measure whose change contributed independently to changes in metabolic variables. CONCLUSIONS Patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing a 1-year lifestyle intervention had significant improvements in GDR, fasting glucose, FFAs and adipose tissue distribution. However, changes in overall weight (adipose tissue mass) and hepatic fat were the most important determinants of metabolic improvements. PMID:20028945

  9. Infant Aphakia Treatment Study: Effects of persistent fetal vasculature on outcome at 1 year of age

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, David G.; Wilson, M. Edward; Trivedi, Rupal H.; Lambert, Scott R.; Lynn, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) is a randomized trial comparing the treatment of unilateral congenital cataract with primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation versus aphakic contact lens (CL). The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes for infants with lens opacity associated with persistent fetal vasculature (PFV) to those without. Methods Retrospective subgroup analysis of grating visual acuity at 1 year of age and adverse events up to 1 year after surgery in eyes identified intraoperatively as having evidence of mild PFV from the IATS. Results Of 83 infants, 18 (22%: 11 CL, 7 IOL) had PFV. Median logMAR visual acuity was 0.88 for patients with PFV and 0.80 for patients without PFV (P = 0.46). One or more adverse events up to one year after surgery occurred in 12 infants (67%) with PFV and 30 infants (46%) without PFV (P = 0.18). The incidence of adverse events was significantly higher in patients with PFV compared to patients without PFV in the CL group (55% vs 20%, P = 0.049) but not in the IOL group (86% vs 71%, P = 0.65), possibly because all children receiving IOLs had higher rates of adverse events when compared to aphakic children (73% vs 29%, P < 0.001). Conclusions Aphakic infants with mild PFV treated with CL had a higher incidence of adverse events following lensectomy compared to children with other forms of unilateral congenital cataract; nevertheless, similar visual outcomes at one year after surgery were obtained. PMID:22108353

  10. Glomerular filtration rate in patients with atrial fibrillation and 1-year outcomes.

    PubMed

    Boriani, Giuseppe; Laroche, Cécile; Diemberger, Igor; Popescu, Mircea Ioachim; Rasmussen, Lars Hvilsted; Petrescu, Lucian; Crijns, Harry J G M; Tavazzi, Luigi; Maggioni, Aldo P; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-01-01

    We assessed 1-year outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation enrolled in the EurObservational Research Programme AF General Pilot Registry (EORP-AF), in relation to kidney function, as assessed by glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In a cohort of 2398 patients (median age 69 years; 61% male), eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m(2)) calculated using the CKD-EPI formula was ≥80 in 35.1%, 50-79 in 47.2%, 30-49 in 13.9% and <30 in 3.7% of patients. In a logistic regression analysis, eGFR category was an independent predictor of stroke/TIA or death, with elevated odds ratios associated with severe to mild renal impairment, ie. eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) [OR 3.641, 95% CI 1.572-8.433, p < 0.0001], 30-49 ml/min/1.73 m(2) [OR 3.303, 95% CI 1.740-6.270, p = 0.0026] or 50-79 ml/min/1.73 m2 [OR 2.094, 95% CI 1.194-3.672, p = 0.0003]. The discriminant capability for the risk of death was tested among various eGFR calculation algorithms: the best was the Cockcroft-Gault equation adjusted for BSA, followed by Cockcroft-Gault equation, and CKD-EPI equation, while the worst was the MDRD equation. In conclusion in this prospective observational registry, renal function was a major determinant of adverse outcomes at 1 year, and even mild or moderate renal impairments were associated with an increased risk of stroke/TIA/death. PMID:27466080

  11. Endovascular stents in children under 1 year of age: acute impact and late results.

    PubMed Central

    Hatai, Y.; Nykanen, D. G.; Williams, W. G.; Freedom, R. M.; Benson, L. N.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To review efficacy and safety of endovascular stent implants in children < 1 year of age with congenital heart lesions. DESIGN--Retrospective study of patients in a tertiary care setting. PATIENTS--26 children (median age of 4.7 months, range 2 days to 1 year) with various vascular obstructive lesions. INTERVENTION--Percutaneous or intraoperative implantation of balloon expandable endovascular stents. RESULTS--Optimal stent placement was obtained in 31 of the 37 deployed implants. Complications resulted primarily from stent malpositioning and one episode of bleeding at a puncture site. Stent implantation in three patients with a restrictive arterial duct allowed for patency and five patients with conduit stenosis had mean (SD) right ventricule to systemic artery pressure ratios falling from 0.99 (0.20) to 0.52 (0.18) (P < 0.05). In 10 patients with pulmonary artery stenosis, the mean vessel diameter increased from 2.8 (0.9) mm to 5.8 (1.4) mm (P << 0.001). No clinical improvement was seen in two patients because of diffuse hypoplasia of the pulmonary vessels. Nine of 10 patients with miscellaneous obstructive lesions improved clinically. Recatheterisation was performed in 19 patients (median 8 months, range 12 days to 28 months) and 11 patients required redilatation (17 stents). CONCLUSIONS--Stent implantation is technically feasible in infants and under specific circumstances may provide an alternative to surgical palliation or avoid reoperation. The long term impact on clinical course, however, involves further interventions directed at stent management. Images PMID:8541180

  12. A longitudinal study of back dimension changes over 1 year in sports horses.

    PubMed

    Greve, Line; Dyson, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Major back dimension changes over time have been observed in some horses, the speed of which may be influenced by work type, skeletal maturity, nutrition and saddle fit. Currently, there are no longitudinal data quantifying changes in back dimensions. The objectives of this study were to quantify back dimension changes over time, to identify the effects of horse, saddle and rider on these dimensions, and to determine their association with season, weight, work and saddle management. A prospective, longitudinal study was performed, using stratified random sampling within a convenience sample of 104 sports horses in normal work. Thoracolumbar dimensions/symmetry were measured at predetermined sites every second month over 1 year; weight, work and saddle management changes were recorded. Descriptive statistics, and univariable and multiple mixed effects linear regression were performed to assess the association between management changes, horse-saddle-rider factors and back dimension changes. Complete data was available for 63/104 horses, including horses used for dressage (n= 26), showjumping (n= 26), eventing (n= 26) and general purpose (n= 26), with age groups 3-5 years (n = 24), 6-8 years (n = 28), 9-12 years (n = 24) and ≥ 13 years (n = 28). There were considerable variations in back dimensions over 1 year. In the multivariable analysis, the presence of gait abnormalities at initial examination and back asymmetry were significant and had a negative effect on changes in back dimensions. Subsequent improved saddle fit, similar or increased work intensity, season (summer versus winter) and increased bodyweight retained significance, having positive effects on changes in back dimensions. In conclusion, quantifiable changes in back dimensions occur throughout the year. Saddle fit should be reassessed professionally several times a year, especially if there has been a change in work intensity. PMID:25510314

  13. Abdominal MRI without Enteral Contrast Accurately Detects Intestinal Fibrostenosis in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jeremy G; Kalb, Bobby; Martin, Diego; Dhere, Tanvi; Perez, Sebastian D; Srinivasan, Jahnavi K

    2015-11-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) presenting for surgical evaluation require thorough small bowel surveillance as it improves accuracy of diagnosis (ulcerative colitis versus Crohn's) and differentiates those who may respond to nonoperative therapy, preserving bowel length. MRI has not been validated conclusively against histopathology in IBD. Most protocols require enteral contrast. This study aimed to 1) evaluate the accuracy of MRI for inflammation, fibrosis, and extraluminal complications and 2) compare MRI without enteral contrast to standard magnetic resonance enterography. Adults with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis who underwent abdominal MRI and surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Of 65 patients evaluated, 55 met inclusion criteria. Overall sensitivity and specificity of MRI for disease involvement localized by segment were 93 per cent (95% confidence interval = 89.4-95.0) and 95 per cent (95% confidence interval = 92.3-97.0), respectively (positive predictive value was 86%, negative predictive value was 98%). Sensitivity and specificity between MRI with and without oral and rectal contrast were similar (96% vs 91% and 99% vs 94%, P > 0.10). As were positive predictive value and negative predictive value (85% vs 96%, P = 0.16; 97% vs 99%, P = 0.42). Magnetic resonance is highly sensitive and specific for localized disease involvement and extraluminal abdominal sequelae of IBD. It accurately differentiates patients who have chronic transmural (fibrotic) disease and thus may require an operation from those with acute inflammation, whose symptoms may improve with aggressive medical therapy alone. MRI without contrast had comparable diagnostic yield to standard magnetic resonance enterography. PMID:26672581

  14. Environmentally responsive MRI contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Gemma-Louise; Kramberger, Iris; Davis, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical imaging techniques can provide a vast amount of anatomical information, enabling diagnosis and the monitoring of disease and treatment profile. MRI uniquely offers convenient, non-invasive, high resolution tomographic imaging. A considerable amount of effort has been invested, across several decades, in the design of non toxic paramagnetic contrast agents capable of enhancing positive MRI signal contrast. Recently, focus has shifted towards the development of agents capable of specifically reporting on their local biochemical environment, where a switch in image contrast is triggered by a specific stimulus/biochemical variable. Such an ability would not only strengthen diagnosis but also provide unique disease-specific biochemical insight. This feature article focuses on recent progress in the development of MRI contrast switching with molecular, macromolecular and nanoparticle-based agents. PMID:24040650

  15. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%). Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days), medium (4-14 days) and long (>14 days) spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations) and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal"). Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters). Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR) or odds ratios (OR)) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2) and

  16. An Empirical Method for Establishing Positional Confidence Intervals Tailored for Composite Interval Mapping of QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved genetic resolution and availability of sequenced genomes have made positional cloning of moderate-effect QTL (quantitative trait loci) realistic in several systems, emphasizing the need for precise and accurate derivation of positional confidence intervals (CIs). Support interval (SI) meth...

  17. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  18. Interval scanning photomicrography of microbial cell populations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A single reproducible area of the preparation in a fixed focal plane is photographically scanned at intervals during incubation. The procedure can be used for evaluating the aerobic or anaerobic growth of many microbial cells simultaneously within a population. In addition, the microscope is not restricted to the viewing of any one microculture preparation, since the slide cultures are incubated separately from the microscope.

  19. Duration perception in crossmodally-defined intervals.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Katja M; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ernst, Marc O

    2014-03-01

    How humans perform duration judgments with multisensory stimuli is an ongoing debate. Here, we investigated how sub-second duration judgments are achieved by asking participants to compare the duration of a continuous sound to the duration of an empty interval in which onset and offset were marked by signals of different modalities using all combinations of visual, auditory and tactile stimuli. The pattern of perceived durations across five stimulus durations (ranging from 100 ms to 900 ms) follows the Vierordt Law. Furthermore, intervals with a sound as onset (audio-visual, audio-tactile) are perceived longer than intervals with a sound as offset. No modality ordering effect is found for visualtactile intervals. To infer whether a single modality-independent or multiple modality-dependent time-keeping mechanisms exist we tested whether perceived duration follows a summative or a multiplicative distortion pattern by fitting a model to all modality combinations and durations. The results confirm that perceived duration depends on sensory latency (summative distortion). Instead, we did not find evidence for multiplicative distortions. The results of the model and the behavioural data support the concept of a single time-keeping mechanism that allows for judgments of durations marked by multisensory stimuli. PMID:23953664

  20. Sensory superstition on multiple interval schedules.

    PubMed

    Starr, B C; Staddon, J E

    1982-03-01

    Pigeons were exposed to multiple schedules in which an irregular repeating sequence of five stimulus components was correlated with the same reinforcement schedule throughout. Stable, idiosyncratic, response-rate differences developed across components. Components were rank-ordered by response rate; an approximately linear relation was found between rank order and the deviation of mean response rate from the overall mean rate. Nonzero slopes of this line were found for multiple fixed-interval and variable-time schedules and for multiple variable-interval schedules both when number of reinforcements was the same in all components and when it varied. The steepest function slopes were found in the variable schedules with relatively long interfood intervals and relatively short component durations. When just one stimulus was correlated with all components of a multiple variable-interval schedule, the slope of the line was close to zero. The results suggest that food-rate differences may be induced initially by different reactions to the stimuli and subsequently maintained by food. PMID:7069361

  1. Sensory superstition on multiple interval schedules.

    PubMed Central

    Starr, B C; Staddon, J E

    1982-01-01

    Pigeons were exposed to multiple schedules in which an irregular repeating sequence of five stimulus components was correlated with the same reinforcement schedule throughout. Stable, idiosyncratic, response-rate differences developed across components. Components were rank-ordered by response rate; an approximately linear relation was found between rank order and the deviation of mean response rate from the overall mean rate. Nonzero slopes of this line were found for multiple fixed-interval and variable-time schedules and for multiple variable-interval schedules both when number of reinforcements was the same in all components and when it varied. The steepest function slopes were found in the variable schedules with relatively long interfood intervals and relatively short component durations. When just one stimulus was correlated with all components of a multiple variable-interval schedule, the slope of the line was close to zero. The results suggest that food-rate differences may be induced initially by different reactions to the stimuli and subsequently maintained by food. PMID:7069361

  2. MEETING DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES WITH INTERVAL INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassay test kits are promising technologies for measuring analytes under field conditions. Frequently, these field-test kits report the analyte concentrations as falling in an interval between minimum and maximum values. Many project managers use field-test kits only for scr...

  3. Gauss-Laguerre interval quadrature rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Gradimir V.; Cvetkovic, Aleksandar S.

    2005-10-01

    In this paper we prove the existence and uniqueness of the Gaussian interval quadrature formula with respect to the generalized Laguerre weight function. An algorithm for numerical construction has also investigated and some suitable solutions are proposed. A few numerical examples are included.

  4. Happiness Scale Interval Study. Methodological Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmijn, W. M.; Arends, L. R.; Veenhoven, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Happiness Scale Interval Study deals with survey questions on happiness, using verbal response options, such as "very happy" and "pretty happy". The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a continuous [0,10] scale, which are…

  5. Precise Interval Timer for Software Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A precise digital fractional interval timer for software defined radios which vary their waveform on a packet-by-packet basis. The timer allows for variable length in the preamble of the RF packet and allows to adjust boundaries of the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Slots of the receiver of an SDR based on the reception of the RF packet of interest.

  6. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  7. [MRI of the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Langevad, Line; Madsen, Camilla Gøbel; Siebner, Hartwig; Garde, Ellen

    2014-11-10

    The pineal gland (CP) is located centrally in the brain and produces melatonin. Cysts and concrements are frequent findings on MRI but their significance is still unclear. The visualization of CP is difficult due to its location and surrounding structures and so far, no standardized method exists. New studies suggest a correlation between CP-morphology and melatonin secretion as well as a connection between melatonin, disturbed circadian rhythm, and the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, underlining the need for a standardized approach to CP on MRI. PMID:25394927

  8. Fetal MRI: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Sapna; Joshi, Priscilla; Kelkar, Abhimanyu; Seth, Nagesh

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is the primary method for antenatal fetal evaluation. However, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has now become a valuable adjunct to USG in confirming/excluding suspected abnormalities and in the detection of additional abnormalities, thus changing the outcome of pregnancy and optimizing perinatal management. With the development of ultrafast sequences, fetal MRI has made remarkable progress in recent times. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate a spectrum of structural abnormalities affecting the central nervous system, thorax, genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract, as well as miscellaneous anomalies. Anomalies in twin gestations and placental abnormalities have also been included. PMID:27081224

  9. MRI EVALUATION OF KNEE CARTILAGE

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Marcelo Bordalo; Camanho, Gilberto Luís

    2015-01-01

    Through the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to characterize soft tissue noninvasively, it has become an excellent method for evaluating cartilage. The development of new and faster methods allowed increased resolution and contrast in evaluating chondral structure, with greater diagnostic accuracy. In addition, physiological techniques for cartilage assessment that can detect early changes before the appearance of cracks and erosion have been developed. In this updating article, the various techniques for chondral assessment using knee MRI will be discussed and demonstrated. PMID:27022562

  10. The Raven MRI teaching file

    SciTech Connect

    Lufkin, R.B.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.

    1990-01-01

    This book presents individually bound guides for each section of the body, the 1,000 concise and clearly illustrated case files cover neoplastic, non-neoplastic, degenerative, inflammatory, congenital, and acquired disease of the brain, head and neck, spine, musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular system, chest, abdomen, and male and female pelvis. It focuses on specific body regions; one is devoted to pediatric MRI; and one reviews the principles of MRI and identifies frequently encountered artifacts. It contains 100 completed case studies, with high-resolution MR images.

  11. The Role of Brain MRI in Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Scarpelli, Mauro; Ricciardi, Giuseppe Kenneth; Beltramello, Alberto; Zocca, Isabella; Calabria, Francesca; Russignan, Anna; Zappini, Francesca; Cotelli, Maria Sofia; Padovani, Alessandro; Tomelleri, Giuliano; Filosto, Massimiliano; Tonin, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Summary Leukoencephalopathy is a hallmark of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) a devastating disorder characterized by ptosis, ophthalmoparesis, gastrointestinal dysfunction and polyneuropathy. To characterize MNGIE-associated leukoencephalopathy and to correlate it with clinical, biochemical and molecular data, four MNGIE patients with heterogeneous clinical phenotypes (enteropathic arthritis, exercise intolerance, CIDP-like phenotype and typical presentation) were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were also obtained. In two patients we also investigated the role of brain MRI in monitoring the evolution of leukoencephalopathy by performing follow-up imaging studies at an interval of one and two years. The extension and distribution of leukoencephalopathy were not clearly linked with age, phenotype or disease severity, and did not seem to be related to TYMP mutations, enzyme activity or pyrimidine levels. In the studied patients MRS revealed reduced N-acetyl-aspartate and increased choline signals. Although DWI appeared normal in all patients but one, ADC maps always showed moderate increased diffusivity. Leukoencephalopathy worsened over a two-year period in two patients, regardless of the clinical course, indicating a lack of correlation between clinical phenotype, size and progression of white matter abnormalities during this period. Brain MRI should be considered a very useful tool to diagnose both classical and atypical MNGIE. Serial MRIs in untreated and treated MNGIE patients will help to establish whether the leukoencephalopathy is a reversible condition or not. PMID:24199812

  12. Extending the diabetic retinopathy screening interval beyond 1 year: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Mistry, Hema; Leslie, Rachael; Todkill, Dan; Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Connock, Martin; Clarke, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the recommended screening interval for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the UK can safely be extended beyond 1 year. Systematic review of clinical and cost-effectiveness studies. Nine databases were searched with no date restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, prognostic or economic modelling studies which described the incidence and progression of DR in populations with type 1 diabetes mellitus or type 2 diabetes mellitus of either sex and of any age reporting incidence and progression of DR in relation to screening interval (vs annual screening interval) and/or prognostic factors were included. Narrative synthesis was undertaken. 14,013 papers were identified, of which 11 observational studies, 5 risk stratification modelling studies and 9 economic studies were included. Data were available for 262,541 patients of whom at least 228,649 (87%) had type 2 diabetes. There were no RCTs. Studies concluded that there is little difference between clinical outcomes from screening 1 yearly or 2 yearly in low-risk patients. However there was high loss to follow-up (13-31%), heterogeneity in definitions of low risk and variation in screening and grading protocols for prior retinopathy results. Observational and economic modelling studies in low-risk patients show little difference in clinical outcomes between 1-year and 2-year screening intervals. The lack of experimental research designs and heterogeneity in definition of low risk considerably limits the reliability and validity of this conclusion. Cost-effectiveness findings were mixed. There is insufficient evidence to recommend a move to extend the screening interval beyond 1 year. PMID:25586713

  13. Extending the diabetic retinopathy screening interval beyond 1 year: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Mistry, Hema; Leslie, Rachael; Todkill, Dan; Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Connock, Martin; Clarke, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the recommended screening interval for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the UK can safely be extended beyond 1 year. Systematic review of clinical and cost-effectiveness studies. Nine databases were searched with no date restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, prognostic or economic modelling studies which described the incidence and progression of DR in populations with type 1 diabetes mellitus or type 2 diabetes mellitus of either sex and of any age reporting incidence and progression of DR in relation to screening interval (vs annual screening interval) and/or prognostic factors were included. Narrative synthesis was undertaken. 14 013 papers were identified, of which 11 observational studies, 5 risk stratification modelling studies and 9 economic studies were included. Data were available for 262 541 patients of whom at least 228 649 (87%) had type 2 diabetes. There were no RCTs. Studies concluded that there is little difference between clinical outcomes from screening 1 yearly or 2 yearly in low-risk patients. However there was high loss to follow-up (13–31%), heterogeneity in definitions of low risk and variation in screening and grading protocols for prior retinopathy results. Observational and economic modelling studies in low-risk patients show little difference in clinical outcomes between 1-year and 2-year screening intervals. The lack of experimental research designs and heterogeneity in definition of low risk considerably limits the reliability and validity of this conclusion. Cost-effectiveness findings were mixed. There is insufficient evidence to recommend a move to extend the screening interval beyond 1 year. PMID:25586713

  14. Paramagnetic lanthanide chelates for multicontrast MRI.

    PubMed

    Cakić, Nevenka; Savić, Tanja; Stricker-Shaver, Janice; Truffault, Vincent; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Mirkes, Christian; Pohmann, Rolf; Scheffler, Klaus; Angelovski, Goran

    2016-07-28

    The preparation of a paramagnetic chelator that serves as a platform for multicontrast MRI, and can be utilized either as a T1-weighted, paraCEST or (19)F MRI contrast agent is reported. Its europium(iii) complex exhibits an extremely slow water exchange rate which is optimal for the use in CEST MRI. The potential of this platform was demonstrated through a series of MRI studies on tube phantoms and animals. PMID:27291157

  15. Prevalence and 1-year prognosis of transient heart failure following coronary revascularization.

    PubMed

    Ambrosetti, Marco; Griffo, Raffaele; Tramarin, Roberto; Fattirolli, Francesco; Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Faggiano, Pompilio; De Feo, Stefania; Vestri, Anna Rita; Giallauria, Francesco; Greco, Cesare

    2014-09-01

    The occurrence of heart failure during the whole pre-discharge course of coronary revascularization, as far as its influence on subsequent prognosis, is poorly understood. The present study examined the effect of transient heart failure (THF) developing in the acute and rehabilitative phase on survival after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients in the Italian survey on cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention after cardiac revascularization (ICAROS) were analyzed for THF, the latter being defined either as signs and symptoms consistent with decompensation or cardiogenic shock. ICAROS was a prospective, multicenter registry of 1,262 consecutive patients discharged from 62 cardiac rehabilitation (CR) facilities, providing data on risk factors, lifestyle habits, drug treatments, and major cardiovascular events (MACE) during a 1-year follow-up. Records were linked to the official website of the Italian Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (GICR-IACPR). The overall prevalence of pre-discharge THF was 7.6%, with 69.8% of cases in acute wards, 22.9% during CR, and 7.3% in both settings. THF affected more frequently patients with chronic cardiac condition (42.7 vs. 30.6%; p < 0.05), age ≥75 years (33.3 vs. 23.1%; p < 0.005), COPD (19.8 vs. 12.3%; p < 0.05), and chronic kidney disease (17.7 vs. 7%; p < 0.001). After discharge, THF patients showed good maintenance rates of RAAS modulators (90.6%) and beta-blockers (83.3%), while statin therapy significantly decreased from 81.3 to 64.6% (p < 0.05). The pursuit of secondary prevention targets, as far as self-reported drug adherence, was not different among groups. Patients with THF had increased 1-year mortality (8.3 vs. 1.6%, p < 0.001). Moreover, THF independently predicted adverse outcome with OR for recurrent events (mainly further episodes of decompensation) of 2.4 (CI 1.4-4.3). Patients who experienced THF after coronary

  16. Vertebral Augmentation with Nitinol Endoprosthesis: Clinical Experience in 40 Patients with 1-Year Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmetti, Giovanni Carlo; Manca, Antonio; Marcia, Stefano; Chiara, Gabriele; Marini, Stefano; Baroud, Gamal; Regge, Daniele; Montemurro, Filippo

    2013-05-08

    PurposeThis study was designed to assess the clinical outcomes of patients treated by vertebral augmentation with nitinol endoprosthesis (VNE) to treat painful vertebral compression fractures.MethodsForty patients with one or more painful osteoporotic VCF, confirmed by MRI and accompanied by back-pain unresponsive to a minimum 2 months of conservative medical treatment, underwent VNE at 42 levels. Preoperative and postoperative pain measured with Visual Analog Scale (VAS), disability measured by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and vertebral height restoration (measured with 2-dimensional reconstruction CT) were compared at last follow-up (average follow-up 15 months). Cement extravasation, subsequent fractures, and implant migration were recorded.ResultsLong-term follow-up was obtained in 38 of 40 patients. Both VAS and ODI significantly improved from a median of 8.0 (range 5–10) and 66 % (range 44–88 %) to 0.5 (range 0–8) and 6 % (range 6–66 %), respectively, at 1 year (p < 0.0001). Vertebral height measurements comparing time points increased in a statistically significant manner (ANOVA, p < 0.001). Overall cement extravasation rate was 9.5 %. Discal and venous leakage rates were 7.1 and 0 % respectively. No symptomatic extravasations occurred. Five of 38 (13.1 %) patients experienced new spontaneous, osteoporotic fractures. No device change or migration was observed.ConclusionsVNE is a safe and effective procedure that is able to provide long-lasting pain relief and durable vertebral height gain with a low rate of new fractures and cement leakages.

  17. Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of An Athletic Trainer-Directed Spit (Smokeless) Tobacco Intervention for Collegiate Baseball Athletes: Results After 1 Year.

    PubMed

    Gansky, Stuart A; Ellison, James A; Rudy, Diane; Bergert, Ned; Letendre, Mark A; Nelson, Lisa; Kavanagh, Catherine; Walsh, Margaret M

    2005-06-01

    Context: Athletes in the United States are at high risk for using spit (smokeless) tobacco (ST) and incurring its associated adverse health effects.Objective: To examine whether an athletic trainer-directed ST intervention could decrease initiation and promote cessation of ST use among male collegiate baseball athletes.Design: Stratified, cluster-randomized controlled trial.Setting: Fifty-two California colleges.Patients or Other Participant(s): A total of 883 subjects in 27 intervention colleges and 702 subjects in 25 control colleges participated, as did 48 certified athletic trainers.Intervention(s): For college athletic trainers and associated dental professionals, a 3-hour video conference, and for collegiate athletes, an oral cancer screening with feedback and brief counseling during the preseason health screenings, athletic trainer support for cessation, and a peer-led educational baseball team meeting.Main Outcome Measure(s): The subjects' ST use over 1 year was assessed by self-report. At the end of the study, the certified athletic trainers were mailed a survey assessing their tobacco use and perceptions and behavior related to tobacco control in the athletic environment. We used multivariable logistic regression models for clustered responses (generalized estimating equations) to test the difference between groups in ST-use initiation and cessation and to identify significant overall predictors of noninitiation and cessation of ST use.Results: Of the 1585 athletes recruited, 1248 (78.7%) were followed up at 12 months. In addition, 48 of the 52 athletic trainers (92%) responded to the 1-year follow-up survey. The ST-use initiation (incidence) was 5.1% in intervention colleges and 8.4% in control colleges (generalized estimating equation odds ratio = 0.58, 95% confidence interval = 0.35-0.99). Predictors of ST noninitiation were low lifetime tobacco and monthly alcohol use (odds ratio = 1.98, 95% confidence interval = 1.40- 2.82) and athletic trainers

  18. Is a Short-Interval Postradiation Mammogram Necessary After Conservative Surgery and Radiation in Breast Cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Kevin Eradat, Jilbert B.S.; Mehta, Niraj H.; Bent, Chris; Lee, Steve P.; Apple, Sophia K.; Bassett, Lawrence W.

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To examine, in a retrospective study, whether the initial posttreatment mammogram offers any benefit to patients. Methods and Materials: Patients were selected who had radiation after breast-conservation therapy from 1995 through 2005 and had follow-up mammography at University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) within 1 year of completing radiotherapy. Results of the initial follow-up mammogram were analyzed to determine the yield of this initial mammogram. Results: Between 1995 and 2005, 408 patients treated with breast-conserving therapy and radiation had follow-up mammograms at UCLA within 1 year of completion of radiation. Median age at radiation completion was 56.9 years. Median interval between radiation and the initial mammogram was 3.1 months. Ten patients were found to have suspicious findings on the initial postradiation mammogram, prompting biopsy, but only 2 were found to have recurrent cancer. None of those lesions were palpable. In both cases the recurrences were ductal carcinoma in situ. Thus, the yield of the initial postoperative mammogram as compared with physical examination findings is estimated at 0.49 recurrences detected per 100 mammograms performed (95% confidence interval 0.059-1.759). Conclusions: The yield of the initial postradiation mammography at UCLA seems to be low, and only noninvasive carcinomas were found. Our data support the rationale to avoid the initial short-interval postradiation mammography and evaluate patients at 12 months.

  19. Residential property values predict prevalent obesity but do not predict 1 year weight change

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Tang, Wesley; Moudon, Anne Vernez

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lower socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with higher obesity rates but not with weight gain. This study examined whether SES can predict short-term weight change. Design and Methods The Seattle Obesity Study II was based on an observational cohort of 440 adults. Weights and heights were measured at baseline and at 1 y. Self-reported education and incomes were obtained by questionnaire. Home addresses were linked to tax parcel property values from the King Co. tax assessor. Associations among SES variables, prevalent obesity, and 1 y weight change were examined using multivariable linear regressions. Results Low residential property values at tax parcel predicted prevalent obesity at baseline and at 1 y. Living in the top quartile of house prices reduced obesity risk by 80% at both time points. At 1 year, about 38% of the sample lost >1kg body weight; 32% maintained (± 1kg), and 30% gained >1kg. In adjusted models, none of the baseline SES measures had any impact on 1 y weight change. Conclusions SES variables, including tax parcel property values predicted prevalent obesity but did not predict short-term weight change. These findings, based on longitudinal cohort data, suggest other mechanisms are involved in short-term weight change. PMID:25684713

  20. Hydrocephalus in children less than 1 year of age in northern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Sérgio F.; Henriques, João Carlos; Munguambe, Missael; Vaz, Rui M. C.; Barros, Henrique P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In developed countries, the incidence of neonatal hydrocephalus ranges from 3 to 5 cases per 1000 live births, but little is known about the frequency of hydrocephalus in Africa. In Mozambique, there is no primary information related to this disorder, but using the above data, the expected incidence of neonatal hydrocephalus would range from 2900 to 4800 cases per year. Methods: This study is based on 122 children younger than 1 year with neonatal hydrocephalus, followed up between January 2010 and December 2012, their origin and treatment, and aims to evaluate difficulties with diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in northern Mozambique. Results: Identified cases were mainly less than 6 months old (77%), with severe macrocephaly and the classic stigmata of this condition. A high rate of follow-up loss (44.3%) was detected, particularly among children from more distant locations. Our findings contrast with the expected 1000-1700 cases that would occur in the area during the study period, being considerably lower. Conclusions: Hydrocephalus is a serious problem in sub-Saharan Africa, whose effects can be minimized by a better organization of the health system in hydrocephalus prevention, referral, and follow-up. New management alternatives to provide treatment to more children with this disorder and reduction of the follow-up difficulties caused due to geographical reasons for the children undergoing treatment are essential. PMID:25593759

  1. Ablation for atrial fibrillation during mitral valve surgery: 1-year results through continuous subcutaneous monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bogachev-Prokophiev, Alexandr; Zheleznev, Sergey; Romanov, Alexander; Pokushalov, Evgeny; Pivkin, Alexey; Corbucci, Giorgio; Karaskov, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Continuous monitoring of cardiac rhythm may play an important role in measuring the true symptomatic/asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) burden and improve the management of anti-arrhythmic and anti-thrombotic therapies. Forty-seven patients with mitral valve disease and longstanding persistent AF (LSPAF) underwent a left atrial maze procedure with bipolar radiofrequency and valve surgery. The follow-up data recorded by an implanted loop recorder were analysed after 3, 6 and 12 months. On discharge, 40 (85.1%) patients were in stable sinus rhythm, as documented by in-office electrocardiography (ECG), 4 (8.5%) were in pacemaker rhythm and 3 (6.4%) were in AF. One (2.1%) patient died after 7 months. On 12-month follow-up examination, 30 (65.2%) patients had an AF burden <0.5% and were classified as responders. Three (6.5%) of the 16 non-responders had atrial flutter and 13 (27.7%) had documented AF recurrences with an AF burden >0.5%. Two (4.3%) patients with AF recurrences were completely asymptomatic. Among the symptomatic events stored by the patients, only 27.6% was confirmed as genuine AF recurrences according to the concomitant ECG recorded by the implanted loop recorder. A concomitant bipolar maze procedure during mitral valve surgery is effective in treating AF, as proved by detailed 1-year continuous monitoring. PMID:22514258

  2. A 1-year follow-up of implants of differing surface roughness placed in rabbit bone.

    PubMed

    Wennerberg, A; Ektessabi, A; Albrektsson, T; Johansson, C; Andersson, B

    1997-01-01

    Screw-shaped implants were prepared with three different surface topographies: One was left as machined, ie, a turned surface, and two were blasted surfaces with differing degrees of surface roughness. The surface topography was measured with a confocal laser scanning profilometer and the surface roughness was characterized using height and spatial descriptive parameters. The turned surface had an average surface roughness of 0.96 micron and an average peak spacing of 8.6 microns. The two blasted surfaces had surface roughness values of 1.16 microns and 1.94 microns, respectively; the corresponding values for the peak spacing parameter were 10.00 microns and 13.22 microns, respectively. After 1 year in rabbit bone, the bone response to the turned implants was compared with the response to the two blasted implant surfaces. Firmer bone fixation was found for the two blasted surfaces, with statistically significant increases in removal torque and percentage of bone-to-metal contact. Furthermore, about 2 mm from the implant surface, the titanium release was similar for the turned and the 25-micron aluminum oxide-blasted implants. PMID:9274077

  3. Effectiveness of sealing active proximal caries lesions with an adhesive system: 1-year clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Abuchaim, Clarisse; Rotta, Marina; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Reis, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a therapeutic sealant to arrest non-cavitated proximal carious lesion progression. The study population comprised 44 adolescents who had bitewing radiographs taken for caries diagnosis. Non-cavitated lesions extending up to half of dentin thickness were included in the sample. In the experimental group (n = 33), the proximal caries-lesion surfaces were sealed with an adhesive (OptiBond Solo, Kerr) after tooth separation. The control group (n = 11) received no treatment, except for oral hygiene instructions including use of dental floss. Follow-up radiographs were taken after one year and were analyzed in comparison with baseline radiographs. In a blind study setting, visual readings were performed by two examiners, blinded to whether the examined radiograph was baseline or follow-up, and whether it concerned a test or control lesion. The efficacy of sealing treatment was evaluated by the McNemar test (0.05). About 22% of the sealed lesions showed reduction, 61% showed no change and 16% showed progression. For the control lesions, the corresponding values were 27%, 36% and 36% respectively. The number of lesions that showed reduction and no changes were merged and therefore 83.3% of the sealed lesions and 63.6% of the control lesions were considered clinically successful. No statistical significance was detected (p > 0.05). In the course of 1 year, sealing proximal caries lesions was not shown to be superior to lesion monitoring. PMID:20877976

  4. Temporal associations between disordered eating and nonsuicidal self-injury: examining symptom overlap over 1 year.

    PubMed

    Turner, Brianna J; Yiu, Angelina; Layden, Brianne K; Claes, Laurence; Zaitsoff, Shannon; Chapman, Alexander L

    2015-01-01

    Disordered eating (DE) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) commonly co-occur. This study compared several models of the longitudinal relationship between DE and NSSI, including concurrent and prospective models, and examined the possible moderating roles of self-objectification, impulsivity, and emotion dysregulation in these relationships. Individuals with NSSI (N=197) recruited from online forums completed measures of NSSI and DE every 3 months for 1 year. We tested the associations between NSSI and DE using hierarchical linear models. Results supported a concurrent relationship, wherein frequency of NSSI positively covaried with concurrent DE severity. Body surveillance moderated the concurrent relationship between NSSI and DE. Individuals who engaged in more body surveillance endorsed high levels of DE pathology, whereas those lower in body surveillance engaged in more frequent NSSI only at higher levels of DE. In addition, whereas DE did not prospectively predict NSSI, frequency of NSSI predicted more severe DE 3 months later. The prospective relationship between DE and later NSSI was moderated by emotion dysregulation, such that highly dysregulated individuals had a stronger relationship between DE and later NSSI, whereas this relationship was not significant among individuals low in emotion dysregulation. These findings add valuable information regarding the co-occurrence of self-damaging behaviors. PMID:25526840

  5. Congenital abnormality of the vagina complicated by haemato-pyocolpos in a 1-year labrador retriever.

    PubMed

    Alonge, S; Romussi, S; Grieco, V; Luvoni, G C

    2015-06-01

    A 1-year-old female Labrador retriever was referred with a few days history of haematic-like vulvar discharge. Physical examination, vaginal inspection and palpation did not reveal any remarkable finding. Transabdominal ultrasound showed echogenic fluid accumulation in the vagina suggesting haemato-pyocolpos. An exploratory laparotomy was performed: a well-delimited ectasic vagina was identified. Ovariohysterectomy and partial vaginectomy and vaginoplasty were performed to spay the bitch and to remove the ectasic vagina. Post-operative recovery and 12-month follow-up were uneventful. Clinical, morphological and histological findings were consistent with a congenital abnormality of the muscular layer of the vagina complicated by haemato-pyocolpos. The disorganization of the vaginal tunica muscularis may have acted as locus minoris resistentiae in the vaginal wall. The organ was dilated and atonic due to the gradual accumulation of physiological fluids complicated by an overgrowth of genital bacteria. This congenital disorder has to be taken into account as differential diagnosis of haemato-pyocolpos with vaginal discharge in young bitches. PMID:25661902

  6. Laboratory Tests Ordered By a Chiropractic Sports Physician on Elite Athletes Over a 1-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Nabhan, Dustin C.; Moreau, William J.; Barylski, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to describe and discuss laboratory tests ordered on elite athletes in an interdisciplinary sports medicine clinic by a doctor of chiropractic over 1 calendar year. Methods A retrospective review of laboratory tests ordered during routine clinical practice as standard screening and diagnostic tests from November 1, 2009, to November 1, 2010 was performed. Data were collected during clinical encounters at one sports medicine clinic and entered into a database for analysis. Descriptive and frequency statistics were used to describe the tests ordered and the frequency of abnormal findings. Results Five hundred and thirty-nine studies were ordered for diagnostic and routine screenings on 137 athlete patients (86 males, 51 females), representing 49 types of tests. Sample sources included blood, urine, skin lesions, and fecal matter. The most commonly ordered tests were complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, serum ferritin, creatine kinase, serum iron and total iron binding capacity, total cortisol, thyroid stimulating hormone, and lipid panels. There were 217 studies (40%) flagged as abnormal by the reporting laboratory. Conclusion This report provides greater insight into the diverse array of laboratory studies ordered over a 1-year period for diagnosis and screening of elite athletes. A high percentage of the results were flagged as abnormal by the laboratory. These findings show that the unique physiology of the elite athlete must be considered when interpreting laboratory findings in this population. PMID:26257590

  7. Global distribution of deep convection reaching tropopause in 1 year GPM observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nana; Liu, Chuntao

    2016-04-01

    To characterize and quantify tropopause-reaching deep convection, 1 year of Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Ku band radar echoes are surveyed in relation to several reference levels derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis data set. Consistent with the observations of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission over the tropics, the GPM has detected tropopause-reaching deep convection dominantly over tropical land, especially over Panama and Central Africa. At middle and high latitudes, tropopause-reaching convective storms are mainly found over land in the Northern Hemisphere during the summer. Compared to those in the tropics, convective cores at middle and high latitudes have relatively larger sizes at the tropopause, especially those over central North America. The zonal distributions of the occurrences of 15 dBZ and 20 dBZ radar echoes at the tropopause show two comparable maxima, one in the tropics and the other in northern middle-high latitudes. This implies that the convection penetrating the tropopause at northern middle-high latitudes is as frequent as those over the tropics. It is important to understand their role in the vertical transport of trace gases between the troposphere and the stratosphere.

  8. Hippocampal Neuron Number Is Unchanged 1 Year After Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation at Middle Age

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Lei Molina, Doris P.; Robbins, Michael E.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hippocampal neurons are lost 12 months after middle-aged rats received a fractionated course of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) that is expected to be biologically equivalent to the regimens used clinically in the treatment of brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Twelve-month-old Fischer 344 X Brown Norway male rats were divided into WBI and control (CON) groups (n = 6 per group). Anesthetized WBI rats received 45 Gy of {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays delivered as 9 5-Gy fractions twice per week for 4.5 weeks. Control rats were anesthetized but not irradiated. Twelve months after WBI completion, all rats were anesthetized and perfused with paraformaldehyde, and hippocampal sections were immunostained with the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. Using unbiased stereology, total neuron number and the volume of the neuronal and neuropil layers were determined in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 subregions of hippocampus. Results: No differences in tissue integrity or neuron distribution were observed between the WBI and CON groups. Moreover, quantitative analysis demonstrated that neither total neuron number nor the volume of neuronal or neuropil layers differed between the two groups for any subregion. Conclusions: Impairment on a hippocampal-dependent learning and memory test occurs 1 year after fractionated WBI at middle age. The same WBI regimen, however, does not lead to a loss of neurons or a reduction in the volume of hippocampus.

  9. De novo gastric adenocarcinoma 1 year after sleeve gastrectomy in a transplant patient

    PubMed Central

    Masrur, M.; Elli, E.; Gonzalez-Ciccarelli, L.F.; Giulianotti, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It has been reported in the literature that upper gastrointestinal malignancies after bariatric surgery are mostly gastro-esophageal, although it is not clear whether bariatric surgery represents a risk factor for the development of esophageal and/or gastric cancer. We report a case of a de novo gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in a transplant patient 1 year after a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Presentation of case A 44 year-old woman with a BMI of 38 kg/m2, hypertension, type 1 diabetes mellitus, multiple malignancies and a pancreas transplant underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. The patient presented with intense dysphagias during the follow up. Studies were performed and the diagnoses of grade 2/3 adenocarcinoma were made. The patient underwent a robotic assisted total gastrectomy with a roux-en-y intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy. The procedure resulted in multiple metastasic lymph nodes, focal and transmural invasions to multiple organs with a tumor free margin resection. The patient presented with a postoperative pleural effusion, with no further complications. Discussion The diagnosis of gastroesophageal cancer after bariatric surgery is usually late since these patients have common upper gastrointestinal symptoms related to the procedure that could delay the diagnosis. De novo gastric cancer after sleeve gastrectomy has only been reported in one instance, in contrast with other bariatric surgery procedures. Conclusions No direct relation has been established between sleeve gastrectomy and the development of gastric cancer. Robotic procedures allow for complex multiorgan resections, while preserving the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. PMID:26774417

  10. Beyond Earth: Weaving Science and Indigenous Culture - A 1-year NSF Planning Grant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Timothy; Guy, M.; Baker Big-Back, C.; Froelich, K.

    2011-01-01

    We present results of a 1-year NSF planning grant called Beyond Earth. The project is designed to engage Native American, urban, and rural families in science learning while piloting curriculum development and implementation that incorporates both Native and Western epistemologies. Physical, earth, and space science content is juxtaposed with indigenous culture, stories, language and epistemology in after-school programs and teacher training. Project partners include the Dakota Science Center, Fort Berthold Community College, and Sitting Bull College. The Native American tribes represented in this initiative illustrate partnerships between the Dakota, Lakota, Nakota, Hidatsa, Mandan, and Arikara. Over the past year the primary project deliverables include a culturally responsive curriculum Beyond Earth Moon Module, teacher training workshops, a project website. The curriculum module introduces students to the moon's appearance, phases, and positions in the sky using the Night Sky Planetarium Experience Station to explore core concepts underlying moon phases and eclipses using the interactive Nature Experience Station before engaging in the culminating Mission Challenge in which they apply their knowledge to problem solving situations and projects. The Native Science and Western Science activities developed, planetarium explorations created, and website toolkit utilizations are presented.

  11. Latent Transition Models to Study Women's Changing of Dietary Patterns From Pregnancy to 1 Year Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Herring, Amy H.; Siega-Riz, Anna-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Latent class models are useful for classifying subjects by dietary patterns. Our goals were to use latent transition models to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy and postpartum, to estimate the prevalence of these dietary patterns, and to model transition probabilities between dietary patterns as a function of covariates. Women who were enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (University of North Carolina, 2000–2005) were followed for 1 year postpartum, and their diets were assessed in the second trimester and at 3 and 12 months postpartum (n = 519, 484, and 374, respectively) by using a food frequency questionnaire. After adjusting for energy intake, parity, smoking status, race, and education, we identified 3 dietary patterns and named them “prudent,” “health conscious Western,” and “Western.” Nulliparas were 2.9 and 2.1 times more likely to be in the “prudent” class than the “health conscious Western” or the “Western” class, respectively. The 3 dietary patterns were very stable, with the “health conscious Western” class being the least stable; the probability for staying in the same class was 0.74 and 0.87 at 3 and 12 months postpartum, respectively. Breastfeeding mothers were more likely than nonbreastfeeding mothers to switch dietary pattern class (P = 0.0286). Except for breastfeeding mothers, most women did not switch dietary patterns from pregnancy to postpartum. PMID:23538942

  12. External validation of the Hospital-patient One-year Mortality Risk (HOMR) model for predicting death within 1 year after hospital admission

    PubMed Central

    van Walraven, Carl; McAlister, Finlay A.; Bakal, Jeffrey A.; Hawken, Steven; Donzé, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Background: Predicting long-term survival after admission to hospital is helpful for clinical, administrative and research purposes. The Hospital-patient One-year Mortality Risk (HOMR) model was derived and internally validated to predict the risk of death within 1 year after admission. We conducted an external validation of the model in a large multicentre study. Methods: We used administrative data for all nonpsychiatric admissions of adult patients to hospitals in the provinces of Ontario (2003–2010) and Alberta (2011–2012), and to the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston (2010–2012) to calculate each patient’s HOMR score at admission. The HOMR score is based on a set of parameters that captures patient demographics, health burden and severity of acute illness. We determined patient status (alive or dead) 1 year after admission using population-based registries. Results: The 3 validation cohorts (n = 2 862 996 in Ontario, 210 595 in Alberta and 66 683 in Boston) were distinct from each other and from the derivation cohort. The overall risk of death within 1 year after admission was 8.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.7% to 8.8%). The HOMR score was strongly and significantly associated with risk of death in all populations and was highly discriminative, with a C statistic ranging from 0.89 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.91) to 0.92 (95% CI 0.91 to 0.92). Observed and expected outcome risks were similar (median absolute difference in percent dying in 1 yr 0.3%, interquartile range 0.05%–2.5%). Interpretation: The HOMR score, calculated using routinely collected administrative data, accurately predicted the risk of death among adult patients within 1 year after admission to hospital for nonpsychiatric indications. Similar performance was seen when the score was used in geographically and temporally diverse populations. The HOMR model can be used for risk adjustment in analyses of health administrative data to predict long-term survival among hospital patients

  13. Risk Score to Predict 1-Year Mortality after Haemodialysis Initiation in Patients with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease under Predialysis Nephrology Care

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Few risk scores are available for predicting mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients undergoing predialysis nephrology care. Here, we developed a risk score using predialysis nephrology practice data to predict 1-year mortality following the initiation of haemodialysis (HD) for CKD patients. Methods This was a multicenter cohort study involving CKD patients who started HD between April 2006 and March 2011 at 21 institutions with nephrology care services. Patients who had not received predialysis nephrology care at an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of approximately 10 mL/min per 1.73 m2 were excluded. Twenty-nine candidate predictors were selected, and the final model for 1-year mortality was developed via multivariate logistic regression and was internally validated by a bootstrapping technique. Results A total of 688 patients were enrolled, and 62 (9.0%) patients died within one year of HD initiation. The following variables were retained in the final model: eGFR, serum albumin, calcium, Charlson Comorbidity Index excluding diabetes and renal disease (modified CCI), performance status (PS), and usage of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA). Their β-coefficients were transformed into integer scores: three points were assigned to modified CCI≥3 and PS 3–4; two to calcium>8.5 mg/dL, modified CCI 1–2, and no use of ESA; and one to albumin<3.5 g/dL, eGFR>7 mL/min per 1.73 m2, and PS 1–2. Predicted 1-year mortality risk was 2.5% (score 0–4), 5.5% (score 5–6), 15.2% (score 7–8), and 28.9% (score 9–12). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.79–0.89). Conclusions We developed a simple 6-item risk score predicting 1-year mortality after the initiation of HD that might help nephrologists make a shared decision with patients and families regarding the initiation of HD. PMID:26057129

  14. Identification of Breast Cancer Using Integrated Information from MRI and Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shih-Neng; Li, Fang-Jing; Liao, Yen-Hsiu; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Shen, Wu-Chung; Huang, Tzung-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Integration of information from corresponding regions between the breast MRI and an X-ray mammogram could benefit the detection of breast cancer in clinical diagnosis. We aimed to provide a framework of registration from breast MRI to mammography and to evaluate the diagnosis using the combined information. Materials and Methods 43 patients with 46 lesions underwent both MRI and mammography scans, and the interval between the two examinations was around one month. The distribution of malignant to benign lesions was 31/46 based on histological results. Maximum intensity projection and thin-plate spline methods were applied for image registration for MRI to mammography. The diagnosis using integrated information was evaluated using results of histology as the reference. The assessment of annotations and statistical analysis were performed by the two radiologists. Results For the cranio-caudal view, the mean post-registration error between MRI and mammography was 2.2±1.9 mm. For the medio-lateral oblique view, the proposed approach performed even better with a mean error of 3.0±2.4 mm. In the diagnosis using MRI assessment with information of mammography, the sensitivity was 91.9±2.3% (29/31, 28/31), specificity 70.0±4.7% (11/15, 10/15), accuracy 84.8±3.1% (40/46, 38/46), positive predictive value 86.4±2.1% (29/33, 28/33) and negative predictive value 80.8±5.4% (11/13, 10/13). Conclusion MRI with the aid of mammography shows potential improvements of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV in clinical breast cancer diagnosis compared to the use of MRI alone. PMID:26056841

  15. MRI and low back pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... it is getting worse If you have low back pain but none of the warning signs just mentioned, having an MRI won't lead to better treatment, better pain relief, or a quicker return to activities. You and your doctor may want ...

  16. MRI Biosensors: A Short Primer

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Angelique

    2013-01-01

    Interest in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agents for molecular imaging of biological function experienced a surge of excitement approximately 20 years ago with the development of the first activatable contrast agents that could act as biosensors and turn “on” in response to a specific biological activity. This brief tutorial, based on a short course lecture from the 2011 ISMRM meeting, provides an overview of underlying principles governing the design of biosensing contrast agents. We describe mechanisms by which a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent can be made into a sensor for both T1 and T2 types contrast agents. Examples of biological activities that can interact with a contrast agent are discussed using specific examples from the recent literature to illustrate the primary mechanisms of action that have been utilized to achieve activation. MRI sensors for pH, ion binding, enzyme cleavage, and oxidation-reduction are presented. This article is not meant to be an exhaustive review, but an illustrative primer to explain how activation can be achieved for an MRI contrast agent. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is not covered as these agents were covered in a separate lecture. PMID:23996662

  17. The Rotator Interval of the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Rachel M.; Taylor, Dean; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Mologne, Timothy S.; Provencher, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical studies have shown that repair or plication of rotator interval (RI) ligamentous and capsular structures decreases glenohumeral joint laxity in various directions. Clinical outcomes studies have reported successful outcomes after repair or plication of these structures in patients undergoing shoulder stabilization procedures. Recent studies describing arthroscopic techniques to address these structures have intensified the debate over the potential benefit of these procedures as well as highlighted the differences between open and arthroscopic RI procedures. The purposes of this study were to review the structures of the RI and their contribution to shoulder instability, to discuss the biomechanical and clinical effects of repair or plication of rotator interval structures, and to describe the various surgical techniques used for these procedures and outcomes. PMID:26779554

  18. Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm, based on temporal intervals and attributes. We then show how the plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and show that the process of planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we de ne compatibilities, a compact mechanism for describing planning domains. We describe how this framework can incorporate the use of constraint reasoning technology to improve planning. Finally, we describe EUROPA, an implementation of the CAIP framework.

  19. Efficient computation of parameter confidence intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1987-01-01

    An important step in system identification of aircraft is the estimation of stability and control derivatives from flight data along with an assessment of parameter accuracy. When the maximum likelihood estimation technique is used, parameter accuracy is commonly assessed by the Cramer-Rao lower bound. It is known, however, that in some cases the lower bound can be substantially different from the parameter variance. Under these circumstances the Cramer-Rao bounds may be misleading as an accuracy measure. This paper discusses the confidence interval estimation problem based on likelihood ratios, which offers a more general estimate of the error bounds. Four approaches are considered for computing confidence intervals of maximum likelihood parameter estimates. Each approach is applied to real flight data and compared.

  20. Partitioned-Interval Quantum Optical Communications Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed quantum receiver in this innovation partitions each binary signal interval into two unequal segments: a short "pre-measurement" segment in the beginning of the symbol interval used to make an initial guess with better probability than 50/50 guessing, and a much longer segment used to make the high-sensitivity signal detection via field-cancellation and photon-counting detection. It was found that by assigning as little as 10% of the total signal energy to the pre-measurement segment, the initial 50/50 guess can be improved to about 70/30, using the best available measurements such as classical coherent or "optimized Kennedy" detection.

  1. One-way ANOVA based on interval information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesamian, Gholamreza

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with extending the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to the case where the observed data are represented by closed intervals rather than real numbers. In this approach, first a notion of interval random variable is introduced. Especially, a normal distribution with interval parameters is introduced to investigate hypotheses about the equality of interval means or test the homogeneity of interval variances assumption. Moreover, the least significant difference (LSD method) for investigating multiple comparison of interval means is developed when the null hypothesis about the equality of means is rejected. Then, at a given interval significance level, an index is applied to compare the interval test statistic and the related interval critical value as a criterion to accept or reject the null interval hypothesis of interest. Finally, the method of decision-making leads to some degrees to accept or reject the interval hypotheses. An applied example will be used to show the performance of this method.

  2. Systolic Time Intervals and New Measurement Methods.

    PubMed

    Tavakolian, Kouhyar

    2016-06-01

    Systolic time intervals have been used to detect and quantify the directional changes of left ventricular function. New methods of recording these cardiac timings, which are less cumbersome, have been recently developed and this has created a renewed interest and novel applications for these cardiac timings. This manuscript reviews these new methods and addresses the potential for the application of these cardiac timings for the diagnosis and prognosis of different cardiac diseases. PMID:27048269

  3. Quantifying chaotic dynamics from interspike intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Pavlova, O. N.; Mohammad, Y. K.; Shihalov, G. M.

    2015-03-01

    We address the problem of characterization of chaotic dynamics at the input of a threshold device described by an integrate-and-fire (IF) or a threshold crossing (TC) model from the output sequences of interspike intervals (ISIs). We consider the conditions under which quite short sequences of spiking events provide correct identification of the dynamical regime characterized by the single positive Lyapunov exponent (LE). We discuss features of detecting the second LE for both types of the considered models of events generation.

  4. Imaging of prostate cancer: a platform for 3D co-registration of in-vivo MRI ex-vivo MRI and pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orczyk, Clément; Mikheev, Artem; Rosenkrantz, Andrew; Melamed, Jonathan; Taneja, Samir S.; Rusinek, Henry

    2012-02-01

    Objectives: Multi-parametric MRI is emerging as a promising method for prostate cancer diagnosis. prognosis and treatment planning. However, the localization of in-vivo detected lesions and pathologic sites of cancer remains a significant challenge. To overcome this limitation we have developed and tested a system for co-registration of in-vivo MRI, ex-vivo MRI and histology. Materials and Methods: Three men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (ages 54-72, PSA levels 5.1-7.7 ng/ml) were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients underwent 3T multi-parametric MRI that included T2W, DCEMRI, and DWI prior to robotic-assisted prostatectomy. Ex-vivo multi-parametric MRI was performed on fresh prostate specimen. Excised prostates were then sliced at regular intervals and photographed both before and after fixation. Slices were perpendicular to the main axis of the posterior capsule, i.e., along the direction of the rectal wall. Guided by the location of the urethra, 2D digital images were assembled into 3D models. Cancer foci, extra-capsular extensions and zonal margins were delineated by the pathologist and included in 3D histology data. A locally-developed software was applied to register in-vivo, ex-vivo and histology using an over-determined set of anatomical landmarks placed in anterior fibro-muscular stroma, central. transition and peripheral zones. The mean root square distance across corresponding control points was used to assess co-registration error. Results: Two specimens were pT3a and one pT2b (negative margin) at pathology. The software successfully fused invivo MRI. ex-vivo MRI fresh specimen and histology using appropriate (rigid and affine) transformation models with mean square error of 1.59 mm. Coregistration accuracy was confirmed by multi-modality viewing using operator-guided variable transparency. Conclusion: The method enables successful co-registration of pre-operative MRI, ex-vivo MRI and pathology and it provides initial evidence

  5. Fluctuations of healthy and unhealthy heartbeat intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Boon Leong; Toda, Mikito

    2013-04-01

    We show that the RR-interval fluctuations, defined as the difference between successive natural-logarithm of the RR interval, for healthy, congestive-heart-failure (CHF) and atrial-fibrillation (AF) subjects are well modeled by non-Gaussian stable distributions. Our results suggest that healthy or unhealthy RR-interval fluctuation can generally be modeled as a sum of a large number of independent physiological effects which are identically distributed with infinite variance. Furthermore, we show for the first time that one indicator —the scale parameter of the stable distribution— is sufficient to robustly distinguish the three groups of subjects. The scale parameters for healthy subjects are smaller than those for AF subjects but larger than those for CHF subjects —this ordering suggests that the scale parameter could be used to objectively quantify the severity of CHF and AF over time and also serve as an early warning signal for a healthy person when it approaches either boundary of the healthy range.

  6. New Madrid seismic zone recurrence intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Schweig, E.S. Center for Earthquake Research and Information, Memphis, TN ); Ellis, M.A. )

    1993-03-01

    Frequency-magnitude relations in the New Madrid seismic zone suggest that great earthquakes should occur every 700--1,200 yrs, implying relatively high strain rates. These estimates are supported by some geological and GPS results. Recurrence intervals of this order should have produced about 50 km of strike-slip offset since Miocene time. No subsurface evidence for such large displacements is known within the seismic zone. Moreover, the irregular fault pattern forming a compressive step that one sees today is not compatible with large displacements. There are at least three possible interpretations of the observations of short recurrence intervals and high strain rates, but apparently youthful fault geometry and lack of major post-Miocene deformation. One is that the seismological and geodetic evidence are misleading. A second possibility is that activity in the region is cyclic. That is, the geological and geodetic observations that suggest relatively short recurrence intervals reflect a time of high, but geologically temporary, pore-fluid pressure. Zoback and Zoback have suggested such a model for intraplate seismicity in general. Alternatively, the New Madrid seismic zone is geologically young feature that has been active for only the last few tens of thousands of years. In support of this, observe an irregular fault geometry associated with a unstable compressive step, a series of en echelon and discontinuous lineaments that may define the position of a youthful linking fault, and the general absence of significant post-Eocene faulting or topography.

  7. Advances in diffusion MRI acquisition and processing in the Human Connectome Project.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N; Jbabdi, Saad; Xu, Junqian; Andersson, Jesper L; Moeller, Steen; Auerbach, Edward J; Glasser, Matthew F; Hernandez, Moises; Sapiro, Guillermo; Jenkinson, Mark; Feinberg, David A; Yacoub, Essa; Lenglet, Christophe; Van Essen, David C; Ugurbil, Kamil; Behrens, Timothy E J

    2013-10-15

    The Human Connectome Project (HCP) is a collaborative 5-year effort to map human brain connections and their variability in healthy adults. A consortium of HCP investigators will study a population of 1200 healthy adults using multiple imaging modalities, along with extensive behavioral and genetic data. In this overview, we focus on diffusion MRI (dMRI) and the structural connectivity aspect of the project. We present recent advances in acquisition and processing that allow us to obtain very high-quality in-vivo MRI data, whilst enabling scanning of a very large number of subjects. These advances result from 2 years of intensive efforts in optimising many aspects of data acquisition and processing during the piloting phase of the project. The data quality and methods described here are representative of the datasets and processing pipelines that will be made freely available to the community at quarterly intervals, beginning in 2013. PMID:23702418

  8. Advances in diffusion MRI acquisition and processing in the Human Connectome Project

    PubMed Central

    Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N; Jbabdi, Saad; Xu, Junqian; Andersson, Jesper L; Moeller, Steen; Auerbach, Edward J; Glasser, Matthew F; Hernandez, Moises; Sapiro, Guillermo; Jenkinson, Mark; Feinberg, David A; Yacoub, Essa; Lenglet, Christophe; Ven Essen, David C; Ugurbil, Kamil; Behrens, Timothy EJ

    2013-01-01

    The Human Connectome Project (HCP) is a collaborative 5-year effort to map human brain connections and their variability in healthy adults. A consortium of HCP investigators will study a population of 1200 healthy adults using multiple imaging modalities, along with extensive behavioral and genetic data. In this overview, we focus on diffusion MRI (dMRI) and the structural connectivity aspect of the project. We present recent advances in acquisition and processing that allow us to obtain very high-quality in-vivo MRI data, while enabling scanning of a very large number of subjects. These advances result from 2 years of intensive efforts in optimising many aspects of data acquisition and processing during the piloting phase of the project. The data quality and methods described here are representative of the datasets and processing pipelines that will be made freely available to the community at quarterly intervals, beginning in 2013. PMID:23702418

  9. A 1-year, three-couple expedition as a crew analog for a Mars mission.

    PubMed

    Leon, Gloria R; Atlis, Mera M; Ones, Deniz S; Magor, Graeme

    2002-09-01

    This study assessed the intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning of a three-couple expedition group that included a 2 1/2-year-old child which was ice-locked on a boat in the High Arctic during a major portion of the expedition. Personality assessment indicated that team members were generally well adjusted, scoring relatively higher on well-being and achievement and relatively lower on stress reactivity. Weekly mood ratings showed that the group exhibited significantly higher positive than negative affect. Reported negative events were relatively most frequent at the beginning of the Arctic stay and toward the end of the darkness period and were lowest during the initial darkness interval. The period of darkness had both a salutary and negative impact. A highly important means of coping with stress was seeking emotional support from one's partner. Selection of couples with strong bonds with their partner appears to be one viable approach for crew selection for long-duration missions. PMID:12481801

  10. Empirically based guidelines for moderate drinking: 1-year results from three studies with problem drinkers.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Craig, M; Wilkinson, D A; Davila, R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The study was conducted to refine guidelines on moderate drinking for problem drinkers, persons whose alcohol use is hazardous or harmful. Information on levels of alcohol intake unlikely to cause problems is useful for health professionals, educators, and policymakers. METHODS. Based on their reports of alcohol-related problems, participants in three studies assessing interventions to reduce heavy drinking (114 men, 91 women) were categorized as "problem-free" or "problem" drinkers at follow-up. Drinking measures were examined to identify patterns separating these outcome categories. RESULTS. Analyses using 95% confidence intervals for means on drinking measures showed that guidelines should be sex-specific. Based on analyses of positive and negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity, it is recommended that men consume no more than 4 standard drinks in any day and 16 drinks in any week, and that women consume no more than 3 drinks in any day and 12 drinks in any week. CONCLUSIONS. These guidelines are consistent with those from several official bodies and should be useful for advising problem drinkers when moderation is a valid treatment goal. Their applicability to the general population is unevaluated. PMID:7762717

  11. Representation to the accident and emergency department within 1-year of a fractured neck of femur

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The fractured neck of femur (NOF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The mortality attendant upon such fractures is 10% at 1 month and 30% at one year with a cost to the NHS of £1.4 billion annually. This retrospective study sought to examine rates and prevailing trends in representation to A&E in the year following a NOF fracture in an attempt to identify the leading causes behind the morbidity and mortality associated with this fracture. Methods 1108 patients who suffered a fractured NOF between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2007 were identified from a University Hospital A&E database. This database was then used to identify those patients who represented within 1-year following the initial fracture. The presenting complaint, provisional diagnosis and the outcome of this presentation were identified at this time. Results 234 patients (21%) returned to A&E on 368 occasions in the year following a hip fracture. 77% (284/368) of these presentations necessitated admission. Falls, infection and fracture were the leading causes of representation. Falls accounted for 20% (57/284) of admissions; 20.7% of patients were admitted because of a fracture, while 56.6% of admissions were for medical ailments of which infection was the chief precipitant (28% (45/161)). Discussion The causes for representation are varied and multifactorial. The results of this study suggest that some of those events or ailments necessitating readmission may be obviated and potentially reduced by interventions that can be instituted during the primary admission and continued following discharge. PMID:22189063

  12. Effectiveness of counselling over 1 year on changes in lifestyle and coronary heart disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    Nisbeth, O; Klausen, K; Andersen, L B

    2000-05-01

    Many have studied the effects of different lifestyles on disease, mortality or risk factors for a disease, but little is known about how behaviour is changed in the population. We studied the need for counselling and its effect on willingness and ability to change lifestyle, and subsequent changes in CHD risk factors. All 152 male employees in a computer company, 25-45 years of age, were invited to participate. Subjects were randomized into an intervention group (I-group) and a control group. The I-group was divided into subgroups based on baseline behaviour and risk factor status. Changes were evaluated after 1 year. After an initial health examination, participants from the I-group were counselled at baseline and after 5 months. Eighty-five (56%) males participated. Twenty-nine were assigned to a control group and 56 to an intervention group (I-group) (dropout = 8). An exercise group (E-group) was advised to exercise aerobically three times/week, a diet group to reduce the intake of saturated fat and increase fish products, and smokers to quit smoking. Forty subjects were recommended one or more behavioural changes and eight had no need. Thirty-four were willing to make behavioural changes. Compared to the control group, the fitness level increased (P < 0.01) and body weight decreased in the I-group (P < 0.05). It may be concluded that individual counselling promotes regular exercise with subsequent improvements in CHD risk factors. The diet- and smoking counselling models were less successful in terms of adherence. PMID:10771366

  13. Cardiovascular Effects of 1 Year of Alagebrium and Endurance Exercise Training in Healthy Older Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Naoki; Hastings, Jeffrey L.; Carrick-Ranson, Graeme; Shafer, Keri M.; Shibata, Shigeki; Bhella, Paul S.; Abdullah, Shuaib M.; Barkley, Kyler W.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Boyd, Kara N.; Livingston, Sheryl A.; Palmer, Dean; Levine, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lifelong exercise training maintains a youthful compliance of the left ventricle (LV), whereas a year of exercise training started later in life fails to reverse LV stiffening, possibly because of accumulation of irreversible advanced glycation end products. Alagebrium breaks advanced glycation end product crosslinks and improves LV stiffness in aged animals. However, it is unclear whether a strategy of exercise combined with alagebrium would improve LV stiffness in sedentary older humans. Methods and Results Sixty-two healthy subjects were randomized into 4 groups: sedentary+placebo; sedentary+alagebrium (200 mg/d); exercise+placebo; and exercise+alagebrium. Subjects underwent right heart catheterization to define LV pressure–volume curves; secondary functional outcomes included cardiopulmonary exercise testing and arterial compliance. A total of 57 of 62 subjects (67±6 years; 37 f/20 m) completed 1 year of intervention followed by repeat measurements. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and LV end-diastolic volume were measured at baseline, during decreased and increased cardiac filling. LV stiffness was assessed by the slope of LV pressure–volume curve. After intervention, LV mass and end-diastolic volume increased and exercise capacity improved (by ≈8%) only in the exercise groups. Neither LV mass nor exercise capacity was affected by alagebrium. Exercise training had little impact on LV stiffness (training×time effect, P=0.46), whereas alagebrium showed a modest improvement in LV stiffness compared with placebo (medication×time effect, P=0.04). Conclusions Alagebrium had no effect on hemodynamics, LV geometry, or exercise capacity in healthy, previously sedentary seniors. However, it did show a modestly favorable effect on age-associated LV stiffening. PMID:24130005

  14. Encouraging responses in sexual and relationship violence prevention: what program effects remain 1 year later?

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Cares, Alison C; Potter, Sharyn J; Williams, Linda M; Stapleton, Jane G

    2015-01-01

    Colleges and universities are high-risk settings for sexual and relationship violence. To address these problems, institutions of higher education have implemented prevention programs, many of which train students as potential bystanders who can step in to help diffuse risky situations, identify and challenge perpetrators, and assist victims. The impact of bystander sexual and relationship violence prevention programs on long-term behavior of bystanders has remained a key unanswered question for those who seek to offer the most effective programs as well as for policy makers. In this study, the researchers experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of the Bringing in the Bystander® in-person program. Participants were 948 1st-year college students of whom 47.8% were women and 85.2% identified as White (15% also identified as Hispanic in a separate question) between the ages of 18 and 24 at two universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, highly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. To date, this is the first study to have found positive behavior changes as long-lasting as 1 year following an educational workshop focusing on engaging bystanders in preventing sexual and relationship violence. Even so, many questions remain to be answered about prevention and intervention of this type. More prospective research is needed on bystander-focused prevention of these forms of violence to help understand and better predict the complicated relationships both between and among the attitudes and behaviors related to preventing sexual and relationship violence. In this regard, we make specific recommendations for designing and evaluating programs based on our findings relating to the importance of moderators, especially two key understudied ones, readiness to help and opportunity to intervene. PMID:24850763

  15. Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Mucopolysaccharidosis II Patients Under 1 Year of Age.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Christina; Atherton, Andrea; Burton, Barbara K; Descartes, Maria; Giugliani, Roberto; Horovitz, Dafne D G; Kyosen, Sandra O; Magalhães, Tatiana S P C; Martins, Ana Maria; Mendelsohn, Nancy J; Muenzer, Joseph; Smith, Laurie D

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) II, or Hunter syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by multi-systemic involvement and a progressive clinical course. Enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase has been approved in more than 50 countries worldwide; however, safety and efficacy data from clinical studies are currently only available for patients 1.4 years of age and older. Sibling case studies of infants with MPS I, II, and VI who initiated ERT in the first weeks or months of life have reported no new safety concerns and a more favorable clinical course for the sibling treated in infancy than for the later-treated sibling. Here we describe our experiences with a case series of eight MPS II patients for whom idursulfase treatment was initiated at under 1 year of age. The majority of the patients were diagnosed because of a family history of disease. All of the infants displayed abnormalities consistent with MPS II at diagnosis. The youngest age at treatment start was 10 days and the oldest was 6.5 months, with duration of treatment varying between 6 weeks and 5.5 years. No new safety concerns were observed, and none of the patients experienced an infusion-related reaction. All of the patients treated for more than 6 weeks showed improvements and/or stabilization of some somatic manifestations while on treatment. In some cases, caregivers made comparisons with other affected family members and reported that the early-treated patients experienced a less severe clinical course, although a lack of medical records for many family members precluded a rigorous comparison. PMID:24515576

  16. Change in Metabolic Profile after 1-Year Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Verduci, Elvira; Lassandro, Carlotta; Giacchero, Roberta; Miniello, Vito Leonardo; Banderali, Giuseppe; Radaelli, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Research findings are inconsistent about improvement of specific cardio-metabolic variables after lifestyle intervention in obese children. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of a 1-year intervention, based on normocaloric diet and physical activity, on body mass index (BMI), blood lipid profile, glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome. Eighty-five obese children aged ≥6 years were analyzed. The BMI z-score was calculated. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for lipids, insulin and glucose. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated and insulin resistance was defined as HOMA-IR >3.16. HOMA-β%, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and triglyceride glucose index were calculated. The metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. At the end of intervention children showed a reduction (mean (95% CI)) in BMI z-score (−0.58 (−0.66; −0.50)), triglycerides (−0.35 (−0.45; −0.25) mmol/L) and triglyceride glucose index (−0.29 (−0.37; −0.21)), and an increase in HDL cholesterol (0.06 (0.01; 0.11) mmol/L). Prevalence of insulin resistance declined from 51.8% to 36.5% and prevalence of metabolic syndrome from 17.1% to 4.9%. Nutritional-behavioral interventions can improve the blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in obese children, and possibly provide benefits in terms of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26633492

  17. 1-year prospective real life monitoring of asthma control and quality of life in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The study aimed at prospectively evaluating the evolution of asthma control in Italy, to evaluate the reasons for lack of asthma control, perceived quality of life (QoL) and association with level of asthma control, the impact of pharmacological treatment, the number of exacerbations and the healthcare resource consumption. Methods PRISMA (PRospectIve Study on asthMA control) was an observational study performed in asthmatic patients including a cross-sectional phase and a 12-month prospective phase. Asthma control was assessed with the Asthma Control Test™ (ACT) and QoL was evaluated with EuroQoL-5D questionnaire filled in and collected during 5 clinic visits together with all the other data. Results The prospective phase included 1017 patients with uncontrolled (55.7%) or partly controlled asthma (44.3%). Out of the 739 patients evaluable after 12 months, 22.2% achieved full asthma control (ACT score = 25) and 58.7% reached a good control (ACT score: 20–24). The improvement in asthma control was associated with improved QoL and reduced hospital visits. The main reasons for lack of asthma control were comorbidities, continued exposure to irritants/triggers and poor adherence to therapy. The frequency of exacerbations was lower in patients with controlled asthma. A fixed combination therapy with an inhaled corticosteroid and a long-acting β2 agonist was reported by 77.0% of patients. A better asthma control and improved QoL were achieved with extrafine beclomethasone/formoterol compared to either budesonide/formoterol or fluticasone/salmeterol. Conclusions An improvement in asthma control and QoL can be achieved during a 1-year monitoring in a real life setting. Extrafine beclomethasone/formoterol was associated with significant benefit in terms of asthma control and QoL compared to large-particles combinations. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01110460. PMID:23216798

  18. Aerosol source apportionment from 1-year measurements at the CESAR tower in Cabauw, the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlag, Patrick; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Blom, Marcus Johannes; Canonaco, Francesco; Sebastiaan Henzing, Jeroen; Moerman, Marcel; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Holzinger, Rupert

    2016-07-01

    Intensive measurements of submicron aerosol particles and their chemical composition were performed with an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in Cabauw, the Netherlands, sampling at 5 m height above ground. The campaign lasted nearly 1 year from July 2012 to June 2013 as part of the EU-FP7-ACTRIS project (Q-ACSM Network). Including equivalent black carbon an average particulate mass concentration of 9.50 µg m-3 was obtained during the whole campaign with dominant contributions from ammonium nitrate (45 %), organic aerosol (OA, 29 %), and ammonium sulfate (19 %). There were 12 exceedances of the World Health Organization (WHO) PM2.5 daily mean limit (25 µg m-3) observed at this rural site using PM1 instrumentation only. Ammonium nitrate and OA represented the largest contributors to total particulate matter during periods of exceedance. Source apportionment of OA was performed season-wise by positive matrix factorization (PMF) using the multilinear engine 2 (ME-2) controlled via the source finder (SoFi). Primary organic aerosols were attributed mainly to traffic (8-16 % contribution to total OA, averaged season-wise) and biomass burning (0-23 %). Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs, 61-84 %) dominated the organic fraction during the whole campaign, particularly on days with high mass loadings. A SOA factor which is attributed to humic-like substances (HULIS) was identified as a highly oxidized background aerosol in Cabauw. This shows the importance of atmospheric aging processes for aerosol concentration at this rural site. Due to the large secondary fraction, the reduction of particulate mass at this rural site is challenging on a local scale.

  19. Robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty: minimum 1-year follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Vipul; Thaly, Rahul; Shah, Ketul

    2007-02-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty. Laparoscopic pyeloplasty has been shown to have a success rate comparable to that of the open surgical approach. However, the steep learning curve has hindered its acceptance into mainstream urologic practice. The introduction of robotic assistance provides advantages that have the potential to facilitate precise dissection and intracorporeal suturing. Methods: A total of 50 patients underwent robotic-assisted laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty. A four-trocar technique was used. Most patients were discharged home on day 1, with stent removal at 3 weeks. Patency of the ureteropelvic junction was assessed in all patients with mercaptotriglycylglycine Lasix renograms at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, then every 6 months for 1 year, and then yearly. Results: Each patient underwent a successful procedure without open conversion or transfusion. The average estimated blood loss was 40 ml. The operative time averaged 122 minutes (range 60 to 330) overall. Crossing vessels were present in 30% of the patients and were preserved in all cases. The time for the anastomosis averaged 20 minutes (range 10 to 100). Intraoperatively, no complications occurred. Postoperatively, the average hospital stay was 1.1 days. The stents were removed at an average of 20 days (range 14 to 28) postoperatively. The average follow-up was 11.7 months; at the last follow-up visit, each patient was doing well. Of the 50 patients, 48 underwent one or more renograms, demonstrating stable renal function, improved drainage, and no evidence of recurrent obstruction. Conclusions: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty is a feasible technique for ureteropelvic junction reconstruction. The procedure provides a minimally invasive alternative with good short-term results.

  20. A 1-Year Study on the Detection of Human Enteric Viruses in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Kaas, Laetitia; Gourinat, Ann-Claire; Urbès, Florence; Langlet, Jérémie

    2016-03-01

    Human enteric viruses occur in high concentrations in wastewater and can contaminate receiving environmental waters. Due to the lack of data on the prevalence of enteric viruses in New Caledonia, the presence and the concentrations of enteric viruses in wastewater and seawater were determined. Untreated wastewater and seawater samples were collected monthly for 1 year from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and from the WWTP's outlet, located directly on a popular recreational beach. Samples were tested for norovirus genogroups I and II (NoV GI and GII), astroviruses (AsV), sapoviruses (SaV), enteroviruses (EV), hepatitis A viruses (HAV), rotaviruses (RoV), human adenoviruses (HAdV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV). To support these data, faecal samples from cases of gastroenteritis were tested for the first time for NoV and detected in the population. NoV GI, NoV GII, EV, SaV, HAdV and HPyV were detected in all wastewaters, RoV in 75% and AsV in 67%. HAV were not detected in wastewater. Overall, 92% of seawater samples were positive for at least one virus. HPyV were detected most frequently in 92% of samples and at concentrations up to 7.7 × 10(3) genome copies/L. NoV GI, NoV GII, EV, SaV, RoV and HAdV were found in 33, 66, 41, 33, 16 and 66% of seawater samples, respectively. AsV were not detected in seawater. This study reports for the first time the presence of NoV and other enteric viruses in New Caledonia and highlights the year-round presence of enteric viruses in the seawater of a popular beach. PMID:26670603

  1. PM2.5 chemical composition in five European Mediterranean cities: A 1-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Dalia; Detournay, Anais; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Liguori, Francesca; Saraga, Dikaia; Bove, Maria Chiara; Brotto, Paolo; Cassola, Federico; Massabò, Dario; Latella, Aurelio; Pillon, Silvia; Formenton, Gianni; Patti, Salvatore; Armengaud, Alexandre; Piga, Damien; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc; Bartzis, John; Tolis, Evangelos; Prati, Paolo; Querol, Xavier; Wortham, Henri; Marchand, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    The seasonal and spatial characteristics of PM2.5 and its chemical composition in the Mediterranean Basin have been studied over a 1-year period (2011-2012) in five European Mediterranean cities: Barcelona (BCN), Marseille (MRS), Genoa (GEN), Venice (VEN), and Thessaloniki (THE). During the year under study, PM10 annual mean concentration ranged from 23 to 46 μg m- 3, while the respective PM2.5 ranged from 14 to 37 μg m- 3, with the highest concentrations observed in THE and VEN. Both cities presented an elevated number of exceedances of the PM10 daily limit value, as 32% and 20% of the days exceeded 50 μg m- 3, respectively. Similarly, exceedances of the WHO guidelines for daily PM2.5 concentrations (25 μg m- 3) were also more frequent in THE with 78% of the days during the period, followed by VEN with 39%. The lowest PM levels were measured in GEN. PM2.5 exhibited significant seasonal variability, with much higher winter concentrations for VEN and MRS, in fall for THE and in spring for BCN. PM2.5 chemical composition was markedly different even for similar PM2.5 levels. On annual average, PM2.5 was dominated by OM except in THE. OM contribution was higher in Marseille (42%), while mineral matter was the most abundant constituent in THE (32%). Moreover, PM2.5 relative mean composition during pollution episodes (PM2.5 > 25 μg m- 3) as well as the origins of the exceedances were also investigated. Results outline mainly the effect of NO3- being the most important driver and highlight the non-negligible impact of atmospheric mixing and aging processes during pollution episodes.

  2. Advances in Clinical PET/MRI Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Hans; Lerche, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the first whole-body PET/MRI scanners installed for clinical use were the sequential Philips PET/MRI with PMT-based, TOF-capable technology and the integrated simultaneous Siemens PET/MRI. Avalanche photodiodes as non-magneto-sensitive readout electronics allowed PET integrated within the MRI. The experiences with these scanners showed that improvements of software aspects, such as attenuation correction, were necessary and that efficient protocols combining optimally PET and MRI must be still developed. In 2014, General Electric issued an integrated PET/MRI with SiPM-based PET detectors, allowing TOF-PET. Looking at the MRI components of current PET/MR imaging systems, primary improvements come from sequences and new coils. PMID:26952724

  3. Early Metacarpal Bone Mineral Density Loss Using Digital X-Ray Radiogrammetry and 3-Tesla Wrist MRI in Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Longitudinal One-Year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Algulin, Jakob; Mangat, Pamela; Lim, Adrian K. P.; Satchithananda, Keshthra; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Taylor, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Early change in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterised by periarticular osteopenia. We investigated the relationship of early metacarpal digital X-ray radiogrammetry bone mineral density (DXR-BMD) change rate (RC-BMD, mg/cm2/month) to longitudinal changes in hand and feet radiographic and wrist MRI scores over 1 year. Materials and Methods. 10 RA patients completed the study and had wrist 3T-MRI and hand and feet X-rays at various time points over 1 year. MRI was scored by RAMRIS, X-ray was done by van der Heijde modified Sharp scoring, and RC-BMD was analysed using dxr-online. Results. There was good correlation amongst the two scorers for MRI measures and ICC for erosions: 0.984, BME: 0.943, and synovitis: 0.657. Strong relationships were observed between RC-BMD at 12-week and 1-year change in wrist marrow oedema (BME) (r = 0.78, P = 0.035) but not with erosion, synovitis, or radiographic scores. Conclusion. Early RC-BMD correlates with 1-year wrist BME change, which is a known predictor of future erosion and joint damage. However, in our pilot study, early RC-BMD did not show relationships to MRI erosion or radiographic changes over 1 year. This may reflect a slower kinetic in the appearance of MRI/radiographic erosions, generating the hypothesis that RC-BMD may be a more sensitive and early structural prognostic marker in RA follow-up. PMID:25785197

  4. Reproducibility of Brain Morphometry from Short-Term Repeat Clinical MRI Examinations: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hon-Man; Chen, Shan-Kai; Chen, Ya-Fang; Lee, Chung-Wei; Yeh, Lee-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the inter session reproducibility of automatic segmented MRI-derived measures by FreeSurfer in a group of subjects with normal-appearing MR images. Materials and Methods After retrospectively reviewing a brain MRI database from our institute consisting of 14,758 adults, those subjects who had repeat scans and had no history of neurodegenerative disorders were selected for morphometry analysis using FreeSurfer. A total of 34 subjects were grouped by MRI scanner model. After automatic segmentation using FreeSurfer, label-wise comparison (involving area, thickness, and volume) was performed on all segmented results. An intraclass correlation coefficient was used to estimate the agreement between sessions. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to assess the population mean rank differences across sessions. Mean-difference analysis was used to evaluate the difference intervals across scanners. Absolute percent difference was used to estimate the reproducibility errors across the MRI models. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the across-scanner effect. Results The agreement in segmentation results for area, volume, and thickness measurements of all segmented anatomical labels was generally higher in Signa Excite and Verio models when compared with Sonata and TrioTim models. There were significant rank differences found across sessions in some labels of different measures. Smaller difference intervals in global volume measurements were noted on images acquired by Signa Excite and Verio models. For some brain regions, significant MRI model effects were observed on certain segmentation results. Conclusions Short-term scan-rescan reliability of automatic brain MRI morphometry is feasible in the clinical setting. However, since repeatability of software performance is contingent on the reproducibility of the scanner performance, the scanner performance must be calibrated before conducting such studies or before using such software for retrospective

  5. Integration of DCE-MRI and DW-MRI Quantitative Parameters for Breast Lesion Classification

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Roberta; Sansone, Mario; Filice, Salvatore; Granata, Vincenza; Catalano, Orlando; Amato, Daniela Maria; Di Bonito, Maurizio; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Capasso, Immacolata; Rinaldo, Massimo; Petrillo, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of an imaging protocol combining dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) in patients with suspicious breast lesions. Materials and Methods. A total of 31 breast lesions (15 malignant and 16 benign proved by histological examination) in 26 female patients were included in this study. For both DCE-MRI and DW-MRI model free and model based parameters were computed pixel by pixel on manually segmented ROIs. Statistical procedures included conventional linear analysis and more advanced techniques for classification of lesions in benign and malignant. Results. Our findings indicated no strong correlation between DCE-MRI and DW-MRI parameters. Results of classification analysis show that combining of DCE parameters or DW-MRI parameter, in comparison of single feature, does not yield a dramatic improvement of sensitivity and specificity of the two techniques alone. The best performance was obtained considering a full combination of all features. Moreover, the classification results combining all features are dominated by DCE-MRI features alone. Conclusion. The combination of DWI and DCE-MRI does not show a potential to dramatically increase the sensitivity and specificity of breast MRI. DCE-MRI alone gave the same performance as in combination with DW-MRI. PMID:26339597

  6. Comparison of Reconstruction Intervals in Routine ECG-Pulsed 64-Row-MSCT Coronary Angiography in Frequency Controlled Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Frydrychowicz, Alex Pache, Gregor; Saueressig, Ulrich; Foell, Daniela; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Bley, Thorsten A.

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. In light of the increasing use and acceptance of multislice computed tomography (MSCT) coronary angiography it was the purpose of this study to compare reconstruction intervals used in a routine ECG-pulsed MSCT coronary artery angiography setting with frequency controlled patients. Methods. Examinations were performed on a Siemens Somatom Sensation 64 scanner with a total of 110 ml of contrast agent and ECG pulsing (interval from 40% to 70%) after oral application of a {beta}-blocker if the heart rate was higher than 65 bpm. All human subjects were referred for the evaluation of suspected coronary artery disease. Coronary artery segments were evaluated by two experienced radiologists in a consensus reading. A ranking of diagnostic image quality (from 1 (no evaluation possible) to 5 (excellent image quality)) was statistically evaluated by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Results. In 45 patients (30 male, 15 female, age 63.8 {+-} 12.1 years) we detected a significant advantage of the 60% reconstruction interval over 40%, 50%, and 70% (for each p < 0.05). In cases of sudden arrhythmia or movement during the scan, additional reconstruction intervals within the ECG-pulsed reconstruction intervals remained necessary for diagnosis. Conclusion. In a routine diagnostic setting with frequency controlled patients and ECG pulsing the 60% reconstruction interval can be considered superior for the initial diagnosis in 64-row multislice computed tomography coronary angiography. However, further information can be derived from various reconstruction intervals such as 40% and 70%.

  7. Easy identification of generalized common and conserved nested intervals.

    PubMed

    de Montgolfier, Fabien; Raffinot, Mathieu; Rusu, Irena

    2014-07-01

    In this article we explain how to easily compute gene clusters, formalized by classical or generalized nested common or conserved intervals, between a set of K genomes represented as K permutations. A b-nested common (resp. conserved) interval I of size |I| is either an interval of size 1 or a common (resp. conserved) interval that contains another b-nested common (resp. conserved) interval of size at least |I|-b. When b=1, this corresponds to the classical notion of nested interval. We exhibit two simple algorithms to output all b-nested common or conserved intervals between K permutations in O(Kn+nocc) time, where nocc is the total number of such intervals. We also explain how to count all b-nested intervals in O(Kn) time. New properties of the family of conserved intervals are proposed to do so. PMID:24650221

  8. Mapping Alzheimer’s disease progression in 1309 MRI scans: Power estimates for different inter-scan intervals☆

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Hibar, Derrek P.; Yanovsky, Igor; Leow, Alex D.; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Bernstein, Matt A.; Reiman, Eric M.; Harvey, Danielle J.; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging centers and pharmaceutical companies are working together to evaluate treatments that might slow the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a common but devastating late-life neuropathology. Recently, automated brain mapping methods, such as tensor-based morphometry (TBM) of structural MRI, have outperformed cognitive measures in their precision and power to track disease progression, greatly reducing sample size estimates for drug trials. In the largest TBM study to date, we studied how sample size estimates for tracking structural brain changes depend on the time interval between the scans (6–24 months). We analyzed 1309 brain scans from 91 probable AD patients (age at baseline: 75.4±7.5 years) and 189 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; 74.6±7.1 years), scanned at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Statistical maps revealed 3D patterns of brain atrophy at each follow-up scan relative to the baseline; numerical summaries were used to quantify temporal lobe atrophy within a statistically-defined region-of-interest. Power analyses revealed superior sample size estimates over traditional clinical measures. Only 80, 46, and 39 AD patients were required for a hypothetical clinical trial, at 6, 12, and 24 months respectively, to detect a 25% reduction in average change using a two-sided test (α=0.05, power=80%). Correspondingly, 106, 79, and 67 subjects were needed for an equivalent MCI trial aiming for earlier intervention. A 24-month trial provides most power, except when patient attrition exceeds 15–16%/year, in which case a 12-month trial is optimal. These statistics may facilitate clinical trial design using voxel-based brain mapping methods such as TBM. PMID:20139010

  9. Association between Particulate Air Pollution and QT Interval Duration in an Elderly Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Kloog, Itai; Coull, Brent; Koutrakis, Petros; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Short-term fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure has been linked with increased QT interval duration, a marker of ventricular repolarization and a risk factor for cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death, in several studies. Only one previous study evaluated whether long-term PM exposure is related to the QT interval. We aim to evaluate whether sub-chronic and long-term exposure to PM2.5 at home is linked with QT duration in an elderly cohort. METHODS We measured heart-rate corrected QT interval duration among 404 participants from the Greater Boston area between 2003 and 2011. We modeled residential PM2.5 exposures using a hybrid satellite- and land use-based model. We evaluated associations between moving averages of short-term (1–2 day), sub-chronic (3–28 day) and long-term (1 year) pollutant exposures and corrected QT duration using linear mixed models. We also evaluated effect modification by oxidative stress genetic score using separated regression models and interaction terms. RESULTS We observed positive associations between sub-chronic and long-term PM2.5 exposure and corrected QT duration, with the strongest results for longer-term exposures. For example, a 1 standard deviation increase in 1-year PM2.5 was associated with a 6.3 ms increase in corrected QT (95% confidence interval: 1.8, 11). We observed somewhat greater effects among subjects with higher (8.5 ms) rather than lower (3.1 ms) oxidative stress allelic profiles (p-interaction=0.25). CONCLUSIONS PM2.5 was associated with increased corrected QT duration in an elderly cohort. While most previous studies focused on short-term air pollution exposures, our results suggest that longer-term exposures are associated with cardiac repolarization. PMID:26605812

  10. Automatic Abstraction for Intervals Using Boolean Formulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Jörg; King, Andy

    Traditionally, transfer functions have been manually designed for each operation in a program. Recently, however, there has been growing interest in computing transfer functions, motivated by the desire to reason about sequences of operations that constitute basic blocks. This paper focuses on deriving transfer functions for intervals - possibly the most widely used numeric domain - and shows how they can be computed from Boolean formulae which are derived through bit-blasting. This approach is entirely automatic, avoids complicated elimination algorithms, and provides a systematic way of handling wrap-arounds (integer overflows and underflows) which arise in machine arithmetic.

  11. Polycatechol Nanoparticle MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiwen; Huang, Yuran; Wang, Zhao; Carniato, Fabio; Xie, Yijun; Patterson, Joseph P; Thompson, Matthew P; Andolina, Christopher M; Ditri, Treffly B; Millstone, Jill E; Figueroa, Joshua S; Rinehart, Jeffrey D; Scadeng, Miriam; Botta, Mauro; Gianneschi, Nathan C

    2016-02-01

    Amphiphilic triblock copolymers containing Fe(III) -catecholate complexes formulated as spherical- or cylindrical-shaped micellar nanoparticles (SMN and CMN, respectively) are described as new T1-weighted agents with high relaxivity, low cytotoxicity, and long-term stability in biological fluids. Relaxivities of both SMN and CMN exceed those of established gadolinium chelates across a wide range of magnetic field strengths. Interestingly, shape-dependent behavior is observed in terms of the particles' interactions with HeLa cells, with CMN exhibiting enhanced uptake and contrast via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with SMN. These results suggest that control over soft nanoparticle shape will provide an avenue for optimization of particle-based contrast agents as biodiagnostics. The polycatechol nanoparticles are proposed as suitable for preclinical investigations into their viability as gadolinium-free, safe, and effective imaging agents for MRI contrast enhancement. PMID:26681255

  12. MRI of Focal Liver Lesions.

    PubMed

    Albiin, Nils

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI has more advantages than ultrasound, computed tomography, CT, positron emission tomography, PET, or any other imaging modality in diagnosing focal hepatic masses. With a combination of basic T1 and T2 weighted sequences, diffusion weighted imaging, DWI, and hepatobiliary gadolinium contrast agents, that is gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB), most liver lesions can be adequately diagnosed. Benign lesions, as cyst, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, FNH or adenoma, can be distinguished from malignant lesions. In a non-cirrhotic liver, the most common malignant lesions are metastases which may be hypovascular or hypervascular. In the cirrhotic liver hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC, is of considerable importance. Besides, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and other less common malignancies has to be assessed. In this review, the techniques and typical MRI features are presented as well as the new algorithm issued by American Association for the Study of the Liver Diseases (AASLD). PMID:23049491

  13. Variability in cardiac MR measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction, volumes and mass in healthy adults: defining a significant change at 1 year

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, N C; Chue, C D; Taylor, R J; Ferro, C J; Townend, J N; Steeds, R P

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Variability in the measurement of left ventricular (LV) parameters in cardiovascular imaging has typically been assessed over a short time interval, but clinicians most commonly compare results from studies performed a year apart. To account for variation in technical, procedural and biological factors over this time frame, we quantified the within-subject changes in LV volumes, LV mass (LVM) and LV ejection fraction (EF) in a well-defined cohort of healthy adults at 12 months. Methods: Cardiac MR (CMR) was performed in 42 healthy control subjects at baseline and at 1 year (1.5 T Magnetom® Avanto; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). Analysis of steady-state free precession images was performed manually offline (Argus software; Siemens Healthcare) for assessment of LV volumes, LVM and EF by a single blinded observer. A random subset of 10 participants also underwent repeat imaging within 7 days to determine short-term interstudy reproducibility. Results: There were no significant changes in any LV parameter on repeat CMR at 12 months. The short-term interstudy biases were not significantly different from the long-term changes observed at 1 year. The smallest detectable change (SDC) for LVEF, end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and LVM that could be recognized with 95% confidence were 6%, 13 ml, 7 ml and 6 g, respectively. Conclusion: The variability in CMR-derived LV measures arising from technical, procedural and biological factors remains minimal at 12 months. Thus, for patients undergoing repeat annual assessment by CMR, even small differences in LV function, size and LVM (which are greater than the SDC) may be attributed to disease-related factors. Advances in knowledge: The reproducibility and reliability of CMR data at 12 months is excellent allowing clinicians to be confident that even small changes in LV structure and function over this time frame are real. PMID:25710361

  14. Development of 1-year-old computational phantom and calculation of organ doses during CT scans using Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuxi; Qiu, Rui; Gao, Linfeng; Ge, Chaoyong; Zheng, Junzheng; Xie, Wenzhang; Li, Junli

    2014-09-01

    With the rapidly growing number of CT examinations, the consequential radiation risk has aroused more and more attention. The average dose in each organ during CT scans can only be obtained by using Monte Carlo simulation with computational phantoms. Since children tend to have higher radiation sensitivity than adults, the radiation dose of pediatric CT examinations requires special attention and needs to be assessed accurately. So far, studies on organ doses from CT exposures for pediatric patients are still limited. In this work, a 1-year-old computational phantom was constructed. The body contour was obtained from the CT images of a 1-year-old physical phantom and the internal organs were deformed from an existing Chinese reference adult phantom. To ensure the organ locations in the 1-year-old computational phantom were consistent with those of the physical phantom, the organ locations in 1-year-old computational phantom were manually adjusted one by one, and the organ masses were adjusted to the corresponding Chinese reference values. Moreover, a CT scanner model was developed using the Monte Carlo technique and the 1-year-old computational phantom was applied to estimate organ doses derived from simulated CT exposures. As a result, a database including doses to 36 organs and tissues from 47 single axial scans was built. It has been verified by calculation that doses of axial scans are close to those of helical scans; therefore, this database could be applied to helical scans as well. Organ doses were calculated using the database and compared with those obtained from the measurements made in the physical phantom for helical scans. The differences between simulation and measurement were less than 25% for all organs. The result shows that the 1-year-old phantom developed in this work can be used to calculate organ doses in CT exposures, and the dose database provides a method for the estimation of 1-year-old patient doses in a variety of CT examinations.

  15. Optimal ABC inventory classification using interval programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Jafar; Salimi, Negin

    2015-08-01

    Inventory classification is one of the most important activities in inventory management, whereby inventories are classified into three or more classes. Several inventory classifications have been proposed in the literature, almost all of which have two main shortcomings in common. That is, the previous methods mainly rely on an expert opinion to derive the importance of the classification criteria which results in subjective classification, and they need precise item parameters before implementing the classification. While the problem has been predominantly considered as a multi-criteria, we examine the problem from a different perspective, proposing a novel optimisation model for ABC inventory classification in the form of an interval programming problem. The proposed interval programming model has two important features compared to the existing methods: it provides optimal results instead of an expert-based classification and it does not require precise values of item parameters, which are not almost always available before classification. Finally, by illustrating the proposed classification model in the form of numerical example, conclusion and suggestions for future works are presented.

  16. Happiness Scale Interval Study. Methodological Considerations.

    PubMed

    Kalmijn, W M; Arends, L R; Veenhoven, R

    2011-07-01

    The Happiness Scale Interval Study deals with survey questions on happiness, using verbal response options, such as 'very happy' and 'pretty happy'. The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a continuous [0,10] scale, which are then used to compute 'transformed' means and standard deviations. Transforming scores on different questions to the same scale allows to broadening the World Database of Happiness considerably. The central purpose of the Happiness Scale Interval Study is to identify the happiness values at which respondents change their judgment from e.g. 'very happy' to 'pretty happy' or the reverse. This paper deals with the methodological/statistical aspects of this approach. The central question is always how to convert the frequencies at which the different possible responses to the same question given by a sample into information on the happiness distribution in the relevant population. The primary (cl)aim of this approach is to achieve this in a (more) valid way. To this end, a model is introduced that allows for dealing with happiness as a latent continuous random variable, in spite of the fact that it is measured as a discrete one. The [0,10] scale is partitioned in as many contiguous parts as the number of possible ratings in the primary scale sums up to. Any subject with a (self-perceived) happiness in the same subinterval is assumed to select the same response. For the probability density function of this happiness random variable, two options are discussed. The first one postulates a uniform distribution within each of the different subintervals of the [0,10] scale. On the basis of these results, the mean value and variance of the complete distribution can be estimated. The method is described, including the precision of the estimates obtained in this way. The second option assumes the happiness distribution to be described

  17. Future perspectives for intraoperative MRI.

    PubMed

    Jolesz, Ferenc A

    2005-01-01

    MRI-guided neurosurgery not only represents a technical challenge but a transformation from conventional hand-eye coordination to interactive navigational operations. In the future, multimodality-based images will be merged into a single model, in which anatomy and pathologic changes are at once distinguished and integrated into the same intuitive framework. The long-term goals of improving surgical procedures and attendant outcomes, reducing costs, and achieving broad use can be achieved with a three-pronged approach: 1. Improving the presentation of preoperative and real-time intraoperative image information 2. Integrating imaging and treatment-related technology into therapy delivery systems 3. Testing the clinical utility of image guidance in surgery The recent focus in technology development is on improving our ability to understand and apply medical images and imaging systems. Areas of active research include image processing, model-based image analysis, model deformation, real-time registration, real-time 3D (so-called "four-dimensional") imaging, and the integration and presentation of image and sensing information in the operating room. Key elements of the technical matrix also include visualization and display platforms and related software for information and display, model-based image understanding, the use of computing clusters to speed computation (ie, algorithms with partitioned computation to optimize performance), and advanced devices and systems for 3D device tracking (navigation). Current clinical applications are successfully incorporating real-time and/or continuously up-dated image-based information for direct intra-operative visualization. In addition to using traditional imaging systems during surgery, we foresee optimized use of molecular marker technology, direct measures of tissue characterization (ie, optical measurements and/or imaging), and integration of the next generation of surgical and therapy devices (including image

  18. How to scan polymer gels with MRI?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Y.

    2013-06-01

    The absorbed radiation dose fixated in a polymer gel dosimeter can be read out by several methods such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical CT, X-ray CT and ultrasound with MRI being the first method that was explored. Although MRI was considered as an elegant scanning technique, readily available in most hospitals, it was later found that using a non-optimized imaging protocol may result in unacceptable deviations in the obtained dose distribution. Although most medical physicists have an understanding of the basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the optimization of quantitative imaging sequences and protocols is often perceived as the work of MRI experts. In this paper, we aim at providing the reader with some easy guidelines in how to obtain reliable quantitative MRI maps.

  19. Opening the black box: imaging nanoparticle transport with MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoenix, V.; Holmes, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    While most renown for its use in medicine, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has tremendous potential in the study of environmental processes. Its ability to non-invasively image inside materials that are opaque to other imaging methods (in particular light based techniques) is a particular strength. MRI has already been used, for example, to study fluid flow in rocks and image mass transport and biogeochemical processes in biofilms [1-4]. Here, we report of the use of MRI to image nanoparticle transport through porous geologic media (in this case packed gravel columns). Packed column experiments are key to understanding nanoparticulate transport in porous geologic media. Whilst highly informative, the data obtained can be a bulk average of a complex and heterogeneous array of interactions within the column. Natural environmental systems are often complex, displaying heterogeneity in geometry, hydrodynamics, geochemistry and microbiology throughout. MRI enables us to quantify better how this heterogeneity may influence nanoparticle transport and fate by enabling us to look inside the column and image the movement of nanoparticles within. To make the nanoparticle readily visible to MRI, it is labelled with a paramagnetic tag (commonly gadolinium). Indeed, a wide variety of off-the-shelf paramagnetically tagged nanoparticles and macromolecules are available, each with different properties enabling us to explore the impact of particle charge, size etc on their transport behaviour. In this preliminary study, packed columns of quartz or marble based gravels (approx 5 mm diameter) were first imaged to check their suitability for MR imaging. This was done as geologic material can contain sufficiently high concentrations of ferro- and paramagnetic ions to induce unwanted artefacts in the MR image. All gravels imaged (Rose quartz, Creswick quartz gravel and Ben Deulin white marble) produced minimal or no artefacts. A solution of the nanoparticle GadoCELLTrack (BioPAL), was

  20. Integrated speech enhancement for functional MRI environment.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Nishank; Milani, Ali A; Panahi, Issa; Briggs, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated speech enhancement (SE) method for the noisy MRI environment. We show that the performance of SE system improves considerably when the speech signal dominated by MRI acoustic noise at very low SNR is enhanced in two successive stages using two-channel SE methods followed by a single-channel post processing SE algorithm. Actual MRI noisy speech data are used in our experiments showing the improved performance of the proposed SE method. PMID:19964964

  1. Competitive Advantage of PET/MRI

    PubMed Central

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. PMID:23791129

  2. MRI Scans - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resonance Imaging) (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) 核磁共振成像(MRI) - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) 核磁共振成像( ...

  3. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    PubMed

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. PMID:23791129

  4. Short-interval estimations of trigonometric parallaxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatewood, G.; Stein, J.; Difatta, C.; Kiewiet De Jonge, J.; Prosser, J.; Reiland, T.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for estimating trigonometric parallaxes in a matter of days or weeks is presented. The technique relies on the discrepancy between the instantaneous proper motion and the proper motion of a star. The main sources of error in the method are the standard error of the individual observations (0.004 arcsec) and the arbitrary limit placed on the observation interval. The parallactic motion of an MO dwarf of known parallax and a blue magnitude of 11.2 is determined. The slope inferred is within 10 percent of the value (0.555 arcsec) derived from a 1.5-year study of Barnard's star. It is concluded that the technique, if used on the same time scale as conventional techniques, would yield results of much higher accuracy.

  5. Functional MRI and Outcome in Traumatic Coma

    PubMed Central

    Giacino, Joseph T.; Wu, Ona

    2013-01-01

    Advances in task-based functional MRI (fMRI), resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), and arterial-spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI have occurred at a rapid pace in recent years. These techniques for measuring brain function have great potential to improve the accuracy of prognostication for civilian and military patients with traumatic coma. In addition, fMRI, rs-fMRI, and ASL have provided novel insights into the pathophysiology of traumatic disorders of consciousness, as well as mechanisms of recovery from coma. However, functional neuroimaging techniques have yet to achieve widespread clinical use as prognostic tests for patients with traumatic coma. Rather, a broad spectrum of methodological hurdles currently limits the feasibility of clinical implementation. In this review, we discuss the basic principles of fMRI, rs-fMRI and ASL and their potential applications as prognostic tools for patients with traumatic coma. We also discuss future strategies for overcoming the current barriers to clinical implementation. PMID:23881623

  6. PET/MRI: challenges, solutions and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Hans

    2012-12-01

    Already from the start of PET/CT integrating positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) in one instrument, there have been considerations how to combine PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) so that their complementary abilities can be utilized in a single investigation. Since classical PET electronics fail in an even weak magnetic field and PET signal processing might disturb high-frequency signals of MRI, it soon became clear that new solutions had to be found to avoid mutual interferences. During the last fifteen years a number of different approaches towards PET/MRI for small animal imaging have been developed by research groups which together with their specific features are summarized in this review. Recently, PET/MRI for human imaging became available as well - this time by industrial initiatives. First some prototypes of BrainPET/MRI were developed followed by commercial products for simultaneous and non-simultaneous whole-body PET/MRI. Although only PET/MRI integrated in one scanner offers the full diversity of complementary multiparametric imaging, there are also promising applications of non-simultaneous sequential PET/MRI. While describing the present instrumentation for human PET/MRI, this review discusses the challenges and promises related to this new imaging technology. PMID:22925652

  7. Sparse representation of complex MRI images.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Hari Prasad; Ji, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Sparse representation of images acquired from Magnet Resonance Imaging (MRI) has several potential applications. MRI is unique in that the raw images are complex. Complex wavelet transforms (CWT) can be used to produce flexible signal representations when compared to Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). In this work, five different schemes using CWT or DWT are tested for sparse representation of MRI images which are in the form of complex values, separate real/imaginary, or separate magnitude/phase. The experimental results on real in-vivo MRI images show that appropriate CWT, e.g., dual-tree CWT (DTCWT), can achieve sparsity better than DWT with similar Mean Square Error. PMID:19162677

  8. Does the Novel Integrated PET/MRI Offer the Same Diagnostic Performance as PET/CT for Oncological Indications?

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Dayi; Zhang, Jinming; Chen, Yingmao; An, Ningyu; Xu, Baixuan

    2014-01-01

    Background We compared PET/MRI with PET/CT in terms of lesion detection and quantitative measurement to verify the feasibility of the novel integrated imaging modality for oncological applications. Methodology/Principal Findings In total, 285 patients referred to our PET/CT center for oncological indications voluntarily participated in this same-day PET/CT and PET/MRI comparative study. PET/CT images were acquired and reconstructed following routine protocols, and then PET/MRI was performed at a mean time interval of 28±11 min (range 15–45 min). PET/MRI covered the body trunk with a sequence combination of transverse T1WI 3D-volumetric interpolated breath-hold, T2WI turbo spin echo with fat saturation, diffusion-weighted imaging with double b values (50 and 800 s/mm2), and simultaneous PET acquisition over 45 min/5 bed positions. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was assessed by manually drawn regions of interest over fluorodeoxyglucose-positive lesions. Among 285 cases, 57 showed no abnormalities, and 368 lesions (278 malignant, 68 benign and 22 undetermined) were detected in 228 patients. When stand-alone modalities were evaluated, PET revealed 31 and 12 lesions missed by CT and MRI, respectively, and CT and MRI revealed 38 and 61 more lesions, respectively, than PET. Compared to CT, MRI detected 40 more lesions and missed 8. In the integrated mode, PET/CT correctly detected 6 lesions misdiagnosed by PET/MRI, but was false-negative in 30 cases that were detected by PET/MRI. The overall diagnosis did not differ between integrated PET/MRI and PET/CT. SUVmax for lesions were slightly higher from PET/MRI than PET/CT but correlated well (ρ = 0.85–0.91). Conclusions/Significance The novel integrated PET/MRI performed comparatively to PET/CT in lesion detection and quantitative measurements. PET from either scanner modality offered almost the same information despite differences in hardware. Further study is needed to explore features of

  9. The diagnostic value of MRI fistulogram and MRI distal colostogram in patients with anorectal malformations.

    PubMed

    Kavalcova, Lucie; Skaba, Richard; Kyncl, Martin; Rouskova, Blanka; Prochazka, Ales

    2013-08-01

    Contrast fistulogram (FG) and distal pressure colostogram (DPCG) are standard diagnostic methods for the assessment of anorectal malformations. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) earned a place among essential diagnostic methods in preoperative investigations after the Currarino syndrome and a high incidence of associated spinal dysraphism were described. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possibility of substituting FG and DPCG by a modified pelvic MRI, e.g. MRI fistulogram (MRI-FG) and MRI colostogram (MRI-DPCG). The prospective study involved 29 patients with anorectal malformations who underwent a modified pelvic MRI. The length and course of fistulas and rectum, and the presence of sacral anomalies were studied on MRI images and compared with images obtained by radiologic examinations. Modified MRI brought identical results as contrast studies in 25 patients when related to the fistula and rectum length and course. MRI was more accurate for the detection of sacral anomalies. MRI-FG was the only imaging method used in the four most recent patients. The results support the assumption that conventional contrast examinations for the assessment of anorectal malformations can be replaced by MRI, thus reducing the radiation dose. PMID:23932626

  10. The effect of instrumental timbre on interval discrimination.

    PubMed

    Zarate, Jean Mary; Ritson, Caroline R; Poeppel, David

    2013-01-01

    We tested non-musicians and musicians in an auditory psychophysical experiment to assess the effects of timbre manipulation on pitch-interval discrimination. Both groups were asked to indicate the larger of two presented intervals, comprised of four sequentially presented pitches; the second or fourth stimulus within a trial was either a sinusoidal (or "pure"), flute, piano, or synthetic voice tone, while the remaining three stimuli were all pure tones. The interval-discrimination tasks were administered parametrically to assess performance across varying pitch distances between intervals ("interval-differences"). Irrespective of timbre, musicians displayed a steady improvement across interval-differences, while non-musicians only demonstrated enhanced interval discrimination at an interval-difference of 100 cents (one semitone in Western music). Surprisingly, the best discrimination performance across both groups was observed with pure-tone intervals, followed by intervals containing a piano tone. More specifically, we observed that: 1) timbre changes within a trial affect interval discrimination; and 2) the broad spectral characteristics of an instrumental timbre may influence perceived pitch or interval magnitude and make interval discrimination more difficult. PMID:24066179

  11. Pigeons' Memory for Number of Events: Effects of Intertrial Interval and Delay Interval Illumination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Chris; Santi, Angelo

    2004-01-01

    In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained at a 0-s baseline delay to discriminate sequences of light flashes (illumination of the feeder) that varied in number but not time (2f/4s and 8f/4s). During training, the intertrial interval was illuminated by the houselight for Group Light, but it was dark for Group Dark. Testing conducted with dark delay…

  12. Confidence Intervals Make a Difference: Effects of Showing Confidence Intervals on Inferential Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rink; Johnson, Addie; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of confidence intervals (CIs) as an addition or as an alternative to null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) has been promoted as a means to make researchers more aware of the uncertainty that is inherent in statistical inference. Little is known, however, about whether presenting results via CIs affects how readers judge the…

  13. Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study was to compare strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training programs that instituted constant rest intervals (CI) and decreasing rest intervals (DI) between sets over the course of eight weeks by trained men who supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CR). Methods Twenty-two recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to a CI group (n = 11; 22.3 ± 1 years; 77.7 ± 5.4 kg; 180 ± 2.2 cm) or a DI group (n = 11; 22 ± 2.5 years; 75.8 ± 4.9 kg; 178.8 ± 3.4 cm). Subjects in both groups supplemented with CR; the only difference between groups was the rest interval instituted between sets; the CI group used 2 minutes rest intervals between sets and exercises for the entire 8-weeks of training, while the DI group started with a 2 minute rest interval the first two weeks; after which the rest interval between sets was decreased 15 seconds per week (i.e. 2 minutes decreasing to 30 seconds between sets). Pre- and post-intervention maximal strength for the free weight back squat and bench press exercises and isokinetic peak torque were assessed for the knee extensors and flexors. Additionally, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the right thigh and upper arm was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Both groups demonstrated significant increases in back squat and bench press maximal strength, knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torque, and upper arm and right thigh CSA from pre- to post-training (p ≤ 0.0001); however, there were no significant differences between groups for any of these variables. The total volume for the bench press and back squat were significantly greater for CI group versus the DI group. Conclusions We report that the combination of CR supplementation and resistance training can increase muscular strength, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle CSA, irrespective of the rest interval length between sets. Because the volume of training was greater for the CI group versus the

  14. The perception of harmonic triads: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Takashi X; Cook, Norman D

    2011-06-01

    We have undertaken an fMRI study of harmony perception in order to determine the relationship between the diatonic triads of Western harmony and brain activation. Subjects were 12 right-handed, male non-musicians. All stimuli consisted of two harmonic triads that did not contain dissonant intervals of 1 or 2 semitones, but differed between them by 0, ±1, ±2 or ±3 semitones and therefore differed in terms of their inherent stability (major and minor chords) or instability (diminished and augmented chords). These musical stimuli were chosen on the basis of a psychoacoustical model of triadic harmony that has previously been shown to explain the fundamental regularities of traditional harmony theory. The brain response to the chords could be distinguished within the right orbitofrontal cortex and cuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus. Moreover, the strongest hemodynamic responses were found for conditions of rising pitch leading from harmonic tension to modal resolution. PMID:21298563

  15. Interaction between noise suppression and inhomogeneity correction in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montillo, Albert; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Axel, Leon; Metaxas, Dimitri N.

    2003-05-01

    While cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in most developed countries, SPAMM-MRI can reduce morbidity by facilitating patient diagnosis. An image analysis method with a high degree of automation is essential for clinical adoption of SPAMM-MRI. The degree of this automation is dependent on the amount of thermal noise and surface coil-induced intensity inhomogeneity that can be removed from the images. An ideal noise suppression algorithm removes thermal noise yet retains or enhances the strength of the edges of salient structures. In this paper, we quantitatively compare and rank several noise suppression algorithms in images from both normal and diseased subjects using measures of the residual noise and edge strength and the statistical significance levels and confidence intervals of these measures. We also investigate the interrelationship between inhomogeneity correction and noise suppression algorithms and compare the effect of the ordering of these algorithms. The variance of thermal noise does not tend to change with position, however, inhomogeneity correction increases noise variance in deep thoracic regions. We quantify the degree to which an inhomogeneity estimate can improve noise suppression and how well noise suppression can facilitate the identification of homogeneous tissue regions and thereby, assist in inhomogeneity correction.

  16. Pitch strength of regular-interval click trains with different length “runs” of regular intervals

    PubMed Central

    Yost, William A.; Mapes-Riordan, Dan; Shofner, William; Dye, Raymond; Sheft, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    Click trains were generated with first- and second-order statistics following Kaernbach and Demany [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104, 2298–2306 (1998)]. First-order intervals are between successive clicks, while second-order intervals are those between every other click. Click trains were generated with a repeating alternation of fixed and random intervals which produce a pitch at the reciprocal of the duration of the fixed interval. The intervals were then randomly shuffled and compared to the unshuffled, alternating click trains in pitch-strength comparison experiments. In almost all comparisons for the first-order interval stimuli, the shuffled-interval click trains had a stronger pitch strength than the unshuffled-interval click trains. The shuffled-interval click trains only produced stronger pitches for second-order interval stimuli when the click trains were unfiltered. Several experimental conditions and an analysis of runs of regular and random intervals in these click trains suggest that the auditory system is sensitive to runs of regular intervals in a stimulus that contains a mix of regular and random intervals. These results indicate that fine-structure regularity plays a more important role in pitch perception than randomness, and that the long-term autocorrelation function or spectra of these click trains are not good predictors of pitch strength. PMID:15957774

  17. Temporal Constraints of Behavioral Inhibition: Relevance of Inter-stimulus Interval in a Go-Nogo Task

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano, Francisco; Billeke, Pablo; Hurtado, José M.; López, Vladimir; Carrasco, Ximena; Ossandón, Tomás; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to inhibit prepotent and automatic responses is crucial for proper cognitive and social development, and inhibitory impairments have been considered to be key for some neuropsychiatric conditions. One of the most used paradigms to analyze inhibitory processes is the Go-Nogo task (GNG). This task has been widely used in psychophysical and cognitive EEG studies, and more recently in paradigms using fMRI. However, a technical limitation is that the time resolution of fMRI is poorer than that of the EEG technique. In order to compensate for these temporal constraints, it has become common practice in the fMRI field to use longer inter-stimulus intervals (ISI) than those used in EEG protocols. Despite the noticeable temporal differences between these two techniques, it is currently assumed that both approaches assess similar inhibitory processes. We performed an EEG study using a GNG task with both short ISI (fast-condition, FC, as in EEG protocols) and long ISI (slow-condition, SC, as in fMRI protocols). We found that in the FC there was a stronger Nogo-N2 effect than in the SC. Moreover, in the FC, but not in the SC, the number of preceding Go trials correlated positively with the Nogo-P3 amplitude and with the Go trial reaction time; and negatively with commission errors. In addition, we found significant topographical differences for the Go-P3 elicited in FC and SC, which is interpreted in terms of different neurotransmitter dynamics. Taken together, our results provide evidence that frequency of stimulus presentation in the GNG task strongly modulates the behavioral response and the evoked EEG activity. Therefore, it is likely that short-ISI EEG protocols and long-ISI fMRI protocols do not assess equivalent inhibitory processes. PMID:24489875

  18. Greater nutrition knowledge is associated with lower 1-year postpartum weight retention in low-income women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to assess nutrition knowledge during early and late postpartum in a sample of low-income and minority women, and to determine if that knowledge had any relationship to weight retention at 1-year postpartum. A questionnaire was developed and validated in a sample of 151 ...

  19. Decrease in Television Viewing Predicts Lower Body Mass Index at 1-Year Follow-Up in Adolescents, but Not Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Simone A.; Mitchell, Nathan R.; Hannan, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between television viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, eating out, physical activity, and body weight change over 1 year. Design: Secondary data analysis from randomized intervention trial. Setting: Households in the community. Participants: Adults (n = 153) and adolescents (n = 72) from the same…

  20. Genetic evaluation of weaning weight and probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate genetic control of 120-day weaning weight and the probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee ewe lambs. Records of 5,967 ewe lambs born from 1989 to 2012 and first exposed to rams for breeding at approximately 7 months of age were analyzed. Reco...

  1. Endovascular Treatment of a Bleeding Secondary Aorto-Enteric Fistula. A Case Report with 1-Year Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Brountzos, Elias N. Vasdekis, Spyros; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Danias, Nikolaos; Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Petropoulou, Konstantina; Gouliamos, Athanasios; Perros, Georgios

    2007-09-15

    We report a patient with life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding caused by a secondary aorto-enteric fistula. Because the patient had several comorbid conditions, we successfully stopped the bleeding by endovascular placement of a bifurcated aortic stent-graft. The patient developed periaortic infection 4 months later, but he was managed with antibiotics. The patient is well 1 year after the procedure.

  2. Effects on Metabolic Health after a 1-Year-Lifestyle Intervention in Overweight and Obese Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Waling, Maria; Bäcklund, Catharina; Lind, Torbjörn; Larsson, Christel

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effect of a family-based intervention on anthropometric and metabolic markers in overweight and obese children. Methods. Overweight or obese 8–12 years olds (n = 93) were randomized into intervention or control groups. The intervention group participated in a program aiming for lifestyle changes regarding food habits and physical activity. Anthropometric measures and venous blood samples were collected from all children at baseline and after 1 year. Results. BMI z-scores decreased in both groups, 0.22 (P = 0.002) and 0.23 (P = 0.003) in intervention and control group, respectively, during the 1-year study, but there was no difference in BMI between the groups at 1-year measurement (P = 0.338). After 1 year, there was a significant difference in waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, and apolipoprotein B/A1 ratio between intervention and control group. Conclusions. The intervention had limited effects on anthropometrics and metabolic markers, which emphasizes the need of preventing childhood overweight and obesity. PMID:21941639

  3. A randomized double-blind clinical trial of posterior composite restorations with or without bevel: 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    COELHO-DE-SOUZA, Fábio Herrmann; CAMARGO, Junara Cristina; BESKOW, Tiago; BALESTRIN, Matheus Dalmolin; KLEIN-JÚNIOR, Celso Afonso; DEMARCO, Flávio Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Objective This randomized double-blind clinical trial compared the performance of posterior composite restorations with or without bevel, after 1-year follow-up. Material and Methods Thirteen volunteers requiring at least two posterior composite restorations were selected. Twenty-nine cavities were performed, comprising 14 without bevel (butt joint) and 15 with bevel preparation of the enamel cavosurface angle. All cavities were restored with simplified adhesive system (Adper Single Bond) and composite resin (Filtek P60). A halogen light curing unit was used through the study. Restorations were polished immediately. Analysis was carried out at baseline, after 6 months and after 1 year by a calibrated evaluator (Kappa), according to the FDI criteria. Data were statistically analyzed by Mann-Whitney test (p<0.05). Results Beveled and non-beveled cavities performed similarly after 1 year follow-up, regarding to fractures and retention, marginal adaptation, postoperative hypersensitivity, recurrence of caries, surface luster and anatomic form. However, for surface and marginal staining, beveled cavities showed significantly better performance (p<0.05) than butt joint restorations. Conclusions It was concluded that the restorations were acceptable after 1 year, but restorations placed in cavities with marginal beveling showed less marginal staining than those placed in non-beveled cavities. PMID:22666833

  4. Improving Academic Performance of School-Age Children by Physical Activity in the Classroom: 1-Year Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background: An intervention was designed that combined physical activity with learning activities. It was based upon evidence for positive effects of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on academic achievement. The aim of this study was to describe the program implementation and effects on academic achievement after 1?year. Methods:…

  5. About Hemispheric Differences in the Processing of Temporal Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondin, S.; Girard, C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify differences between cerebral hemispheres for processing temporal intervals ranging from .9 to 1.4s. The intervals to be judged were marked by series of brief visual signals located in the left or the right visual field. Series of three (two standards and one comparison) or five intervals (four…

  6. 46 CFR 176.675 - Extension of examination intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extension of examination intervals. 176.675 Section 176... 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.675 Extension of examination intervals. The intervals between drydock examinations and internal structural...

  7. Application of Sequential Interval Estimation to Adaptive Mastery Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yuan-chin Ivan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we apply sequential one-sided confidence interval estimation procedures with beta-protection to adaptive mastery testing. The procedures of fixed-width and fixed proportional accuracy confidence interval estimation can be viewed as extensions of one-sided confidence interval procedures. It can be shown that the adaptive mastery…

  8. Central Difference Interval Method for Solving the Wave Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Szyszka, Barbara

    2010-09-30

    This paper presents path of construction the interval method of second order for solving the wave equation. Taken into consideration is the central difference interval method for one-dimensional partial differential equation. Numerical results, obtained by two presented algorithms, in floating-point interval arithmetic are considered.

  9. Improvement in insulin sensitivity following a 1-year lifestyle intervention program in viscerally obese men: contribution of abdominal adiposity.

    PubMed

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica; Alméras, Natalie; Tremblay, Angelo; Bergeron, Jean; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to quantify the effect of a 1-year healthy eating-physical activity/exercise lifestyle modification program on insulin sensitivity in viscerally obese men classified according to their glucose tolerance status and to evaluate the respective contributions of changes in body fat distribution vs changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to the improvements in indices of plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis. Abdominally obese, dyslipidemic men (waist circumference ≥90 cm, triglycerides ≥1.69 mmol/L, and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <1.03 mmol/L) were recruited. The 1-year intervention/evaluation was completed by 104 men. Body weight, composition, and fat distribution were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry/computed tomography. Cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic risk profile were measured. After 1 year, insulin sensitivity improved in association with decreases in both visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adiposity (SAT) as well as with the improvement in CRF, regardless of baseline glucose tolerance. Further analyses were performed according to changes in glucose tolerance status: improvement (group I, n = 39), no change (group N, n = 50), or worsening (group W, n = 15) after 1 year. Groups I and N improved their insulin sensitivity and their CRF, whereas group W did not, while losing less VAT than groups I and N. Multiple regressions showed that reduction in VAT was associated with an improvement in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, whereas reduction in SAT was rather associated with improvement of the insulin sensitivity index of Matsuda. Changes in CRF were not independently associated with changes in indices of plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis. A 1-year lifestyle intervention improved plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis in viscerally obese men, including those with normal glucose tolerance status at baseline. Changes in SAT and VAT but not in CRF appeared to mediate these improvements

  10. Prevalence and Predictive Factors of Chronic Postsurgical Pain and Global Surgical Recovery 1 Year After Outpatient Knee Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hoofwijk, Daisy M.N.; Fiddelers, Audrey A.A.; Emans, Peter J.; Joosten, Elbert A.; Gramke, Hans-Fritz; Marcus, Marco A.E.; Buhre, Wolfgang F.F.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Outpatient knee arthroscopy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. Previous research has demonstrated that chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) after outpatient surgery is prevalent. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and predictive factors of CPSP and Global Surgical Recovery (GSR) 1 year after knee arthroscopy. A prospective longitudinal cohort study was performed. Patients were included during an 18-month period. Data were collected by using 3 questionnaires: at 1 week preoperatively, 4 days postoperatively, and 1 year postoperatively. A value of >3 on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) was defined as moderate to severe pain. A score of ≤80% on the Global Surgical Recovery Index was defined as poor GSR. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which variables were predictors for CPSP and poor GSR. The prevalence of moderate to severe preoperative pain in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy (n = 104) was 71.2%, of acute postsurgical pain 37.5%, and of CPSP 32.7%. Risk factors for CPSP were the presence of preoperative pain and preoperative analgesic use, with odds ratios of 6.31 (1.25–31.74) and 4.36 (1.58–12.07), respectively. The prevalence of poor GSR 1 year after outpatient knee arthrosocpy was 50.0%. Poor GSR 4 days after the surgery was a risk factor with an odds ratio of 8.38 (0.92–76.58) and quality of life 4 days after surgery was a protective factor with and odds ratio of 0.10 (0.02–0.64). Both CPSP and poor GSR are common 1 year after knee arthroscopy. Patients at risk for CPSP can be identified during the preoperative phase. Prediction of poor GSR 1 year after surgery is mainly related to early postoperative recovery. PMID:26559300

  11. Optimized Breast MRI Functional Tumor Volume as a Biomarker of Recurrence-Free Survival Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Jafri, Nazia F.; Newitt, David C.; Kornak, John; Esserman, Laura J.; Joe, Bonnie N.; Hylton, Nola M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate optimal contrast kinetics thresholds for measuring functional tumor volume (FTV) by breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessment of recurrence-free survival (RFS). Materials and Methods In this Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved retrospective study of 64 patients (ages 29–72, median age of 48.6) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for breast cancer, all patients underwent pre-MRI1 and postchemotherapy MRI4 of the breast. Tumor was defined as voxels meeting thresholds for early percent enhancement (PEthresh) and early-to-late signal enhancement ratio (SERthresh); and FTV (PEthresh, SERthresh) by summing all voxels meeting threshold criteria and minimum connectivity requirements. Ranges of PEthresh from 50% to 220% and SERthresh from 0.0 to 2.0 were evaluated. A Cox proportional hazard model determined associations between change in FTV over treatment and RFS at different PE and SER thresholds. Results The plot of hazard ratios for change in FTV from MRI1 to MRI4 showed a broad peak with the maximum hazard ratio and highest significance occurring at PE threshold of 70% and SER threshold of 1.0 (hazard ratio = 8.71, 95% confidence interval 2.86–25.5, P < 0.00015), indicating optimal model fit. Conclusion Enhancement thresholds affect the ability of MRI tumor volume to predict RFS. The value is robust over a wide range of thresholds, supporting the use of FTV as a biomarker. PMID:24347097

  12. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Melvin, Malia N.; Wingfield, Hailee L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. Objectives In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Methods Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg·m2] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%–100%) (2MIN-HIIT). Results There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg−1·min−1) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml·kg−1·min−1). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ −2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. Conclusion HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males. PMID:25913937

  13. Pantopaque simulating thrombosed intracranial aneurysms on MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Lidov, M.W.; Silvers, A.R.; Mosesson, R.E.; Stollman, A.L.; Som, P.M.

    1996-03-01

    A patient is presented in whom iophendylate (Pantopaque) within the basal cisterns closely resembled the appearance on MRI of thrombosed aneurysms of the middle cerebral arteries. The sometimes subtle differences between the appearances on MRI of Pantopaque and aneurysmal clot are discussed to permit accurate diagnosis without resorting to more invasive diagnostic tests, such as cerebral angiography. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Functional MRI Using Regularized Parallel Imaging Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Fu-Nien; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Belliveau, John W.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Kwong, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    Parallel MRI techniques reconstruct full-FOV images from undersampled k-space data by using the uncorrelated information from RF array coil elements. One disadvantage of parallel MRI is that the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is degraded because of the reduced data samples and the spatially correlated nature of multiple RF receivers. Regularization has been proposed to mitigate the SNR loss originating due to the latter reason. Since it is necessary to utilize static prior to regularization, the dynamic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in parallel MRI will be affected. In this paper we investigate the CNR of regularized sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acquisitions. We propose to implement regularized parallel MRI acquisitions in functional MRI (fMRI) experiments by incorporating the prior from combined segmented echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisition into SENSE reconstructions. We investigated the impact of regularization on the CNR by performing parametric simulations at various BOLD contrasts, acceleration rates, and sizes of the active brain areas. As quantified by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the simulations suggest that the detection power of SENSE fMRI can be improved by regularized reconstructions, compared to unregularized reconstructions. Human motor and visual fMRI data acquired at different field strengths and array coils also demonstrate that regularized SENSE improves the detection of functionally active brain regions. PMID:16032694

  15. MRI endoscopy using intrinsically localized probes

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, Shashank; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is traditionally performed with fixed externally applied gradient magnetic fields and is hence intrinsically locked to the laboratory frame of reference (FoR). Here a method for high-resolution MRI that employs active, catheter-based, tiny internal probes that utilize the spatial properties of the probe itself for localization is proposed and demonstrated at 3 T. Because these properties are intrinsic to the probe, they move with it, transforming MRI from the laboratory FoR to the FoR of the device itself, analogous to an endoscope. The “MRI endoscope” can utilize loop coils and loopless antennas with modified sensitivity, in combination with adiabatic excitation by the device itself, to restrict the MRI sensitivity to a disk-shaped plane a few mm thick. Excitation with the MRI endoscope limits the eddy currents induced in the sample to an excited volume whose size is orders of magnitude below that excited by a conventional body MRI coil. Heat testing shows maximum local temperature increases of <1 °C during MRI, within regulatory guidelines. The method is demonstrated in a kiwifruit, in intact porcine and rabbit aortas, and in an atherosclerotic human iliac artery specimen, with in-plane resolution as small as 80 μm and 1.5–5 mm slice thickness. PMID:19378751

  16. Live nephron imaging by MRI.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chunqi; Yu, Xin; Pothayee, Nikorn; Dodd, Stephen; Bouraoud, Nadia; Star, Robert; Bennett, Kevin; Koretsky, Alan

    2014-11-15

    The local sensitivity of MRI can be improved with small MR detectors placed close to regions of interest. However, to maintain such sensitivity advantage, local detectors normally need to communicate with the external amplifier through cable connections, which prevent the use of local detectors as implantable devices. Recently, an integrated wireless amplifier was developed that can efficiently amplify and broadcast locally detected signals, so that the local sensitivity was enhanced without the need for cable connections. This integrated detector enabled the live imaging of individual glomeruli using negative contrast introduced by cationized ferritin, and the live imaging of renal tubules using positive contrast introduced by gadopentetate dimeglumine. Here, we utilized the high blood flow to image individual glomeruli as hyperintense regions without any contrast agent. These hyperintense regions were identified for pixels with signal intensities higher than the local average. Addition of Mn(2+) allowed the simultaneous detection of both glomeruli and renal tubules: Mn(2+) was primarily reabsorbed by renal tubules, which would be distinguished from glomeruli due to higher enhancement in T1-weighted MRI. Dynamic studies of Mn(2+) absorption confirmed the differential absorption affinity of glomeruli and renal tubules, potentially enabling the in vivo observation of nephron function. PMID:25186296

  17. MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... an imaging test that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the body. It does ... be studied. These help send and receive the radio waves, and improve the quality of the images. During ...

  18. Function approximation using adaptive and overlapping intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    A problem common to many disciplines is to approximate a function given only the values of the function at various points in input variable space. A method is proposed for approximating a function of several to one variable. The model takes the form of weighted averaging of overlapping basis functions defined over intervals. The number of such basis functions and their parameters (widths and centers) are automatically determined using given training data and a learning algorithm. The proposed algorithm can be seen as placing a nonuniform multidimensional grid in the input domain with overlapping cells. The non-uniformity and overlap of the cells is achieved by a learning algorithm to optimize a given objective function. This approach is motivated by the fuzzy modeling approach and a learning algorithms used for clustering and classification in pattern recognition. The basics of why and how the approach works are given. Few examples of nonlinear regression and classification are modeled. The relationship between the proposed technique, radial basis neural networks, kernel regression, probabilistic neural networks, and fuzzy modeling is explained. Finally advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  19. The Interval approach to braneworld gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Carena, Marcela; Lykken, Joseph D.; Park, Minjoon; /Chicago U., EFI

    2005-06-01

    Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds may exhibit extra scalar degrees of freedom with problematic features, including kinetic ghosts and strong coupling behavior. Analysis of such effects is hampered by the standard heuristic approaches to braneworld gravity, which use the equations of motion as the starting point, supplemented by orbifold projections and junction conditions. Here we develop the interval approach to braneworld gravity, which begins with an action principle. This shows how to implement general covariance, despite allowing metric fluctuations that do not vanish on the boundaries. We reproduce simple Z{sub 2} orbifolds of gravity, even though in this approach we never perform a Z{sub 2} projection. We introduce a family of ''straight gauges'', which are bulk coordinate systems in which both branes appear as straight slices in a single coordinate patch. Straight gauges are extremely useful for analyzing metric fluctuations in braneworld models. By explicit gauge fixing, we show that a general AdS{sub 5}/AdS{sub 4} setup with two branes has at most a radion, but no physical ''brane-bending'' modes.

  20. Statistical Properties of Extreme Solar Activity Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lioznova, A. V.; Blinov, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    A study of long-term solar variability reflected in indirect indices of past solar activity leads to stimulating results. We compare the statistics of intervals of very low and very high solar activity derived from two cosmogenic radionuclide records and look for consistency in their timing and physical interpretation. According to the applied criteria, the numbers of minima and of maxima are 61 and 68, respectively, from the 10Be record, and 42 and 46 from the 14C record. The difference between the enhanced and depressed states of solar activity becomes apparent in the difference in their statistical distributions. We find no correlation between the level or type (minimum or maximum) of an extremum and the level or type of the predecessor. The hypothesis of solar activity as a periodic process on the millennial time scale is not supported by the existing proxies. A new homogeneous series of 10Be measurements in polar ice covering the Holocene would be of great value for eliminating the existing discrepancy in the available solar activity reconstructions.

  1. An Investigation of Interval Management Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swieringa, Kurt A.; Wilson, Sara R.; Shay, Rick

    2015-01-01

    NASA's first Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) was created to transition the most mature ATM technologies from the laboratory to the National Airspace System. One selected technology is Interval Management (IM), which uses onboard aircraft automation to compute speeds that help the flight crew achieve and maintain precise spacing behind a preceding aircraft. Since ATD-1 focuses on a near-term environment, the ATD-1 flight demonstration prototype requires radio voice communication to issue an IM clearance. Retrofit IM displays will enable pilots to both enter information into the IM avionics and monitor IM operation. These displays could consist of an interface to enter data from an IM clearance and also an auxiliary display that presents critical information in the primary field-of-view. A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted to examine usability and acceptability of retrofit IM displays, which flight crews found acceptable. Results also indicate the need for salient alerting when new speeds are generated and the desire to have a primary field of view display available that can display text and graphic trend indicators.

  2. Statistical Coding and Decoding of Heartbeat Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Fausto; Barros, Allan Kardec; Príncipe, José C.; Ohnishi, Noboru

    2011-01-01

    The heart integrates neuroregulatory messages into specific bands of frequency, such that the overall amplitude spectrum of the cardiac output reflects the variations of the autonomic nervous system. This modulatory mechanism seems to be well adjusted to the unpredictability of the cardiac demand, maintaining a proper cardiac regulation. A longstanding theory holds that biological organisms facing an ever-changing environment are likely to evolve adaptive mechanisms to extract essential features in order to adjust their behavior. The key question, however, has been to understand how the neural circuitry self-organizes these feature detectors to select behaviorally relevant information. Previous studies in computational perception suggest that a neural population enhances information that is important for survival by minimizing the statistical redundancy of the stimuli. Herein we investigate whether the cardiac system makes use of a redundancy reduction strategy to regulate the cardiac rhythm. Based on a network of neural filters optimized to code heartbeat intervals, we learn a population code that maximizes the information across the neural ensemble. The emerging population code displays filter tuning proprieties whose characteristics explain diverse aspects of the autonomic cardiac regulation, such as the compromise between fast and slow cardiac responses. We show that the filters yield responses that are quantitatively similar to observed heart rate responses during direct sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve stimulation. Our findings suggest that the heart decodes autonomic stimuli according to information theory principles analogous to how perceptual cues are encoded by sensory systems. PMID:21694763

  3. Validity of early MRI structural damage end points and potential impact on clinical trial design in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joshua F; Conaghan, Philip G; Emery, Paul; Baker, Daniel G; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the construct validity of the rheumatoid arthritis MRI score (RAMRIS) erosion evaluation as structural damage end point and to assess the potential impact of incorporation in clinical trials. Methods In a randomised trial of early methotrexate-naïve RA (GO-BEFORE), RAMRIS scores were determined from MRIs and van der Heijde-Sharp (vdHS) scores from radiographs, at baseline, week 12, week 24 and week 52. Progression in damage scores was defined as change >0.5. Associations of X-ray and MRI outcomes with clinical features were evaluated for convergent validity. Iterative Wilcoxon rank sum tests and tests of proportion estimated the sample size required to detect differences between combination therapy (methotrexate+golimumab) and methotrexate-monotherapy arms in (A) change in damage score and (B) proportion of patients progressing. Results Patients with early MRI progression had higher DAS28, C reactive protein (CRP) and vdHS at baseline, and higher 2-year HAQ. Associations were similar to those with 1-year vdHS progression. Differences in change in structural damage between treatment arms achieved significance with fewer subjects when 12-week or 24-week MRI erosion score was the outcome (150 patients; 100 among an enriched sample with baseline-synovitis >5) compared with the 52-week vdHS (275 patients). Differences in the proportion progressing could be detected in 234 total subjects with 12-week MRI in an enriched sample whereas 1-year X-ray required between 468 and 1160 subjects. Conclusions Early MRI erosion progression is a valid measure of structural damage that could substantially decrease sample size and study duration if used as structural damage end point in RA clinical trials. PMID:26091907

  4. Visual Mapping Using BOLD fMRI

    PubMed Central

    DeYoe, Edgar A.; Raut, Ryan V.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used clinically to map visual cortex prior to brain surgery or other invasive treatments in order to achieve an optimal balance between therapeutic effect and the avoidance of post-operative vision deficits. Clinically optimized stimuli, behavioral task, analysis and displays permit identification of cortical subregions supporting high acuity central vision that is critical for reading and other essential visual functions. A novel data display permits instant appreciation of the functional relationship between the pattern of fMRI brain activation and the pattern of vision loss and preservation within the patient’s field of view. Neurovascular uncoupling and its detection in visual cortex are key issues for the interpretation of fMRI results in patients with existing brain pathology. Emerging techniques such as resting state fMRI may facilitate the use of fMRI-based vision mapping with a broader range of patients. PMID:25441501

  5. Background parenchymal enhancement in preoperative breast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kohara, Satoko; Ishigaki, Satoko; Satake, Hiroko; Kawamura, Akiko; Kawai, Hisashi; Kikumori, Toyone; Naganawa, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We aimed to assess the influence of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on surgical planning performed using preoperative MRI for breast cancer evaluation. Between January 2009 and December 2010, 91 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients (mean age, 55.5 years; range, 30−88 years) who underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI followed by planned breast conservation therapy were retrospectively enrolled. MRI was performed to assess the tumor extent in addition to mammography and breast ultrasonography. BPE in the contralateral normal breast MRI at the early dynamic phase was visually classified as follows: minimal (n=49), mild (n=27), moderate (n=7), and marked (n=8). The correlations between the BPE grade and age, menopausal status, index tumor size, changes in surgical management based on MRI results, positive predictive value (PPV) of MRI, and surgical margins were assessed. Patients in the strong BPE groups were significantly younger (p=0.002) and generally premenopausal (p<0.001). Surgical treatment was not changed in 67 cases (73.6%), while extended excision and mastectomy were performed in 12 cases (13.2%), each based on additional lesions on MRI. Six of 79 (7.6%) patients who underwent breast conservation therapy had tumor-positive resection margins. In cases where surgical management was changed, the PPV for MRI-detected foci was high in the minimal (91.7%) and mild groups (66.7%), and 0% in the moderate and marked groups (p=0.002). Strong BPE causes false-positive MRI findings and may lead to overly extensive surgery, whereas MRI may be beneficial in select patients with weak BPE. PMID:26412883

  6. Dissimilar Physiological and Perceptual Responses Between Sprint Interval Training and High-Intensity Interval Training.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kimberly M; Olive, Brittany; LaValle, Kaylyn; Thompson, Heather; Greer, Kevin; Astorino, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) elicit similar cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations vs. endurance training. No study, however, has investigated acute physiological changes during HIIT vs. SIT. This study compared acute changes in heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLa), oxygen uptake (VO2), affect, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during HIIT and SIT. Active adults (4 women and 8 men, age = 24.2 ± 6.2 years) initially performed a VO2max test to determine workload for both sessions on the cycle ergometer, whose order was randomized. Sprint interval training consisted of 8 bouts of 30 seconds of all-out cycling at 130% of maximum Watts (Wmax). High-intensity interval training consisted of eight 60-second bouts at 85% Wmax. Heart rate, VO2, BLa, affect, and RPE were continuously assessed throughout exercise. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between HIIT and SIT for VO2 (p < 0.001), HR (p < 0.001), RPE (p = 0.03), and BLa (p = 0.049). Conversely, there was no significant difference between regimens for affect (p = 0.12). Energy expenditure was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in HIIT (209.3 ± 40.3 kcal) vs. SIT (193.5 ± 39.6 kcal). During HIIT, subjects burned significantly more calories and reported lower perceived exertion than SIT. The higher VO2 and lower BLa in HIIT vs. SIT reflected dissimilar metabolic perturbation between regimens, which may elicit unique long-term adaptations. If an individual is seeking to burn slightly more calories, maintain a higher oxygen uptake, and perceive less exertion during exercise, HIIT is the recommended routine. PMID:26691413

  7. Volatility return intervals analysis of the Japanese market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W.-S.; Wang, F. Z.; Havlin, S.; Kaizoji, T.; Moon, H.-T.; Stanley, H. E.

    2008-03-01

    We investigate scaling and memory effects in return intervals between price volatilities above a certain threshold q for the Japanese stock market using daily and intraday data sets. We find that the distribution of return intervals can be approximated by a scaling function that depends only on the ratio between the return interval τ and its mean <τ>. We also find memory effects such that a large (or small) return interval follows a large (or small) interval by investigating the conditional distribution and mean return interval. The results are similar to previous studies of other markets and indicate that similar statistical features appear in different financial markets. We also compare our results between the period before and after the big crash at the end of 1989. We find that scaling and memory effects of the return intervals show similar features although the statistical properties of the returns are different.

  8. Working memory for time intervals in auditory rhythmic sequences

    PubMed Central

    Teki, Sundeep; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    The brain can hold information about multiple objects in working memory. It is not known, however, whether intervals of time can be stored in memory as distinct items. Here, we developed a novel paradigm to examine temporal memory where listeners were required to reproduce the duration of a single probed interval from a sequence of intervals. We demonstrate that memory performance significantly varies as a function of temporal structure (better memory in regular vs. irregular sequences), interval size (better memory for sub- vs. supra-second intervals), and memory load (poor memory for higher load). In contrast memory performance is invariant to attentional cueing. Our data represent the first systematic investigation of temporal memory in sequences that goes beyond previous work based on single intervals. The results support the emerging hypothesis that time intervals are allocated a working memory resource that varies with the amount of other temporal information in a sequence. PMID:25477849

  9. MRI and PET/CT of patients with bone metastases from breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Grankvist, J; Fisker, R; Iyer, V; Fründ, E T; Simonsen, C; Christensen, T; Stenbygaard, L; Ewertz, M; Larsson, E-M

    2012-01-01

    3.0Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was compared with combined 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with suspected bone metastases from breast cancer. A prospective clinical study was performed in 13 female breast cancer patients (mean age 61years; range 45-85 years). The spine was imaged in the sagittal plane with T1-weighted (T1), short tau inversion recovery (STIR), and T2-weighted fat-saturated (T2) sequences. The pelvis was imaged similarly in the coronal plane. Axial DWI was performed from the skull base to the mid-thigh. MRI and PET/CT were performed in all patients at a maximum interval of 10 working days and at least 14 days after chemotherapy. MRI was reviewed by two radiologists, and their consensus on potential metastases in 27 predefined locations was recorded. The predefined locations were the vertebral bodies (24), the left (1) and right (1) pelvic bones, and the sacral bone (1). The PET/CT was reviewed by a radiologists and a nuclear medicine physician. MRI detected 59 of the 60 active metastases found with our gold standard modality PET/CT. T1 had the highest sensitivity (98%) but rather low specificity (77%), but with the addition of STIR and DWI, the specificity increased to 95%. The additional metastases detected with MRI most likely represented postherapeutic residual scars without active tumour. In conclusion, 3.0Tesla MRI with T1, STIR, and DWI is useful for the clinical evaluation of bone metastases from breast cancer and compares well to PET/CT. PMID:21227614

  10. NMR, MRI, and spectroscopic MRI in inhomogeneous fields

    DOEpatents

    Demas, Vasiliki; Pines, Alexander; Martin, Rachel W; Franck, John; Reimer, Jeffrey A

    2013-12-24

    A method for locally creating effectively homogeneous or "clean" magnetic field gradients (of high uniformity) for imaging (with NMR, MRI, or spectroscopic MRI) both in in-situ and ex-situ systems with high degrees of inhomogeneous field strength. THe method of imaging comprises: a) providing a functional approximation of an inhomogeneous static magnetic field strength B.sub.0({right arrow over (r)}) at a spatial position {right arrow over (r)}; b) providing a temporal functional approximation of {right arrow over (G)}.sub.shim(t) with i basis functions and j variables for each basis function, resulting in v.sub.ij variables; c) providing a measured value .OMEGA., which is an temporally accumulated dephasing due to the inhomogeneities of B.sub.0({right arrow over(r)}); and d) minimizing a difference in the local dephasing angle .phi.({right arrow over (r)},t)=.gamma..intg..sub.0.sup.t{square root over (|{right arrow over (B)}.sub.1({right arrow over (r)},t')|.sup.2+({right arrow over (r)}{right arrow over (G)}.sub.shimG.sub.shim(t')+.parallel.{right arrow over (B)}.sub.0({right arrow over (r)}).parallel..DELTA..omega.({right arrow over (r)},t'/.gamma/).sup.2)}dt'-.OMEGA. by varying the v.sub.ij variables to form a set of minimized v.sub.ij variables. The method requires calibration of the static fields prior to minimization, but may thereafter be implemented without such calibration, may be used in open or closed systems, and potentially portable systems.

  11. Hemodynamics of distal revascularization-interval ligation.

    PubMed

    Illig, Karl A; Surowiec, Scott; Shortell, Cynthia K; Davies, Mark G; Rhodes, Jeffrey M; Green, Richard M

    2005-03-01

    Distal revascularization-interval ligation (DRIL) empirically corrects steal after arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation in most cases, but because there is no topologic alteration in anatomy, it is unclear as to why it is effective. To explore this issue, nine symptomatic patients underwent intravascular pressure and flow measurements before and after DRIL following upper arm autologous AVFs. Mean pre-DRIL systolic pressure (mmHg; mean +/- SD) in the proximal brachial artery (PROX) was 102 +/- 17, while that at the AV anastomosis (AV ANAST) was 47 +/- 38 (p < 0.0006). Flow (mL/min) distal to AV ANAST was retrograde with the fistula open (-21 +/- 64) but became antegrade (58 +/- 29; p < 0.03) with occlusion of the fistula. Following DRIL, pressures at both PROX and AV ANAST sites did not change (104 +/- 24 and 51 +/- 43, respectively). However, pressure at the point at which the blood flow split to supply the hand or the fistula, now PROX, increased from 47 +/- 38 (pre-DRIL AV ANAST) to 104 +/- 24 (p < 0.0001). Pressure in the brachial artery distal to the ligature increased to 104 +/- 27 (p < 0.0001), flow at this point (to the hand) became antegrade (51 +/- 39; p < 0.03), and occlusion of the fistula did not significantly change pressure at this site. We hypothesize that improvement in hand perfusion following DRIL is due to a higher pressure at the point at which the blood flow splits to supply both hand and fistula (pre-DRIL: AV ANAST; post-DRIL: PROX), allowing antegrade flow down the new bypass to the lower pressure forearm. This increased pressure must be due to the increased resistance of the fistula created by interposing the arterial segment between the original AV ANAST and new PROX ANAST. As such, DRIL is schematically equivalent to banding, but resistance is increased in a fashion that is physiologically and empirically acceptable. PMID:15770367

  12. Activity-induced manganese-dependent MRI (AIM-MRI) and functional MRI in awake rabbits during somatosensory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Matthew P; Weiss, Craig; Procissi, Daniel; Wang, Lei; Disterhoft, John F

    2016-02-01

    Activity-induced manganese-dependent MRI (AIM-MRI) is a powerful tool to track system-wide neural activity using high resolution, quantitative T1-weighted MRI in animal models and has significant advantages for investigating neural activity over other modalities including BOLD fMRI. With AIM-MRI, Mn(2+) ions enter neurons via voltage-gated calcium channels preferentially active during the time of experimental exposure. A broad range of AIM-MRI studies using different species studying different phenomena have been performed, but few of these studies provide a systematic evaluation of the factors influencing the detection of Mn(2+) such as dosage and the temporal characteristics of Mn(2+) uptake. We identified an optimal dose of Mn(2+) (25 mg/kg, s.c.) in order to characterize the time-course of Mn(2+) accumulation in active neural regions in the rabbit. T1-weighted MRI and functional MRI were collected 0-3, 6-9, and 24-27 h post-Mn(2+) injection while the vibrissae on the right side were vibrated. Significant BOLD activation in the left somatosensory (SS) cortex and left ventral posteromedial (VPM) thalamic nucleus was detected during whisker vibration. T1-weighted signal intensities were extracted from these regions, their corresponding contralateral regions and the visual cortex (to serve as controls). A significant elevation in T1-weighted signal intensity in the left SS cortex (relative to right) was evident 6-9 and 24-27 h post-Mn(2+) injection while the left VPM thalamus showed a significant enhancement (relative to the right) only during the 24-27 h session. Visual cortex showed no hemispheric difference at any timepoint. Our results suggest that studies employing AIM-MRI would benefit by conducting experimental manipulations 6-24 h after subcutaneous MnCl2 injections to optimize the concentration of contrast agent in the regions active during the exposure. PMID:26589332

  13. Using Confidence Intervals and Recurrence Intervals to Determine Precipitation Delivery Mechanisms Responsible for Mass Wasting Events.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulizio, T. P.; Bilbrey, C.; Stoyanoff, N.; Dixon, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Mass wasting events are geologic hazards that impact human life and property across a variety of landscapes. These movements can be triggered by tectonic activity, anomalous precipitation events, or both; acting to decrease the factor of safety ratio on a hillslope to the point of failure. There exists an active hazard landscape in the West Boulder River drainage of Park Co., MT in which the mechanisms of slope failure are unknown. It is known that region has not seen significant tectonic activity within the last decade, leaving anomalous precipitation events as the likely trigger for slope failures in the landscape. Precipitation can be delivered to a landscape via rainfall or snow; it was the aim of this study to determine the precipitation delivery mechanism most likely responsible for movements in the West Boulder drainage following the Jungle Wildfire of 2006. Data was compiled from four SNOTEL sites in the surrounding area, spanning 33 years, focusing on, but not limited to; maximum snow water equivalent (SWE) values in a water year, median SWE values on the date which maximum SWE was recorded in a water year, the total precipitation accumulated in a water year, etc. Means were computed and 99% confidence intervals were constructed around these means. Recurrence intervals and exceedance probabilities were computed for maximum SWE values and total precipitation accumulated in a water year to determine water years with anomalous precipitation. It was determined that the water year 2010-2011 received an anomalously high amount of SWE, and snow melt in the spring of this water year likely triggered recent mass waste movements. This data is further supported by Google Earth imagery, showing movements between 2009 and 2011. Return intervals for the maximum SWE value in 2010-11 for the Placer Basin SNOTEL site was 34 years, while return intervals for the Box Canyon and Monument Peak SNOTEL sites were 17.5 and 17 years respectively. Max SWE values lie outside the

  14. An approach to probe some neural systems interaction by functional MRI at neural time scale down to milliseconds

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Seiji; Lee, Tso-Ming; Stepnoski, Ray; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Ugurbil, Kamil

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate an approach by which some evoked neuronal events can be probed by functional MRI (fMRI) signal with temporal resolution at the time scale of tens of milliseconds. The approach is based on the close relationship between neuronal electrical events and fMRI signal that is experimentally demonstrated in concurrent fMRI and electroencephalographic (EEG) studies conducted in a rat model with forepaw electrical stimulation. We observed a refractory period of neuronal origin in a two-stimuli paradigm: the first stimulation pulse suppressed the evoked activity in both EEG and fMRI signal responding to the subsequent stimulus for a period of several hundred milliseconds. When there was an apparent site–site interaction detected in the evoked EEG signal induced by two stimuli that were primarily targeted to activate two different sites in the brain, fMRI also displayed signal amplitude modulation because of the interactive event. With visual stimulation using two short pulses in the human brain, a similar refractory phenomenon was observed in activated fMRI signals in the primary visual cortex. In addition, for interstimulus intervals shorter than the known latency time of the evoked potential induced by the first stimulus (≈100 ms) in the primary visual cortex of the human brain, the suppression was not present. Thus, by controlling the temporal relation of input tasks, it is possible to study temporal evolution of certain neural events at the time scale of their evoked electrical activity by noninvasive fMRI methodology. PMID:11005873

  15. Portable MRI developed at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle

    2015-04-22

    Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory are developing an ultra-low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system that could be low-power and lightweight enough for forward deployment on the battlefield and to field hospitals in the World's poorest regions. "MRI technology is a powerful medical diagnostic tool," said Michelle Espy, the Battlefield MRI (bMRI) project leader, "ideally suited for imaging soft-tissue injury, particularly to the brain." But hospital-based MRI devices are big and expensive, and require considerable infrastructure, such as large quantities of cryogens like liquid nitrogen and helium, and they typically use a large amount of energy. "Standard MRI machines just can't go everywhere," said Espy. "Soldiers wounded in battle usually have to be flown to a large hospital and people in emerging nations just don't have access to MRI at all. We've been in contact with doctors who routinely work in the Third World and report that MRI would be extremely valuable in treating pediatric encephalopathy, and other serious diseases in children." So the Los Alamos team started thinking about a way to make an MRI device that could be relatively easy to transport, set up, and use in an unconventional setting. Conventional MRI machines use very large magnetic fields that align the protons in water molecules to then create magnetic resonance signals, which are detected by the machine and turned into images. The large magnetic fields create exceptionally detailed images, but they are difficult and expensive to make. Espy and her team wanted to see if images of sufficient quality could be made with ultra-low-magnetic fields, similar in strength to the Earth's magnetic field. To achieve images at such low fields they use exquisitely sensitive detectors called Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices, or SQUIDs. SQUIDs are among the most sensitive magnetic field detectors available, so interference with the signal is the primary stumbling block. "SQUIDs are

  16. Frequency of abnormal findings detected by comprehensive clinical evaluation at 1 year after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephanie J; Seaborn, Travis; Mao, Frances J; Massey, Susan C; Luu, Ngoc Q; Schubert, Mary A; Chien, Jason W; Carpenter, Paul A; Moravec, Carina; Martin, Paul J; Flowers, Mary E D

    2009-04-01

    Consensus guidelines recommend various screening examinations for survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but how often these examinations detect abnormal findings is unknown. We reviewed the medical records of 118 patients who received comprehensive, standardized evaluations at 1 year after allogeneic HCT at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center/Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. Abnormal findings were common, including moderate to severe pulmonary dysfunction (16%), fasting hyperlipidemia (56%), osteopenia (52%), osteoporosis (6%), and active chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) (64%). Recurrent malignancy (4%) and cGVHD (29%) were detected in previously unsuspected cases. Only 3% of patients had no abnormal findings. We conclude that comprehensive evaluation at 1 year after allogeneic HCT detects a high prevalence of medical problems. Longer follow-up is needed to determine whether early detection and intervention affect later morbidity and mortality. PMID:19285628

  17. Epigenetic Analysis of Neurocognitive Development at 1 year of Age in a Community-Based Pregnancy Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Laura E.; Palmer, Frederick B.; Graff, J. Carolyn; Sutter, Thomas R.; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Hovinga, Collin A.; Thomas, Fridtjof; Park, Vicki; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Adkins, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies show that molecular genetic changes and epigenetic modifications affect the risk of cognitive disability or impairment. However, the role of epigenetic variation in cognitive development of neurotypical young children remains largely unknown. Using data from a prospective, community-based study of mother-infant pairs, we investigated the association of DNA methylation patterns in neonatal umbilical cord blood with cognitive and language development at 1 year of age. No CpG loci achieved genome-wide significance, although a small number of weakly suggestive associations with Bayley-III Receptive Communication scales were noted. While umbilical cord blood is a convenient resource for genetic analyses of birth outcomes, our results do not provide conclusive evidence that its use for DNA methylation profiling yields epigenetic markers that are directly related to postnatal neurocognitive outcomes at 1 year of age. PMID:24452678

  18. Behaviors of children exposed to intimate partner violence before and 1 year after a treatment program for their mother.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Judith M; Groff, Janet Y; O'brien, Jennifer A; Watson, Kathy

    2005-02-01

    Children exposed to intimate partner violence against their mothers are at increased risk for emotional, behavior, physiological, cognitive, and social problems. To compare the behavioral functioning of children exposed to intimate partner violence before and 1 year after their mother received treatment, 206 Black, White, and Hispanic children, age 18 months to 18 years, were administered the Child Behavior Checklist. Behavior problems of all children significantly improved 1 year following treatment of their mother. When compared with a clinically referred sample of youngsters, scores of children of abused mothers were not significantly different before their mothers received treatment but most scores were significantly different after their mothers were treated. Screening and a treatment for abused women can have a positive effect on the behavior of their children. PMID:15812730

  19. Adherence to monthly online self-assessments for short-term monitoring: a 1-year study in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients after start of disease modifying treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Sanders, Evert; Zwanikken, Cees; Koeman, Jan; Visser, Leo H; Koopmans, Petra; Lehnick, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background The participation of neurologists and patients in studies on the effectiveness and safety of newly authorized drugs in multiple sclerosis (MS) is insufficient. Monthly online self-assessments using patient-reported outcomes may help in short-term monitoring of neurological changes and side effects. Objective Investigate in relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients the adherence to monthly online self-assessments after the start of disease modifying treatment. Methods Observational study in 39 neurological departments in The Netherlands. Patients starting glatiramer acetate treatment were instructed to complete online the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale 5-item version and the 8-item Leeds Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life scale every month during 1 year (T0 toT12). Results Sixty-three investigators included 163 analyzable patients. At T3, 148 (90.8%) patients had completed all questionnaires; at T6, 142 (87.1%); at T9, 133 (81.6%); and at T12, 123 (75.5%). Eight (4.9%) patients did not complete any questionnaire. Median values for inter-assessment intervals ranged from 32 to 34 days (first quartile [Q1] 30 days, third quartile [Q3] 41 days), and the final assessment was at 417 days (median: Q1 385 days, Q3 480 days). Forty-three (26.3%) patients completed the questionnaires at all time points (completion adherent) with their final assessment within 30 days after the scheduled T12 (interval adherent). Eighty (49.1%) patients were completion adherent, but not interval adherent. Forty (24.5%) patients were not completion adherent, as they discontinued assessments prematurely. Men were more interval adherent than women (47.5% vs 20.0%; P = 0.001). Conclusion The observation that three out of four (75.5%) RRMS patients completed two short questionnaires at all monthly time points during 1 year after the start of disease modifying treatment suggests that intensive online monitoring in this patient group is feasible. As only one in five (19.6%) patients adhered to the

  20. MRI-compatible micromanipulator; design and implementation and MRI-compatibility tests.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Yoshihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Chinzei, Kiyoyuki

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible micromanipulator, which can be employed to provide medical and biological scientists with the ability to concurrently manipulate and observe micron-scale objects inside an MRI gantry. The micromanipulator formed a two-finger micro hand, and it could handle a micron-scale object using a chopstick motion. For performing operations inside the MRI gantry in a manner such that the MRI is not disturbed, the system was designed to be nonmagnetic and electromagnetically compatible with the MRI. The micro-manipulator was implemented with piezoelectric transducers (PZT) as actuators for micro-motion, strain gauges as sensors for closed-loop control, and a flexure parallel mechanism made of acrylic plastic. Its compatibility with a 2-Tesla MRI was preliminarily tested by checking if the MRI obtained with the micromanipulator were similar to those obtained without the micromanipulator. The tests concluded that the micromanipulator caused no distortion but small artifacts on the MRI. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the MRI significantly deteriorated mainly due to the wiring of the micromanipulator. The MRI caused noise of the order of ones of volts in the strain amplifier. PMID:18001990

  1. Emergency contraception with a Copper IUD or oral levonorgestrel: an observational study of 1-year pregnancy rates

    PubMed Central

    Turok, David K.; Jacobson, Janet C.; Dermish, Amna I.; Simonsen, Sara E.; Gurtcheff, Shawn; McFadden, Molly; Murphy, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated the one-year pregnancy rates for emergency contraception (EC) users who selected the copper T380 IUD or oral levonorgestrel (LNG) for EC. Study Design This prospective study followed women for 1 year after choosing either the copper T380 IUD or oral LNG for EC. The study was powered to detect a 6% difference in pregnancy rates within the year after presenting for EC. Results Of the 542 women who presented for EC, agreed to participate in the trial, and meet inclusion criteria, 215 (40%) chose the copper IUD and 327 (60%) chose oral LNG. In the IUD group, 127 (59%) were nulligravid. IUD insertion failed in 42 women (19%). The 1-year follow-up rate was 443/542 (82%); 64% of IUD users contacted at 1 year still had their IUDs in place. The 1-year cumulative pregnancy rate in women choosing the IUD was 6.5% vs. 12.2% in those choosing oral LNG (HR= 0.53, 95% CI: 0.29–0.97, p=0.041). By type of EC method actually received, corresponding values were 5.2% for copper IUD users vs. 12.3% for oral LNG users, HR 0.42 (95% CI: 0.20–0.85, p= 0.017). A multivariable logistic regression model controlling for demographic variables demonstrates that women who chose the IUD for EC had fewer pregnancies in the following year than those who chose oral LNG (HR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.26–0.96, p=0.037). Conclusion One year after presenting for EC women choosing the copper IUD for EC were half as likely to have a pregnancy compared to those choosing oral LNG. PMID:24332433

  2. Prevalence, Course, Incidence, and 1-Year Prediction of Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts in Early Norwegian School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Bo; Sund, Anne Mari

    2008-01-01

    In this survey of early Norwegian school adolescents, the prevalence, course, and incidence of self-harm behavior with or without suicide intent were examined, in addition to predictors of self-harm for a 1-year follow-up period. Lifetime prevalence rates of self-harm without suicide intent and suicide attempts were 2.9% and 3.0%, respectively,…

  3. Cognitive functions over the course of 1 year in multiple sclerosis patients treated with disease modifying therapies

    PubMed Central

    Utz, Kathrin S.; Lee, De-Hyung; Lämmer, Alexandra; Waschbisch, Anne; Linker, Ralf A.; Schenk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are applied to delay or prevent disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). While this has mostly been proven for physical symptoms, available studies regarding long-term effects of DMTs on cognitive functions are rare and sometimes inconsistent due to methodological shortcomings. Particularly in the case of fingolimod, comprehensive data on cognitive functions are not yet available. Therefore, we set out to reliably assess cognitive functions in patients with relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) treated with DMTs over 1 year. Methods: Cognitive functions were assessed with eight tests at three timepoints: baseline, 6-month follow up and 12-month follow up. First, we investigated whether the stability of cognitive functions (i.e. not falling below the 5% cut-off in more than one test) over 1 year in RRMS patients (n = 41) corresponds to the stability in healthy individuals (n = 40) of a previous study. Second, we compared the percentage of declined and improved patients in the different tests. Third, we compared patients treated with fingolimod (n = 22) with patients treated with natalizumab (n = 11) with regard to cognitive stability. Fourth, based on the patient data, the Reliable Change Index was applied to compute cut-offs for reliable cognitive change. Results: Approximately 75% of RRMS patients treated with DMTs remained stable over the course of 1 year. The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and the Spatial Recall Test (SPART), produced improvements in 12.5% and 30.6%, respectively, probably due to practice effects. Patients treated with fingolimod did not differ from patients treated with natalizumab with regard to cognitive stability. Conclusions: Cognitive functions remain relatively stable under DMT treatment over 1 year, irrespective of the type of medication. Furthermore, the tests PASAT and SPART should be interpreted cautiously in studies examining performance changes over time. The provided RCI

  4. Massively parallel MRI detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Boris; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2013-04-01

    Originally proposed as a method to increase sensitivity by extending the locally high-sensitivity of small surface coil elements to larger areas via reception, the term parallel imaging now includes the use of array coils to perform image encoding. This methodology has impacted clinical imaging to the point where many examinations are performed with an array comprising multiple smaller surface coil elements as the detector of the MR signal. This article reviews the theoretical and experimental basis for the trend towards higher channel counts relying on insights gained from modeling and experimental studies as well as the theoretical analysis of the so-called “ultimate” SNR and g-factor. We also review the methods for optimally combining array data and changes in RF methodology needed to construct massively parallel MRI detector arrays and show some examples of state-of-the-art for highly accelerated imaging with the resulting highly parallel arrays.

  5. Massively Parallel MRI Detector Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Boris; Wald, Lawrence L

    2013-01-01

    Originally proposed as a method to increase sensitivity by extending the locally high-sensitivity of small surface coil elements to larger areas, the term parallel imaging now includes the use of array coils to perform image encoding. This methodology has impacted clinical imaging to the point where many examinations are performed with an array comprising multiple smaller surface coil elements as the detector of the MR signal. This article reviews the theoretical and experimental basis for the trend towards higher channel counts relying on insights gained from modeling and experimental studies as well as the theoretical analysis of the so-called “ultimate” SNR and g-factor. We also review the methods for optimally combining array data and changes in RF methodology needed to construct massively parallel MRI detector arrays and show some examples of state-of-the-art for highly accelerated imaging with the resulting highly parallel arrays. PMID:23453758

  6. Massively parallel MRI detector arrays.

    PubMed

    Keil, Boris; Wald, Lawrence L

    2013-04-01

    Originally proposed as a method to increase sensitivity by extending the locally high-sensitivity of small surface coil elements to larger areas via reception, the term parallel imaging now includes the use of array coils to perform image encoding. This methodology has impacted clinical imaging to the point where many examinations are performed with an array comprising multiple smaller surface coil elements as the detector of the MR signal. This article reviews the theoretical and experimental basis for the trend towards higher channel counts relying on insights gained from modeling and experimental studies as well as the theoretical analysis of the so-called "ultimate" SNR and g-factor. We also review the methods for optimally combining array data and changes in RF methodology needed to construct massively parallel MRI detector arrays and show some examples of state-of-the-art for highly accelerated imaging with the resulting highly parallel arrays. PMID:23453758

  7. Combined PET/MRI scanner

    DOEpatents

    Schlyer, David; Woody, Craig L.; Rooney, William; Vaska, Paul; Stoll, Sean; Pratte, Jean-Francois; O'Connor, Paul

    2007-10-23

    A combined PET/MRI scanner generally includes a magnet for producing a magnetic field suitable for magnetic resonance imaging, a radiofrequency (RF) coil disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet and a ring tomograph disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet. The ring tomograph includes a scintillator layer for outputting at least one photon in response to an annihilation event, a detection array coupled to the scintillator layer for detecting the at least one photon outputted by the scintillator layer and for outputting a detection signal in response to the detected photon and a front-end electronic array coupled to the detection array for receiving the detection signal, wherein the front-end array has a preamplifier and a shaper network for conditioning the detection signal.

  8. An associative learning deficit in 1-year-old infants of depressed mothers: role of depression duration.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Peter S; Danko, Christina M; Diaz, Andres; Kalinka, Christina J

    2011-02-01

    The effectiveness of infant-directed speech (IDS) produced by non-depressed mothers for promoting the acquisition of voice-face associations was investigated in 1-year-old children of depressed mothers in a conditioned-attention paradigm. Prior research suggested that infants of mothers with comparatively longer-duration depressive episodes exhibit poorer learning in response to non-depressed mothers' IDS, but duration of depression was confounded with infant age. In the current study, 1-year-old infants of currently depressed mothers with relatively longer-duration depressive episodes (i.e., perinatal onset) showed significantly poorer learning than 1-year-olds of currently depressed mothers with relatively shorter duration depressive episodes (non-perinatal onset). This was true despite the fact that there were no measurable differences in the severity of depression, level of social functioning, or antidepressant medication use between the two groups. These findings add support to the hypothesis that there is an experience-based change in responsiveness to female IDS in infants of depressed mothers during the first year of life. PMID:21071090

  9. Low-dose acitretin in Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome: treatment and 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Nilendu; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Kar, Sudipta; Bazmi, Badruddin Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) is a rare, autosomal recessive disease that manifests with palmoplantar keratoderma and destructive periodontitis resulting in early onset periodontal breakdown in deciduous and permanent dentition. Management of this condition is difficult. Here we report one 11-year-old consanguineous Muslim boy suffering from PLS. After failing to get any benefit from methotrexate, three cycles of acitretin, each for 2 months, were given 1 month apart. In each cycle, acitretin (25 mg) was given every other day. At the end of the third cycle, treatment was stopped for 4 months to observe the extent of relapse. Thereafter, acitretin (25 mg) was given twice weekly for 4 months and then the patient was followed up for 1 year. Treatment with acitretin resulted in excellent improvement of periodontitis, increase in the alveolar bone height, and periodontal attachment. Improvement remained stable at the end of 1-year follow-up. There was excellent (>75%) improvement in keratoderma at the end of active therapy. Mild worsening of palmoplantar keratoderma was noticed whenever the drug was stopped. It improved when the drug was restarted. Other areas remained stable. At the end of 1-year follow-up, good improvement (50%) in palmoplantar keratoderma was achieved. PMID:25313946

  10. Follow-up of a 1-year media campaign on delay times and ambulance use in suspected acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Herlitz, J; Blohm, M; Hartford, M; Karlson, B W; Luepker, R; Holmberg, S; Risenfors, M; Wennerblom, B

    1992-02-01

    In order to reduce the delay times from onset of symptoms to arrival in hospital, and increase the use of ambulance in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI), a media campaign was initiated in an urban area. An initial 3-week intense campaign was followed by a maintenance phase of 1 year. Delay times and ambulance use during the campaign were compared with the previous 21 months. Among patients admitted to a coronary care unit (CCU) due to suspected AMI, the median delay time was reduced from 3 h to 2 h 40 min and the mean delay time was reduced from 11 h 33 min to 7 h 42 min (P less than 0.001). Among patients with confirmed AMI the median delay time was reduced from 3 h to 2 h 20 min and the mean delay time from 10 h to 6 h 27 min (P less than 0.001). We conclude that a 1-year media campaign can reduce delay times in suspected AMI, and that this effect appears to continue at 1 year, but ambulance use seems to be more difficult to influence. PMID:1555612

  11. Alternative Confidence Interval Methods Used in the Diagnostic Accuracy Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gülhan, Orekıcı Temel

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. It is necessary to decide whether the newly improved methods are better than the standard or reference test or not. To decide whether the new diagnostics test is better than the gold standard test/imperfect standard test, the differences of estimated sensitivity/specificity are calculated with the help of information obtained from samples. However, to generalize this value to the population, it should be given with the confidence intervals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the confidence interval methods developed for the differences between the two dependent sensitivity/specificity values on a clinical application. Materials and Methods. In this study, confidence interval methods like Asymptotic Intervals, Conditional Intervals, Unconditional Interval, Score Intervals, and Nonparametric Methods Based on Relative Effects Intervals are used. Besides, as clinical application, data used in diagnostics study by Dickel et al. (2010) has been taken as a sample. Results. The results belonging to the alternative confidence interval methods for Nickel Sulfate, Potassium Dichromate, and Lanolin Alcohol are given as a table. Conclusion. While preferring the confidence interval methods, the researchers have to consider whether the case to be compared is single ratio or dependent binary ratio differences, the correlation coefficient between the rates in two dependent ratios and the sample sizes. PMID:27478491

  12. Tuning for temporal interval in human apparent motion detection.

    PubMed

    Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

    2007-01-01

    Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval. PMID:17461670

  13. Intra voxel analysis in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosanio, Michele; Baselice, Fabio; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Pascazio, Vito

    2014-03-01

    A new application of Compressive Sensing (CS) in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) field is presented. In particular, first results of the Intra Voxel Analysis (IVA) technique are reported. The idea is to exploit CS peculiarities in order to distinguish different contributions inside the same resolution cell, instead of reconstructing images from not fully sampled k-space acquisition. Applied to MRI field, this means the possibility of estimating the presence of different tissues inside the same voxel, i.e. in one pixel of the obtained image. In other words, the method is the first attempt, as far as we know, of achieving Spectroscopy-like results starting from each pixel of MR images. In particular, tissues are distinguished each others by evaluating their spin-spin relaxation times. Within this manuscript, first results on clinical dataset, in particular a phantom made by aqueous solution and oil and an occipital brain lesion corresponding to a metastatic breast cancer nodule, are reported. Considering the phantom dataset, in particular focusing on the slice where the separation between water and oil occurs, the methodology is able to distinguish the two components with different spin-spin relaxation times. With respect to clinical dataset,focusing on a voxel of the lesion area, the approach is able to detect the presence of two tissues, namely the healthy and the cancer related ones, while in other location outside the lesion only the healthy tissue is detected. Of course, these are the first results of the proposed methodology, further studies on different types of clinical datasets are required in order to widely validate the approach. Although few datasets have been considered, results seem both interesting and promising.

  14. Rehabilitative Interventions and Brain Plasticity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Focus on MRI-Based Studies.

    PubMed

    Calderoni, Sara; Billeci, Lucia; Narzisi, Antonio; Brambilla, Paolo; Retico, Alessandra; Muratori, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and research evidence supports the efficacy of rehabilitative intervention for improving targeted skills or global outcomes in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, putative mechanisms of structural and functional brain changes are poorly understood. This review aims to investigate the research literature on the neural circuit modifications after non-pharmacological intervention. For this purpose, longitudinal studies that used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based techniques at the start and at the end of the trial to evaluate the neural effects of rehabilitative treatment in subjects with ASD were identified. The six included studies involved a limited number of patients in the active group (from 2 to 16), and differed by acquisition method (task-related and resting-state functional MRI) as well as by functional MRI tasks. Overall, the results produced by the selected investigations demonstrated brain plasticity during the treatment interval that results in an activation/functional connectivity more similar to those of subjects with typical development (TD). Repeated MRI evaluation may represent a promising tool for the detection of neural changes in response to treatment in patients with ASD. However, large-scale randomized controlled trials after standardized rehabilitative intervention are required before translating these preliminary results into clinical use. PMID:27065795

  15. Rehabilitative Interventions and Brain Plasticity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Focus on MRI-Based Studies

    PubMed Central

    Calderoni, Sara; Billeci, Lucia; Narzisi, Antonio; Brambilla, Paolo; Retico, Alessandra; Muratori, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and research evidence supports the efficacy of rehabilitative intervention for improving targeted skills or global outcomes in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, putative mechanisms of structural and functional brain changes are poorly understood. This review aims to investigate the research literature on the neural circuit modifications after non-pharmacological intervention. For this purpose, longitudinal studies that used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based techniques at the start and at the end of the trial to evaluate the neural effects of rehabilitative treatment in subjects with ASD were identified. The six included studies involved a limited number of patients in the active group (from 2 to 16), and differed by acquisition method (task-related and resting-state functional MRI) as well as by functional MRI tasks. Overall, the results produced by the selected investigations demonstrated brain plasticity during the treatment interval that results in an activation/functional connectivity more similar to those of subjects with typical development (TD). Repeated MRI evaluation may represent a promising tool for the detection of neural changes in response to treatment in patients with ASD. However, large-scale randomized controlled trials after standardized rehabilitative intervention are required before translating these preliminary results into clinical use. PMID:27065795

  16. Assessment of Correlation Between MRI and Arthroscopic Pathologic Findings in the Shoulder Joint

    PubMed Central

    Momenzadeh, Omid R; Gerami, Mohamad H; Sefidbakht, Sepideh; Dehghani, Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging for shoulder joint pathologies and then compare the results with arthroscopy, the standard for joint diagnosis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 80 patients with shoulder joint disorders, who underwent final arthroscopy, were studied. Based on patients’ medical history and physical examinations, shoulder MRI was requested if paraclinical investigations were. If non-surgical therapies failed, arthroscopy of the affected shoulder was done and the same structures were inspected. Subsequently, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV) and (NPV) of MRI were determined by arthroscopy comparisons. Results: The highest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were found in MRI pathology reports that included: Hill-Sach lesion (0.910), infraspinatus tendon (0.985), supraspinatus tendon (0.930), and biceps tendon (0.954), respectively. Rotator interval (0.250), biceps labrum complex (0.805), subscapularis tendon (0.538) and anterior labrum lesions (0.604) had the lowest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that MRI can be a useful tool in ruling out possible abnormalities in the shoulder and to give clues to the most probable diagnosis. Although knowing some practical skills in order to successfully perform the procedure and experience of the radiologist with suitable feedback by surgeon is necessary. PMID:26550595

  17. Emergency abdominal MRI: current uses and trends.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hei S; Gupta, Avneesh; Soto, Jorge A; LeBedis, Christina

    2016-05-01

    When evaluating the abdomen in the emergency setting, CT and ultrasound are the imaging modalities of choice, mainly because of accessibility, speed and lower relative cost. CT has the added benefit of assessing the whole abdomen for a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal disease, whereas ultrasound has the benefit of avoiding ionizing radiation. MRI is another tool that has demonstrated increasing utility in the emergency setting and also avoids the use of ionizing radiation. MRI also has the additional advantage of excellent soft-tissue contrast. However, widespread use of MRI in the emergency setting is limited by availability and relative cost. Despite such limitations, advances in MRI technology, including improved pulse sequences and coil technology and increasing clinician awareness of MRI, have led to an increased demand in abdominal MRI in the emergency setting. This is particularly true in the evaluation of acute pancreatitis; choledocholithiasis with or without cholecystitis; acute appendicitis, particularly in pregnant patients; and, in some cases, Crohn's disease. In cases of pancreatitis and Crohn's disease, MRI also plays a role in subsequent follow-up examinations. PMID:26514590

  18. Functional MRI: A confluence of fortunate circumstances.

    PubMed

    Bandettini, Peter A

    2012-02-01

    Functional MRI has existed for about twenty years and by almost all measures has been incredibly successful. What are the reasons behind this success? In this review, eight extremely fortunate circumstances came together to produce BOLD based fMRI as we know it today. They are as follows: 1. The MRI signal, 2. The MRI relaxation rates, 3. The oxygen-dependent magnetic susceptibility of blood, 4. Neuronal-hemodynamic coupling, 5. The spatial scale of brain activation, 6. The prevalence of scanners able to perform echo planar imaging (EPI), 7. The parallel development of computing power, and 8. The very large group of neuroscientists who, pre-1991, were perfectly poised, willing, and able to exploit the capability of fMRI. These circumstances are discussed in detail. The desired goal of this review is primarily to convey the field of fMRI from the perspective of what was critically important before, during and after its inception and how things might have been if these circumstances would have been different. While there are many instances where circumstances could have been better, it is clear that they worked out extremely well, as the field of fMRI, a major aspect of functional neuroimaging today, is thriving. PMID:22342876

  19. MRI visualisation by digitally reconstructed radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrurier, Antoine; Bönsch, Andrea; Lau, Robert; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    Visualising volumetric medical images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) clients is often achieved by image browsing in sagittal, coronal or axial views or three-dimensional (3D) rendering. This latter technique requires fine thresholding for MRI. On the other hand, computing virtual radiograph images, also referred to as digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR), provides in a single two-dimensional (2D) image a complete overview of the 3D data. It appears therefore as a powerful alternative for MRI visualisation and preview in PACS. This study describes a method to compute DRR from T1-weighted MRI. After segmentation of the background, a histogram distribution analysis is performed and each foreground MRI voxel is labeled as one of three tissues: cortical bone, also known as principal absorber of the X-rays, muscle and fat. An intensity level is attributed to each voxel according to the Hounsfield scale, linearly related to the X-ray attenuation coefficient. Each DRR pixel is computed as the accumulation of the new intensities of the MRI dataset along the corresponding X-ray. The method has been tested on 16 T1-weighted MRI sets. Anterior-posterior and lateral DRR have been computed with reasonable qualities and avoiding any manual tissue segmentations. This proof-of-concept holds for research application for use in clinical PACS.

  20. Low-Cost High-Performance MRI.

    PubMed

    Sarracanie, Mathieu; LaPierre, Cristen D; Salameh, Najat; Waddington, David E J; Witzel, Thomas; Rosen, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is unparalleled in its ability to visualize anatomical structure and function non-invasively with high spatial and temporal resolution. Yet to overcome the low sensitivity inherent in inductive detection of weakly polarized nuclear spins, the vast majority of clinical MRI scanners employ superconducting magnets producing very high magnetic fields. Commonly found at 1.5-3 tesla (T), these powerful magnets are massive and have very strict infrastructure demands that preclude operation in many environments. MRI scanners are costly to purchase, site, and maintain, with the purchase price approaching $1 M per tesla (T) of magnetic field. We present here a remarkably simple, non-cryogenic approach to high-performance human MRI at ultra-low magnetic field, whereby modern under-sampling strategies are combined with fully-refocused dynamic spin control using steady-state free precession techniques. At 6.5 mT (more than 450 times lower than clinical MRI scanners) we demonstrate (2.5 × 3.5 × 8.5) mm(3) imaging resolution in the living human brain using a simple, open-geometry electromagnet, with 3D image acquisition over the entire brain in 6 minutes. We contend that these practical ultra-low magnetic field implementations of MRI (<10 mT) will complement traditional MRI, providing clinically relevant images and setting new standards for affordable (<$50,000) and robust portable devices. PMID:26469756

  1. Recommendations for real-time speech MRI.

    PubMed

    Lingala, Sajan Goud; Sutton, Brad P; Miquel, Marc E; Nayak, Krishna S

    2016-01-01

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (RT-MRI) is being increasingly used for speech and vocal production research studies. Several imaging protocols have emerged based on advances in RT-MRI acquisition, reconstruction, and audio-processing methods. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art, discusses technical considerations, and provides specific guidance for new groups entering this field. We provide recommendations for performing RT-MRI of the upper airway. This is a consensus statement stemming from the ISMRM-endorsed Speech MRI summit held in Los Angeles, February 2014. A major unmet need identified at the summit was the need for consensus on protocols that can be easily adapted by researchers equipped with conventional MRI systems. To this end, we provide a discussion of tradeoffs in RT-MRI in terms of acquisition requirements, a priori assumptions, artifacts, computational load, and performance for different speech tasks. We provide four recommended protocols and identify appropriate acquisition and reconstruction tools. We list pointers to open-source software that facilitate implementation. We conclude by discussing current open challenges in the methodological aspects of RT-MRI of speech. PMID:26174802

  2. Low-Cost High-Performance MRI

    PubMed Central

    Sarracanie, Mathieu; LaPierre, Cristen D.; Salameh, Najat; Waddington, David E. J.; Witzel, Thomas; Rosen, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is unparalleled in its ability to visualize anatomical structure and function non-invasively with high spatial and temporal resolution. Yet to overcome the low sensitivity inherent in inductive detection of weakly polarized nuclear spins, the vast majority of clinical MRI scanners employ superconducting magnets producing very high magnetic fields. Commonly found at 1.5–3 tesla (T), these powerful magnets are massive and have very strict infrastructure demands that preclude operation in many environments. MRI scanners are costly to purchase, site, and maintain, with the purchase price approaching $1 M per tesla (T) of magnetic field. We present here a remarkably simple, non-cryogenic approach to high-performance human MRI at ultra-low magnetic field, whereby modern under-sampling strategies are combined with fully-refocused dynamic spin control using steady-state free precession techniques. At 6.5 mT (more than 450 times lower than clinical MRI scanners) we demonstrate (2.5 × 3.5 × 8.5) mm3 imaging resolution in the living human brain using a simple, open-geometry electromagnet, with 3D image acquisition over the entire brain in 6 minutes. We contend that these practical ultra-low magnetic field implementations of MRI (<10 mT) will complement traditional MRI, providing clinically relevant images and setting new standards for affordable (<$50,000) and robust portable devices. PMID:26469756

  3. Low-Cost High-Performance MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarracanie, Mathieu; Lapierre, Cristen D.; Salameh, Najat; Waddington, David E. J.; Witzel, Thomas; Rosen, Matthew S.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is unparalleled in its ability to visualize anatomical structure and function non-invasively with high spatial and temporal resolution. Yet to overcome the low sensitivity inherent in inductive detection of weakly polarized nuclear spins, the vast majority of clinical MRI scanners employ superconducting magnets producing very high magnetic fields. Commonly found at 1.5-3 tesla (T), these powerful magnets are massive and have very strict infrastructure demands that preclude operation in many environments. MRI scanners are costly to purchase, site, and maintain, with the purchase price approaching $1 M per tesla (T) of magnetic field. We present here a remarkably simple, non-cryogenic approach to high-performance human MRI at ultra-low magnetic field, whereby modern under-sampling strategies are combined with fully-refocused dynamic spin control using steady-state free precession techniques. At 6.5 mT (more than 450 times lower than clinical MRI scanners) we demonstrate (2.5 × 3.5 × 8.5) mm3 imaging resolution in the living human brain using a simple, open-geometry electromagnet, with 3D image acquisition over the entire brain in 6 minutes. We contend that these practical ultra-low magnetic field implementations of MRI (<10 mT) will complement traditional MRI, providing clinically relevant images and setting new standards for affordable (<$50,000) and robust portable devices.

  4. Interictal SPECT in the presurgical evaluation in epileptic patients with normal MRI or bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Marques, Lucia H N; Ferraz-Filho, José R L; Lins-Filho, Mário L M; Maciel, Marina G; Yoshitake, Rafael; Filetti, Sarah V

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of interictal compared to ictal SPECT in the lateralization of the epileptogenic focus in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients that present with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Thirty patients with TLE, for whom MRI examinations were normal or who presented with bilateral MTS, were retrospectively studied. Using a confidence interval of 95% and a level of significance for p-value <0.05, an estimated agreement rate of 73% with a minimum agreement rate of 57% was calculated comparing interictal and ictal SPECTs. In conclusion the interictal SPECT is only useful when associated with the ictal SPECT and does not substitute it in the localization of epileptogenic areas in patients with normal MRI or bilateral MTS. PMID:19722041

  5. A Novel MRI Marker for Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Steven J. Stafford, R. Jason; Bankson, James A.; Li Chun; Swanson, David A.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Martirosyan, Karen S.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal imaging modality for the prostate and surrounding critical organ structures. However, on MRI, the titanium radioactive seeds used for brachytherapy appear as black holes (negative contrast) and cannot be accurately localized. We sought to develop an encapsulated contrast agent marker (ECAM) with high-signal intensity on MRI to permit accurate localization of radioactive seeds with MRI during and after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: We investigated several agents with paramagnetic and superparamagnetic properties. The agents were injected into titanium, acrylic, and glass seeds, which were linked together in various combinations and imaged with MRI. The agent with the greatest T1-weighted signal was tested further in a canine prostate and agarose phantom. Studies were performed on a 1.5-T clinical MRI scanner. Results: The cobalt-chloride complex contrast (C4) agent with stoichiometry (CoCl{sub 2}){sub 0.8}(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NO{sub 2}){sub 0.2} had the greatest T1-weighted signal (positive contrast) with a relaxivity ratio >1 (r{sub 2}/r{sub 1} = 1.21 {+-} 0.29). Acrylic-titanium and glass-titanium seed strands were clearly visualized with the encapsulated contrast agent marker. Conclusion: We have developed a novel ECAM that permits positive identification of the radioactive seeds used for prostate brachytherapy on MRI. Preclinical in vitro phantom studies and in vivo canine studies are needed to further optimize MRI sequencing techniques to facilitate MRI-based dosimetry.

  6. Influence of dental materials on dental MRI

    PubMed Central

    Tymofiyeva, O; Vaegler, S; Rottner, K; Boldt, J; Hopfgartner, AJ; Proff, PC; Richter, E-J; Jakob, PM

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the potential influence of standard dental materials on dental MRI (dMRI) by estimating the magnetic susceptibility with the help of the MRI-based geometric distortion method and to classify the materials from the standpoint of dMRI. Methods: A series of standard dental materials was studied on a 1.5 T MRI system using spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences and their magnetic susceptibility was estimated using the geometric method. Measurements on samples of dental materials were supported by in vivo examples obtained in dedicated dMRI procedures. Results: The tested materials showed a range of distortion degrees. The following materials were classified as fully compatible materials that can be present even in the tooth of interest: the resin-based sealer AH Plus® (Dentsply, Maillefer, Germany), glass ionomer cement, gutta-percha, zirconium dioxide and composites from one of the tested manufacturers. Interestingly, composites provided by the other manufacturer caused relatively strong distortions and were therefore classified as compatible I, along with amalgam, gold alloy, gold–ceramic crowns, titanium alloy and NiTi orthodontic wires. Materials, the magnetic susceptibility of which differed from that of water by more than 200 ppm, were classified as non-compatible materials that should not be present in the patient’s mouth for any dMRI applications. They included stainless steel orthodontic appliances and CoCr. Conclusions: A classification of the materials that complies with the standard grouping of materials according to their magnetic susceptibility was proposed and adopted for the purposes of dMRI. The proposed classification can serve as a guideline in future dMRI research. PMID:23610088

  7. Are calving interval, abortions, incidence of stillbirths and pre-weaning losses in Nguni cows associated with linear type traits?

    PubMed

    Zindove, T J; Chimonyo, M

    2015-09-01

    The association of six linear type traits with calving interval, abortions, incidence of stillbirths and pre-weaning losses in Nguni cows in semi-arid and sub-humid communal areas was investigated. It was hypothesised that the odds of a cow having caving interval greater than 1 year, aborting, experiencing stillbirths or losing a calf from calving to weaning decreased with increase in body depth, rump height, flank circumference, chest circumference, navel height and body length. Navel height was measured as the distance from the ground to the lowest point of the cow's belly bottom (navel). Data were collected from a total of 200 Nguni cows from two sites experiencing sub-humid and semi-arid environments (100 each) between May and June 2013. Cows in sub-humid regions were 2.57 times more likely to have a calving interval of 1 year than cows in semi-arid areas. As body depth increased, the number of calves lost by a cow before weaning decreased linearly (p < 0.05) in all parities except parity 4. Cows in semi-arid regions were 2.13 times more likely to lose a calf from calving to weaning. For each unit increase in body depth, the odds of a cow aborting decreased by 1.12 and the odds of a cow having stillbirth decreased by 1.15. Rump height, flank circumference, chest circumference, navel height and body length were not associated with calving interval, abortions, incidence of stillbirths and pre-weaning losses. It was, therefore, concluded that body depth influences calving interval, incidence of stillbirths and abortions in Nguni cows. PMID:26216519

  8. Costs analysis and comparison of usefulness of acute MRI and 2 weeks of cast immobilization for clinically suspected scaphoid fractures

    PubMed Central

    Bergh, Torbjørn H; Steen, Knut; Lindau, Tommy; Soldal, Lars Atle; Bernardshaw, Soosaipillai V; Lunde, Lene; Lie, Stein Atle; Brudvik, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Fractures of the scaphoid are often not detected on initial plain radiographs. Conventional management of clinically suspected scaphoid fractures is cast immobilization for 2 weeks and then reassessment. Early MRI is a diagnostic alternative. We compared the cost and usefulness of the early MRI diagnostic strategy with that of conventional management. Patients and methods This prospective pseudo-randomized study included patients between 18 and 49 years of age who attended Bergen Accident and Emergency Department, Bergen, Norway during 1 year in 2009–2010, after sustaining an acute wrist trauma in the previous week and with a clinically suspected scaphoid fracture. 61 patients were investigated with acute MRI, while 63 patients received standard treatment as a control group. We used cost-minimization analysis to estimate the cost of the 2 patient groups. Results Concerning cost, there were no statistically significant differences in the total direct medical costs or in indirect costs between the groups. Concerning usefulness, patients in the MRI group without a fracture (n = 35) used a cast for fewer days (mean 1 day) than patients in the control group with no fractures (n = 52) (mean 14 days; p < 0.001). They had less than half the number of days on sick leave than patients in the control group (mean 7 days vs. 15 days; p = 0.002). Interpretation In a Norwegian setting, an early MRI was of value in patients with clinically suspected scaphoid fracture and normal plain radiographs. PMID:25409256

  9. Falx Cerebri Ossification: CT and MRI Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tsitouridis, I; Natsis, K; Goutsaridou, F; Tsitouridis, K; Tarazi, L; Chondromatidou, S; Papapostolou, P; Papastergiou, C; Emmanouilidou, M

    2006-11-30

    During the last three years, CT and MRI brain scans of 40 patients revealed falx cerebri partial ossification as an incidental finding. The patients had been admitted for brain CT and MRI for several reasons. In most cases, there was no problem in the differential diagnosis of falx cerebri ossification during interpretation of the cases. In a few cases, the lesion should be distinguished from calcified meningioma, small hematoma in the interhemispheric fissure and in one case there was also meningeal infiltration of breast cancer. In these cases both CT and MRI scans of the brain were evaluated and a definite diagnosis was made. PMID:24351265

  10. MODEL-BASED IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION FOR MRI

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sophisticated and versatile medical imaging modality. Traditionally, MR images are reconstructed from the raw measurements by a simple inverse 2D or 3D fast Fourier transform (FFT). However, there are a growing number of MRI applications where a simple inverse FFT is inadequate, e.g., due to non-Cartesian sampling patterns, non-Fourier physical effects, nonlinear magnetic fields, or deliberate under-sampling to reduce scan times. Such considerations have led to increasing interest in methods for model-based image reconstruction in MRI. PMID:21135916

  11. MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy.

    PubMed

    Gulko, Edwin; Collins, Lee K; Murphy, Robyn C; Thornhill, Beverly A; Taragin, Benjamin H

    2015-02-01

    In modern times scurvy is a rarely encountered disease caused by ascorbic acid (vitamin C) deficiency. However, sporadic cases of scurvy persist, particularly within the pediatric population. Recent individual case reports highlight an increased incidence of scurvy among patients with autism or developmental delay, with isolated case reports detailing the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of scurvy in these pediatric populations. We present the MRI findings of scurvy in four patients with autism or developmental delay, and review the literature on MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy. Despite its rarity, the radiologist must consider scurvy in a pediatric patient with a restricted diet presenting with arthralgia or myalgia. PMID:25109378

  12. MRI differential diagnosis of suspected multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, J J; Carletti, F; Young, V; Mckean, D; Quaghebeur, G

    2016-09-01

    Diagnosing multiple sclerosis (MS) can be very challenging owing to its variable clinical features and lack of a definitive test. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a core diagnostic tool in the detection of MS lesions and demonstration of spatial and temporal distribution of disease. Moreover, MRI plays a crucial role in the exclusion of alternative diagnoses of MS. The aim of this review is to describe the typical MRI features of MS and to present a series of common mimics of MS with emphasis on their distinguishing features from MS. PMID:27349475

  13. Developments in boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year on maturing Boron-11 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology for noninvasive determination of BNCT agents (BSH) spatially in time. Three major areas are excerpted: (1) Boron-11 MRI of BSH distributions in a canine intracranial tumor model and the first human glioblastoma patient, (2) whole body Boron-11 MRI of BSH pharmacokinetics in a rat flank tumor model, and (3) penetration of gadolinium salts through the BBB as a function of tumor growth in the canine brain.

  14. Comparing Fat Oxidation in an Exercise Test with Moderate-Intensity Interval Training

    PubMed Central

    Alkahtani, Shaea

    2014-01-01

    This study compared fat oxidation rate from a graded exercise test (GXT) with a moderate-intensity interval training session (MIIT) in obese men. Twelve sedentary obese males (age 29 ± 4.1 years; BMI 29.1 ± 2.4 kg·m-2; fat mass 31.7 ± 4.4 %body mass) completed two exercise sessions: GXT to determine maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and maximal aerobic power (VO2max), and an interval cycling session during which respiratory gases were measured. The 30-min MIIT involved 5-min repetitions of workloads 20% below and 20% above the MFO intensity. VO2max was 31.8 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1 and all participants achieved ≥ 3 of the designated VO2max test criteria. The MFO identified during the GXT was not significantly different compared with the average fat oxidation rate in the MIIT session. During the MIIT session, fat oxidation rate increased with time; the highest rate (0.18 ± 0.11 g·min- 1) in minute 25 was significantly higher than the rate at minute 5 and 15 (p ≤ 0.01 and 0.05 respectively). In this cohort with low aerobic fitness, fat oxidation during the MIIT session was comparable with the MFO determined during a GXT. Future research may consider if the varying workload in moderate-intensity interval training helps adherence to exercise without compromising fat oxidation. Key Points Fat oxidation during interval exercise is not com-promised by the undulating exercise intensity Physiological measures corresponding with the MFO measured during the GXT correlated well to the MIIT The validity of exercise intensity markers derived from a GXT to reflect the physiological responses during MIIT. PMID:24570605

  15. [Case of interval form of carbon monoxide poisoning without increased carboxyhemoglobin level diagnosed by characteristic MR spectroscopy findings].

    PubMed

    Kamisawa, Tomoko; Ikawa, Masamichi; Hamano, Tadanori; Nagata, Miwako; Kimura, Hirohiko; Yoneda, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    A 67-year-old man living alone was admitted for acute disturbance of consciousness during winter. He presented with semicoma, a decorticate posture, and exaggerated tendon reflexes of the limbs, but brainstem reflexes were intact. The carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level was normal in arterial blood gas on admission, and protein in cerebrospinal fluid was increased without pleocytosis. Brain MRI showed diffuse T2 high intensities in the deep white matter bilaterally without a contrast effect and abnormal T1 intensity in the pallidum. (1)H-MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the white matter lesion demonstrated findings suggesting demyelination as an increased choline peak, enhanced anaerobic metabolism as increased lactate and lipids peaks, and reduced neurons as a decreased N-acetylaspartate peak, which corresponded to delayed encephalopathy due to the interval form of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. The possibility of CO exposure due to coal briquette use 2 weeks before the symptomatic onset was indicated by his family, so he was diagnosed with CO poisoning. His consciousness slightly improved with corticosteroid therapy and repetitive hyperbaric oxygen therapy, but brain MRI and MRS findings did not improve. Characteristic MRS findings of leukoencephalopathy are helpful for diagnosing the interval form of CO poisoning in the case of a normal COHb level. PMID:24705840

  16. A 1-year trial of repeated high-dose intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 to maintain stable hemoglobin levels in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Reinisch, Walter; Altorjay, Istvan; Zsigmond, Ferenc; Primas, Christian; Vogelsang, Harald; Novacek, Gottfried; Reinisch, Sieglinde; Thomsen, Lars L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer®) is a high-dose intravenous (IV) iron, which in a recent 8 weeks trial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) subjects with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) demonstrated good tolerability and efficacy. The present trial is an extension to this trial, which evaluates the need for additional high IV iron doses to maintain a stable hemoglobin (Hb) ≥12.0 g/dl. Material and methods. This was a prospective, open-label, 12 months trial of European IBD subjects willing to participate after completing the lead-in trial. Subjects were allowed re-dosing with 500–2000 mg single doses of iron isomaltoside 1000 infused over ∼15 min at 3 months intervals depending on a predefined algorithm. Outcome measures included Hb, safety parameters and need for additional iron dosing. Results. A total of 39 subjects were enrolled of which 34 subjects required re-dosing with a median cumulative 1-year dose of 1.8 g (mean cumulative dose 2.2 g). The mean (SD) Hb was 12.3 (1.5) g/dl at baseline, 12.8 (1.6) g/dl at 3 months, 12.8 (1.6) g/dl at 6 months, 12.9 (1.4) g/dl at 9 months and 12.9 (1.6) g/dl at 12 months. Seventy-four percent of subjects who had an Hb ≥12.0 g/dl at baseline were able to maintain Hb ≥12.0 g/dl till the end of the trial at 12 months. Nonserious probably related hypersensitivity reactions without significant hypotension were reported at the beginning of the infusion in two subjects, who recovered without sequelae. Conclusion. Repeated treatment of iron deficiency with iron isomaltoside 1000 could avoid episodes of IDA without major safety issues. PMID:25900645

  17. Extended flowering intervals of bamboos evolved by discrete multiplication.

    PubMed

    Veller, Carl; Nowak, Martin A; Davis, Charles C

    2015-07-01

    Numerous bamboo species collectively flower and seed at dramatically extended, regular intervals - some as long as 120 years. These collective seed releases, termed 'masts', are thought to be a strategy to overwhelm seed predators or to maximise pollination rates. But why are the intervals so long, and how did they evolve? We propose a simple mathematical model that supports their evolution as a two-step process: First, an initial phase in which a mostly annually flowering population synchronises onto a small multi-year interval. Second, a phase of successive small multiplications of the initial synchronisation interval, resulting in the extraordinary intervals seen today. A prediction of the hypothesis is that mast intervals observed today should factorise into small prime numbers. Using a historical data set of bamboo flowering observations, we find strong evidence in favour of this prediction. Our hypothesis provides the first theoretical explanation for the mechanism underlying this remarkable phenomenon. PMID:25963600

  18. Interval timing in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Higa, J J; Simm, L A

    2004-11-30

    The present study evaluated the temporal performance of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) given short-term exposure to four fixed interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement, FI 30, 60, 120, and 240 s, during which a reinforcer (mirror image) was given for the first response (swimming through a hoop) after the interval requirement had elapsed. Response levels were generally low early in an interval and increased as the interval elapsed; wait times and break points in an interval increased with increases in the FI requirement. The results were similar to that obtained with other species and different types of responses and reinforcers, and demonstrate that the procedure is a feasible method for studying interval timing in fish. PMID:15518999

  19. IBM system/360 assembly language interval arithmetic software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    Computer software designed to perform interval arithmetic is described. An interval is defined as the set of all real numbers between two given numbers including or excluding one or both endpoints. Interval arithmetic consists of the various elementary arithmetic operations defined on the set of all intervals, such as interval addition, subtraction, union, etc. One of the main applications of interval arithmetic is in the area of error analysis of computer calculations. For example, it has been used sucessfully to compute bounds on sounding errors in the solution of linear algebraic systems, error bounds in numerical solutions of ordinary differential equations, as well as integral equations and boundary value problems. The described software enables users to implement algorithms of the type described in references efficiently on the IBM 360 system.

  20. Velocity, correlation time and diffusivity measurements in highly turbulent gas flow by an MRI method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhi; Newling, Ben

    2007-03-01

    We present non-invasive, quantitative MRI wind-tunnel measurements in flowing gas (velocity > 10 m/s) at high Reynolds numbers (Re > 10^5). Our measurement method is three-dimensional and has the potential for saving time over traditional pointwise techniques. The method is suitable for liquids and for gases. We demonstrate the use of the technique on different test sections (bluff obstruction, clark Y-wing and cylinder). The mean velocity of gas flowing past those sections has been measured. We also investigate methods to measure flow correlation times by changing the acquisition interval between excitation of the sample and detection of the signal. This may be accomplished by making separate measurements or by using a multiple-point acquisition method. A measurement of correlation time allows us to map turbulent diffusivity. The MRI data are compared with computational fluid dynamics.

  1. Enhanced MRI and MRI-Guided Interventional Procedures in Women with Asymptomatic Silicone-Injected Breasts

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Yun-Chung; Chen, Shin-Chih; Lo, Yung-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Asymptomatic women who have received silicone injection for breast augmentation have a risk of underestimating breast cancer by palpation, mammography, or breast sonography. Enhanced breast MRI is sensitive to display certain nonspecific enhanced lesions or suspicious lesions. Such nonspecific MRI-detected lesions could be managed by American College Radiology BI-RADS lexicon and selectively with MRI-guided techniques biopsy to prevent unnecessary surgery. PMID:22536144

  2. Gray matter myelination of 1555 human brains using partial volume corrected MRI images

    PubMed Central

    Shafee, Rebecca; Buckner, Randy L.; Fischl, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The myelin content of the cortex changes over the human lifetime and aberrant cortical myelination is associated with diseases such as schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Recently magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have shown potential in differentiating between myeloarchitectonically distinct cortical regions in vivo. Here we introduce a new algorithm for correcting partial volume effects present in mm-scale MRI images which was used to investigate the myelination pattern of the cerebral cortex in 1555 clinically normal subjects using the ratio of T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) MRI images. A significant linear cross-sectional age increase in T1w/T2w estimated myelin was detected across an 18 to 35 year age span (highest value of ~ 1%/year compared to mean T1w/T2w myelin value at 18 years). The cortex was divided at mid-thickness and the value of T1w/T2w myelin calculated for the inner and the outer layers separately. The increase in T1w/T2w estimated myelin occurs predominantly in the inner layer for most cortical regions. The ratio of the inner and outer layer T1w/T12w myelin was further validated using high-resolution in vivo MRI scans and also a high-resolution MRI scan of a postmortem brain. Additionally, the relationships between cortical thickness, curvature and T1w/T2w estimated myelin were found to be significant, although the relationships varied across the cortex. We discuss these observations as well as limitations of using the T1w/T2w ratio as an estimate of cortical myelin. PMID:25449739

  3. Gray matter myelination of 1555 human brains using partial volume corrected MRI images.

    PubMed

    Shafee, Rebecca; Buckner, Randy L; Fischl, Bruce

    2015-01-15

    The myelin content of the cortex changes over the human lifetime and aberrant cortical myelination is associated with diseases such as schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Recently magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have shown potential in differentiating between myeloarchitectonically distinct cortical regions in vivo. Here we introduce a new algorithm for correcting partial volume effects present in mm-scale MRI images which was used to investigate the myelination pattern of the cerebral cortex in 1555 clinically normal subjects using the ratio of T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) MRI images. A significant linear cross-sectional age increase in T1w/T2w estimated myelin was detected across an 18 to 35 year age span (highest value of ~ 1%/year compared to mean T1w/T2w myelin value at 18 years). The cortex was divided at mid-thickness and the value of T1w/T2w myelin calculated for the inner and outer layers separately. The increase in T1w/T2w estimated myelin occurs predominantly in the inner layer for most cortical regions. The ratio of the inner and outer layer T1w/T2w myelin was further validated using high-resolution in vivo MRI scans and also a high-resolution MRI scan of a postmortem brain. Additionally, the relationships between cortical thickness, curvature and T1w/T2w estimated myelin were found to be significant, although the relationships varied across the cortex. We discuss these observations as well as limitations of using the T1w/T2w ratio as an estimate of cortical myelin. PMID:25449739

  4. The fractional transportation problem with interval demand, supply and costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocken, Hale Gonce; Emiroğlu, İbrahim; Güler, Coşkun; Taşçı, Fatih; Sivri, Mustafa

    2013-09-01

    The data of real world applications generally cannot be expressed strictly. An efficient way of handling this situation is expressing the data as intervals. Thus this paper focuses on the Interval Fractional Transportation Problem (IFTP) in which all the parameters i.e. cost and preference coefficients of the objective function, supply and demand quantities are expressed as intervals. A Taylor series approach is presented for IFTP by means of the expression of intervals with its left and right limits. Also a numerical example is executed for the linear case to illustrate the procedure.

  5. Interval-valued fuzzy hypergraph and fuzzy partition.

    PubMed

    Chen, S M

    1997-01-01

    This paper extends the work of H. Lee-Kwang and L.M. Lee (1995) to present the concept of the interval-valued fuzzy hypergraph. In the interval-valued fuzzy hypergraph, the concepts of the dual interval-valued fuzzy hypergraph, the crisp-valued alpha-cut hypergraph, and the interval-valued [alpha(1),alpha(2 )]-cut at beta level hypergraph are developed, where alphain [0, 1], 0

  6. Hydrologic studies in wells open through large intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report describes and summarizes activities, data, and preliminary data interpretation from the INEL Oversight Program R D-1 project titled Hydrologic Studies In Wells Open Through Large Intervals.'' The project is designed to use a straddle-packer system to isolate, hydraulically test, and sample specific intervals of monitoring wells that are open (uncased, unscreened) over large intervals of the Snake River Plain aquifer. The objectives of the project are to determine and compare vertical variations in water quality and aquifer properties that have previously only been determined in an integrated fashion over the entire thickness of the open interval of the observation wells.

  7. Antemortem vitreous potassium may strengthen postmortem interval estimates.

    PubMed

    Kokavec, Jan; Min, San H; Tan, Mei H; Gilhotra, Jagjit S; Newland, Henry S; Durkin, Shane R; Casson, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this letter is to highlight that postmortem interval estimates using vitreous potassium concentrations may be further optimised by calibration against antemortem vitreous samples. PMID:27080618

  8. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was

  9. MRI Reporter Genes for Noninvasive Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Caixia; Tian, Rui; Liu, Ting; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most important imaging technologies used in clinical diagnosis. Reporter genes for MRI can be applied to accurately track the delivery of cell in cell therapy, evaluate the therapy effect of gene delivery, and monitor tissue/cell-specific microenvironments. Commonly used reporter genes for MRI usually include genes encoding the enzyme (e.g., tyrosinase and β-galactosidase), the receptor on the cells (e.g., transferrin receptor), and endogenous reporter genes (e.g., ferritin reporter gene). However, low sensitivity limits the application of MRI and reporter gene-based multimodal imaging strategies are common including optical imaging and radionuclide imaging. These can significantly improve diagnostic efficiency and accelerate the development of new therapies. PMID:27213309

  10. Test-retest reliability of evoked heat stimulation BOLD fMRI.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Jaymin; Lemme, Jordan; Anderson, Julie; Bleakman, David; Large, Thomas; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L; Hargreaves, Richard; Borsook, David; Becerra, Lino

    2015-09-30

    To date, the blood oxygenated-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique has enabled an objective and deeper understanding of pain processing mechanisms embedded within the human central nervous system (CNS). In order to further comprehend the benefits and limitations of BOLD fMRI in the context of pain as well as the corresponding subjective pain ratings, we evaluated the univariate response, test-retest reliability and confidence intervals (CIs) at the 95% level of both data types collected during evoked stimulation of 40°C (non-noxious), 44°C (mildly noxious) and a subject-specific temperature eliciting a 7/10 pain rating. The test-retest reliability between two scanning sessions was determined by calculating group-level interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and at the single-subject level. Across the three stimuli, we initially observed a graded response of increasing magnitude for both VAS (visual analog score) pain ratings and fMRI data. Test-retest reliability was observed to be highest for VAS pain ratings obtained during the 7/10 pain stimulation (ICC=0.938), while ICC values of pain fMRI data for a distribution of CNS structures ranged from 0.5 to 0.859 (p<0.05). Importantly, the upper and lower confidence interval CI bounds reported herein could be utilized in subsequent trials involving healthy volunteers to hypothesize the magnitude of effect required to overcome inherent variability of either VAS pain ratings or BOLD responses evoked during innocuous or noxious thermal stimulation. PMID:26072245

  11. Clinical Evaluation of Stereotactic Target Localization Using 3-Tesla MRI for Radiosurgery Planning

    SciTech Connect

    MacFadden, Derek; Zhang Beibei; Brock, Kristy K.; Hodaie, Mojgan; Laperriere, Normand; Schwartz, Michael; Tsao, May; Stainsby, Jeffrey; Lockwood, Gina; Mikulis, David; Menard, Cynthia

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Increasing the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) field strength can improve image resolution and quality, but concerns remain regarding the influence on geometric fidelity. The objectives of the present study were to spatially investigate the effect of 3-Tesla (3T) MRI on clinical target localization for stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: A total of 39 patients were enrolled in a research ethics board-approved prospective clinical trial. Imaging (1.5T and 3T MRI and computed tomography) was performed after stereotactic frame placement. Stereotactic target localization at 1.5T vs. 3T was retrospectively analyzed in a representative cohort of patients with tumor (n = 4) and functional (n = 5) radiosurgical targets. The spatial congruency of the tumor gross target volumes was determined by the mean discrepancy between the average gross target volume surfaces at 1.5T and 3T. Reproducibility was assessed by the displacement from an averaged surface and volume congruency. Spatial congruency and the reproducibility of functional radiosurgical targets was determined by comparing the mean and standard deviation of the isocenter coordinates. Results: Overall, the mean absolute discrepancy across all patients was 0.67 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.83), significantly <1 mm (p < .010). No differences were found in the overall interuser target volume congruence (mean, 84% for 1.5T vs. 84% for 3T, p > .4), and the gross target volume surface mean displacements were similar within and between users. The overall average isocenter coordinate discrepancy for the functional targets at 1.5T and 3T was 0.33 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.48), with no patient-specific differences between the mean values (p >.2) or standard deviations (p >.1). Conclusion: Our results have provided clinically relevant evidence supporting the spatial validity of 3T MRI for use in stereotactic radiosurgery under the imaging conditions used.

  12. Outcomes after thrombus aspiration for ST elevation myocardial infarction: 1-year follow-up of the prospective randomised TOTAL trial

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Sanjit S; Cairns, John A; Yusuf, Salim; Rokoss, Michael J; Gao, Peggy; Meeks, Brandi; Kedev, Sasko; Stankovic, Goran; Moreno, Raul; Gershlick, Anthony; Chowdhary, Saqib; Lavi, Shahar; Niemela, Kari; Bernat, Ivo; Cantor, Warren J; Cheema, Asim N; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Welsh, Robert C; Sheth, Tej; Bertrand, Olivier F; Avezum, Alvaro; Bhindi, Ravinay; Natarajan, Madhu K; Horak, David; Leung, Raymond C M; Kassam, Saleem; Rao, Sunil V; El-Omar, Magdi; Mehta, Shamir R; Velianou, James L; Pancholy, Samir; Džavík, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Two large trials have reported contradictory results at 1 year after thrombus aspiration in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In a 1-year follow-up of the largest randomised trial of thrombus aspiration, we aimed to clarify the longer-term benefits, to help guide clinical practice. Methods The trial of routine aspiration ThrOmbecTomy with PCI versus PCI ALone in Patients with STEMI (TOTAL) was a prospective, randomised, investigator-initiated trial of routine manual thrombectomy versus percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) alone in 10 732 patients with STEMI. Eligible adult patients (aged ≥18 years) from 87 hospitals in 20 countries were enrolled and randomly assigned (1:1) within 12 h of symptom onset to receive routine manual thrombectomy with PCI or PCI alone. Permuted block randomisation (with variable block size) was done by a 24 h computerised central system, and was stratified by centre. Participants and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. The trial did not show a difference at 180 days in the primary outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, or heart failure. However, the results showed improvements in the surrogate outcomes of ST segment resolution and distal embolisation, but whether or not this finding would translate into a longer term benefit remained unclear. In this longer-term follow-up of the TOTAL study, we report the results on the primary outcome (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, or heart failure) and secondary outcomes at 1 year. Analyses of the primary outcome were by modified intention to treat and only included patients who underwent index PCI. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01149044. Findings Between Aug 5, 2010, and July 25, 2014, 10 732 eligible patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to thrombectomy followed by PCI (n=5372) or to PCI alone (n=5360). After exclusions of patients who did not

  13. Risk of Recurrent Helicobacter pylori Infection 1 Year After Initial Eradication Therapy in 7 Latin American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Douglas R.; Torres, Javier; Sexton, Rachael; Herrero, Rolando; Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Robert Greenberg, E.; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C.; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Peña, Edgar M.; Peña, Rodolfo; Correa, Pelayo; Martínez, María Elena; Chey, William D.; Valdivieso, Manuel; Anderson, Garnet L.; Goodman, Gary E.; Crowley, John J.; Baker, Laurence H.

    2013-01-01

    Importance The long-term effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication programs for preventing gastric cancer will depend on recurrence risk and individual and community factors. Objective To estimate risk of H pylori recurrence and assess factors associated with successful eradication 1 year after treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants Cohort analysis of 1463 randomized trial participants aged 21 to 65 years from 7 Latin American communities, who were treated for H pylori and observed between September 2009 and July 2011. Interventions Randomization to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 14-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin (triple therapy); 5-day lansoprazole and amoxicillin followed by 5-day lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (sequential); or 5-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (concomitant). Participants with a positive (13) C-urea breath test (UBT) 6 to 8 weeks posttreatment were offered voluntary re-treatment with 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy. Measurements Recurrent infection after a negative posttreatment UBT and factors associated with successful eradication at 1-year follow-up. Results Among participants with UBT-negative results who had a 1-year follow-up UBT (n=1091), 125 tested UBT positive, a recurrence risk of 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%–13.5%). Recurrence was significantly associated with study site (P=.03), nonadherence to initial therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.94; 95% CI, 1.31–6.13; P=.01), and children in the household (AOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01–1.35 per child; P=.03). Of the 281 with positive posttreatment UBT results, 138 completed re-treatment, of whom 93 tested UBT negative at 1 year. Among the 1340 who had a 1-year UBT, 80.4% (95% CI, 76.4%–83.9%), 79.8% (95% CI, 75.8%–83.5%), and 77.8% (95% CI, 73.6%–81.6%) had UBT-negative results in the triple, sequential, and concomitant groups, respectively (P=.61), with 79.3% overall effectiveness (95% CI, 77.1%–81.5%). In a

  14. A comparison of 1-year substance abuse treatment outcomes in community syringe exchange participants versus other referrals.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Karin; King, Van; Peirce, Jessica; Kolodner, Ken; Brooner, Robert; Kidorf, Michael

    2008-09-01

    This longitudinal cohort study of 324 consecutive admissions to methadone maintenance treatment between 08/1994 and 09/1997 compared 1-year outcomes of opioid-dependent patients referred from a syringe exchange program (SEP; n=81) versus other sources (n=243). All participants received stepped-based counseling. The Addiction Severity Index was completed upon admission. Treatment outcomes were assessed using weekly urine testing and days in treatment. GEE regression models were used to evaluate the association between baseline variables and treatment outcomes. SEP referrals were older, included more males and African Americans, reported greater unemployment and heavier heroin, cocaine, and injection drug use at admission. During treatment, SEP referrals used more opioids (OR 2.57; 95% CI 1.86-3.56) and cocaine (OR 2.77; 95% CI 1.93-3.95), and were less likely to complete 1 year (35%) compared to other referrals (56%; hazard ratio 1.88; 95% CI 1.35-2.62). Nevertheless, referral source was not significantly associated with outcome when adjusted for baseline characteristics. Greater baseline frequency of substance and injection drug use, and younger age were positively associated with ongoing opioid and cocaine use. African American race and baseline unemployment were also associated with ongoing cocaine use. Younger age and greater baseline cocaine use were associated with poorer retention at 1 year. The poorer treatment response of SEP referrals is likely due to higher baseline problem severity. Specialized interventions may be required to reduce drug use and improve retention in this population. PMID:18486360

  15. Emergency re-admissions to hospital due to adverse drug reactions within 1 year of the index admission

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Emma C; Green, Christopher F; Mottram, David R; Rowe, Philip H; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2010-01-01

    AIM The proportion of re-admissions to hospital caused by ADRs is poorly documented in the UK. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ADRs on re-admission to hospital after a period as an inpatient. METHODS One thousand patients consecutively admitted to 12 wards were included. All subsequent admissions for this cohort within 1 year of discharge from the index admission were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS Of the 1000 patients included, 403 (40.3%, 95% CI 39.1, 45.4%) were re-admitted within 1 year. Complete data were available for 290 (70.2%) re-admitted patients, with an ADR contributing to admission in 60 (20.8%, 95% CI 16.4, 25.6%) patients. Presence of an ADR in the index admission did not predict for an ADR-related re-admission (10.5% vs. 7.2%, P = 0.25), or re-admission overall (47.2% vs. 41.2%, P = 0.15). The implicated drug was commenced in the index admission in 33/148 (22.3%) instances, with 37/148 (25%) commenced elsewhere since the index admission. Increasing age and an index admission in a medical ward were associated with a higher incidence of re-admission ADR. The most frequent causative drugs were anti-platelets and loop diuretics, with bleeding and renal impairment the most frequent ADRs. Over half (52/91, 57.1%) of the ADRs were judged to be definitely or possibly avoidable. CONCLUSIONS One fifth of patients re-admitted to hospital within 1 year of discharge from their index admission are re-admitted due to an ADR. Our data highlight drug and patient groups where interventions are needed to reduce the incidence of ADRs leading to re-admission. PMID:21039769

  16. BDNF and NGF Signalling in Early Phases of Psychosis: Relationship With Inflammation and Response to Antipsychotics After 1 Year.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, M; MacDowell, K S; Alberich, S; Diaz, F J; Garcia-Bueno, B; Rodriguez-Jimenez, R; Bioque, M; Berrocoso, E; Parellada, M; Lobo, A; Saiz, P A; Matute, C; Bernardo, M; Gonzalez-Pinto, A; Leza, J C

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated systemic deregulation of the proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory balance in individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP) that persists 12 months later. To identify potential risk/protective factors and associations with symptom severity, we assessed possible changes in plasma levels of neurotrophins (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] and nerve growth factor [NGF]) and their receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Expression of the 2 forms of BDNF receptors (active TrkB-FL and inactiveTrkB-T1) in PBMCs of FEP patients changed over time, TrkB-FL expression increasing by 1 year after diagnosis, while TrkB-T1 expression decreased. The TrkB-FL/TrkB-T1 ratio (hereafter FL/T1 ratio) increased during follow-up in the nonaffective psychosis group only, suggesting different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in subgroups of FEP patients. Further, the expression of the main NGF receptor, TrkA, generally increased in patients at follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders, baseline levels of inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase, and nuclear transcription factor were significantly associated with the FL/T1 ratio, suggesting that more inflammation is associated with higher values of this ratio. Interestingly, the FL/T1 ratio might have a role as a predictor of functioning, a regression model of functioning at 1 year suggesting that the effect of the FL/T1 ratio at baseline on functioning at 1 year depended on whether patients were treated with antipsychotics. These findings may have translational relevance; specifically, it might be useful to assess the expression of TrkB receptor isoforms before initiating antipsychotic treatment in FEPs. PMID:26130821

  17. BDNF and NGF Signalling in Early Phases of Psychosis: Relationship With Inflammation and Response to Antipsychotics After 1 Year

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, M.; MacDowell, K.S.; Alberich, S.; Diaz, F.J.; Garcia-Bueno, B.; Rodriguez-Jimenez, R.; Bioque, M.; Berrocoso, E.; Parellada, M.; Lobo, A.; Saiz, P.A.; Matute, C.; Bernardo, M.; Gonzalez-Pinto, A.; Leza, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated systemic deregulation of the proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory balance in individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP) that persists 12 months later. To identify potential risk/protective factors and associations with symptom severity, we assessed possible changes in plasma levels of neurotrophins (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] and nerve growth factor [NGF]) and their receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Expression of the 2 forms of BDNF receptors (active TrkB-FL and inactiveTrkB-T1) in PBMCs of FEP patients changed over time, TrkB-FL expression increasing by 1 year after diagnosis, while TrkB-T1 expression decreased. The TrkB-FL/TrkB-T1 ratio (hereafter FL/T1 ratio) increased during follow-up in the nonaffective psychosis group only, suggesting different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in subgroups of FEP patients. Further, the expression of the main NGF receptor, TrkA, generally increased in patients at follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders, baseline levels of inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase, and nuclear transcription factor were significantly associated with the FL/T1 ratio, suggesting that more inflammation is associated with higher values of this ratio. Interestingly, the FL/T1 ratio might have a role as a predictor of functioning, a regression model of functioning at 1 year suggesting that the effect of the FL/T1 ratio at baseline on functioning at 1 year depended on whether patients were treated with antipsychotics. These findings may have translational relevance; specifically, it might be useful to assess the expression of TrkB receptor isoforms before initiating antipsychotic treatment in FEPs. PMID:26130821

  18. A prospective randomized study of 1- and 2-stage sinus inlay bone grafts: 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wannfors, K; Johansson, B; Hallman, M; Strandkvist, T

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the success of and surgical differences between 1- and 2-stage sinus inlay bone grafts and implants after 1 year in function. The individual risk for implant failure in grafted areas among 1-stage patients was about twice the risk in 2-stage patients (odds ratio 2.3, CI 0.6; 8.5). The risk for implant failure in non-grafted areas was significantly lower (P < .05) than in grafted areas, regardless of the technique used. Forty edentulous patients, selected according to strict inclusion criteria from consecutive referrals, were allocated to one or other of the 2 sinus-inlay procedures. Twenty patients received bone blocks fixed by implants to the residual alveolar crest in a 1-stage procedure (group 1). In another 20 patients, particulated bone was condensed against the antral floor and left to heal for 6 months before implants were placed (group 2). An almost equal number of implants was placed in the patients of each group, 76 in the 1-stage procedure and 74 in the 2-stage procedure. Additionally, 72 and 66 implants were placed in the anterior non-grafted regions of group 1 and group 2 patients, respectively. After 1 year in function, a total of 20 implants failed in 1-stage patients, versus 11 in 2-stage patients. Sixteen and 8 implants, respectively, of these were placed in grafted bone. All but one 1-stage patient received the planned fixed prosthetic restorations, but 1 restoration was redesigned after the first year in function because of a functionally unacceptable prosthetic design. At the 1-year follow-up, one 2-stage patient lost her prosthesis as the result of multiple implant failures. Bruxism and postoperative infections were the only parameters that could be related to implant failure, however, depending on the statistical method used. PMID:11055129

  19. Impact of Different Childhood Adversities on 1-Year Outcomes of Psychotic Disorder in the Genetics and Psychosis Study.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Antonella; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S; Kolliakou, Anna; O'Connor, Jennifer; Di Forti, Marta; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Morgan, Craig; Fisher, Helen L

    2016-03-01

    While the role of childhood adversity in increasing the risk of psychosis has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the impact of early adverse experiences is on the outcomes of psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated associations between childhood adversity and 1-year outcomes in 285 first-presentation psychosis patients. Exposure to childhood adversity prior to 17 years of age was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Data on illness course, symptom remission, length of psychiatric hospitalization, compliance with medication, employment, and relationship status were extracted from clinical records for the year following first contact with mental health services for psychosis. Seventy-one percent of patients reported exposure to at least 1 type of childhood adversity (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, disrupted family arrangements, or being taken into care). No robust associations were found between childhood adversity and illness course or remission. However, childhood physical abuse was associated with almost 3-fold increased odds of not being in a relationship at 1-year follow-up compared to patients who did not report such adverse experiences. There was also evidence of a significant association between parental separation in childhood and longer admissions to psychiatric wards during 1-year follow-up and 2-fold increased odds of noncompliance with medication compared to those not separated from their parents. Therefore, our findings suggest that there may be some specificity in the impact of childhood adversity on service use and social functioning among psychosis patients over the first year following presentation to mental health services. PMID:26373540

  20. Effectiveness of a 1-Year Resident Training Program in Clinical Research: A Controlled Before-and-After Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Mechthild; Wild, Beate; Nikendei, Christoph; Kroenke, Kurt; Niehoff, Dorothea; Henningsen, Peter; Zipfel, Stephan; Herzog, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Background To increase the number of clinician scientists and to improve research skills, a number of clinical research training programs have been recently established. However, controlled studies assessing their effectiveness are lacking. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of a 1-year resident training program in clinical research. Design Controlled before-and-after study. The training program included a weekly class in clinical research methods, completion of a research project, and mentorship. Participants Intervention subjects were 15 residents participating in the 1-year training program in clinical research. Control subjects were 22 residents not participating in the training program. Measurements and Main Results Assessments were performed at the beginning and end of the program. Outcomes included methodological research knowledge (multiple-choice progress test), self-assessed research competence, progress on publications and grant applications, and evaluation of the program using quantitative and qualitative methods. Results Intervention subjects and controls were well matched with respect to research experience (5.1 ± 2.2 vs 5.6 ± 5.8 years; p = .69). Methodological knowledge improved significantly more in the intervention group compared to the control group (effect size = 2.5; p < .001). Similarly, self-assessed research competence increased significantly more in the intervention group (effect size = 1.1; p = .01). At the end of the program, significantly more intervention subjects compared to controls were currently writing journal articles (87% vs 36%; p = .003). The intervention subjects evaluated the training program as highly valuable for becoming independent researchers. Conclusions A 1-year training program in clinical research can substantially increase research knowledge and productivity. The program design makes it feasible to implement in other academic settings. PMID:17922168

  1. Impact of Different Childhood Adversities on 1-Year Outcomes of Psychotic Disorder in the Genetics and Psychosis Study

    PubMed Central

    Trotta, Antonella; Murray, Robin M.; David, Anthony S.; Kolliakou, Anna; O’Connor, Jennifer; Di Forti, Marta; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Morgan, Craig; Fisher, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    While the role of childhood adversity in increasing the risk of psychosis has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the impact of early adverse experiences is on the outcomes of psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated associations between childhood adversity and 1-year outcomes in 285 first-presentation psychosis patients. Exposure to childhood adversity prior to 17 years of age was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Data on illness course, symptom remission, length of psychiatric hospitalization, compliance with medication, employment, and relationship status were extracted from clinical records for the year following first contact with mental health services for psychosis. Seventy-one percent of patients reported exposure to at least 1 type of childhood adversity (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, disrupted family arrangements, or being taken into care). No robust associations were found between childhood adversity and illness course or remission. However, childhood physical abuse was associated with almost 3-fold increased odds of not being in a relationship at 1-year follow-up compared to patients who did not report such adverse experiences. There was also evidence of a significant association between parental separation in childhood and longer admissions to psychiatric wards during 1-year follow-up and 2-fold increased odds of noncompliance with medication compared to those not separated from their parents. Therefore, our findings suggest that there may be some specificity in the impact of childhood adversity on service use and social functioning among psychosis patients over the first year following presentation to mental health services. PMID:26373540

  2. MRI-powered Actuators for Robotic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Vartholomeos, Panagiotis; Qin, Lei; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel actuation technology for robotically assisted MRI-guided interventional procedures. Compact and wireless, the actuators are both powered and controlled by the MRI scanner. The design concept and performance limits are described and derived analytically. Simulation and experiments in a clinical MR scanner are used to validate the analysis and to demonstrate the capability of the approach for needle biopsies. The concepts of actuator locking mechanisms and multi-axis control are also introduced. PMID:22287082

  3. MRI and MRS of human brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Bob L; Hu, Jiani

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide an introduction to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of human brain tumors, including the primary applications and basic terminology involved. Readers who wish to know more about this broad subject should seek out the referenced books (1. Tofts (2003) Quantitative MRI of the brain. Measuring changes caused by disease. Wiley; Bradley and Stark (1999) 2. Magnetic resonance imaging, 3rd Edition. Mosby Inc; Brown and Semelka (2003) 3. MRI basic principles and applications, 3rd Edition. Wiley-Liss) or reviews (4. Top Magn Reson Imaging 17:127-36, 2006; 5. JMRI 24:709-724, 2006; 6. Am J Neuroradiol 27:1404-1411, 2006).MRI is the most popular means of diagnosing human brain tumors. The inherent difference in the magnetic resonance (MR) properties of water between normal tissues and tumors results in contrast differences on the image that provide the basis for distinguishing tumors from normal tissues. In contrast to MRI, which provides spatial maps or images using water signals of the tissues, proton MRS detects signals of tissue metabolites. MRS can complement MRI because the observed MRS peaks can be linked to inherent differences in biochemical profiles between normal tissues and tumors.The goal of MRI and MRS is to characterize brain tumors, including tumor core, edge, edema, volume, types, and grade. The commonly used brain tumor MRI protocol includes T2-weighted images and T1-weighted images taken both before and after the injection of a contrast agent (typically gadolinium: Gd). The commonly used MRS technique is either point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) or stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM). PMID:19381963

  4. Successful Endosonography-Guided Drainage of an Intra-Abdominal Abscess in a 1-Year-Old Infant.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yukiko; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Yousuke; Umefune, Gyoutane; Sato, Tatsuya; Nakahara, Saori; Suwa, Junko; Kato, Keiichi; Nakata, Ryo

    2016-05-23

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided intervention has been established as a safe, effective and minimally invasive procedure for various diseases in adults, but there have been limited reports in pediatric patients. Herein, we report our experience with successful EUS-guided drainage of an intraabdominal abscess in a 1-year-old infant concomitant with disseminated intravascular coagulation. The abscess was punctured via the stomach using a standard, convex-type echoendoscope, and the patient's condition improved after naso-cystic catheter placement. Although the clinical course was complicated by delayed hemorrhage from the puncture site, the bleeding was successfully managed by endoscopic hemostasis using a standard forward-viewing endoscope. PMID:27114437

  5. Type B Aortic Dissection with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture 1 Year after Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Guillaume; Ben Ahmed, Sabrina; Warein, Edouard; Gallon, Arnaud; Rosset, Eugenio

    2016-05-01

    We report a patient who developed a type B aortic dissection and ruptured his aneurysmal sac 1 year after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR), despite standard follow-up. This 79-year-old man was presented to emergency room with acute abdominal pain and an acute lower limb ischemia. Computed tomography scan showed an acute type B aortic dissection feeding the aneurysmal sac of the EVAR. The aneurysm rupture occurred during imaging. Type B aortic dissection is a rare cause of aneurysmal rupture after EVAR. The first postoperative computed tomography scan should maybe include the arch and the descending thoracic aorta to rule out an iatrogenic dissection after EVAR. PMID:26902937

  6. [Aberration corrected intraocular lens for microincision cataract surgery (MICS). Intraindividual comparison with a conventional lens - 1-year follow-up].

    PubMed

    Möglich, M; Häberle, H; Pham, D T; Wirbelauer, C

    2009-10-01

    Microincision cataract surgery (MICS) is an important advancement in the field of cataract surgery. This article compares an aberration corrected hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) having a hydrophobic surface for MICS with a one-piece hydrophobic acrylic IOL with respect to capsule sac stability, image quality, and after-cataract formation over the course of 1 year. The operations were performed as bimanual MICS or coaxial phacoemulsification. Overall the results after implantation of the IOL by MICS can be regarded as positive in comparison to the standard operation. PMID:18836727

  7. Impact of Renal Sympathetic Denervation on Left Ventricular Structure and Function at 1-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa Almeida, Manuel; de Araújo Gonçalves, Pedro; Branco, Patricia; Mesquita, João; Carvalho, Maria Salomé; Dores, Helder; Silva Sousa, Henrique; Gaspar, Augusta; Horta, Eduarda; Aleixo, Ana; Neuparth, Nuno; Mendes, Miguel; Andrade, Maria João

    2016-01-01

    Background Catheter-based sympathetic renal denervation (RDN) is a recent therapeutic option for patients with resistant hypertension. However, the impact of RDN in left ventricular (LV) mass and function is not completely established. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of RDN on LV structure and function (systolic and diastolic) in patients with resistant hypertension (HTN). Methods and Results From a single centre prospective registry including 65 consecutive patients with resistant HTN submitted to RDN between July-2011 and April-2015, 31 patients with baseline and 1-year follow-up echocardiogram were included in this analysis. Mean age was 65±7 years, 48% were males, 71% had type 2 diabetes. Most had hypertension lasting for more than 10 years (90%), and were being treated with a median number of 6 anti-hypertensive drugs, including 74% on spironolactone. At 1-year, there was a significant decrease both on office SBP (176±24 to 149±13mmHg, p<0.001) and DBP (90±14 to 79±11mmHg, p<0.001), and also in 24h ABPM SBP (150±20 to 132±14mmhg, p<0.001) and DBP (83±10 to 74±9mmHg, p<0.001). There was also a significant decrease in LV mass from 152±32 to 136±34g/m2 (p<0.001), an increase in LV end diastolic volume (93±18 to 111±27 mL, p = 0.004), an increase in LV ejection fraction (65±9 to 68±9%, p = 0.001) and mitral valve E deceleration time (225±49 to 247±51ms, p = 0.015) at 1-year follow up. There were no significant changes in left atrium volume index or in the distribution of patients among the different left ventricle geometric patterns and diastolic function subgroups. Conclusions In this single centre registry of patients with resistant hypertension, renal denervation was associated with significant reduction in both office and ABPM blood pressure and a significant decrease in left ventricle mass evaluated by transthoracic echocardiogram at 1 year follow-up. PMID:26934735

  8. Probable transmission of Yersinia enterocolitica from a pet dog with diarrhoea to a 1-year-old infant.

    PubMed

    Hetem, D J; Pekelharing, M; Thijsen, S F T

    2013-01-01

    We report a highly probable case of transmission of a Yersinia enterocolitica from a pet puppy dog, adopted from a Spanish asylum, to a 1-year-old girl. After several weeks of diarrhoea, a PCR detecting enteropathogenic bacteria was performed on the faeces, revealing Y enterocolitica. Following cultures yielded a Y enterocolitica biotype 4, serotype O:3 in the faeces of the girl as well as puppy dog. Despite antibiotic treatment, symptoms and shedding of the organism in the faeces endured during a 2 month period. PMID:23955982

  9. Comparing interval estimates for small sample ordinal CFA models.

    PubMed

    Natesan, Prathiba

    2015-01-01

    Robust maximum likelihood (RML) and asymptotically generalized least squares (AGLS) methods have been recommended for fitting ordinal structural equation models. Studies show that some of these methods underestimate standard errors. However, these studies have not investigated the coverage and bias of interval estimates. An estimate with a reasonable standard error could still be severely biased. This can only be known by systematically investigating the interval estimates. The present study compares Bayesian, RML, and AGLS interval estimates of factor correlations in ordinal confirmatory factor analysis models (CFA) for small sample data. Six sample sizes, 3 factor correlations, and 2 factor score distributions (multivariate normal and multivariate mildly skewed) were studied. Two Bayesian prior specifications, informative and relatively less informative were studied. Undercoverage of confidence intervals and underestimation of standard errors was common in non-Bayesian methods. Underestimated standard errors may lead to inflated Type-I error rates. Non-Bayesian intervals were more positive biased than negatively biased, that is, most intervals that did not contain the true value were greater than the true value. Some non-Bayesian methods had non-converging and inadmissible solutions for small samples and non-normal data. Bayesian empirical standard error estimates for informative and relatively less informative priors were closer to the average standard errors of the estimates. The coverage of Bayesian credibility intervals was closer to what was expected with overcoverage in a few cases. Although some Bayesian credibility intervals were wider, they reflected the nature of statistical uncertainty that comes with the data (e.g., small sample). Bayesian point estimates were also more accurate than non-Bayesian estimates. The results illustrate the importance of analyzing coverage and bias of interval estimates, and how ignoring interval estimates can be misleading

  10. Comparing interval estimates for small sample ordinal CFA models

    PubMed Central

    Natesan, Prathiba

    2015-01-01

    Robust maximum likelihood (RML) and asymptotically generalized least squares (AGLS) methods have been recommended for fitting ordinal structural equation models. Studies show that some of these methods underestimate standard errors. However, these studies have not investigated the coverage and bias of interval estimates. An estimate with a reasonable standard error could still be severely biased. This can only be known by systematically investigating the interval estimates. The present study compares Bayesian, RML, and AGLS interval estimates of factor correlations in ordinal confirmatory factor analysis models (CFA) for small sample data. Six sample sizes, 3 factor correlations, and 2 factor score distributions (multivariate normal and multivariate mildly skewed) were studied. Two Bayesian prior specifications, informative and relatively less informative were studied. Undercoverage of confidence intervals and underestimation of standard errors was common in non-Bayesian methods. Underestimated standard errors may lead to inflated Type-I error rates. Non-Bayesian intervals were more positive biased than negatively biased, that is, most intervals that did not contain the true value were greater than the true value. Some non-Bayesian methods had non-converging and inadmissible solutions for small samples and non-normal data. Bayesian empirical standard error estimates for informative and relatively less informative priors were closer to the average standard errors of the estimates. The coverage of Bayesian credibility intervals was closer to what was expected with overcoverage in a few cases. Although some Bayesian credibility intervals were wider, they reflected the nature of statistical uncertainty that comes with the data (e.g., small sample). Bayesian point estimates were also more accurate than non-Bayesian estimates. The results illustrate the importance of analyzing coverage and bias of interval estimates, and how ignoring interval estimates can be misleading

  11. Diffusion MRI and its role in neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Hemmy, Laura; Camchong, Jazmin

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) is a popular method used by neuroscientists to uncover unique information about the structural connections within the brain. dMRI is a non-invasive imaging methodology in which image contrast is based on the diffusion of water molecules in tissue. While applicable to many tissues in the body, this review focuses exclusively on the use of dMRI to examine white matter in the brain. In this review, we begin with a definition of diffusion and how diffusion is measured with MRI. Next we introduce the diffusion tensor model, the predominant model used in dMRI. We then describe acquisition issues related to acquisition parameters and scanner hardware and software. Sources of artifacts are then discussed, followed by a brief review of analysis approaches. We provide an overview of the limitations of the traditional diffusion tensor model, and highlight several more sophisticated non-tensor models that better describe the complex architecture of the brain’s white matter. We then touch on reliability and validity issues of diffusion measurements. Finally, we describe examples of ways in which dMRI has been applied to studies of brain disorders and how identified alterations relate to symptomatology and cognition. PMID:26255305

  12. Diffusion MRI and its Role in Neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Hemmy, Laura; Camchong, Jazmin

    2015-09-01

    Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) is a popular method used by neuroscientists to uncover unique information about the structural connections within the brain. dMRI is a non-invasive imaging methodology in which image contrast is based on the diffusion of water molecules in tissue. While applicable to many tissues in the body, this review focuses exclusively on the use of dMRI to examine white matter in the brain. In this review, we begin with a definition of diffusion and how diffusion is measured with MRI. Next we introduce the diffusion tensor model, the predominant model used in dMRI. We then describe acquisition issues related to acquisition parameters and scanner hardware and software. Sources of artifacts are then discussed, followed by a brief review of analysis approaches. We provide an overview of the limitations of the traditional diffusion tensor model, and highlight several more sophisticated non-tensor models that better describe the complex architecture of the brain's white matter. We then touch on reliability and validity issues of diffusion measurements. Finally, we describe examples of ways in which dMRI has been applied to studies of brain disorders and how identified alterations relate to symptomatology and cognition. PMID:26255305

  13. Advanced flow MRI: emerging techniques and applications.

    PubMed

    Markl, M; Schnell, S; Wu, C; Bollache, E; Jarvis, K; Barker, A J; Robinson, J D; Rigsby, C K

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide non-invasive and non-ionising methods for the highly accurate anatomical depiction of the heart and vessels throughout the cardiac cycle. In addition, the intrinsic sensitivity of MRI to motion offers the unique ability to acquire spatially registered blood flow simultaneously with the morphological data, within a single measurement. In clinical routine, flow MRI is typically accomplished using methods that resolve two spatial dimensions in individual planes and encode the time-resolved velocity in one principal direction, typically oriented perpendicular to the two-dimensional (2D) section. This review describes recently developed advanced MRI flow techniques, which allow for more comprehensive evaluation of blood flow characteristics, such as real-time flow imaging, 2D multiple-venc phase contrast MRI, four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, quantification of complex haemodynamic properties, and highly accelerated flow imaging. Emerging techniques and novel applications are explored. In addition, applications of these new techniques for the improved evaluation of cardiovascular (aorta, pulmonary arteries, congenital heart disease, atrial fibrillation, coronary arteries) as well as cerebrovascular disease (intra-cranial arteries and veins) are presented. PMID:26944696

  14. The PRESTO technique for fMRI

    PubMed Central

    van Gelderen, P.; Duyn, J.H.; Ramsey, N.F.; Liu, G.; Moonen, C.T.W.

    2012-01-01

    In the early days of BOLD fMRI, the acquisition of T2* weighted data was greatly facilitated by rapid scan techniques such as EPI. The latter, however, was only available on a few MRI systems that were equipped with specialized hardware that allowed rapid switching of the imaging gradients. For this reason, soon after the invention of fMRI, the scan technique PRESTO was developed to make rapid T2* weighted scanning available on standard clinical scanning. This method combined echo shifting, which allows for echo times longer than the sequence repetition time, with acquisition of multiple k-space lines per excitation. These two concepts were combined in order to achieve a method fast enough for fMRI, while maintaining a sufficiently long echo time for optimal contrast. PRESTO has been primarily used for 3D scanning, which minimized the contribution of large vessels due to inflow effects. Although PRESTO is still being used today, its appeal has lessened somewhat due to increased gradient performance of modern MRI scanners. Compared to 2D EPI, PRESTO may have somewhat reduced temporal stability, which is a disadvantage for fMRI that may not outweigh the advantage of reduced inflow effects provided by 3D scanning. In this overview, the history of the development of the PRESTO is presented, followed by a qualitative comparison with EPI. PMID:22245350

  15. Gradient-Modulated PETRA MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Naoharu; Goerke, Ute; Wang, Luning; Ellermann, Jutta; Metzger, Gregory J.; Garwood, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Image blurring due to off-resonance and fast T2* signal decay is a common issue in radial ultrashort echo time MRI sequences. One solution is to use a higher readout bandwidth, but this may be impractical for some techniques like pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition (PETRA), which is a hybrid method of zero echo time and single point imaging techniques. Specifically, PETRA has severe specific absorption rate (SAR) and radiofrequency (RF) pulse peak power limitations when using higher bandwidths in human measurements. In this study, we introduce gradient modulation (GM) to PETRA to reduce image blurring artifacts while keeping SAR and RF peak power low. Tolerance of GM-PETRA to image blurring was evaluated in simulations and experiments by comparing with the conventional PETRA technique. We performed inner ear imaging of a healthy subject at 7T. GM-PETRA showed significantly less image blurring due to off-resonance and fast T2* signal decay compared to PETRA. In in vivo imaging, GM-PETRA nicely captured complex structures of the inner ear such as the cochlea and semicircular canals. Gradient modulation can improve the PETRA image quality and mitigate SAR and RF peak power limitations without special hardware modification in clinical scanners. PMID:26771005

  16. Coronary venous oximetry using MRI.

    PubMed

    Foltz, W D; Merchant, N; Downar, E; Stainsby, J A; Wright, G A

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Fick law, coronary venous blood oxygen measurements have value for assessing functional parameters such as the coronary flow reserve. At present, the application of this measure is restricted by its invasive nature. This report describes the design and testing of a noninvasive coronary venous blood oxygen measurement using MRI, with a preliminary focus on the coronary sinus. After design optimization including a four-coil phased array and an optimal set of data acquisition parameters, quality tests indicate measurement precision on the order of the gold standard optical measurement (3%O(2)). Comparative studies using catheter sampling suggest reasonable accuracy (3 subjects), with variability dominated by sampling location uncertainty ( approximately 7%O(2)). Intravenous dipyridamole (5 subjects) induces significant changes in sinus blood oxygenation (22 +/- 9% O(2)), corresponding to flow reserves of 1.8 +/- 0.4, suggesting the potential for clinical utility. Underestimation of flow reserve is dominated by right atrial mixing and the systemic effects of dipyridamole. Magn Reson Med 42:837-848, 1999. PMID:10542342

  17. MRI atlas of the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, W.G. ); Bydder, G. )

    1990-01-01

    Since most radiologists will start from a basic of familiarity with pathophysiology of disease and a knowledge of cross-sectional imaging (at least in the transaxial plane), they are in a good position to recognize and diagnose many of the abnormalities we can currently see with CT. The appearance of these lesions on MRI is the basis for the majority of the images in this book. Chapters on Tumors, Infarcts and Ischemia, Demyelination and Infection. Hydrocephalus, and Pediatrics feature multiple images displaying the MR appearance of many common lesions with minimal associated text. Instead of focusing on pathophysiology, attention is directed to the variable appearance of these disease states using various MR imaging techniques. Although the MR contrast agent, Gadolinium-DTPA, has similar behavior (physiologically) to meglumine diatrizoate in CT, the MR techniques which result in optimal visualization of enhancing lesions are nonintuitive and are discussed. Similarly, the appearance of flowing blood and CSF and hemorrhage does not follow easily from a pre-existing CT base, therefore additional text has been devoted to these subjects.

  18. A comparison of approximate interval estimators for the Bernoulli parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leemis, Lawrence; Trivedi, Kishor S.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to compare the accuracy of two approximate confidence interval estimators for the Bernoulli parameter p. The approximate confidence intervals are based on the normal and Poisson approximations to the binomial distribution. Charts are given to indicate which approximation is appropriate for certain sample sizes and point estimators.

  19. Reporting Confidence Intervals and Effect Sizes: Collecting the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Ozel, Z. Ebrar Yetkiner; Ozel, Serkan; Allen, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Confidence intervals (CIs) and effect sizes are essential to encourage meta-analytic thinking and to accumulate research findings. CIs provide a range of plausible values for population parameters with a degree of confidence that the parameter is in that particular interval. CIs also give information about how precise the estimates are. Comparison…

  20. Sample Size for the "Z" Test and Its Confidence Interval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaofeng Steven

    2012-01-01

    The statistical power of a significance test is closely related to the length of the confidence interval (i.e. estimate precision). In the case of a "Z" test, the length of the confidence interval can be expressed as a function of the statistical power. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  1. Magnitude Estimation Reveals Temporal Binding at Super-Second Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Gruffydd R.; Buehner, Marc J.

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies (e.g., Haggard, Aschersleben, Gehrke, & Prinz, 2002; Haggard & Clark, 2003; Haggard, Clark, & Kalogeras, 2002) have demonstrated a "Temporal Binding" effect in which the interval between an intentional action and its consequent outcome is subjectively shorter compared to equivalent intervals that do not involve intentional…

  2. 30 CFR 75.360 - Preshift examination at fixed intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preshift examination at fixed intervals. 75.360 Section 75.360 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.360 Preshift examination at fixed intervals. (a)(1) Except...

  3. Interval Estimation of Gamma for an "RxS" Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Cumberland, William G.

    2004-01-01

    When the underlying responses are on an ordinal scale, gamma is one of the most frequently used indices to measure the strength of association between two ordered variables. However, except for a brief mention on the use of the traditional interval estimator based on Wald's statistic, discussion of interval estimation of the gamma is limited.…

  4. Overconfidence in Interval Estimates: What Does Expertise Buy You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Craig R. M.; Liersch, Michael J.; Yaniv, Ilan

    2008-01-01

    People's 90% subjective confidence intervals typically contain the true value about 50% of the time, indicating extreme overconfidence. Previous results have been mixed regarding whether experts are as overconfident as novices. Experiment 1 examined interval estimates from information technology (IT) professionals and UC San Diego (UCSD) students…

  5. Bootstrapping Confidence Intervals for Robust Measures of Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jason E.

    A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted to determine the bootstrap correction formula yielding the most accurate confidence intervals for robust measures of association. Confidence intervals were generated via the percentile, adjusted, BC, and BC(a) bootstrap procedures and applied to the Winsorized, percentage bend, and Pearson correlation…

  6. Why Aren't They Called Probability Intervals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    This article offers suggestions for teaching confidence intervals, a fundamental statistical tool often misinterpreted by beginning students. A historical perspective presenting the interpretation given by their inventor is supported with examples and the use of technology. A method for determining confidence intervals for the seldom-discussed…

  7. Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes: Applying Bootstrap Resampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banjanovic, Erin S.; Osborne, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    Confidence intervals for effect sizes (CIES) provide readers with an estimate of the strength of a reported statistic as well as the relative precision of the point estimate. These statistics offer more information and context than null hypothesis statistic testing. Although confidence intervals have been recommended by scholars for many years,…

  8. Improved central confidence intervals for the ratio of Poisson means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousins, R. D.

    The problem of confidence intervals for the ratio of two unknown Poisson means was "solved" decades ago, but a closer examination reveals that the standard solution is far from optimal from the frequentist point of view. We construct a more powerful set of central confidence intervals, each of which is a (typically proper) subinterval of the corresponding standard interval. They also provide upper and lower confidence limits which are more restrictive than the standard limits. The construction follows Neyman's original prescription, though discreteness of the Poisson distribution and the presence of a nuisance parameter (one of the unknown means) lead to slightly conservative intervals. Philosophically, the issue of the appropriateness of the construction method is similar to the issue of conditioning on the margins in 2×2 contingency tables. From a frequentist point of view, the new set maintains (over) coverage of the unknown true value of the ratio of means at each stated confidence level, even though the new intervals are shorter than the old intervals by any measure (except for two cases where they are identical). As an example, when the number 2 is drawn from each Poisson population, the 90% CL central confidence interval on the ratio of means is (0.169, 5.196), rather than (0.108, 9.245). In the cited literature, such confidence intervals have applications in numerous branches of pure and applied science, including agriculture, wildlife studies, manufacturing, medicine, reliability theory, and elementary particle physics.

  9. Overestimation-free Computational Version of Interval Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elishakoff, Isaac; Miglis, Yohann

    2012-08-01

    In this study we propose a new version of interval analysis that is free of its main disadvantage, namely the overestimation. Interval variables are transformed into trigonometric functions with attendant analytical or numerical evaluation of extrema. Several examples are evaluated to shed light on the efficacy of the proposed methodology.

  10. A Note on Confidence Interval Estimation and Margin of Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Dennis; Melfi, Vince

    2010-01-01

    Confidence interval estimation is a fundamental technique in statistical inference. Margin of error is used to delimit the error in estimation. Dispelling misinterpretations that teachers and students give to these terms is important. In this note, we give examples of the confusion that can arise in regard to confidence interval estimation and…

  11. A 1-year Aspergillus terreus surveillance study at the University Hospital of Innsbruck: molecular typing of environmental and clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Blum, G; Perkhofer, S; Grif, K; Mayr, A; Kropshofer, G; Nachbaur, D; Kafka-Ritsch, R; Dierich, M P; Lass-Flörl, C

    2008-12-01

    Aspergillus terreus appears to have become an increasingly frequent cause of opportunistic infections in the University Hospital of Innsbruck (UHI) and is of serious concern because of in vivo and in vitro resistance to amphotericin B. In order to determine the possible relationship between environmental contamination by A. terreus and the occurrence of invasive aspergillosis, a 1-year prospective study (2004-2005) was carried out in the UHI. Isolates obtained from air samples of various high-risk settings and those from surveillance cultures of proven and probable aspergillosis (EORTC/MSG criteria) were examined by genotyping. Within 1 year, 34 and 15 A. terreus isolates were collected from the environment and from patients, respectively. Genotypic analysis with rapid amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR and the combination of three different primers (R108, CII, P4) revealed 46 distinct genotypic profiles (types 1-46). No strain similarity was detected among and within the patients and environmental areas, indicating a great genomic diversity in A. terreus, which is common in the environment of Innsbruck and a source of invasive infections in immunosuppressed patients. Genotypical diversity was found in clinical and environmental A. terreus isolates. PMID:19076844

  12. Bone Mineral Density at Diagnosis of Celiac Disease and after 1 Year of Gluten-Free Diet

    PubMed Central

    Pantaleoni, Stefano; Luchino, Massimo; Adriani, Alessandro; Pellicano, Rinaldo; Stradella, Davide; Ribaldone, Davide Giuseppe; Sapone, Nicoletta; Isaia, Gian Carlo; Di Stefano, Marco; Astegiano, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Atypical or silent celiac disease may go undiagnosed for many years and can frequently lead to loss of bone mineral density, with evolution to osteopenia or osteoporosis. The prevalence of the latter conditions, in case of new diagnosis of celiac disease, has been evaluated in many studies but, due to the variability of epidemiologic data and patient features, the results are contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 175 consecutive celiac patients at time of diagnosis (169 per-protocol, 23 males, 146 females; average age 38.9 years). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was repeated after 1 year of gluten-free diet in those with T-score value <−1 at diagnosis. Stratification of patients according to sex and age showed a higher prevalence of low bone mineral density in men older than 30 years and in women of all ages. A 1-year gluten-free diet led to a significant improvement in lumbar spine and femoral neck mean T-score value. We propose that dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry should be performed at diagnosis of celiac disease in all women and in male aged >30 years, taking into account each risk factor in single patients. PMID:25379519

  13. First experiences with the direct anterior approach in lateral decubitus position: learning curve and 1 year complication rate.

    PubMed

    Melman, Wietse P R; Mollen, Bas P; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Verheyen, Cees C P M

    2015-01-01

    The direct anterior approach (DAA) in supine position for hip arthroplasty has been reported to suffer from high complication rates initially. The DAA with the patient in lateral decubitus position is believed to provide better visibility and especially femoral accessibility with potential fewer complications.The first cohort of total hip prostheses, which were implanted by a single surgeon using DAA in lateral decubitus position more than 1 year ago, was analysed retrospectively.In total 182 hip prostheses (172 patients) were analysed. Three consecutive time periods based on equal number of surgical procedures were compared. The technical complication rate and operating time improved significantly between the 3 consecutive groups. The 1 year infection rate was 0.5% and survival rate of 98.9%.This is the first series of patients that were subjected to a hip replacement based on the direct anterior approach in a lateral decubitus position in which decreasing complication rates suggest the presence of a learning curve in surgeons conducting this type of surgery. Initial complication rate was high but decreased significantly in time and was acceptable certainly in the third group of our cohort. An unacceptable complication rate with the straight uncemented stem forced us to discontinue this configuration after only 7 surgical procedures. Complication, infection and revision rates were acceptable for the all cemented hip replacements using a curved anatomical stem. PMID:25684251

  14. Consecutive Case Series of Healed Single-Molar Sites Immediately Restored with Wide-Diameter Implants: A 1-Year Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cherfane, Pierre; Sojod, Bouchra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To evaluate outcomes of wide-diameter (6 mm) implants immediately provisionalized with cement-retained single crowns in posterior molar sites. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight consecutive patients received a total of 53 moderately rough-surface, 6 mm diameter implants in healed sites. All implants were immediately provisionalized with a cement-retained provisional crown. Final prosthesis with cement-retained porcelain fused to metal crowns was delivered 3–6 months later. Patients were followed up for 1 year. Outcome measures were implant failures and success rate, complications, marginal bone levels, bone level changes, papilla index, bleeding on probing, and inflammation. Results. One patient was lost to follow-up. At one year, the implant survival and success rate were 98.1%. The mean marginal bone loss after 1 year was −0.17 ± 1.84 mm. Ideal papilla score was recorded at 83.8% of the sites. More than 95.6% of the sites showed no bleeding or inflammation. No procedure-related or device-related adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Wide-diameter (6 mm) implants can safely and successfully replace single posterior molars. Longer follow-up studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term success of these implants. PMID:27195008

  15. Working Memory Deficit as a Risk Factor for Severe Apathy in Schizophrenia: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Raffard, Stéphane; Gutierrez, Laure-Anne; Yazbek, Hanan; Larue, Aurore; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Lançon, Christophe; Benoit, Michel; Faget, Catherine; Norton, Joanna; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2016-05-01

    Apathy, described as impaired motivation and goal-directed behavior, is a common yet often overlooked multidimensional psychopathological state in schizophrenia. Its underlying cognitive processes remain largely unexplored. Data was drawn from a longitudinal hospital study of patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia; 137 (82.5%) participated at the 1-month follow-up and 81 (59.1%) at the 1-year follow-up. Apathy was assessed with the Lille Apathy Rating Scale, validated in French and in schizophrenia. Severe apathy, overall (total score > -13) and on 4 previously identified distinct dimensions, was considered. Episodic verbal learning was assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test, executive functioning with the Trail Making Test, the Six Element Test and the Stop Signal Paradigm and working memory with the Letter-Number Sequencing Test. After controlling for confounding variables, only episodic verbal learning was associated with severe overall apathy in the cross-sectional study. At 1 year, working memory was associated with an increased risk of severe overall apathy, adjusting for baseline apathy. Using a dimensional approach to apathy, specific types of cognition were found to be associated with specific dimensions of apathy. Our findings confirm the need for a multidimensional approach of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Moreover, cognitive functioning could be a risk factor for developing severe apathy. Cognitive remediation may thus be a useful non-pharmacological intervention for treating apathy in schizophrenia patients. PMID:26834026

  16. Cognitive function, social functioning and quality of life in first-episode psychosis: A 1-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Popolo, Raffaele; Vinci, Giancarlo; Balbi, Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Abstract Objective. The majority of patients with schizophrenia have cognitive deficits early in the disease. We evaluated the relationship between cognitive function, social functioning and quality of life in patients with first-episode psychosis. Methods. This was a longitudinal study in 15 patients aged 18-30 years who had recently experienced a first psychotic episode and were treated with the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole, cognitive-behavioural therapy, psycho-educational sessions, family supportive sessions and social interventions. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year. Cognitive assessment included attention, memory, language skills and problem solving. Social functioning, quality of life, and psychopathological evaluation were performed with validated tools. Results. At baseline, patients had a severe impairment of social functioning and a low quality of life, while a specific pattern of cognitive functions was not identified. After 1-year, we observed a significant improvement in social functioning and quality of life, without a significant decrease in cognitive function. Conclusion. Contrary to previous findings, we found that social functioning and quality of life are related, but independent of cognitive impairment. The use of antipsychotic agents that do not interefere with cognitive function plus psychological assistance is a valuable treatment approach in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. PMID:24917230

  17. Bone mineral density at diagnosis of celiac disease and after 1 year of gluten-free diet.

    PubMed

    Pantaleoni, Stefano; Luchino, Massimo; Adriani, Alessandro; Pellicano, Rinaldo; Stradella, Davide; Ribaldone, Davide Giuseppe; Sapone, Nicoletta; Isaia, Gian Carlo; Di Stefano, Marco; Astegiano, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Atypical or silent celiac disease may go undiagnosed for many years and can frequently lead to loss of bone mineral density, with evolution to osteopenia or osteoporosis. The prevalence of the latter conditions, in case of new diagnosis of celiac disease, has been evaluated in many studies but, due to the variability of epidemiologic data and patient features, the results are contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 175 consecutive celiac patients at time of diagnosis (169 per-protocol, 23 males, 146 females; average age 38.9 years). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was repeated after 1 year of gluten-free diet in those with T-score value <-1 at diagnosis. Stratification of patients according to sex and age showed a higher prevalence of low bone mineral density in men older than 30 years and in women of all ages. A 1-year gluten-free diet led to a significant improvement in lumbar spine and femoral neck mean T-score value. We propose that dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry should be performed at diagnosis of celiac disease in all women and in male aged >30 years, taking into account each risk factor in single patients. PMID:25379519

  18. Self-management of chronic pain in Malaysian patients: effectiveness trial with 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Cardosa, Mary; Osman, Zubaidah Jamil; Nicholas, Michael; Tonkin, Lois; Williams, Amanda; Abd Aziz, Khuzaimah; Mohd Ali, Ramli; Dahari, Norhana Mohd

    2012-03-01

    Self-management of chronic illnesses has been widely recognised as an important goal on quality of life, health service utilisation and cost grounds. This study describes the first published account on the application of this approach to people suffering from chronic pain conditions in a Southeast Asian country, Malaysia. A heterogeneous sample of chronic pain patients in Malaysia attended a 2-week cognitive-behavioural pain management programme (PMP) aimed at improving daily functional activities and general psychological well-being. Complete datasets from 70 patients out of 102 patients who attended 11 programmes conducted from 2002 to 2007, as well as the 1-month and 1-year follow-up sessions at the hospital clinic, are reported. The pre- to post-treatment results on self-report measures indicate that significant gains were achieved on the dimensions of pain, disability and psychological well-being. These gains were maintained at both 1-month and 1-year follow-ups. The results mirror those reported from similar interventions in Europe and North America and indicate the concept of self-management of a chronic illness is acceptable and meaningful to Asian patients. Importantly, the achieved outcomes were independent of gender and ethnic group status. PMID:22448204

  19. Consecutive Case Series of Healed Single-Molar Sites Immediately Restored with Wide-Diameter Implants: A 1-Year Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Antoun, Hadi; Cherfane, Pierre; Sojod, Bouchra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To evaluate outcomes of wide-diameter (6 mm) implants immediately provisionalized with cement-retained single crowns in posterior molar sites. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight consecutive patients received a total of 53 moderately rough-surface, 6 mm diameter implants in healed sites. All implants were immediately provisionalized with a cement-retained provisional crown. Final prosthesis with cement-retained porcelain fused to metal crowns was delivered 3-6 months later. Patients were followed up for 1 year. Outcome measures were implant failures and success rate, complications, marginal bone levels, bone level changes, papilla index, bleeding on probing, and inflammation. Results. One patient was lost to follow-up. At one year, the implant survival and success rate were 98.1%. The mean marginal bone loss after 1 year was -0.17 ± 1.84 mm. Ideal papilla score was recorded at 83.8% of the sites. More than 95.6% of the sites showed no bleeding or inflammation. No procedure-related or device-related adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Wide-diameter (6 mm) implants can safely and successfully replace single posterior molars. Longer follow-up studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term success of these implants. PMID:27195008

  20. Trajectories of Depressive Symptomatology in Rural Memory Clinic Patients between Baseline Diagnosis and 1-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Kosteniuk, Julie G.; Morgan, Debra G.; O'Connell, Megan E.; Kirk, Andrew; Crossley, Margaret; Stewart, Norma J.; Karunanayake, Chandima P.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims To investigate the prevalence and trajectories of depressive symptomatology at 1-year follow-up, and the severity of depressive symptoms, by dementia diagnostic group, as well as to determine the predictors of depressive symptomatology at 1-year follow-up. Methods In rural and remote patients of an interdisciplinary memory clinic between 2004 and 2014, 144 patients diagnosed with no cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment, dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD), or non-AD dementia completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale to assess depressive symptomatology at both time points. Results Among patients with data at both time points, persistence of depressive symptomatology at follow-up occurred in 22.2%, remission in 17.4%, incidence in 13.2%, and absence in 47.2%. The prevalence of depressive symptomatology at baseline and persistence at follow-up were significantly greater in the NCI group than in the other diagnostic groups, but there were no differences in severity. Depressive symptomatology at follow-up was independently associated with depressive symptomatology, lower independence in activities of daily living, and lower self-rating of memory at baseline, as well as with decreased independence in activities of daily living between time points. Conclusion Future studies should further examine short-term postdiagnostic trajectories in depressive symptomatology in multiple dementia diagnostic groups to inform prognoses and treatment decisions. PMID:27350776