Science.gov

Sample records for 10-7 cm s-1

  1. Improved Statistical Model Of 10.7-cm Solar Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, John D.; Tabor, Jill L.

    1993-01-01

    Improved mathematical model simulates short-term fluctuations of flux of 10.7-cm-wavelength solar radiation during 91-day averaging period. Called "F10.7 flux", important as measure of solar activity and because it is highly correlated with ultraviolet radiation causing fluctuations in heating and density of upper atmosphere. F10.7 flux easily measureable at surface of Earth.

  2. On the Signature of Chaotic Dynamics in 10.7 cm Daily Solar Radio Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Oindrilla; Chatterjee, T. N.

    2015-11-01

    We examine the properties of the time-series of daily values of the 10.7-cm solar radio flux and sunspot-number activity indices, and their relative behavior. The analysis and the comparisons are based upon the estimation of the embedded dimension and the use of recurrence plots. The result shows higher-order chaos in 10.7-cm radio flux, and a similar but not identical chaotic nature in the sunspot number indicative of a change in the phase space of the Sun. Both data series show a stochastic behavior only during the rising and peak phase of Solar Cycle 23.

  3. The Cosmic Ray and the 10.7 cm flux variations during solar cycles 19-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Torres, J. E.; Luo, X.; Salazar, H.

    2014-10-01

    The cosmic ray flux (CRF) and 10.7 cm flux (F10.7) are studied for solar cycles 19-23. The cross-correlations show longer time-dependence at odd than at even cycles. A shift of the maximum at the histograms of CRF{^1}/F10.7{^1} (the ratios of normalized values), does not depend on the polarity of the cycle. The behavior of CRF{^1} vs F10.7{^1} differs for odd and even cycles and also for different cycle phases. We fitted an inverted CRF{^1} profile to the F10.7{^1} profile with a linear function. The F10.7{^1}/CRF{^{inv}} histogram differs for odd and even cycles. The results for sunspot number (SSN) are similar to F10.7 but differ for the F10.7{^1}/CRF{^{inv}} histograms. Summarizing, besides the differences between odd and even cycles, there occur variations at different phases of the cycles and also variations independent of the polarity of the cycle, the latter perhaps arising outside the heliosphere.

  4. Study of Cosmic Ray Flux Modulation by Solar Activity Based on the 10.7 cm Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Torres, Jose Eduardo

    Based on the relation between the Cosmic Ray Flux (CRF) and the radio flux at the 10.7 cm wavelength (F10.7), and also to the Sun Spot Number (SSN), an analysis of the CRF variations is done. Monitoring data of the 19-23 solar cycles is used. The cross-correlation between F10.7 and CRF is similar to that between SSN and CRF and, as in previous works, for odd cycles the correlation lasts longer than for even ones. The histograms of the CRF/ F10.7 ratio shows a maximum at low values whose location shifts from one cycle to other. This is a variation independent of the parity of the cycle that lasts for a time-scale close to half a century and that was not seen before. The relation between the inverted CRF amplitude and the F10.7 reveals a peculiar character of accumulating data around the unity for even cycles and at its sides for odd cycles. The comparison of CRF and F10.7 shows that, from one odd cycle to the next, the CRF has been decaying. This seems a long-term modulation of the odd cycles amplitude. The origin of these variations and the variations that do not depend on the cycle parity are not clear but we can not rule out the possibility of even a cause external to the Heliosphere.

  5. Centrifugal Pump for a 20-m/s, 1-cm-Diameter Mercury Jet

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Centrifugal Pump for a 20-m/s, 1-cm-Diameter Mercury Jet Ernst de Haas, Kirk T. McDonald Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (June 1, 2003) A free mercury jet of a Neutrino Factory.1 The mercury jet should be about 1 cm in diameter, with a velocity of 15-20 m/s (so

  6. The variability of solar EUV: A multiscale comparison between sunspot number, 10.7 cm flux, LASP MgII index, and SOHO/SEM EUV flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintoft, Peter

    2011-08-01

    The sunspot number (SSN), 10.7 cm radio flux (F10.7), MgII index, and SOHO/SEM EUV flux have been studied, using wavelet analysis, in order to describe how the first three parameters are related to EUV on scales of days to years. The wavelet transform decomposes the time series into series which captures variability on different temporal scales. The three proxies show weak correlation on time scales of days, thus they are of limited use in space weather when the day-to-day variability is considered. However, the underlying modulation due to the solar rotation and the solar activity cycle is so strong that there is a big influence on the daily values. Both F10.7 and MgII show a more persistent increase in correlation with scale than SSN and should be the preferred proxies. When a linear regression model is used for SEM/EUV the RMS error is about 26% lower, for the analysed period (1996-2010), for MgII compared to F10.7. However, when only the long term is considered (scale ?1.4 yr) the RMS error is 20% larger when MgII is used compared to F10.7. This is caused by an offset between MgII and SEM that appears around the cycle 23 maximum. This offset is not seen between F10.7 and SEM. For space weather purposes, although none of the studied proxies works on a daily basis, the MgII index performs the best, but for the longer time scales F10.7 is the most suitable.

  7. Changed Relation between Solar 10.7-cm Radio Flux and some Activity Indices which describe the Radiation at Different Altitudes of Atmosphere during Cycles 21-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruevich, E. A.; Bruevich, V. V.; Yakunina, G. V.

    2014-03-01

    The correlation coefficients of the linear regression of six solar indices versus 10.7 cm radio flux F 10.7 were analysed in solar cycles 21, 22 and 23. We also analysed the interconnection between these indices and F 10.7 with help of approximation by polynomials of second order. The indices we have studied in this paper are: the relative sunspot numbers - SSN, 530.3 nm coronal line flux - F 530, the total solar irradiance - TSI, Mg II 280 nm core-to-wing ratio UV-index, the Flare Index - FI and the counts of flares. In most cases the regressions of these solar indices vs. F 10.7 are close to the linear regression except the moments of time near the minimums and maximums of the 11-year activity. For the linear regressions, we found that correlation coefficients K corr( t) for the solar indices vs. F 10.7 and SSN dropped to their minimum values twice during each 11-year cycle.

  8. Attaining Doppler Precision of 10 cm s-1 with a Lock-in Amplified Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Muirhead, Philip S.; Bottom, Michael; Wallace, J. Kent; Vasisht, Gautam; Asher Johnson, John

    2015-11-01

    We explore the radial velocity performance benefits of coupling starlight to a fast-scanning interferometer and a fast-readout spectrometer with zero readout noise. By rapidly scanning an interferometer, we can decouple wavelength calibration errors from precise radial velocity measurements, exploiting the advantages of lock-in amplification. In a Bayesian framework, we investigate the correlation between wavelength calibration errors and resulting radial velocity errors. We construct an end-to-end simulation of this approach to address the feasibility of achieving 10 cm s-1 radial velocity precision on a typical Sun-like star using existing, 5 m-class telescopes. We find that such a precision can be reached in a single night, opening up possibilities for ground-based detections of Earth-Sun analog systems.

  9. Stabilizing a Fabry-Perot Etalon Peak to 3 cm s-1 for Spectrograph Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, C.; Stürmer, J.; Gurevich, Y. V.; Führer, T.; Lamoreaux, S. K.; Walther, T.; Quirrenbach, A.

    2015-10-01

    We present a method of frequency stabilizing a broadband etalon that can serve as a high-precision wavelength calibrator for an echelle spectrograph. Using a laser to probe the Doppler-free saturated absorption of the rubidium D2 line, we stabilize one etalon transmission peak directly to the rubidium frequency. The rubidium transition is an established frequency standard and has been used to lock lasers to fractional stabilities of < 10-12, a level of accuracy far exceeding the demands of radial velocity (RV) searches for exoplanets. The stabilized bandwidth depends on the dispersion characteristics of the etalon. We describe a simple setup designed specifically for use at an observatory and demonstrate that we can stabilize the etalon peak to a relative precision of < 10-10; this is equivalent to 3 cm s-1 RV precision.

  10. A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s(-1).

    PubMed

    Li, Chih-Hao; Benedick, Andrew J; Fendel, Peter; Glenday, Alexander G; Kärtner, Franz X; Phillips, David F; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald L

    2008-04-01

    Searches for extrasolar planets using the periodic Doppler shift of stellar spectral lines have recently achieved a precision of 60 cm s(-1) (ref. 1), which is sufficient to find a 5-Earth-mass planet in a Mercury-like orbit around a Sun-like star. To find a 1-Earth-mass planet in an Earth-like orbit, a precision of approximately 5 cm s(-1) is necessary. The combination of a laser frequency comb with a Fabry-Pérot filtering cavity has been suggested as a promising approach to achieve such Doppler shift resolution via improved spectrograph wavelength calibration, with recent encouraging results. Here we report the fabrication of such a filtered laser comb with up to 40-GHz (approximately 1-A) line spacing, generated from a 1-GHz repetition-rate source, without compromising long-term stability, reproducibility or spectral resolution. This wide-line-spacing comb, or 'astro-comb', is well matched to the resolving power of high-resolution astrophysical spectrographs. The astro-comb should allow a precision as high as 1 cm s(-1) in astronomical radial velocity measurements. PMID:18385734

  11. Widely bandgap tunable amorphous Cd-Ga-O oxide semiconductors exhibiting electron mobilities ?10 cm2 V-1 s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, Hiroshi; Sato, Chiyuki; Kimura, Yota; Suzuki, Issei; Omata, Takahisa; Kamiya, Toshio; Hosono, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    Amorphous oxide semiconductors exhibit large electron mobilities; however, their bandgaps are either too large for solar cells or too small for deep ultraviolet applications depending on the materials system. Herein, we demonstrate that amorphous Cd-Ga-O semiconductors display bandgaps covering the entire 2.5-4.3 eV region while maintaining large electron mobilities ?10 cm2 V-1 s-1. The band alignment diagram obtained by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and the bandgap values reveal that these semiconductors form type-II heterojunctions with p-type Cu2O, which is suitable for solar cells and solar-blind ultraviolet sensors.

  12. A laser-lock concept to reach cm s-1-precision in Doppler experiments with Fabry-Pérot wavelength calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiners, A.; Banyal, R. K.; Ulbrich, R. G.

    2014-09-01

    State-of-the-art Doppler experiments require wavelength calibration with precision at the cm s-1 level. A low-finesse Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) can provide a wavelength comb with a very large bandwidth as required for astronomical experiments, but unavoidable spectral drifts are difficult to control. Instead of actively controlling the FPI cavity, we propose to passively stabilize the interferometer and track the time-dependent cavity length drift externally using the 87Rb D2 atomic line. A dual-finesse cavity allows drift tracking during observation. In the low-finesse spectral range, the cavity provides a comb transmission spectrum tailored to the astronomical spectrograph. The drift of the cavity length is monitored in the high-finesse range relative to an external standard: a single narrow transmission peak is locked to an external cavity diode laser and compared to an atomic frequency from a Doppler-free transition. Following standard locking schemes, tracking at sub-mm s-1 precision can be achieved. This is several orders of magnitude better than currently planned high-precision Doppler experiments, and it allows freedom for relaxed designs including the use of a single-finesse interferometer under certain conditions. All components for the proposed setup are readily available, rendering this approach particularly interesting for upcoming Doppler experiments. We also show that the large number of interference modes used in an astronomical FPI allows us to unambiguously identify the interference mode of each FPI transmission peak defining its absolute wavelength solution. The accuracy reached in each resonance with the laser concept is then defined by the cavity length that is determined from the one locked peak and by the group velocity dispersion. The latter can vary by several 100 m s-1 over the relevant frequency range and severely limits the accuracy of individual peak locations, although their interference modes are known. A potential way to determine the absolute peak positions is to externally measure the frequency of each individual peak with a laser frequency comb (LFC). Thus, the concept of laser-locked FPIs may be useful for applying the absolute accuracy of an LFC to astronomical spectrographs without the need for an LFC at the observatory.

  13. A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s$^{-1}$

    E-print Network

    Chih-Hao Li; Andrew J. Benedick; Peter Fendel; Alexander G. Glenday; Franz X. Kaertner; David F. Phillips; Dimitar Sasselov; Andrew Szentgyorgyi; Ronald L. Walsworth

    2008-04-07

    Searches for extrasolar planets using the periodic Doppler shift of stellar spectral lines have recently achieved a precision of 60 cm/s (ref 1), which is sufficient to find a 5-Earth-mass planet in a Mercury-like orbit around a Sun-like star. To find a 1-Earth-mass planet in an Earthlike orbit, a precision of 5 cm/s is necessary. The combination of a laser frequency comb with a Fabry-Perot filtering cavity has been suggested as a promising approach to achieve such Doppler shift resolution via improved spectrograph wavelength calibration, with recent encouraging results. Here we report the fabrication of such a filtered laser comb with up to 40- GHz (1-A) line spacing, generated from a 1- GHz repetition-rate source, without compromising long-term stability, reproducibility or spectral resolution. This wide-line-spacing comb, or `astro-comb', is well matched to the resolving power of high-resolution astrophysical spectrographs. The astro-comb should allow a precision as high as 1 cm/s in astronomical radial velocity measurements.

  14. High Charge-Carrier Mobility of 2.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from a Water-Borne Colloid of a Polymeric Semiconductor via Smart Surfactant Engineering.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jangwhan; Cheon, Kwang Hee; Ahn, Hyungju; Park, Kwang Hun; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yun-Hi; Chung, Dae Sung

    2015-10-01

    Semiconducting polymer nanoparticles dispersed in water are synthesized by a novel method utilizing non-ionic surfactants. By developing a smart surfactant engineering technique involving a selective post-removal process of surfactants, an unprecedentedly high mobility of 2.51 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from a water-borne colloid is demonstrated for the first time. PMID:26288123

  15. Surfactant Engineering: High Charge-Carrier Mobility of 2.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from a Water-Borne Colloid of a Polymeric Semiconductor via Smart Surfactant Engineering (Adv. Mater. 37/2015).

    PubMed

    Cho, Jangwhan; Cheon, Kwang Hee; Ahn, Hyungju; Park, Kwang Hun; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yun-Hi; Chung, Dae Sung

    2015-10-01

    A novel method to fabricate water-born polymeric semiconductors with high charge carrier mobility is demonstrated by Y.-H. Kim, D. S. Chung, and co-workers on page 5587. They develop "smart" surfactant engineering, which enables very efficient removal of surfactant after film deposition from water-born colloids. This leads to recovery of interparticle charge-coupling and therefore high charge-carrier mobility up to 2.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) . PMID:26426727

  16. 44 CFR 10.7 - Planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS... § 10.7 Planning. (a) Early...ensure that planning decisions reflect environmental values, to...preliminary planning stages to ensure that all environmental factors...

  17. 44 CFR 10.7 - Planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS... § 10.7 Planning. (a) Early...ensure that planning decisions reflect environmental values, to...preliminary planning stages to ensure that all environmental factors...

  18. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  19. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7...REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant...to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship condition. (b) If the...

  20. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7...REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant...to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship condition. (b) If the...

  1. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7...REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant...to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship condition. (b) If the...

  2. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7...REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant...to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship condition. (b) If the...

  3. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7...REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant...to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship condition. (b) If the...

  4. 46 CFR 113.10-7 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Connection boxes. 113.10-7 Section 113.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-7 Connection boxes. Each connection box must be constructed in...

  5. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary...

  6. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel...

  7. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel...

  8. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical stores. 188.10-7 Section 188.10-7 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-7 Chemical stores. This term means those chemicals intended for use in the performance of the vessel's scientific activities and is further...

  9. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical stores. 188.10-7 Section 188.10-7 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-7 Chemical stores. This term means those chemicals intended for use in the performance of the vessel's scientific activities and is further...

  10. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical stores. 188.10-7 Section 188.10-7 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-7 Chemical stores. This term means those chemicals intended for use in the performance of the vessel's scientific activities and is further...

  11. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical stores. 188.10-7 Section 188.10-7 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-7 Chemical stores. This term means those chemicals intended for use in the performance of the vessel's scientific activities and is further...

  12. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical stores. 188.10-7 Section 188.10-7 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-7 Chemical stores. This term means those chemicals intended for use in the performance of the vessel's scientific activities and is further...

  13. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  14. 91 cm120 cm91 cm Wide corridor55 gallon

    E-print Network

    Borenstein, Johann

    for mobile robots traveling through the narrow aisles of a warehouse. In our application the aisles are 91 cm designed placement of ultrasonic sensors at strategic locations around the robot. Both the sensor location.g., for servoing) a sensor is located so that its accurate radial measurements provide the required data. I

  15. Coronal Sources of the Solar F$_{10.7}$ Radio Flux

    E-print Network

    Schonfeld, S J; Henney, C J; Arge, C N; McAteer, R T J

    2015-01-01

    We present results from the first solar full-disk F$_{10.7}$ (the radio flux at $10.7$ cm, $2.8$ GHz) image taken with the S-band receivers on the recently upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in order to assess the relationship between the F$_{10.7}$ index and solar extreme ultra-violet (EUV) emission. To identify the sources of the observed $2.8$ GHz emission, we calculate differential emission measures (DEMs) from EUV images collected by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and use them to predict the bremsstrahlung component of the radio emission. By comparing the bremsstrahlung prediction and radio observation we find that $8.1\\pm 0.5\\%$ of the variable component of the F$_{10.7}$ flux is associated with the gyroresonance emission mechanism. Additionally, we identify optical depth effects on the radio limb which may complicate the use of F$_{10.7}$ time series as an EUV proxy. Our analysis is consistent with a coronal iron abundance that is $4$ times the photospheric level.

  16. 46 CFR 113.10-7 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Connection boxes. 113.10-7 Section 113.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM... incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) requirements....

  17. 46 CFR 113.10-7 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Connection boxes. 113.10-7 Section 113.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM... incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) requirements....

  18. 46 CFR 113.10-7 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Connection boxes. 113.10-7 Section 113.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM... incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) requirements....

  19. 46 CFR 113.10-7 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Connection boxes. 113.10-7 Section 113.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM... incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) requirements....

  20. A 10.7 ?m InGaAs/InAlAs Quantum Cascade Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Ning; Liu, Jun-Qi; Li, Lu; Liu, Feng-Qi; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Zhan-Guo; Lu, Wei

    2010-12-01

    A 10.7?m quantum cascade detector based on lattice matched InGaAs/InAlAs/InP is demonstrated and characterized in terms of responsivity, resistivity and detectivity. The device operates in the 8-14 ?m atmospheric window up to 140K and shows a peak reponsivity of 14.4mA/W at 78K. With a resistance-area product value of 159?cm2, the Johnson noise limited detectivity D*J is 2.8 × 109 Jones (cmHz1/2 W-1) at 78K.

  1. 21-cm Intensity Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tzu-Ching; GBT-HIM team

    2016-01-01

    The redshifted 21-cm emission from neutral hydrogen has emerged as a powerful probe for large-scale structure; a significant fraction of the observable universe can be mapped in the Intensity Mapping regime out to high redshifts. At redshifts around unity, the 21-cm emission traces the matter distribution and can be used to measure the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) signature and constrain dark energy properties. I will describe our HI Intensity Mapping program at the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), aiming at measuring the 21cm power spectrum at z=0.8. A 800-MHz multi-beam focal-plane array for the GBT is currently under construction in order to facilitate a large-scale survey for BAO and the redshift-space distortion measurements for cosmological constraints.

  2. Accelerating the CM method

    E-print Network

    Sutherland, Andrew V

    2010-01-01

    Given a prime q and a negative discriminant D, the CM method constructs an elliptic curve E/F_q by obtaining a root of the Hilbert class polynomial H_D(X) modulo q. We consider an approach based on a decomposition of the ring class field defined by H_D, which we adapt to a CRT setting. This yields two algorithms, each of which obtains a root of H_D mod q without necessarily computing any of its coefficients. Heuristically, our approach uses asymptotically less time and space than the standard CM method for almost all D. The practical efficiency of the new algorithms is demonstrated using parameters |D| > 10^16 and q \\approx 2^256, and also |D| > 10^15 and q \\approx 2^33220.

  3. "atomicphysicsproof" --2003/10/7 --page 1 --#11 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

    E-print Network

    Budker, Dmitry

    "atomicphysicsproof" -- 2003/10/7 -- page 1 -- #11 1 ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1.1 Ground state. The study of atomic structure continues to be an exciting field, with increasingly precise measurements of phosphorus One of the most important topics in atomic physics is the description of atomic energy levels

  4. The Global S$_1$ Ocean Tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The small S$_1$ ocean tide is caused primarily by diurnal atmospheric pressure loading. Its excitation is therefore unlike any other diurnal tide. The global character of $S-1$ is here determined by numerical modeling and by analysis of Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. The two approaches yield reasonably consistent results, and large ( $ greater than $l\\cm) amplitudes in several regions are further confirmed by comparison with coastal tide gauges. Notwithstanding their excitation differences, S$-1$ and other diurnal tides are found to share several common features, such as relatively large amplitudes in the Arabian Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Gulf of Alaska. The most noticeable difference is the lack of an S$-1$ Antarctic Kelvin wave. These similarities and differences can be explained in terms of the coherences between near-diurnal oceanic normal modes and the underlying tidal forcings. While gravitational diurnal tidal forces excite primarily a 28-hour Antarctic-Pacific mode, the S$_1$ air tide excites several other near-diurnal modes, none of which has large amplitudes near Antarctica.

  5. 20 CFR 10.7 - What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA? 10.7 Section 10.7 Employees' Benefits OFFICE... § 10.7 What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA? (a) Notice of injury, claims and certain...

  6. 20 CFR 10.7 - What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA? 10.7 Section 10.7 Employees' Benefits OFFICE... § 10.7 What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA? (a) Notice of injury, claims and certain...

  7. 7S(1/2) ? 9S(1/2) two-photon spectroscopy of trapped francium.

    PubMed

    Simsarian, J E; Shi, W; Orozco, L A; Sprouse, G D; Zhao, W Z

    1996-12-01

    We report on the spectroscopic measurement of the (210)Fr 9S(1/2) energy obtained by two-photon excitation of atoms confined and cooled in a magneto-optic trap. The resonant intermediate level 7P(3/2) is the upper state of the trapping transition. We have measured the energy difference between the 9S(1/2) state and the 7S(1/2) ground state to be 25 671.021 +/- 0.006 cm(-1). PMID:19881852

  8. 10-19 s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhubl, P.; Laubach, S. E.; Hooker, J. N.; Fall, A.

    2009-12-01

    Long-term strain rates for geologic processes are characteristically in the range of 10-13 to 10-17 s-1 as measured by a variety of techniques, including geodetic techniques, radiometric dating of tectonic and structural processes, and through stratigraphic correlations. Subsidence processes have been measured with strain rates as low as 10-18 s-1. Here, we present strain rates for populations of opening-mode fractures in sandstone in deep basinal settings. Fracture strain is obtained by collecting aperture-frequency data for microfractures along scanlines in weakly to moderately deformed sandstone. Opening durations of macrofractures in the same population are then obtained through detailed microthermometry of fluid inclusions in crack-seal fracture cement, combined with textural reconstructions of the fracture opening history. Temperature data are then correlated with known burial history models to obtain the duration of fracture opening and the fracture opening strain rate. Fractures in deeply buried sandstone of the Rocky Mountain foreland basin indicate fracture opening over 8-10 m.y. with strain rates of 1x10-16 s-1. Fractures in the East Texas basin, a passive margin setting, opened over 48 m.y. with a strain rate of 5x10-19 s-1. Similar strain rates are obtained for the Piceance intermontane basin of Colorado. These ultraslow strain rates compare well to longterm intraplate seismic strain rates and are probably among the slowest rates measured for strain across geologic structures.

  9. Serpentine Nanotubes in CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zega, Thomas J.; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Dodony, Istvan; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    The CM chondrites are primitive meteorites that formed during the early solar system. Although they retain much of their original physical character, their matrices and fine-grained rims (FGRs) sustained aqueous alteration early in their histories [1- 3]. Serpentine-group minerals are abundant products of such alteration, and information regarding their structures, compositions, and spatial relationships is important for determining the reactions that produced them and the conditions under which they formed. Our recent work on FGRs and matrices of the CM chondrites has revealed new information on the structures and compositions of serpentine-group minerals [4,5] and has provided insights into the evolution of these primitive meteorites. Here we report on serpentine nanotubes from the Mighei and Murchison CM chondrites [6].

  10. Requirements for cosmological 21-cm masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Mark; Loeb, Abraham

    2008-08-01

    We perform Monte-Carlo calculations of the radiative transfer of Ly? photons emitted by a source embedded in a neutral collapsing gas cloud. This represents a young galaxy or quasar during the early stages of the epoch of reionisation (EoR). After computing the Ly? spectrum as function of radius and time, we find that the Ly? color temperature may be negative in large volumes surrounding the central source. Motivated by this result, we explore the prospects for a population inversion in the hyperfine levels of atomic hydrogen via the Wouthuysen-Field (WF) effect. The reason for this exploration is clear: if 21-cm masers exist during the EoR, they could greatly boost the expected 21-cm flux from this epoch. We find that population inversion is unlikely to occur for several reasons: (1) the required Ly? luminosities of the central source exceed ?1045 erg s-1. The radiation pressure exerted by such a large Ly? flux likely halts the collapse of the cloud; (2) when quantum corrections to the WF-coupling strength are applied, the required Ly? luminosities are (even) larger by orders of magnitude; (3) a relatively low flux of Ly? photons that is produced via other channels (X-ray heating, collisional excitation of hydrogen) prevents the Ly? color temperature from becoming negative.

  11. S1>=2 wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keay, Brian J.; Laflamme, Raymond

    1989-09-01

    We solve the Euclidean Einstein equations with three-index antisymmetric and two-index antisymmetric (electromagnetic) tensors for monopole configurations on a space with three-surfaces of topology S1×S2 and describe wormhole solutions. We show that these wormholes and the one of Giddings and Strominger, Hawking, Halliwell and Laflamme, and Myers can be obtained by slicing five-dimensional spaces with horizons.

  12. 5cm aperture dipole studies

    SciTech Connect

    McInturff, A.D.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Lundy, R.; Mantech, P.; Strait, J.

    1986-09-30

    The results obtained during the evolution of the design, construction, and testing program of the design ''B'' dipole are presented here. Design ''B'' is one of the original three competing designs for the Superconducting Super Collider ''SSC'' arc dipoles. The final design parameters were as follows: air cored (less than a few percent of the magnetic field derived from any iron present), aluminum collared, two layered winding, 5.5T maximum operating field, and a 5 cm cold aperture. There have been fourteen 64 cm long 5 cm aperture model dipoles cold tested (at 4.3K and less) in this program so far. There was a half length full size (6m) mechanical analog (M-10) built and tested to check the cryostat's mechanical design under ramping and quench conditions. Several deviations from the ''Tevatron'' dipole fabrication technique were incorporated, for example the use of aluminum collars instead of stainless steel. The winding technique variations explored were ''dry welding,'' a technique with the cable covered with Kapton insulation only and ''wet winding'' where the Kapton was covered with a light coat of ''B'' stage epoxy. Test data include quench currents, field quality (Fourier multipole co-efficients), coil magnetization, conductor current performance, and coil loading. Quench current, loss per cycle, and harmonics were measured as a function of the magnitude and rate of change of the magnetic field, and helium bath temperature.

  13. 41 CFR 301-10.7 - How should I route my travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false How should I route my travel? 301-10.7 Section...General § 301-10.7 How should I route my travel? You must travel to your destination by the usually traveled route unless your agency authorizes or...

  14. 15 cm mercury multipole thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhurst, G. R.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    A 15 cm multipole ion thruster was adapted for use with mercury propellant. During the optimization process three separable functions of magnetic fields within the discharge chamber were identified: (1) they define the region where the bulk of ionization takes place, (2) they influence the magnitudes and gradients in plasma properties in this region, and (3) they control impedance between the cathode and main discharge plasmas in hollow cathode thrusters. The mechanisms for these functions are discussed. Data from SERT II and cusped magnetic field thrusters are compared with those measured in the multipole thruster. The performance of this thruster is shown to be similar to that of the other two thrusters. Means of achieving further improvement in the performance of the multipole thruster are suggested.

  15. Observations of HI 21cm absorption by the neutral IGM during the epoch of re-ionization with the Square Kilometer Array

    E-print Network

    C. L. Carilli; N. Gnedin; S. Furlanetto; F. Owen

    2004-09-13

    We explore the possibility of detecting HI 21cm absorption by the neutral intergalactic medium (IGM) toward very high redshift radio sources, and by gas associated with the first collapsed structures, using the Square Kilometer Array at low frequency (100 to 200 MHz). The epoch considered is between the time when the first ionizing sources form and when the bulk of the neutral IGM becomes ionized. Expected IGM absorption signal includes $\\sim 1%$ absorption by the mean neutral IGM (the radio 'Gunn-Peterson' effect'), plus deeper, narrow lines ($\\ge 5%$, a few km s$^{-1}$) arising in mild density inhomogeneities with typical values of cosmic overdensity $\\delta\\sim 10$, precisely the structures that at later times give rise to the Ly$\\alpha$ forest (the `21cm forest'). Absorption can also arise in gas associated with collapsed structures ($\\delta\\ge 100$), including 'minihalos' ($\\le 10^7$ M$_\\odot$) and protodisks ($\\ge 10^8$ M$_\\odot$). We consider SKA sensitivity limits and the evolution of radio source populations, and conclude that it is reasonable to hypothesize the existence of an adequate number of high-$z$ radio sources against which such absorption studies could be performed, provided that reionization occurs at $z < 10$. Lastly, we discuss the possibility of `line confusion' due to radio recombination lines arising in the ionized IGM.

  16. Solar F10.7 radiation - A short term model for Space Station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, John D.; Tabor, Jill L.

    1991-01-01

    A new method is described for statistically modeling the F10.7 component of solar radiation for 91-day intervals. The resulting model represents this component of the solar flux as a quasi-exponentially correlated, Weibull distributed random variable, and thereby demonstrates excellent agreement with observed F10.7 data. Values of the F10.7 flux are widely used in models of the earth's upper atmosphere because of its high correlation with density fluctuations due to solar heating effects. Because of the direct relation between atmospheric density and drag, a realistic model of the short term fluctuation of the F10.7 flux is important for the design and operation of Space Station Freedom. The method of modeling this flux described in this report should therefore be useful for a variety of Space Station applications.

  17. S1P Control of Endothelial Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yuquan

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator produced by sphingolipid metabolism, promotes endothelial cell spreading, vascular maturation/stabilization, and barrier function. S1P is present at high concentrations in the circulatory system, whereas in tissues its levels are low. This so-called vascular S1P gradient is essential for S1P to regulate much physiological and pathophysiological progress such as the modulation of vascular permeability. Cellular sources of S1P in blood has only recently begun to be identified. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of S1P in regulating vascular integrity. In particular, we discuss the recent discovery of the endothelium-protective functions of HDL-bound S1P which is chaperoned by apolipoprotein M. PMID:24728594

  18. 77 FR 8877 - ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M) Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M) Committee... Staff, announces the following meeting. Name: ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M) Committee... attend the ICD- 9-CM C&M meeting on March 5, 2012, must submit their name and organization by February...

  19. CYP2S1: A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T. . E-mail: sirkku.saarikoski@ktl.fi; Rivera, Steven P.; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation.

  20. Safety assessment for the S-1 Spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R. Jr.; Stencel, J.R.

    1984-02-01

    The S-1 machine is part of the Magnetic Fusion Program. The goal of the Magnetic Fusion Program is to develop and demonstrate the practical application of fusion. S-1 is an experimental device which will provide an essential link in the research effort aiming at the realization of fusion power.

  1. Gas-Phase Oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ -- Thermodynamics of neutral and ionized CmO

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G.; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Marcalo, Joaquim

    2008-12-08

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm+ and Cm2+; parallel studies were carried out with La+/2+, Gd+/2+ and Lu+/2+. Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M+-O](M = Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO+ with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO+](M = Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electron-transfer reactions from neutrals to the MO2+ ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO]= 6.4+-0.2 eV; IE[CmO+]= 15.8+-0.4 eV; D[Cm-O]= 710+-45 kJ mol-1; D[Cm+-O]= 670+-40 kJ mol-1; and D[Cm2+-O]= 342+-55 kJ mol-1. Estimates for the M2+-O bond energies for M = Cm, La, Gd and Lu are all intermediate between D[N2-O]and D[OC-O]--i.e., 167 kJ mol-1< D[M2+-O]< 532 kJ mol-1 -- such that the four MO2+ ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic O-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO2+, LaO2+, GdO2+ and LuO2+ dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO2+ ion appeared during the reaction of Cm+ with O2 when the intermediate, CmO+, was not collisionally cooled -- although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO2+ is a stable species.

  2. Ray Tracing Notes CS445 Computer Graphics, Fall 2012 (last modified 10/7/12)

    E-print Network

    Ray Tracing Notes CS445 Computer Graphics, Fall 2012 (last modified 10/7/12) Jenny Orr, Willamette University 1 The Ray Trace Algorithm screen camera Light1 Light2 in shadow pixel refracted ray re ected ray Light3 ray light ray computed Figure 1 1 For each pixel in image { 2 compute ray 3 pixel_color = Trace(ray

  3. 10.7 Student ID Cards Page 1 of 2 Student ID Cards

    E-print Network

    Hung, I-Kuai

    10.7 Student ID Cards Page 1 of 2 Student ID Cards Original Implementation: Unpublished Last Revision: July 29, 2014 University student identification cards (IDs) are produced by the card services require the deposit of the ID card to use some resources. 8. Identification at the business office

  4. In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10 cm s-1

    E-print Network

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    universes," Astrophys. J. 499, L111­L114 (1998). 4. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical, T. W. Hansch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D'Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T femtosecond combs," Opt. Express 13, 882­888 (2005). 10. A. Schliesser, C. Gohle, T. Udem, and T. W. H¨ansch

  5. Hypothalamic S1P/S1PR1 axis controls energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vagner R R; Micheletti, Thayana O; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Katashima, Carlos K; Lenhare, Luciene; Morari, Joseane; Mendes, Maria Carolina S; Razolli, Daniela S; Rocha, Guilherme Z; de Souza, Claudio T; Ryu, Dongryeol; Prada, Patrícia O; Velloso, Lício A; Carvalheira, José B C; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Cintra, Dennys E; Ropelle, Eduardo R

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) that has a role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Here we show that the S1P/S1PR1 signalling pathway in hypothalamic neurons regulates energy homeostasis in rodents. We demonstrate that S1PR1 protein is highly enriched in hypothalamic POMC neurons of rats. Intracerebroventricular injections of the bioactive lipid, S1P, reduce food consumption and increase rat energy expenditure through persistent activation of STAT3 and the melanocortin system. Similarly, the selective disruption of hypothalamic S1PR1 increases food intake and reduces the respiratory exchange ratio. We further show that STAT3 controls S1PR1 expression in neurons via a positive feedback mechanism. Interestingly, several models of obesity and cancer anorexia display an imbalance of hypothalamic S1P/S1PR1/STAT3 axis, whereas pharmacological intervention ameliorates these phenotypes. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the neuronal S1P/S1PR1/STAT3 signalling axis plays a critical role in the control of energy homeostasis in rats. PMID:25255053

  6. Intersystem crossing rates of S1 state keto-amino cytosine at low excess energy.

    PubMed

    Lobsiger, Simon; Etinski, Mihajlo; Blaser, Susan; Frey, Hans-Martin; Marian, Christel; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-12-21

    The amino-keto tautomer of supersonic jet-cooled cytosine undergoes intersystem crossing (ISC) from the v = 0 and low-lying vibronic levels of its S1((1)??(?)) state. We investigate these ISC rates experimentally and theoretically as a function of S1 state vibrational excess energy Eexc. The S1 vibronic levels are pumped with a ?5 ns UV laser, the S1 and triplet state ion signals are separated by prompt or delayed ionization with a second UV laser pulse. After correcting the raw ISC yields for the relative S1 and T1 ionization cross sections, we obtain energy dependent ISC quantum yields QISC (corr)=1%-5%. These are combined with previously measured vibronic state-specific decay rates, giving ISC rates kISC = 0.4-1.5 ? 10(9) s(-1), the corresponding S1?S0 internal conversion (IC) rates are 30-100 times larger. Theoretical ISC rates are computed using SCS-CC2 methods, which predict rapid ISC from the S1; v = 0 state with kISC = 3 ? 10(9) s(-1) to the T1((3)??(?)) triplet state. The surprisingly high rate of this El Sayed-forbidden transition is caused by a substantial admixture of (1)nO?(?) character into the S1((1)??(?)) wave function at its non-planar minimum geometry. The combination of experiment and theory implies that (1) below Eexc = 550 cm(-1) in the S1 state, S1?S0 internal conversion dominates the nonradiative decay with kIC ? 2 ? 10(10) s(-1), (2) the calculated S1?T1 ((1)??(?)?(3)??(?)) ISC rate is in good agreement with experiment, (3) being El-Sayed forbidden, the S1?T1 ISC is moderately fast (kISC = 3 ? 10(9) s(-1)), and not ultrafast, as claimed by other calculations, and (4) at Eexc ? 550 cm(-1) the IC rate increases by ?50 times, probably by accessing the lowest conical intersection (the C5-twist CI) and thereby effectively switching off the ISC decay channels. PMID:26696056

  7. Inferring the Distances of Fast Radio Bursts Through 21-cm Absorption

    E-print Network

    Margalit, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The distances of Fast Radio Burst (FRB) sources are currently unknown. We show that the 21-cm absorption line of hydrogen can be used to infer the redshifts of FRB sources, and determine whether they are Galactic or extragalactic. We calculate a probability of $\\sim 10\\%$ for detecting a 21-cm equivalent width $\\gtrsim 4 ~\\mathrm{km}~\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$. The forthcoming SKA observatory provides ideal prospects for detecting our predicted signal.

  8. Astrophysics with the 60-cm telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zverko, J.

    2014-03-01

    Observational programs and selection from scientific results with the 60-cm telescope achieved at the Skalnaté Pleso Observatory since its putting into operation is reviewed: novae, eclipsing and interacting binaries, symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, chemically peculiar stars, comets. Possible targets among newly detected binaries are proposed for determining orbital parameters using the new spectrograph of the 60-cm telescope at the Stará Lesná Observatory.

  9. An empirical model of the extreme ultraviolet solar spectrum as a function of F10.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girazian, Z.; Withers, P.

    2015-08-01

    The F10.7 solar index is frequently used as a proxy for the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance. However, the relationship between F10.7 and the EUV spectrum has not been quantified in great detail for Solar Cycles 23 and 24. We use more than 2800 spectra (2003-2010) from the Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) to construct an empirical model of the EUV spectrum as a function of F10.7P = 1/2(F10.7+F10.7A) where F10.7A is the 81 day average. We compare our spectra to the HEUVAC model and find the HEUVAC soft X-ray irradiance is ˜65% larger than SEE during solar minimum and HEUVAC H Lymann continuum fluxes are ˜30% smaller. We derive power law relationships between F10.7P and the ionizing irradiance—the integrated flux within some EUV wavelength band—in units of energy flux (FE) and photon flux (FP) for five neutral species and show that the relationship between F10.7P and FE is more linear than that of FP and that the magnitude of FP and its solar cycle variation is species dependent. In addition, we derive power law relationships between F10.7P and the ionization frequencies of these species and confirm that F10.7P is a better EUV proxy than F10.7. Finally, we investigate the hardening of the spectrum and its consequences for the Venus, Earth, and Mars ionospheres; the ratio of the soft X-ray to EUV irradiance appropriate for Earth's E and F layers stayed constant during the prolonged solar minimum. Our results can elucidate ionospheric processes such as the saturation effect.

  10. Probing lepton asymmetry with 21 cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: oyamayo@post.kek.jp E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the issue of how accurately we can constrain the lepton number asymmetry ?{sub ?}=?{sub ?}/T{sub ?} in the Universe by using future observations of 21 cm line fluctuations and cosmic microwave background (CMB). We find that combinations of the 21 cm line and the CMB observations can constrain the lepton asymmetry better than big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Additionally, we also discuss constraints on ?{sub ?} in the presence of some extra radiation, and show that the 21 cm line observations can substantially improve the constraints obtained by CMB alone, and allow us to distinguish the effects of the lepton asymmetry from the ones of extra radiation.

  11. Winding Hopfions on R2×S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Michikazu; Nitta, Muneto

    2013-11-01

    We study Hopfions in the Faddeev-Skyrme model with potential terms on R2×S1. Apart from the conventional Hopfions, there exist winding Hopfions, that is, the lump (baby Skyrmion) strings with the lump charge Q with the U(1) modulus twisted P times along S1, having the Hopf charge PQ. We consider two kinds of potential terms, that is, the potential linear in the field and the ferromagnetic potential with two easy axes, and present stable solutions numerically. We also point out that a Q-lump carries the unit Hopf charge per the period in d=2+1.

  12. Mapmaking for precision 21 cm cosmology

    E-print Network

    Liu, Adrian

    In order to study the “Cosmic Dawn” and the Epoch of Reionization with 21 cm tomography, we need to statistically separate the cosmological signal from foregrounds known to be orders of magnitude brighter. Over the last ...

  13. Chilled Mirror Dew Point Hygrometer (CM) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2005-01-01

    The CM systems have been developed for the ARM Program to act as a moisture standard traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are three CM systems that are each fully portable, self-contained, and require only 110 V AC power. The systems include a CM sensor, air sampling and filtration system, a secondary reference (Rotronic HP043 temperature and relative humidity sensor) to detect system malfunctions, a data acquisition system, and data storage for more than one month of 1-minute data. The CM sensor directly measures dew point temperature at 1 m, air temperature at 2 m, and relative humidity at 2 m. These measurements are intended to represent self-standing data streams that can be used independently or in combinations.

  14. DIMENSIONS IN CM.1. QUALITY VERIFICATION

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    .00 1563.00 1943.00 201.68 NOTES DIMENSIONS IN CM.1. QUALITY VERIFICATION REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENTS MATERIAL MILL TEST REPORT LEAK TEST REPORT CLEANING CERT WELD / BRAZE INSPECTION REPORT HEAT TREAT REPORT

  15. Supplemental Data S1 Distinct Mechanisms Mediate

    E-print Network

    and luminance properties of the checkerboard images. Test spots were 2.1 3 0.8 ellipses (perspective projections. Test in- tensity, DI, was controlled by self-terminating, adaptable staircases [S1]. Four independent/context pair were repeated twice: For one of the sessions, the painted or shadowed diagonal was on the negative

  16. PMMA Cementoplasty in Symptomatic Metastatic Lesions of the S1 Vertebral Body

    SciTech Connect

    Dehdashti, Amir R.; Martin, Jean-Baptiste; Jean, Beatrix; Ruefenacht, Daniel A.

    2000-03-15

    We describe a lateral transiliac direct puncture approach to the S1 vertebral body for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cementoplasty of painful metastatic lesions. This approach was performed using a 15-cm-long trocar needle with 3-mm outer diameter, introduced under general anesthesia and fluoroscopic control. A lateral projection was used to center the needle just in front of the spinal canal and subjacent to the superior plate of the S1 vertebral body. Needle progression was controlled using anteroposterior and lateral fluoroscopic projections alternately with a needle course parallel to an axial plane, avoiding conflict with the S1 foramen. After needle tip placement in the center of the S1 vertebral body, diluted PMMA with a setting time of 8 min was delivered. Ipsilateral lesions of the lateral sacral compartment were filled with the same needle by stepwise withdrawal and continuous PMMA injection.

  17. Raman spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll a in the S1 state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Ei-ichi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Koyama, Yasushi

    1991-07-01

    The S 1 Raman spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll a is reported for the first time. A one-color experiment using the 351 nm picosecond pulses (duration 50 ps and repetition 1 kHz) for tetrahydrofuran solution detected a transient species, which showed distinct Raman lines at 1567, 1409 and 1320 cm -1 and weak profiles around 1169, 1092, 1051 and 794 cm -1. The other one-color experiment using the 355 nm nanosecond pulses (duration 12 ns and repetition 10 Hz) detected the T 1 species reported previously showing Raman lines at 1578 and 1330 cm -1. Thus, the newly identified transient species, which was pumped and probed within 50 ps, is assigned to S 1.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamics of the 10.7 hr Magnetic Periodicities in Saturn's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southwood, D. J.

    2013-09-01

    The observed features of the global 10.7 hour period magnetic signals of the Saturn system are analysed using the reasonable guiding hypothesis that the phenomena are magnetohydrodynamic in origin. In uniform plasma shear and compressional waves are separated. Inhomogeneity causes the coupling of the shear and compressional plasma motion but because of the anisotropy of the magnetic stress, it is still important to analyse compressional and shear effects independently and then allow for coupling. Three regimes can be defined where behavior of fields is very different. These are the flux tubes that are permanently closed and those that are permanently open (polar cap) and the open-closed boundary regime between these regions, where field lines open and sporadically (and periodically) release trapped material into interplanetary space. A central question to deriving a global picture is the manner in which the 10.7 hour signals connect across the interfaces between regimes. Globally the model we deduce predicts fields and plasma behavior largely indistinguishable from the recent global computations of Jia et al.[1] However there are limitations to the detail that any computation can reproduce. Moreover, we show that the source vortices introduced in the computations arise as a natural feature of the Saturn plasma environment.

  19. Characterization of 8-cm engineering model thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    Development of 8 cm ion thruster technology which was conducted in support of the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) flight contract (Contract NAS3-21055) is discussed. The work included characterization of thruster performance, stability, and control; a study of the effects of cathode aging; environmental qualification testing; and cyclic lifetesting of especially critical thruster components.

  20. Energy levels for Cm-240 (Curium-240)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of Subvolume C `Tables of Excitations of Proton- and Neutron-rich Unstable Nuclei' of Volume 19 `Nuclear States from Charged Particle Reactions' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides energy levels for atomic nuclei of the isotope Cm-240 (curium, atomic number Z = 96, mass number A = 240).

  1. Energy levels for Cm-238 (Curium-238)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of Subvolume C `Tables of Excitations of Proton- and Neutron-rich Unstable Nuclei' of Volume 19 `Nuclear States from Charged Particle Reactions' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides energy levels for atomic nuclei of the isotope Cm-238 (curium, atomic number Z = 96, mass number A = 238).

  2. Energy levels for Cm-241 (Curium-241)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of Subvolume C `Tables of Excitations of Proton- and Neutron-rich Unstable Nuclei' of Volume 19 `Nuclear States from Charged Particle Reactions' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides energy levels for atomic nuclei of the isotope Cm-241 (curium, atomic number Z = 96, mass number A = 241).

  3. The Intrinsic Size of Sagittarius A* from 0.35 cm to 6 cm

    E-print Network

    Geoffrey C. Bower; W. M. Goss; Heino Falcke; Donald C. Backer; Yoram Lithwick

    2006-07-31

    We present new high-resolution observations of Sagittarius A* at wavelengths of 17.4 to 23.8 cm with the Very Large Array in A configuration with the Pie Town Very Long Baseline Array antenna. We use the measured sizes to calibrate the interstellar scattering law and find that the major axis size of the scattering law is smaller by ~6% than previous estimates. Using the new scattering law, we are able to determine the intrinsic size of Sgr A* at wavelengths from 0.35 cm to 6 cm using existing results from the VLBA. The new law increases the intrinsic size at 0.7 cm by ~20% and <5% at 0.35 cm. The intrinsic size is 13^{+7}_{-3} Schwarzschild radii at 0.35 cm and is proportional to lambda^gamma, where gamma is in the range 1.3 to 1.7.

  4. 43 CFR 10.7 - Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony. [Reserved] 10.7 Section...Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony From Federal or Tribal Lands...objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony....

  5. 43 CFR 10.7 - Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony. [Reserved] 10.7 Section...Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony From Federal or Tribal Lands...objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony....

  6. 43 CFR 10.7 - Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony. [Reserved] 10.7 Section...Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony From Federal or Tribal Lands...objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony....

  7. 43 CFR 10.7 - Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony. [Reserved] 10.7 Section...Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony From Federal or Tribal Lands...objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony....

  8. 43 CFR 10.7 - Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony. [Reserved] 10.7 Section...Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony From Federal or Tribal Lands...objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony....

  9. Square Root Algorithm in Fq for q 2s + 1 (mod 2s+1

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Square Root Algorithm in Fq for q 2s + 1 (mod 2s+1 ) Namhun Koo, Gook Hwa Cho, and Soonhak Kwon al- gorithm [6] for q 5 (mod 8) and Kong et al.'s algorithm [8] for q 9 (mod 16). Our algorithm. One such example is a square root of c in Fq with q 3 (mod 4). That is, when c is a quadratic residue

  10. Negative infrared photoconductivity in CdS1-xSex films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdinov, A. S.; Jafarov, M. A.; Mamedov, H. M.; Nasirov, E. F.

    2003-09-01

    The negative infrared photoconductivity (NPH) has been observed for the first time in CdS1-xSex films, in the wavelength region of 0.700 - 1.23 ?m. at values of stimulating light intensity ? = 100 - 400 Lk. electrical field E = 0.5 - 130 V/cm and temperature T = 265 - 310 ?. It is established, that basic laws of NPH explains on the basis of two-barrier model and in the considered conditions a charge carriers, overcome a barrier by tunneling. A films of CdS1-xSex can be used in IR engineering and negatronics.

  11. Extended Performance 8-cm Mercury Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    A slightly modified 8-cm Hg ion thruster demonstrated significant increase in performance. Thrust was increased by almost a factor of five over that of the baseline thruster. Thruster operation with various three grid ion optics configurations; thruster performance as a function of accelerator grid open area, cathode baffle, and cathode orifice size; and a life test of 614 hours at a beam current of 250 mA (17.5 mN thrust) are discussed. Highest thruster efficiency was obtained with the smallest open area accelerator grid. The benefits in efficiency from the low neutral loss grids were mitigated, however, by the limitation such grids place on attainable ion beam current densities. The thruster components suffered negligible weight losses during a life test, which indicated that operation of the 8-cm thruster at extended levels of thrust and power is possible with no significant loss of lifetime.

  12. Spectral investigations of CM Draconis - new results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, M. K.; Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pinfield, D. J.

    2012-03-01

    CM Draconis is spectroscopic and eclipsing binary system that consists of two nearly identical M dwarfs. The masses and radii for the components are known with high accuracy. The period of the system is P = 1.268 day. In the course of this work we used 29 medium resolution (R=47,000) echelle spectra of CM Dra which were obtained at several different orbital phases at the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. We calculated synthetic spectra for a region of Na I 8185 Å, Na I 8197 Å and Rb I 7818 Å lines and fitted the spectra for all of the orbital phases. We refined the effective temperature and metallicity of the system components, using similarity function (S function) of the observed and synthetic spectra for different phases.

  13. The Tianlai 21cm intensity mapping experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuelei

    2015-08-01

    The Tianlai 21cm intensity mapping experiment is aimed at surveying the northern sky 21cm intensity at mid-redshifts, thus map out the neutral hydrogen distribution. The experiment is named "Tianlai" which means "heavenly sound" in classic Chinese, because its ultimate goal is to use the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in the correlation function or power spectrum of large scale structure to constrain the cosmic expansion rate, and determine the nature of dark energy.The pathfinder experiment consists three cylinder reflectors of 15m wide x 40m long, and 16 dishes of 6 meter aperture, for testing the basic principle and key technologies. A radio-quiet site in Hongliuxia, Xinjiang of north-west China is selected, currently the facilities are under construction, and the prototype is expected to start commissioning later this year. The experiment is run by NAOC, with members from France, USA and Canada.

  14. Polyhedral Serpentine Grains in CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zega, Thomas J.; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Dodony, Istvan; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    CM chondrites are primitive rocks that experienced aqueous alteration in the early solar system. Their matrices and fine-grained rims (FGRs) sustained the effects of alteration, and the minerals within them hold clues to the aqueous reactions. Sheet silicates are an important product of alteration, and those of the serpentine group are abundant in the CM2 chondrites. Here we expand on our previous efforts to characterize the structure and chemistry of serpentines in CM chondrites and report results on a polyhedral form that is structurally similar to polygonal serpentine. Polygonal serpentine consists of tetrahedral (T) sheets joined to M(2+)-centered octahedral (O) sheets (where (M2+) is primarily Mg(2+) and Fe(2+)), which give rise to a 1:1 (TO) layered structure with a 0.7-nm layer periodicity. The structure is similar to chrysotile in that it consists of concentric lizardite layers wrapped around the fiber axis. However, unlike the rolled-up chrysotile, the tetrahedral sheets of the lizardite layers are periodically inverted and kinked, producing sectors. The relative angles between sectors result in 15- and 30-sided polygons in terrestrial samples.

  15. Constraining dark matter through 21-cm observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, M.; Ferrara, A.; Mapelli, M.; Ripamonti, E.

    2007-05-01

    Beyond reionization epoch cosmic hydrogen is neutral and can be directly observed through its 21-cm line signal. If dark matter (DM) decays or annihilates, the corresponding energy input affects the hydrogen kinetic temperature and ionized fraction, and contributes to the Ly? background. The changes induced by these processes on the 21-cm signal can then be used to constrain the proposed DM candidates, among which we select the three most popular ones: (i) 25-keV decaying sterile neutrinos, (ii) 10-MeV decaying light dark matter (LDM) and (iii) 10-MeV annihilating LDM. Although we find that the DM effects are considerably smaller than found by previous studies (due to a more physical description of the energy transfer from DM to the gas), we conclude that combined observations of the 21-cm background and of its gradient should be able to put constrains at least on LDM candidates. In fact, LDM decays (annihilations) induce differential brightness temperature variations with respect to the non-decaying/annihilating DM case up to ??Tb = 8 (22) mK at about 50 (15) MHz. In principle, this signal could be detected both by current single-dish radio telescopes and future facilities as Low Frequency Array; however, this assumes that ionospheric, interference and foreground issues can be properly taken care of.

  16. ICD-10 to ICD-10-CM Based on FY2014 ICD-10-CM codes

    Cancer.gov

    ICD-10 to ICD-10-CM Based on FY2014 ICD-10-CM codes REPORTABLE NEOPLASMS Category and subcategory codes are shaded in grey and marked with an ^ Cells shaded in pink and marked with an *indicate the preferred code when a single code maps to multiple codes

  17. ICD-10 to ICD-9-CM Based on FY2014 ICD-9-CM codes

    Cancer.gov

    ICD-10 to ICD-9-CM Based on FY2014 ICD-9-CM codes REPORTABLE NEOPLASMS Category and subcategory codes are shaded in grey and marked with an ^ Cells shaded in pink and marked with an *indicate the preferred code when a single code maps to multiple codes

  18. ICD-10-CM to ICD-10 Based on FY2014 ICD-10-CM codes

    Cancer.gov

    ICD-10-CM to ICD-10 Based on FY2014 ICD-10-CM codes REPORTABLE NEOPLASMS Category and subcategory codes are shaded in grey and marked with an ^ Cells shaded in pink and marked with an *indicate the preferred code when a single code maps to multiple codes

  19. An Absolute Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Temperature at 10.7 GHz

    E-print Network

    S. T. Staggs; N. C. Jarosik; S. S. Meyer; D. T. Wilkinson

    1996-09-19

    A balloon-borne experiment has measured the absolute temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) at 10.7 GHz to be Tcmbr = 2.730 +- .014 K. The error is the quadratic sum of several systematic errors, with statistical error of less than 0.1 mK. The instrument comprises a cooled corrugated horn antenna coupled to a total-power radiometer. A cryogenic mechanical waveguide switch alternately connects the radiometer to the horn and to an internal reference load. The small measured temperature difference (radiation from the ground and the balloon. In-flight tests constrain the magnitude of ground radiation contamination, and low level interference is monitored through observations in several narrow frequency bands.

  20. Detailed modelling of the 21-cm forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelin, B.

    2016-01-01

    The 21-cm forest is a promising probe of the Epoch of Reionization. The local state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is encoded in the spectrum of a background source (radio-loud quasars or gamma-ray burst afterglow) by absorption at the local 21-cm wavelength, resulting in a continuous and fluctuating absorption level. Small-scale structures (filaments and minihaloes) in the IGM are responsible for the strongest absorption features. The absorption can also be modulated on large scales by inhomogeneous heating and Wouthuysen-Field coupling. We present the results from a simulation that attempts to preserve the cosmological environment while resolving some of the small-scale structures (a few kpc resolution in a 50 h-1 Mpc box). The simulation couples the dynamics and the ionizing radiative transfer and includes X-ray and Lyman lines radiative transfer for a detailed physical modelling. As a result we find that soft X-ray self-shielding, Ly ? self-shielding and shock heating all have an impact on the predicted values of the 21-cm optical depth of moderately overdense structures like filaments. A correct treatment of the peculiar velocities is also critical. Modelling these processes seems necessary for accurate predictions and can be done only at high enough resolution. As a result, based on our fiducial model, we estimate that LOFAR should be able to detect a few (strong) absorptions features in a frequency range of a few tens of MHz for a 20 mJy source located at z = 10, while the SKA would extract a large fraction of the absorption information for the same source.

  1. An engineering model 30 cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; King, H. J.; Schnelker, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    Thruster development at Hughes Research Laboratories and NASA Lewis Research Center has brought the 30-cm mercury bombardment ion thruster to the state of an engineering model. This thruster has been designed to have sufficient internal strength for direct mounting on gimbals, to weigh 7.3 kg, to operate with a corrected overall efficiency of 71%, and to have 10,000 hours lifetime. Subassemblies, such as the ion optical system, isolators, etc., have been upgraded to meet launch qualification standards. This paper presents a summary of the design specifications and performance characteristics which define the interface between the thruster module and the remainder of the propulsion system.

  2. Fuel elements of research reactor CM

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, A.V.; Morozov, A.V.; Vatulin, A.V.; Ershov, S.A.

    2013-07-01

    In 1961 the CM research reactor was commissioned at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (Dimitrovgrad, Russia), it was intended to carry on investigations and the production of transuranium nuclides. The reactor is of a tank type. Original fuel assembly contained plate fuels that were spaced with vanes and corrugated bands. Nickel was used as a cladding material, fuel meat was produced from UO{sub 2} + electrolytic nickel composition. Fuel plates have been replaced by self-spacing cross-shaped dispersion fuels clad in stainless steel. In 2005 the reactor was updated. The purpose of this updating was to increase the quantity of irradiation channels in the reactor core and to improve the neutron balance. The updating was implemented at the expense of 20 % reduction in the quantity of fuel elements in the core which released a space for extra channels and decreased the mass of structural materials in the core. The updated reactor is loaded with modified standard fuel elements with 20 % higher uranium masses. At the same time stainless steel in fuel assembly shrouds was substituted by zirconium alloy. Today in progress are investigations and work to promote the second stage of reactor updating that involve developments of cross-shaped fuel elements having low neutron absorption matrix materials. This article gives an historical account of the design and main technical changes that occurred for the CM reactor since its commissioning.

  3. Detailed modelling of the 21-cm Forest

    E-print Network

    Semelin, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    The 21-cm forest is a promising probe of the Epoch of Reionization. The local state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is encoded in the spectrum of a background source (radio-loud quasars or gamma ray burst afterglow) by absorption at the local 21-cm wavelength, resulting in a continuous and fluctuating absorption level. Small-scale structures (filaments and minihaloes) in the IGM are responsible for the strongest absorption features. The absorption can also be modulated on large scales by inhomogeneous heating and Wouthuysen-Field coupling. We present the results from a simulation that attempts to preserve the cosmological environment while resolving some of the small-scale structures (a few kpc resolution in a 50 Mpc/h box). The simulation couples the dynamics and the ionizing radiative transfer and includes X-ray and Lyman lines radiative transfer for a detailed physical modelling. As a result we find that soft X-ray self-shielding, Lyman-alpha self-shielding and shock heating all have an impact on the pre...

  4. THE METALLICITY OF THE CM DRACONIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Fleming, Scott W.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Deshpande, Rohit; Bender, Chad F.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Feiden, Gregory A.

    2012-11-20

    The CM Draconis system comprises two eclipsing mid-M dwarfs of nearly equal mass in a 1.27 day orbit. This well-studied eclipsing binary has often been used for benchmark tests of stellar models, since its components are among the lowest mass stars with well-measured masses and radii ({approx}< 1% relative precision). However, as with many other low-mass stars, non-magnetic models have been unable to match the observed radii and effective temperatures for CM Dra at the 5%-10% level. To date, the uncertain metallicity of the system has complicated comparison of theoretical isochrones with observations. In this Letter, we use data from the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility to measure the metallicity of the system during primary and secondary eclipses, as well as out of eclipse, based on an empirical metallicity calibration in the H and K near-infrared (NIR) bands. We derive an [Fe/H] = -0.30 {+-} 0.12 that is consistent across all orbital phases. The determination of [Fe/H] for this system constrains a key dimension of parameter space when attempting to reconcile model isochrone predictions and observations.

  5. Exogenous S1P Exposure Potentiates Ischemic Stroke Damage That Is Reduced Possibly by Inhibiting S1P Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eunjung; Han, Jeong Eun; Jeon, Sejin; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Choi, Ji Woong; Chun, Jerold

    2015-01-01

    Initial and recurrent stroke produces central nervous system (CNS) damage, involving neuroinflammation. Receptor-mediated S1P signaling can influence neuroinflammation and has been implicated in cerebral ischemia through effects on the immune system. However, S1P-mediated events also occur within the brain itself where its roles during stroke have been less well studied. Here we investigated the involvement of S1P signaling in initial and recurrent stroke by using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (M/R) model combined with analyses of S1P signaling. Gene expression for S1P receptors and involved enzymes was altered during M/R, supporting changes in S1P signaling. Direct S1P microinjection into the normal CNS induced neuroglial activation, implicating S1P-initiated neuroinflammatory responses that resembled CNS changes seen during initial M/R challenge. Moreover, S1P microinjection combined with M/R potentiated brain damage, approximating a model for recurrent stroke dependent on S1P and suggesting that reduction in S1P signaling could ameliorate stroke damage. Delivery of FTY720 that removes S1P signaling with chronic exposure reduced damage in both initial and S1P-potentiated M/R-challenged brain, while reducing stroke markers like TNF-?. These results implicate direct S1P CNS signaling in the etiology of initial and recurrent stroke that can be therapeutically accessed by S1P modulators acting within the brain. PMID:26576074

  6. Investigations on Important Properties of the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM Prototype

    E-print Network

    Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Kulasri, Kittipong; Ritthirong, Anawat

    2015-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is one of promising particle and radiation detectors that has been improved greatly from previous gas detectors. The improvement includes better spatial resolutions, higher detection rate capabilities, and flexibilities in designs. In particular, the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM prototype is designed and provided by the Gas Detectors Development group (GDD) at CERN, Switzerland. With its simplicity in operations and designs, while still maintaining high qualities, the GEM prototype is suitable for both start-up and advanced researches. This article aims to report the investigations on some important properties of the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM detector using current measurement and signal counting. Results have shown that gains of the GEM prototype exponentially increase as voltage supplied to the detector increases, while the detector reaches full efficiency (plateau region) when the voltage is greater than 4100 V. In terms of signal sharing between X and Y strips of the readout, X str...

  7. ?-ray performance of a 1242 cm 3 LaCl 3:Ce scintillation spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Alan; Bos, A. J. J.; Brandenburg, S.; Dathy, C.; Dorenbos, P.; Kraft, S.; Ostendorf, R. W.; Ouspenski, V.; Quarati, F.

    2007-04-01

    We present the results of ?-ray measurements on a large 4?×6? LaCl 3:Ce crystal, characterized using radioactive sources over the range 14-3220 keV. The response of the crystal was found to be largely linear over the upper 90% of its dynamic range—the deviations at lower energies can be attributed to the shortcomings of the photomultiplier tube (PMT) and is in fact a generic problem when using high-gain PMTs with lanthanum halide scintillators. At 662 keV, a measured energy resolution of 4.1% FWHM was recorded at room temperature. In comparison to earlier generations of LaCl 3 detectors, the internal background spectrum shows significantly less X-ray, ?, ?-ray and ? contamination. The integral background count rate in the energy region 20 keV-3 MeV was determined to be 1.8 cm -3 s -1, of which most (1.5 cm -3 s -1) can be attributed to the ? continuum from 138La and only ˜0.04 cm -3 s -1 to the ? complex from 227Ac and daughters. Using these data, we have determined the light output of ? particles relative to the equivalent energy electrons (or alternately ?-rays) to be, ?/ ?=0.35±0.02.

  8. WILL COMET ISON (C/2012 S1) SURVIVE PERIHELION?

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Matthew M.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2013-10-10

    On 2013 November 28 Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) will pass by the Sun with a perihelion distance of 2.7 solar radii. Understanding the possible outcomes for the comet's response to such a close passage by the Sun is important for planning observational campaigns and for inferring ISON's physical properties. We present new numerical simulations and interpret them in context with the historical track record of comet disruptions and of sungrazing comet behavior. Historical data suggest that sizes below ?200 m are susceptible to destruction by sublimation driven mass loss, while we find that for ISON's perihelion distance, densities lower than 0.1 g cm{sup –3} are required to tidally disrupt a retrograde or non-spinning body. Such low densities are substantially below the range of the best-determined comet nucleus densities, though dynamically new comets such as ISON have few measurements of physical properties. Disruption may occur for prograde rotation at densities up to 0.7 g cm{sup –3}, with the chances of disruption increasing for lower density, faster prograde rotation, and increasing elongation of the nucleus. Given current constraints on ISON's nucleus properties and the typically determined values for these properties among all comets, we find tidal disruption to be unlikely unless other factors (e.g., spin-up via torquing) affect ISON substantially. Whether or not disruption occurs, the largest remnant must be big enough to survive subsequent mass loss due to sublimation in order for ISON to remain a viable comet well after perihelion.

  9. NASA 30 Cm Ion Thruster Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Haag, Thomas W.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster is under development at NASA to provide an ion propulsion option for missions of national interest and it is an element of the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness (NSTAR) program established to validate ion propulsion for space flight applications. The thruster has been developed to an engineering model level and it incorporates innovations in design, materials, and fabrication techniques compared to those employed to conventional ion thrusters. The performance of both functional and engineering model thrusters has been assessed including thrust stand measurements, over an input power range of 0.5-2.3 kW. Attributes of the engineering model thruster include an overall mass of 6.4 kg, and an efficiency of 65 percent and thrust of 93 mN at 2.3 kW input power. This paper discusses the design, performance, and lifetime expectations of the functional and engineering model thrusters under development at NASA.

  10. Will point sources spoil 21 cm tomography?

    E-print Network

    Adrian Liu; Max Tegmark; Matias Zaldarriaga

    2009-01-26

    21 cm tomography is emerging as a promising probe of the cosmological dark ages and the epoch of reionization, as well as a tool for observational cosmology in general. However, serious sources of foreground contamination must be subtracted for experimental efforts to be viable. In this paper, we focus on the removal of unresolved extragalactic point sources with smooth spectra, and evaluate how the residual foreground contamination after cleaning depends on instrumental and algorithmic parameters. A crucial but often ignored complication is that the synthesized beam of an interferometer array shrinks towards higher frequency, causing complicated frequency structure in each sky pixel as "frizz" far from the beam center contracts across unresolved radio sources. We find that current-generation experiments should nonetheless be able to clean out this points source contamination adequately, and quantify the instrumental and algorithmic design specifications required to meet this foreground challenge.

  11. Evaluation of Argonne 9-cm and 10-cm Annular Centrifugal Contactors for SHINE Solution Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Wardle, Kent E.; Pereira, Candido; Vandegrift, George

    2015-02-01

    Work is in progress to evaluate the SHINE Medical Technologies process for producing Mo-99 for medical use from the fission of dissolved low-enriched uranium (LEU). This report addresses the use of Argonne annular centrifugal contactors for periodic treatment of the process solution. In a letter report from FY 2013, Pereira and Vandegrift compared the throughput and physical footprint for the two contactor options available from CINC Industries: the V-02 and V-05, which have rotor diameters of 5 cm and 12.7 cm, respectively. They suggested that an intermediately sized “Goldilocks” contactor might provide a better balance between throughput and footprint to meet the processing needs for the uranium extraction (UREX) processing of the SHINE solution to remove undesired fission products. Included with the submission of this letter report are the assembly drawings for two Argonne-design contactors that are in this intermediate range—9-cm and 10-cm rotors, respectively. The 9-cm contactor (drawing number CE-D6973A, stamped February 15, 1978) was designed as a single-stage unit and built and tested in the late 1970s along with other size units, both smaller and larger. In subsequent years, a significant effort to developed annular centrifugal contactors was undertaken to support work at Hanford implementing the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process. These contactors had a 10-cm rotor diameter and were fully designed as multistage units with four stages per assembly (drawing number CMT-E1104, stamped March 14, 1990). From a technology readiness perspective, these 10-cm units are much farther ahead in the design progression and, therefore, would require significantly less re-working to make them ready for UREX deployment. Additionally, the overall maximum throughput of ~12 L/min is similar to that of the 9-cm unit (10 L/min), and the former could be efficiently operated over much of the same range of throughput. As a result, only the 10-cm units are considered here, though drawings are provided for the 9-cm unit for reference.

  12. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P{sub 1} receptor by a novel competitive S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of a newly developed S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficacy of S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P{sub 1}) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P{sub 1} and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P{sub 1} antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  13. Detecting the 21 cm forest in the 21 cm power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Dillon, Joshua S.; Mesinger, Andrei; Hewitt, Jacqueline

    2014-07-01

    We describe a new technique for constraining the radio-loud population of active galactic nuclei at high redshift by measuring the imprint of 21 cm spectral absorption features (the 21 cm forest) on the 21 cm power spectrum. Using semi-numerical simulations of the intergalactic medium and a semi-empirical source population, we show that the 21 cm forest dominates a distinctive region of k-space, k ? 0.5 Mpc- 1. By simulating foregrounds and noise for current and potential radio arrays, we find that a next-generation instrument with a collecting area of the order of ˜ 0.1 km2 (such as the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array) may separately constrain the X-ray heating history at large spatial scales and radio-loud active galactic nuclei of the model we study at small ones. We extrapolate our detectability predictions for a single radio-loud active galactic nuclei population to arbitrary source scenarios by analytically relating the 21 cm forest power spectrum to the optical depth power spectrum and an integral over the radio luminosity function.

  14. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prior regulation provisions of § 1.414(s)-1T. (See § 1.414(s)-1T as contained in the CFR edition revised... to the extent necessary to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR 2530.204-2(d) (regarding double... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 1.414(s)-1 Section...

  15. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prior regulation provisions of § 1.414(s)-1T. (See § 1.414(s)-1T as contained in the CFR edition revised... to the extent necessary to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR 2530.204-2(d) (regarding double... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 1.414(s)-1 Section...

  16. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prior regulation provisions of § 1.414(s)-1T. (See § 1.414(s)-1T as contained in the CFR edition revised... to the extent necessary to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR 2530.204-2(d) (regarding double... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Definition of compensation. 1.414(s)-1 Section...

  17. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prior regulation provisions of § 1.414(s)-1T. (See § 1.414(s)-1T as contained in the CFR edition revised... to the extent necessary to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR 2530.204-2(d) (regarding double... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 1.414(s)-1 Section...

  18. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prior regulation provisions of § 1.414(s)-1T. (See § 1.414(s)-1T as contained in the CFR edition revised... to the extent necessary to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR 2530.204-2(d) (regarding double... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 1.414(s)-1 Section...

  19. The 15 cm diameter ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The startup reliability of a 15 cm diameter mercury bombardment ion thruster which employs a pulsed high voltage tickler electrode on the main and neutralizer cathodes is examined. Startup of the thruster is achieved 100% of the time on the main cathode and 98.7% of the time on the neutralizer cathode over a 3640 cycle test. The thruster was started from a 20 C initial condition and operated for an hour at a 600 mA beam current. An energy efficiency of 75% and a propellant utilization efficiency of 77% was achieved over the complete cycle. The effect of a single cusp magnetic field thruster length on its performance is discussed. Guidelines are formulated for the shaping of magnetic field lines in thrusters. A model describing double ion production in mercury discharges is presented. The production route is shown to occur through the single ionic ground state. Photographs of the interior of an operating-hollow cathode are presented. A cathode spot is shown to be present if the cathode is free of low work-function surfaces. The spot is observed if a low work-function oxide coating is applied to the cathode insert. Results show that low work-function oxide coatings tend to migrate during thruster operation.

  20. A sub-cm micromachined electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinerman, A. D.; Crewe, D. A.; Perng, D. C.; Shoaf, S. E.; Crewe, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new approach for fabricating macroscopic (approximately 10x10x10 mm(exp 3)) structures with micron accuracy has been developed. This approach combines the precision of semiconductor processing and fiber optic technologies. A (100) silicon wafer is anisotropically etched to create four orthogonal v-grooves and an aperture on each 10x12 mm die. Precision 308 micron optical fibers are sandwiched between the die to align the v-grooves. The fiber is then anodically bonded to the die above and below it. This procedure is repeated to create thick structures and a stack of 5 or 6 die will be used to create a miniature scanning electron microscope (MSEM). Two die in the structure will have a segmented electrode to deflect the beam and correct for astigmatism. The entire structure is UHV compatible. The performance of an SEM improves as its length is reduced and a sub-cm 2 keV MSEM with a field emission source should have approximately 1 nm resolution. A low voltage high resolution MSEM would be useful for the examination of biological specimens and semiconductors with a minimum of damage. The first MSEM will be tested with existing 6 micron thermionic sources. In the future a micromachined field emission source will be used. The stacking technology presented in this paper can produce an array of MSEMs 1 to 30 mm in length with a 1 mm or larger period. A key question being addressed by this research is the optimum size for a low voltage MSEM which will be determined by the required spatial resolution, field of view, and working distance.

  1. Investigations on Important Properties of the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM Prototype

    E-print Network

    Kiadtisak Saenboonruang; Piyakul Kumphiranon; Kittipong Kulasri; Anawat Ritthirong

    2015-10-27

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is one of promising particle and radiation detectors that has been improved greatly from previous gas detectors. The improvement includes better spatial resolutions, higher detection rate capabilities, and flexibilities in designs. In particular, the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM prototype is designed and provided by the Gas Detectors Development group (GDD) at CERN, Switzerland. With its simplicity in operations and designs, while still maintaining high qualities, the GEM prototype is suitable for both start-up and advanced researches. This article aims to report the investigations on some important properties of the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM detector using current measurement and signal counting. Results have shown that gains of the GEM prototype exponentially increase as voltage supplied to the detector increases, while the detector reaches full efficiency (plateau region) when the voltage is greater than 4100 V. In terms of signal sharing between X and Y strips of the readout, X strips, which is on the top layer of the readout, collect ~57% of the total signal. For the uniformity test, the GEM prototype has slightly higher efficiencies at the center of the detector and decreases as positions are closer to edges.

  2. An experimental view on the collisional properties of cm-sized Saturnian ring particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisselmann, D.; Blum, J.

    2011-12-01

    Saturn's dense main rings are composed of 1-cm- to 10-m-sized almost pure water ice particles. Their dynamics is dominated by two competing effects. On one hand, gravitational perturbations of the particles' motion by the planet itself or its nearby moons increase the orbital eccentricity and, thereby, spread the vertical thickness of the rings. On the other hand, frequent dissipative collisions among the ring constituents at very low relative velocities (less than ˜ 1 cm s-1) cause the re-circularization of their orbits and confine the ring thickness to less than ˜ 5 m. Unlike the numerous observational data obtained by spaceborne and ground-based methods, only very limited laboratory measurements exist on the collision properties of icy particles at velocities relevant for Saturn's main rings. Up to now, experiments have predominantly been restricted to quasi-two-dimensional collisions of large icy spheres or to impacts at significantly higher velocities. We have recently performed experimental investigations on collisions at velocities between 10 cm s-1 and 1.5 mm s-1 among solid ice samples within a freely colliding ensemble of 10-mm-sized ice spheres. Additionally we gained data on the collisions between similar samples covered with a layer of micrometer-sized SiO2 grains, representing a loose regolith layer. These experiments were performed in the microgravity environment of the Bremen drop-tower facility, so that particle impacts could be studied in three dimensions and with arbitrary impact parameters. We will present the results obtained for the coefficient of restitution as a measure of the energy loss in low-velocity binary collisions of icy spheres. Furthermore, we will report on sticking collisions between cm-sized solid ice spheres observed in our many-body experiments.

  3. The temperature of the diffuse H I in the Milky Way - I. High resolution H I-21 cm absorption studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Nirupam; Kanekar, Nissim; Braun, Robert; Chengalur, Jayaram N.

    2013-12-01

    We have carried out deep, high velocity resolution, interferometric Galactic H I-21 cm absorption spectroscopy towards 32 compact extragalactic radio sources with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). The optical depth spectra for most sources have root-mean-square noise values ?10-3 per 1 km s-1 velocity channel and are thus sufficiently sensitive to detect absorption by warm neutral hydrogen with H I column densities NHI ? 1020 cm-2, spin temperatures Ts ? 5000 K and line widths equal to the thermal width (20 km s-1). H I-21 cm absorption was detected against all background sources but one, B0438-436. The spectra of sources observed separately with GMRT and WSRT show excellent agreement, indicating that spectral baseline problems and contamination from H I-21 cm emission are negligible. This paper presents the absorption spectra, the emission spectra along neighbouring sightlines from the Leiden-Argentine-Bonn survey and the derived spin temperature spectra. On every sightline, the maximum spin temperature detected (at ?3? significance) even at a velocity resolution of 1 km s-1 is ?1000 K, indicating that we are detecting the warm neutral medium along most sightlines. This is by far the largest sample of Galactic H I-21 cm absorption spectra of this quality, providing a sensitive probe of physical conditions in the neutral atomic interstellar medium.

  4. 10/7/2015 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php 1/16

    E-print Network

    10/7/2015 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php county had #12;10/7/2015 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php normal for the water year to date. #12;10/7/2015 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php

  5. Universal Index Theorem on $Mob(S^1)\\Diff_+(S^1)$

    E-print Network

    Lee-Peng Teo

    2006-11-24

    By conformal welding, there is a pair of univalent functions $(f,g)$ associated to every point of the complex K\\"ahler manifold $\\Mob(S^1)\\bk\\Diff_+(S^1)$. For every integer $n\\geq 1$, we generalize the definition of Faber polynomials to define some canonical bases of holomorphic $1-n$ and $n$ differentials associated to the pair $(f,g)$. Using these bases, we generalize the definition of Grunsky matrices to define matrices whose columns are the coefficients of the differentials with respect to standard bases of differentials on the unit disc and the exterior unit disc. We derive some identities among these matrices which are reminiscent of the Grunsky equality. By using these identities, we showed that we can define the Fredholm determinants of the period matrices of holomorphic $n$ differentials $N_n$, which are the Gram matrices of the canonical bases of holomorphic $n$-differentials with respect to the inner product given by the hyperbolic metric. Finally we proved that $\\det N_n =(\\det N_1)^{6n^2-6n+1}$ and $\\pa\\bar{\\pa}\\log\\det N_n$ is $-(6n^2-6n+1)/(6\\pi i)$ of the Weil-Petersson symplectic form.

  6. Albumin modulates S1P delivery from red blood cells in perfused microvessels: mechanism of the protein effect.

    PubMed

    Adamson, R H; Clark, J F; Radeva, M; Kheirolomoom, A; Ferrara, K W; Curry, F E

    2014-04-01

    Removal of plasma proteins from perfusates increases vascular permeability. The common interpretation of the action of albumin is that it forms part of the permeability barrier by electrostatic binding to the endothelial glycocalyx. We tested the alternate hypothesis that removal of perfusate albumin in rat venular microvessels decreased the availability of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which is normally carried in plasma bound to albumin and lipoproteins and is required to maintain stable baseline endothelial barriers (Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 303: H825-H834, 2012). Red blood cells (RBCs) are a primary source of S1P in the normal circulation. We compared apparent albumin permeability coefficients [solute permeability (Ps)] measured using perfusates containing albumin (10 mg/ml, control) and conditioned by 20-min exposure to rat RBCs with Ps when test perfusates were in RBC-conditioned protein-free Ringer solution. The control perfusate S1P concentration (439 ± 46 nM) was near the normal plasma value at 37 °C and established a stable baseline Ps (0.9 ± 0.4 × 10(-6) cm/s). Ringer solution perfusate contained 52 ± 8 nM S1P and increased Ps more than 10-fold (16.1 ± 3.9 × 10(-6) cm/s). Consistent with albumin-dependent transport of S1P from RBCs, S1P concentrations in RBC-conditioned solutions decreased as albumin concentration, hematocrit, and temperature decreased. Protein-free Ringer solution perfusates that used liposomes instead of RBCs as flow markers failed to maintain normal permeability, reproducing the "albumin effect" in these mammalian microvessels. We conclude that the albumin effect depends on the action of albumin to facilitate the release and transport of S1P from RBCs that normally provide a significant amount of S1P to the endothelium. PMID:24531813

  7. Collisional facilitation of aqueous alteration of CM and CV carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2012-08-01

    CM chondrites exhibit a strong correlation between the degree of alteration and the extent of particle alignment (i.e., the strength of the petrofabric). It seems likely that the S1 shock stage of essentially every CM and the high matrix abundance (˜70 vol.%) of these samples ensured that the shock waves that produced CM petrofabrics (by collapsing matrix pores and squeezing chondrules into pore spaces) were significantly attenuated and were too weak to damage olivine crystal lattices. Random collisions on the CM body produced petrofabrics and created fractures in the target rocks. Subsequent impact-mobilization of water caused hydrated phases to form preferentially in the more-fractured regions (those with the strongest petrofabrics); the less-deformed, less-fractured CM regions experienced lower degrees of aqueous alteration. Many CV3 chondrites also have petrofabrics: roughly half are from the oxidized Bali-like subgroup (CV3OxB), roughly half are from the reduced subgroup (CV3R) and none is from the oxidized Allende-like subgroup (CV3OxA) (which is less altered than CV3OxB). Nearly all CVs with petrofabrics are S3-S4 and nearly all CVs that lack petrofabrics are S1. Oxidized CVs have much higher porosities (typically 20-28%) than reduced CVs (0.6-8%), facilitating more-extensive aqueous alteration. The CV3R chondrites formed from low-porosity material that inhibited oxidation during alteration. The oxidized CV subgroups formed from higher-porosity materials. The CV3OxB samples were shocked, became extensively fractured and developed petrofabrics; the CV3OxA samples were not shocked and never developed petrofabrics. When water was mobilized, both sets of porous CV chondrites became oxidized; the more-fractured CV3OxB subgroup was more severely altered.

  8. Representations of Nets of C*-Algebras over S 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzzi, Giuseppe; Vasselli, Ezio

    2012-11-01

    In recent times a new kind of representations has been used to describe superselection sectors of the observable net over a curved spacetime, taking into account the effects of the fundamental group of the spacetime. Using this notion of representation, we prove that any net of C*-algebras over S 1 admits faithful representations, and when the net is covariant under Diff( S 1), it admits representations covariant under any amenable subgroup of Diff( S 1).

  9. Wavelength-tunable lasing in single-crystal CdS1-XSeX nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. K.; Zapien, J. A.; Shan, Y. Y.; Tang, H.; Lee, C. S.; Lee, S. T.

    2007-09-01

    Alloyed ternary CdS1-XSeX nanoribbons of variable composition X were synthesized by the combination of thermal evaporation and laser ablation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction showed that the ternary CdS1-XSeX nanoribbons were single phase and highly crystalline. Room-temperature optical measurements showed that band-gap engineering could be realized in CdS1-XSeX nanoribbons via modulation in composition X. Lasing emission between the band-gap energy of CdS (512 nm) and that of CdSe (710 nm) was observed for composition 0cm-2. Cathodoluminescence imaging and spectroscopy of single CdS1-XSeX nanoribbons reveal the uniform optical properties of the nanoribbons, which supports the absence of phase segregation within the nanoribbon. Fine tuning of the lasing wavelength via composition changes is shown to be smaller than 0.1 nm, and is capable of overlapping thermally induced tuning, demonstrating the possibility of continuous tuning in the lasing wavelength. The broad and fine tunable lasing properties of ternary nanoribbons have potential applications in color-tuned nanolasers, biological labels, and nano-optoelectronics.

  10. NiS1.97: A New Efficient Water Oxidation Catalyst for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Bhosale, Reshma; Kelkar, Sarika; Parte, Golu; Fernandes, Rohan; Kothari, Dushyant; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2015-09-16

    NiS1.97, a sulfur-deficient dichalcogenide, in nanoscale form, is shown to be a unique and efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) catalyst for H2 generation by water splitting. Phase pure NiS1.97 nanomaterial is obtained by converting nickel oxide into sulfide by controlled sulfurization method, which is otherwise difficult to establish. The defect states (sulfur vacancies) in this material increase the carrier density and in turn lead to favorable band line-up with respect to redox potential of water, rendering it to be an effective photoelectrochemical catalyst. The material exhibits a remarkable PEC performance of 1.25 mA/cm(2) vs NHE at 0.68 V in neutral pH, which is almost 1000 times superior as compared with that of the stoichiometric phase of NiS2. The latter is well-known to be a cocatalyst but not as a primary PEC catalyst. PMID:26315126

  11. 10/7/2014 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php 1/14

    E-print Network

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    10/7/2014 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php 2/14 precipitation. #12;10/7/2014 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php

  12. 25 CFR 10.7 - Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? 10.7 Section 10.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? The BIA has...

  13. 25 CFR 10.7 - Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? 10.7 Section 10.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? The BIA has...

  14. 25 CFR 10.7 - Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? 10.7 Section 10.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? The BIA has...

  15. 25 CFR 10.7 - Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? 10.7 Section 10.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? The BIA has...

  16. 25 CFR 10.7 - Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? 10.7 Section 10.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? The BIA has...

  17. The Insoluble Organic Matter of the Paris CM Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Remusat, L.; Bernard, S.; Le Guillou, C.

    2015-07-01

    We study the IOM of the Paris carbonaceous chondrite, considered as one of the least altered chondrites, and compared it to Murchison IOM. Paris CM is likely the best CM sample available to infer the nature of the OM accreted on the CM parent body.

  18. Yu et al, Fig. S1 Fig. S1. Analyses of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked Vps4p complexes.

    E-print Network

    Hill, Chris

    1 Yu et al, Fig. S1 Fig. S1. Analyses of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked Vps4p complexes. SDS-PAGE, with Coomassie blue staining. Bracketed fractions in (C) were pooled and imaged by cryoEM. #12;2 Yu et al, Fig. S2 Fig. S2. Euler angle distributions for the three reconstructions. The relative intensity of each

  19. New H I 21-cm absorbers at low and intermediate redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwaan, M. A.; Liske, J.; Péroux, C.; Murphy, M. T.; Bouché, N.; Curran, S. J.; Biggs, A. D.

    2015-10-01

    We present the results of a survey for intervening H I 21-cm absorbers at intermediate and low redshift (0 < z < 1.2). For our total sample of 24 systems, we obtained high-quality data for 17 systems, the other seven being severely affected by radio frequency interference (RFI). Five of our targets are low-redshift (z < 0.17) optical galaxies with small impact parameters (<20 kpc) towards radio-bright background sources. Two of these were detected in 21-cm absorption, showing narrow, high optical depth absorption profiles, the narrowest having a velocity dispersion of only 1.5 km s- 1, which puts an upper limit on the kinetic temperature of Tk < 270 K. Combining our observations with results from the literature, we measure a weak anticorrelation between impact parameter and integral optical depth in local (z < 0.5) 21-cm absorbers. Of 11 Ca II and Mg II systems searched, two were detected in 21-cm absorption, and six were affected by RFI to a level that precludes a detection. For these two systems at z ˜ 0.6, we measure spin temperatures of Ts = (65 ± 17) K and Ts > 180 K. A subset of our systems was also searched for OH absorption, but no detections were made.

  20. A Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope search for associated HI 21cm absorption in high-redshift flat-spectrum sources

    E-print Network

    Aditya, J N H S; Kurapati, Sushma

    2015-01-01

    We report results from a Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope search for "associated" redshifted HI 21cm absorption from 24 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), at $1.1 Bank Flat-spectrum (CJF) sample. 22 out of 23 sources with usable data showed no evidence of absorption, with typical $3\\sigma$ optical depth detection limits of $\\approx 0.01$ at a velocity resolution of $\\approx 30$~km~s$^{-1}$. A single tentative absorption detection was obtained at $z \\approx 3.530$ towards TXS0604+728. If confirmed, this would be the highest redshift at which HI 21cm absorption has ever been detected. Including 29 CJF sources with searches for redshifted HI 21cm absorption in the literature, mostly at $z test for censored data finds (at $\\approx 3\\sigma$ significance) that the strength of HI 21cm absorption is weaker in the high-$z$ sample than in the low-$z$ sample, this is th...

  1. Nozzle R&D for a 20-m/s, 1-cm-diameter Mercury Jet K.T. McDonald

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    the proton beam (8 mm in above table). Kirk T. McDonald ORNL, Feb. 7, 2005 5 #12;Corcoran Centrifugal Pump purchased a 4000 Series, Model D-DH2(AA) centrifugal pump from R.S. Corcoran, powered by a 20-hp, 480 V After a search for mercury-compatible commercial pumps that could exceed the above requirements, we

  2. S-1 Deschutes Subbasin Management Plan Deschutes Subbasin Management Plan

    E-print Network

    Supplement S-1 Deschutes Subbasin Management Plan Supplement Deschutes Subbasin Management Plan on information presented in the Assessment and Management Plan, it identifies key factors limiting focal species watershed health. It also provides a framework for developing and prioritizing strategies

  3. Polymorphism of the bovine CSN1S1 promoter: linkage mapping, intragenic haplotypes, and effects on milk production traits.

    PubMed

    Prinzenberg, E M; Weimann, C; Brandt, H; Bennewitz, J; Kalm, E; Schwerin, M; Erhardt, G

    2003-08-01

    The bovine CSN1S1 5' flanking region (CSN1S1-5') was screened for polymorphisms in different cattle breeds. Single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) and sequence analyses revealed four alleles (1-4), two of them being new allelic forms (3 and 4). Sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession numbers AF549499-502. In alleles 1 and 4, potential transcription factor binding sites are altered by the mutations. Using SSCP analysis, all four alleles were identified in German Holsteins. Six intragenic haplo-types comprising CSN1S1-5' (alleles 1, 2, 3, 4) and exon 17 (CSN1S1*B and C) genotypes were found. Linkage mapping using half-sib families from the German QTL project positioned CSN1S1 between the markers FBN14 and CSN3, with 5.6 cM distance between CSN1S1 and CSN3. Variance analysis, using family and CSN1S1 promoter genotypes as fixed effects, of breeding values and deregressed proofs for milk production traits (milk, fat, and protein yield and also fat and protein percentage) revealed significant effects on protein percentage when all families and genotypes were considered. Contrast calculations assigned a highly significant effect to genotype 24, which was associated with highest LS-means for protein percentage breeding values. As CSN1S1 is one of the main caseins in milk, this could be an effect of mutations in regulatory elements in the promoter region. An effect on milk yield breeding values was indicated for genotype 12, but is probably caused by a linked locus. PMID:12939094

  4. Lessons Learned From CM-2 Modal Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Carney, Kelly S.; Otten, Kim D.

    2002-01-01

    The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that launches on Shuttle mission STS-107 in the SPACEHAB Double Research Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is installed into SPACEHAB single and double racks. The CM-2 flight hardware was vibration tested in the launch configuration to characterize the structure's modal response. Cross-orthogonality between test and analysis mode shapes were used to assess model correlation. Lessons learned for pre-test planning and model verification are discussed.

  5. Visualization on massively parallel computers using CM/AVS

    SciTech Connect

    Krogh, M.F.; Hansen, C.D.

    1993-09-01

    CM/AVS is a visualization environment for the massively parallel CM-5 from Thinking Machines. It provides a backend to the standard commercially available AVS visualization product. At the Advanced Computing Laboratory at Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have been experimenting and utilizing this software within our visualization environment. This paper describes our experiences with CM/AVS. The conclusions reached are applicable to any implimentation of visualization software within a massively parallel computing environment.

  6. Energy Levels of the Nitrate Radical Below 2000 CM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, J. F.; Simmons, C. S.

    2012-06-01

    Highly sophisticated quantum chemistry techniques have been employed to build a three-state diabatic Hamiltonian for the nitrate radical (NO_3). Eigenvalues of this Hamiltonian (which includes effects beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation) are consistent with the known ``vibrational'' levels of NO_3 up to ca. 2100 cm-1 above the zero-point level; with a small empirical adjustment of the diabatic coupling strength, calculated levels are within 20 cm-1 of the measured level positions for those that have been observed experimentally. Of the eleven states with e' symmetry calculated below 2000 cm-1, nine of these have been observed either in the gas phase by Hirota and collaborators as well as Neumark and Johnston, or in frozen argon by Jacox. However, the Hamiltonian produces two levels that have not been seen experimentally: one calculated to lie at 1075 cm-1 (which is the third e' state, above ?_4 and 2?_4) and another at 1640 cm-1 which is best assigned as one of the two e' sublevels of 4?_4. A significant result is that the state predicted at 1075 cm-1 is not far enough above the predicted 2?_4 level (777 cm-1 v. ca. 760 cm-1 from experiment) to be plausibly assigned as 3?_4 (which is at 1155 cm-1: experimental position: 1173 cm-1), nor is its nodal structure consistent with such an idea. Rather, it is quite unambiguously the ?_3 level. Given the fidelity of the results generated by this model Hamiltonian as compared to experiment, it can safely be concluded that the prominent infrared band seen at 1492 cm-1 (corresponding to a calculated level at 1500 cm-1) is not ?_3, but rather a multiquantum state best viewed as a sublevel of the ?_3 + ?_4 combination.

  7. Experimental determination of kQ factors for cylindrical ionization chambers in 10?cm × 10?cm and 3?cm × 3?cm photon beams from 4?MV to 25?MV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, A.; Kapsch, R. P.

    2014-08-01

    For the ionometric determination of absorbed dose to water, Dw, in megavoltage photon beams from a linear accelerator, beam-quality-dependent correction factors, kQ, are used for the ionization chambers. By using a water calorimeter, these factors can be determined experimentally and with substantially lower standard uncertainties compared to calculated values of the kQ, which are published in various dosimetry protocols. In this investigation, kQ for different types of cylindrical ionization chambers (NE 2561, NE 2571, FC 65?G) were determined experimentally in 10?cm × 10?cm photon beams from 4?MV to 25?MV (corresponding beam quality index TPR20,10 from 0.64 to 0.80). The measurements were carried out at the linear accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. It is shown that the kQ factors for a single ionization chamber in 10?cm × 10?cm photon beams can be measured with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.31%. In addition to these measurements in 10?cm × 10?cm fields, kQ factors for the NE 2561 chamber were also determined in smaller 3?cm × 3?cm photon beams between 6?MV and 25?MV. In this case, relative standard uncertainties between 0.35 % and 0.38 % are achieved for the kQ factors. It is found for this ionization chamber, that the ratio of the kQ factors in 3?cm × 3?cm and in 10?cm × 10?cm beams increases with increasing TPR20,10 to reach a value of 1.0095 at TPR20,10 = 0.8 with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.4 %.

  8. Investigation of internal friction in fused quartz, steel, Plexiglass, and Westerly granite from 0.01 to 1.00 Hertz at 10- 8 to 10-7 strain amplitude.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hsi-Ping, Liu; Peselnick, L.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed evaluation on the method of internal friction measurement by the stress-strain hysteresis loop method from 0.01 to 1 Hz at 10-8-10-7 strain amplitude and 23.9oC is presented. Significant systematic errors in relative phase measurement can result from convex end surfaces of the sample and stress sensor and from end surface irregularities such as nicks and asperities. Preparation of concave end surfaces polished to optical smoothness having a radius of curvature >3.6X104 cm reduces the systematic error in relative phase measurements to <(5.5+ or -2.2)X10-4 radians. -from Authors

  9. Lentiviral siRNA silencing of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors S1P1 and S1P2 in smooth muscle q

    E-print Network

    Hu, Wen-Hui

    Lentiviral siRNA silencing of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors S1P1 and S1P2 in smooth muscle q-expressed on target cells. We have previously shown that smooth muscle cells of the gut co-express S1P1 and S1P2293T cells and smooth muscle cells. One S1P1 and two S1P2 siRNA constructs specifically inhibited

  10. Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma sized > 3 and ? 5 cm: Is ablative margin of more than 1 cm justified?

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Shan; Ding, Xue-Mei; Qian, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Cao, Bao-Xin; Gao, Kun; Sun, Wen-Bing

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether an ablative margin (AM) > 1.0 cm might reduce chance of recurrence for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors 3.1 to 5.0 cm in size, compared with an AM of 0.5-1.0 cm. METHODS: From October 2005 to December 2012, 936 consecutive patients with HCC who received radiofrequency ablation were screened. Of these, 281 patients, each with a single primary HCC tumor of 3.1 to 5.0 cm in size on its greatest diameter, were included in the study. Based on the AM width, we categorized patients into the 0.5-1.0 cm group and the > 1.0 cm group. Local tumor progression (LTP)-free survival, intrahepatic distant recurrence (IDR)-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year LTP-free survival rates and IDR-free survival rates were significantly higher in the > 1.0 cm group compared with the 0.5-1.0 cm group (97.5%, 86.3%, 73.6%, 49.5% and 26.4% vs 91.3%, 78.4%, 49.5%, 27.8%, and 12.8%; 95.1%, 90.3%, 77.0%, 61.0% and 48.3% vs 95.2%, 85.9%, 62.6%, 47.2% and 28.5%; P < 0.05). The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year OS rates were 98.6%, 91.5%, 69.2%, 56.0% and 42.2%, respectively, in the 0.5-1.0 cm group and 100%, 98.9%, 90.1%, 68.7% and 57.4%, respectively, in the > 1.0 cm group (P = 0.010). There were no significant differences in complication rates between the two groups. Both univariate and multivariate analyses identified AM as an independent prognostic factor linked to LTP, IDR, and OS. CONCLUSION: For HCC tumors > 3.0 cm and ? 5.0 cm, AM > 1.0 cm could reduce chances of recurrence compared with AM of 0.5-1.0 cm, emphasizing the need for a more defensive strategy using AMs > 1.0 cm for ablating HCC tumors of 3.1 to 5.0 cm. PMID:24259969

  11. Photofraction of a 5 cm x 2 cm BGO scintillator. [bismuth germanate crystal for use in cosmic gamma ray detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunphy, P. P.; Forrest, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The photofraction of a 5.1 cm x 2.0 cm bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillator was measured over a gamma-ray energy range of 0.2 to 6.1 MeV. Several methods, used to minimize the effect of room scattering on the measurement, are discussed. These include a gamma-gamma coincidence technique, a beta-gamma coincidence technique, and the use of sources calibrated with a standard 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm sodium iodide scintillator.

  12. Effects of proton irradiation and temperature on 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicoletta, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells were exposed to 1.0 MeV protons at a fixed flux of 10 to the 9th power P/sq cm-sec and fluences of 10 to the 10th power, 10 to the 11th power, 10 to the 12th power and 3 X 10 to the 12th power P/sq cm. I-V curves of the cells were made at room temperature, 65 C and 165 C after each irradiation. A value of 139.5 mw/sq cm was taken as AMO incident energy rate per unit area. Degradation occurred for both uncovered 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm cells. Efficiencies are generally higher than those of comparable U.S. cells tested earlier. Damage (loss in maximum power efficiency) with proton fluence is somewhat higher for 10 ohm-cm cells, measured at the three temperatures, for fluences above 2 X 10 to the 11th power P/sq cm. Cell efficiency, as expected, changes drastically with temperature.

  13. CASE/CM Services Supporting InternetBased Software Engineering

    E-print Network

    Biuk-Aghai, Robert P.

    CASE/CM Services Supporting Internet­Based Software Engineering Robert P. Biuk­Aghai Faculty of geographically dis­ tributed software engineers cooperating and com­ municating over the Internet. In the future of Internet­based Computer­Aided Software Engineering (CASE) and Configuration Manage­ ment (CM) environments

  14. Design and Performance of 40 cm Ion Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    2001-01-01

    A 40 cm ion thruster is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to obtain input power and propellant throughput capabilities of 10 kW and 550 kg. respectively. The technical approach here is a continuation of the "derating" technique used for the NSTAR ion thruster. The 40 cm ion thruster presently utilizes the NSTAR ion optics aperture geometry to take advantage of the large database of lifetime and performance data already available. Dome-shaped grids were chosen for the design of the 40 cm ion optics because this design is naturally suited for large-area ion optics. Ion extraction capabilities and electron backstreaming limits for the 40 cm ion optics were estimated by utilizing NSTAR 30 cm ion optics data. A preliminary service life assessment showed that the propellant throughput goal of 550 kg of xenon may be possible with molybdenum 40 cm ion optics. One 40 cm ion optics' set has been successfully fabricated to date. Additional ion optics' sets are presently being fabricated. Preliminary performance tests were conducted on a laboratory model 40 cm ion thruster.

  15. Thermal neutron-induced fission cross sections of Cm isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, L.; Heyse, J.; Wagemans, J.; Wagemans, C.

    2009-10-01

    A new measurement program was set up at SCK?CEN to determine the thermal neutron-induced fission cross section of a number of Cm isotopes. These transuranium isotopes are produced in nuclear reactors and are candidates for transmutation. This paper presents preliminary results of our 245Cm(n,f) cross-section measurement.

  16. SPECTRAL INVESTIGATIONS OF CM DRA M.K. Kuznetsov1

    E-print Network

    Pinfield, David J.

    of the low-mass eclipsing binary CM Draconis, which were obtained on the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope and reduction High-resolution spectral observations of CM Dra were carried out on the 4.2-m William Herschel

  17. "The 5 cm Rule": Biopower, Sexuality and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores "the 5 cm rule", a regulation around student contact discovered during an investigation of the sexual culture of schooling with 16-19-year-olds in New Zealand. Implemented to stem "inappropriate and unwanted" touching, it stipulates that students must maintain a physical distance of 5 cm at all times. It is argued this rule…

  18. The Character of the Long-Lived State Formed from S_1 of Phenylacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Philip M.; Sears, Trevor J.

    2013-06-01

    Compared to other small aromatic molecules, phenylacetylene (PA) and benzonitrile exhibit strikingly anomalous photophysics on excitation to the S_1 state. Firstly, products are formed on S_1 excitation of a beam-cooled sample that seem to live indefinitely (as defined by the flight time through the apparatus), while action spectra of their formation mirror the rotationally-resolved absorption spectrum of the monomer. Secondly, the long lived products appear immediately during the nsec. laser pulse rather than build up during the lifetime of the singlet level, as is seen in benzene, for example. The question has therefore arisen: is the long lived product of the S_1 excitation the triplet state, as is assumed in all previous work on other molecules, or is it an isomer of some sort? New pump-probe ionization mass spectroscopy experiments have been performed to study the distribution of fragments and metastable ions produced by PA cation derived from the neutral S_1 state, and from the long-lived species. These combined with other experimental results showing weak long-lived components in both the S_1 fluorescence and pump-probe photoelectron spectra that we interpret as recurrence behavior, definitively show the long-lived state is a triplet state of PA, not an isomer. PA with a singlet-triplet gap of 10000 cm^{-1} is acting like intermediate case molecules with much smaller singlet-triplet gaps such as pyrazine and pyrimidine. Calculations point to the existence of four triplet states of PA at or below the energy of S_1 providing a very large density of vibronic states in which to distribute the energy from singlet-triplet crossing. PA T_1 is calculated to be non-planar, in contrast to what is found in benzene, possibly helping to explain the different photophysics. Acknowledgments: We gratefully acknowledge G. V. Lopez for his contributions to some of the experimental masurements. Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was carried out under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy and supported by its Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. J. Hofstein, H. Xu, T. J. Sears and P. M. Johnson, J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 1195-1201 (1999)

  19. C.M. Brasier -Refereed Publications Brasier, C.M. (1986). Some genetical aspects of necrotophy with special reference to

    E-print Network

    1986-01-01

    of the British Mycological Society 52, 273-279. Brasier, C.M. (1971). Induction of sexual reproduction in single-142. Biology of Phytophthora Brasier, C.M. (1969). The effect of temperature and light on reproduction in vitro.M. (1972). Observations on the sexual mechanism in Phytophthora palmivora and related species. Transactions

  20. Structural biology of the S1P1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Michael A; Peach, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor family has been studied widely since the initial discovery of its first member, endothelium differentiation gene 1. Since this initial discovery, the family has been renamed and the primary member of the family, the S1P1 receptor, has been targeted for a variety of disease indications and successfully drugged for the treatment of patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. Recently, the three-dimensional structure of the S1P1 receptor has been determined by X-ray crystallography and the specifics of the sphingosine 1 phosphate ligand binding pocket mapped. Key structural features for the S1P1 receptor will be reviewed and the potential binding modes of additional pharmacologically active agents against the receptor will be analyzed in an effort to better understand the structural basis of important receptor-ligand interactions. PMID:24728592

  1. Evaluation of CM5 Charges for Condensed-Phase Modeling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed Charge Model 5 (CM5) is tested for its utility in condensed-phase simulations. The CM5 approach, which derives partial atomic charges from Hirshfeld population analyses, provides excellent results for gas-phase dipole moments and is applicable to all elements of the periodic table. Herein, the adequacy of scaled CM5 charges for use in modeling aqueous solutions has been evaluated by computing free energies of hydration (?Ghyd) for 42 neutral organic molecules via Monte Carlo statistical mechanics. An optimal scaling factor for the CM5 charges was determined to be 1.27, resulting in a mean unsigned error (MUE) of 1.1 kcal/mol for the free energies of hydration. Testing for an additional 20 molecules gave an MUE of 1.3 kcal/mol. The high precision of the results is confirmed by free energy calculations using both sequential perturbations and complete molecular annihilation. Performance for specific functional groups is discussed; sulfur-containing molecules yield the largest errors. In addition, the scaling factor of 1.27 is shown to be appropriate for CM5 charges derived from a variety of density functional methods and basis sets. Though the average errors from the 1.27*CM5 results are only slightly lower than those using 1.14*CM1A charges, the broader applicability and easier access to CM5 charges via the Gaussian program are additional attractive features. The 1.27*CM5 charge model can be used for an enormous variety of applications in conjunction with many fixed-charge force fields and molecular modeling programs. PMID:25061445

  2. Ion accelerator systems for high power 30 cm thruster operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.

    1982-01-01

    Two and three-grid accelerator systems for high power ion thruster operation were investigated. Two-grid translation tests show that over compensation of the 30 cm thruster SHAG grid set spacing the 30 cm thruster radial plasma density variation and by incorporating grid compensation only sufficient to maintain grid hole axial alignment, it is shown that beam current gains as large as 50% can be realized. Three-grid translation tests performed with a simulated 30 cm thruster discharge chamber show that substantial beamlet steering can be reliably affected by decelerator grid translation only, at net-to-total voltage ratios as low as 0.05.

  3. Alteration and formation of rims on the CM parent body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, Lauren B.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Zolensky, Michael

    1994-01-01

    All types of coarse-grained components in CM chondrites are surrounded by fine-grained dust coatings, but the origin of these rims is not yet clear. Although a strictly nebular origin seems likely for rims in the relatively unaltered type 3 chondrites, the rims in CM chondrites are dominated by secondary alteration phases. It has been argued that either the coarse-grained cores accreted altered rim materials while still in the nebula or that alteration of primary rim phases occurred on the CM parent body. To constrain the origin of alteration phases in rim material, we have analyzed the textures and mineral associations from 10 CM chondritic falls by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Our results indicate that the secondary phases in CM chondritic rims were produced by parent body fluid-rock interactions which redefined some primary rim textures and may have produced, in some cases, both coarse-grained components and the rims that surround them. Textural features demonstrate the interactive exchange of alteration fluids between rims, matrix, and chondrules on the CM parent body. For example, most matrix-rim contacts are gradational, suggesting the synchronous alteration of both components. Several observations suggest the possibility of in situ rim production. For example, tochilinite and phyllosilicates commonly form rims around matrix carbonates, which are generally believed to have precipitated from alteration fluids on the CM parent body. This suggests that the rims surrounding matrix carbonates may also have been produced by alteration processes. Partially replaced chondrule olivines bear a striking resemblance to many rimmed olivines in the matrix which suggests, by analogy, that site-specific precipitation of S-bearing phases may also be responsible for the occurrence of many tochilinite-rich rims around isolated matrix olivines. Non-silicate rims precipitate around olivines of any composition, but the process is most effective for fayalitic olivines. Most of the remaining olivines in CM chondrites are relatively Mg-rich, which suggests that the precipitation of S-bearing rims on olivines may not have been an important process in the aqueous alteration of CM chondrites. We conclude that: (1) precursor rim materials in CM chondrites were subjected to pervasive aqueous alteration on the CM parent body; and (2) textures and mineral associations observed in CM chondrites also suggest the possibility of in situ rim production.

  4. S-(-)-1-phenyl ethyl ammonium(1+) sulphate and S-(-)-1-phenyl ethyl ammonium(1+) hydrogen phosphate 2.5 hydrate, preparation and characterization of crystallographic, optical and dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cihelka, Jaroslav; Havlí?ek, David; Gyepes, Róbert; N?mec, Ivan; Koleva, Zoja

    2010-09-01

    S-(-)-1-phenyl ethyl ammonium(1+) sulphate and S-(-)-1-phenyl ethyl ammonium(1+) hydrogen phosphate 2.5 hydrate were prepared at laboratory temperature by slow evaporation of aqueous solutions of a mixture of S-(-)-1-phenyl ethyl amine and H 2SO 4 or H 3PO 4 in a molar ratio of 2: 1. The chirality on the organic amine was retained during the preparation and the obtained substances crystallized in non-centrosymmetric space groups. S-(-)-1-phenyl ethyl ammonium (1+) sulphate crystallizes in a monoclinic crystal system, space group C2, a = 10.8050(5) Å, b = 6.1080(4) Å, c = 13.3430(8) Å, ? = 90.679(4)°, V = 880.54(9) Å 3, Z = 2, calculated density 1.284 g cm -3. S-(-)-1-phenyl ethyl ammonium(1+) hydrogen phosphate 2.5 hydrate crystallizes in a monoclinic crystal system, space group P2 1, a = 16.7810(10) Å, b = 6.2870(2) Å, c = 19.7060(12) Å, ? = 109.160(2)°, V = 1963.86(18) Å 3, Z = 4, calculated density 1.303 g cm -3. Space groups C2 and P2 1 belong amongst "polar" groups, that could exhibit interesting dielectric properties, which have been studied (dependence of the polarization on an external electric field or of the relative permittivity on the temperature), and generation of the second harmonic frequency. Both substances were further characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray structural and powder analysis, infrared and Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis (DTA, TGA).

  5. Healthy mice (HC) Infected mice (MC) Infected mice + CQ (MD) Spleen length (cm) 1.650.10 2.620.18 3.16 0.14

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    S1A B Healthy mice (HC) Infected mice (MC) Infected mice + CQ (MD) Spleen length (cm) 1.65±0.10 2 than three experimental rounds have been performed separately for healthy and malarial mice during data acquisition. Spleen size and RBC deformability were compared and summarized among healthy mice, infected mice

  6. Benchmarking and performance analysis of the CM-2. [SIMD computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, David W.; Adams, George B., II

    1988-01-01

    A suite of benchmarking routines testing communication, basic arithmetic operations, and selected kernel algorithms written in LISP and PARIS was developed for the CM-2. Experiment runs are automated via a software framework that sequences individual tests, allowing for unattended overnight operation. Multiple measurements are made and treated statistically to generate well-characterized results from the noisy values given by cm:time. The results obtained provide a comparison with similar, but less extensive, testing done on a CM-1. Tests were chosen to aid the algorithmist in constructing fast, efficient, and correct code on the CM-2, as well as gain insight into what performance criteria are needed when evaluating parallel processing machines.

  7. Chancellor's Memorandum CM-42 Information Technology (IT) Infrastructure

    E-print Network

    Chancellor's Memorandum CM-42 ­ Information Technology (IT) Infrastructure To: Vice Chancellors-HCSD) information technology (IT) Infrastructure supports mission-critical and business-critical services, clinicians, students, and faculty depend on the SYSTEM IT Infrastructure for the electronic classroom

  8. Amino Acids in the Antarctic CM Meteorite LEW 90500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, O.; Bada, J. L.

    2002-03-01

    The amino acid composition of the Antarctic CM meteorite LEW90500 was determined and compared to that of the CMs Murchison and Murray. The compositional similarity suggest that these meteorites probably originated from the same parent body.

  9. Management of 1-2 cm renal stones

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Aneesh; Chipde, Saurabh S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The preferred treatment of >1cm stone is shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), while that of stone <2 cm is percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), but treatment of 1-2 cm renal stones is a controversial issue. We searched the literature to present a comprehensive review on this group. Material and Methods: Pubmed search of literature was done using the appropriate key words. We separately discussed the literature in lower polar and non lower polar stone groups. Results: For non lower polar renal stones of 1-2 cm, SWL is preferred approach, while for the lower polar stones; literature favors the use of PCNL. Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is emerging as a promising technique for these calculi. Conclusions: Treatment of renal stone disease depends on stone and patient related, as well as on renal anatomical factors. Treatment should be individualized according to site of stone and available expertise. PMID:24082440

  10. The 21-cm Signal from the cosmological epoch of recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Fialkov, A.; Loeb, A. E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-11-01

    The redshifted 21-cm emission by neutral hydrogen offers a unique tool for mapping structure formation in the early universe in three dimensions. Here we provide the first detailed calculation of the 21-cm emission signal during and after the epoch of hydrogen recombination in the redshift range of z ? 500–1,100, corresponding to observed wavelengths of 100–230 meters. The 21-cm line deviates from thermal equilibrium with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) due to the excess Ly? radiation from hydrogen and helium recombinations. The resulting 21-cm signal reaches a brightness temperature of a milli-Kelvin, orders of magnitude larger than previously estimated. Its detection by a future lunar or space-based observatory could improve dramatically the statistical constraints on the cosmological initial conditions compared to existing two-dimensional maps of the CMB anisotropies.

  11. Global 21 cm signal experiments: A designer’s guide

    E-print Network

    Liu, Adrian Chi-Yan

    The global (i.e., spatially averaged) spectrum of the redshifted 21 cm line has generated much experimental interest lately, thanks to its potential to be a direct probe of the epoch of reionization and the dark ages, ...

  12. An Improved Method for 21cm Foreground Removal

    E-print Network

    Liu, Adrian

    21-cm tomography is expected to be difficult in part because of serious foreground contamination. Previous studies have found that line-of-sight approaches are capable of cleaning foregrounds to an acceptable level on large ...

  13. Macroscopic and spectroscopic investigations on Eu(III) and Cm(III) sorption onto bayerite (?-Al(OH)3) and corundum (?-Al2O3).

    PubMed

    Kupcik, Tomas; Rabung, Thomas; Lützenkirchen, Johannes; Finck, Nicolas; Geckeis, Horst; Fanghänel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of trivalent Cm and Eu with the aluminum hydroxide bayerite (?-Al(OH)3) and the aluminum oxide corundum (?-Al2O3) was investigated by batch sorption experiments and time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The experimental methods for both polymorphs show similar pH dependent sorption behavior at trace metal ion concentrations (?10(-7)M), i.e. similar Eu sorption edges and nearly identical Cm speciation between pH=3 and 13. In this pH range the Cm aquo ion as well as the Cm(III) surface species surface?Cm(OH)x(H2O)5-x (x=0, 1, 2) can be distinguished by TRLFS. The similar sorption data point to a (surface) transformation of the thermodynamically unstable Al2O3 surface into bayerite, in agreement with the similar isoelectric points obtained for both minerals (pHIEP=8.6-8.8). The pH dependent surface charge is most likely due to the protonation/deprotonation of singly coordinated Al-OH surface groups, prevailing on the edge planes of the rod-like bayerite crystals and the surface of the colloidal Al2O3 particles. These surface groups are also believed to act as ligands for lanthanide/actinide(III) surface complexation. In contrast to the similar sorption behavior at trace metal ion concentrations, discrepancies are observed at higher Eu levels. While similar sorption edges occur up to 7×10(-7)M Eu for corundum, the pH edge on bayerite is gradually shifted to higher pH values in this Eu concentration range. The latter behavior may be related either to the existence of multiple sorption sites with different sorption affinities, or to the influence of an additional amorphous Al-phase, forming in the course of the bayerite synthesis. PMID:26402780

  14. CmWRKY15 Facilitates Alternaria tenuissima Infection of Chrysanthemum

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qingqing; Song, Aiping; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Wang, Yinjie; Li, Xiran; Chen, Fadi

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has an important role in the responses of plants to pathogens due to its ability to induce stomatal closure and interact with salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in the response of plants to a variety of pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that CmWRKY15, a group IIa WRKY family member, was not transcriptionally activated in yeast cells. Subcellular localization experiments in which onion epidermal cells were transiently transfected with CmWRKY15 indicated that CmWRKY15 localized to the nucleus in vivo. The expression of CmWRKY15 could be markedly induced by the presence of Alternaria tenuissima inoculum in chrysanthemum. Furthermore, the disease severity index (DSI) data of CmWRKY15-overexpressing plants indicated that CmWRKY15 overexpression enhanced the susceptibility of chrysanthemum to A. tenuissima infection compared to controls. To illustrate the mechanisms by which CmWRKY15 regulates the response to A. tenuissima inoculation, the expression levels of ABA-responsive and ABA signaling genes, such as ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, RAB18, DREB1A, DREB2A, PYL2, PP2C, RCAR1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, NCED3A, NCED3B, GTG1, AKT1, AKT2, KAT1, KAT2, and KC1were compared between transgenic plants and controls. In summary, our data suggest that CmWRKY15 might facilitate A. tenuissima infection by antagonistically regulating the expression of ABA-responsive genes and genes involved in ABA signaling, either directly or indirectly. PMID:26600125

  15. Statistical relationship of the NO2 slant column densities over Stara Zagora station and the solar F10.7 flux with consideration of the QBO phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valev, D.; Werner, R.; Atanassov, A.; Kostadinov, I.; Giovanelli, G.; Ravegnani, F.; Petritoli, A.; Bortoli, D.; Palazzi, E.; Markova, T.

    2008-12-01

    By means of the GASCOD spectrometer at Stara Zagora station (42.8 N, 26.1 E), data series were obtained of monthly NO2am (at sunrise) and NO2pm (at sunset) slant column densities (SCD), covering the interval from September 1999 to the end of 2006. After removing the seasonal cycle, relationships between the NO2am and F10.7 solar flux and NO2pm and F10.7 were sought. The monthly deseasonalized NO2am show a positive statistical significant correlation with F10.7 having r = 0.41 at level p = 0.01. No statistical significant correlations were found between monthly NO2pm and F10.7 unless the QBO phase was taken into consideration. The original data series of the quasi-biennial oscillations (QBO) at the level of 30 h Pa have been used to study the relation between the NO2 and the F10.7 taking into account the QBO phase. The data have been separated into two different groups ? positive (westerly) and negative (easterly) QBO phase. As a result, during the negative QBO phase, the monthly NO2pm show a negative correlation with F10.7 (r = - 0.37 and p = 0.01). During the positive QBO phase, the monthly NO2pm show no correlation with F10.7 (r = 0.02). The separation of NO2am into two groups according to the sign of the QBO phase practically does not change the results - the correlation coefficient remains between 0.40 and 0.43 at level p = 0.01. The statistical significance of the found relationships was determined by means of Student's t-test.

  16. Supplemental Data S1 The Scope and Limits

    E-print Network

    Koch, Christof

    Supplemental Data S1 The Scope and Limits of Top-Down Attention in Unconscious Visual Processing of the let- ter ``X'' at the location indicated before the beginning of a trial. The design was manipulated explicitly with the letter task. Only the invisible condition was tested. Twenty-four trials were

  17. Maribo—A new CM fall from Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Henning; Grau, Thomas; Bischoff, Addi; Horstmann, Marian; Wasson, John; Sørensen, Anton; Laubenstein, Matthias; Ott, Ulrich; Palme, Herbert; Gellissen, Marko; Greenwood, Richard C.; Pearson, Victoria K.; Franchi, Ian A.; Gabelica, Zelimir; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Maribo is a new Danish CM chondrite, which fell on January 17, 2009, at 19:08:28 CET. The fall was observed by many eye witnesses and recorded by a surveillance camera, an all sky camera, a few seismic stations, and by meteor radar observatories in Germany. A single fragment of Maribo with a dry weight of 25.8 g was found on March 4, 2009. The coarse-grained components in Maribo include chondrules, fine-grained olivine aggregates, large isolated lithic clasts, metals, and mineral fragments (often olivine), and rare Ca,Al-rich inclusions. The components are typically rimmed by fine-grained dust mantles. The matrix includes abundant dust rimmed fragments of tochilinite with a layered, fishbone-like texture, tochilinite-cronstedtite intergrowths, sulfides, metals, and carbonates often intergrown with tochilinite. The oxygen isotopic composition: (?17O = -1.27‰; ?18O = 4.96‰; ?17O = -3.85‰) plots at the edge of the CM field, close to the CCAM line. The very low ?17O and the presence of unaltered components suggest that Maribo is among the least altered CM chondrites. The bulk chemistry of Maribo is typical of CM chondrites. Trapped noble gases are similar in abundance and isotopic composition to other CM chondrites, stepwise heating data indicating the presence of gas components hosted by presolar diamond and silicon carbide. The organics in Maribo include components also seen in Murchison as well as nitrogen-rich components unique to Maribo.

  18. CM Carbonaceous Chondrite Lithologies and Their Space Exposure Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Gregory, Timothy; Takenouchi, Atsushi; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Trieman, Alan; Berger, Eve; Le, Loan; Fagan, Amy; Velbel, Michael; Imae, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The CMs are the most commonly falling C chondrites, and therefore may be a major component of C-class asteroids, the targets of several current and future space missions. Previous work [1] has concluded that CM chondrites fall into at least four distinct cosmic ray space exposure (CRE) age groups (0.1 million years, 0.2 million years, 0.6 million years and greater than 2.0 million years), an unusually large number, but the meaning of these groupings is unclear. It is possible that these meteorites came from different parent bodies which broke up at different times, or instead came from the same parent body which underwent multiple break-up events, or a combination of these scenarios, or something else entirely. The objective of this study is to investigate the diversity of lithologies which make up CM chondrites, in order to determine whether the different exposure ages correspond to specific, different CM lithologies, which permit us to constrain the history of the CM parent body(ies). We have already reported significant petrographic differences among CM chondrites [2-4]. We report here our new results.

  19. Roles of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) Receptors in Malignant Behavior of Glioma Cells. Differential Effects of S1P2 on Cell Migration and Invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Young, Nicholas; Van Brocklyn, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that signals through a family of five G protein-coupled receptors, termed S1P1–5. S1P stimulates growth and invasiveness of glioma cells, and high expression levels of the enzyme that forms S1P, sphingosine kinase-1, correlate with short survival of glioma patients. In this study we examined the mechanism of S1P stimulation of glioma cell proliferation and invasion by either overexpressing or knocking down, by RNA interference, S1P receptor expression in glioma cell lines. S1P1, S1P2 and S1P3 all contribute positively to S1P-stimulated glioma cell proliferation, with S1P1 being the major contributor. Stimulation of glioma cell proliferation by these receptors correlated with activation of ERK MAP kinase. S1P5 blocks glioma cell proliferation, and inhibits ERK activation. S1P1 and S1P3 enhance glioma cell migration and invasion. S1P2 inhibits migration through Rho activation, Rho kinase signaling and stress fiber formation, but unexpectedly, enhances glioma cell invasiveness by stimulating cell adhesion. S1P2 also potently enhances expression of the matricellular protein CCN1/Cyr61, which has been implicated in tumor cell adhesion, and invasion as well as tumor angiogenesis. A neutralizing antibody to CCN1 blocked S1P2-stimulated glioma invasion. Thus, while S1P2 decreases glioma cell motility, it may enhance invasion through induction of proteins that modulate glioma cell interaction with the extracellular matrix. PMID:17376432

  20. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling regulates receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, Harunori; Kitano, Masayasu; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sato, Chieri; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto; Miyazawa, Keiji; Hla, Timothy; Sano, Hajime

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of S1P in MH7A cells was inhibited by specific Gi/Go inhibitors. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling plays an important role in synovial cell proliferation and inflammatory gene expression by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of S1P/S1P1 signaling in the expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) in RA synoviocytes and CD4{sup +} T cells. We demonstrated MH7A cells, a human RA synovial cell line, and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Surprisingly, S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, S1P enhanced RANKL expression induced by stimulation with TNF-{alpha} in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. These effects of S1P in MH7A cells were inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, a specific Gi/Go inhibitor. These findings suggest that S1P/S1P1 signaling may play an important role in RANKL expression by MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling of RA synoviocytes is closely connected with synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA. Thus, regulation of S1P/S1P1 signaling may become a novel therapeutic target for RA.

  1. CM-2 Environmental/Modal Testing of SPACEHAB Racks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.

    2001-01-01

    Combined environmental/modal vibration testing has been implemented at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Dynamics Laboratory. The benefits of combined vibration testing are that it facilitates test article modal characterization and vibration qualification testing. The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that will launch on shuttle mission STS-107 in the SPACEHAB Research Double Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is integrated into a SPACEHAB single and double rack. CM-2 rack-level combined vibration testing was recently completed on a shaker table to characterize the structure's modal response and verify the random vibration response. Control accelerometers and limit force gauges, located between the fixture and rack interface, were used to verify the input excitation. Results of the testing were used to verify the loads and environments for flight on the shuttles.

  2. CM-2 Environmental / Modal Testing of Spacehab Racks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Farkas, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    Combined environmental/modal vibration testing has been implemented at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Dynamics Laboratory. The benefits of combined vibration testing are that it facilitates test article modal characterization and vibration qualification testing. The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that launches on Shuttle mission STS 107 in the SPACEHAB Research Double Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is integrated into a SPACEHAB single and double rack. CM-2 rack level combined vibration testing was recently completed on a shaker table to characterize the structure's modal response and verify the random vibration response. Control accelerometers and limit force gauges, located between the fixture and rack interface, were used to verify the input excitation. Results of the testing were used to verify the loads and environments for flight on the Shuttle.

  3. VLA observations of Uranus at 1. 3-20 cm

    SciTech Connect

    De Pater, I.; Gulkis, S.

    1988-08-01

    Observations of Uranus, obtained with resolution 0.5-1.2 arcsec at wavelengths 1.3, 2, 6, and 20 cm using the A and B configurations of the VLA in June-July 1982, October 1983, and February 1984, are reported. The disk-averaged brightness temperatures (DABTs) are determined by model fitting, and the results are presented in extensive graphs and contour maps and characterized in detail. Findings discussed include: (1) an overall spectrum which is relatively flat above 6 cm, (2) 1.3-6-cm brightness which is concentrated nearer to the pole than to the subsolar point, and (3) small changes in DABT from 1982 to 1983/1984 (consistent with an explanation based on a pole-equator temperature gradient). 16 references.

  4. Structural silicone performance testing on 2 cm polished granite

    SciTech Connect

    Carbary, L.D.; Fulton, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Polished granite panels, 91 cm (36 in.) x 152 cm (60 in.) x 2 cm (3/4 in.) were structurally attached with silicone adhesives to anodized aluminum frames and pressure tested to destruction after 21 days of cure and after six winters of exposed aging in Cold Spring, Minnesota. Silicone adhesives were tested for physical properties using an ASTM C1135 method both initially and after aging. Polished red granite samples were tested to a modified ASTM C880 dry and wet initially and after aging. Adhesive deflection was studied and reported along with ultimate loads required for destruction of the silicone attached granite panel. The structural silicone adhesives were found to be unaffected by the freeze-thaw cycling experienced by the panels. Ultimate performance of the aged composite panels were essentially unchanged from the initial performance. Flexural strength of the granite was found to have decreased over the test period.

  5. Molecular structure of Si_xS_(1-x) glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Boolchand, P.

    2000-03-01

    Bulk Si_xS_1-x glasses in the 0.15S_1/2)4 tetrahedra, S_8-ring and Sn chains. The observed lineshapes change systematically with x, in a manner qualitatively similar to the case of corresponding Selenide glasses( D. Selvanathan, W. J. Bresser, P. Boolchand, B. Goodman Solid State Comm. 111, 619(1999)). Glass transition temperatures established by T-modulated DSC show an increase with x. Results of Raman and MDSC will be correlated, and discussed in relation to the nature of stiffness transitions anticipated in this binary glass system near x ~0.20.

  6. Room for an S = +1 pentaquark in K^+ - nucleus phenomenology

    E-print Network

    A. Gal; E. Friedman

    2006-02-02

    Evidence for excitation of exotic S=+1 pentaquark degrees of freedom is presented by studying optical-potential fits to K^+ - nucleus total, reaction and elastic-differential cross section data at p(lab) = 500 - 700 MeV/c. Estimates of the underlying two-nucleon absorption K^+ n N --> Theta^+ N reaction cross section are made and are used for discussing the anticipated cross section of the strangeness exchange reaction K^+ N --> pi Theta^+.

  7. Evidence for live 247Cm in the early solar system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatsumoto, M.; Shimamura, T.

    1980-01-01

    Variations of the 238U/235U ratio in the Allende meteorite, ranging from -35% to + 19%, are interpreted as evidence of live 247Cm in the early Solar System. The amounts of these and other r-products in the Solar System indicate values of (9,000??3,000) Myr for the age of the Galaxy and ??? 8 Myr for the time between the end of nucleosynthesis and the formation of meteoritic grains. Three possible explanations are presented for the different values of the latter time period which are indicated by the decay products of 247Cm, 26Al, 244Pu and 129I. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  8. Cross section for {sup 246}Cm subbarrier fission

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, A. A.; Bergman, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Koptelov, E. A.; Samylin, B. F.; Trufanov, A. M.; Fursov, B. I.; Shorin, V. S.

    2010-10-15

    The cross section for {sup 246}Cm fission induced by neutrons of energy in the range 0.1 eV-20 keV was measured by the neutron lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS-100) of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). The parameters of the resonance area and of the fission width were evaluated for several low-lying s-wave neutron resonances. The parameters of the intermediate structure in the cross section for the subbarrier fusion of {sup 246}Cm nuclei were found. The results obtained in this way were compared with available experimental data and with recommended evaluated data.

  9. Cross section for the subbarrier fission of {sup 244}Cm

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, A. A.; Bergman, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Koptelov, E. A.; Samylin, B. F.; Svirin, M. I.; Trufanov, A. M.; Fursov, B. I.; Shorin, V. S.

    2010-09-15

    The cross section for {sup 244}Cm fission induced by neutrons of energy in the range between 0.07 eV and 20 keV was measured by using the lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS-100) of the Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). The parameters of the resonance areas were determined for the lowest eight s-wave neutron resonances, and the respective fission widths were evaluated. Also, the parameters of the intermediate structure in the cross section for the subbarrier fission of {sup 244}Cm nuclei were evaluated. The results were compared with available data and recommendations based on evaluations.

  10. Inert gas test of two 12-cm magnetostatic thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    Comparative performance tests were conducted with 12 cm line and ring magnetic cusp thrusters. Shell anode and magnetoelectrostatic containment boundary anode configurations were evaluated with each magnet array. The best performance was achieved with the 12-cm ring cusp-shell anode configuration. Argon operation of this configuration produced 65-81 percent mass utilization efficiency at 170-208 watts/single-charged-equivalent (SCE) ampere beam. Xenon test results showed 75-95 percent utilization at 162-188 watts/SCE ampere beam.

  11. POLYSHIFT Communications Software for the Connection Machine System CM-200

    DOE PAGESBeta

    George, William; Brickner, Ralph G.; Johnsson, S. Lennart

    1994-01-01

    We describe the use and implementation of a polyshift function PSHIFT for circular shifts and end-offs shifts. Polyshift is useful in many scientific codes using regular grids, such as finite difference codes in several dimensions, and multigrid codes, molecular dynamics computations, and in lattice gauge physics computations, such as quantum chromodynamics (QCD) calculations. Our implementation of the PSHIFT function on the Connection Machine systems CM-2 and CM-200 offers a speedup of up to a factor of 3–4 compared with CSHIFT when the local data motion within a node is small. The PSHIFT routine is included in the Connection Machine Scientificmore »Software Library (CMSSL).« less

  12. Evidence for live Cm-247 in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatsumoto, M.; Shimamura, T.

    1980-01-01

    Variations of the U-238/U-235 ratio in the Allende meteorite, ranging from -35% to +19% are interpreted as evidence of live Cm-247 in the early solar system. The amounts of these and other r-products in the solar system indicate values of (9000 + or - 3000) million years for the age of the Galaxy and approximately 8 million years for the time between the end of nucleosynthesis and the formation of meteoritic grains. Three possible explanations are presented for the different values of the latter time period which are indicated by the decay of products of Cm-247, Al-27, Pu-244, and I-129.

  13. Evidence for live Cm-247 in the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumoto, M.; Shimamura, T.

    1980-07-01

    Variations of the U-238/U-235 ratio in the Allende meteorite, ranging from -35% to +19% are interpreted as evidence of live Cm-247 in the early solar system. The amounts of these and other r-products in the solar system indicate values of (9000 + or - 3000) million years for the age of the Galaxy and approximately 8 million years for the time between the end of nucleosynthesis and the formation of meteoritic grains. Three possible explanations are presented for the different values of the latter time period which are indicated by the decay of products of Cm-247, Al-27, Pu-244, and I-129.

  14. Precise measurements of primordial power spectrum with 21 cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: oyamayo@post.kek.jp E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the issue of how precisely we can measure the primordial power spectrum by using future observations of 21 cm fluctuations and cosmic microwave background (CMB). For this purpose, we investigate projected constraints on the quantities characterizing primordial power spectrum: the spectral index n{sub s}, its running ?{sub s} and even its higher order running ?{sub s}. We show that future 21 cm observations in combinations with CMB would accurately measure above mentioned observables of primordial power spectrum. We also discuss its implications to some explicit inflationary models.

  15. HI 21cm probes of reionization, and beyond

    E-print Network

    C. L. Carilli

    2005-09-02

    I review the potential for observing cosmic reionization using the HI 21cm line of neutral hydrogren. Studies include observations of the evolution of large scale structure of the IGM (density, excitation temperature, and neutral fraction), through HI 21cm emission, as well as observations of small to intermediate scale structure through absorption toward the first discrete radio sources. I summarize predictions for the HI signals, then consider capabilities of facilities being built, or planned, to detect these signals. I also discuss the significant observational challenges.

  16. Alpha-decay damage of Cm-doped perovskite

    SciTech Connect

    Mitamura, H.; Matsumoto, S.; Tsuboi, T.; Vance, E.R.; Begg, B.D.; Hart, K.P.

    1995-12-31

    Curium-doped perovskite slurry, which had the nominal composition of Ca{sub 0.98919}(CM,Pu){sub 0.01081}Al{sub 0.01081}Ti{sub 0.98919}O{sub 3}, was calcined at 750 C for 2 h and then hot-pressed at 1,250 C and 29MPa for 2 h. The hot-pressed cylinder samples had the specific {sup 244}Cm activity of 22.3 GBq/g on 31 March 1993. Their average density was 4.083 g/cm{sup 3} after the samples got a cumulative dose of 0.7 {times} 10{sup 17} {alpha} decays/g. The rate of density change was slightly larger in the present perovskite material than in Cm-doped Synroc reported previously. Half-disk perovskite specimens, which had accumulated doses of 1.6 {times} 10{sup 17} and 4.0 {times} 10{sup 17} {alpha} decays/g, were MCC-1 leach tested in pH {approximately}2 solution at 90 C and 2.3 g/m{sup 2}/day, respectively. These high leach rates caused a significant increase in pH in the later stage of the leaching runs. As-leached surfaces of Cm-doped perovskite showed the formation of anatase (TiO{sub 2}). For the first 28 days, the Ca and Cm leach rates at the two different doses increased with leach time. More damaged specimens tended to give higher leach rates. In the final 28-day leaching run, both leach rates at the two different doses converged on each lower value although the Cm leach rate was lower than the Ca leach rate by a factor of >20. Nonradioactive perovskite material showed similar changes in Ca leach rate and pH to the Cm-doped one although the as-leached surfaces of the former material showed much higher degree of alteration of perovskite to anatase.

  17. The global S1 tide and Earth's nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, M.; Böhm, J.; Salstein, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    Diurnal S1 tidal atmospheric oscillations induced by the cyclic heating of air masses through solar radiation elicit a small contribution to Earth's prograde annual nutation at a level of 100 ?as (microarcseconds). Previously published estimates of this Sun-synchronous perturbation based on angular momentum series from global geophysical fluid models have however diverged, and within the present conventional nutation theory, the effect has been instead accounted for in an empirical manner based on analyzing residual spectra of observed celestial pole offsets. This study constitutes a first, tentative reassessment of the S1 signal in nutation by resorting to modern-day atmospheric reanalyses as well as available hydrodynamic solutions for diurnal oceanic angular momentum changes that are driven by daily air pressure variations at the water surface. We elucidate the global character of the S1 tide with particular regard to Earth rotation variations and investigate to which extent atmospheric and oceanic excitation terms from various sources can be superimposed. The combined influence of the principal diurnal tide on Earth's nutation, associated with both atmosphere and ocean dynamics, is found to yield a sound agreement with its observational evidence from geodetic VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) measurements.

  18. Search for ammonia in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, S.; Codella, C.; Tozzi, G. P.; Comoretto, G.; Crovisier, J.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Boissier, J.; Brucato, J. R.; Bolli, P.; Massi, F.; Tofani, G.

    2015-12-01

    Comets are uniquely pristine bodies providing unique insights about the formation of our Solar System. In this work, we focus on a dynamically new comet as it enters the inner Solar System for the first time after residing for billion of years in the Oort Cloud. Such comets are particularly important because they are thought to be not differentiated by solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of organic matter close to the surface. Here we report the results of a search for NH3(1,1) emission at 23.7 GHz towards comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) using a new dual-feed K band receiver mounted on the Medicina 32-m antenna. We observed the comet close to its perihelion, from 25 to 29 November 2013, when its heliocentric distance changed from 0.25 AU to 0.03 AU. We derive an upper limit of Q(NH3) of about 2.5×1029 mol s-1 on 26 November, that is consistent with the last peak of water production rate of ?2×1030 mol s-1 within the last few days before the perihelion.

  19. BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #19 [cm: Connective tissues

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    ME411/511 BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #19 [cm: Connective tissues] General Objectives: Connective tissues are a group of tissues which bind structures together and provide a framework Mechanics of connective tissues and systems Central Framework: Connective tissues provide the mechanical

  20. BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #19 [cm: Connective tissues

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    ME498/599 BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #19 [cm: Connective tissues] General Objectives: Connective tissues are a group of tissues which bind structures together and provide a framework Mechanics of connective tissues and systems Central Framework: Connective tissues provide the mechanical

  1. Particle decay in the early universe: predictions for 21 cm

    E-print Network

    Yu. A. Shchekinov; E. O. Vasiliev

    2007-04-13

    The influence of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and decaying dark matter particles on the emission and absorption characteristics of neutral hydrogen in 21 cm at redshifts $z = 10-50$ is considered. In presence of UHECRs 21 cm can be seen in absorption with the brightness temperature $T_b=-(5-10)$ mK in the range $z=10-30$. Decayng particles can stimulate a 21 cm signal in emission with $T_b\\sim 50-60$ mK at $z =50$, and $T_b \\simeq 10$ mK at $z \\sim 20$. Characteristics of the fluctuations of the brightness temperature, in particular, its power spectrum are also calculated. The maps of the power spectrum of the brightness temperature on the plane {\\it wavenumber-redshift} are shown to be sensitive to the parameters of UHECRs and decaying dark matter. Observational possibilities to detect manifestations of UHECRs and/or decaying particles in 21 cm with the future radio telescopes (LOFAR, 21CMA and SKA), and to distinguish contributions from them are briefly discussed.

  2. Adaptation of California Measure of Mental Motivation-CM3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Hasan Fehmi; Demirtasli, Nükhet Çikrikçi

    2015-01-01

    Education without doubt, plays a vital role for individuals to gain the essential personal traits of the 21st century, also known as "knowledge age". One of the most important skills among these fundamental qualities which the individuals should be equipped with is critical thinking. California Measure of Mental Motivation-CM3 was…

  3. Search for Cm-248 in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavielle, B.; Marti, K.; Pellas, P.; Perron, C.

    1992-01-01

    Possible evidence for the presence of Cm-248 in the early solar system was reported from fission gas studies (Rao and Gopalan, 1973) and recently from studies of very high nuclear track densities (not less than 5 x 10 exp 8/sq cm) in the merrillite of the H4 chondrite Forest Vale (F.V.) (Pellas et al., 1987). We report here an analysis of the isotopic abundances of xenon in F.V. phosphates and results of track studies in phosphate/pyroxene contacts. The fission xenon isotopic signature clearly identifies Pu-244 as the extinct progenitor. We calculate an upper limit Cm-248/Pu-244 to be less than 0.0015 at the beginning of Xe retention in F.V. phosphates. This corresponds to an upper limit of the ratio Cm-248/U-235 of not greater than 5 x 10 exp -5 further constraining the evidence for any late addition of freshly synthesized actinide elements just prior to solar system formation. The fission track density observed after annealing the phosphates at 290C (1 hr, which essentially erases spallation recoil tracks) is also in agreement with the Pu-244 abundance inferred from fission Xe. The spallation recoil tracks produced during the 76 Ma cosmic-ray exposure account for the very high track density in merrillites.

  4. Retrofit and acceptance test of 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Six 30 cm mercury thrusters were modified to the J-series design and evaluated using standardized test procedures. The thruster performance meets the design objectives (lifetime objective requires verification), and documentation (drawings, etc.) for the design is completed and upgraded. The retrofit modifications are described and the test data for the modifications are presented and discussed.

  5. The Paris meteorite, the least altered CM chondrite so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewins, Roger H.; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Zanda, Brigitte; Leroux, Hugues; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Humayun, Munir; Göpel, Christa; Greenwood, Richard C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Pont, Sylvain; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Cournède, Cécile; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Rochette, Pierre; Kuga, Maïa; Marrocchi, Yves; Marty, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The Paris chondrite provides an excellent opportunity to study CM chondrules and refractory inclusions in a more pristine state than currently possible from other CMs, and to investigate the earliest stages of aqueous alteration captured within a single CM bulk composition. It was found in the effects of a former colonial mining engineer and may have been an observed fall. The texture, mineralogy, petrography, magnetic properties and chemical and isotopic compositions are consistent with classification as a CM2 chondrite. There are ?45 vol.% high-temperature components mainly Type I chondrules (with olivine mostly Fa0-2, mean Fa0.9) with granular textures because of low mesostasis abundances. Type II chondrules contain olivine Fa7 to Fa76. These are dominantly of Type IIA, but there are IIAB and IIB chondrules, II(A)B chondrules with minor highly ferroan olivine, and IIA(C) with augite as the only pyroxene. The refractory inclusions in Paris are amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) and fine-grained spinel-rich Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). The CAI phases formed in the sequence hibonite, perovskite, grossite, spinel, gehlenite, anorthite, diopside/fassaite and forsterite. The most refractory phases are embedded in spinel, which also occurs as massive nodules. Refractory metal nuggets are found in many CAI and refractory platinum group element abundances (PGE) decrease following the observed condensation sequences of their host phases. Mn-Cr isotope measurements of mineral separates from Paris define a regression line with a slope of 53Mn/55Mn = (5.76 ± 0.76) × 106. If we interpret Cr isotopic systematics as dating Paris components, particularly the chondrules, the age is 4566.44 ± 0.66 Myr, which is close to the age of CAI and puts new constraints on the early evolution of the solar system. Eleven individual Paris samples define an O isotope mixing line that passes through CM2 and CO3 falls and indicates that Paris is a very fresh sample, with variation explained by local differences in the extent of alteration. The anhydrous precursor to the CM2s was CO3-like, but the two groups differed in that the CMs accreted a higher proportion of water. Paris has little matrix (?47%, plus 8% fine grained rims) and is less altered than other CM chondrites. Chondrule silicates (except mesostasis), CAI phases, submicron forsterite and amorphous silicate in the matrix are all well preserved in the freshest domains, and there is abundant metal preserved (metal alteration stage 1 of Palmer and Lauretta (2011)). Metal and sulfide compositions and textures correspond to the least heated or equilibrated CM chondrites, Category A of Kimura et al. (2011). The composition of tochilinite-cronstedtite intergrowths gives a PCP index of ?2.9. Cronstedtite is more abundant in the more altered zones whereas in normal highly altered CM chondrites, with petrologic subtype 2.6-2.0 based on the S/SiO2 and ?FeO/SiO2 ratios in PCP or tochilinite-cronstedtite intergrowths (Rubin et al., 2007), cronstedtite is destroyed by alteration. The matrix in fresh zones has CI chondritic volatile element abundances, but interactions between matrix and chondrules occurred during alteration, modifying the volatile element abundances in the altered zones. Paris has higher trapped Ne contents, more primitive organic compounds, and more primitive organic material than other CMs. There are gradational contacts between domains of different degree of alteration, on the scale of ?1 cm, but also highly altered clasts, suggesting mainly a water-limited style of alteration, with no significant metamorphic reheating.

  6. Bells and Essebi: To Be or Not To Be (CM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallemeyn, G. W.

    1995-09-01

    The Bells and Essebi carbonaceous chondrites have long been associated with the CM group, although petrographic and isotopic observations have questioned that relationship. Samples of Bells and Essebi were obtained for bulk compositional study by neutron activation analysis (INAA) in an attempt to further fuel the debate on this issue. The current INAA work for Bells is complete, but analysis of Essebi is ongoing, and therefore the data is preliminary. Although CM chondrites typically contain <3 wt% magnetite, Bells and Essebi contain approximately 16 wt% and 11 wt% magnetite, respectively [1]. Both Bells and Essebi seem to have suffered more intense aqueous alteration than typical CM chondrites [2]. Bells has a phyllosilicate matrix composition closer to CI chondrites than CM chondrites [3]. The delta 15N value for Bells is much higher than any of the established carbonaceous chondrite groups[4]. Carbonate material in Essebi has delta 13C compositions (+62 per mil to +80 per mil) higher than the CM mode of +40 per mil to +50 per mil [5]. Both Bells and Essebi have whole rock O-isotope compositions in the CM chondrite range, but Essebi has separated matrix and magnetite values similar to whole rock and magnetite values in CI chondrites [6]. Samples of Bells were from two different stones collected after the fall. One stone was collected the day after the fall, the other was collected several days later after a hurricane went through the area. The samples will be referred to as 'normal' Bells and 'weathered' Bells, respectively. The 'normal' and 'weathered' Bells samples are very similar in composition with a few notable exceptions. The Mg-normalized abundances of Na, K and Br in 'weathered' Bells are markedly depleted relative to 'normal' Bells. The abundance of Ca is also lower to a smaller extent. One must be cautious of compositional studies of late-collected Bells specimens as they may have been altered by the affects of rainwater. Refractory lithophile abundances (Mg-normalized) in Bells are at CI chondrite levels, not CM, but volatile lithophile abundances follow a normal CM depletion pattern relative to CI chondrites. Common siderophile (Fe, Co, Ni) abundances are also at CI chondrite levels, but normalized refractory siderophile abundances are elevated relative to CI chondrites, and greater than even CM chondrite abundances. The Au abundance in Bells is lower than those of the common siderophiles, a pattern unlike CM chondrites where the abundances are all very similar. On a Zn/Mn vs. Al/Mn diagram Bells plots just outside the tight cluster of CM chondrites in the direction of CI chondrites. Bells does not easily fall into any classification scheme. It does not appear to be a CM chondrite, though. Only preliminary data is available for Essebi. Refractory siderophile abundances (Ni-normalized) are similar to CM, but volatile siderophile and chalcophile element abundances appear to be noticeably lower, a pattern similar to the anomalous chondrite Al Rais. On a Zn/Mn vs. Al/Mn diagram Essebi plots just outside the CM chondrite cluster on the side opposite Bells and very near Al Rais. Essebi may be related to the same clan as Al Rais, an idea that is also supported by their very similar whole-rock O-isotope compositions [6,7]. It is also probably not closely related to Bells. The picture on Essebi may become clearer once the INAA analysis is complete (including key lithophile elements). References: [1] Hyman M. and Rowe M. W. (1983) LPS XIV, 341-342. [2] Metzler K. et al. (1992) GCA, 56, 2873-2897. [3] Davis A. M. and Olsen E. (1984) LPS XV, 190-191. [4] Kerridge J. F. (1985) GCA, 49, 1707-1714. [5] Grady M. M. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 2855-2866. [6] Rowe M. W. et al. (1994) GCA, 58, 5341-5347. [7] Weisberg M. K. et al. (1993) GCA, 57, 1567-1586. _

  7. 25 CFR 10.7 - Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies...COUNTRY DETENTION FACILITIES AND PROGRAMS § 10.7 Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the...

  8. 25 CFR 10.7 - Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies...COUNTRY DETENTION FACILITIES AND PROGRAMS § 10.7 Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the...

  9. S1×S2 wormholes and topological charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, S. Alexander

    1994-07-01

    I investigate solutions to the Euclidean Einstein-matter field equations with the topology S1×S2×R in a theory with a massless periodic scalar field and electromagnetism. These solutions carry the winding number of the periodic scalar as well as magnetic flux. They induce violations of a quasitopological conservation law which conserves the product of the magnetic flux and winding number on the background spacetime. I extend these solutions to a model with stable loops of superconducting cosmic string and interpret them as contributing to the decay of such loops.

  10. Local carbon diffusion coefficient measurement in the S-1 spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, R.M.; Levinton, F.M.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Chu, T.K.; Paul, S.F.; Yamada, M.

    1988-10-01

    The local carbon diffusion coefficient was measured in the S - 1 spheromak by detecting the radial spread of injected carbon impurity. The radial impurity density profile is determined by the balance of ionization and diffusion. Using measured local electron temperature T/sub e/ and density n/sub e/, the ionization rate is determined from which the particle diffusion coefficient is inferred. The results found in this work are consistent with Bohm diffusion. The absolute magnitude of D/sub /perpendicular// was determined to be (4/approximately/6) /times/ D/sub Bohm/. 25 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Supplemental Data S1 Regulation of MBK-2/Dyrk Kinase

    E-print Network

    Seydoux, Geraldine

    )] independent measures. Table S1. Strains Used in This Study Name Description Genotype Reference JH 1576 pie-1prom:GFP:MBK-2 unc-119(ed3);axls1140[pJP1.02] [S2] JH1714 pie-1prom:GFP:MBK-2(K196R) unc-119(ed3);axIs1227[pJP1.08] [S3] JH 1580 mbk-2(null) unc-24(e1172) mbk-2(pk1427)/nT1 [S2] JH2386 pie-1prom:GFP:EGG-3

  12. Neptune's microwave spectrum from 1 mm to 20 cm

    SciTech Connect

    De Pater, I.; Richmond, M. )

    1989-07-01

    Total flux densities and disk-averaged brightness temperatures have been tabulated on the basis of VLA observations of Neptune at 1.3, 2, 6, and 20 cm wavelengths; a recalibration is also conducted of previous observations in order to accurately ascertain the spectral shape of this planet, which is found to have increasing brightness temperature with increasing wavelength, in contrast with that of Uranus. If all the detected emission is atmospheric thermal radiation, ammonia abundance must either be a factor of about 50 lower than the solar N value throughout the Neptune atmosphere, or the planet must emit about 0.3-0.5 mJy synchrotron radiation at 20 cm; the latter possibility is consistent with a planetary magnetic field strength of about 0.5 G at the surface. 39 refs.

  13. Intensity Mapping During Reionization: 21 cm and Cross-correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, James E.; HERA Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The first generation of 21 cm epoch of reionization (EoR) experiments are now reaching the sensitivities necessary for a detection of the power spectrum of plausible reionization models, and with the advent of next-generation capabilities (e.g. the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) and the Square Kilometer Array Phase I Low) will move beyond the power spectrum to imaging of the EoR intergalactic medium. Such datasets provide context to galaxy evolution studies for the earliest galaxies on scales of tens of Mpc, but at present wide, deep galaxy surveys are lacking, and attaining the depth to survey the bulk of galaxies responsible for reionization will be challenging even for JWST. Thus we seek useful cross-correlations with other more direct tracers of the galaxy population. I review near-term prospects for cross-correlation studies with 21 cm and CO and CII emission, as well as future far-infrared misions suchas CALISTO.

  14. Refractory-element-rich inclusions in CM meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdougall, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Refractory-element-rich inclusions of a variety of types occur in CM meteorites. Based on detailed study of Murchison and more limited investigations of Murray, Nogoya, Cold Bokkeveld and Mighei, the most common of these inclusions are small spinel-hibonite bodies rimmed with diopside. Bulk chemical compositions are estimated to be approximately 67% Al2O3, 21% MgO, 5.5% CaO, 5.5% TiO2, and 1% SiO2. Although this chemical composition does not agree closely with current theoretically predicted compositions of early condensate assemblages, the inclusions have many features which suggest that they are indeed early condensates. These include texture, mineralogical composition, sequence of minerals and magnesium isotopic composition of hibonite. The CM refractory inclusions exhibit several differences from those observed in Allende and other CV meteorites. These probably record variations in time, place or physical conditions of origin for the two cases.

  15. Viscoelastic hydrodynamic interactions and anomalous CM diffusion in polymer melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Hendrik; Farago, Jean; Semenov, A. N.

    2014-03-01

    We have recently discovered that anomalous center-of-mass (CM) diffusion occurring on intermediate time scales in polymer melts can be explained by the interplay of viscoelastic and hydrodynamic interactions (VHI). The theory has been solved for unentangled melts in 3D and 2D and excellent agreement between theory and simulation is found. The physical mechanism considers that hydrodynamic interactions are time dependent because of increasing viscosity before the terminal relaxation time; it is generally active in melts of any topology. Surprisingly, the effects are relevant for both, momentum-conserving and Langevin dynamics and this presentation will focus on the differences: The commonly employed Langevin thermostat significantly changes the CM motion on short and intermediate time scales, but approaching the Rouse time, the melt behavior is close to momentum-conserving simulations. On the other hand, if momentum-conserving simulations are run in too small a simulation box, the result looks as if a Langevin thermostat was used.

  16. Precision measurement of cosmic magnification from 21 cm emitting galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengjie; Pen, Ue-Li; /Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.

    2005-04-01

    We show how precision lensing measurements can be obtained through the lensing magnification effect in high redshift 21cm emission from galaxies. Normally, cosmic magnification measurements have been seriously complicated by galaxy clustering. With precise redshifts obtained from 21cm emission line wavelength, one can correlate galaxies at different source planes, or exclude close pairs to eliminate such contaminations. We provide forecasts for future surveys, specifically the SKA and CLAR. SKA can achieve percent precision on the dark matter power spectrum and the galaxy dark matter cross correlation power spectrum, while CLAR can measure an accurate cross correlation power spectrum. The neutral hydrogen fraction was most likely significantly higher at high redshifts, which improves the number of observed galaxies significantly, such that also CLAR can measure the dark matter lensing power spectrum. SKA can also allow precise measurement of lensing bispectrum.

  17. 21 cm cosmology in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Jonathan R; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-08-01

    Imaging the Universe during the first hundreds of millions of years remains one of the exciting challenges facing modern cosmology. Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line of atomic hydrogen offer the potential of opening a new window into this epoch. This will transform our understanding of the formation of the first stars and galaxies and of the thermal history of the Universe. A new generation of radio telescopes is being constructed for this purpose with the first results starting to trickle in. In this review, we detail the physics that governs the 21 cm signal and describe what might be learnt from upcoming observations. We also generalize our discussion to intensity mapping of other atomic and molecular lines. PMID:22828208

  18. IDENTIFYING IONIZED REGIONS IN NOISY REDSHIFTED 21 cm DATA SETS

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, Matthew; Lidz, Adam

    2013-04-10

    One of the most promising approaches for studying reionization is to use the redshifted 21 cm line. Early generations of redshifted 21 cm surveys will not, however, have the sensitivity to make detailed maps of the reionization process, and will instead focus on statistical measurements. Here, we show that it may nonetheless be possible to directly identify ionized regions in upcoming data sets by applying suitable filters to the noisy data. The locations of prominent minima in the filtered data correspond well with the positions of ionized regions. In particular, we corrupt semi-numeric simulations of the redshifted 21 cm signal during reionization with thermal noise at the level expected for a 500 antenna tile version of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and mimic the degrading effects of foreground cleaning. Using a matched filter technique, we find that the MWA should be able to directly identify ionized regions despite the large thermal noise. In a plausible fiducial model in which {approx}20% of the volume of the universe is neutral at z {approx} 7, we find that a 500-tile MWA may directly identify as many as {approx}150 ionized regions in a 6 MHz portion of its survey volume and roughly determine the size of each of these regions. This may, in turn, allow interesting multi-wavelength follow-up observations, comparing galaxy properties inside and outside of ionized regions. We discuss how the optimal configuration of radio antenna tiles for detecting ionized regions with a matched filter technique differs from the optimal design for measuring power spectra. These considerations have potentially important implications for the design of future redshifted 21 cm surveys.

  19. OH 18 cm Transition as a Thermometer for Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisawa, Yuji; Inokuma, Hiroshi; Sakai, Nami; Menten, Karl M.; Maezawa, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    We have observed the four hyperfine components of the 18 cm OH transition toward the translucent cloud eastward of Heiles Cloud 2 (HCL2E), the cold dark cloud L134N, and the photodissociation region of the ?-Ophiuchi molecular cloud with the Effelsberg 100 m telescope. We have found intensity anomalies among the hyperfine components in all three regions. In particular, an absorption feature of the 1612 MHz satellite line against the cosmic microwave background has been detected toward HCL2E and two positions of the ?-Ophiuchi molecular cloud. On the basis of statistical equilibrium calculations, we find that the hyperfine anomalies originate from the non-LTE population of the hyperfine levels, and can be used to determine the kinetic temperature of the gas over a wide range of H2 densities (102–107 cm?3). Toward the center of HCL2E, the gas kinetic temperature is determined to be 53 ± 1 K, and it increases toward the cloud peripheries (?60 K). The ortho-to-para ratio of H2 is determined to be 3.5 ± 0.9 from the averaged spectrum for the eight positions. In L134N, a similar increase of the temperature is also seen toward the periphery. In the ?-Ophiuchi molecular cloud, the gas kinetic temperature decreases as a function of the distance from the exciting star HD 147889. These results demonstrate a new aspect of the OH 18 cm line that can be used as a good thermometer of molecular cloud envelopes. The OH 18 cm line can be used to trace a new class of warm molecular gas surrounding a molecular cloud, which is not well traced by the emission of CO and its isotopologues.

  20. Exponents of the ideal class groups of CM number fields

    E-print Network

    Provence Aix-Marseille I, Université de

    @iml.univ-mrs.fr Ryotaro OKAZAKI Doshisha University, Dpt. of Mathematics Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321, JAPAN email: rokazaki@mail.doshisha.ac.jp May 16, 2001 Abstract Since class numbers of CM number fields of a given degree go to infinity to infinity, then the class number hK of K (i.e. the order of the class group) must already go to infinity

  1. Exponents of the ideal class groups of CM number fields

    E-print Network

    Provence Aix-Marseille I, Université de

    @iml.univ­mrs.fr Ryotaro OKAZAKI Doshisha University, Dpt. of Mathematics Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610­0321, JAPAN email: rokazaki@mail.doshisha.ac.jp May 16, 2001 Abstract Since class numbers of CM number fields of a given degree go to infinity to infinity, then the class number hK of K (i.e. the order of the class group) must already go to infinity

  2. Power distribution for an Am/Cm bushing melter

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.; Hardy, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    Decades of nuclear material production at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has resulted in the generation of large quantities of the isotopes Am{sup 243} and Cm{sup 244}. Currently, the Am and Cm isotopes are stored as a nitric acid solution in a tank. The Am and Cm isotopes have great commercial value but must be transferred to ORNL for processing. The nitric acid solution contains other isotopes and is intensely radioactive, which makes storage a problem and precludes shipment in the liquid form. In order to stabilize the material for onsite storage and to permit transport the material from SRS to ORNL, it has been proposed that the Am and Cm be separated from other isotopes in the solution and vitrified. Vitrification will be effected by depositing a liquid feed stream containing the isotopes in solution, together with a stream of glass frit, onto the top of a molten glass pool in a melter. The glass is non-conducting and the melter is a Platinum/Rhodium alloy vessel which is heated by passing an electric current through it. Because most of the power is required to evaporate the liquid feed at the top of the glass pool, power demands differ for the upper and lower parts of the melter. In addition, the melter is batch fed so that the local power requirements vary with time. In order to design a unique split power supply, which ensures adequate local power delivery, an analysis of the melter power distribution was performed with the ABAQUS finite element code. ABAQUS was used to calculate the electric potential and current density distributions in the melter for a variety of current and potential boundary conditions. The results of the calculation were compared with test data and will be used to compute power densities for input to a computational fluid dynamics model for the melter.

  3. How accurately can 21 cm tomography constrain cosmology?

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Yi; Tegmark, Max; McQuinn, Matthew; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Zahn, Oliver

    2008-07-15

    There is growing interest in using 3-dimensional neutral hydrogen mapping with the redshifted 21 cm line as a cosmological probe. However, its utility depends on many assumptions. To aid experimental planning and design, we quantify how the precision with which cosmological parameters can be measured depends on a broad range of assumptions, focusing on the 21 cm signal from 6cm tomography measured the matter power spectrum directly. A future square kilometer array optimized for 21 cm tomography could improve the sensitivity to spatial curvature and neutrino masses by up to 2 orders of magnitude, to {delta}{omega}{sub k}{approx_equal}0.0002 and {delta}m{sub {nu}}{approx_equal}0.007 eV, and give a 4{sigma} detection of the spectral index running predicted by the simplest inflation models.

  4. The Transition to ICD-10-CM: Challenges for Pediatric Practice

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Jeffrey; Nam, Hannah; Chae, Sae-Rom; Williams, Lauren; Mathew, Gina; Burton, Michael; Li, Jiarong “John”; Lussier, Yves A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diagnostic codes are used widely within health care for billing, quality assessment, and to measure clinical outcomes. The US health care system will transition to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM), in October 2015. Little is known about how this transition will affect pediatric practices. The objective of this study was to examine how the transition to ICD-10-CM may result in ambiguity of clinical information and financial disruption for pediatricians. METHODS: Using a statewide data set from Illinois Medicaid specified for pediatricians, 2708 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, diagnosis codes were identified. Diagnosis codes were categorized into 1 of 5 categories: identity, class-to-subclass, subclass-to-class, convoluted, and no translation. The convoluted and high-cost diagnostic codes (n = 636) were analyzed for accuracy and categorized into “information loss,” “overlapping categories,” “inconsistent,” and “consistent.” Finally, reimbursement by Medicaid was calculated for each category. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of pediatric diagnosis codes are convoluted, which represents 21% of Illinois Medicaid pediatric patient encounters and 16% of reimbursement. The diagnosis codes represented by information loss (3.6%), overlapping categories (3.2%), and inconsistent (1.2%) represent 8% of Medicaid pediatric reimbursement. CONCLUSIONS: The potential for financial disruption and administrative errors from 8% of reimbursement diagnosis codes necessitates special attention to these codes in preparing for the transition to ICD-10-CM for pediatric practices. PMID:24918217

  5. Low velocity collisions of cm-sized dust-aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beitz, Eike; Blum, Jurgen; Güttler, Carsten

    Low velocity collisions between dust aggregates are very important to understand the mecha-nism leading to planetesimal formation. Especially, the complete chain of processes in the post-fractal growth of proto-planetary dust-aggregates is still unknown. For most binary collisions between dust aggregates, short-duration microgravity experiments are required. Therefore, we built a laboratory vacuum drop tower, allowing us to perform up to 10 collision experiments per day. The setup consists of an evacuated glass tube of 22 cm diameter with a free-fall height of 1.5m, providing us with 0.56 s of microgravity. Using a two-level particle release mechanism, we can perform particle-particle collisions with relative velocities between less than 1 cm/s and several m/s. For a three-dimensional observation of the experiment, we placed two free-falling high-speed cameras outside the vacuum tube, separated by an angle of 90° , which are able to observe the dust aggregates before, during and after their encounter. We will present the results of collisions between cm-sized dust aggregates, consisting of µm-sized, monodisperse SiO2 spheres. We measured the coefficient of restitution in bouncing collisions, the mass loss and the total disruption energy for fragmenting collisions. With these measurements, we are able to refine the model of planetesimal formation.

  6. Distinct Distribution of Purines in CM and CR Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Smith, Karen E.; Martin, Mildred G.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of organic molecules and delivered pre biotic organic compounds, including purines and pyrimidines, to the early Earth (and other planetary bodies), seeding it with the ingredients likely required for the first genetic material. We have investigated the distribution of nucleobases in six different CM and CR type carbonaceous chondrites, including fivc Antarctic meteorites never before analyzed for nucleobases. We employed a traditional formic acid extraction protocol and a recently developed solid phase extraction method to isolate nucleobases. We analyzed these extracts by high performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV -MS/MS) targeting the five canonical RNAIDNA bases and hypoxanthine and xanthine. We detected parts-per-billion levels of nucleobases in both CM and CR meteorites. The relative abundances of the purines found in Antarctic CM and CR meteorites were clearly distinct from each other suggesting that these compounds are not terrestrial contaminants. One likely source of these purines is formation by HCN oligomerization (with other small molecules) during aqueous alteration inside the meteorite parent body. The detection of the purines adenine (A), guanine (0), hypoxanthine (HX), and xanthine (X) in carbonaceous meteorites indicates that these compounds should have been available on the early Earth prior to the origin of the first genetic material.

  7. Argyres-Douglas theories, S 1 reductions, and topological symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buican, Matthew; Nishinaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper, we proposed closed-form expressions for the superconformal indices of the ({A}1,{A}2n-3) and ({A}1,{D}2n) Argyres-Douglas (AD) superconformal field theories (SCFTs) in the Schur limit. Following up on our results, we turn our attention to the small S 1 regime of these indices. As expected on general grounds, our study reproduces the S 3 partition functions of the resulting dimensionally reduced theories. However, we show that in all cases—with the exception of the reduction of the ({A}1,{D}4) SCFT—certain imaginary partners of real mass terms are turned on in the corresponding mirror theories. We interpret these deformations as R symmetry mixing with the topological symmetries of the direct S 1 reductions. Moreover, we argue that these shifts occur in any of our theories whose four-dimensional { N }=2 superconformal U{(1)}R symmetry does not obey an SU(2) quantization condition. We then use our R symmetry map to find the four-dimensional ancestors of certain three-dimensional operators. Somewhat surprisingly, this picture turns out to imply that the scaling dimensions of many of the chiral operators of the four-dimensional theory are encoded in accidental symmetries of the three-dimensional theory. We also comment on the implications of our work on the space of general { N }=2 SCFTs.

  8. Volatiles on solar system objects: Carbon dioxide on Iapetus and aqueous alteration in CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Eric Edward

    2009-12-01

    Volatiles are critical in understanding the history of the solar system. We conducted two case studies intended to further this understanding. First, we analyzed the presence of CO2 on Iapetus. Second, we evaluated aqueous alteration in CM chondrites. We studied the distribution, stability and production of CO2 on Saturn's moon Iapetus. We determined that CO2 is concentrated exclusively on Iapetus' dark material with an effective thickness of 31 nm. The total CO2 on Iapetus' surface is 2.3x108 kg. However, CO2 should not be present because it has a limited residence time on the surface of Iapetus. Our thermal calculations and modeling show that CO2 in the form of frost will not remain on Iapetus' surface beyond a few hundred years. Thus, it must be complexed with dark material. However, photodissociation will destroy the observed inventory in ˜1/2 an Earth year. The lack of thermal and radiolytic stability requires an active source. We conducted experiments showing UV radiation generates CO2 under Iapetus-like conditions. We created a simulated regolith by mixing crushed water ice with isotopically labeled carbon. We then irradiated it with UV light at low temperature and pressure, producing 1.1x1015 parts m-2 s-1. Extrapolating to Iapetus, photolysis could generate 8.4x107 kg y-1, which makes photolytic production a good candidate for the source of the CO2 detected on Iapetus. We also studied the aqueous alteration of metal-bearing assemblages in CM chondrites. We examined Murchison, Cold Bokkeveld, Nogoya, and Murray using microscopy, electron microprobe analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Alteration on CM meteorites occurred within at least three microchemical environments: S-rich water, Si-rich water and water without substantial reactive components. Kamacite alters into tochilinite, cronstedtite, or magnetite. Sulfur associated alteration can form accessory minerals: P-rich sulfides, eskolaite and schreibersite. Additionally, we determined that there were two alteration events for some CM chondrites. The first formed a hydrated matrix prior to accretion, indicated by unaltered kamacite surrounded by a hydrated matrix. The second occurred after parent body formation. This event is indicated by large regions with consistent alteration features, surrounded by other regions of less altered material.

  9. Imaging and timing performance of 1 cm x 1 cm position-sensitive solid-state photomultiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokhale, P.; Schmall, J.; Stapels, C.; Christian, J.; Cherry, S. R.; Squillante, M. R.; Shah, K.

    2013-02-01

    We have designed and built a large-area 1cm × 1cm position-sensitive solid-state photomultiplier (PS-SSPM) for use in detector design for medical imaging applications. Our new large-area PS-SSPM concept implements resistive network between the micro-pixels, which are photodiodes operated in Geiger mode, called Geiger Photodiodes (GPDs), to provide continuous position sensitivity. Here we present imaging and timing performance of the large-area PS-SSPM for different temperatures and operating biases to find the optimum operating parameters for the device in imaging applications. A detector module was built by coupling a polished 8 × 8 LYSO array, with 1 × 1 × 20 mm3 elements, to a 1 × 1 cm2 PS-SSPM. Flood images recorded at room temperature show good crystal separation as all 64 elements were separated from each other. Cooling the device at 10 °C showed significant improvement. The device optimum bias voltage was ~ 4.5V over breakdown voltage. The coincidence timing resolution was improved significantly by increasing the operating bias, as well as by lowering the temperature to 0 °C. Results show excellent imaging performance and good timing response with a large-area PS-SSPM device.

  10. Ureteroscopic treatment of larger renal calculi (>2 cm)

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Demetrius H.; Healy, Kelly A.; Kleinmann, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the current status of ureteroscopic lithotripsy (UL) for treating renal calculi of >2 cm, as advances in flexible ureteroscope design, accessory instrumentation and lithotrites have revolutionised the treatment of urinary calculi. While previously reserved for ureteric and small renal calculi, UL has gained an increasing role in the selective management of larger renal stone burdens. Methods We searched the available databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus, for relevant reports in English, and the article bibliographies to identify additional relevant articles. Keywords included ureteroscopy, lithotripsy, renal calculi, and calculi >2 cm. Retrieved articles were reviewed to consider the number of patients, mean stone size, success rates, indications and complications. Results In all, nine studies (417 patients) were eligible for inclusion. After one, two or three procedures the mean (range) success rates were 68.2 (23–84)%, 87.1 (79–91)% and 94.4 (90.1–96.7)%, respectively. Overall, the success rate was >90% with a mean of 1.2–2.3 procedures per patient. The overall complication rate was 10.3%, including six (1.4%) intraoperative and 37 (8.9%) postoperative complications, most of which were minor. The most common indications for UL were a failed previous treatment (46%), comorbidities (18.2%), and technical and anatomical factors (12.3%). Conclusions UL is safe and effective for treating large renal calculi. While several procedures might be required for total stone clearance, UL should be considered a standard approach in the urologist’s options treating renal calculi of >2 cm. PMID:26558040

  11. The 8-CM ion thruster characterization. [mercury ion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessel, F. J.; Williamson, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    The performance capabilities of the 8 cm diameter mercury ion thruster were increased by modifying the thruster operating parameters and component hardware. The initial performance levels, representative of the Hughes/NASA Lewis Research Center Ion Auxiliary Propulsion Subsystem (IAPS) thruster, were raised from the baseline values of thrust, T = 5 mN, and specific impulse, I sub sp = 2,900s, to thrust, T = 25 mN and specific impulse, I sub sp = 4,300 s. Performance characteristics including estmates of the erosion rates of various component surfaces are presented.

  12. Control of a 30 cm diameter mercury bombardment thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terdan, F. F.; Bechtel, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Increased thruster performance has made closed-loop automatic control more difficult than previously. Specifically, high perveance optics tend to make reliable recycling more difficult. Control logic functions were established for three automatic modes of operation of a 30-cm thruster using a power conditioner console with flight-like characteristics. The three modes provide (1) automatic startup to reach thermal stability, (2) steady-state closed-loop control, and (3) the reliable recycling of the high voltages following an arc breakdown to reestablish normal operation. Power supply impedance characteristics necessary for stable operation and the effect of the magnetic baffle on the reliable recycling was studied.

  13. Endurance testing of a 30-cm Kaufman thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a program to demonstrate lifetime capability of a 30-cm Kaufman ion thruster with a 6000 hour endurance test are described. Included in the program are (1) thruster fabrication, (2) design and construction of a test console containing a transistorized high frequency power processor, and control circuits which provide unattended automatic operation of the thruster, and (3) modification of a vacuum facility to incorporate a frozen mercury collector and permit unattended operation. Four tests ranging in duration from 100 to 1100 hours have been completed. These tests and the resulting thruster modifications are described. The status of the endurance test is also presented.

  14. Radiated and conducted EMI from a 30-cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittlesey, A. C.; Peer, W.

    1981-01-01

    In order to properly assess the interaction of a spacecraft with the EMI environment produced by an ion thruster, the EMI environment was characterized. Therefore, radiated and conducted emissions were measured from a 30-cm mercury ion thruster. The ion thruster beam current varied from zero to 2.0 amperes and the emissions were measured from 5 KHz to 200 MHz. Several different types of antennas were used to obtain the measurements. The various measurements that were made included: magnetic field due to neutralizer/beam current loop; radiated electric fields of thruster and plume; and conducted emissions on arc discharge, neutralizer keeper and magnetic baffle lines.

  15. Human Being Imaging with cm-Wave UWB Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarovoy, A.; Zhuge, X.; Savelyev, T.; Matuzas, J.; Levitas, B.

    Possibilities of high-resolution human body imaging and concealed weapon detection using centimeter-wave microwave frequencies are investigated. Dependencies of the cross-range resolution of different imaging techniques on operational bandwidth, center frequency, imaging aperture size, and imaging topology have been studied. It has been demonstrated that the cross-range resolution of 2 cm can be achieved using frequencies below 10 GHz. These findings have been verified experimentally by producing high-resolution images of a foil-covered doll and some weapons.

  16. The 100 cm solar telescope primary mirror study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The manufacturing impact of primary mirror configuration on the performance of a 100 cm aperture solar telescope was studied. Three primary mirror configurations were considered: solid, standard lightweight, and mushroom. All of these are of low expansion material. Specifically, the study consisted of evaluating the mirrors with regard to: manufacturing metrology, manufacturing risk factors and ultimate quality assessment. As a result of this evaluation, a performance comparison of the configurations was made, and a recommendation of mirror configuration is the final output. These evaluations, comparisons and recommendations are discussed in detail. Other investigations were completed and are documented in the appendices.

  17. A multiple thruster array for 30-cm thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.; Mantenieks, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    The 3.0-m diameter chamber of the 7.6-m diameter by 21.4-m long vacuum tank at NASA LeRC was modified to permit testing of an array of up to six 30-cm thrusters with a variety of laboratory and thermal vacuum bread-board power systems. A primary objective of the Multiple Thruster Array (MTA) program is to assess the impact of multiple thruster operation on individual thruster and power processor requirements. The areas of thruster startup, steady-state operation, throttling, high voltage recycle, thrust vectoring, and shutdown are of special concern. The results of initial tests are reported.

  18. Performance documentation of the engineering model 30-cm diameter thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Rawlin, V. K.

    1976-01-01

    The results of extensive testing of two 30-cm ion thrusters which are virtually identical to the 900 series Engineering Model Thruster in an ongoing 15,000-hour life test are presented. Performance data for the nominal fullpower (2650 W) operating point; performance sensitivities to discharge voltage, discharge losses, accelerator voltage, and magnetic baffle current; and several power throttling techniques (maximum Isp, maximum thrust/power ratio, and two cases in between are included). Criteria for throttling are specified in terms of the screen power supply envelope, thruster operating limits, and control stability. In addition, reduced requirements for successful high voltage recycles are presented.

  19. Affordable échelle spectroscopy with a 60 cm telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribulla, T.; Garai, Z.; Hambálek, L.; Kollár, V.; Komžík, R.; Kundra, E.; Nedoroš?ík, J.; Sekeráš, M.; Va?ko, M

    2015-09-01

    A new fiber-fed spectrograph was installed at the 60 cm telescope of the Stará Lesná Observatory. The article presents tests of its performance (spectral resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, radial-velocity stability) and reports observations of selected variable stars and exoplanet host stars. First test observations show that the spectrograph is an ideal tool to observe bright eclipsing and spectroscopic binaries but also symbiotic and nova-like stars. The radial-velocity stability (60-80 ms-1) is sufficient to study spectroscopic binaries and to detect easily the orbital motion of hot-Jupiter extrasolar planets around bright stars.

  20. Long lifetime hollow cathodes for 30-cm mercury ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Kerslake, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation of hollow cathodes for 30-cm Hg bombardment thrusters was carried out. Both main and neutralizer cathode configurations were tested with both rolled foil inserts coated with low work function material and impregnated porous tungsten inserts. Temperature measurements of an impregnated insert at various positions in the cathode were made. These, along with the cathode thermal profile are presented. A theory for rolled foil and impregnated insert operation and lifetime in hollow cathodes is developed. Several endurance tests, as long as 18000 hours at emission currents of up to 12 amps were attained with no degradation in performance.

  1. Extending and Exploring the 2 cm Survey Sample

    E-print Network

    E. Ros

    2004-09-14

    We present new results from the VLBA 2 cm Survey, an imaging survey of active galactic nuclei (AGN) at sub-milliarcsecond resolution. We extend the structural variability monitoring program of more than 130 extragalactic parsec-scale radio jets from over 170 AGN to a total of eight years. The sample is explored further in time for all sources, and intensively for individual objects. We report new detailed results on the compact sources III Zw 2, AO 0235+16, and NRAO 512.

  2. Studies of dished accelerator grids for 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Eighteen geometrically different sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five 30-cm thrusters. The geometric variation of the grids included the grid-to-grid spacing, the screen and accelerator hole diameters and thicknesses, the screen and accelerator open area fractions, ratio of dish depth to dish diameter, compensation, and aperture shape. In general, the data taken over a range of beam currents for each grid set included the minimum total accelerating voltage required to extract a given beam current and the minimum accelerator grid voltage required to prevent electron backstreaming.

  3. Recycle Requirements for NASA's 30 cm Xenon Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical breakdowns have been observed during ion thruster operation. These breakdowns, or arcs, can be caused by several conditions. In flight systems, the power processing unit must be designed to handle these faults autonomously. This has a strong impact on power processor requirements and must be understood fully for the power processing unit being designed for the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness program. In this study, fault conditions were investigated using a NASA 30 cm ion thruster and a power console. Power processing unit output specifications were defined based on the breakdown phenomena identified and characterized.

  4. Effect of anisotropy in the S=1 underscreened Kondo lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher; da Rosa Simões, Acirete S.; Lacroix, Claudine; Iglesias, José Roberto; Coqblin, Bernard

    2014-12-01

    We study the effect of crystal field anisotropy in the underscreened S=1 Kondo lattice model. Starting from the two orbital Anderson lattice model and including a local anisotropy term, we show, through Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, that local anisotropy is equivalent to an anisotropic Kondo interaction (J??J?). The competition and coexistence between ferromagnetism and Kondo effect in this effective model is studied within a generalized mean-field approximation. Several regimes are obtained, depending on the parameters, exhibiting or not coexistence of magnetic order and Kondo effect. Particularly, we show that a re-entrant Kondo phase at low temperature can be obtained. We are also able to describe phases where the Kondo temperature is smaller than the Curie temperature (TK

  5. Transitive Lie groups on S^1\\times S^{2m}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatsevich, Vladimir V.

    2007-10-01

    The structure of Lie groups acting transitively on the direct product of a circle and an even-dimensional sphere is described. For products of two spheres of dimension >1 a similar problem has already been solved by other authors. The minimal transitive Lie groups on S^1 and S^{2m} are also indicated. As an application of these results, the structure of the automorphism group of one class of geometric structures, generalized quadrangles (a special case of Tits buildings) is considered. A conjecture put forward by Kramer is proved: the automorphism group of a connected generalized quadrangle of type (1,2m) always contains a transitive subgroup that is the direct product of a compact simple Lie group and a one-dimensional Lie group. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  6. Vibrational predissociation in S1 indole van der Waals clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outhouse, E. Allison; Bickel, Grant A.; Demmer, David R.; Wallace, Stephen C.

    1991-11-01

    The excited state dynamics of the indole(Ar)1, indole(d1)(Ar)1, indole(Ar)2, and indole(CH4)1 van der Waals clusters have been investigated in a free jet expansion. Excited state vibrational frequencies were determined using multiphoton ionization and fluorescence excitation spectroscopy. Time resolved emission spectroscopic techniques were used to determine vibrational predissociation rates and product state distributions. All of the clusters were found to predissociate when excited with sufficient vibrational energy in the S1 state. The predissociation dynamics were found to be consistent with a serial model in which energy transfer from the indole skeletal modes to the van der Waals modes precedes the dissociation step. The density of van der Waals vibrational states was found to be the most important factor in determining the predissociation dynamics.

  7. Electric prototype power processor for a 30cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.; Schoenfeld, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical prototype power processor unit was designed, fabricated and tested with a 30 cm mercury ion engine for primary space propulsion. The power processor unit used the thyristor series resonant inverter as the basic power stage for the high power beam and discharge supplies. A transistorized series resonant inverter processed the remaining power for the low power outputs. The power processor included a digital interface unit to process all input commands and internal telemetry signals so that electric propulsion systems could be operated with a central computer system. The electrical prototype unit included design improvement in the power components such as thyristors, transistors, filters and resonant capacitors, and power transformers and inductors in order to reduce component weight, to minimize losses, and to control the component temperature rise. A design analysis for the electrical prototype is also presented on the component weight, losses, part count and reliability estimate. The electrical prototype was tested in a thermal vacuum environment. Integration tests were performed with a 30 cm ion engine and demonstrated operational compatibility. Electromagnetic interference data was also recorded on the design to provide information for spacecraft integration.

  8. Characterization of an 8-cm Diameter Ion Source System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhongmin; Hawk, C. W.; Hawk, Clark W.; Buttweiler, Mark S.; Williams, John D.; Buchholtz, Brett

    2005-01-01

    Results of tests characterizing an 8-cm diameter ion source are presented. The tests were conducted in three separate vacuum test facilities at the University of Alabama-Huntsville, Colorado State University, and L3 Communications' ETI division. Standard ion optics tests describing electron backstreaming and total-voltage-limited impingement current behavior as a function of beam current were used as guidelines for selecting operating conditions where more detailed ion beam measurements were performed. The ion beam was profiled using an in-vacuum actuating probe system to determine the total ion current density and the ion charge state distribution variation across the face of the ion source. Both current density and ExB probes were utilized. The ion current density data were used to obtain integrated beam current, beam flatness parameters, and general beam profile shapes. The ExB probe data were used to determine the ratio of doubly to singly charged ion current. The ion beam profile tests were performed at over six different operating points that spanned the expected operating range of the DAWN thrusters being developed at L3. The characterization tests described herein reveal that the 8-cm ion source is suitable for use in (a) validating plasma diagnostic equipment, (b) xenon ion sputtering and etching studies of spacecraft materials, (c) plasma physics research, and (d) the study of ion thruster optics at varying conditions.

  9. Design of FOSC for 360-cm Devasthal Optical Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, A.; Yadav, R. K. S.; Shukla, V.; Mondal, S.; Pant, J.

    2012-09-01

    A Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (FOSC) is designed for the upcoming 360-cm optical telescope at Devasthal. The design is based on other available similar instruments, having a collimator and camera unit. The instrument converts F/9 beam from the telescope to a nearly F/4.3 beam. The collimator and camera optics have 7 and 5 elements respectively with one aspheric component. The low dispersion glasses such as CaF2 and PBM/PBL/FSL are used in order to minimize the chromatic aberrations. These glasses also have very good transmission near blue wavelengths. The imaging is possible both in narrow and broad band filters up to the field of view of ~ 14' x 14' or 19' along the diagonal. The spectroscopy can be performed in the wavelength range 350 - 900 nm with several choices of grisms and slits with resolution in the range of 250 - 2000. The theoretical spot sizes in the imaging mode are expected in the range 0:04" - 0:11". The overall transmission of the camera and collimator optics is expected as ~ 75% at 350 nm and > 95% at wavelengths above 400 nm. The total weight of the instrument as designed is around 350 kg. The instrument is currently planned to be assembled in the Institute laboratory and to be commissioned on the 360-cm telescope in October 2013. The design methodology, techniques, and expected performance of the optics are presented here.

  10. Probing patchy reionization through ?-21 cm correlation statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Meerburg, P. Daniel; Spergel, David N.; Dvorkin, Cora E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu

    2013-12-20

    We consider the cross-correlation between free electrons and neutral hydrogen during the epoch of reionization (EoR). The free electrons are traced by the optical depth to reionization ?, while the neutral hydrogen can be observed through 21 cm photon emission. As expected, this correlation is sensitive to the detailed physics of reionization. Foremost, if reionization occurs through the merger of relatively large halos hosting an ionizing source, the free electrons and neutral hydrogen are anticorrelated for most of the reionization history. A positive contribution to the correlation can occur when the halos that can form an ionizing source are small. A measurement of this sign change in the cross-correlation could help disentangle the bias and the ionization history. We estimate the signal-to-noise ratio of the cross-correlation using the estimator for inhomogeneous reionization ?-hat {sub ?m} proposed by Dvorkin and Smith. We find that with upcoming radio interferometers and cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments, the cross-correlation is measurable going up to multipoles ? ? 1000. We also derive parameter constraints and conclude that, despite the foregrounds, the cross-correlation provides a complementary measurement of the EoR parameters to the 21 cm and CMB polarization autocorrelations expected to be observed in the coming decade.

  11. Measuring the Cosmological 21 cm Monopole with an Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presley, Morgan E.; Liu, Adrian; Parsons, Aaron R.

    2015-08-01

    A measurement of the cosmological 21 {cm} signal remains a promising but as-of-yet unattained ambition of radio astronomy. A positive detection would provide direct observations of key unexplored epochs of our cosmic history, including the cosmic dark ages and reionization. In this paper, we concentrate on measurements of the spatial monopole of the 21 {cm} brightness temperature as a function of redshift (the “global signal”). Most global experiments to date have been single-element experiments. In this paper, we show how an interferometer can be designed to be sensitive to the monopole mode of the sky, thus providing an alternate approach to accessing the global signature. We provide simple rules of thumb for designing a global signal interferometer and use numerical simulations to show that a modest array of tightly packed antenna elements with moderately sized primary beams (FWHM of ? 40^\\circ ) can compete with typical single-element experiments in their ability to constrain phenomenological parameters pertaining to reionization and the pre-reionization era. We also provide a general data analysis framework for extracting the global signal from interferometric measurements (with analysis of single-element experiments arising as a special case) and discuss trade-offs with various data analysis choices. Given that interferometric measurements are able to avoid a number of systematics inherent in single-element experiments, our results suggest that interferometry ought to be explored as a complementary way to probe the global signal.

  12. Power processor for a 20CM ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Schoenfeld, A. D.; Cohen, E.

    1973-01-01

    A power processor breadboard for the JPL 20CM Ion Engine was designed, fabricated, and tested to determine compliance with the electrical specification. The power processor breadboard used the silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) series resonant inverter as the basic power stage to process all the power to the ion engine. The breadboard power processor was integrated with the JPL 20CM ion engine and complete testing was performed. The integration tests were performed without any silicon-controlled rectifier failure. This demonstrated the ruggedness of the series resonant inverter in protecting the switching elements during arcing in the ion engine. A method of fault clearing the ion engine and returning back to normal operation without elaborate sequencing and timing control logic was evolved. In this method, the main vaporizer was turned off and the discharge current limit was reduced when an overload existed on the screen/accelerator supply. After the high voltage returned to normal, both the main vaporizer and the discharge were returned to normal.

  13. Altimeter error sources at the 10-cm performance level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Error sources affecting the calibration and operational use of a 10 cm altimeter are examined to determine the magnitudes of current errors and the investigations necessary to reduce them to acceptable bounds. Errors considered include those affecting operational data pre-processing, and those affecting altitude bias determination, with error budgets developed for both. The most significant error sources affecting pre-processing are bias calibration, propagation corrections for the ionosphere, and measurement noise. No ionospheric models are currently validated at the required 10-25% accuracy level. The optimum smoothing to reduce the effects of measurement noise is investigated and found to be on the order of one second, based on the TASC model of geoid undulations. The 10 cm calibrations are found to be feasible only through the use of altimeter passes that are very high elevation for a tracking station which tracks very close to the time of altimeter track, such as a high elevation pass across the island of Bermuda. By far the largest error source, based on the current state-of-the-art, is the location of the island tracking station relative to mean sea level in the surrounding ocean areas.

  14. Discovery and First Observations of the 21-cm Hydrogen Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, W. T.

    2005-08-01

    Unlike most of the great discoveries in the first decade of radio astronomy after World War II, the 21 cm hydrogen line was first predicted theoretically and then purposely sought. The story is familiar of graduate student Henk van de Hulst's prediction in occupied Holland in 1944 and the nearly simultaneous detection of the line by teams at Harvard, Leiden, and Sydney in 1951. But in this paper I will describe various aspects that are little known: (1) In van de Hulst's original paper he not only worked out possible intensities for the 21 cm line, but also for radio hydrogen recombination lines (not detected until the early 1960s), (2) in that same paper he also used Jansky's and Reber's observations of a radio background to make cosmological conclusions, (3) there was no "race" between the Dutch, Americans, and Australians to detect the line, (4) a fire that destroyed the Dutch team's equipment in March 1950 ironically did not hinder their progress, but actually speeded it up (because it led to a change of their chief engineer, bringing in the talented Lex Muller). The scientific and technical styles of the three groups will also be discussed as results of the vastly differing environments in which they operated.

  15. GMRT observation towards detecting the post-reionization 21-cm signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Abhik; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Ali, Sk. Saiyad; Chengalur, Jayaram N.

    2011-03-01

    The redshifted 21-cm signal from neutral hydrogen (H I) is an important future probe of the high-redshift Universe. We have analysed 610 MHz Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations towards detecting this signal from z= 1.32. The multi-frequency angular power spectrum C?(??) is used to characterize the statistical properties of the background radiation across angular scales ˜20 arcsec to 10 arcmin, and a frequency bandwidth of 7.5 MHz with resolution 125 kHz. The measured C?(??) which ranges from 7 to 18 mK2 is dominated by foregrounds, the expected H I signal CHI? (??) ˜ 10-6 to 10-7 mK2 is several orders of magnitude smaller and detecting this is a big challenge. The foregrounds, believed to originate from continuum sources, is expected to vary smoothly with ?? whereas the H I signal decorrelates within ˜0.5 MHz, and this holds the promise of separating the two. For each ?, we use the interval 0.5 ???? 7.5 MHz to fit a fourth-order polynomial which is subtracted from the measured C?(??) to remove any smoothly varying component across the entire bandwidth ??? 7.5 MHz. The residual C?(??), we find, has an oscillatory pattern with amplitude and period, respectively, ˜0.1 mK2 and ??= 3 MHz at the smallest ? value of 1476, and the amplitude and period decreasing with increasing ?. Applying a suitably chosen high pass filter, we are able to remove the residual oscillatory pattern for ?= 1476 where the residual C?(??) is now consistent with zero at the 3? noise level. Based on this we conclude that we have successfully removed the foregrounds at ?= 1476 and the residuals are consistent with noise. We use this to place an upper limit on the H I signal whose amplitude is determined by bar?H1b(CH1ell;(??)?[bar?H1b]2, where bar?H1 and b are the H I neutral fraction and the H I bias, respectively. A value of bar?H1b greater than 7.95 would have been detected in our observation, and is therefore ruled out at the 3? level. For comparison, studies of quasar absorption spectra indicate bar?H1 ? 2.5 × 10-2 which is ˜330 times smaller than our upper limit. We have not succeeded in completely removing the residual oscillatory pattern, whose cause is presently unknown to us, for the larger ? values.

  16. P-O-rich sulfide phase in CM chondrites: Constraints on its origin on the CM parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ai-Cheng; Itoh, Shoichi; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Hsu, Wei-Biao; Wang, Ru-Cheng; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2015-12-01

    CM chondrites are a group of primitive meteorites that have recorded the alteration history of the early solar system. We report the occurrence, chemistry, and oxygen isotopic compositions of P-O-rich sulfide phase in two CM chondrites (Grove Mountains [GRV] 021536 and Murchison). This P-O-rich sulfide is a polycrystalline aggregate of nanometer-size grains. It occurs as isolated particles or aggregates in both CM chondrites. These grains, in the matrix and in type-I chondrules from Murchison, were partially altered into tochilinite; however, grains enclosed by Ca-carbonate are much less altered. This P-O-rich sulfide in Murchison is closely associated with magnetite, FeNi phosphide, brezinaite (Cr3S4), and eskolaite (Cr2O3). In addition to sulfur as the major component, this sulfide contains ~6.3 wt% O, ~5.4 wt% P, and minor amounts of hydrogen. Analyses of oxygen isotopes by SIMS resulted in an average ?18O value of -22.5 ‰ and an average ?17O value of 0.2 ± 9.2 ‰ (2?). Limited variations in both chemical compositions and electron-diffraction patterns imply that the P-O-rich sulfide may be a single phase rather than a polyphase mixture. Several features indicate that this P-O-rich sulfide phase formed at low temperature on the parent body, most likely through the alteration of FeNi metal (a) close association with other low-temperature alteration products, (b) the presence of hydrogen, (c) high ?17O values and the presence in altered mesostasis of type-I chondrules and absence in type-II chondrules. The textural relations of the P-O-rich sulfide and other low-temperature minerals reveal at least three episodic-alteration events on the parent body of CM chondrites (1) formation of P-O-rich sulfide during sulfur-rich aqueous alteration of P-rich FeNi metal, (2) formation of Ca-carbonate during local carbonation, and (3) alteration of P-O-rich sulfide and formation of tochilinite during a period of late-stage intensive aqueous alteration.

  17. Static compression of Ca(OH)2 at room temperature - Observations of amorphization and equation of state measurements to 10.7 GPa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, Charles; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    X-ray diffraction measurements are reported for Ca(OH)2 portlandite as it is compressed to 37.6 GPa in the diamond cell at room temperature. Between 10.7 and 15.4 GPa crystalline Ca(OH)2 transforms to a glass, and on decompression the glass recrystallizes between 3.6 and 5.1 GPa. Below pressures of 10.7 GPa the elastic compression of crystalline Ca(OH)2 was measured. A finite strain analysis of these data shows that the isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are 37.8 + or - 1.8 GPa and 5.2 + or - 0.7 at zero pressure. The change in the unit cell dimensions indicates that the linear incompressibilities of Ca(OH)2 differ by a factor of three.

  18. a Dark Galaxy in the Virgo Cluster Imaged at 21-CM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchin, R.; Disney, M. J.; Davies, J. I.; Marble, A. R.; Impey, C. D.; Boyce, P. J.; Garcia, D. A.; Grossi, M.; Jordan, C. A.; Lang, R. H.; Roberts, S.; Sabatini, S.; van Driel, W.

    Dark Matter supposedly dominates the extragalactic Universe (Peebles 1993; Peacock 1998; Moore et al. 1999; D'Onghi & Lake 2004), yet no dark structure of galactic proportions has ever been convincingly identified. Earlier (Minchin et al. 2005) we suggested that VIRGOHI 21, a 21-cm source we found in the Virgo Cluster at Jodrell Bank using single-dish observations (Davies et al. 2004), was probably such a dark galaxy because of its broad line-width (~200 km s-1) unaccompanied by any visible gravitational source to account for it. We have now imaged VIRGOHI 21 in the neutral-hydrogen line, and have found what appears to be a dark, edge-on, spinning disc with the mass and diameter of a typical spiral galaxy. Moreover the disc has unquestionably interacted with NGC 4254, a luminous spiral with an odd one-armed morphology, but lacking the massive interactor normally linked with such a feature. Published numerical models (Vollmer et al. 2005) of NGC 4254 call for a close interaction ~108 years ago with a perturber of ~1011 solar masses. This we take as further, independent evidence for the massive nature of VIRGOHI 21.

  19. Equatorial evening prereversal vertical drift dependence on solar EUV flux and F10.7 index during quiet and disturbed periods over Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. M.; Abdu, M. A.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Mascarenhas, M.; Nogueira, P. A. B.

    2013-07-01

    A study of the dependence of the equatorial evening F region vertical drift velocity on solar EUV flux and F10.7 index is presented here, based on the vertical drift data obtained from Digisondes operated in São Luis (44.2° W, 2.33° S, dip angle: -2.7°) and Fortaleza (38.45° W, 3.9° S, dip angle: -11.5°) in Brazil. Previous studies on the vertical drift dependence on solar flux have addressed only the dependence on F10.7 index. The data analyzed here are from the months of October, November, and December of the years from 2001 to 2009, and the analysis was done for magnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. The results show that while the drift velocity peak is strongly dependent on both solar emission fluxes, the degrees of such dependence are higher for the EUV flux than for the F10.7 index in a consistent way as judged from its identical behavior at both São Luis and Fortaleza. The study also reveals different degrees of the vertical drift dependence on solar flux for magnetically quiet and disturbed conditions, the nature of which is investigated using an example of a storm time case study.

  20. High resolution interferometric observations of the solar limb at 4.9 and 10.7 GHz during the solar eclipse of October, 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, K. A.; Hurford, G. J.; Zirin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The radial intensity profile of the quiet solar limb has been measured at high spatial resolution using the VLA at 4.9 GHz and the Owens Valley solar interferometer at 10.7 GHz during the partial solar eclipse of October 12, 1977. The spatial resolution (13.8 arcsec at 4.9 GHz and 7.4 arcsec at 10.7 GHz) was provided primarily by the lunar limb. Substantial limb brightening at 4.9 GHz was found with a peak brightness temperature corresponding to an 80% increase over the disk value, and a possible small limb enhancement at 10.7 GHz. The results are consistent with a simple model consisting of a uniform disk (provided by a thoroughly roughened transition zone) overlaid by a corona in hydrostatic equilibrium with a density of 5 x 10 to the 8th at its base. The lack of the secant-like variation in the microwave intensity from center to limb is explained by a corona contained in loop structures rather than in spherically symmetric layers.

  1. Developing an Interferometer to Measure the Global 21cm Monopole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagalski, Rachel; Patra, Nipanjana; Day, Cherie; Parsons, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    When radio interferometers observe over very small fields of view, they cannot measure the monopole mode of the sky. However, when the field of view extends to a large region of the sky, it becomes possible to use an measure the monopole with an interferometer. We are currently developing such an interferometer at UC Berkeley's Radio Astronomy Lab (RAL) with the goal of measuring the early stages of the Epoch of Reionization by probing the sky for the global 21cm signal between 50 and 100 MHz, and we have deployed a preliminary version of this experiment in Colorado. We present the current status of the interferometer, the future development plans, and some measurements taken in July of 2015. These measurements demonstrate performance of the analog signal chain of the interferometer as well as the RFI environment of the deployment site in Colorado.

  2. Power processor for a 30cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.

    1974-01-01

    A thermal vacuum power processor for the NASA Lewis 30cm Mercury Ion Engine was designed, fabricated and tested to determine compliance with electrical specifications. The power processor breadboard used the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) series resonant inverter as the basic power stage to process all the power to an ion engine. The power processor includes a digital interface unit to process all input commands and internal telemetry signals so that operation is compatible with a central computer system. The breadboard was tested in a thermal vacuum environment. Integration tests were performed with the ion engine and demonstrate operational compatibility and reliable operation without any component failures. Electromagnetic interference data were also recorded on the design to provide information on the interaction with total spacecraft.

  3. Very Large Array observations of Uranus at 2. 0 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, G.L.; Muhleman, D.O.; Linfield, R.P.

    1988-07-01

    Radio observations of Uranus obtained at 2.0 cm with the B configuration of the VLA during April 1985 are reported. The calibration and data-reduction procedures are described in detail, and the results are presented in tables, maps, and graphs and compared with IRIS 44-micron observations (Hanel et al., 1986). Features discussed include highest brightness centered on the pole rather than on the subearth point, a decrease in brightness temperature (by up to 9 K) at latitudes between -20 and -50 deg (well correlated with the IRIS data), and disk-center position (corrected for the observed radio asymmetry) in good agreement with that found on the basis of the outer contours of the image. 15 references.

  4. 15 cm cusped magnetic field mercury ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The importance of achieving a uniform current density in the exhaust beam of an electrostatic ion thruster is discussed in terms of thrust level and accelerator grid lifetime. A neutral residence time approach is used to propose a magnetic field geometry which should produce a highly uniform beam current density. The discharge chamber length to diameter ratio is shown to be an important optimization parameter and experimental evaluation of the cusped field thruster over a wide range of this parameter is presented. Beam profile measurements 5 cm downstream of the accelerator grid indicate a beam profile flatness parameter which is 25% greater than the SERT II value. Flatness parameters extrapolated to the plane of the accelerator grid are demonstrated to be as high as 0.9.

  5. Hollow cathode restartable 15 cm diameter ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of substituting high perveance dished grids for low perveance flat ones on performance variables and plasma properties within a 15 cm modified SERT II thruster are discussed. Results suggest good performance may be achieved as an ion thruster is throttled if the screen grid transparency is decreased with propellant flow rate. Thruster startup tests, which employ a pulsed high voltage tickler electrode between the keeper and the cathode to initiate the discharge, are described. High startup reliability at cathode tip temperatures of about 500 C without excessive component wear over 2000 startup cycles is demonstrated. Testing of a single cusp magnetic field concept of discharge plasma containment is discussed. A theory which explains the observed behavior of the device is presented and proposed thruster modifications and future testing plans are discussed.

  6. Longitude-resolved imaging of Jupiter at lambda = 2 cm

    E-print Network

    R. J. Sault; C. Engel; Imke de Pater

    2006-12-28

    We present a technique for creating a longitude-resolved image of Jupiter's thermal radio emission. The technique has been applied to VLA data taken on 25 January 1996 at a wavelength of 2 cm. A comparison with infrared data shows a good correlation between radio hot spots and the 5 micron hot spots seen on IRTF images. The brightest spot on the radio image is most likely the hot spot through which the Galileo probe entered Jupiter's atmosphere. We derived the ammonia abundance (= volume mixing ratio) in the hot spot, which is ~ 3 x 10^{-5}, about half that seen in longitude-averaged images of the NEB, or less than 1/3 of the longitude-averaged ammonia abundance in the EZ. This low ammonia abundance probably extends down to at least the 4 bar level.

  7. 21 cm Power Spectrum Upper Limits from PAPER-64

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraz Ali, Zaki; Parsons, Aaron; Pober, Jonathan; Team PAPER

    2016-01-01

    We present power spectrum results from the 64 antenna deployment of the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER-64). We find an upper limit of ?2?(22.4 mK)2 over the range 0.15cm power spectrum constraints to date. In addition, we use these results to place lower limits on the spin temperature at a redshift of 8.4. We find that the spin temperature is at least 10K for a neutral fraction between 15% and 80%. This further suggests that there was heating in the early universe through various sources such as x-ray binaries.

  8. A young region on Enceladus revealed by 2 cm radiometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, P.; Janssen, M.

    2014-04-01

    On 5 November 2011, the Cassini spacecraft had a flyby of Enceladus dedicated to its synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instrument. In the course of that flyby, approximately 80% of Enceladus' surface was also observed serendipitously with the microwave radiometer operating concurrently at 2.2 cm. The radiometry data is analyzed and shown to drop sharply in the leading hemisphere's smooth terrain. This drop is also demonstrated in a series of unresolved distant radiometry measurements spread out over the ten years of the Cassini mission. However, the anomaly is absent from distant unresolved RADAR measurements and not visible in SAR imaging. The anomaly is most likely caused by a young surface (<100MYr in age) which has not yet been processed by micrometeoroid impacts below the electromagnetic skin depth (3 m).

  9. Translation Optics for 30 cm Ion Engine Thrust Vector Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Data were obtained from a 30 cm xenon ion thruster in which the accelerator grid was translated in the radial plane. The thruster was operated at three different throttle power levels, and the accelerator grid was incrementally translated in the X, Y, and azimuthal directions. Plume data was obtained downstream from the thruster using a Faraday probe mounted to a positioning system. Successive probe sweeps revealed variations in the plume direction. Thruster perveance, electron backstreaming limit, accelerator current, and plume deflection angle were taken at each power level, and for each accelerator grid position. Results showed that the thruster plume could easily be deflected up to six degrees without a prohibitive increase in accelerator impingement current. Results were similar in both X and Y direction.

  10. BINGO: a single dish approach to 21cm intensity mapping

    E-print Network

    Battye, R A; Browne, I W A; Davis, R J; Dewdney, P; Dickinson, C; Heron, G; Maffei, B; Pourtsidou, A; Wilkinson, P N

    2012-01-01

    BINGO is a concept for performing a 21cm intensity mapping survey using a single dish telescope. We briefly discuss the idea of intensity mapping and go on to define our single dish concept. This involves a \\sim 40 m dish with an array of \\sim 50 feed horns placed \\sim 90 m above the dish using a pseudo-correlation detection system based on room temperature LNAs and one of the celestial poles as references. We discuss how such an array operating between 960 and 1260 MHz could be used to measure the acoustic scale to 2.4% over the redshift range 0.13

  11. Scintillation as the cause of Intraday Variability at cm Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickett, B. J.

    2003-05-01

    Rapid (intraday) flux density variations observed at cm wavelengths are more readily explained as scintillation in the ionized interstellar medium than by intrinsic models. Whereas the latter yield brightness temperatures many orders of magnitude above those found from VLBI, temperatures found from scintillation models are consistent with the canonical jet models with Doppler factors similar to those found from VLBI. I will review the many lines of evidence in support of scintillation, concentrating on results from the most rapid variables, which are scattered in unusually nearby regions of the interstellar medium. I will also show preliminary results from a recent survey of 700 flat spectrum sources in which more than 12% vary on times shorter than two days, suggesting brightness temperatures no more than about 1012 K.

  12. Autumn at Titan's South Pole: The 220 cm-1 Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Achterberg, R. K.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; de Kok, R. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.

    2015-10-01

    Beginning in 2012 an atmospheric cloud known by its far-infrared emission has formed rapidly at Tit an's South Pole [1, 2]. The build-up of this condensate is a result of deepening temperatures and a gathering of gases as Winter approaches. Emission from the cloud in the south has been doubling each year since 2012, in contrast to the north where it has halved every 3.8 years since 2004. The morphology of the cloud in the south is quite different from that in the north. In the north, the cloud has extended over the whole polar region beyond 55 N, whereas in the south the cloud has been confined to within about 10 degrees of the pole. The cloud in the north has had the form of a uniform hood, whereas the southern cloud has been much more complex. A map from December 2014,recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini, showed the 220 cm-1 emission coming from a distinct ring with a maximum at about 80 S. In contrast, emissions from the gases HC3N, C4H2 and C6H6 peaked near the pole and had a ring at 70 S. The 220 cm-1 ring at 80 S coincided with the minimum in the gas emission pattern. The80 S condensate ring encompassed the vortex cloud seen by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS)[3, 4]. Both the 220 cm-1 ring and the gas "bull's-eye" pattern were centered on a point that was shifted from the geographic South Pole by 4 degrees in the direction of the Sun. This corresponds to the overall tilt of Titan's atmosphere discovered from temperature maps early in the Cassini mission by Achterberg et al. [5]. The tilt may be reinforced by the presumably twice-yearly (north and south) spin-up of the atmosphere at the autumnal pole. The bull's-eye pattern of the gas emissions can be explained by the retrieved abundance distributions, which are maximum near the pole and decrease sharply toward lower latitudes, together with temperatures that are minimum at the pole and increase toward lower latitudes. The increasing temperatures overcome the decreasing gas abundances to produce emission in the narrow range around 70 S. This cannot, however, explain the maximum of emission at 80 S from the condensate ring. The coincidence at 80 S of the 220 cm-1 peak with the gas emission minimum may indicate where the condensation is taking place. The central, polar minimum in the cloud emission may be due to faster rain-out and smaller extinction cross-sections. Spectral maps from 2013-15 [6] show that the gas emission pattern has been evolving quickly, with noticeable changes from one flyby to the next (about one month). The bull's-eye structure appears to have been most prominent in early 2014 and by late 2014 the pattern was becoming more uniform. As Titan progresses through late southern Autumn we expect the morphology of the condensate cloud to take on a hood-like distribution similar to that in the north.

  13. Astronaut Risk Levels During Crew Module (CM) Land Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.; Littell, Justin

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) is investigating the merits of water and land landings for the crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The merits of these two options are being studied in terms of cost and risk to the astronauts, vehicle, support personnel, and general public. The objective of the present work is to determine the astronaut dynamic response index (DRI), which measures injury risks. Risks are determined for a range of vertical and horizontal landing velocities. A structural model of the crew module (CM) is developed and computational simulations are performed using a transient dynamic simulation analysis code (LS-DYNA) to determine acceleration profiles. Landing acceleration profiles are input in a human factors model that determines astronaut risk levels. Details of the modeling approach, the resulting accelerations, and astronaut risk levels are provided.

  14. A dual frequency 10 cm Doppler weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, K. M.; Armstrong, G. M.; Bishop, A. W.; Banis, K. J.

    A summary is given of the design concepts underlying a new 10-cm band dual frequency Doppler weather radar under development at the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. Primary emphasis in the design is placed on the system performance in a clutter environment, and the technique used to extend the radar's unambiguous range and velocity span is an important, but secondary, consideration. The design includes the use of fault tolerance and/or fault location methods at critical locations in the system and automated calibration techniques for quasi-continuous monitoring of system performance. The approach followed for minimizing range and velocity ambiguities used in this radar is a uniform pulse train version of the Doviak et al. (1978) dual sampling (batch) technique.

  15. Development and testing of cost-effective, 6 cm×6 cm MCP-based photodetectors for fast timing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingbo; Byrum, Karen; Demarteau, Marcel; Elam, Jeffrey; Mane, Anil; May, Edward; Wagner, Robert; Walters, Dean; Xia, Lei; Xie, Junqi; Zhao, Huyue

    2015-12-01

    Micro-channel plate (MCP)-based photodetectors are capable of picosecond level time resolution and sub-mm level position resolution, which makes them a perfect candidate for the next generation large area photodetectors. The large-area picosecond photodetector (LAPPD) collaboration is developing new techniques for making large-area photodetectors based on new MCP fabrication and functionalization methods. A small single tube processing system (SmSTPS) was constructed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for developing scalable, cost-effective, glass-body, 6 cm×6 cm, picosecond photodetectors based on MCPs functionalized by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Recently, a number of fully processed and hermitically sealed prototypes made of MCPs with 20 ?m pores have been fabricated. This is a significant milestone for the LAPPD project. These prototypes were characterized with a pulsed laser test facility. Without optimization, the prototypes have shown excellent results: the time resolution is ~57 ps for single photoelectron mode and ~15 ps for multi-photoelectron mode; the best position resolution is ?0.8 mm for large pulses. In this paper, the tube processing system, the detector assembly, experimental setup, data analysis and the key performance will be presented.

  16. Performance tests for the NASA Ames Research Center 20 cm x 40 cm oscillating flow wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. J.; Giddings, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of initial tests conducted to assess the performance of the NASA Ames 20 cm x 40 cm oscillating flow wind tunnel. The features of the tunnel are described and two aspects of tunnel operation are discussed. The first is an assessment of the steady mainstream and boundary layer flows and the second deals with oscillating mainstream and boundary layer flows. Experimental results indicate that in steady flow the test section mainstream velocity is uniform in the flow direction and in cross section. The freestream turbulence intensity is about 0.2 percent. With minor exceptions the steady turbulent boundary layer generated on the top wall of the test section exhibits the characteristics of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer generated on a flat plate. The tunnel was designed to generate sinusoidal oscillating mainstream flows. Experiments confirm that the tunnel produces sinusoidal mainstream velocity variations for the range of frequencies (up to 15 Hz). The results of this study demonstrate that the tunnel essentially produces the flows that it was designed to produce.

  17. Possible Dust Models for C/2012 S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) provided a great opportunity to study a dynamically new Oort-cloud comet on its initial and only passage through the inner solar system. Contrary to expectations, the comet's activity fluctuated from high through a quiescent phase, and a major outburst days before its perihelion passage, ending in a dramatic race to complete disintegration on perihelion day, 28 November 2013. Amateur observations to professional ground-based, sub-orbital telescopes indicate the various changes of visible factors such as Afrho, a proxy for dust activity, and the measured production rates for water, consistent with the disintegration of the nucleus. Hines et al. (2013; ApJ Lett. 780) detected positive polarization in the inner coma and negative polarization in the outer coma, indicative of a jet, independently confirmed by Li et al. (2013, ApJ Lett., 779). Thermal emission observations of the comet pre-perihelion from NAOJ/Subaru/COMICS, a mid-infrared spectrometer, indicated a body with an equivalent brightness temperature of 265K (Ootsubo et al., 2013, ACM, Helsinki,FI); thermal observations acquired at the NASA/Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) with The Aerospace Corporation spectrometer (BASS, PI. R. Russell), before and after the November 12, 2013 outburst observed by the CIOC_ISON amateur network, indicates a brightness temperature of 330K and the presence, albeit weak, of the 11.3-micron crystalline silicate feature (Sitko et al., 2014, LPI abstract 1537). A Monte Carlo comet dust tail model, applied to extract the dust environment parameters of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from both Earth-based and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) calibrated observations, performed from about 6 AU (inbound), to right after perihelion passage, when just a small portion of the original comet nucleus survived in the form of a cloud of tiny particles, indicates that particles underwent disintegration and fragmentation (Moreno et al., 2014, ApJ Lett., 791). Ongoing work on possible dust models that incorporate both the observed polarization and thermal emission will be discussed.

  18. CM-SAF high-resolution radiation budget products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicula, Bogdan; Dewitte, Steven; Clerbaux, Nicolas

    2003-04-01

    In this paper the system employed at the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMIB) within the Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility (CM-SAF) for the production of Top Of the Atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget components is described. One of the goals of the CM-SAF is to provide consistent TOA and surface radiation budget components and cloud properties at high spatial resolution and on an approximate equal area grid for a region that covers at least Europe and part of the North Atlantic Ocean. The TOA radiation products will be based on data from polar orbiting satellites for northern latitudes, and on data from MSG (METEOSAT Second Generation) for mid latitudes. The instruments used for the reflected solar and emitted thermal flux estimates will be GERB (Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget) and SEVIRI as the geostationary instruments and CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) for the non geostationary instruments. Daily means, monthly means and monthly mean diurnal cycles are to be provided. Until MSG fluxes will become available, fluxes from METEOSAT and CERES are used for development. At the TOA the three radiative flux components of incoming solar radiation, reflected solar radiation and emitted thermal radiation will be given. The daily mean GERB and CERES fluxes will be merged to produce a homogenized TOA flux product. The method used for the merging of the TOA fluxes and together with results using currently available input data are shown. The merging consists in the collocation of the two instruments, detection and the removal of the systematic dependencies of the flux estimates on scene type and viewing angles and regridding on a common grid.

  19. Outgassing and chemical evolution of C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dello Russo, Neil; Vervack, Ronald J.; Kawakita, Hideyo; Cochran, Anita; McKay, Adam J.; Harris, Walter M.; Weaver, Harold A.; Lisse, Carey M.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Biver, Nicolas; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Crovisier, Jacques; Opitom, Cyrielle; Jehin, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Volatile production rates, relative abundances, rotational temperatures, and spatial distributions in the coma were measured in C/2012 S1 (ISON) using long-slit high-dispersion (?/?? ~ 25,000) infrared spectroscopy as part of a worldwide observing campaign. Spectra were obtained on UT 2013 October 26 and 28 with NIRSPEC at the W. M. Keck Observatory, and UT 2013 November 19 and 20 with CSHELL at the NASA IRTF. H2O was detected on all dates, with production rates increasing by about a factor of 40 between October 26 (Rh = 1.12 AU) and November 20 (Rh = 0.43 AU). Short-term variability of H2O was also seen as the production rate increased by nearly a factor of two during observations obtained over a period of about six hours on November 19. C2H6, CH3OH and CH4 abundances were slightly depleted relative to H2O in ISON compared to mean values for comets measured at infrared wavelengths. On the November dates, C2H2, HCN and OCS abundances relative to H2O appear to be close to the range of mean values, whereas H2CO and NH3 were significantly enhanced. We will compare derived chemical abundances in ISON to other comets measured with infrared spectroscopy.

  20. Eastern Mediterranean sapropel S1: Isochronous Selective Formation and Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, G. J.; Thomson, J.; Slomp, C.; Crudeli, D.; Corselli, C.; Nijenhuis, I.; Erba, E.; Principato, M. S.; Ferreira, A. M.; Sinninghe-Damste, J.

    2009-04-01

    Sediments in the Eastern Mediterranean appear to be ideal recorders of Global paleoclimatic signals. Distinct darkgreen organic-rich intervals (sapropels) occur in eastern Mediterranean sediments at an astronomically determined cyclicity alternating with organic-lean sediments. Their occurrence is related to relatively humid climatic periods, resulting in enhanced organic fluxes arriving at the seafloor, whereas the intervening, arid periods are characterized by the deposition of rather high dust fluxes. The most recent of such events occurred isochronously for all waterdepths and regions from 9.8 to 5.7 kyr, simultaneously with the sustained wet period in the circum Mediterranean area and was followed by a rapid increase in aridity (Ti/Al) coinciding with a peak of high Mn-oxide content. The latter peak occurs in response to an abrupt re-ventilation event of the deep basin, and is confirmed by micropaleontological and organic geochemical proxies. Following the ventilation event, excess oxygen has continued to progressively move downward into the sediment oxidizing e.g. organic C. From the organic geochemical data it is clear that although siliceous microfossils have entirely disappeared, their ‘signature' is still there. Clearly, marine biomarkers are enriched in the remaining S1 interval, whereas these are completely removed upon oxidation in the upper part. Proper recognition of initial versus secondary signals is therefore vital in the interpretation of sedimentary proxies.

  1. Genetic characterization of three qnrS1-harbouring multidrug-resistance plasmids and qnrS1-containing transposons circulating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Le, Vien; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Campbell, James I.; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Schultsz, Constance; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) refers to a family of closely related genes that confer decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMQR genes are generally associated with integrons and/or plasmids that carry additional antimicrobial resistance genes active against a range of antimicrobials. In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we have previously shown a high frequency of PMQR genes within commensal Enterobacteriaceae. However, there are limited available sequence data detailing the genetic context in which the PMQR genes reside, and a lack of understanding of how these genes spread across the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic background facilitating the spread and maintenance of qnrS1, the dominant PMQR gene circulating in HCMC. We sequenced three qnrS1-carrying plasmids in their entirety to understand the genetic context of these qnrS1-embedded plasmids and also the association of qnrS1-mediated quinolone resistance with other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Annotation of the three qnrS1-containing plasmids revealed a qnrS1-containing transposon with a closely related structure. We screened 112 qnrS1-positive commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and in a hospital in HCMC to detect the common transposon structure. We found the same transposon structure to be present in 71.4?% (45/63) of qnrS1-positive hospital isolates and in 36.7?% (18/49) of qnrS1-positive isolates from the community. The resulting sequence analysis of the qnrS1 environment suggested that qnrS1 genes are widely distributed and are mobilized on elements with a common genetic background. Our data add additional insight into mechanisms that facilitate resistance to multiple antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. PMID:26272054

  2. Genetic characterization of three qnrS1-harbouring multidrug-resistance plasmids and qnrS1-containing transposons circulating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Vien; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Campbell, James I; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Schultsz, Constance; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R; Baker, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) refers to a family of closely related genes that confer decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMQR genes are generally associated with integrons and/or plasmids that carry additional antimicrobial resistance genes active against a range of antimicrobials. In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we have previously shown a high frequency of PMQR genes within commensal Enterobacteriaceae. However, there are limited available sequence data detailing the genetic context in which the PMQR genes reside, and a lack of understanding of how these genes spread across the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic background facilitating the spread and maintenance of qnrS1, the dominant PMQR gene circulating in HCMC. We sequenced three qnrS1-carrying plasmids in their entirety to understand the genetic context of these qnrS1-embedded plasmids and also the association of qnrS1-mediated quinolone resistance with other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Annotation of the three qnrS1-containing plasmids revealed a qnrS1-containing transposon with a closely related structure. We screened 112 qnrS1-positive commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and in a hospital in HCMC to detect the common transposon structure. We found the same transposon structure to be present in 71.4?% (45/63) of qnrS1-positive hospital isolates and in 36.7?% (18/49) of qnrS1-positive isolates from the community. The resulting sequence analysis of the qnrS1 environment suggested that qnrS1 genes are widely distributed and are mobilized on elements with a common genetic background. Our data add additional insight into mechanisms that facilitate resistance to multiple antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. PMID:26272054

  3. Observing Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) With Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, Carey M.; Vervack, R. J.; Weaver, H. A.; Bauer, J. M.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Kelley, M. S.; Knight, M. M.; Hines, D. C.; Li, J.; Reach, W. T.; Sitko, M. L.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Meech, K. J.; Rayner, J. T.

    2013-10-01

    In this talk we discuss the design, implementation, and reduction of observations of Comet ISON from space using the Spitzer Space Telescope on 13.00 - 13.96 Jun UT and from the ground at Lowell Observatory on Jun 11.16 UT and from APO on 14.13 Jun UT. The comet was at distance rh = 3.34 AU from the Sun, distance ?Spitzer = 3.29 AU and 17.4o phase from SST, and distance ?Earth = 4.25 AU and 6.8 - 7.3o phase at the time of observation. Preliminary analyses show ISON's Spitzer coma morphology was relatively compact and simple, with a linear anti-solar dust tail > 3x105 km in length and a 1/p profile gas coma extending > 105 km from the nucleus. Afp values in an 18,200 km radius aperture of 840, 890, and 840 ± 80 cm were found at VRI, and 650 ± 100 cm were found at 3.6 micron. Together, the ground-based and Spitzer photometry imply near-neutral dust scattering from the visual through the infrared. An excess at 4.5 µm due to emission from a neutral gas coma is clearly found both morphologically and photometrically. The gas coma total flux and spatial profile and ISON’s discovery distance imply a coma dominated by the stronger CO_2 line emission at 4.67 ?m, but we cannot rule out a preponderance of CO emission at 4.26 ?m. No variability in our Spitzer photometry at the 0.03 mag level over 24 hrs was seen. We present our imagery, spectrophotometry, and lightcurves, and discuss the physical implications of these measurements of the comet made well outside the ice line.

  4. What Are Space Exposure Histories Telling Us about CM Carbonaceous Chondrites?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takenouchi, A.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M.; Velbel, M. A.; Ross, K.; Zolensky, P.; Le, L.; Imae, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.

    2013-01-01

    Chondrites are chemically primitive and carbonaceous (C) chondrites are potentially the most primitive among them because they mostly escaped thermal metamor-phism that affected the other chondrite groups and ratios of their major, non-volatile and most of the volatile elements are similar to those of the Sun. Therefore, C chondrites are ex-pected to retain a good record of the origin and early history of the solar system. Carbonaceous chondrites are chemically differentiated from other chondrites by their high Mg/Si ratios and refractory elements, and have experienced various degrees of aqueous alteration. They are subdivided into eight subgroups (CI, CM, CO, CV, CK, CR, CB and CH) based on major element and oxygen isotopic ratios. Their elemental ratios spread over a wide range though those of ordinary and enstatite chondrites are relatively uniform. It is critical to know how many sepa-rate bodies are represented by the C chondrites. In this study, CM chondrites, the most abundant carbona-ceous chondrites, are examined. They are water-rich, chon-drule- and CAI-bearing meteorites and most of them are brec-cias. High-temperature components such as chondrules, iso-lated olivine and CAIs in CMs are frequently altered and some of them are replaced by clay minerals and surrounded by sul-fides whose Fe was derived from mafic silicates. On the basis of degrees of aqueous alteration, CMs have been classified into subtypes from 1 to 2, although Rubin et al. [1] assigned subtype 1 to subtype 2 and subtype 2 to subtype 2.6 using various petrologic properties. The classification is based on petrographic and mineralogic properties. For example, though tochilinite (2[(Fe, Mg, Cu, Ni[])S] 1.57-1.85 [(Mg, Fe, Ni, Al, Ca)(HH)2]) clumps are produced during aqueous alteration, they disappear and sulfide appears with increasing degrees of aqueous alteration. Cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age measurements of CM chondrites reveal an unusual feature. Though CRE ages of other chondrite groups range from several Myr to tens of Myr, CMs exposure ages are not longer than 7 Myr with one-third of the CM having less than 1 Myr CRE age. For those CM chondrites that have CRE ages <1 Myr, there are two discern-able CRE peaks. Because a CRE age reflects how long a me-teorite is present as a separate body in space, the peaks pre-sumably represent collisional events on the parent body (ies) [2]. In this study we defined 4 distinct CRE age groups of CMs and systematically characterized the petrography in each of the 4 CRE age groups to determine whether the groups have significant petrographic differences, with such differences probably reflecting different parent body (asteroid) geological processing, or multiple original bodies.

  5. HDL-S1P: cardiovascular functions, disease-associated alterations, and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Levkau, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid contained in High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and has drawn considerable attention in the lipoprotein field as numerous studies have demonstrated its contribution to several functions inherent to HDL. Some of them are partly and some entirely due to the S1P contained in HDL (HDL-S1P). Despite the presence of over 1000 different lipids in HDL, S1P stands out as it possesses its own cell surface receptors through which it exercises key physiological functions. Most of the S1P in human plasma is associated with HDL, and the amount of HDL-S1P influences the quality and quantity of HDL-dependent functions. The main binding partner of S1P in HDL is apolipoprotein M but others may also exist particularly under conditions of acute S1P elevations. HDL not only exercise functions through their S1P content but have also an impact on genuine S1P signaling by influencing S1P bioactivity and receptor presentation. HDL-S1P content is altered in human diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Low HDL-S1P has also been linked to impaired HDL functions associated with these disorders. Although the pathophysiological and molecular reasons for such disease-associated shifts in HDL-S1P are little understood, there have been successful approaches to circumvent their adverse implications by pharmacologically increasing HDL-S1P as means to improve HDL function. This mini-review will cover the current understanding of the contribution of HDL-S1P to physiological HDL function, its alteration in disease and ways for its restoration to correct HDL dysfunction. PMID:26539121

  6. Large-area (over 50 cm × 50 cm) freestanding films of colloidal InP/ZnS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Mutlugun, Evren; Hernandez-Martinez, Pedro Ludwig; Eroglu, Cuneyt; Coskun, Yasemin; Erdem, Talha; Sharma, Vijay K; Unal, Emre; Panda, Subhendu K; Hickey, Stephen G; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmüller, Alexander; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2012-08-01

    We propose and demonstrate the fabrication of flexible, freestanding films of InP/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) using fatty acid ligands across very large areas (greater than 50 cm × 50 cm), which have been developed for remote phosphor applications in solid-state lighting. Embedded in a poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix, although the formation of stand-alone films using other QDs commonly capped with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and oleic acid is not efficient, employing myristic acid as ligand in the synthesis of these QDs, which imparts a strongly hydrophobic character to the thin film, enables film formation and ease of removal even on surprisingly large areas, thereby avoiding the need for ligand exchange. When pumped by a blue LED, these Cd-free QD films allow for high color rendering, warm white light generation with a color rendering index of 89.30 and a correlated color temperature of 2298 K. In the composite film, the temperature-dependent emission kinetics and energy transfer dynamics among different-sized InP/ZnS QDs are investigated and a model is proposed. High levels of energy transfer efficiency (up to 80%) and strong donor lifetime modification (from 18 to 4 ns) are achieved. The suppression of the nonradiative channels is observed when the hybrid film is cooled to cryogenic temperatures. The lifetime changes of the donor and acceptor InP/ZnS QDs in the film as a result of the energy transfer are explained well by our theoretical model based on the exciton-exciton interactions among the dots and are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The understanding of these excitonic interactions is essential to facilitate improvements in the fabrication of photometrically high quality nanophosphors. The ability to make such large-area, flexible, freestanding Cd-free QD films pave the way for environmentally friendly phosphor applications including flexible, surface-emitting light engines. PMID:22783904

  7. A 5-cm dipole for the SSC-DE-1

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.

    1990-04-30

    A 5cm SSC superconducting dipole that develops 6.6 tesla at 5790 A is proposed. The two layer magnet has 12% more transfer function than the present design as a result of using thin collars and close in'' iron. The thin collars provide precise positioning of the coils; they also provide minimum prestress (perhaps 2000 psi) as aid for magnet assembly. A welded skin around the iron provides the final prestress and shapes and the coil geometry. A prestressed aluminum bar placed between the vertically split iron yokes provides precise control of the gap between yokes halves and is designed to allow gap to close tightly during cooldown so that there is no decrease of prestress. In order to reduce the effect of iron saturation on the field multipoles the iron ID has been optimized to an elliptical shape. The coil inner layer is a 30 strand cable with 1.3:1 cu/sc. The outer layer is a 36 strand cable wit 1.8:1 cu/sc. At the operating field of 6.6 tesla the current density in the copper is 666 A/mm{sup 2} and 760 A/mm{sup 2} in the inner and outer layers respectively. The magnet short sample performance is limited by the inner layer. Operating at 4.35 K the maximum current and central field are 6896 A and 7.95 tesla. The calculated operating short sample temperature at 6.6 tesla and 5798 A is 5.17 K (0.82 K temperature margin). The magnet stored energy is 100.0 (KJ/m) at the 5790 A operating current. A mechanically similar 5cm bore two layer dipole for the cable test facility (D-16B-1) has been recently built and tested. The magnet had no collars and the iron was placed directly on the coil OD. The magnet's first quench was at 7 tesla with 6000 A and it reached 7.6 tesla at 6600 A. This paper contains tables and figures associated with the design.

  8. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with common paymaster. 31.3121(s)-1 Section 31.3121(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(s)-1 Concurrent employment by related corporations with... this section. Section 3121(s) and this section apply only to remuneration disbursed in the form...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... with common paymaster. 31.3121(s)-1 Section 31.3121(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(s)-1 Concurrent employment by related corporations with... this section. Section 3121(s) and this section apply only to remuneration disbursed in the form...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... with common paymaster. 31.3121(s)-1 Section 31.3121(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(s)-1 Concurrent employment by related corporations with... this section. Section 3121(s) and this section apply only to remuneration disbursed in the form...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... with common paymaster. 31.3121(s)-1 Section 31.3121(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(s)-1 Concurrent employment by related corporations with... this section. Section 3121(s) and this section apply only to remuneration disbursed in the form...

  12. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... with common paymaster. 31.3121(s)-1 Section 31.3121(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(s)-1 Concurrent employment by related corporations with... this section. Section 3121(s) and this section apply only to remuneration disbursed in the form...

  13. HI 21cm emission from the sub-damped Lyman-alpha absorber at z=0.0063 towards PG1216+069

    E-print Network

    Chengalur, Jayaram N; Salter, C J; Kanekar, N; Momjian, E; Keeney, B A; Stocke, J T

    2015-01-01

    We present HI 21cm emission observations of the z ~ 0.00632 sub-damped Lyman-alpha absorber (sub-DLA) towards PG1216+069 made using the Arecibo Telescope and the Very Large Array (VLA). The Arecibo 21cm spectrum corresponds to an HI mass of ~ 3.2x10^7 solar masses, two orders of magnitude smaller than that of a typical spiral galaxy. This is surprising since in the local Universe the cross-section for absorption at high HI column densities is expected to be dominated by spirals. The 21cm emission detected in the VLA spectral cube has a low signal-to-noise ratio, and represents only half the total flux seen at Arecibo. Emission from three other sources is detected in the VLA observations, with only one of these sources having an optical counterpart. This group of HI sources appears to be part of complex "W", believed to lie in the background of the Virgo cluster. While several HI cloud complexes have been found in and around the Virgo cluster, it is unclear whether the ram pressure and galaxy harassment proces...

  14. Stoehr et al., Gene Technology 2015, S1 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-6682.S1-002

    E-print Network

    Monteiro, Antónia

    research tool to probe and manipulate gene function but currently the number of insect species transformedStoehr et al., Gene Technology 2015, S1 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-6682.S1-002 Research Article Open Access Gene Technology Gene Technology ISSN: 2329-6682 GNT, an open access journalGene Technology

  15. Search for ammonia in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, S.; Codella, C.; Tozzi, G.; Comoretto, G.; Crovisier, J.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Boissier, J.; Bolli, P.; Brucato, J.; Massi, F.; Tofani, G.

    2014-07-01

    Comets are pristine bodies of the Solar System and their studies can give precious hints on the formation of the Solar System itself. New comets, coming form the Oort Colud at their first passage close to the Sun, are particularly important, because they are not differentiated by the Solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of organic matter close to the surface. Here we report the results of a search for NH_3(1,1) emission at 23.7 GHz in comet C/2012 S1 ISON using a new dual-feed K-band receiver mounted on the Medicina 32-m antenna. We observed the comet once close to its perihelion, from 2013 Nov. 25 to Nov. 28, when its heliocentric distance changed from 0.25 au to 0.03 au. We integrated about 6 hrs per day, obtaining high-spectral-resolution (1 km/s) spectra with a typical rms noise of 10 mK. Such sensitivity allowed us to derive an upper limit of Q(NH_3) of about 2.5 ×10^{29} mol/s on November 26. This upper limit would correspond to a Q(H_2O) of about 2.5 ×10^{31} mol/s, assuming the typical Q(H_2O)/Q(NH_3) ratio of 100. These findings confirm that no significant Q(H_2O) enhancement happened near the perihelion, consistent with a definitive decrease of molecules production rate.

  16. The 15 cm mercury ion thruster research 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Doubly charged ion current measurements in the beam of a SERT II thruster are shown to introduce corrections which bring its calculated thrust into close agreement with that measured during flight testing. A theoretical model of doubly charged ion production and loss in mercury electron bombardment thrusters is discussed and is shown to yield doubly-to-singly charged ion density ratios that agree with experimental measurements obtained on a 15 cm diameter thruster over a range of operating conditions. Single cusp magnetic field thruster operation is discussed and measured ion beam profiles, performance data, doubly charged ion densities, and discharge plasma characteristics are presented for a range of operating conditions and thruster geometries. Variations in the characteristics of this thruster are compared to those observed in the divergent field thruster and the cusped field thruster is shown to yield flatter ion beam profiles at about the same discharge power and propellant utilization operating point. An ion optics test program is described and the measured effects of grid system dimensions on ion beamlet half angle and diameter are examined. The effectiveness of hollow cathode startup using a thermionically emitting filament within the cathode is examined over a range of mercury flow rates and compared to results obtained with a high voltage tickler startup technique. Results of cathode plasma property measurement tests conducted within the cathode are presented.

  17. CM and DM in an ISO R and D Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Sandra L.

    2000-01-01

    ISO 9000 - a common buzz word in industry is making inroads to government agencies. The National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) achieved ISO 9001 certification at each of its nine (9) Centers and Headquarters in 1998-1999. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) was recommended for certification in September 1999. Since then, each of the Centers has been going through the semi-annual surveillance audits. Growing out of the manufacturing industry, successful application of the international quality standard to a research and development (R&D) environment has had its challenges. This paper will address how GRC applied Configuration Management (CM) and Data (or Document) Management (DM) to meet challenges to achieve ISO certification. One of the first challenges was to fit the ISO 9001-1994 elements to the GRC environment. Some of the elements fit well-Management Responsibility (4.1), Internal Audits (4.17), Document and Data Control (4.5). Other elements were not suited or applied easily to the R&D environment-Servicing (4.19), Statistical Techniques (4.20). Since GRC "builds" only one or two items at a time, these elements were considered not applicable to the environment.

  18. High-resolution lunar radar map at 70-cm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    New radar observations of the moon in 1981-1984 were made using the 430 MHz (70 cm wavelength) radar at the Arecibo observatory, Puerto Rico. The new observations have produced a high resolution lunar radar map with radar cell-sizes near 2-5 km. This new resolution is a three-fold improvement over the previous mapping done in the late 1960's. Since the Arecibo radar antenna beam is only ten arc-minutes (about one-third of the width of the lunar disk), this new map is a mosaic of some eighteen observations. A radarmetric control between the various pieces of the mosaic was obtained via a 'beam-swing', limb-to-limb calibration. When the limb-to-limb calibration was combined with the mosaic, there were significant radar scattering differences across the maria. Eastern Mare Tranquillitatis and western Oceanus Procellarum have weaker echoes than other maria, while the central portion of Mare Serenitatis and northern Mare Imbrium have stronger echoes. There is a radar scattering difference across the southern terra as areas nearer Mare Orientale have stronger echoes than areas further from Mare Orientale.

  19. Sensing and characterization of explosive vapors near 700 cm -1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Alan R.; Reeve, Scott W.

    2007-04-01

    One of the technological challenges associated with trace vapor detection of explosive materials are the relatively low vapor pressures exhibited by most energetic materials under ambient conditions. For example, the vapor pressure for TNT is ~10 ppbv at room temperature, a concentration near the Limit of Detection for many of the technologies currently being deployed. In the case of improvised explosive devices, the clandestine nature of the device further serves to exacerbate the vapor pressure issue. Interestingly, the gold standard in explosives detection remains the trained canine nose. While there is still some debate as to what the dog actually smells, recent studies have indicated the alert response is triggered, not by the vapor presence of a specific explosive compound but, by a characteristic bouquet of odors from chemical impurities used to manufacture and process the explosives. Here we present high resolution infrared data for several of these volatile organic compounds in the 700 cm -1 region required for real time optical sensing of energetic materials.

  20. Absolutely Calibrated 2-cm l Radiometry of Titan and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Michael A.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Kirk, R. L.; Lopes, R. M.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2007-10-01

    The Cassini Radar instrument includes a passive microwave radiometer that operates at 13.78 GHz ( 2.2 cm wavelength). The radiometer is used to observe the thermal emission from Titan's surface at resolutions ranging from 5 - 500 km and at a variety of emission angles and polarizations. Nearly the entire surface has been observed through May, 2007, enabling the construction of a mosaiced global map of the surface brightness temperature at normal incidence. The approach to producing this map will be presented. Our knowledge from Radar imaging of the nature of Titan's surface in key regions - specifically, the equatorial dune fields, the northern seas, and the Huygens probe landing site temperature - enables us to absolutely calibrate this map. Implications for surface composition and physical properties are discussed. Among other interpretations, an equator to pole temperature difference will be presented. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. Performance and Vibration of 30 cm Pyrolytic Ion Thruster Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas; Soulas, George C.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon has a sputter erosion rate about an order of magnitude less than that of molybdenum, over the voltages typically used in ion thruster applications. To explore its design potential, 30 cm pyrolytic carbon ion thruster optics have been fabricated geometrically similar to the molybdenum ion optics used on NSTAR. They were then installed on an NSTAR Engineering Model thruster, and experimentally evaluated over much of the original operating envelope. Ion beam currents ranged from 0.51 to 1.76 Angstroms, at total voltages up to 1280 V. The perveance, electron back-streaming limit, and screen-grid transparency were plotted for these operating points, and compared with previous data obtained with molybdenum. While thruster performance with pyrolytic carbon was quite similar to that with molybdenum, behavior variations can reasonably be explained by slight geometric differences. Following all performance measurements, the pyrolytic carbon ion optics assembly was subjected to an abbreviated vibration test. The thruster endured 9.2 g(sub rms) of random vibration along the thrust axis, similar to DS 1 acceptance levels. Despite significant grid clashing, there was no observable damage to the ion optics assembly.

  2. Piezo-Operated Shutter Mechanism Moves 1.5 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Robert; Bamford, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The figure shows parts of a shutter mechanism designed to satisfy a number of requirements specific to its original intended application as a component of an atomic clock to be flown in outer space. The mechanism may also be suitable for use in laboratory and industrial vacuum systems on Earth for which there are similar requirements. The requirements include the following: a) To alternately close, then open, a 1.5-cm-diameter optical aperture twice per second, with a stroke time of no more than 15 ms, during a total operational lifetime of at least a year; b) To attenuate light by a factor of at least 1012 when in the closed position; c) To generate little or no magnetic field; d) To be capable of withstanding bakeout at a temperature of 200 C to minimize outgassing during subsequent operation in an ultrahigh vacuum; and e) To fit within a diameter of 12 in. (=305 mm) a size limit dictated by the size of an associated magnetic shield. The light-attenuation requirement is satisfied by use of overlapping shutter blades. The closure of the aperture involves, among other things, insertion of a single shutter blade between a pair of shutter blades. The requirement to minimize the magnetic field is satisfied by use of piezoelectric actuators. Because piezoelectric actuators cannot withstand bakeout, they must be mounted outside the vacuum chamber, and, hence, motion must be transmitted from the actuators to the shutter levers via a vacuum-chamber-wall diaphragm.

  3. Microbiological study of the Murchison CM2 meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2012-10-01

    In 1864, Louis Pasteur attempted to cultivate living microorganisms from pristine samples of the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorite. His results were negative and never published, but recorded it in his laboratory notebooks. At that time, only aerobic liquid or agar-based organic reach media were used, as his research on anaerobes had just started. In our laboratory the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous meteorite was selected to expand on these studies for microbiological study by cultivation on anaerobic mineral media. Since the surface could have been more easily contaminated, interior fragments of a sample of the Murchison meteorite were extracted and crushed under sterile conditions. The resulting powder was then mixed in anoxic medium and injected into Hungate tubes containing anaerobic media with various growth substrates at different pH and salinity and incubated at different temperatures. The goal of the experiments was to determine if living cells would grow from the material of freshly fractured interior fragments of the stone. If any growth occurred, work could then be carried out to assess the nature of the environmental contamination by observations of the culture growth (rates of speed and biodiversity); live/dead fluorescent staining to determine contamination level and DNA analysis to establish the microbial species present. In this paper we report the results of that study.

  4. Formation of asteroids from mm-cm sized grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, D.; Johansen, A.; Davies, M. B.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Asteroids and comets are intricately connected to life in the universe. Asteroids are the building blocks of terrestrial planets; water-rich asteroids and comets are likely to be the primary source of water for Earth's oceans and other volatiles (Morbidelli et al. 2000; Hartogh et al. 2011); and they may play role in mass extinctions. Yet, the formation of these objects is poorly understood. There is mounting evidence that the traditional picture of the formation of asteroids must be revised. The size distribution of asteroids is hard to reconcile with a traditional bottomup formation scenario. Instead, asteroids may form top-down, with large 100 - 1000 km sized objects forming first by the gravitational collapse of dense clumps of small particles. Experiments and simulations suggest that dust grains cannot grow to sizes larger than mm-cm in protoplanetary disks (Zsom et al. 2010). Also, primitive meteorites from the asteroid belt contain a large mass fraction in chondrules of sizes from 0.1 mm to a few mm. Hence, it is desirable to find a model for asteroid formation from mm-sized particles. Aims. In this work, we model the dynamics of mm-cm sized grains in dust-enriched inner regions of protoplanetary disks. We model the dust-gas interaction to determine whether dust grains of this size can form dense, self-gravitating clouds that can collapse to form asteroids. Methods. We perform shearing box simulations of the inner disk using the Pencil Code (Brandenburg & Dobler 2002). The simulations start with a Solar-type solids-to-gas ratio of 0.01 and we gradually increase the particle concentration. In a real protoplanetary disk, solid particles are expected to migrate from the outer regions and concentrate in the inner disk. Results. Our simulations show that mm-sized particles can form very dense clumps, driven by a run-away convergence in the radial-drift flow of these particles - this dynamic is known as the streaming instability (Youdin & Goodman 2005; Johansen et al. 2007). We show that the streaming instability can also occur for small grains, strongly coupled to the surouning gas. We further show that the resulting particle clumps can reach the density where gravitational collapse is expected to take place, giving rise to planetesimals and asteroids. This process requires either a very high solids-to-gas ratio, or a reduced background pressure gradient, such as that produced by large-scale pressure bumps in the disk. Interpretation. This result offers a promising avenue to the formation of asteroids and comets. Additional work with this model may provide insight on the initial distribution of the masses and orbits of asteroids and comets. This information is important because these are the initial conditions for the formation of terrestrial planets, and for the delivery of water and other volatiles to rocky planets in the habitable zone.

  5. A 1.3 cm line survey toward Orion KL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y.; Henkel, C.; Thorwirth, S.; Spezzano, S.; Menten, K. M.; Walmsley, C. M.; Wyrowski, F.; Mao, R. Q.; Klein, B.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The nearby Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula is one of the most prolific sources of molecular line emission. It has served as a benchmark for spectral line searches throughout the (sub)millimeter regime. Aims: The main goal is to systematically study the spectral characteristics of Orion KL in the ? ~ 1.3 cm band. Methods: We carried out a spectral line survey with the Effelsberg-100 m telescope toward Orion KL. It covers the frequency range between 17.9 GHz and 26.2 GHz, i.e., the radio "K band". We also examined ALMA maps to address the spatial origin of molecules detected by our 1.3 cm line survey. Results: In Orion KL, we find 261 spectral lines, yielding an average line density of about 32 spectral features per GHz above 3? (a typical value of 3? is 15 mJy). The identified lines include 164 radio recombination lines (RRLs) and 97 molecular lines. The RRLs, from hydrogen, helium, and carbon, stem from the ionized material of the Orion Nebula, part of which is covered by our beam. The molecular lines are assigned to 13 different molecular species including rare isotopologues. A total of 23 molecular transitions from species known to exist in Orion KL are detected for the first time in the interstellar medium. Non-metastable (J>K) 15NH3 transitions are detected in Orion KL for the first time. Based on the velocity information of detected lines and the ALMA images, the spatial origins of molecular emission are constrained and discussed. A narrow feature is found in SO2 (81,7 - 72,6), but not in other SO2 transitions, possibly suggesting the presence of a maser line. Column densities and fractional abundances relative to H2 are estimated for 12 molecules with local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) methods. Rotational diagrams of non-metastable 14NH3 transitions with J = K + 1 to J = K + 4 yield different results; metastable (J = K) 15NH3 is found to have a higher excitation temperature than non-metastable 15NH3, also indicating that they may trace different regions. Elemental and isotopic abundance ratios are also estimated: He/H = (8.7 ± 0.7)% derived from the ratios between helium RRLs and hydrogen RRLs; 12C/13C = 63 ± 17 from 12CH3OH/13CH3OH; 14N/15N =100 ± 51 from 14NH3/15NH3; and D/H = (8.3 ± 4.5) × 10-3 from NH2D/NH3. The dispersion of the He/H ratios derived from H?/He? pairs to H?/He? pairs is very small, which is consistent with theoretical predictions that the departure coefficients bn factors for hydrogen and helium are nearly identical. Based on a non-LTE code that neglects excitation by the infrared radiation field and a likelihood analysis, we find that the denser regions have lower kinetic temperature, which favors an external heating of the hot core. Tables 2 and 4 and appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe reduced spectra as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/581/A48

  6. Evaluation of inpatient clinical documentation readiness for ICD-10-CM.

    PubMed

    DeAlmeida, Dilhari R; Watzlaf, Valerie J; Anania-Firouzan, Patti; Salguero, Otto; Rubinstein, Elaine; Abdelhak, Mervat; Parmanto, Bambang

    2014-01-01

    This research study examined the gaps in documentation that occur when coding in ICD-10-CM. More than 4,000 diagnoses from all chapters were coded from 656 electronic documents obtained from a large integrated healthcare facility at the time the study was conducted (2012). After the documents were coded, areas for documentation improvement were identified for chapters that resulted in deficiencies in documentation, and a quick reference guide was developed. The overall absent documentation percentage was 15.4 percent. The 10 chapters with the highest percentage of absent documentation were chapter 7 (Diseases of Eye and Adnexa), with 67.65 percent (p < .001); chapter 8 (Diseases of Ear and Mastoid Process), with 63.64 percent (p < .001); chapter 13 (Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System and Connective Tissue), with 46.05 percent (p < .001); chapter 14 (Diseases of the Genitourinary System), with 40.29 percent (p < .001); chapter 10 (Diseases of Respiratory System), with 35.52 percent (p < .001); chapter 1 (Infectious and Parasitic Diseases), with 32.88 percent (p < .001); chapter 12 (Diseases of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue), with 32.35 percent (p < .001); chapter 2 (Neoplasms), with 25.45 percent (p < .001); chapter 4 (Endocrine, Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases), with 14.58 percent (p < .001); and chapter 17 (Congenital Malformations, Deformations, and Chromosomal Abnormalities), with 12.50 percent. We addressed the deficient areas in the quick reference guide developed for clinicians and technology vendors. Having complete and accurate documentation would benefit both the clinician and the patient in providing the highest quality of care. PMID:24808815

  7. ENHANCED DETECTABILITY OF PRE-REIONIZATION 21 cm STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Pen, Ue-Li; Chang, Tzu-Ching

    2010-11-01

    Before the universe was reionized, it was likely that the spin temperature of intergalactic hydrogen was decoupled from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) by UV radiation from the first stars through the Wouthuysen-Field effect. If the intergalactic medium (IGM) had not yet been heated above the CMB temperature by that time, then the gas would appear in absorption relative to the CMB. Large, rare sources of X-rays could inject sufficient heat into the neutral IGM, so that {delta}T{sub b} >0 at comoving distances of tens to hundreds of Mpc, resulting in large 21 cm fluctuations with {delta}T{sub b} {approx_equal} 250 mK on arcminute to degree angular scales, an order of magnitude larger in amplitude than that caused by ionized bubbles during reionization, {delta}T{sub b} {approx_equal} 25 mK. This signal could therefore be easier to detect and probe higher redshifts than that due to patchy reionization. For the case in which the first objects to heat the IGM are QSOs hosting 10{sup 7} M {sub sun} black holes with an abundance exceeding {approx}1 Gpc{sup -3} at z {approx} 15, observations with either the Arecibo Observatory or the Five Hundred Meter Aperture Spherical Telescope could detect and image their fluctuations at greater than 5{sigma} significance in about a month of dedicated survey time. Additionally, existing facilities such as MWA and LOFAR could detect the statistical fluctuations arising from a population of 10{sup 5} M {sub sun} black holes with an abundance of {approx}10{sup 4} Gpc{sup -3} at z {approx_equal} 10-12.

  8. Mcmc Signal Extraction For 21-cm Global Signal Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harker, Geraint

    2012-05-01

    Measurements of the highly redshifted 21-cm line promise to provide a great deal of information about the dark ages of the Universe, the cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization. It is generally accepted that strong astrophysical foregrounds are a major obstacle to overcome before this promise is realised, largely because of the way they are filtered through a complicated instrumental response. A great deal of work has therefore been devoted to studying foreground removal for observations with the low-frequency radio arrays which are starting to collect data. The case of so-called 'global signal' experiments has received less attention, however. I will compare the foreground fitting problem in these two types of experiments, and describe a foreground fitting methodology which has been developed for a proposed global signal experiment, the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE), which will make use of the pristine radio-frequency environment over the far side of the Moon. The method, a fully Bayesian technique based on a Markov Chain Monte Carlo code will, however, be applicable more generally to other space- and ground-based experiments, including the prototype DARE antenna being deployed in Western Australia. For ground-based experiments, we must also contend with effects from the Earth's ionosphere and low-level radio-frequency interference. I will show early results from applying our algorithm to data from the prototype and the EDGES experiment. GH is a member of the LUNAR consortium, which is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute (via Cooperative Agreement NNA09DB30A) to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon.

  9. Regulated and constitutive activation of specific signalling pathways by the human S1P5 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Niedernberg, Anke; Blaukat, Andree; Schöneberg, Torsten; Kostenis, Evi

    2003-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis, whether G Protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) may differentially regulate specific signalling pathways by constitutive and agonist-induced activation using the human sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor S1P5 as a model. S1P5 receptor-expressing HEK293 cells exhibited a high degree of basal activity for both inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) when cultured in serum, which contains high levels of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). However, basal activity was independent of the presence of S1P: (i) constitutive activity remained when cells were cultured in delipidated serum, (ii) addition of S1P to delipidated serum did not increase basal S1P5 receptor signalling. Conversely, constitutive inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase was further enhanced by S1P in S1P5-HEK293 cells. Transfection of several mammalian cell lines (CHO-K1, HEK293, NIH-3T3, RH7777) with the S1P5 receptor induced cell rounding, which was more pronounced in the presence of S1P-containing serum. Rounded cell morphology did not correlate with apoptotic cell death, but led to detachment of cells. Cell surface ELISA assays showed that a fraction of plasma membrane S1P5 receptors were dose-dependently internalized with S1P. These data reveal that intrinsic inhibition of unstimulated adenylyl cyclase or ERK activity by the S1P5 receptor is insensitive to ligand modulation. Conversely, effects on forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase, cell morphology and internalization can be further augmented with S1P. Our results suggest that different signal transduction pathways are not equally activated through constitutively active GPCRs with promiscuous signalling characteristics. PMID:12569073

  10. Behavior of an inversion-based precipitation retrieval algorithm with high-resolution AMPR measurements including a low-frequency 10.7-GHz channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. A.; Xiang, X.; Mugnai, A.; Hood, R. E.; Spencer, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    A microwave-based, profile-type precipitation retrieval algorithm has been used to analyze high-resolution passsive microwave measurements over an ocean background, obtained by the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) flown on a NASA ER-2 aircraft. The analysis is designed to first determine the improvements that can be gained by adding brightness temperature information from the AMPR low-frequency channel (10.7 GHz) to a multispectral retrieval algorithm nominally run with satellite information at 19, 37, and 85 GHz. The impact of spatial resolution degradation of the high-resolution brightness temperature information on the retrieved rain/cloud liquid water contents and ice water contents is then quantified in order to assess the possible biases inherent to satellite-based retrieval. Careful inspection of the high-resolution aircraft dataset reveals five distinctive brightness temperature features associated with cloud structure and scattering effects that are not generally detectable in current passive microwave satellite measurements. Results suggest that the inclusion of 10.7-GHz information overcomes two basic problems associated with three-channel retrieval. Intercomparisons of retrievals carried out at high-resolution and then averaged to a characteristic satellite scale to the corresponding retrievals in which the brightness temperatures are first convolved down to the satellite scale suggest that with the addition of the 10.7-GHz channel, the rain liquid water contents will not be negatively impacted by special resolution degradation. That is not the case with the ice water contents as they appear ti be quite sensitive to the imposed scale, the implication being that as spatial resolution is reduced, ice water contents will become increasingly underestimated.

  11. Impact-Induced Chondrule Deformation and Aqueous Alteration of CM2 Murchison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, R. D.; Zolensky, M.; Ketcham, R. A.; Behr, W. M.; Martinez, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Deformed chondrules in CM2 Murchison have been found to define a prominent foliation [1,2] and lineation [3] in 3D using X-ray computed tomography (XCT). It has been hypothesized that chondrules in foliated chondrites deform by "squeezing" into surrounding pore space [4,5], a process that also likely removes primary porosity [6]. However, shock stage classification based on olivine extinction in Murchison is consistently low (S1-S2) [4-5,7] implying that significant intracrystalline plastic deformation of olivine has not occurred. One objective of our study is therefore to determine the microstructural mechanisms and phases that are accommodating the impact stress and resulting in relative displacements within the chondrules. Another question regarding impact deformation in Murchison is whether it facilitated aqueous alteration as has been proposed for the CMs which generally show a positive correlation between degree of alteration and petrofabric strength [7,2]. As pointed out by [2], CM Murchison represents a unique counterpoint to this correlation: it has a strong petrofabric but a relatively low degree of aqueous alteration. However, Murchison may not represent an inconsistency to the proposed causal relationship between impact and alteration, if it can be established that the incipient aqueous alteration post-dated chondrule deformation. Methods: Two thin sections from Murchison sample USNM 5487 were cut approximately perpendicular to the foliation and parallel to lineation determined by XCT [1,3] and one section was additionally polished for EBSD. Using a combination of optical petrography, SEM, EDS, and EBSD several chondrules were characterized in detail to: determine phases, find microstructures indicative of strain, document the geometric relationships between grain-scale microstructures and the foliation and lineation direction, and look for textural relationships of alteration minerals (tochilinite and Mg-Fe serpentine) that indicate timing of their formation relative to deformation event(s). Preliminary Results: Deformed chondrules are dominated by forsterite and clinoenstatite with lesser amounts of Fe-Mg serpentine, sulfides, and low calcium pyroxene. Olivine grains are commonly fractured but generally show sharp optical extinction. The pyroxene, in contrast, is not only fractured but also often displays undulose extinction. In addition, the clinoenstatite is frequently twinned but it is unclear whether the twins are the result of mechanical deformation or inversion from protoenstatite [8]. EBSD work is currently ongoing to determine if areas of higher crystallographic strain can be imaged and mapped, and to determine the pyroxene twin orientations. In regards to alteration, we have found evidence for post-deformation formation of tochilinite and Mg-Fe serpentine indicating that aqueous alteration has indeed post-dated the deformation of the chondrules.

  12. 76 FR 51985 - ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance Committee Meeting..., announces the following meeting. Name: ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance Committee meeting. Time and... specific ICD-9-CM C&M meeting on September 14, 2011, must submit their name and organization by September...

  13. New Evidence for Mass Loss from ? Cephei from H I 21 cm Line Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, L. D.; Marengo, M.; Evans, N. R.; Bono, G.

    2012-01-01

    Recently published Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the classical Cepheid archetype ? Cephei revealed an extended dusty nebula surrounding this star and its hot companion HD 213307. At far-infrared wavelengths, the emission resembles a bow shock aligned with the direction of space motion of the star, indicating that ? Cephei is undergoing mass loss through a stellar wind. Here we report H I 21 cm line observations with the Very Large Array (VLA) to search for neutral atomic hydrogen associated with this wind. Our VLA data reveal a spatially extended H I nebula (~13' or 1 pc across) surrounding the position of ? Cephei. The nebula has a head-tail morphology, consistent with circumstellar ejecta shaped by the interaction between a stellar wind and the interstellar medium (ISM). We directly measure a mass of circumstellar atomic hydrogen M_H I ? 0.07 M_{?}, although the total H I mass may be larger, depending on the fraction of circumstellar material that is hidden by Galactic contamination within our band or that is present on angular scales too large to be detected by the VLA. It appears that the bulk of the circumstellar gas has originated directly from the star, although it may be augmented by material swept from the surrounding ISM. The H I data are consistent with a stellar wind with an outflow velocity V o = 35.6 ± 1.2 km s-1 and a mass-loss rate of {\\dot{M}}? (1.0+/- 0.8)× 10^{-6} M_{?} yr-1. We have computed theoretical evolutionary tracks that include mass loss across the instability strip and show that a mass-loss rate of this magnitude, sustained over the preceding Cepheid lifetime of ? Cephei, could be sufficient to resolve a significant fraction of the discrepancy between the pulsation and evolutionary masses for this star.

  14. The dust environment of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, F.; Pozuelos, F.; Aceituno, F.; Casanova, V.; Duffard, R.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Molina, A.; Ortiz, J. L.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Sota, A.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Astronomical Association Cometas-Obs, Amateur

    2014-07-01

    A Monte Carlo comet dust tail model has been applied to extract the dust environment parameters of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from both Earth-based and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) calibrated observations, performed from about 6 Astronomical Units (au) inbound, to right after perihelion passage, when just a small portion of the original comet nucleus survived in the form of a cloud of tiny particles. The early Af? and image data are consistent with particle ejection from an extended active area occupying a large region between latitudes 35°N to 90°N (for a prograde rotating nucleus), with the spin axis having a large obliquity (I ? 70°). This configuration fits nicely the early images and Af? data until approximately 3.9 au inbound, where the emission should become isotropic in order to fit the data. This isotropic ejection model perfectly mimics the minimum in the Af? data found observationally 60 days before perihelion and the steep rise afterwards owing to the strong outburst of activity detected by many observers during the first hours of November 14, 2013. The comparison of the derived dust loss rates with water production rates implies a dust-to-gas ratio which generally decreases with increasing heliocentric distance, and a particle ejection velocity law that is close to a r_h^{-2} dependence. The analysis of SOHO LASCO C3 images around comet's perihelion reveals that, assuming an original nucleus of R_N = 500 m with ? = 1000 kg m^{-3}, at least half of the mass of the nucleus was vaporized when the comet was at about 17 solar radii inbound. We conclude that at that time the nucleus suffered a cataclysmic fragmentation releasing a huge amount of material of 2.3×10^{11} kg, for a particle density of 1000 kg m^{-3}, equivalent to a sphere of 380 m in radius. The model results on a later pre-perihelion image at about 5.5 solar radii implies a further reduction in mass of about 300 to that at 17 solar radii, a consequence of vaporization of comet material. However, the total mass contained in the post-perihelion tails analyzed are about the same of that at 5.5 solar radii pre-perihelion, but with much smaller particles in the distribution, implying that the dominating process at perihelion was particle fragmentation. The total mass contained in the last SOHO LASCO C3 post-perihelion image analyzed, at 27.5 solar radii post-perihelion, the surviving ISON material is just 6.7×10^8 kg or a sphere of 54 m in radius with the density of 1000 kg m^{-3}. The dust contained in the post-perihelion tails is very small in size, with particles having 0.1-50 ? m in radius, distributed following a power law of index -3.5.

  15. 2MTF III. H I 21 cm observations of 1194 spiral galaxies with the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.; Crook, Aidan; Hong, Tao; Jarrett, T. H.; Koribalski, Bärbel S.; Macri, Lucas; Springob, Christopher M.; Staveley-Smith, Lister

    2014-09-01

    We present H I 21 cm observations of 1194 galaxies out to a redshift of 10 000 km s-1 selected as inclined spirals (i ? 60°) from the 2MASS redshift survey. These observations were carried out at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This observing programme is part of the 2MASS Tully-Fisher (2MTF) survey. This project will combine H I widths from these GBT observations with those from further dedicated observing at the Parkes Telescope, from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array survey at Arecibo, and S/N > 10 and spectral resolution vres < 10 km s-1 published widths from a variety of telescopes. We will use these H I widths along with 2MASS photometry to estimate Tully-Fisher distances to nearby spirals and investigate the peculiar velocity field of the local Universe. In this paper, we report on detections of neutral hydrogen in emission in 727 galaxies, and measure good signal to noise and symmetric H I global profiles suitable for use in the Tully-Fisher relation in 484.

  16. 10-7 contrast ratio at 4.5?/D: New results obtained in laboratory experiments using nano-fabricated coronagraph and multi-Gaussian shaped pupil masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Thompson, Laird A.; Rogosky, Michael

    2005-04-01

    We present here new experimental results on high contrast imaging of 10-7 at 4.?/D (?=0.820 microns) by combining a circular focal plane mask (coronagraph) of 2.5?/D diameter and a multi-Gaussian pupil plane mask. Both the masks were fabricated on very high surface quality (?/30) BK7 optical substrates using nano-fabrication techniques of photolithography and metal lift-off. This process ensured that the shaped masks have a useable edge roughness better than ?/4 (rms error better than 0.2 microns), a specification that is necessary to realize the predicted theoretical limits of any mask design. Though a theoretical model predicts a contrast level of 10-12, the background noise of the observed images was speckle dominated which reduced the contrast level to 4x10-7 at 4.5?/D. The optical setup was built on the University of Illinois Seeing Improvement System (UnISIS) optics table which is at the Coude focus of the 2.5-m telescope of the Mt. Wilson Observatory. We used a 0.820 micron laser source coupled with a 5 micron single-mode fiber to simulate an artificial star on the optical test bench of UnISIS.

  17. The XXX spin s quantum chain and the alternating $s^{1}$, $s^{2}$ chain with boundaries

    E-print Network

    Anastasia Doikou

    2002-04-18

    The integrable XXX spin s quantum chain and the alternating $s^{1}$, $s^{2}$ ($s^{1}-s^{2}={1\\over 2}$) chain with boundaries are considered. The scattering of their excitations with the boundaries via the Bethe ansatz method is studied, and the exact boundary S matrices are computed in the limit $s, s^{1, 2} \\to \\infty$. Moreover, the connection of these models with the SU(2) Principal Chiral, WZW and the RSOS models is discussed.

  18. Discovery of a novel series of potent S1P1 agonists.

    PubMed

    Crosignani, Stefano; Bombrun, Agnes; Covini, David; Maio, Maurizio; Marin, Delphine; Quattropani, Anna; Swinnen, Dominique; Simpson, Don; Sauer, Wolfgang; Françon, Bernard; Martin, Thierry; Cambet, Yves; Nichols, Anthony; Martinou, Isabelle; Burgat-Charvillon, Fabienne; Rivron, Delphine; Donini, Cristina; Schott, Olivier; Eligert, Valerie; Novo-Perez, Laurence; Vitte, Pierre-Alain; Arrighi, Jean-François

    2010-03-01

    The discovery of a novel series of S1P1 agonists is described. Starting from a micromolar HTS positive, iterative optimization gave rise to several single-digit nanomolar S1P1 agonists. The compounds were able to induce internalization of the S1P1 receptor, and a selected compound was shown to be able to induce lymphopenia in mice after oral dosing. PMID:20149651

  19. Factor Xa inhibitors: S1 binding interactions of a series of N-{(3S)-1-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-morpholin-4-yl-2-oxoethyl]-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-yl}sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chuen; Borthwick, Alan D; Brown, David; Burns-Kurtis, Cynthia L; Campbell, Matthew; Chaudry, Laiq; Chung, Chun-wa; Convery, Máire A; Hamblin, J Nicole; Johnstone, Lisa; Kelly, Henry A; Kleanthous, Savvas; Patikis, Angela; Patel, Champa; Pateman, Anthony J; Senger, Stefan; Shah, Gita P; Toomey, John R; Watson, Nigel S; Weston, Helen E; Whitworth, Caroline; Young, Robert J; Zhou, Ping

    2007-04-01

    Factor Xa inhibitory activities for a series of N-{(3S)-1-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-morpholin-4-yl-2-oxoethyl]-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-yl}sulfonamides with different P1 groups are described. These data provide insight into binding interactions within the S1 primary specificity pocket; rationales are presented for the derived SAR on the basis of electronic interactions through crystal structures of fXa-ligand complexes and molecular modeling studies. A good correlation between in vitro anticoagulant activities with lipophilicity and the extent of human serum albumin binding is observed within this series of potent fXa inhibitors. Pharmacokinetic profiles in rat and dog, together with selectivity over other trypsin-like serine proteases, identified 1f as a candidate for further evaluation. PMID:17338508

  20. Narrowband Observations of Comets ISON (2012 S1) and 2P/Encke: Extremes of the New and the Old

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, David G.; Knight, M. M.; Bair, A. N.

    2013-10-01

    We report on narrowband filter observations of Comets ISON (2012 S1) and 2P/Encke obtained from Lowell Observatory. Observations of dynamically new Comet ISON include the first successful gas measurements of the apparition on March 5 (r = 4.57 AU) with a CN production rate of 1.3x1024 molecules/s, implying a water production rate of 1-10x1026 molecules/s for a normal range of CN-to-OH abundance ratios. Two months later the measured CN and inferred water values were about 70% higher. During the same interval the apparent dust production more than doubled, with Af? increasing from 120 cm to 270 cm. Further observations, both photometry and imaging, are scheduled for early September and early October, and the results from these will be presented. In contrast to ISON, Comet Encke is highly evolved both thermally and physically, having made hundreds of close passages by the Sun. As a result, only a small fraction of its surface remains active and almost no micron-sized dust particles are released during outgassing. This fall's apparition will be the ninth for which we will have obtained gas production rates. The existing data imply a strong secular decrease in water production but a much smaller decrease for the minor species. These and new observations will be presented and we will examine whether or not these trends continue and the possible meaning. This research is supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy and Planetary Atmospheres Programs.

  1. Tables of spectral transmission of the atmosphere in the 2660-2750 cm(-1) and 810-980 cm(-1) ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Thermal sounding data from satellites are presented together with a description of transmission function calculations. Tables contain experimental values for transmission of the entire thickness of the atmosphere for two regions of the spectrum: at 2660 to 2750 cm/1 and at 810 to 980 cm/1. The spectrum was recorded on an infrared spectrophotometer.

  2. Blocking peptides against HBV: PreS1 protein selected from a phage display library

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Zu, Xiangyang; Jin, Rui; Xiao, Gengfu

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Successfully selected specific PreS1-interacting peptides by using phage displayed library. {yields} Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a consensus PreS1 binding motif. {yields} A highly enriched peptide named P7 had a strong binding ability for PreS1. {yields} P7 could block PreS1 attachment. -- Abstract: The PreS1 protein is present on the outermost part of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface and has been shown to have a pivotal function in viral infectivity and assembly. The development of reagents with high affinity and specificity for PreS1 is of great significance for early diagnosis and treatment of HBV infection. A phage display library of dodecapeptide was screened for interactions with purified PreS1 protein. Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a putative consensus PreS1 binding motif of HX{sub n}HX{sub m}HP/R. Moreover, a peptide named P7 (KHMHWHPPALNT) was highly enriched and occurred with a surprisingly high frequency of 72%. A thermodynamic study revealed that P7 has a higher binding affinity to PreS1 than the other peptides. Furthermore, P7 was able to abrogate the binding of HBV virions to the PreS1 antibody, suggesting that P7 covers key functional sites on the native PreS1 protein. This newly isolated peptide may, therefore, be a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of HBV. The consensus motif could be modified to deliver imaging, diagnostic, and therapeutic agents to tissues affected by HBV.

  3. RegCM4-HadGEM2-ES simulated cyclone climatology (1979-2005) over the Southwestern South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfírio da Rocha, Rosmeri; Simões Reboita, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Cyclones over the Southwestern South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) are a subject of great interest once they modify the weather and control the climate near east coast of South America (SA). In this study we compare the cyclones climatology in the period 1979-2005 simulated by Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) with that from ERA-Interim reanalysis (ECMWF). RegCM4 was nested in HadGEM2-ES output and the simulation used the SA domain of CORDEX project, with a horizontal grid of 50 km and 18 sigma-pressure levels in the vertical. The RegCM4 simulation used the land surface Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) and the mixed convection Emanuel-Grell scheme configurations. This simulation is part of the CREMA (CORDEX REgCM4 hyper-MAtrix) experiment. The cyclones were identified using an automated tracking scheme based on minima (cyclonic in Southern Hemisphere) of relative vorticity from the wind at 925 hPa. The threshold of -1.5 x 10-5s-1 was used in the algorithm. All cyclones in RegCM4 and ERA-Interim with relative vorticity lower than this threshold and with lifetime higher or equal 24 hours were included in the climatology. ERA-Interim shows three main cyclogenetic regions near east coast of SA. In general, RegCM4 simulated these same regions but with an underestimation of the number of cyclones. In each of these regions, there is a different season of higher cyclones frequency. Over extreme south of southern Brazil and Uruguay the higher frequency of cyclones occurs in winter, while southeastern Brazil and southeastern Argentina cyclones are most frequent during summer. RegCM4 is able to simulate this observed seasonality.

  4. HORO-TIGHT IMMERSIONS OF S1 MARCELO BUOSI, SHYUICHI IZUMIYA, AND MARIA APARECIDA SOARES RUAS

    E-print Network

    Ikegami, Takashi

    HORO-TIGHT IMMERSIONS OF S1 MARCELO BUOSI, SHYUICHI IZUMIYA, AND MARIA APARECIDA SOARES RUAS Abstract. We characterize horo-tight immersions into Dm in terms of a family of real valued functions-tightness and tightness are equivalent properties in the class of immersions from S1 into hyperbolic space. What

  5. Enhanced Raman scattering from cesium suboxides on silver particles and the structure of S-1 photocathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, C. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An explanation is given for the results of recent enhanced Raman scattering studies of photomultiplier tubes with S-1 photocathode surfaces which indicated the presence of Cs11O3 but not Cs2O. The reason for the discrepancy between the currently accepted model of the S-1 and this recent result is discussed.

  6. Edinburgh Research Explorer B Cell-Specific S1PR1 Deficiency Blocks Prion Dissemination

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    underdetermined mechanism. The germinal centres in which FDC are situated produce a population of B cells which in lymphopenia in the blood and lymph. We show that in mice treated with the S1PR modulator FTY720, or with S1PR1-deficiency restricted to B cells, the dissemination of prions from the draining lymph node to non

  7. Isotope shift of 3 2 S 1/2 -2 2 S 1/2 transition in lithium and nuclear polarizability M. Puchalski, 1 A.M. Moro, 2 and K. Pachucki 1

    E-print Network

    Pachucki, Krzysztof

    Isotope shift of 3 2 S 1/2 - 2 2 S 1/2 transition in lithium and nuclear polarizability M, Spain High precision calculation of the isotope shift of 3 2 S 1/2 -2 2 S 1/2 transition in lithium spectroscopy of atomic sys­ tems make possible the determination of nuclear charge radii from isotope shift

  8. [A case of drug-induced pulmonary injury showing organizing pneumonia pattern due to S-1].

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroaki; Shinano, Hideki; Kuraya, Daisuke; Fujioka, Yasunori

    2012-06-01

    Reported here is the case of a 76-year-old male with gastric cancer. Distal gastrectomy was performed after his admission to our hospital. Histopathologically, the cancer was determined to be in the advanced stage. Combination chemotherapy with CDDP and S-1 was administered for 6 courses, after which S-1 was used alone. Chest X-ray and CT showed multiple dispersed lesions in the lung. Further examination by bronchoscope was performed. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen revealed the lesion to be organizing pneumonia. A drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) for S-1 proved to be positive. Discontinuation of S-1 administration led to natural improvement of the pneumonia. These results suggest that S-1 had induced the organizing pneumonia. PMID:22705691

  9. Thermodynamic Study of the SmS 2-SmS 1.5System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyeva, I. G.; Belyaeva, E. I.

    1999-02-01

    A detailed thermodynamic study of the SmS 2-SmS 1.5system in the temperature range 350-1000°C was performed using high-quality crystals of the highest Sm-polysulfide and a sensitive static tensimetric method, a quartz Bourdon gauge with a membrane as a null-point instrument. The P- T- xdiagram obtained has shown that the phase region covering the composition range SmS 2.00-SmS 1.82, which was previously described as a single grossly nonstoichiometric phase, consists of three discrete stoichiometric phases, SmS 1.900, SmS 1.893, and SmS 1.863. The polysulfide compositions were evaluated from the tensimetric data with an accuracy of ±0.001 f. u. The thermodynamic parameters of incongruent sublimation were calculated for each polysulfide, and then the standard heats of formation were estimated for these compounds.

  10. Observations of the 18-cm lines of the OH radical in comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovisier, J.; Colom, P.; Biver, N.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.

    2015-10-01

    Since 1973, the 18-cm lines of the OH radical have been systematically observed in selected comets with the 300×40 m radio telescope at Nançay. Up to now, 133 comets have been observed (counting different returns of short-period comets as different comets), totalling about 6000 individual observations (typically one hour per day for each observation).These observations trace the water production rates (through its photodissociation product OH) and the coma expansion velocity. They are precious for statistical investigations of the evolution of the activity of the comets. These observations are also made as a participation to multi-wavelength observing campaigns of dedicated comets and as a support to cometary space missions. The observations are organized in a database which is progressively made publicly available: http://www.lesia.obspm.fr/planeto/ cometes/basecom/ [1]The most recent observations are listed in Table 1. Here are some recent highlights: 103P/Hartley 2 was observed in support to its fly-by by the EPOXI mission and to observations with Herschel. [2] The outbursts of the sungrazing comet C/2012 S1 (ISON), preceding its demise as it approached the Sun at 0.012 AU on 28 November 2013, were observed. [3] Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) was detected just before it passed at only 0.001 AU from Mars on 19 October 2014, due to enhanced background radiation as the comet was close to the Galactic plane. [4] The Nançay radio telescope actively participated to the multi-wavelength observing campaigns of the bright comets C/2011 L4 (PANSTARRS), C/2012 F6 (Lemmon), C/2012 X1 (LINEAR), C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) and C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) (Fig. 1), especially in coordination with radio observations with IRAM and ALMA. It should be noted that the Rosetta target 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, which was marginally detected at its 1982 passage due to a relatively close approach to Earth (# = 0.39 AU) [1], is unfavourably placed at its present return for observations at Nançay.

  11. Detection of anti-preS1 antibodies for recovery of hepatitis B patients by immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jun; Wang, Yu-Qin; Lu, Zhi-Meng; Li, Guang-Di; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Zu-Chuan

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To establish a convenient immunoassay method based on recombinant antigen preS1(21-119 aa) to detect anti-preS1 antibodies and evaluate the clinical significance of antibodies in hepatitis B. METHODS: The expression plasmid pET-28a-preS1 was constructed, and a large quantity of preS1(21-119 aa) fragment of the large HBsAg protein was obtained. The preS1 fragment purified by Ni2+-IDA affinity chromatography was used as coated antigen to establish the indirect ELISA based on streptavidin-biotin system for detection of the anti-preS1 antibodies in sera from HBV-infected patients. For follow-up study, serial sera were collected during the clinical course of 21 HBV-infected patients and anti-preS1 antibodies, preS1 antigen, HBV-DNA and other serological HBV markers were analyzed. RESULTS: preS1(21-119 aa) fragment was highly expressed from the plasmid pET-28a-preS1 in a soluble form in E. coli (30 mg•L?¹), and easily purified to high purity over 90% by one step of Ni2+-IDA-sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. The purity and antigenicity of the purified preS1(21-119 aa) protein was determined by 150 g•L?¹ SDS-PAGE, Western blot and a direct ELISA. Recombinant preS1(21-119 aa) protein was successfully applied in the immunoassay which could sensitively detect the anti-preS1 antibodies in serum specimens of acute or chronic hepatitis B patients. Results showed that more than half of 19 acute hepatitis B patients produced anti-preS1 antibodies during recovery of the disease, however, the response was only found in a few of chronic patients. In the clinical follow-up study of 11 patients with anti-preS1 positive serological profile, HBsAg and HBV-DNA clearance occurred in 6 of 10 acute hepatitis B patients in 5-6 mo, and seroconversion of HBeAg and disappearance of HBV-DNA occurred in 1 chronic patients treated with lavumidine, a antiviral agent. CONCLUSION: The high-purity preS1(21-119 aa) coated antigen was successfully prepared by gene expression and affinity chromatography. Using this antigen, a conveniently detective system of anti-preS1 antibodies in sera was established. Preliminarily clinical trial the occurrence of anti-preS1 antibodies in acute hepatitis B patients suggests the clearance of HBV from serum in a short-term time, and anti-preS1 positive in chronic patients means health improvement or recovery from the disease. PMID:11925607

  12. Neutral and Plasma Distributions in the Coma of Comet C/2012 S1 ISON: Narrowband Imaging and Integral-Field Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C.; Johnson, R. E.; Leblanc, F.; Baumgardner, J.; Mendillo, M.

    2015-10-01

    We present concurrent spectra and filtered imaging of the coma of C/2012 S1 ISON at .44 to 0.47 AU from the sun. C2, NH2, Na, and H2O+ distributions were elongated several thousand km along an axis perpendicular to the comet's motion and the sunward vector. The peak brightness of each species was collocated within 5,000 km of the dusty continuum concentration. ISON's water ion tail appeared distinctly broader than the neutral Na tail and we find no evidence for an extended source of Na by dissociative recombination of a molecular ion. Rather, an extended source of as much as 50% of Na may be attributed to dust, evidenced via Monte Carlo simulations of a distant sodium tail extending beyond 106 km. An increase of nearly a factor of four in the Na source rate was found within a 24 hour interval during an outburst, and the relative Na/O abundance is estimated at ~5 x 10-7, well below the ratio known in active comets of comparable geometry.

  13. Heavy actinide production from the interactions of sup 40 Ar with sup 248 Cm and a comparison with the sup 44 Ca- sup 248 Cm system

    SciTech Connect

    Leyba, J.D.; Henderson, R.A.; Hall, H.L.; Gannett, C.M.; Chadwick, R.B.; Czerwinski, K.R.; Kadkhodayan, B.A.; Kreek, S.A.; Haynes, G.R.; Gregorich, K.E.; Lee, D.M.; Nurmia, M.J.; Hoffman, D.C. Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720)

    1990-05-01

    Excitation functions have been measured for isotopes of Bk, Cf, Es, and Fm produced from the interactions of 207- to 286-MeV {sup 40}Ar ions with {sup 248}Cm. The measured isotopic distributions were found to be essentially symmetric with full widths at half maximum between 2.0 and 3.5 mass units. These results are comparable to those obtained in previous studies using {sup 40,44,48}Ca with {sup 248}Cm. The maxima of the isotopic distributions from the {sup 40}Ar-{sup 248}Cm system show shifts, to both heavier and lighter mass numbers, of 0 to 2 mass units relative to the corresponding maxima of the isotopic distributions from the {sup 40,44,48}Ca-{sup 248}Cm systems.

  14. Expression and characterization of myristoylated preS1-conjugated nanocages for targeted cell delivery.

    PubMed

    Murata, Masaharu; Piao, Jing Shu; Narahara, Sayoko; Kawano, Takahito; Hamano, Nobuhito; Kang, Jeong-Hun; Asai, Daisuke; Ugawa, Ryo; Hashizume, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    Lipid modification of proteins plays key roles in cellular signaling pathways. We describe the development of myristoylated preS1-nanocages (myr-preS1-nanocages) that specifically target human hepatocyte-like HepaRG cells in which a specific receptor-binding peptide (preS1) is joined to the surface of naturally occurring ferritin cages. Using a genetic engineering approach, the preS1 peptide was joined to the N-terminal regions of the ferritin cage via flexible linker moieties. Myristoylation of the preS1 peptide was achieved by co-expression with yeast N-myristoyltransferase-1 in the presence of myristic acid in Escherichia coli cells. The myristoylated preS1-nanocages exhibited significantly greater specificity for human hepatocyte-like HepaRG cells than the unmyristoylated preS1-nanocages. These results suggest that the lipid-modified nanocages have great potential for effective targeted delivery to specific cells. PMID:25497224

  15. [Combination therapy with S-1 and CDDP for head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masato

    2006-06-01

    The combination with cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-FU is considered the first choice chemotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). S-1, a modulation of tegafur developed in Japan, is an active agent for HNSCC. Some clinical phase I/II studies about the combination with CDDP and S-1 have been reported. The combination showed a good response rate of 67.6% for advanced and recurrent HNSCC in our clinical phase I/II study. The regimens of S-1 combined with carboplatin or nedaplatin have also been reported. Regimens containing S-1 appear to have been effective for HNSCC. Multi-institutional phase II studies with a large sample size are needed in the future. The compliance for patients is better than a 5-FU injection because S-1 is orally administrated. The adverse effect, especially for bone mallow toxicity, is equal or upgraded compared with a 5-FU injection. The efficacy and adverse effects of CDDP plus S-1 should be studied in carefully designed phase II/III trials. S-1 will be one of the key drugs for HNSCC in the future. PMID:16897992

  16. B{sub s1}(5830) and B{sub s2}*(5840)

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Zhigang; Chen Xiaolin; Liu Xiang

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the strong decays of the two newly observed bottom-strange mesons B{sub s1}(5830) and B{sub s2}{sup *}(5840) in the framework of the quark pair creation model. The two-body strong decay widths of B{sub s1}(5830){sup 0}{yields}B*{sup +}K{sup -} and B{sub s2}*(5840){sup 0}{yields}B{sup +}K{sup -}, B*{sup +}K{sup -} are calculated by considering B{sub s1}(5830) to be a mixture between |{sup 1}P{sub 1}> and |{sup 3}P{sub 1}> states, and B{sub s2}*(5840) to be a |{sup 3}P{sub 2}> state. The double pion decay of B{sub s1}(5830) and B{sub s2}{sup *}(5840) is supposed to occur via the intermediate state {sigma} and f{sub 0}(980). Although the double pion decay widths of B{sub s1}(5830) and B{sub s2}*(5840) are smaller than the two-body strong decay widths of B{sub s1}(5830) and B{sub s2}*(5840), one suggests future experiments to search the double pion decays of B{sub s1}(5830) and B{sub s2}*(5840) due to their sizable decay widths.

  17. The Vicência meteorite fall: A new unshocked (S1) weakly metamorphosed (3.2) LL chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Klaus; Zucolotto, Maria E.; Krot, Alexander N.; Doyle, Patricia M.; Telus, Myriam; Krot, Tatiana V.; Greenwood, Richard C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Wasson, John T.; Welten, Kees C.; Caffee, Marc W.; Sears, Derek W. G.; Riebe, My; Wieler, Rainer; Santos, Edivaldo; Scorzelli, Rosa B.; Gattacceca, Jerome; Lagroix, France; Laubenstein, Matthias; Mendes, Julio C.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Harir, Mourad; Moutinho, Andre L. R.

    2015-06-01

    The Vicência meteorite, a stone of 1.547 kg, fell on September 21, 2013, at the village Borracha, near the city of Vicência, Pernambuco, Brazil. It was recovered immediately after the fall, and our consortium study showed it to be an unshocked (S1) LL3.2 ordinary chondrite. The LL group classification is based on the bulk density (3.13 g cm-3); the chondrule mean apparent diameter (0.9 mm); the bulk oxygen isotopic composition (?17O = 3.768 ± 0.042‰, ?18O = 5.359 ± 0.042‰, ?17O = 0.981 ± 0.020‰); the content of metallic Fe,Ni (1.8 vol%); the Co content of kamacite (1.73 wt%); the bulk contents of the siderophile elements Ir and Co versus Au; and the ratios of metallic Fe0/total iron (0.105) versus total Fe/Mg (1.164), and of Ni/Mg (0.057) versus total Fe/Mg. The petrologic type 3.2 classification is indicated by the beautifully developed chondritic texture, the standard deviation (~0.09) versus mean Cr2O3 content (~0.14 wt%) of ferroan olivine, the TL sensitivity and the peak temperature and peak width at half maximum, the cathodoluminescence properties of chondrules, the content of trapped 132Xetr (0.317 × 10-8cm3STP g-1), and the Raman spectra for organic material in the matrix. The cosmic ray exposure age is ~72 Ma, which is at the upper end of the age distribution of LL group chondrites. The meteorite is unusual in that it contains relatively large, up to nearly 100 ?m in size, secondary fayalite grains, defined as olivine with Fa>75, large enough to allow in situ measurement of oxygen and Mn-Cr isotope systematics with SIMS. Its oxygen isotopes plot along a mass-dependent fractionation line with a slope of ~0.5 and ?17O of 4.0 ± 0.3‰, and are similar to those of secondary fayalite and magnetite in the unequilibrated chondrites EET 90161, MET 96503, and Ngawi. These data suggest that secondary fayalite in Vicência was in equilibrium with a fluid with a ?17O of ~4‰, consistent with the composition of the fluid in equilibrium with secondary magnetite and fayalite in other unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Secondary fayalite and the chondrule olivine phenocrysts in Vicência are not in isotopic equilibrium, consistent with low-temperature formation of fayalite during aqueous alteration on the LL parent body. That alteration, as dated by the 53Mn-53Cr chronology age of secondary fayalite, took place 4.0-1.1+1.4 Ma after formation of CV CAIs when anchored to the quenched angrite D'Orbigny.

  18. Heat Transfer -1 Consider a composite pipe of inner diameter 10 cm and outer diameter 10.6 cm subjected to an external

    E-print Network

    Battaglia, Francine

    Heat Transfer - 1 Consider a composite pipe of inner diameter 10 cm and outer diameter 10.6 cm subjected to an external constant uniform heat flux of 100,000 W/m2 . The composite material of the pipe has/mK in the axial direction. Both ends of the pipe are insulated from any heat loss. The pipe is cooled by water

  19. S = 1 Excitations in Heat Capacity of the Haldane Compound TMNIN Doped with a Nonmagnetic Impurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawae, Tatsuya; Ito, Masakazu; Mito, Masaki; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

    1999-03-01

    We have studied the field dependence of the heat capacity of a typicalHaldane antiferromagnet (CH3)4NNi(NO)3 (TMNIN) doped with thenonmagnetic impurity Zn2+, as well as of a pure TMNIN. The overallfeatures of the magnetic heat capacity, including the characteristic broadmaximum, are almost reproduced by the theoretical curve with J/k B =-12 K for both systems in zero field. The field dependence in the impuresystems is described well by assuming the Schottky heat capacity with S =1, not S = 1/2 expected from the VBS model. A possible reason why the S= 1 model is suitable is discussed.

  20. Twisted Diff S 1-action on loop groups and representations of the virasoro algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnad, J.; Kupershmidt, B. A.

    1990-05-01

    A modified Hamiltonian action of Diff S 1on the phase space LG C /GC, where LG is a loop group, is defined by twisting the usual action by a left translation in LG. This twisted action is shown to be generated by a nonequivariant moment map, thereby defining a classical Poisson bracket realization of a central extension of the Lie algebra diffC S 1. The resulting formula expresses the Diff S 1generators in terms of the left LG translation generators, giving a shifted modification of both the classical and quantum versions of the Sugawara formula.

  1. S1 and S2 states of linear and zigzag cata-condensed hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Baba, Masaaki; Katori, Toshiharu; Kawabata, Megumi; Kunishige, Sachi; Yamanaka, Takaya

    2013-12-19

    We investigated the S1 and S2 states of linear and zigzag cata-condensed hydrocarbons on the basis of the results of jet spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. The S1 states of anthracene and tetracene are represented by the HOMO ? LUMO configuration (?(A)), whereas those of phenanthrene and chrysene are represented by HOMO-1 ? LUMO and HOMO ? LUMO+1 configurations (?(B)). We found that the fluorescence lifetime varied with different vibronic levels in the S1 states of linear cata-condensed hydrocarbons due to the mode-selective internal conversion to the S0 state. This selectivity is likely to be seen in the S1 ?(A) state of the D(2h) molecule. PMID:24083441

  2. The Evolution from the L1/S1 to the L2/S2 Tracker

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    The Evolution from the L1/S1 to the L2/S2 Tracker Bruce Schumm Santa Cruz Institute for Particle) Inclusion of Forward Disks (L only S already there) Central Tracker Inner Radius (L only) Intermediate

  3. [A case of S-1/CDDP-resistant recurrent gastric cancer responsive to capecitabine/CDDP].

    PubMed

    Sunami, Takeshi; Tauchi, Jun; Sakashita, Katsuya; Yukimoto, Kiyotaka; Sawada, Ryugo; Sakamoto, Kazutsugu

    2014-05-01

    We present a case of recurrent gastric cancer in which stable disease status was achieved for four months due to treatment with capecitabine/cisplatin (CDDP)after the failure of multiple anticancer drugs including S-1/CDDP. A 67-year-old man was diagnosed with multiple liver metastases one year after distal gastrectomy+D2 dissection for gastric cancer. S-1/CDDP was given as the first-line treatment, followed by paclitaxel (PTX), irinotecan (CPT-11), and docetaxel (DOC). The tumor in the anterior segment of the liver was resistant to all of these chemotherapies except for PTX, which is why the regimens were changed. However, this tumor shrank and achieved stable disease status for four months after capecitabine/CDDP therapy given as fifth-line treatment. Our case suggests that S-1 and capecitabine do not always exhibit cross-resistance. Therefore, capecitabine may be effective in S-1-pretreated patients, and vice versa. PMID:24917015

  4. [A case of successful treatment of peritoneal dissemination from gastric cancer with S-1/DOC chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazuyuki; Ebisui, Chikara; Nushijima, Yoichiro; Yanagisawa, Tetsu; Okamura, Shu; Fukuchi, Nariaki; Murata, Kohei; Yokouchi, Hideoki; Kinuta, Masakatsu

    2014-11-01

    A 66-year-old man underwent a curative operation for advanced gastric cancer (T4aN0M0, Stage IIB). A gastric cancer recurrence with paraaortic lymph node (PALN) metastasis was diagnosed fifteen months after the operation. Systemic chemotherapy was initiated, using a regimen of S-1/CDDP. After 7 courses, abdominal computed tomography (CT) examination indicated the regression of PALN swelling. However, peritoneal dissemination was detected in the neighborhood of the right kidney. S-1/docetaxel (S-1/DOC) was selected as the second-line chemotherapy. After 3 courses, the peritoneal dissemination could not be detected. Five years since the curative operation, the patient has been doing well, with no signs of recurrence. In summary, we successfully treated a case of peritoneal dissemination from gastric cancer with S-1/DOC chemo- therapy. PMID:25731523

  5. Home economics 12-16 - the articulation of S1 and S2 with standard grade 

    E-print Network

    Bryson, Wilma D.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to discover whether articulation occurs between S1 and S2 Standard Grade. By "Articulation", one means considering whether the common course structure has fluently and coherently joined into Standard Grade. The issues...

  6. 26 CFR 1.6050S-1 - Information reporting for qualified tuition and related expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information reporting for qualified tuition and related...INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information Returns § 1.6050S-1 Information reporting for qualified tuition and...

  7. Paired chiral spin liquid with a Fermi surface in S=1 model on the triangular lattice

    E-print Network

    Bieri, Samuel

    Motivated by recent experiments on Ba[subscript 3]NiSb[subscript 2]O[subscript 9], we investigate possible quantum spin liquid ground states for spin S=1 Heisenberg models on the triangular lattice. We use variational Monte ...

  8. The diffeotopy group of S^1 \\times S^2 via contact topology

    E-print Network

    Ding, Fan

    2009-01-01

    As shown by H. Gluck in 1962, the diffeotopy group of S^1 \\times S^2 is isomorphic to Z_2 + Z_2 + Z_2. Here an alternative proof of this result is given, relying on contact topology. We then discuss two applications to contact topology: (i) it is shown that the fundamental group of the space of contact structures on S^1 \\times S^2, based at the standard tight contact structure, is isomorphic to the integers; (ii) inspired by previous work of M. Fraser, an example is given of an integer family of Legendrian knots in S^1 \\times S^2 # S^1 \\times S^2 (with its standard tight contact structure) that can be distinguished with the help of contact surgery, but not by the classical invariants (topological knot type, Thurston-Bennequin invariant, and rotation number).

  9. High-pressure sequence of Ba3NiSb2O9 structural phases: new S = 1 quantum spin liquids based on Ni2+.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J G; Li, G; Balicas, L; Zhou, J S; Goodenough, J B; Xu, Cenke; Zhou, H D

    2011-11-01

    Two new gapless quantum spin-liquid candidates with S = 1 (Ni(2+)) moments: the 6H-B phase of Ba(3)NiSb(2)O(9) with a Ni(2+)-triangular lattice and the 3C phase with a Ni(2/3)Sb(1/3)-three-dimensional edge-shared tetrahedral lattice were obtained under high pressure. Both compounds show no magnetic order down to 0.35 K despite Curie-Weiss temperatures ?(CW) of -75.5 (6H-B) and -182.5 K (3C), respectively. Below ~25 K, the magnetic susceptibility of the 6H-B phase saturates to a constant value ?(0) = 0.013 emu/mol, which is followed below 7 K by a linear-temperature-dependent magnetic specific heat (C(M)) displaying a giant coefficient ? = 168 mJ/mol K(2). Both observations suggest the development of a Fermi-liquid-like ground state. For the 3C phase, the C(M) perpendicular T(2) behavior indicates a unique S = 1, 3D quantum spin-liquid ground state. PMID:22181641

  10. Pathway specific modulation of S1P1 receptor signalling in rat and human astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Luke M; Sheridan, Graham K; Pritchard, Adam J; Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Mullershausen, Florian; Dev, Kumlesh K

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor subtype 1 (S1P1R) is modulated by phosphorylated FTY720 (pFTY720), which causes S1P1R internalization preventing lymphocyte migration thus limiting autoimmune response. Studies indicate that internalized S1P1Rs continue to signal, maintaining an inhibition of cAMP, thus raising question whether the effects of pFTY720 are due to transient initial agonism, functional antagonism and/or continued signalling. To further investigate this, the current study first determined if continued S1P1R activation is pathway specific. Experimental Approach Using human and rat astrocyte cultures, the effects of S1P1R activation on cAMP, pERK and Ca2+ signalling was investigated. In addition, to examine the role of S1P1R redistribution on these events, a novel biologic (MNP301) that prevented pFTY720-mediated S1P1R redistribution was engineered. Key Results The data showed that pFTY720 induced long-lasting S1P1R redistribution and continued cAMP signalling in rat astrocytes. In contrast, pFTY720 induced a transient increase of Ca2+ in astrocytes and subsequent antagonism of Ca2+ signalling. Notably, while leaving pFTY720-induced cAMP signalling intact, the novel MNP301 peptide attenuated S1P1R-mediated Ca2+ and pERK signalling in cultured rat astrocytes. Conclusions and Implications These findings suggested that pFTY720 causes continued cAMP signalling that is not dependent on S1P1R redistribution and induces functional antagonism of Ca2+ signalling after transient stimulation. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that pFTY720 causes continued signalling in one pathway (cAMP) versus functional antagonism of another pathway (Ca2+) and which also suggests that redistributed S1P1Rs may have differing signalling properties from those expressed at the surface. PMID:23587004

  11. Growth and optoelectronic characteristic of n-Si/p-CuIn(S 1-xSe x) 2 thin-film solar cell by solution growth technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavhan, S.; Sharma, R.

    2006-07-01

    The p-CuIn(S 1-xSe x) 2 (CISS) thin films have been grown on n-Si substrate by solution growth technique. The deposition parameters, such as pH (10.5), deposition time (60 min), deposition temperature (50 °C), and concentration of bath solution (0.1 M) were optimized. Elemental analysis of the p-CuIn(S 1-xSe x) 2 thin film was confirmed by energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX). The SEM study of absorber layer shows the uniform morphology of film as well as the continuous smooth deposition onto the n-Si substrates, whose grain size is 130 nm. CuIn(S 1-xSe x) 2 ( x=0.5) reveals (1 1 2) orientation peak and exhibits the chalcopyrite structure with lattice constant a=5.28 Å and c=11.45 Å. The J- V characteristics were measured in dark and light. The device parameters have been calculated for solar cell fabrication, V=411.09 mV, and J=14.55 mA. FF=46.55% and ?=4.64% under an illumination of 60 mW/cm 2. The J- V characteristics of the device under dark condition were also studied and the ideality factor was calculated, which is equal to 2.2 for n-Si/p-CuIn(S 0.5Se 0.5) 2 heterojunction thin film.

  12. Analytic Bethe ansatz and functional equations for Lie superalgebra sl(r+1|s+1)

    E-print Network

    Tsuboi, Zengo

    2009-01-01

    From the point of view of the Young superdiagrm method, an analytic Bethe ansatz is carried out for Lie superalgebra sl(r+1|s+1). For the transfer matrix eigenvalue formulae in dressed vacuum form, we present some expressions, which are quantum analogue of Jacobi-Trudi and Giambelli formulae for Lie superalgebra sl(r+1|s+1). We also propose transfer matrix functional relations, which are Hirota bilinear difference equation with some constraints.

  13. Combination therapy with S-1 and interferon-? in hepatocellular carcinoma patients with lung metastasis

    PubMed Central

    AKITA, HIROFUMI; MARUBASHI, SHIGERU; WADA, HIROSHI; HAMA, NAOKI; KAWAMOTO, KOICHI; KOBAYASHI, SHOGO; EGUCHI, HIDETOSHI; DOKI, YUICHIRO; MORI, MASAKI; NAGANO, HIROAKI

    2015-01-01

    Managing extrahepatic recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is crucial for improving prognosis. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of using combination therapy with S-1 and interferon (IFN)- ? in HCC patients with lung metastasis. Of the 646 patients who underwent radical surgery for HCC at our institute, 62 developed their first distant metastasis in the lung. Among these patients, 11 received S-1 combination therapy, while the remaining 51 patients received other conventional therapy, such as 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin or best supportive care. We retrospectively evaluated the toxicity and efficiency of combination therapy with S-1 and IFN- ?. Hematological toxicity was observed in 5 patients and was grade 1 or 2 in all cases, except 1 patient (9.1%) who developed grade 3 leukopenia. Non-hematological toxicity was observed in 6 patients and was grade 1 in all cases, except 1 patient who exhibited a grade 2 increase of serum bilirubin levels. No patient required discontinuation of the S-1 combination therapy and no treatment-related mortality was reported during this study. Patients who received S-1 treatment exhibited significantly better survival after distant recurrence (SADR) compared to those without S-1 treatment (3-year survival rate, 81.8 vs. 43.1%, respectively; P=0.014). The multivariate analysis revealed that the S-1 treatment was prognostically significant for SADR (P=0.0091; hazard ratio = 0.343). In conclusion, combination therapy with S-1 and IFN- ? may be efficient for HCC patients with lung metastasis. PMID:25798261

  14. Supporting Information -S1-Q. Sun, H. Nelson, T. Ly, B. M. Stoltz, R. R. Julian

    E-print Network

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    Supporting Information -S1- Q. Sun, H. Nelson, T. Ly, B. M. Stoltz, R. R. Julian Supporting Data.............................................S7 #12;Supporting Information -S2- Q. Sun, H. Nelson, T. Ly, B. M. Stoltz, R. R. Julian Figure S1 Information -S3- Q. Sun, H. Nelson, T. Ly, B. M. Stoltz, R. R. Julian Figure S2 Figure S2a: CID of [RPPGFSPFR

  15. The diagnostic value of H-index in S1 root compression

    PubMed Central

    Aiello, I; Rosati, G; Serra, G; Manca, M

    1981-01-01

    The H-index was studied in 42 healthy subjects and in 20 patients showing unilateral S1 root compression. When compared to the normal subjects, all patients showed a decreased H-index, or an increased difference in H-index between the sides or both. These results indicate that both parameters are valuable in the diagnosis of S1 root impairment due to intervertebral disc protrusion. PMID:7217975

  16. Decorin in human oral cancer: a promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Ishige, Shunsaku; Kasama, Hiroki; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2015-01-30

    We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and is a predictive immunomarker of the response to S-1 NAC and patient prognosis. PMID:25550184

  17. High pressure sequence of Ba3NiSb2O9 structural phases: new S = 1 quantum spin-liquids based on Ni^2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balicas, Luis

    2012-02-01

    A quantum spin-liquid (QSL) is a ground-state where strong quantum- mechanical ?uctuations prevents a phase-transition towards conventional magnetic order and makes the spin ensemble to remain in a liquid-like state. Most QSL candidates studied to date are two-dimensional frustrated magnets with either a triangular or a kagome lattice composed of S = 1/2 spins. Here, we report the use of a high pressure, high temperature technique to transform the antiferromagnetically ordered (TN = 13.5 K) 6H-A phase of Ba3NiSb2O9 into two new QSL candidates with larger S = 1 (Ni^2+) moments: the 6H-B phase of Ba3NiSb2O9 which crystallizes in a triangular lattice and the 3C-phase of Ba3NiSb2O9 which forms a three-dimensional edge-shared tetrahedral lattice. Both compounds show no evidence for magnetic order down to T = 0.35 K despite Curie-Weiss temperatures ?CW of -75.5 K (6H-B) and -182.5 K (3C), respectively. Below ˜25 K the magnetic susceptibility of the 6H-B phase is found to saturate at a constant value ? = 0.013 emu/mol which is followed below 7 K, by a linear in temperature dependence for the magnetic contribution to the specificheat (CM) which displays a giant coefficient ? = 168 mJ/mol-K^2 comparable to values observed in heavy-fermion metallic systems. Taken together, both observations indicate the development of a Fermi-liquid like ground-state characterized by a Wilson ratio of 5.6 in this otherwise insulating material It also points to the formation at finite temperatures of a well defined Fermi surface of S = 1 spin-excitations which behave as charged quasiparticles. For the 3C phase one observes CM T ^2 indicating a unique S = 1 three-dimensional QSL ground-state as previously reported for Na3Ir4O8 although this later compound is composed of Ir^4+ ions having S = 1/2. [4pt] Work done in collaboration with J. G. Cheng, G. Li, J. S. Zhou, J. B. Goodenough, C Xu and H. D. Zhou.

  18. The geometrical change and intramolecular energy transfer upon S1?S0 excitation in cyclopentanone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanmei; Liu, Zhiming; Xu, Yanqi; Zhang, Bing

    2015-08-01

    The ultrafast dynamics in vibrationally hot S1 electronic excited state in cyclopentanone molecule was discovered with time resolved spectroscopy. Investigation of the geometry change upon the S1?S0 excitation and D0?S1 ionization has shown that the dihedral angle between the C=O bond and the plane given by the carbonyl and the ?-carbons is 180° either in S0 or D0 state and is reduced to 145.8° by out-out-plane deformation of the oxygen in S1 state according to the theoretical calculation. The time domain experiments with femtosecond resolution have given rich insights into the energy transfer of the cyclopentanone molecule. The molecules are excited to the vibrationally hot S1 (n, ??) state following absorption of one 267-nm photon. It is found that the population of the S1 (n, ??) state undergoes ultrafast internal conversion to the highly vibrationally hot S0 state within 80 fs and nonradiative deactivation by intersystem crossing to triplet T1 (n, ?*) state occurring in 3.14 ps. Several Rydberg states have worked as stepping stones during the ionization. The available energy was distributed in the symmetric methylene group wagging and the symmetric skeletal ring breathing modes in D0 state.

  19. Beyond the CM-5: A case study in performance analysis for the CM-5, T3D, and high performance RISC workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Beazley, D.M.; Lomdahl, P.S.

    1995-03-22

    We present a comprehensive performance evaluation of our molecular dynamics code SPaSM on the CM-5 in order to devise optimization strategies for the CM-5, T3D, and RISC workstations. In this analysis, we focus on the effective use of the SPARC microprocessor by performing measurements of instruction set utilization, cache effects, memory access patterns, and pipeline stall cycles. We then show that we can account for more than 99% of observed execution time of our program. Optimization strategies are devised and we show that our highly optimized ANSI C program running only on the SPARC microprocessor of the CM-5 is only twice as slow as our Gordon-Bell prize winning code that utilized the CM-5 vector units. On the CM-5E, we show that this optimized code run faster than the vector unit version. We then apply these techniques to the Cray T3D and measure resulting speedups. Finally, we show that simple optimization strategies are effective on a wide variety of high performance RISC workstations.

  20. Intensity of the hydrogen peroxide v6/b/ band around 1266 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, F. P. J.; Goorvitch, D.; Boese, R. W.; Bonomo, F. S.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory spectra of the V6(b) band of H2O2 at 1266/cm have been obtained at a resolution of 0.06/cm and at temperatures ranging from 278 to 294 K. A total band intensity of 375 + or - 17 per sq cm per amagat is determined from the spectra. Special techniques to handle the H2O2 samples in a way that minimizes abundance determination errors are discussed.

  1. Oncological outcomes of partial nephrectomy for tumours larger than 4 cm: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    El-Ghazaly, Tarek H.; Mason, Ross J.; Rendon, Ricardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Many medical associations recommend nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) for tumours larger than 4 cm amenable to partial nephrectomy (PN). These recommendations are, however, mostly based on isolated reports. We systematically review the oncological outcomes of partial nephrectomy procedures performed for tumours larger than 4-cm. Methods: A PubMed search was carried out using keywords “partial nephrectomy” and “nephron sparing” for records dating back to 1995. In total, 2136 abstracts were analyzed; from these, 174 studies were scrutinized. We identified 32 manuscripts reporting size-specific cancer-specific survival rates for masses greater than 4 cm. From each of these studies, we recorded the number of PN, tumour diameter, follow-up duration, 5- and 10-year recurrence, overall and cancer-specific survival rates (OS, CSS). We also calculated weighted OS and CSS rates. Results: This systematic review includes 2445 patients with renal tumours larger than 4 cm who underwent PN: 1858 patients with tumours between 4 to 7 cm, 410 patients with tumours larger than 7 cm and 177 patients with tumours greater than 4 cm (exact size unknown). Our analysis revealed weighted 5-year CSS rates of 95.4%, 86.2% and 93.9% for tumours 4 to 7 cm, >7 cm, and all tumours >4 cm, respectively. The respective 5-year OS rates were 84.7%, 76.4%, and 84.7%. Conclusions: We found excellent 5-year CSS and OS rates for patients with tumours 4 to 7 cm treated with PN. These outcomes compare favourably to those reported in historical radical nephrectomy (RN) series for similarly sized tumours. Thus, PN is an acceptable and often preferred treatment for renal masses >4 cm which are amenable to nephron-sparing procedures. PMID:24578747

  2. KELT-10b: The First Transiting Exoplanet from the KELT-South Survey -- A Hot Sub-Jupiter Transiting a V = 10.7 Early G-Star

    E-print Network

    Kuhn, Rudolf B; Collins, Karen A; Lund, Michael B; Siverd, Robert J; Colón, Knicole D; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G; Cargile, Phillip A; James, David J; Penev, Kaloyan; Zhou, George; Bayliss, Daniel; Tan, T G; Curtis, Ivan A; Udry, Stephane; Segransan, Damien; Mawet, Dimitri; Soutter, Jack; Hart, Rhodes; Carter, Brad; Gaudi, B Scott; Myers, Gordon; Beatty, Thomas G; Eastman, Jason D; Reichart, Daniel E; Haislip, Joshua B; Kielkopf, John; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W; Jensen, Eric L N; Oberst, Thomas E; Stevens, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-10b, the first transiting exoplanet discovered using the KELT-South telescope. KELT-10b is a highly inflated sub-Jupiter mass planet transiting a relatively bright $V = 10.7$ star (TYC 8378-64-1), with T$_{eff}$ = $5948\\pm74$ K, $\\log{g}$ = $4.319_{-0.030}^{+0.020}$ and [Fe/H] = $0.09_{-0.10}^{+0.11}$, an inferred mass M$_{*}$ = $1.112_{-0.061}^{+0.055}$ M$_{\\odot}$ and radius R$_{*}$ = $1.209_{-0.035}^{+0.047}$ R$_{\\odot}$. The planet has a radius R$_{P}$ = $1.399_{-0.049}^{+0.069}$ R$_{J}$ and mass M$_{P}$ = $0.679_{-0.038}^{+0.039}$ M$_{J}$. The planet has an eccentricity consistent with zero and a semi-major axis $a$ = $0.05250_{-0.00097}^{+0.00086}$ AU. The best fitting linear ephemeris is $T_{0}$ = 2457066.72045$\\pm$0.00027 BJD$_{TDB}$ and P = 4.1662739$\\pm$0.0000063 days. This planet joins a group of highly inflated transiting exoplanets with a radius much larger and a mass much less than those of Jupiter. The planet, which boasts deep transits of 1.4%, has a relatively ...

  3. A search of multiparticle correlations in 10.7 A GeV $^{197}Au$ and 200 A GeV $^{32}S$ interactions with emulsion nuclei by the Hurst method

    E-print Network

    A. Sh. Gaitinov; I. A. Lebedev; P. B. Kharchevnikov; V. I. Skorobogatova; A. T. Temiraliev

    2011-05-16

    An analysis of pseudorapidity correlations in 10.7 A Gev $^{197}Au$ and 200 A GeV $^{32}S$ interactions with emulsion nuclei by the normalized range method has been carried out. The evidence for events with large multiparticle correlations is presented. The most significant "correlation force" effect is apparent in the interactions of light emulsion nuclei (CNO group) and gold nuclei at an energy of 10.7 A GeV, corresponding to an absolute disintegration of the target nucleus $n_b+n_g\\simeq 0$.

  4. Amino acids in Antarctic CM1 meteorites and their relationship to other carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, Oliver; Martins, Zita; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2007-08-01

    CM2 carbonaceous chondrites are the most primitive material present in the solar system, and some of their subtypes, the CM and CI chondrites, contain up to 2 wt% of organic carbon. The CM2 carbonaceous chondrites contain a wide variety of complex amino acids, while the CI1 meteorites Orgueil and Ivuna display a much simpler composition, with only glycine and ?-alanine present in significant abundances. CM1 carbonaceous chondrites show a higher degree of aqueous alteration than CM2 types and therefore provide an important link between the CM2 and CI1 carbonaceous chondrites. Relative amino acid concentrations have been shown to be indicative for parent body processes with respect to the formation of this class of compounds. In order to understand the relationship of the amino acid composition between these three types of meteorites, we have analyzed for the first time three Antarctic CM1 chondrites, Meteorite Hills (MET) 01070, Allan Hills (ALH) 88045, and LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 02277, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD). The concentrations of the eight most abundant amino acids in these meteorites were compared to those of the CM2s Murchison, Murray, Mighei, Lewis Cliff (LEW) 90500, ALH 83100, as well as the CI1s Orgueil and Ivuna. The total amino acid concentration in CM1 carbonaceous chondrites was found to be much lower than the average of the CM2s. Relative amino acid abundances were compared in order to identify synthetic relationships between the amino acid compositions in these meteorite classes. Our data support the hypothesis that amino acids in CM- and CI-type meteorites were synthesized under different physical and chemical conditions and may best be explained with differences in the abundances of precursor compounds in the source regions of their parent bodies in combination with the decomposition of amino acids during extended aqueous alteration.

  5. The Effects of Spinopelvic Parameters and Paraspinal Muscle Degeneration on S1 Screw Loosening

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Bum; Lee, Young-Seok; Nam, Taek-Kyun; Park, Yong-Sook; Kim, Young-Baeg

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk factors for S1 screw loosening after lumbosacral fusion, including spinopelvic parameters and paraspinal muscles. Methods We studied with 156 patients with degenerative lumbar disease who underwent lumbosacral interbody fusion and pedicle screw fixation including the level of L5-S1 between 2005 and 2012. The patients were divided into loosening and non-loosening groups. Screw loosening was defined as a halo sign larger than 1 mm around a screw. We checked cross sectional area of paraspinal muscles, mean signal intensity of the muscles on T2 weight MRI as a degree of fatty degeneration, spinopelvic parameters, bone mineral density, number of fusion level, and the characteristic of S1 screw. Results Twenty seven patients showed S1 screw loosening, which is 24.4% of total. The mean duration for S1 screw loosening was 7.3±4.1 months after surgery. Statistically significant risk factors were increased age, poor BMD, 3 or more fusion levels (p<0.05). Among spinopelvic parameters, a high pelvic incidence (p<0.01), a greater difference between pelvic incidence and lumbar lordotic angle preoperatively (p<0.01) and postoperatively (p<0.05). Smaller cross-sectional area and high T2 signal intensity in both multifidus and erector spinae muscles were also significant muscular risk factors (p<0.05). Small converging angle (p<0.001) and short intraosseous length (p<0.05) of S1 screw were significant screw related risk factors (p<0.05). Conclusion In addition to well known risk factors, spinopelvic parameters and the degeneration of paraspinal muscles also showed significant effects on the S1 screw loosening. PMID:26587190

  6. Pan-STARRS 1 observations of the unusual active Centaur P/2011 S1(Gibbs)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H. W.; Ip, W. H.; Chen, W. P.; Chen, Y. T.; Lacerda, P.; Holman, M.; Protopapas, P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.

    2014-05-01

    P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is an outer solar system comet or active Centaur with a similar orbit to that of the famous 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has been observed by the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) sky survey from 2010 to 2012. The resulting data allow us to perform multi-color studies of the nucleus and coma of the comet. Analysis of PS1 images reveals that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has a small nucleus <4 km radius, with colors g {sub P1} – r {sub P1} = 0.5 ± 0.02, r {sub P1} – i {sub P1} = 0.12 ± 0.02, and i {sub P1} – z {sub P1} = 0.46 ± 0.03. The comet remained active from 2010 to 2012, with a model-dependent mass-loss rate of ?100 kg s{sup –1}. The mass-loss rate per unit surface area of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is as high as that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, making it one of the most active Centaurs. The mass-loss rate also varies with time from ?40 kg s{sup –1} to 150 kg s{sup –1}. Due to its rather circular orbit, we propose that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1-like outbursts that control the outgassing rate. The results indicate that it may have a similar surface composition to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. Our numerical simulations show that the future orbital evolution of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is more similar to that of the main population of Centaurs than to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The results also demonstrate that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is dynamically unstable and can only remain near its current orbit for roughly a thousand years.

  7. Prediction and identification of novel IBV S1 protein derived CTL epitopes in chicken.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lei; Liao, Ying; Fan, Jin; Zhang, Yuqiang; Mao, Xiang; Sun, Yingjie; Song, Cuiping; Qiu, Xusheng; Meng, Chunchun; Ding, Chan

    2016-01-12

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a major pathogen common in the poultry industry. Broad cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against IBV is one of the crucial factors that help to control viral replication. Spike glycoproteins on the surface of the IBV virion harbor major T cell epitopes. In this study, based on the peptide-binding motifs of chicken MHC I molecules for the BF2*4, BF2*12, BF2*15, and BF2*19 haplotypes, potential CTL epitopes were predicted using S1 proteins from different IBV strains. Twenty-one peptides were predicted to be potential CTL epitopes; they were manually synthesized and the CTL responses to them tested in vitro. Spleen lymphocytes were collected from specific-pathogen free (SPF) chicken that had been immunized with the S1 protein expression plasmid, pV-S1, and were stimulated by the synthesized peptides. IFN-? secretion and CD8(+) T cell proliferation in chickens were tested by ELISpot array and flow cytometry, respectively. Four epitopes (P8SRIQTATDP, P9SRNATGSQP, P18GAYAVVNV, and P19SRIQTATQP) were identified to stimulate CD8(+) T cell proliferation and IFN-? secretion, indicating their efficacy as CTL epitopes in chicken. Poly-CTL-epitope DNA vaccine (pV-S1T) was constructed by inserting nucleotide sequences encoding the P8, P9, P18, and P19 CTL epitopes into the pVAX1 vector. Chickens were vaccinated with either pV-S1, pV-S1T, or pVAX1 and the protection efficacy was analyzed, revealing that ninety percent of chickens immunized with pV-S1T were protected after challenge with 10(6) ELD50 of IBV, demonstrating that these novel CTL epitopes were effective against IBV challenge. This study provides a new method to screen virus CTL epitopes in chicken and to develop poly-CTL-epitope DNA vaccines. PMID:26620841

  8. RAPD and ISSR based evaluation of genetic stability of micropropagated plantlets of Morus alba L. variety S-1.

    PubMed

    Saha, Soumen; Adhikari, Sinchan; Dey, Tulsi; Ghosh, Parthadeb

    2016-02-01

    Plant regeneration through rapid in vitro clonal propagation of nodal explants of Morus alba L. variety S-1 was established along with genetic stability analysis of regenerates. Axillary shoot bud proliferation was achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium in various culture regimes. Highest number of shoots (5.62 ± 0.01), with average length 4.19 ± 0.01 cm, was initially achieved with medium containing 0.5 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) and 3% sucrose. Repeated subculturing of newly formed nodal parts after each harvest up to sixth passage, yielded highest number of shoots (about 32.27) per explants was obtained after fourth passage. Rooting of shoots occurred on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/1 Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). About 90% (89.16) of the plantlets transferred to the mixture of sand:soil:organic manure (2:2:1) in small plastic pots acclimatized successfully. Genetic stability of the discussed protocol was confirmed by two DNA-based fingerprinting techniques i.e. RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat). This protocol can be used for commercial propagation and for future genetic improvement studies. PMID:26693403

  9. RAPD and ISSR based evaluation of genetic stability of micropropagated plantlets of Morus alba L. variety S-1

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Soumen; Adhikari, Sinchan; Dey, Tulsi; Ghosh, Parthadeb

    2015-01-01

    Plant regeneration through rapid in vitro clonal propagation of nodal explants of Morus alba L. variety S-1 was established along with genetic stability analysis of regenerates. Axillary shoot bud proliferation was achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium in various culture regimes. Highest number of shoots (5.62 ± 0.01), with average length 4.19 ± 0.01 cm, was initially achieved with medium containing 0.5 mg/l N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 3% sucrose. Repeated subculturing of newly formed nodal parts after each harvest up to sixth passage, yielded highest number of shoots (about 32.27) per explants was obtained after fourth passage. Rooting of shoots occurred on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/1 Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). About 90% (89.16) of the plantlets transferred to the mixture of sand:soil:organic manure (2:2:1) in small plastic pots acclimatized successfully. Genetic stability of the discussed protocol was confirmed by two DNA-based fingerprinting techniques i.e. RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat). This protocol can be used for commercial propagation and for future genetic improvement studies. PMID:26693403

  10. Performance Evaluation of 40 cm Ion Optics for the NEXT Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.; Haag, Thomas W.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    The results of performance tests with two 40 cm ion optics sets are presented and compared to those of 30 cm ion optics with similar aperture geometries. The 40 cm ion optics utilized both NSTAR and TAG (Thick-Accelerator-Grid) aperture geometries. All 40 cm ion optics tests were conducted on a NEXT (NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster) laboratory model ion engine. Ion optics performance tests were conducted over a beam current range of 1.20 to 3.52 A and an engine input power range of 1.1 to 6.9 kW. Measured ion optics' performance parameters included near-field radial beam current density profiles, impingement-limited total voltages, electron backstreaming limits, screen grid ion transparencies, beam divergence angles, and start-up transients. Impingement-limited total voltages for 40 cm ion optics with the NSTAR aperture geometry were 60 to 90 V lower than those with the TAG aperture geometry. This difference was speculated to be due to an incomplete burn-in of the TAG ion optics. Electron backstreaming limits for the 40 cm ion optics with the TAG aperture geometry were 8 to 19 V higher than those with the NSTAR aperture geometry due to the thicker accelerator grid of the TAG geometry. Because the NEXT ion engine provided beam flatness parameters that were 40 to 63 percent higher than those of the NSTAR ion engine, the 40 cm ion optics outperformed the 30 cm ion optics.

  11. 78 FR 11889 - Notice of Meeting of the ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance Committee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Register on February 7, 2013 (78 FR 9055-9056). The title of the meeting announcement should read as follows: Notice of Meeting of the ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance Committee. The first sentence of... SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Notice of Meeting of the ICD-9-CM Coordination...

  12. A golden SNP in CmOr governs fruit flesh color of melon (cucumis melo)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon (Cucumis melo) flesh color is genetically determined and can be white, light green or orange with B-carotene being the predominant pigment. We associated carotenoid accumulation in melon fruit flesh with polymorphism within CmOr, a homolog of the cauliflower BoOr gene, and identified CmOr as t...

  13. CM chondrites exhibit the complete petrologic range from type 2 to 1. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Browning, L. B.

    1994-01-01

    Recognition and characterization of the different CM lithologies as components in all meteorites could reveal details of the nature and chronology of alteration and brecciation events on hydrous asteroids. The CM chondrites are of particular interest, as they are the most common carbonaceous chondrites and are found as clasts within other types of meteorites, which suggests that the CM parent asteroids are (or were) widespread in the sections of the asteroid belt providing samples to Earth. Some CM2s, including EET 90047, ALH 83100, and Y 82042, are more 'extensively' altered, and are distinguished by a high proportion of Mg-rich phyllosilicates and Ca-Mg carbonates, frequently in rounded aggregates, and near absence of olivine or pyroxene. 'Completely' altered CMs, called CM1s, essentially lack olivine or pyroxene; these include EET 83334, ALH 88045, and the CM1 clasts in Kaidun. Cold Bokkeveld and EET 84034, both highly brecciated CMs, consist of both extensively and completely altered lithologies. We describe how these lithologies further cosntrain physicochemical conditions on hydrous asteroids. We conclude that CM chondrites exhibit the petrologic range 2 through 1, and that progressive alteration on the parent hydrous asteroid(s) was accompanied by significant increases in temperature (to a peak of approximately 450 C), fO2, water-rock ratio, and (locally) degree of chemical leaching, all well beyond the conditions recorded by CM2s.

  14. CM 40907: a structurally novel anticonvulsant in mice, rats and baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, J.P.; Brochard, J.; Hallot, A.; Heaulme, M.; Brodin, R.; Roncucci, R.; Biziere, K.

    1985-06-01

    CM 40907 (3-(4-hydroxypiperidyl)-6-(2'-chlorophenyl)-pyridazine) is a chemically original compound which possesses the pharmacological properties of a potent, p.o. active anticonvulsant. The anticonvulsant activity of CM 40907 was examined in mice, rats and photosensitive Papio-papio baboons and compared to that of phenobarbital, diphenylhydantoin, carbamazepine, sodium valproate and ethosuximide. In mice, CM 40907 antagonized electroconvulsive shock and chemically induced seizures with an overall potency comparable to that of carbamazepine and a therapeutic ratio (ED50 rotorod/ED50 electroshock) superior to that of ethosuximide, sodium valproate, phenobarbital and carbamazepine. In the rat CM 40907 suppressed completed kindled amygdaloid seizures and was approximately as active as phenobarbital. In naturally photosensitive Senegalese Papio-papio baboons CM 40907 antagonized myoclonus and cortical paroxysmal discharges. In this model CM 40907 was approximately one-fourth as potent as phenobarbital, twice as potent as carbamazepine and 6 times more potent than sodium valproate. In mice CM 40907, at anticonvulsant doses, increased the affinity of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam for its central receptor site. Based on these results it is postulated that CM 40907 is a potent and relatively nonsedative anticonvulsant and may be of therapeutic benefit in epileptic disorders.

  15. Herschel HIFI observations of the Sgr A +50 km s-1 Cloud. Deep searches for O2 in emission and foreground absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandqvist, Aa.; Larsson, B.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Encrenaz, P.; Gerin, M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Lis, D. C.; Liseau, R.; Pagani, L.; Roueff, E.; Viti, S.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The Herschel Oxygen Project (HOP) is an open time key program, awarded 140 h of observing time to search for molecular oxygen (O2) in a number of interstellar sources. To date O2 has definitely been detected in only two sources, namely ? Oph A and Orion, reflecting the extremely low abundance of O2 in the interstellar medium. Aims: One of the sources in the HOP program is the +50 km s-1 Cloud in the Sgr A Complex in the centre of the Milky Way. Its environment is unique in the Galaxy and this property is investigated to see if it is conducive to the presence of O2. Methods: The Herschel Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) is used to search for the 487 and 774 GHz emission lines of O2. Results: No O2 emission is detected towards the Sgr A +50 km s-1 Cloud, but a number of strong emission lines of methanol (CH3OH) and absorption lines of chloronium (H2Cl+) are observed. Conclusions: A 3? upper limit for the fractional abundance ratio of [O2]/[H2] in the Sgr A +50 km s-1 Cloud is found to be X(O2) ? 5 × 10-8. However, since we can find no other realistic molecular candidate than O2 itself, we very tentatively suggest that two weak absorption lines at 487.261 and 487.302 GHz may be caused by the 487 GHz line of O2 in two foreground spiral arm clouds. By considering that the absorption may only be apparent, the estimated upper limit to the O2 abundance of ? (10-20) × 10-6 in these foreground clouds is very high, as opposed to the upper limit in the Sgr A +50 km s-1 Cloud itself, but similar to what has been reached in recent chemical shock models for Orion. This abundance limit was determined also using Odin non-detection limits, and assumes that O2 fills the beam. If the absorption is due to a differential Herschel OFF-ON emission, the O2 fractional abundance may be of the order of ? (5-10) × 10-6. With the assumption of pure absorption by foreground clouds, the unreasonably high abundance of (1.4-2.8) × 10-4 was obtained. The rotation temperatures for CH3OH-A and CH3OH-E lines in the +50 km s-1 Cloud are found to be ? 64 and 79 K, respectively, and the fractional abundance of CH3OH is approximately 5 × 10-7. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  16. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF NASA 5 CM BY 5 CM BI-SUPPORTED SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELLS OPERATED IN BOTH FUEL CELL AND STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODES

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. O'Brien; J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; X. Zhang; S. C. Farmer; T. L. Cable; J. A. Setlock

    2011-11-01

    A series of 5 cm by 5 cm bi-supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC) were produced by NASA for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and tested under the INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis program. The results from the experimental demonstration of cell operation for both hydrogen production and operation as fuel cells is presented. An overview of the cell technology, test apparatus and performance analysis is also provided. The INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis laboratory has developed significant test infrastructure in support of single cell and stack performance analyses. An overview of the single cell test apparatus is presented. The test data presented in this paper is representative of a first batch of NASA's prototypic 5 cm by 5 cm SOEC single cells. Clearly a significant relationship between the operational current density and cell degradation rate is evident. While the performance of these cells was lower than anticipated, in-house testing at NASA Glenn has yielded significantly higher performance and lower degradation rates with subsequent production batches of cells. Current post-test microstructure analyses of the cells tested at INL will be published in a future paper. Modification to cell compositions and cell reduction techniques will be altered in the next series of cells to be delivered to INL with the aim to decrease the cell degradation rate while allowing for higher operational current densities to be sustained. Results from the testing of new batches of single cells will be presented in a future paper.

  17. An empirical line list for methane near 1 ?m (9028-10,435 cm-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béguier, S.; Liu, A. W.; Campargue, A.

    2015-11-01

    The highly congested absorption spectrum of methane near 1 ?m was recorded by Fourier Transform Spectroscopy at room temperature. The detectivity threshold of the recordings corresponds to an intensity cut off on the order of 2×10-26 cm/molecule. An empirical line list is constructed for the 9028-10,435 cm-1 spectral region. It consists of (i) 7212 lines in the 9520-10,435 cm-1 interval corresponding to the tetracontad and (ii) 574 lines in the 9028-9200 cm-1 interval corresponding to the high energy region of the triacontad, dominated by the 3?3 band near 9046 cm-1. The first line list fills an important gap in the HITRAN database. The obtained data set constitutes a solid basis for future rovibrational assignments on the basis of advanced theoretical methods.

  18. High redshift signatures in the 21 cm forest due to cosmic string wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Silk, Joseph E-mail: toyokazu.sekiguchi@nagoya-u.jp

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic strings induce minihalo formation in the early universe. The resultant minihalos cluster in string wakes and create a ''21 cm forest'' against the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectrum. Such a 21 cm forest can contribute to angular fluctuations of redshifted 21 cm signals integrated along the line of sight. We calculate the root-mean-square amplitude of the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings and show that these fluctuations can dominate signals from minihalos due to primordial density fluctuations at high redshift (z?>10), even if the string tension is below the current upper bound, G? < 1.5 × 10{sup ?7}. Our results also predict that the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) can potentially detect the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings with G? ? 7.5 × 10{sup ?8} for the single frequency band case and 4.0 × 10{sup ?8} for the multi-frequency band case.

  19. Strong illposedness of the incompressible Euler equation in integer $C^m$ spaces

    E-print Network

    Jean Bourgain; Dong Li

    2014-12-02

    We consider the $d$-dimensional incompressible Euler equations. We show strong illposedness of velocity in any $C^m$ spaces whenever $m\\ge 1$ is an \\emph{integer}. More precisely, we show for a set of initial data dense in the $C^m$ topology, the corresponding solutions lose $C^m$ regularity instantaneously in time. In the $C^1$ case, our proof is based on an anisotropic Lagrangian deformation and a short-time flow expansion. In the $C^m$, $m\\ge 2$ case, we introduce a flow decoupling method which allows to tame the nonlinear flow almost as a passive transport. The proofs also cover illposedness in Lipschitz spaces $C^{m-1,1}$ whenever $m\\ge 1$ is an integer.

  20. Biodegradation of leuco derivatives of triphenylmethane dyes by Sphingomonas sp. CM9.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Li, Liguan; Du, Hongwei; Jiang, Lijuan; Zhang, Qiong; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Lin; Yang, Liuyan

    2011-09-01

    A leuco derivatives of triphenylmethane dyes degrading bacterium, strain CM9, was isolated from an aquafarm field. Based on morphology, physiologic tests, 16S rDNA sequence, and phylogenetic characteristics, it was identified as Sphingomonas sp. This strain was capable of degrading leucomalachite green (LMG), leucocrystal violet and leucobasic fuchsin completely. The relationship between bacterium growth and LMG degradation suggested that strain CM9 could use LMG as the sole source of carbon. The most LMG degradation activity of CM9 crude extract was observed at pH 7.0 and at 30°C. Many metal ions had little inhibition effect on the degradation activity of the crude extract. CM9 also showed strong decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes to their leuco derivatives. GC/MS analysis detected two novel metabolic products, methylbenzene and 4-aminophenol, during the LMG degradation by CM9. PMID:21188476

  1. Measurements of CO2 line parameters in the 9250-9500 cm-1 and 10,700-10,860 cm-1 regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, T. M.; Solodov, A. M.; Solodov, A. A.; Lyulin, O. M.; Borkov, Yu. G.; Tashkun, S. A.; Perevalov, V. I.

    2015-10-01

    The absorption spectra of carbon dioxide have been recorded in two wavenumber ranges 9250-9500 cm-1 and 10,700-10,860 cm-1 of the near infrared region using a Bruker IFS 125 HR Fourier transform spectrometer and a 30 m multipass cell with the White type optical system. The spectra were recorded at spectral resolution of 0.03 cm-1, room temperature, path length of 726.7 m and at four pressures ranging from 187 to 674 mbar. The achieved sensitivity (noise equivalent absorption) at the level of k?=7.2×10-10 cm-1 allowed detection of numerous new transitions with intensity values down to 5×10-29 cm/molecule. The respective measurement time is about 20 h. The multispectrum fittings with the Voigt profile were performed to retrieve the line positions and intensities of 12 observed bands. Three hot bands of 12C16O2 in the 9250-9500 cm-1 region were detected for the first time. The line intensities of 30032-00001 and 30033-00001 bands of 12C16O2 and of 20032-00001 band of 16O12C18O were measured for the first time. The uncertainty of the line position determination is estimated to be about 0.001 cm-1 for the unblended lines with high value of signal-to-noise ratio. The uncertainty of the line intensity determination varies from 5% to 40% depending on the line strength and on extent of line overlapping. The measured line intensities of 30032-00001 and 30033-00001 bands together with those published for the 00051-00001 band were used to fit the effective dipole moment parameters of 12C16O2 for the ?P=15 series of transitions, where P=2V1+V2+3V3 is a polyad number (Vi (i=1,2,3) are vibrational quantum numbers). The fitted parameters reproduce the measured line intensities within experimental uncertainties. Comparison of the measured line positions and intensities to those contained in HITRAN, GEISA, CDSD and AMES line lists is given.

  2. Short-range correlations and the 3 s1 /2 wave function in 206Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, M. R.; Shlomo, S.; Talmi, I.

    2015-09-01

    The charge-density difference between 206Pb and 205Tl , measured by elastic electron scattering, offers a unique opportunity to look for effects of short-range correlations on a shell-model wave function of a single proton. The measured difference is very similar to the charge density due to a proton in a 3 s1 /2 orbit. If there is a potential whose 3 s1 /2 wave function yields the measured difference between the charge distributions, no effect of short-range correlations is evident. To check this point, we look for a potential whose 3 s1 /2 wave function yields the measured data. We developed a novel method to obtain the potential directly from the density and its first and second derivatives. Fits to parametrized potentials were also carried out. The 3 s1 /2 wave functions of the potentials determined here reproduce fairly well the experimental data within the quoted errors. To detect possible effects of two-body correlations on the 3 s1 /2 shell-model wave function, more accurate measurements are required.

  3. [A case of paclitaxel-resistant recurrent gastric cancer responsive to S-1 plus docetaxel].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Iwase, Kazuhiro; Aono, Toyokazu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Nomura, Masaya; Tamagawa, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Chu; Deguchi, Takashi; Kawada, Junji; Higashi, Shigeyoshi; Deguchi, Koichi; Noguchi, Yuki; Okumura, Yuichiro; Nomura, Masatoshi; Fushimi, Hiroaki; Takagi, Mari; Fukui, Akiko; Fujitani, Kazumasa; Endo, Shunji; Tanaka, Yasuhiro

    2013-11-01

    We report the case of a patient with paclitaxel (PTX) -resistant recurrent gastric cancer who was effectively treated with S-1 plus docetaxel( DOC). A 62-year-old woman underwent total gastrectomy for Stage IV advanced gastric cancer (type 4, por 2>sig, pT4a (SE), pN3a, pP1, CY1) in 2009. Although S-1 was administered as first-line chemotherapy, recurrent peritoneal metastasis was diagnosed 22 months after surgery. S-1 plus irinotecan (CPT-11) was administered as second-line chemotherapy, and this was followed by weekly PTX (80 mg/m2) as third-line chemotherapy. However, computed tomography (CT) showed increased ascites and peritoneal wall thickening in the pelvis. As the tumor proved resistant to PTX, making the treatment ineffective, S-1( 80 mg/m2, day 1-14, q3w) plus DOC( 40 mg/m2, day 1, q3w) was initiated. Two months later, the ascites and peritoneal wall thickening in the pelvis disappeared. Twelve months after initiation of S-1 plus DOC chemotherapy, no sign of recurrence has been noted. PMID:24394078

  4. S1 is associated with chronic low back pain: a functional and structural MRI study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental characteristic of neural circuits is the capacity for plasticity in response to experience. Neural plasticity is associated with the development of chronic pain disorders. In this study, we investigated 1) brain resting state functional connectivity (FC) differences between patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) and matched healthy controls (HC); 2) FC differences within the cLBP patients as they experienced different levels of endogenous low back pain evoked by exercise maneuvers, and 3) morphometric differences between cLBP patients and matched HC. We found the dynamic character of FC in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in cLBP patients, i.e., S1 FC decreased when the patients experienced low intensity LBP as compared with matched healthy controls, and FC at S1 increased when cLBP patients experienced high intensity LBP as compared with the low intensity condition. In addition, we also found increased cortical thickness in the bilateral S1 somatotopically associated with the lower back in cLBP patients as compared to healthy controls. Our results provide evidence of structural plasticity co-localized with areas exhibiting FC changes in S1 in cLBP patients. PMID:23965184

  5. The nanoscale mineralogy of Fe,Ni sulfides in pristine and metamorphosed CM and CM/CI-like chondrites: Tapping a petrogenetic record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harries, Dennis; Langenhorst, Falko

    2013-05-01

    We have sampled sulfide grains from one pristine CM2 chondrite (Yamato [Y-] 791198), one thermally metamorphosed CM2 chondrite (Y-793321), and two anomalous, metamorphosed CM/CI-like chondrites (Y-86720 and Belgica [B-] 7904) by the focused ion beam (FIB) technique and studied them by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our study aims at exploring the potential of sulfide assemblages and microstructures to decipher processes and conditions of chondrite petrogenesis. Complex exsolution textures of pyrrhotite (crystallographic NC-type with N ? 6), troilite, and pentlandite occur in grains of Y-791198 and Y-793321. Additionally, polycrystalline 4C-pyrrhotite-pentlandite-magnetite aggregates occur in Y-791198, pointing to diverse conditions of gas-solid interactions in the solar nebula. Coarser exsolution textures of Y-793321 grains indicate higher long-term average temperatures in the <100 °C range compared to Y-791198 and other CM chondrites. Sulfide mineralogy of Y-86720 and B-7904 is dominated by aggregates of pure troilite and metal, indicating metamorphic equilibration at sulfur fugacities (fS2) of the iron-troilite buffer. Absence of magnetite in equilibrium with sulfide and metal in Y-86720 indicates higher peak temperatures compared with B-7904, in which coexistence of troilite, metal, and magnetite constrains metamorphic temperature to less than 570 °C. NC-pyrrhotite occurs in both meteorites as nm-wide rims on troilite grains and, together with frequent anhydrite, indicates a retrograde metamorphic stage at higher fS2 slightly above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz-pyrrhotite buffer. Fine-grained troilite-olivine intergrowths in both meteorites suggest the pre-metamorphic presence of tochilinite-serpentine interlayer phases, pointing to mineralogical CM affinity. Pseudomorphs after euhedral pyrrhotite crystals in Y-86720 in turn suggest CI affinity as do previously published O isotopic data of both meteorites.

  6. Doppler-free two-photon excitation spectroscopy and the Zeeman effect of the 1401 band of the S1 1B2u<--S0 1A1g transition of benzene-d6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinguo; Doi, Atsushi; Kasahara, Shunji; Katô, Hajime; Baba, Masaaki

    2004-11-01

    The Doppler-free two-photon excitation spectrum and the Zeeman effect of the 1401 band of the S1?S0 transition of C6D6 were measured from 39 842 to 39 856 cm-1. The Zeeman splittings of the Q(K)Q(J) lines of a given J were observed to increase proportionally with K2 and reach a maximum at K=J. The Zeeman splittings of the Q(K=J)Q(J) lines were observed to increase proportionally with J. The observed Zeeman splittings are identified as originating from the electronic orbital angular momentum arising from a mixing of the S1 1B2u and S2 1B1u states via J-L coupling. No perturbation originating from an interaction with a triplet state was observed. It became clear from the Zeeman effect that rotationally resolved levels of the S1 state are not mixed with a triplet state. Therefore, it is concluded that nonradiative decay of an isolated benzene molecule excited to the S1 state occurs through the intramolecular vibrational-rotational mixing within the S1 state even in the low vibrational levels.

  7. 40 CFR Table S-1 to Subpart S of... - Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. S, Table S-1 Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98—Basic Parameters for the...

  8. 40 CFR Table S-1 to Subpart S of... - Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. S, Table S-1 Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98—Basic Parameters for the...

  9. 40 CFR Table S-1 to Subpart S of... - Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. S, Table S-1 Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98—Basic Parameters for the...

  10. 40 CFR Table S-1 to Subpart S of... - Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. S, Table S-1 Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98—Basic Parameters for the...

  11. December 1, 1996 / Vol. 21, No. 23 / OPTICS LETTERS 1939 7S1 2 ! 9S1 2 two-photon spectroscopy of trapped francium

    E-print Network

    Orozco, Luis A.

    of trapped francium J. E. Simsarian, W. Shi,* L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, and W. Z. Zhao Department to be 25671.021 6 0.006 cm21 . © 1996 Optical Society of America Francium (Fr) is the heaviest of the alkali

  12. Miniopen Oblique Lateral L5-S1 Interbody Fusion: A Report of 2 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Keijiro; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hiroto; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) has been widely used for minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), but an approach to L5-S1 is difficult because of the iliac crest. In the current study, we present 2 cases using minimally invasive oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) of L5-S1. The patients showed foraminal stenosis between L5 and S1 and severe low back and leg pain. The patients were placed in a lateral decubitus position and underwent OLIF surgery (using a cage and bone graft from the iliac crest) without posterior decompression. Posterior screws were used in the patients. Pain scores significantly improved after surgery. There was no spinal nerve, major vessel, peritoneal, or urinary injury. OLIF surgery was minimally invasive and produced good surgical results without complications. PMID:25400963

  13. Miniopen oblique lateral L5-s1 interbody fusion: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Keijiro; Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Miyagi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Kanamoto, Hiroto; Toyone, Tomoaki; Inoue, Gen; Hanaoka, Eiji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) has been widely used for minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), but an approach to L5-S1 is difficult because of the iliac crest. In the current study, we present 2 cases using minimally invasive oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) of L5-S1. The patients showed foraminal stenosis between L5 and S1 and severe low back and leg pain. The patients were placed in a lateral decubitus position and underwent OLIF surgery (using a cage and bone graft from the iliac crest) without posterior decompression. Posterior screws were used in the patients. Pain scores significantly improved after surgery. There was no spinal nerve, major vessel, peritoneal, or urinary injury. OLIF surgery was minimally invasive and produced good surgical results without complications. PMID:25400963

  14. Use of S1 nuclease in deep sequencing for detection of double-stranded RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Saya; Nagai, Makoto; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Koyama, Satoshi; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Furuya, Tetsuya; Shirai, Junsuke; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2015-10-01

    Metagenomic approach using next-generation DNA sequencing has facilitated the detection of many pathogenic viruses from fecal samples. However, in many cases, majority of the detected sequences originate from the host genome and bacterial flora in the gut. Here, to improve efficiency of the detection of double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses from samples, we evaluated the applicability of S1 nuclease on deep sequencing. Treating total RNA with S1 nuclease resulted in 1.5-28.4- and 10.1-208.9-fold increases in sequence reads of group A rotavirus in fecal and viral culture samples, respectively. Moreover, increasing coverage of mapping to reference sequences allowed for sufficient genotyping using analytical software. These results suggest that library construction using S1 nuclease is useful for deep sequencing in the detection of dsRNA viruses. PMID:25843154

  15. Two wave functions and dS/CFT on S1 × S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Gabriele; Hertog, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    We evaluate the tunneling and Hartle-Hawking wave functions on S 1 × S 2 boundaries in Einstein gravity with a positive cosmological constant. In the large overall volume limit the classical predictions of both wave functions include an ensemble of Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes. We show that the Hartle-Hawking tree level measure on the classical ensemble converges in the small S 1 limit. A divergence in this regime can be identified in the tunneling state. However we trace this to the contribution of an unphysical branch of saddle points associated with negative mass black holes. Using a representation in which all saddle points have an interior Euclidean anti-de Sitter region we also derive a holographic form of both semiclassical wave functions on S 1 × S 2 boundaries.

  16. S1 and KH domains of polynucleotide phosphorylase determine the efficiency of RNA binding and autoregulation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alexander G; McBurney, Kristina L; Thompson, Katharine J; Stickney, Leigh M; Mackie, George A

    2013-05-01

    To better understand the roles of the KH and S1 domains in RNA binding and polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) autoregulation, we have identified and investigated key residues in these domains. A convenient pnp::lacZ fusion reporter strain was used to assess autoregulation by mutant PNPase proteins lacking the KH and/or S1 domains or containing point mutations in those domains. Mutant enzymes were purified and studied by using in vitro band shift and phosphorolysis assays to gauge binding and enzymatic activity. We show that reductions in substrate affinity accompany impairment of PNPase autoregulation. A remarkably strong correlation was observed between ?-galactosidase levels reflecting autoregulation and apparent KD values for the binding of a model RNA substrate. These data show that both the KH and S1 domains of PNPase play critical roles in substrate binding and autoregulation. The findings are discussed in the context of the structure, binding sites, and function of PNPase. PMID:23457244

  17. Expression of CYP2S1 in human hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Marek, Carylyn J; Tucker, Steven J; Koruth, Matthew; Wallace, Karen; Wright, Matthew C

    2007-02-20

    Activated stellate cells are myofibroblast-like cells associated with the generation of fibrotic scaring in chronically damaged liver. Gene chip analysis was performed on cultured fibrotic stellate cells. Of the 51 human CYP genes known, 13 CYP and 5 CYP reduction-related genes were detected with 4 CYPs (CYP1A1, CYP2E1, CY2S1 and CYP4F3) consistently present in stellate cells isolated from three individuals. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that CYP2S1 was a major expressed CYP mRNA transcript. The presence of a CYP2A-related protein and testosterone metabolism in stellate cell cultures suggest that stellate cells express specific functional isoforms of CYP of which a major form is CYP2S1. PMID:17280660

  18. Eastern Mediterranean Sea circulation inferred from the conditions of S1 sapropel deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, K.; Vidal, L.; Cornuault, M.; Garcia, M.; Pothin, A.; Sonzogni, C.; Bard, E.; Menot, G.; Revel, M.

    2014-12-01

    Holocene Eastern Mediterranean Sea sediments contain an organic-rich sapropel S1 layer that was formed in oxygen-depleted waters. The spatial distribution of this layer revealed that during S1 deposition deep waters were permanently anoxic below 1800 m in water depth. To provide further insight into past Eastern Mediterranean Sea circulation, a multi-proxy approach was applied to a core retrieved close to the 1800 m boundary (at 1780 m). We measured the bulk sediment elemental composition, the stable isotopic composition of the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber, and the abundance of benthic foraminifera since the last deglaciation. The result indicates that authigenic U and Mo accumulation began around 13-12 cal ka BP, in concert with surface water freshening estimated from the G. ruber ?18O record. The onset of bottom/pore water oxygen depletion occurred prior to S1 deposition inferred from barium enrichment. In the middle of the S1 deposition period, between 9 and 8 cal ka BP, reduced authigenic V, Fe and As contents and Br / Cl ratio indicated short-term bottom water re-oxygenation. A sharp Mn peak and maximal abundance for benthic foraminifera marked a total recovery for circulation at approximately 7 cal ka BP. Based on our results and existing data, we suggest that S1 formation withinthe upper 1780 m of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea was preconditioned by reduced ventilation, resulting from excess fresh water inputs due to insolation changes under deglacial conditions, that initiated between 15 and 12 ka. Short-term re-oxygenation in the Levantine Basin is estimated to have affected bottom water below and above the anoxic boundary. We tentatively propose that complete ventilation recovery at the S1 termination was attained earlier within the upper 1780 m than at deeper water depths. Our results provided new constraints for eastern Mediterranean Sea thermohaline circulation.

  19. Structural interactions between lipids, water and S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains

    PubMed Central

    Krepkiy, Dmitriy; Gawrisch, Klaus; Swartz, Kenton J.

    2012-01-01

    Membrane proteins serve crucial signaling and transport functions, yet relatively little is known about their structures in membrane environments or how lipids interact with these proteins. For voltage-activated ion channels, X-ray structures suggest that the mobile voltage-sensing S4 helix would be exposed to the membrane, and functional studies reveal that lipid modification can profoundly alter channel activity. Here we use solid-state NMR to investigate structural interactions of lipids and water with S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains, and to explore whether lipids influence the structure of the protein. Our results demonstrate that S1-S4 domains exhibit extensive interactions with lipids, and that these domains are heavily hydrated when embedded in a membrane. We also find evidence for preferential interactions of anionic lipids with S1-S4 domains, and that these interactions have lifetimes on the timescale of 10?3s. Arg residues within S1-S4 domains are well-hydrated and are positioned in close proximity to lipids, exhibiting local interactions with both lipid head groups and acyl chains. Comparative studies with a positively charged lipid lacking a phosphodiester group reveal that this lipid modification has only modest effects on the structure and hydration of S1-S4 domains. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Arg residues in S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains reside in close proximity to the hydrophobic interior of the membrane, yet are well-hydrated, a requirement for carrying charge and driving protein motions in response to changes in membrane voltage. PMID:22858867

  20. Poliovirus retention in 75-cm soil cores after sewage and rainwater application

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, E.F.; Vaughn, J.M.; Penello, W.F.

    1980-12-01

    The adsorption rate of a guanidine-resistant strain of poliovirus LSc 2ab was measured in Long Island soils with in situ field cores (10.1 by 75 cm). The test virus was chosen because it exhibited soil adsorption and elution characteristics of a number of non-polioviruses. After the inoculation of cores with seeded sewage effluent at a 1-cm/h infiltration rate, cores were extracted, fractionated, and analyzed for total plaque-forming units per each 5-cm fraction. The results showed that 77% of the viruses were adsorbed in the first 5 cm of soil. An additional 11% were found in the 5- to 10-cm fraction, and a total of 96% of the viruses were adsorbed by 25 cm. The remaining 4% were uniformly distributed over the next 50 cm of soil, with a minimum of 0.23% in each soil section. Few viruses (< 0.22%) were observed in core filtrates. Analysis of the viral distribution pattern in seeded cores, after an application of a single rinse of either sewage effluent or rainwater, indicated that large-scale viral mobilization was absent. However, localized areas of viral movement were noted in both of the rinsed cores, with the rainwater rinsed cores exhibiting more extensive movement. All mobilized viruses were resorbed at lower core depths.

  1. Fe-Ni metal and sulfide minerals in CM chondrites: An indicator for thermal history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimura, M.; Grossman, J.N.; Weisberg, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    CM chondrites were subjected to aqueous alteration and, in some cases, to secondary metamorphic heating. The effects of these processes vary widely, and have mainly been documented in silicate phases. Herein, we report the characteristic features of Fe-Ni metal and sulfide phases in 13 CM and 2 CM-related chondrites to explore the thermal history of these chondrites. The texture and compositional distribution of the metal in CM are different from those in unequilibrated ordinary and CO chondrites, but most have similarities to those in highly primitive chondrites, such as CH, CR, and Acfer 094. We classified the CM samples into three categories based on metal composition and sulfide texture. Fe-Ni metal in category A is kamacite to martensite. Category B is characterized by pyrrhotite grains always containing blebs or lamellae of pentlandite. Opaque mineral assemblages of category C are typically kamacite, Ni-Co-rich metal, and pyrrhotite. These categories are closely related to the degree of secondary heating and are not related to degree of the aqueous alteration. The characteristic features of the opaque minerals can be explained by secondary heating processes after aqueous alteration. Category A CM chondrites are unheated, whereas those in category B experienced small degrees of secondary heating. CMs in category C were subjected to the most severe secondary heating process. Thus, opaque minerals can provide constraints on the thermal history for CM chondrites. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2011.

  2. Functional Characterization of Cucumis metuliferus Proteinase Inhibitor Gene (CmSPI) in Potyviruses Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Mei-Hsiu; Lin, Yu-Tsung; Chung, Chien-Hung; Ku, Hsin-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are ubiquitous proteins that block the active center or interact allosterically with proteinases and are involved in plant physiological processes and defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The CmSPI gene identified from Cucumis metuliferus encodes a serine type PI (8 kDa) that belongs to potato I type family. To evaluate the effect of silencing CmSPI gene on Papaya ringspot virus resistance, RNA interference (RNAi) with an inter-space hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct was introduced into a PRSV-resistant C. metuliferus line. CmSPI was down-regulated in CmSPI RNAi transgenic lines in which synchronously PRSV symptoms were evident at 21 day post inoculation. Alternatively, heterogeneous expression of CmSPI in Nicotiana benthamiana was also conducted and showed that CmSPI can provide resistance to Potato virus Y, another member of Potyvirus, in transgenic N. benthamiana lines. This study demonstrated that CmSPI plays an important role in resistant function against potyviruses in C. metuliferus and N. benthamiana. PMID:26184285

  3. Designing a stencil compiler for the Connection Machine model CM-5

    SciTech Connect

    Brickner, R.G.; Holian, K.; Thiagarajan, B.; Johnsson, S.L. |

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the authors present the design of a stencil compiler for the Connection Machine system CM-5. The stencil compiler will optimize the data motion between processing nodes, minimize the data motion within a node, and minimize the data motion between registers and local memory in a node. The compiler will natively support two-dimensional stencils, but stencils in three dimensions will be automatically decomposed. Lower dimensional stencils are treated as degenerate stencils. The compiler will be integrated as part of the CM Fortran programming system. Much of the compiler code will be adapted from the CM-2/200 stencil compiler, which is part of CMSSL (the Connection Machine Scientific Software Library) Release 3.1 for the CM-2/200, and the compiler will be available as part of the Connection Machine Scientific Software Library (CMSSL) for the CM-5. In addition to setting down design considerations, they report on the implementation status of the stencil compiler. In particular, they discuss optimization strategies and status of code conversion from CM-2/200 to CM-5 architecture, and report on the measured performance of prototype target code which the compiler will generate.

  4. New fluorinated agonists for targeting the sphingosin-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1).

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rizwan S; Keul, Petra; Schäfers, Michael; Levkau, Bodo; Haufe, Günter

    2015-11-15

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P1) is involved in fundamental biological processes such as regulation of immune cell trafficking, vascular barrier function and angiogenesis. This Letter presents multistep syntheses of various fluorine substituted 12-aryl analogues of the drug fingolimod (FTY720) and a seven-steps route to 2-amino-17,17-difluoro-2-(hydroxymethyl)heptadecan-1-ol. In vitro and in vivo tests proved all these compounds as potent S1P1 receptor agonists. PMID:26592813

  5. -H3(Cat-EDT-TTF)2Cat-(b) S = 1/2

    E-print Network

    Katsumoto, Shingo

    / NIMS ) NIMS -H3(Cat- EDT-TTF)2Cat- EDT-TTF (b) S = 1/2 2(Cat-EDT-TTF)2 1 2 Cat-EDT-TTF 1(a) Cat-EDT-TTF S =1/2 3 20 K-253.15 3K -270.15 50mK-273.10 - (BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3 EtMe3Sb[Pd(dmit)2]2 Cat-EDT-TTF 2 1(c) -H3(Cat-EDT-TTF)2 -H3(Cat

  6. Challenges and remediation for Patient Safety Indicators in the transition to ICD-10-CM

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Andrew D; Yang, Young Min; Li, Jianrong; Kenost, Colleen; Burton, Mike D; Becker, Bryan; Lussier, Yves A

    2015-01-01

    Reporting of hospital adverse events relies on Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. The US transition to ICD-10-CM in 2015 could result in erroneous comparisons of PSIs. Using the General Equivalent Mappings (GEMs), we compared the accuracy of ICD-9-CM coded PSIs against recommended ICD-10-CM codes from the Centers for Medicaid/Medicare Services (CMS). We further predict their impact in a cohort of 38?644 patients (1?446?581 visits and 399 hospitals). We compared the predicted results to the published PSI related ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes. We provide the first report of substantial hospital safety reporting errors with five direct comparisons from the 23 types of PSIs (transfusion and anesthesia related PSIs). One PSI was excluded from the comparison between code sets due to reorganization, while 15 additional PSIs were inaccurate to a lesser degree due to the complexity of the coding translation. The ICD-10-CM translations proposed by CMS pose impending risks for (1) comparing safety incidents, (2) inflating the number of PSIs, and (3) increasing the variability of calculations attributable to the abundance of coding system translations. Ethical organizations addressing ‘data-, process-, and system-focused’ improvements could be penalized using the new ICD-10-CM Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality PSIs because of apparent increases in PSIs bearing the same PSI identifier and label, yet calculated differently. Here we investigate which PSIs would reliably transition between ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM, and those at risk of under-reporting and over-reporting adverse events while the frequency of these adverse events remain unchanged. PMID:25186492

  7. Coherent Quantum Control of $S_2 \\leftrightarrow S_1$ Internal Conversion in Pyrazine via $S_0 \\to S_2/S_1$ Weak Field Excitation

    E-print Network

    Timur Grinev; Moshe Shapiro; Paul Brumer

    2015-05-11

    Coherent control of internal conversion (IC) between the first ($S_1$) and second ($S_2$) singlet excited electronic states in pyrazine, where the $S_2$ state is populated from the ground singlet electronic state $S_0$ by weak field excitation, is examined. Control is implemented by shaping the laser which excites $S_2$. Excitation and IC are considered simultaneously, using the recently introduced resonance-based control approach. Highly successful control is achieved by optimizing both the amplitude and phase profiles of the laser spectrum. The dependence of control on the properties of resonances in $S_2$ is demonstrated.

  8. 20to2T5m120cm4pDL Concept Update

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    20to2T5m120cm4pDL Concept Update Van Graves June 9, 2014 #12;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy 20to2T5m120cm 4pDL Concept 9 June 2014 #12;3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy 20to2T5m120cm 4pDL Concept 9 June 2014 #12;4 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U

  9. STAT3-induced S1PR1 expression is crucial for persistent STAT3 activation in tumors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heehyoung; Deng, Jiehui; Kujawski, Maciej; Yang, Chunmei; Liu, Yong; Herrmann, Andreas; Kortylewski, Marcin; Horne, David; Somlo, George; Forman, Stephen; Jove, Richard; Yu, Hua

    2010-12-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-Janus kinase (JAK) signaling is viewed as crucial for persistent signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) activation in cancer. However, IL-6-induced STAT3 activation is normally transient. Here we identify a key mechanism for persistent STAT3 activation in tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment. We show that expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1), a G protein-coupled receptor for the lysophospholipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), is elevated in STAT3-positive tumors. STAT3 is a transcription factor for the S1pr1 gene. Reciprocally, enhanced S1pr1 expression activates STAT3 and upregulates Il6 gene expression, thereby accelerating tumor growth and metastasis in a STAT3-dependent manner. Silencing S1pr1 in tumor cells or immune cells inhibits tumor STAT3 activity, tumor growth and metastasis. S1P-S1PR1-induced STAT3 activation is persistent, in contrast to transient STAT3 activation by IL-6. S1PR1 activates STAT3 in part by upregulating JAK2 tyrosine kinase activity. We show that STAT3-induced S1PR1 expression, as well as the S1P-S1PR1 pathway reciprocal regulation of STAT3 activity, is a major positive feedback loop for persistent STAT3 activation in cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment and for malignant progression. PMID:21102457

  10. Juan de Fuca plate: Aseismic subduction at 1. 8 cm/yr

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, H.

    1981-11-01

    Volcanic activity in the Cascades in historic times suggests that the Juan de Fuca plate is underthrusting aseismically at about 1.8 cm/yr. This rate of underthrusting is identical to the rate computed from sediment studies.

  11. On the origin of the 1602 cm-1 Raman band of yeasts; contribution of ergosterol.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Liang-da; Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Torii, Hajime; Hamaguchi, Hiro-O

    2012-10-01

    The 1602 cm(-1) Raman signature, which we call the "Raman spectroscopic signature of life" in yeasts, is a marker Raman band for cell metabolic activity. Despite the established fact that its intensity sensitively reflects the metabolic status of the cell, its molecular origin remained unclear. In this work, we propose ergosterol as the major contributor of the 1602 cm(-1) Raman signature. The theoretical isotope shift calculation for ergosterol agreed with previous observations. Furthermore, experiments showed that the Raman spectrum of ergosterol corresponds very well with the depleting spectral component in yeast that behaves together with the 1602 cm(-1) signature when the cells are under stress. This work implies that the 1602 cm(-1) Raman signature could serve as an intrinsic ergosterol marker in yeasts for the study of sterol metabolism in vivo and in a label-free manner, which could not be done by any other techniques at the current stage. PMID:22529062

  12. Bayesian semi-blind component separation for foreground removal in interferometric 21-cm observations

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Le; Karakci, Ata; Korotkov, Andrei; Sutter, P M; Timbie, Peter T; Tucker, Gregory S; Wandelt, Benjamin D

    2015-01-01

    We present in this paper a new Bayesian semi-blind approach for foreground removal in observations of the 21-cm signal with interferometers. The technique, which we call HIEMICA (HI Expectation-Maximization Independent Component Analysis), is an extension of the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) technique developed for two-dimensional (2D) CMB maps to three-dimensional (3D) 21-cm cosmological signals measured by interferometers. This technique provides a fully Bayesian inference of power spectra and maps and separates the foregrounds from signal based on the diversity of their power spectra. Only relying on the statistical independence of the components, this approach can jointly estimate the 3D power spectrum of the 21-cm signal and, the 2D angular power spectrum and the frequency dependence of each foreground component, without any prior assumptions about foregrounds. This approach has been tested extensively by applying it to mock data from interferometric 21-cm intensity mapping observations. Based on ...

  13. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Exterior photocopy from C.M. Pepper, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Exterior photocopy from C.M. Pepper, Everyday Life in Washington (1900, p. 371) - Robert P. Dodge House, 1534 Twenty-eighth Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Probing the epoch of reionization with redshifted 21 cm HI emission

    E-print Network

    Bowman, Judd D. (Judd David)

    2007-01-01

    Emission and absorption features in the spectrum of the diffuse radio background below 200 MHz due to the 21 cm hyperfine transition line of neutral hydrogen gas in the high redshift intergalactic medium offer a new and ...

  15. FIRST OBSERVATION IN THE SOUTH OF TITAN'S FAR-INFRARED 220 cm{sup -1} CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Donald E.; Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Flasar, F. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Romani, P. N.; Achterberg, R. K.; Cottini, V.; Hesman, B. E.; Kunde, V. G.; Carlson, R. C.; De Kok, R.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Bampasidis, G.; Teanby, N. A.; Calcutt, S. B.

    2012-12-10

    An emission feature at 220 cm{sup -1} which has been attributed to a cloud of condensed material in Titan's winter stratosphere has been seen for the first time in the south. This feature had previously been found only at high northern latitudes during northern winter and spring. The material emitting at 220 cm{sup -1}, as yet unidentified, may be volatiles associated with nitrile gases that accumulate in the absence of ultraviolet sunlight. Not detected as recently as 2012 February, the 220 cm{sup -1} feature clearly appeared at the south pole in Cassini spectra recorded on 2012 July 24, indicating a rapid onset of the emission. This is the first indication of the winter buildup of condensation in the southern stratosphere that has been expected as the south pole moves deeper into shadow. In the north the 220 cm{sup -1} feature continued to decrease in intensity with a half-life of 3 years.

  16. Distinguishing natural from synthetic amethyst: the presence and shape of the 3595 cm-1 peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karampelas, S.; Fritsch, E.; Zorba, T.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.; Sklavounos, S.

    2005-11-01

    The infrared absorption spectrum of amethyst in the region of stretching vibrations of X OH groups reveals several bands that have been used for the separation of natural from synthetic amethyst. The intensity and shape of these bands have been measured as a function of crystallographic orientation. Using a resolution of 0.5 cm-1 the 3595 cm-1 band is present in all infrared spectra of natural amethyst and in some rare synthetic ones. If present in synthetic amethyst, its full width at half maximum (FWHM) is about 7 cm-1 whereas it is about 3 cm-1 in all natural samples. This new criterion, unlike the previous ones, seems appropriate to separate natural from synthetic amethyst in all cases.

  17. Composition/Property Relationships for the Phase 1 Am/Cm Glass Variability Study

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.

    1999-07-14

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of compositional uncertainties on the primary processing and product performance criteria for potential glasses to stabilize the Tank 17.1 Am-Cm solution.

  18. PAPER-64 CONSTRAINTS ON REIONIZATION: THE 21 cm POWER SPECTRUM AT z = 8.4

    E-print Network

    Ali, Zaki S.

    In this paper, we report new limits on 21 cm emission from cosmic reionization based on a 135 day observing campaign with a 64-element deployment of the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization ...

  19. A method for 21 cm power spectrum estimation in the presence of foregrounds

    E-print Network

    Liu, Adrian Chi-Yan

    The technique of 21 cm tomography promises to be a powerful tool for estimating cosmological parameters, constraining the epoch of reionization, and probing the so-called dark ages. However, realizing this promise will ...

  20. Measuring the X-ray background in the reionization era with first generation 21 cm experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Pierre; Loeb, Abraham E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-09-01

    The X-ray background during the epoch of reionization is currently poorly constrained. We demonstrate that it is possible to use first generation 21 cm experiments to calibrate it. Using the semi-numerical simulation, 21cmFAST, we calculate the dependence of the 21 cm power spectrum on the X-ray background flux. Comparing the signal to the sensitivity of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) we find that in the redshift interval z =8-14 the 21 cm signal is detectable for certain values of the X-ray background. We show that there is no degeneracy between the X-ray production efficiency and the Ly? production efficiency and that the degeneracy with the ionization fraction of the intergalactic medium can be broken.

  1. Initial exploration of 21-cm cosmology with imaging and power spectra from the Murchison Widefield Array

    E-print Network

    Williams, Christopher Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a new low-frequency radio array under construction in Western Australia with a primary goal of measuring the power spectrum of the 21-cm signal from neutral hydrogen during the Epoch ...

  2. p\\procedure\\AVP#8 Page 1 of 19 TITLE: SELECTION PROCESS CONSTRUCTION MANAGER (CM)

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    . RESPONSIBILITY ACTION COORDINATOR, ADM. SERVICES ­ FACILITIES PLANNING Post notification for submittal due date for consistency with CM proposal submittal. Forward approved Shortlist Rank form to Facilities Planning Committee's signatures COORDINATOR, ADM. SERVICES- FACILITIES PLANNING Prepare and submit memorandum

  3. Magnesium isotopic fractionation in chondrules from the Murchison and Murray CM2 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, Audrey; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Simon, Steven B.; Grossman, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    We present high-precision measurements of the Mg isotopic compositions of a suite of types I and II chondrules separated from the Murchison and Murray CM2 carbonaceous chondrites. These chondrules are olivine- and pyroxene-rich and have low 27Al/24Mg ratios (0.012-0.316). The Mg isotopic compositions of Murray chondrules are on average lighter (?26Mg ranging from -0.95‰ to -0.15‰ relative to the DSM-3 standard) than those of Murchison (?26Mg ranging from -1.27‰ to +0.77‰). Taken together, the CM2 chondrules exhibit a narrower range of Mg isotopic compositions than those from CV and CB chondrites studied previously. The least-altered CM2 chondrules are on average lighter (average ?26Mg = -0.39 ± 0.30‰, 2SE) than the moderately to heavily altered CM2 chondrules (average ?26Mg = -0.11 ± 0.21‰, 2SE). The compositions of CM2 chondrules are consistent with isotopic fractionation toward heavy Mg being associated with the formation of secondary silicate phases on the CM2 parent body, but were also probably affected by volatilization and recondensation processes involved in their original formation. The low-Al CM2 chondrules analyzed here do not exhibit any mass-independent variations in 26Mg from the decay of 26Al, with the exception of two chondrules that show only small variations just outside of the analytical error. In the case of the chondrule with the highest Al/Mg ratio (a type IAB chondrule from Murchison), the lack of resolvable 26Mg excess suggests that it either formed >1 Ma after calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, or that its Al-Mg isotope systematics were reset by secondary alteration processes on the CM2 chondrite parent body after the decay of 26Al.

  4. Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KDP crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitseva, N.P.; DeYoreo, J.J.; Dehaven, M.R.; Vital, R.L.; Carman, L.M.; Spears, H.R.

    1997-02-13

    KDP (KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) single crystals up to 47 cm in size have been grown by the rapid growth technique on the point seed in glass recrystallizers of 1000 L in volume at growth rates of 10 to 25 mm/day in both the [001] and [100] directions. Measurements of the optical quality of 41 x 41 cm single crystal plates are presented.

  5. Using Peptidic Inhibitors to Systematically Probe the S1 Site of

    E-print Network

    Hergenrother, Paul J.

    an individual isozyme in the presence of the others. An example of such an enzyme family is the caspases, the S1 site is considered to be a "hydrophobic bowl" that will accept either unbranched hydrophobic. W. Curr. Opin. Drug DiscoVery DeV. 1999, 2, 519-527. (b) Talanian, R. V.; Brady, K. D.; Cryns, V. L

  6. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of the yeast Malassezia sympodialis allergen Mala s 1

    SciTech Connect

    Vilhelmsson, Monica; Hallberg, B. Martin; Rasool, Omid; Zargari, Arezou; Scheynius, Annika; Achour, Adnane

    2006-02-01

    Crystals of the M. sympodialis allergen Mala s 1 have been obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set has been collected from native crystals to 1.35 Å resolution. The opportunistic yeast Malassezia sympodialis can act as an allergen and elicit specific IgE- and T-cell reactivity in patients with atopic eczema. The first identified major allergen from M. sympodialis, Mala s 1, is present on the cell surface of the yeast. Recombinant Mala s 1 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and refolded in a soluble form. Crystals of Mala s 1 were obtained in 25% PEG 8K, 0.2 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.4, b = 163.7, c = 50.6 Å, and diffract to 1.35 Å resolution.

  7. Supplementary Material S1. Model uncertainty in transpiration and transpiration fraction

    E-print Network

    Evans, Jason

    Supplementary Material S1. Model uncertainty in transpiration and transpiration fraction The transpiration anomaly estimates in this study are derived from MODIS, J2010, and GLEAM using the ET partitioning accurate than the transpiration as simulated by CLM4 or CABLE. Aside from this fundamental reason

  8. S0S1 transition of trans--methyl styrene: Vibronic structure and dynamics

    E-print Network

    Haas, Yehuda

    S0S1 transition of trans- -methyl styrene: Vibronic structure and dynamics Y. Haas, S. Kendler, E; accepted 28 March 1995 The fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of trans- -methyl styrene have been , a more pronounced decrease in f is observed, indicating that the barrier to trans­cis isomerization

  9. The log-concavity conjecture on semifree symplectic S^1-manifolds with isolated fixed points

    E-print Network

    Yunhyung Cho

    2011-11-30

    Let $(M,\\omega)$ be a closed $2n$-dimensional semifree Hamiltonian $S^1$-manifold with only isolated fixed points. We prove that a density function of the Duistermaat-Heckman measure is log-concave. Moreover, we prove that $(M,\\omega)$ and any reduced symplectic form satisfy the Hard Lefschetz property.

  10. On Peak and Periodic Solutions of an Integro-Differential Equation on S1

    E-print Network

    On Peak and Periodic Solutions of an Integro-Differential Equation on S1 Edith Geigant Abteilung integro-differential equations, where the partial derivative is (orientational) diffusion by a stochastic jump pro- cess with interaction ([12]). Here we analyze the approximating mean field equation

  11. Quantum key distribution system operating at sifted-key rate over 4 Mbit/s1

    E-print Network

    Quantum key distribution system operating at sifted-key rate over 4 Mbit/s1 Xiao Tang2 , Lijun Ma., Gaithersburg, MD 20899 ABSTRACT A complete fiber-based polarization encoding quantum key distribution (QKD proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984 [1], quantum key distribution (QKD) has been studied extensively

  12. Table S1. Names and numbers of the stations providing dust concentration data (monthly and annually).

    E-print Network

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Table S1. Names and numbers of the stations providing dust concentration data (monthly and annually.75°E 0.14 EPacific 9 Taklimakan 40.00°N 85.00°E 450 Asia 10 TelAviv 32.00°N 34.50°E 30 Europe 11 Camp

  13. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL Table S1: List of 246 protein complex pairs identified by DM-align.

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yang

    SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL Table S1: List of 246 protein complex pairs identified by DM-align. Query.849 3.1 1dl5 (A,B) Transferase: Methyltransferas e activity 1utx (A,B) DNA binding protein: Sequence.917 1.6 1do5 (A,B) Chaperone: Copper ion binding activity 1xso (A,B) Superoxide Acceptor: Copper ion

  14. Conference on Learning Disabilities: A Review of Indiana's Rule S-1. LD Series #5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Patricia H., Ed.; Middleton, Thomas O., Ed.

    The document is a collection of papers presented at a conference on the delivery of services to learning disabled children in Indiana that focused on Indiana's Rule S-1, which implements the mandatory special education act through multidisciplinary identification, assessment, and placement of handicapped children. Titles and authors include "The…

  15. MILLET ET AL. (SI) PAGE S1 OF S9 Supporting Information

    E-print Network

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    figures. Halocarbon and CO measurements Halocarbons were measured by whole air sampling, with typicalMILLET ET AL. (SI) PAGE S1 OF S9 Supporting Information Halocarbon Emissions from the United States) or mass selective detector (MSD, Miami group) (1-3). Calibration was based on whole air standards

  16. Femtosecond photoelectron imaging of pyridazine: S1 lifetime and ...,3p,,n1

    E-print Network

    Kim, Sang Kyu

    (n, *) state is presented. The S1 state is found to dephase with a time constant of 323 17 ps at its manifolds with a lifetime of 110 ps. Our previous study on pyrazine by time-resolved photoelectron imagingW of a Ti:sap- phire laser Coherent, Vitesse was amplified by a regenera- tive amplifier Quantronix, Titan

  17. Anomalie d’émergence radiculaire par racine conjointe S1: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Kessely, Yannick Canton; Sakho, Maguette Gaye; Fondo, Alidji; Daisy, Akerey Diop; Thiam, Aley; Sakho, Youssoupha

    2015-01-01

    De découverte per-opératoire pour hernie discale, les anomalies d’émergence radiculaires constituent une entité rare. La présentation clinique est généralement identique à celle d'une radiculopathie. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient âgé de 35 ans présentant une sciatique droite S1 hyperalgique rebelle aux multiples médications. L'IRM du rachis lombo-sacré avait mis en évidence une discopathie protrusive de petit volume en L5 S1 droite et un aspect de grosse racine ou de kyste de Tarlov au niveau de l’émergence droite de S1. Une fenestration inter lamaire L5-S1 droite avec une ablation du ligament jaune a montré une émergence radiculaire double au niveau de l'espace retro-discal. Un geste de foraminostomie a été réalisé sans discectomie. L’évolution a très favorable avec une rétrocession dès le lendemain. L'analyse pré-opératoire fine et rigoureuse de l'imagerie est indispensable. Une bonne libération améliore l’état clinique du patient. Y penser en cas de sciatique hyperalgique sans Lasègue. PMID:26113909

  18. Search for charged massive long-lived particles at s?=1.96??TeV

    E-print Network

    Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Chen, G.; Clutter, Justace Randall; Sekaric, Jadranka; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alimena, J.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.

    2013-03-06

    We present a search for charged massive long-lived particles (CMLLPs) that are pair produced in pp-bar collisions at s?=1.96??TeV collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Our result is a combination of two searches where...

  19. String Tests of 3S1P Configurations for Electric Energy Storage Applications

    E-print Network

    String Tests of 3S1P Configurations for Electric Energy Storage Applications Prepared for the U.2 Deliverable 2 Report on Results of Storage Tests Prepared by Hawai`i Natural Energy Institute School of OceanPConfigurationsfor ElectricEnergyStorageApplications Matthieu Dubarry and Bor Yann Liaw Hawaii Natural Energy

  20. Diffractive dijet production in p?p collisions at ?s=1.96?TeV

    E-print Network

    Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo

    We report on a study of diffractive dijet production in p?p collisions at ?s=1.96??TeV using the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p?p collider. A data sample from 310??pb[superscript -1] of integrated luminosity ...

  1. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND SOCIETALLY IMPORTANT DISPARITIES -supplement S1 Log population density in 1500 CE

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    GENETIC DIVERSITY AND SOCIETALLY IMPORTANT DISPARITIES - supplement S1 Log population density Genetic variables Observed diversity 413.504*** 225.443*** 203.817* (97.320) (73.781) (97.637) 0.000483 0 for the non-genetic variables and 53 population-specific values of genetic diversity from Ramachandran et al

  2. June 2014 | Executive Summary S 1 Snake RiverSockeyeSalmon Recovery

    E-print Network

    June 2014 | Executive Summary S 1 Snake RiverSockeyeSalmon Recovery PlanSummary Introduction This recovery plan (Plan) serves as a blueprint for the protection and restoration of Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Snake River Sockeye Salmon were listed as an endangered species under the Endangered

  3. Cloning, Prokaryotic Expression and Purification of CpfS1 Gene from Arabidopsis Thaliana.

    PubMed

    He, Q; Fu, A Y; Zhang, G C; Li, T J; Zhang, J H

    2015-01-01

    CpfS1 Gene cloned from arabidopsis thaliana was expressed in Escherichia coli DH5?. A cDNA fragment about 320 bp was amplified from the total RNA of arabidopsis thaliana seeds by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) with a pair of specific primers based on the sequences of the AtCpfS1 gene. The recombinant prokaryotic expression vector pET30a-AtCpfS1 was constructed by inserting the cDNA fragment encoding the mature peptide into the prokaryotic expression vector pET30a, and then transformed into E. coli DH5?. Sequence analysis showed that the fragment length was 346 bp containing a full coding region of 332 bp encoding 76 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 21.5 kD. The SDS-PAGE electrophoresis analysis showed that the best expression was induced by 21oC and 3.6×10-3 mol/L IPTG, under which a relative molecular weight of 82.5 kD recombinant protein was produced. The nickel chelating resin was used to purify the protein in size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and the results indicated that AtCpfS1 protein was present in the form of tetramer. PMID:26718440

  4. S1MPL:E TECHNIQUES TO CO~RIRECI'FOR VCO NONLINEARITIES

    E-print Network

    York, Robert A.

    WlE4D-5 S1MPL:E TECHNIQUES TO CO~RIRECI'FOR VCO NONLINEARITIES IN SHORT RANGE: FMCW RADARS Jorn 93106 ABSTRACT Standard hardware techniqiies for the linearization of the frequency sweep in FMCW radars-based linearization technique is introduced for short-range FMCW radars, and compared with a simple hardware line

  5. Quadrupolar correlations and spin freezing in S=1 triangular lattice antiferromagnets E. M. Stoudenmire

    E-print Network

    Trebst, Simon

    Quadrupolar correlations and spin freezing in S=1 triangular lattice antiferromagnets E. M have suggested the possibility of quadrupolar spin-nematic ground states in the presence of sufficient-nematic ground state and give rise to a two-peak structure of the specific heat. We characterize this behavior

  6. Northwest Power and Conservation Council's1 Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    Northwest Power and Conservation Council's1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife .................................................................................................5 A. The Northwest Power and Conservation Council and the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife ................................................................................................. 35 5. Hydrosystem Passage and Operations Strategies

  7. Sacrum fracture following L5-S1 stand-alone interbody fusion for isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2015-11-01

    We report a 72-year-old man with a rare sacral fracture following stand-alone L5-S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusion for isthmic spondylolisthesis. The man underwent a minimally invasive management strategy using posterior percutaneous pedicle fixation and partial reduction of the deformity. We also discuss the current literature on fusion procedures for isthmic spondylolisthesis. PMID:26100158

  8. Gapped quantum phases for the S=1 spin chain with D2h symmetry

    E-print Network

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    We study different quantum phases in integer spin systems with on-site D[subscript 2h]=D[subscript 2]?Z[subscript 2] and translation symmetry. We find four distinct nontrivial phases in S=1 spin chains despite the fact ...

  9. High-Dispersion Spectroscopic Observations of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with the Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Nagashima, Masayoshi; Hitomi, Kobayashi; Decock, Alice; Jehin, Emmanuel; Boice, Daniel C.

    2014-11-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was one of the Oort cloud comets and dynamically new. This comet was broken at its perihelion passage on UT 2013 November 28.1 (at Rh ~ 17 solar radius). We observed the comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) on UT 2013 November 15 with the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) mounted on the Subaru Telescope atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Its heliocentric and geocentric distances were 0.601 and 0.898 AU, respectively. We selected the slit size of 0”.5 x 9”.0 on the sky to achieve the spectral resolution of R = 72,000 from 550 to 830 nm. The total exposure time of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was 1200 seconds. We detected many emission lines caused from radicals (e.g., CN, C2, NH2), ions (H2O+), atoms ([OI] and Na I) and also many unidentified lines in the spectra. We report the (1) the ortho-to-para abundance ratios (OPRs) of water and ammonia estimated from the high-dispersion spectra of H2O+ and NH2, (2) the green-to-red line ratio of forbidden oxygen emissions, (3) the isotopic ratios of C2 (the carbon isotopic ratio from Swan band) and CN (the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios from red band), (4) the sodium-to-continuum ratio of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON).

  10. An evaluation of remotely sensed soil moisture over Draper, C. S.1,2

    E-print Network

    Walker, Jeff

    An evaluation of remotely sensed soil moisture over Australia Draper, C. S.1,2 , J.P. Walker1 for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Bureau of Meteorology. Introduction Soil moisture is an important accurate soil moisture fields. Yet soil moisture is typically initialised indirectly in Numerical Weather

  11. An evaluation of remotely sensed soil moisture over Draper, C. S.1,2

    E-print Network

    Walker, Jeff

    5 An evaluation of remotely sensed soil moisture over Australia Draper, C. S.1,2 , J.P. Walker1 for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Bureau of Meteorology. Introduction Soil moisture is an important accurate soil moisture fields. Yet soil moisture is typically initialised indirectly in Numerical Weather

  12. Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture over Australia from Draper, C. S.1,2

    E-print Network

    Walker, Jeff

    Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture over Australia from AMSR-E Draper, C. S.1,2 , J.P. Walker1 , P, The Netherlands. Email: c.draper@bom.gov.au Keywords: AMSR-E, remote sensing, soil moisture, Australia, numerical weather prediction. EXTENDED ABSTRACT Soil moisture can significantly influence atmospheric evolution

  13. How Configuration Management (CM) Can Help Project Teams To Innovate and Communicate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, CM is relegated to a support role in project management activities. CM s traditional functions of identification, change control, status accounting, and audits/verification are still necessary and play a vital role. However, this presentation proposes CM s role in a new and innovative manner that will significantly improve communication throughout the organization and, in turn, augment the project s success. CM s new role is elevated to the project management level, above the engineering or sub-project level in the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), where it can more effectively accommodate changes, reduce corrective actions, and ensure that requirements are clear, concise, and valid, and that results conform to the requirements. By elevating CM s role in project management and orchestrating new measures, a new communication will emerge that will improve information integrity, structured baselines, interchangeability/traceability, metrics, conformance to standards, and standardize the best practices in the organization. Overall project performance (schedule, quality, and cost) can be no better than the ability to communicate requirements which, in turn, is no better than the CM process to communicate project decisions and the correct requirements.

  14. Zero-field splitting of Cm3+ in LuPO4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kot, W. K.; Edelstein, N. M.; Abraham, M. M.; Boatner, L. A.

    1993-11-01

    Electron-paramagnetic-resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has previously been employed in investigating excited levels of the ground-state manifold of the 5f7-configuration ion Cm3+ diluted in single crystals of the tetragonal-symmetry, zircon-structure hosts LuPO4 and YPO4. The three intradoublet resonances that were observed in these earlier studies, however, were significantly broadened due to radiation damage arising from the use of the 18.1-yr half-life isotope 244Cm. In the present work, the isotope 248Cm (T1/2=3.4×105 yr) with a significantly lower specific activity has been incorporated in LuPO4-host single crystals in order to reduce the internal radiation-induced damage that can broaden both EPR and optical transitions. By employing these 248doped LuPO4 samples, it has been possible to observe an additional interdoublet transition for Cm3+, to perform more accurate measurements of the various intradoublet transitions at higher microwave frequencies, and to obtain optical absorption and fluorescence data for this system. These EPR and optical results have led to a more complete and accurate determination of the energy-level structure of Cm3+. Additionally, it has been possible to detect magnetic resonance transitions for the Cm3+ ion at room temperature.

  15. THE OH LINE CONTAMINATION OF 21 cm INTENSITY FLUCTUATION MEASUREMENTS FOR z = 1-4

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Yan; Cooray, Asantha; Chen Xuelei; Silva, Marta; Santos, Mario G.

    2011-10-10

    The large-scale structure of the universe can be mapped with unresolved intensity fluctuations of the 21 cm line. The power spectrum of the intensity fluctuations has been proposed as a probe of the baryon acoustic oscillations at low to moderate redshifts with interferometric experiments now under consideration. We discuss the contamination to the low-redshift 21 cm intensity power spectrum generated by the 18 cm OH line since the intensity fluctuations of the OH line generated at a slightly higher redshift contribute to the intensity fluctuations observed in an experiment. We assume the OH megamaser luminosity is correlated with the star formation rate and use the simulation to estimate the OH signal and the spatial anisotropies. We also use a semi-analytic simulation to predict the 21 cm power spectrum. At z = 1-3, we find that the OH contamination could reach 0.1%-1% of the 21 cm rms fluctuations at the scale of the first peak of the baryon acoustic oscillation. When z > 3 the OH signal declines quickly, so that the contamination on the 21 cm becomes negligible at high redshifts.

  16. Development and characterization of a 280 cm2 vanadium/oxygen fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Jens; Cremers, Carsten; Bayer, Domnik; Tübke, Jens; Pinkwart, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    A vanadium/oxygen fuel cell with an active area of 280 cm2 has been developed. The cell consisted of two membranes with two half-cells and an intermediate chamber. The maximum achieved power density was 23 mW cm-2 at 0.56 V with lambda air = 3 and a 1.6 M V2+ solution at room temperature. The average discharge power density was 19.6 mW cm-2 at a constant current density of 40 mA cm-2 with an average voltage efficiency of 33%. The fuel based energy density was 18.2% of the theoretical value with 11.8 Wh L-1. In comparison with a similarly constructed 50 cm2 cell, both achieved similar performance levels. An analysis using the half-cell potential profiles and by means of impedance spectroscopy revealed that, as for the 50 cm2 cell, the low rate of oxygen reduction reaction significantly affected the performance of the cell. Thus gives potential for the optimization of the cathode reaction and a reduction in the ohmic resistances potential for higher power densities.

  17. Reconstructing the Nature of the First Cosmic Sources from the Anisotropic 21-cm Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Barkana, Rennan; Cohen, Aviad

    2015-03-01

    The redshifted 21-cm background is expected to be a powerful probe of the early Universe, carrying both cosmological and astrophysical information from a wide range of redshifts. In particular, the power spectrum of fluctuations in the 21-cm brightness temperature is anisotropic due to the line-of-sight velocity gradient, which in principle allows for a simple extraction of this information in the limit of linear fluctuations. However, recent numerical studies suggest that the 21-cm signal is actually rather complex, and its analysis likely depends on detailed model fitting. We present the first realistic simulation of the anisotropic 21-cm power spectrum over a wide period of early cosmic history. We show that on observable scales, the anisotropy is large and thus measurable at most redshifts, and its form tracks the evolution of 21-cm fluctuations as they are produced early on by Lyman-? radiation from stars, then switch to x-ray radiation from early heating sources, and finally to ionizing radiation from stars. In particular, we predict a redshift window during cosmic heating (at z ˜15 ), when the anisotropy is small, during which the shape of the 21-cm power spectrum on large scales is determined directly by the average radial distribution of the flux from x-ray sources. This makes possible a model-independent reconstruction of the x-ray spectrum of the earliest sources of cosmic heating.

  18. Reconstructing the nature of the first cosmic sources from the anisotropic 21-cm signal.

    PubMed

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Barkana, Rennan; Cohen, Aviad

    2015-03-13

    The redshifted 21-cm background is expected to be a powerful probe of the early Universe, carrying both cosmological and astrophysical information from a wide range of redshifts. In particular, the power spectrum of fluctuations in the 21-cm brightness temperature is anisotropic due to the line-of-sight velocity gradient, which in principle allows for a simple extraction of this information in the limit of linear fluctuations. However, recent numerical studies suggest that the 21-cm signal is actually rather complex, and its analysis likely depends on detailed model fitting. We present the first realistic simulation of the anisotropic 21-cm power spectrum over a wide period of early cosmic history. We show that on observable scales, the anisotropy is large and thus measurable at most redshifts, and its form tracks the evolution of 21-cm fluctuations as they are produced early on by Lyman-? radiation from stars, then switch to x-ray radiation from early heating sources, and finally to ionizing radiation from stars. In particular, we predict a redshift window during cosmic heating (at z?15), when the anisotropy is small, during which the shape of the 21-cm power spectrum on large scales is determined directly by the average radial distribution of the flux from x-ray sources. This makes possible a model-independent reconstruction of the x-ray spectrum of the earliest sources of cosmic heating. PMID:25815921

  19. Sorption of Cm(III) and Eu(III) onto clay minerals under saline conditions: Batch adsorption, laser-fluorescence spectroscopy and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnurr, Andreas; Marsac, Rémi; Rabung, Thomas; Lützenkirchen, Johannes; Geckeis, Horst

    2015-02-01

    The present work reports experimental data for trivalent metal cation (Cm/Eu) sorption onto illite (Illite du Puy) and montmorillonite (Na-SWy-2) in NaCl solutions up to 4.37 molal (m) in the absence of carbonate. Batch sorption experiments were carried out for a given ionic strength at fixed metal concentration (mEu = 2 × 10-7 m, labeled with 152Eu for ?-counting) and at a constant solid to liquid ratio (S:L = 2 g/L) for 3 < pHm < 12 (pHm = -log mH+). The amount of clay sorbed Eu approaches almost 100% (with log KD > 5) for pHm > 8, irrespective of the NaCl concentration. Variations in Eu uptake are minor at elevated NaCl concentrations. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) studies on Cm sorption covering a wide range of NaCl concentrations reveal nearly identical fluorescence emission spectra after peak deconvolution, i.e. no significant variation of Cm surface speciation with salinity. Beyond the three surface complexes already found in previous studies an additional inner-sphere surface species with a fluorescence peak maximum at higher wavelength (? ? 610 nm) could be resolved. This new surface species appears in the high pH range and is assumed to correspond to a clay/curium/silicate complex as already postulated in the literature for kaolinite. The 2 site protolysis non-electrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange sorption model (2SPNE SC/CE) was applied to describe Eu sorption data by involving the Pitzer and SIT (specific ion interaction) formalism in the calculation of the activities of dissolved aqueous species. Good agreement of model and experiment is achieved for sorption data at pHm < 6 without the need of adjusting surface complexation constants. For pHm > 6 in case of illite and pHm > 8 in case of montmorillonite calculated sorption data systematically fall below experimental data with increasing ionic strength. Under those conditions sorption is almost quantitative and deviations must be discussed considering uncertainties of measured Eu concentrations in the range of analytical detection limits.

  20. Characterization of a periplasmic S1-like nuclease coded by the Mesorhizobium loti symbiosis island

    SciTech Connect

    Pimkin, Maxim; Miller, C. Glenn; Blakesley, Lauryn; Oleykowski, Catherine A.; Kodali, Nagendra S.; Yeung, Anthony T. . E-mail: AT_Yeung@fccc.edu

    2006-04-28

    DNA sequences encoding hypothetical proteins homologous to S1 nuclease from Aspergillus oryzae are found in many organisms including fungi, plants, pathogenic bacteria, and eukaryotic parasites. One of these is the M1 nuclease of Mesorhizobium loti which we demonstrate herein to be an enzymatically active, soluble, and stable S1 homolog that lacks the extensive mannosyl-glycosylation found in eukaryotic S1 nuclease homologs. We have expressed the cloned M1 protein in M. loti and purified recombinant native M1 to near homogeneity and have also isolated a homogeneous M1 carboxy-terminal hexahistidine tag fusion protein. Mass spectrometry and N-terminal Edman degradation sequencing confirmed the protein identity. The enzymatic properties of the purified M1 nuclease are similar to those of S1. At acidic pH M1 is 25 times more active on single-stranded DNA than on double-stranded DNA and 3 times more active on single-stranded DNA than on single-stranded RNA. At neutral pH the RNase activity of M1 exceeds the DNase activity. M1 nicks supercoiled RF-I plasmid DNA and rapidly cuts the phosphodiester bond across from the nick in the resultant relaxed RF-II plasmid DNA. Therefore, M1 represents an active bacterial S1 homolog in spite of great sequence divergence. The biochemical characterization of M1 nuclease supports our sequence alignment that reveals the minimal 21 amino acid residues that are necessarily conserved for the structure and functions of this enzyme family. The ability of M1 to degrade RNA at neutral pH implies previously unappreciated roles of these nucleases in biological systems.

  1. The ?17 band of C2H5D from 770 to 880 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Adam M.; Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda R.; Mantz, Arlan; Smith, Mary Ann H.

    2015-10-01

    Atmospheric investigations rely heavily on the availability of accurate spectral information of hydrocarbons. To extend the ethane database we recorded a 0.0028 cm-1 resolution spectrum of 12C2H5D from 650 to 1500 cm-1 using a Bruker Fourier Transform spectrometer IFS-125HR at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The 98% deuterium-enriched sample was contained in a 0.2038 m absorption cell; one spectrum was obtained with the sample cryogenically cooled to 130.5 K and another at room temperature. From the cold data, we retrieved line positions and intensities of 8704 individual absorption features from 770 to 880 cm-1 using a least squares curve fitting algorithm. From this set of measurements, we assigned 5035 transitions to the v17 fundamental at 805.342729(27) cm-1; this band is a c-type vibration, with often-resolved A and E components arising from internal rotation. The positions were modeled to a 22 term torsional Hamiltonian using SPFIT to fit the spectrum to a standard deviation of 7 × 10-4 cm-1 (21 MHz). The prediction of the 5035 line intensities at 130.5 K agreed with observed intensities, but a small centrifugal distortion type correction to the transition dipole was needed to model the intensity of high Ka R and P transitions. The integrated band intensities of 3.6628 × 10-19 cm-1/(molecule cm-2) at 296 K in the 770-880 cm-1 region was obtained. To predict line intensities at different temperatures, the partition function values were determined at nine temperatures between 9.8 and 300 K by summing individual energy levels up to J = 99 and Ka = 99 for the six states up through ?17 at 805 cm-1. We found the energy of A and E are inverted as compared to ground state (with the E state lower than the A state) and the splitting, -241.8(10) MHz, lies between the ground state value of +74.167(18) MHz and the first torsional state (?18 = 271.1 cm-1) value of -3382.23(34) MHz. The proximity of the energy splitting to the ground state suggests that the ?17 state has a similar torsional character. The resulting prediction of singly-deuterated ethane absorption at 12.5 ?m enables its detection in planetary atmospheres, including those of Titan and exoplanets.

  2. Search for neutral, long-lived particles decaying into two muons in pp[over] collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Jesus, A C S Assis; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Blumenschein, U; Boehnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clément, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, B; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; de Jong, S J; Cruz-Burelo, E De La; Martins, C De Oliveira; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kalk, J R; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Bihan, A-C Le; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lesne, V; Leveque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A-M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; McCarthy, R; Meder, D; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miettinen, H; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Monk, J; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundim, L; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Noeding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'dell, V; O'neil, D C; Obrant, G; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Oshima, N; Otec, R; Y Garzón, G J Otero; Owen, M; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Perez, E; Peters, K; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M

    2006-10-20

    We present a search for a neutral particle, pair produced in pp[over] collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV, which decays into two muons and lives long enough to travel at least 5 cm before decaying. The analysis uses approximately 380 pb(-1) of data recorded with the D0 detector. The background is estimated to be about one event. No candidates are observed, and limits are set on the pair-production cross section times branching fraction into dimuons + X for such particles. For a mass of 10 GeV and lifetime of 4x10(-11) s, we exclude values greater than 0.14 pb (95% C.L.). These results are used to limit the interpretation of NuTeV's excess of dimuon events. PMID:17155383

  3. Descending from on high: Lyman series cascades and spin-kinetic temperature coupling in the 21 cm line

    E-print Network

    Jonathan R. Pritchard; Steven R. Furlanetto

    2006-01-25

    We examine the effect of Lyman continuum photons on the 21 cm background in the high-redshift universe. The brightness temperature of this transition is determined by the spin temperature T_s, which describes the relative populations of the singlet and triplet hyperfine states. Once the first luminous sources appear, T_s is set by the Wouthuysen-Field effect, in which Lyman-series photons mix the hyperfine levels. Here we consider coupling through n>2 Lyman photons. We first show that coupling (and heating) from scattering of Lyman-n photons is negligible, because they rapidly cascade to lower-energy photons. These cascades can result in either a Lyman-alpha photon -- which will then affect T_s according to the usual Wouthuysen-Field mechanism -- or photons from the 2s -> 1s continuum, which escape without scattering. We show that a proper treatment of the cascades delays the onset of strong Wouthuysen-Field coupling and affects the power spectrum of brightness fluctuations when the overall coupling is still relatively weak (i.e., around the time of the first stars). Cascades damp fluctuations on small scales because only ~ 1/3 of Lyn photons cascade through Lyman-alpha, but they do not affect the large-scale power because that arises from those photons that redshift directly into the Lyman-alpha transition. We also comment on the utility of Lyman-n transitions in providing "standard rulers" with which to study the high-redshift universe.

  4. Organic matter evolution throughout a 100-cm ombrotrophic profile from an Italian floating mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Claudio; D'Orazio, Valeria; Lobianco, Daniela; Miano, Teodoro M.

    2015-04-01

    The curious sight of an island floating and moving on a lake naturally, already described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis historia (AD 77-79), fascinated people from time immemorial. Floating mires are defined by the occurrence of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, since much of their evolution, as well as the changes of the surrounding areas, is recorded in their peat deposits. A complete, 4-m deep peat core was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum centre. Here, some of the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur. The 14C age dating of macrofossils removed from the sample at 360 cm of depth revealed that the island probably formed more than 500 yrs ago (435±20 yr BP). In the present work, we show preliminary results regarding the evolution of the organic matter along the first, ombrotrophic 100 cm of depth, hoping also to provide some insight into the possible mechanism of the evolution of this floating island. The 100 cm monolith was collected using a Wardenaar corer and cut frozen in 1-cm layers. It consists almost exclusively of Sphagnum mosses, often spaced out, in the top 20-30 cm, by leaves of Populus tremula that annually fell off. This section shows a very low bulk density, ranging from 0.017 and 0.059 g cm-3 (avg. value, 0.03±0.01 g cm-3), an average water content of 96.1±1.1%, and a gravimetric water content ranging between 14.3 and 41.5 gwater gdrypeat-1. The pH of porewaters was in the range 5-5.5. The C content along the profile ranged between 35 and 47% (avg., 41±1%), whereas the N between 0.3 and 0.9% (avg., 0.6±0.1%). Main atomic ratios seem to confirm what found during the visual inspection of the core, i.e., Sphagnum material so well preserved that it is hard to classify it as 'peat'. In fact, the F14C age dating suggests that the first 95 cm of Sphagnum material accumulate in less than 55 yrs, thus resulting in an average growing rate of ca. 1.7-1.8 cm yr-1. At the same time, C/N, H/C and O/C ratios show their lowest values between 20 and 55 cm of depth, corresponding to the section with highest bulk density (0.025-0.059 g cm-3). This seems to suggest a slightly more decomposed material. Consequently, the depth of 55-60 cm could represent the emerged (i.e., less anaerobic) section of this floating mire. Finally, the first 100 cm of the core show a great potential to be used as archive of environmental changes, especially considering their high resolution (1 cm = 0.5 yr ca.), although the short time-space covered could be a limiting factor. The Authors thank the Municipality of Posta Fibreno (FR), Managing Authority of the Regional Natural Reserve of Lake Posta Fibreno, for allowing peat cores sampling. C.Z. is indebted to the Staff of the Regional Natural Reserve for the help during samplings and for their continuous feedbacks.

  5. GFDL's CM2 global coupled climate models. Part I: Formulation and simulation characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delworth, T.L.; Broccoli, A.J.; Rosati, A.; Stouffer, R.J.; Balaji, V.; Beesley, J.A.; Cooke, W.F.; Dixon, K.W.; Dunne, J.; Dunne, K.A.; Durachta, J.W.; Findell, K.L.; Ginoux, P.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Gordon, C.T.; Griffies, S.M.; Gudgel, R.; Harrison, M.J.; Held, I.M.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Kushner, P.J.; Langenhorst, A.R.; Lee, H.-C.; Lin, S.-J.; Lu, J.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, J.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Spelman, M.J.; Stern, W.F.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Wyman, B.; Zeng, F.; Zhang, R.

    2006-01-01

    The formulation and simulation characteristics of two new global coupled climate models developed at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) are described. The models were designed to simulate atmospheric and oceanic climate and variability from the diurnal time scale through multicentury climate change, given our computational constraints. In particular, an important goal was to use the same model for both experimental seasonal to interannual forecasting and the study of multicentury global climate change, and this goal has been achieved. Tw o versions of the coupled model are described, called CM2.0 and CM2.1. The versions differ primarily in the dynamical core used in the atmospheric component, along with the cloud tuning and some details of the land and ocean components. For both coupled models, the resolution of the land and atmospheric components is 2?? latitude ?? 2.5?? longitude; the atmospheric model has 24 vertical levels. The ocean resolution is 1?? in latitude and longitude, with meridional resolution equatorward of 30?? becoming progressively finer, such that the meridional resolution is 1/3?? at the equator. There are 50 vertical levels in the ocean, with 22 evenly spaced levels within the top 220 m. The ocean component has poles over North America and Eurasia to avoid polar filtering. Neither coupled model employs flux adjustments. The co ntrol simulations have stable, realistic climates when integrated over multiple centuries. Both models have simulations of ENSO that are substantially improved relative to previous GFDL coupled models. The CM2.0 model has been further evaluated as an ENSO forecast model and has good skill (CM2.1 has not been evaluated as an ENSO forecast model). Generally reduced temperature and salinity biases exist in CM2.1 relative to CM2.0. These reductions are associated with 1) improved simulations of surface wind stress in CM2.1 and associated changes in oceanic gyre circulations; 2) changes in cloud tuning and the land model, both of which act to increase the net surface shortwave radiation in CM2.1, thereby reducing an overall cold bias present in CM2.0; and 3) a reduction of ocean lateral viscosity in the extratropics in CM2.1, which reduces sea ice biases in the North Atlantic. Both models have be en used to conduct a suite of climate change simulations for the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report and are able to simulate the main features of the observed warming of the twentieth century. The climate sensitivities of the CM2.0 and CM2.1 models are 2.9 and 3.4 K, respectively. These sensitivities are defined by coupling the atmospheric components of CM2.0 and CM2.1 to a slab ocean model and allowing the model to come into equilibrium with a doubling of atmospheric CO2. The output from a suite of integrations conducted with these models is freely available online (see http://nomads.gfdl.noaa.gov/). ?? 2006 American Meteorological Society.

  6. Bitopic Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 3 (S1P3) Antagonist Rescue from Complete Heart Block: Pharmacological and Genetic Evidence for Direct S1P3 Regulation of Mouse Cardiac Conduction.

    PubMed

    Sanna, M Germana; Vincent, Kevin P; Repetto, Emanuela; Nguyen, Nhan; Brown, Steven J; Abgaryan, Lusine; Riley, Sean W; Leaf, Nora B; Cahalan, Stuart M; Kiosses, William B; Kohno, Yasushi; Brown, Joan Heller; McCulloch, Andrew D; Rosen, Hugh; Gonzalez-Cabrera, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    The molecular pharmacology of the G protein-coupled receptors for sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) provides important insight into established and new therapeutic targets. A new, potent bitopic S1P3 antagonist, SPM-354, with in vivo activity, has been used, together with S1P3-knockin and S1P3-knockout mice to define the spatial and functional properties of S1P3 in regulating cardiac conduction. We show that S1P3 is a key direct regulator of cardiac rhythm both in vivo and in isolated perfused hearts. 2-Amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]propane-1,3-diol in vivo and S1P in isolated hearts induced a spectrum of cardiac effects, ranging from sinus bradycardia to complete heart block, as measured by a surface electrocardiogram in anesthetized mice and in volume-conducted Langendorff preparations. The agonist effects on complete heart block are absent in S1P3-knockout mice and are reversed in wild-type mice with SPM-354, as characterized and described here. Homologous knockin of S1P3-mCherry is fully functional pharmacologically and is strongly expressed by immunohistochemistry confocal microscopy in Hyperpolarization Activated Cyclic Nucleotide Gated Potassium Channel 4 (HCN4)-positive atrioventricular node and His-Purkinje fibers, with relative less expression in the HCN4-positive sinoatrial node. In Langendorff studies, at constant pressure, SPM-354 restored sinus rhythm in S1P-induced complete heart block and fully reversed S1P-mediated bradycardia. S1P3 distribution and function in the mouse ventricular cardiac conduction system suggest a direct mechanism for heart block risk that should be further studied in humans. A richer understanding of receptor and ligand usage in the pacemaker cells of the cardiac system is likely to be useful in understanding ventricular conduction in health, disease, and pharmacology. PMID:26494861

  7. CHARACTERIZING THE DUST COMA OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON) AT 4.15 AU FROM THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jian-Yang; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Farnham, Tony L.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Knight, Matthew M.; Weaver, Harold A.; Mutchler, Max J.; Lamy, Philippe; Toth, Imre E-mail: msk@astro.umd.edu E-mail: ma@astro.umd.edu E-mail: knight@lowell.edu E-mail: mutchler@stsci.edu E-mail: tothi@konkoly.hu

    2013-12-10

    We report results from broadband visible images of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 on 2013 April 10. C/ISON's coma brightness follows a 1/? (where ? is the projected distance from the nucleus) profile out to 5000 km, consistent with a constant speed dust outflow model. The turnaround distance in the sunward direction suggests that the dust coma is composed of sub-micron-sized particles emitted at speeds of tens of m s{sup –1}. A(?)f?, which is commonly used to characterize the dust production rate, was 1340 and 1240 cm in the F606W and F438W filters, respectively, in apertures <1.''6 in radius. The dust colors are slightly redder than solar, with a slope of 5.0% ± 0.2% per 100 nm, increasing to >10% per 100 nm 10,000 km down the tail. The colors are similar to those of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and other long-period comets, but somewhat bluer than typical values for short-period comets. The spatial color variations are also reminiscent of C/Hale-Bopp. A sunward jet is visible in enhanced images, curving to the north and then tailward in the outer coma. The 1.''6 long jet is centered at a position angle of 291°, with an opening angle of ?45°. The jet morphology remains unchanged over 19 hr of our observations, suggesting that it is near the rotational pole of the nucleus, and implying that the pole points to within 30° of (R.A., decl.) = (330°, 0°). This pole orientation indicates a high obliquity of 50°-80°.

  8. Eastern Mediterranean Sea circulation inferred from the conditions of S1 sapropel deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, K.; Vidal, L.; Cornuault, M.; Garcia, M.; Pothin, A.; Sonzogni, C.; Bard, E.; Menot, G.; Revel, M.

    2015-06-01

    Holocene eastern Mediterranean Sea sediments contain an organic-rich sapropel S1 layer that was formed in oxygen-depleted waters. The spatial distribution of this layer revealed that during S1 deposition, deep waters were anoxic below a depth of 1800 m. However, whether this boundary permanently existed from the early to the mid-Holocene has not been examined yet. To answer this question, a multi-proxy approach was applied to a core retrieved close to the 1800 m boundary (at 1780 m). We measured the bulk sediment elemental composition, the stable isotopic composition of the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber and the abundance of benthic foraminifera since the last deglaciation. The result indicates that authigenic U and Mo accumulation began around 13-12 cal ka BP, in concert with surface water freshening estimated from the G. ruber ?18O record. The onset of bottom and pore water oxygen depletion occurred prior to S1 deposition inferred from barium enrichment. In the middle of the S1 deposition period, reduced authigenic V, Fe and As contents and the Br/Cl ratio indicated short-term bottom-water re-oxygenation. A sharp Mn peak and maximal abundance for benthic foraminifera marked a total recovery for circulation at approximately 7 cal ka BP. Based on our results and existing data, we suggest that S1 formation within the upper 1780 m of the eastern Mediterranean Sea was preconditioned by reduced ventilation, resulting from excess freshwater inputs due to insolation changes under deglacial conditions that initiated between 15 and 12 cal ka BP within the upper 1780 m. Short-term re-oxygenation in the Levantine Basin is estimated to have affected bottom water at least as deep as 1780 m in response to cooling and/or the reduction of freshwater inputs. We tentatively propose that complete ventilation recovery at the S1 termination was depth-dependent, with earlier oxygenation within the upper 1780 m. Our results provide new constraints on vertical water column structure in the eastern Mediterranean Sea since the last deglaciation.

  9. Beauty production cross section measurements at E(cm) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    D'Onofrio, Monica; /Geneva U.

    2005-05-01

    The RunII physics program at the Tevatron started in spring 2001 with protons and antiprotons colliding at an energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, and it is carrying on with more than 500 pb{sup -1} of data as collected by both the CDF and D0 experiments. Recent results on beauty production cross section measurements are here reported.

  10. Cenozoic Ridge Crest Sediments From the Central Arctic Ocean Yield cm/ka-Scale Sedimentation Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backman, J.; Moran, K.; Moore, T.; King, J.; Gattacecca, J.; Brinkhuis, H.; Matthiessen, J.; Jakobsson, M.; Paelike, H.; O'Regan, M.; Frank, M.; Kubik, P.

    2005-12-01

    Estimates of long-term sedimentation rates derived from total sediment thickness and bedrock ages based on current tectonic models consistently yield cm/ka-scale average sedimentation rates in the central Arctic Ocean, including the Lomonosov Ridge. The physiographic setting of the Arctic Basin is that of a small basin surrounded by huge landmasses since its initial opening during Early Cretaceous times, a setting that has contributed to yielding 2-6 km thick sediment deposits on Arctic's abyssal plains at average rates of about 4-5 cm/ka. This as sedimentation rate scenario is in contrast to the long-held belief that central Arctic Plio-Pleistocene sedimentation rates have been on the mm/ka-scale, or even sub-mm/ka-scale, estimated from numerous short gravity or piston cores. ACEX drilled through a nearly 410 m thick latest Paleocene to Recent sediment section on the Lomonosov Ridge near 88°N at about 1200 m water depth, with a recovery of 68 %. A combination of paleomagnetic, biostratigraphic and 10-Be data derived from the ACEX cores finally solved the Arctic Basin sedimentation rate ambiguity, in showing an average middle Miocene to Recent rate of about 1.3 cm/ka and Pleistocene rates of nearly 2 cm/ka. The ACEX record is interrupted by a hiatus encompassing the interval between about 17 Ma and 43 Ma. Average middle Eocene through latest Paleocene rates are on the order of about 1.5 cm/ka.

  11. Relationship Between Iron Valence States of Serpentine in CM Chondrites and Their Aqueous Alteration Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikouchi, T.; Zolensky, M.; Satake, W.; Le, L.

    2012-01-01

    The 0.6-0.7 micron absorption band observed for C-type asteroids is caused by the presence of Fe(3+) in phyllosilicates . Because Fe-bearing phyllosilicates, especially serpentine, are the most dominant product of aqueous alteration in the most abundant carbonaceous chondrites, CM chondrites, it is important to understand the crystal chemistry of serpentine in CM chondrites to better understand spectral features of C-type asteroids. CM chondrites show variable degrees of aqueous alteration, which should be related to iron valences in serpentine. It is predicted that the Fe(3+)/Sum of (Fe) ratios of serpentine in CM chondrites decrease as alteration proceeds by Si and Fe(3+) substitutions from end-member cronstedtite to serpentine, which should be apparent in the absorption intensity of the 0.6-0.7 micron band from C-type asteroids. In fact, the JAXA Hayabusa 2 target (C-type asteroid: 1993 JU3) exhibits heterogeneous spectral features (0.7 micron absorption band disappears by rotation). From these points of view, we have analyzed iron valences of matrix serpentine in several CM chondrites which span the entire observed range of aqueous alteration using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (SR-XANES). In this abstract we discuss the relationship between obtained Fe(3+)/Sum of (Fe) ratios and alteration degrees by adding new data to our previous studies

  12. Predictions for the 21cm-galaxy cross-power spectrum observable with LOFAR and Subaru

    E-print Network

    Vrbanec, Dijana; Jeli?, Vibor; Jensen, Hannes; Zaroubi, Saleem; Fernandez, Elizabeth R; Ghosh, Abhik; Iliev, Ilian T; Kakiichi, Koki; Koopmans, Léon V E; Mellema, Garrelt

    2015-01-01

    The 21cm-galaxy cross-power spectrum is expected to be one of the promising probes of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), as it could offer information about the progress of reionization and the typical scale of ionized regions at different redshifts. With upcoming observations of 21cm emission from the EoR with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), and of high redshift Lyalpha emitters (LAEs) with Subaru's Hyper Suprime Cam (HSC), we investigate the observability of such cross-power spectrum with these two instruments, which are both planning to observe the ELAIS-N1 field at z=6.6. In this paper we use N-body + radiative transfer (both for continuum and Lyalpha photons) simulations at redshift 6.68, 7.06 and 7.3 to compute the 3D theoretical 21cm-galaxy cross-power spectrum, as well as to predict the 2D 21cm-galaxy cross-power spectrum expected to be observed by LOFAR and HSC. Once noise and projection effects are accounted for, our predictions of the 21cm-galaxy cross-power spectrum show clear anti-correlation on s...

  13. Demonstration of a 17 cm robust carbon fiber deformable mirror for adaptive optics

    SciTech Connect

    Ammons, S M; Hart, M; Coughenour, B; Romeo, R; Martin, R; Rademacher, M

    2011-09-12

    Carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite is an attractive material for fabrication of optics due to its high stiffness-to-weight ratio, robustness, zero coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and the ability to replicate multiple optics from the same mandrel. We use 8 and 17 cm prototype CFRP thin-shell deformable mirrors to show that residual CTE variation may be addressed with mounted actuators for a variety of mirror sizes. We present measurements of surface quality at a range of temperatures characteristic of mountaintop observatories. For the 8 cm piece, the figure error of the Al-coated reflective surface under best actuator correction is {approx}43 nm RMS. The 8 cm mirror has a low surface error internal to the outer ring of actuators (17 nm RMS at 20 C and 33 nm RMS at -5 C). Surface roughness is low (< 3 nm P-V) at a variety of temperatures. We present new figure quality measurements of the larger 17 cm mirror, showing that the intra-actuator figure error internal to the outer ring of actuators (38 nm RMS surface with one-third the actuator density of the 8 cm mirror) does not scale sharply with mirror diameter.

  14. Unveiling the nature of dark matter with high redshift 21 cm line experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Evoli, C.; Mesinger, A.; Ferrara, A. E-mail: andrei.mesinger@sns.it

    2014-11-01

    Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line from neutral hydrogen will open a new window on the early Universe. By influencing the thermal and ionization history of the intergalactic medium (IGM), annihilating dark matter (DM) can leave a detectable imprint in the 21 cm signal. Building on the publicly available 21cmFAST code, we compute the 21 cm signal for a 10 GeV WIMP DM candidate. The most pronounced role of DM annihilations is in heating the IGM earlier and more uniformly than astrophysical sources of X-rays. This leaves several unambiguous, qualitative signatures in the redshift evolution of the large-scale (k ? 0.1 Mpc{sup -1}) 21 cm power amplitude: (i) the local maximum (peak) associated with IGM heating can be lower than the other maxima; (ii) the heating peak can occur while the IGM is in emission against the cosmic microwave background (CMB); (iii) there can be a dramatic drop in power (a global minimum) corresponding to the epoch when the IGM temperature is comparable to the CMB temperature. These signatures are robust to astrophysical uncertainties, and will be easily detectable with second generation interferometers. We also briefly show that decaying warm dark matter has a negligible role in heating the IGM.

  15. Constraining warm dark matter with 21 cm line fluctuations due to minihalos

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Tashiro, Hiroyuki E-mail: hiroyuki.tashiro@nagoya-u.jp

    2014-08-01

    Warm dark matter (WDM) with mass m{sub WDM} = O(1) keV has long been discussed as a promising solution for discrepancies between cosmic structures observed at small scales and predications of the concordance CDM model. Though several cosmological observations such as the Lyman-alpha forest have already begun to constrain the range of m{sub WDM}, WDM is yet to be fully excluded as a solution for these so-called small-scale problems. In this paper, we study 21 cm line fluctuations from minihalos in a WDM model and evaluate constraints on m{sub WDM} for future cosmological 21 cm surveys, such as SKA and FFTT. We show that, since WDM with mass m{sub WDM}?>10 keV decreases the abundance of minihalos by suppressing the matter power spectrum on small scales via free-streaming, such WDM can significantly affect the resultant 21 cm line fluctuations from minihalos. We find that if the 21 cm signal from minihalos can be observed above z?5, SKA and FFTT can give lower bounds m{sub WDM}?>24 keV and 31 keV, respectively, which are tighter than the current constraint. These future 21 cm surveys might be able to rule out a WDM model as a solution of small-scale problems.

  16. Radio Foregrounds for the 21cm Tomography of the Neutral Intergalactic Medium at High Redshifts

    E-print Network

    Tiziana Di Matteo; Rosalba Perna; Tom Abel; Martin J. Rees

    2001-09-16

    Absorption or emission against the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) may be observed in the redshifted 21cm line if the spin temperature of the neutral intergalactic medium prior to reionization differs from the CMB temperature. This so-called 21cm tomography should reveal important information on the physical state of the intergalactic medium at high redshifts. The fluctuations in the redshifted 21 cm, due to gas density inhomogeneities at early times, should be observed at meter wavelengths by the next generation radio telescopes such as the proposed {\\it Square Kilometer Array (SKA)}. Here we show that the extra-galactic radio sources provide a serious contamination to the brightness temperature fluctuations expected in the redshifted 21 cm emission from the IGM at high redshifts. Unless the radio source population cuts off at flux levels above the planned sensitivity of SKA, its clustering noise component will dominate the angular fluctuations in the 21 cm signal. The integrated foreground signal is smooth in frequency space and it should nonetheless be possible to identify the sharp spectral feature arising from the non-uniformities in the neutral hydrogen density during the epoch when the first UV sources reionize the intergalactic medium.

  17. Mapping of Epitopes Occurring in Bovine ?s1-Casein Variants by Peptide Microarray Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lisson, Maria; Erhardt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E epitope mapping of milk proteins reveals important information about their immunologic properties. Genetic variants of ?S1-casein, one of the major allergens in bovine milk, are until now not considered when discussing the allergenic potential. Here we describe the complete procedure to assess the allergenicity of ?S1-casein variants B and C, which are frequent in most breeds, starting from milk with identification and purification of casein variants by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and anion-exchange chromatography, followed by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the casein variants, identification of the resulting peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), in silico analysis of the variant-specific peptides as allergenic epitopes, and determination of their IgE-binding properties by microarray immunoassay with cow's milk allergic human sera. PMID:26490483

  18. Superconformal index on R P2×S1 and mirror symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Akinori; Mori, Hironori; Morita, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    We study N =2 supersymmetric gauge theories on RP 2×S1 and compute the superconformal index by using the localization technique. We consider not only the round real projective plane RP 2 but also the squashed real projective plane RPb 2 which turns back to RP 2 by taking a squashing parameter b as 1. In addition, we find that the result is independent of the squashing parameter b . We apply our new superconformal index to check the simplest case of 3D mirror symmetry, i.e., the equivalence between the N =2 supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics (SQED) and the X Y Z model on RP 2×S1. We prove it by using a mathematical formula called the q -binomial theorem. We also comment on the N =4 version of mirror symmetry, mirror symmetry via generalized indices, and possibilities of generalizations from mathematical viewpoints.

  19. Abelian 3d mirror symmetry on {R}{{P}}^2× {{S}}^1 with N f = 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Akinori; Mori, Hironori; Morita, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    We consider a new 3d superconformal index defined as the path integral over {R}{{P}}^2× {{S}}^1 , and get the generic formula for this index with arbitrary number of U(1) gauge symmetries via the localization technique. We find two consistent parity conditions for the vector multiplet, and name them P and CP . We find an interesting phenomenon that two matter multiplets coupled to the CP -type vector multiplet merge together. By using this effect, we investigate the simplest version of 3d mirror symmetry on {R}{{P}}^2× {{S}}^1 and observe four types of coincidence between the SQED and the XYZ model. We find that merging two matters plays an important role for the agreement.

  20. [A case of gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination successfully treated by S-1/paclitaxel combination chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Shoji, Teruaki

    2011-02-01

    A 62-year-old woman visited our hospital with diarrhea, bloating, vomiting, and black stool. Borrmann-type 3 gastric cancer with hemorrhaging was revealed by stomach endoscopy. The biopsy showed a poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Moreover, peritoneal dissemination was found by computed tomography and we combined S-1 80 mg/m²(4 weeks administration and week rest)with paclitaxel(PTX)50 mg/ m² (day 1, 8, 15, 3 weeks rest). After 2 courses, endoscopy showed tumor shrinkage. Therefore, we conducted total gastrectomy with resection of gall bladder and spleen. The final findings were Stage II .We conducted S-1/PTX combination chemotherapy(4 courses)followed by monotherapy as adjuvant chemotherapy. Recently, the woman had been living without relapse four years after operation. PMID:21368499

  1. On the Field-Induced Gap in Cu Benzoate and Other S=1/2 Antiferromagnets

    E-print Network

    Ian Affleck; Masaki Oshikawa

    1999-05-01

    Recent experiments on the S=1/2 antiferromagnetic chain compound, Cu benzoate, discovered an unexpected gap scaling as approximately the 2/3 power of an applied magnetic field. A theory of this gap, based on an effective staggered field, orthogonal to the applied uniform field, resulting from a staggered gyromagnetic tensor and a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, leading to a sine-Gordon quantum field theory, has been developed. Here we discuss many aspects of this subject in considerable detail, including a review of the S=1/2 chain in a uniform field, a spin-wave theory analysis of the uniform plus staggered field problem, exact amplitudes for the scaling of gap, staggered susceptibility and staggered magnetization with field or temperature, intensities of soliton and breather peaks in the structure function and field and temperature dependence of the total susceptibility.

  2. L4-L5-S1 human dermatomes: a clinical, electromyographical, imaging and surgical findings.

    PubMed

    Faleiros, Antonio Tadeu de Souza; Resende, Luiz Antonio de Lima; Zanini, Marco Antonio; Castro, Heloisa Amélia de Lima; Gabarra, Roberto Colichio

    2009-06-01

    There is substantial controversy in literature about human dermatomes. We studied L4, L5, and S1 inferior limb dermatomes by comparing clinical signs and symptoms with conduction studies, electromyographical data, neurosurgical findings, and imaging data from computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After analyzing 60 patients, we concluded that L4 is probably located in the medial aspect of the leg, L5 in the lateral aspect of the leg and foot dorsus, and S1 in the posterior aspect of the backside, tight, leg and plantar foot skin. This is the first time that these human dermatomes have been evaluated by combined analysis of clinical, electromyographical, neurosurgical, and imaging data. PMID:19547820

  3. VLA observations of slar filaments at 6 and 20 cm wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    Using the Very Large Array we have observed several solar filaments at 1.5 and 5 GHz. The brightness temperatures of the filaments are 4-5 x 10 K at 20 cm and 1.5-1.6 x 10,000 K at 6 cm. The maximum temperature depressions appear to be associated with H alpha filaments. Comparison with He 10830 angstrons spectroheliogram shows that 20 cm temperature depressions correspond to the regions of reduced intensity in the He 10830 angstrons around filaments, which correspond to coronal cavities. We have studied the temperature and density structure of the transition sheath between the filament and the surrounding corona assuming that the energy radiated away is balanced by the energy conducted from the corona. Researchers find that the observations can be better explained by a model having a pressure gradient in the transition sheath around the filament.

  4. Muon and neutrino results from KGF experiment at a depth of 7000 hg/square cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Menon, M. G. K.; Mondal, N. K.; Narasimham, V. S.; Streekantan, B. V.; Hayashi, Y.; Ito, N.; Kawakami, S.; Miyake, S.

    1985-01-01

    The KGF nucleon decay experiment at a depth of 7000 hg/sq cm has provided valuable data on muons and neutrinos. The detector comprised of 34 crossed layers of proportional counters (cross section 10 x 10 sq cm; lengths 4m and 6m) sandwiched between 1.2 cm thick iron plates can record tracks of charged particles to an accuracy of 1 deg from tracks that traverse the whole of the detector. A special two-fold coincidence system enables the detector to record charged particles that enter at very large zenith angles. In a live time of 3.6 years about 2600 events have been recorded. These events include atmospheric muons, neutrino induced muons from rock, stopping muons, showers and events which have their production vertex inside the detectors. The results on atmospheric muons and neutrino events are presented.

  5. Generation of longitudinally polarized terahertz pulses with field amplitudes exceeding 2?kV/cm

    SciTech Connect

    Cliffe, M. J. Rodak, A.; Graham, D. M.; Jamison, S. P.

    2014-11-10

    We demonstrate the generation of near-single cycle longitudinally polarized terahertz radiation using a large-area radially biased photoconductive antenna with a longitudinal field amplitude in excess of 2?kV/cm. The 76?mm diameter antenna was photo-excited by a 0.5?mJ amplified near-infrared femtosecond laser system and biased with a voltage of up to 100?kV applied over concentric electrodes. Amplitudes for both the transverse and longitudinal field components of the source were measured using a calibrated electro-optic detection scheme. By tightly focusing the radiation emitted from the photoconductive antenna, we obtained a maximum longitudinal field amplitude of 2.22?kV/cm with an applied bias field of 38.5?kV/cm.

  6. Measurement of sputtered efflux from 5-, 8-, and 30-cm diameter mercury ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weigand, A. J.; Mirtich, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    A technique has been developed which uses spectral transmittance of samples exposed to thruster efflux to determine and characterize the effect of the efflux on spacecraft surfaces and optical devices. An investigation of facility backsputter revealed that efflux samples must be protected (e.g., by small shield boxes) from materials from tank walls and targets. The composition of the sputter efflux deposited on the samples was mostly molybdenum with trace amounts of tantalum, iron and/or mercury. The efflux from a 5-cm diameter thruster was deposited on samples located in the plane of the accelerator grid; the 8-cm diameter thruster efflux results showed that the location of ion beam sputtering and efflux deposition equilibrium occurred at 57 deg with respect to the thruster axis; and the 30-cm diameter thruster had an ion beam erosion-efflux deposition equilibrium at 45 deg.

  7. A search for periodic structure in solar 2 cm microwave radiation. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sentman, D. D.

    1973-01-01

    A power spectral analysis of 285 hr of 2 cm microwave intensity data showed no statistically significant ( 96% confidence) periodicities in the frequency range 1 to 15 mHz. No correlation was found between 2 cm periodicities and solar activity in H alpha, X-ray, and several microwave frequencies. A small shift of power toward higher frequencies in the power spectrum of the 2 cm data was found to be correlated with solar H alpha and X-ray activity. Using the statistical properties of power spectra, an expression for the ratio of the minimum detectable peak-to-peak to ambient temperature at chromospheric heights may be derived. Applied to a model for oscillation bursts in quiescent supergranules, and using the most significant results of experiments to detect the microwave periodicities, this expression yields an upper limit of approximately .0015.

  8. Overexpression of the CmACS-3 gene in melon causes abnormal pollen development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Luan, F

    2015-01-01

    Sexual diversity expressed by the Curcurbitaceae family is a primary example of developmental plasticity in plants. Most melon genotypes are andromonoecious, where an initial phase of male flowers is followed by a mixture of bisexual and male flowers. Over-expression of the CmACS-3 gene in melon plants showed an increased number of flower buds, and increased femaleness as demonstrated by a larger number bisexual buds. Transformation of CmACS-3 in melons showed earlier development of and an increased number of bisexual buds that matured to anthesis but also increased the rate of development of the bisexual buds to maturity. Field studies showed that CmACS-3-overexpressing melons had earlier mature bisexual flowers, earlier fruit set, and an increased number of fruits set on closely spaced nodes on the main stem. PMID:26400274

  9. Measurement of the intensity of the cosmic background radiation at 3. 0 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, S.D.

    1984-01-01

    The intensity of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) has been measured at a wavelength of 3.0 cm as part of a program to measure th Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum of the CBR at five wavelengths between 0.33 cm and 12 cm. The instrument used is a dual-antenna Dicke-switched radiometer with a double-sideband noise temperature of 490 K and a sensitivity of 46 mK/Hz/sup 1/2/. The entire radiometer is mounted on bearings. The atmospheric emission was measured by rotating the radiometer, and thus directing one antenna to zenith angles of +- 30/sup 0/ and +- 40/sup 0/. 61 references, 24 figures, 18 tables.

  10. Determination of Pu, Am, and Cm in soil by trioctylphosphine oxide extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kosyakov, V.N.; Yakovlev, N.G.; Vlasov, M.M.

    1994-11-01

    A method is described for determining the Pu, Am, and Cm content in soil samples. It is developed for analyzing samples from territories contaminated by radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. After preliminary treatment, samples are leached by 7 M HNO{sub 3} + 0.3 M KBrO{sub 3} with heating. Extraction by 0.05 M trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) from 7 M HNO{sub 3} isolates Pu. Extraction chromatography on a column with TOPO and PbO{sub 2} separates {sup 144}Ce and partially Zr, U, and Th remaining in the aqueous phase. Then Am and Cm are extracted by 0.2 M TOPO from 1 M lactic acid + 0.07 M DTPA + 1 M Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. The {alpha}-activities of both extracts are determined by liquid scintillation counting. The chemical yield of Pu is 85 {+-} 10%; of Am and Cm, 75 {+-} 10%.

  11. 21 cm Tomography of the High-Redshift Universe with the Square Kilometer Array

    E-print Network

    Steven Furlanetto; Frank Briggs

    2004-09-22

    We discuss the prospects for ``tomography'' of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshifts using the 21 cm transition of neutral hydrogen. Existing observational constraints on the epoch of reionization imply a complex ionization history that may require multiple generations of sources. The 21 cm transition provides a unique tool to probe this era in detail, because it does not suffer from saturation effects, retains full redshift information, and directly probes the IGM gas. Observations in the redshifted 21cm line will allow one to study the history and morphology of reionization in detail. Depending on the characteristics of the first sources, they may also allow us to probe the era before reionization, when the first structures and luminous sources were forming. The construction of high signal-to-noise ratio maps on arcminute scales will require approximately one square kilometer of collecting area.

  12. Reconstructing the Thomson Optical Depth due to Patchy Reionization with 21-cm Fluctuation Maps

    E-print Network

    Gilbert Holder; Ilian T. Iliev; Garrelt Mellema

    2006-10-05

    Large fluctuations in the electron column density can occur during the reionization process. We investigate the possibility of deriving the electron density fluctuations through detailed mapping of the redshifted 21-cm emission from the neutral medium during reionization. We find that the electron-scattering optical depth and 21-cm differential brightness temperature are strongly anti-correlated, allowing optical depth estimates based entirely on redshifted 21-cm measurements. This should help isolate the CMB polarization fluctuations that are due to reionization, allowing both cleaning of the patchy reionization polarization signal as a contaminating source of confusion to other signals and a measurement of the primordial quadrupole that would be measured at various locations in the universe at the epoch of reionization. This latter application in principle allows mapping of the primordial density field at z~1100 over a large fraction of the Hubble volume.

  13. 21-cm radiation: a new probe of variation in the fine-structure constant.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Rishi; Wandelt, Benjamin D

    2007-03-16

    We investigate the effect of variation in the value of the fine-structure constant (alpha) at high redshifts (recombination > z > 30) on the absorption of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 21 cm hyperfine transition of the neutral atomic hydrogen. We find that the 21 cm signal is very sensitive to the variations in alpha and it is so far the only probe of the fine-structure constant in this redshift range. A change in the value of alpha by 1% changes the mean brightness temperature decrement of the CMB due to 21 cm absorption by >5% over the redshift range z < 50. There is an effect of similar magnitude on the amplitude of the fluctuations in the brightness temperature. The redshift of maximum absorption also changes by approximately 5%. PMID:17501040

  14. Spin-orbit holds the heavyweight title for Pu and Am: Exchange regains it for Cm

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K; der Laan, G v; Soderlind, P

    2008-01-10

    The conclusions of this paper are: (1) The 5f electrons in Cm are near an LS coupling scheme. (2) This coupling scheme allows for a large spin polarization of the 5f electrons, which in turn stabilizes the Cm III crystal structure. (3) Results for Cm show us the recipe for magnetic stabilization of the crystal structure of metals: (A) The metal must be near the itinerant-localized transition where multiple crystal structures have close energies; (B) The metal is just on the magnetic side of the transition; and (C) There must be a magnetic moment large enough to overcome the energy difference between crystal structures, thus dictating the atomic geometry. (4) These results solidify our understanding of magnetically-stabilized metals, showing us where to look for engineered materials with magnetic applications.

  15. N2 pressure - broadened O3 line widths and strengths near 1129.4 cm-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, G. E.; Majorana, L. N.; Harward, C. N.; Steinkamp, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A Beer's Law experiment was performed with a tunable diode laser to find the N2 pressure broadening characteristics of a single 03 absorption line at 1129.426 cm for N2 pressures from 10 to 100 torr (O3 pressure = 3.16 torr). SO2 line positions were used for wavelength calibration. Line shapes were interatively fitted to a Lorentz function. Results were delta (HWHM in MHz) = 47.44 (+ or - 5.34) MHz + 1.730 (+ or - 0.088) MHz/torr *p(torr) with sigma = 0.9897. This intercept compares well with the Doppler O3 - O3 broadened (at 3.16 torr) width of 44.52 Hz. This result in a HWHM line width of 0.44 cm atm at 760 torr and 285 K. The line strengths integrated over delta nu = 0.55 cm were found to be N2 pressure dependent.

  16. Design and synthesis of new tricyclic indoles as potent modulators of the S1P1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Buzard, Daniel J; Schrader, Thomas O; Zhu, Xiuwen; Lehmann, Juerg; Johnson, Ben; Kasem, Michelle; Kim, Sun Hee; Kawasaki, Andrew; Lopez, Luis; Moody, Jeanne; Han, Sangdon; Gao, Yinghong; Edwards, Jeff; Barden, Jeremy; Thatte, Jayant; Gatlin, Joel; Jones, Robert M

    2015-02-01

    Modulators of S1P1 have proven utility for the treatment of autoimmune disease and efforts to identify new agents with improved safety and pharmacokinetic parameters are ongoing. Several new S1P1 chemotypes were designed and optimized for potency and oral bioavailability. These new agents are characterized by a 'tricyclic fused indole array' and are highly potent agonists of the S1P1 receptor. PMID:25532755

  17. Absolute Frequency Measurement of Thallium 6P1/2 7S1/2 Transitions Using

    E-print Network

    Liu,Yi-Wei

    Absolute Frequency Measurement of Thallium 6P1/2 7S1/2 Transitions Using Optical Femtosecond Comb of thallium 6P1/2 7S1/2 transitions using optical femtosecond comb Wei-Ling Cheng National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan 2005 The Doppler-free spectroscopy of atomic thallium 6P1/2 7S1/2 transitions have been

  18. ClpS1 Is a Conserved Substrate Selector for the Chloroplast Clp Protease System in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Kenji; Asakura, Yukari; Friso, Giulia; Kim, Jitae; Oh, Soo-hyun; Rutschow, Heidi; Ponnala, Lalit; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the plastid caseinolytic peptidase (Clp) P protease system is essential for plant development, substrates and substrate selection mechanisms are unknown. Bacterial ClpS is involved in N-degron substrate selection and delivery to the ClpAP protease. Through phylogenetic analysis, we show that all angiosperms contain ClpS1 and some species also contain ClpS1-like protein(s). In silico analysis suggests that ClpS1 is the functional homolog of bacterial ClpS. We show that Arabidopsis thaliana ClpS1 interacts with plastid ClpC1,2 chaperones. The Arabidopsis ClpS1 null mutant (clps1) lacks a visible phenotype, and no genetic interactions with ClpC/D chaperone or ClpPR core mutants were observed. However, clps1, but not clpc1-1, has increased sensitivity to the translational elongation inhibitor chloramphenicol suggesting a link between translational capacity and ClpS1. Moreover, ClpS1 was upregulated in clpc1-1, and quantitative proteomics of clps1, clpc1, and clps1 clpc1 showed specific molecular phenotypes attributed to loss of ClpC1 or ClpS1. In particular, clps1 showed alteration of the tetrapyrrole pathway. Affinity purification identified eight candidate ClpS1 substrates, including plastid DNA repair proteins and Glu tRNA reductase, which is a control point for tetrapyrrole synthesis. ClpS1 interaction with five substrates strictly depended on two conserved ClpS1 residues involved in N-degron recognition. ClpS1 function, substrates, and substrate recognition mechanisms are discussed. PMID:23898032

  19. Fingolimod: direct CNS effects of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulation and implications in multiple sclerosis therapy

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Aran; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Chun, Jerold

    2013-01-01

    Fingolimod is the first oral disease-modifying therapy approved for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Following phosphorylation in vivo, the active agent, fingolimod phosphate (fingolimod-P), acts as a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator, binding with high affinity to four of the five known S1P receptors (S1P1, S1P3, S1P4 and S1P5). The mechanism of action of fingolimod in MS has primarily been considered as immunomodulatory, whereby fingolimod-P modulates S1P1 on lymphocytes, selectively retaining autoreactive lymphocytes in lymph nodes to reduce damaging infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS). However, emerging evidence indicates that fingolimod has direct effects in the CNS in MS. For example, in the MS animal model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), fingolimod is highly efficacious in both a prophylactic and therapeutic setting, yet becomes ineffective in animals selectively deficient for S1P1 on astrocytes, despite maintained normal immunologic receptor expression and functions, and S1P-mediated immune activities. Here, we review S1P signalling effects relevant to MS in neural cell types expressing S1P receptors, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons, microglia and dendritic cells. The direct effects of fingolimod on these CNS cells observed in preclinical studies are discussed in view of the functional consequences of reducing neurodegenerative processes and promoting myelin preservation and repair. The therapeutic implications of S1P modulation in the CNS are considered in terms of the clinical outcomes of MS, such as reducing MS-related brain atrophy, and other CNS disorders. Additionally, we briefly outline other existing and investigational MS therapies that may also have effects in the CNS. PMID:23518370

  20. Small Angle J/? Production in pp¯ Collisions at ?s = 1.8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Astur, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babintsev, V. V.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Breedon, R.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Dyshkant, A.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M. K.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Gobbi, B.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Ko, W.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kuleshov, S.; Kunori, S.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, J.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lucotte, A.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Magaña-Mendoza, L.; Manankov, V.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Markeloff, R.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miao, C.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; Mostafa, M.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nemethy, P.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oliveira, E.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Para, A.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Vaniev, V.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the first measurement of inclusive J/? production cross section in the forward pseudorapidity region 2.5<=\\|?J/?\\|<=3.7 in pp¯ collisions at s = 1.8 TeV. The results are based on 9.8 pb-1 of data collected using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The inclusive J/? cross section for transverse momenta between 1 and 16 GeV/ c is compared with theoretical models of charmonium production.