Sample records for 10-7 cm s-1

  1. Comparison of 10. 7 CM radio flux with SME solar Lyman alpha flux

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Barth; W. Kent Tobiska; Gary J. Rottman; Oran R. White

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the solar Lyman alpha flux that were made over a seven-and-one-half-year period between October 11, 1981 and April 13, 1989 have been compared with ground-based measurements of the solar 10.7 cm radio flux made over the same time period. There is a long-term correlation between these two measures of solar flux during the declining part of the solar

  2. Decreasing Sunspot Magnetic Fields Explain Unique 10.7cm Radio Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penn, Matthew J.; Livingston, W.; Svalgaard, L.

    2012-05-01

    Infrared spectral observations of sunspots from 1998-2011 have shown that on average sunspots changed; the magnetic fields weakened and the temperatures rose. The data also show that sunspots or dark pores can only form at the solar surface only if the magnetic field strength exceeds 1500 Gauss. Sunspots appear at the solar surface with a variety of field strengths, and during the period from 1998-2002 a histogram of the sunspot magnetic fields shows a normal distribution with a mean near 2400 Gauss and a width of about 340 Gauss. During this observing period the mean of the magnetic field distribution decreased by about 64 Gauss per year, and we assume that as the 1500 Gauss threshold was approached, magnetic fields appeared at the solar surface which could not form dark sunspots or pores With this assumption we propose a quantity called the sunspot formation fraction and give an analytical form derived from the magnetic field distribution. We show this fraction can quantitatively explain the changing elationship between sunspot number and solar radio flux measured at 10.7cm wavelengths.

  3. Decreasing Sunspot Magnetic Fields Explain Unique 10.7 cm Radio Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, W.; Penn, M. J.; Svalgaard, L.

    2012-09-01

    Infrared spectral observations of sunspots from 1998 to 2011 have shown that on average sunspots changed, the magnetic fields weakened, and the temperatures rose. The data also show that sunspots or dark pores can only form at the solar surface if the magnetic field strength exceeds about 1500 G. Sunspots appear at the solar surface with a variety of field strengths, and during the period from 1998 to 2002 a histogram of the sunspot magnetic fields shows a normal distribution with a mean of 2436 ± 26 G and a width of 323 ± 20 G. During this observing period the mean of the magnetic field distribution decreased by 46 ± 6 G per year, and we assume that as the 1500 G threshold was approached, magnetic fields appeared at the solar surface which could not form dark sunspots or pores. With this assumption we propose a quantity called the sunspot formation fraction and give an analytical form derived from the magnetic field distribution. We show that this fraction can quantitatively explain the changing relationship between sunspot number and solar radio flux measured at 10.7 cm wavelengths.

  4. DECREASING SUNSPOT MAGNETIC FIELDS EXPLAIN UNIQUE 10.7 cm RADIO FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, W.; Penn, M. J. [National Solar Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85718 (United States); Svalgaard, L. [HEPL, Via Ortega, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    Infrared spectral observations of sunspots from 1998 to 2011 have shown that on average sunspots changed, the magnetic fields weakened, and the temperatures rose. The data also show that sunspots or dark pores can only form at the solar surface if the magnetic field strength exceeds about 1500 G. Sunspots appear at the solar surface with a variety of field strengths, and during the period from 1998 to 2002 a histogram of the sunspot magnetic fields shows a normal distribution with a mean of 2436 {+-} 26 G and a width of 323 {+-} 20 G. During this observing period the mean of the magnetic field distribution decreased by 46 {+-} 6 G per year, and we assume that as the 1500 G threshold was approached, magnetic fields appeared at the solar surface which could not form dark sunspots or pores. With this assumption we propose a quantity called the sunspot formation fraction and give an analytical form derived from the magnetic field distribution. We show that this fraction can quantitatively explain the changing relationship between sunspot number and solar radio flux measured at 10.7 cm wavelengths.

  5. The Cosmic Ray and the 10.7 cm flux variations during solar cycles 19-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Torres, J. E.; Luo, X.; Salazar, H.

    2014-10-01

    The cosmic ray flux (CRF) and 10.7 cm flux (F10.7) are studied for solar cycles 19-23. The cross-correlations show longer time-dependence at odd than at even cycles. A shift of the maximum at the histograms of CRF{^1}/F10.7{^1} (the ratios of normalized values), does not depend on the polarity of the cycle. The behavior of CRF{^1} vs F10.7{^1} differs for odd and even cycles and also for different cycle phases. We fitted an inverted CRF{^1} profile to the F10.7{^1} profile with a linear function. The F10.7{^1}/CRF{^{inv}} histogram differs for odd and even cycles. The results for sunspot number (SSN) are similar to F10.7 but differ for the F10.7{^1}/CRF{^{inv}} histograms. Summarizing, besides the differences between odd and even cycles, there occur variations at different phases of the cycles and also variations independent of the polarity of the cycle, the latter perhaps arising outside the heliosphere.

  6. On the relationship between the 10.7 cm solar flux, surface pressure and air temperature over Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Varotsos; N. A. Dris; D. N. Asimakopoulos; C. Cartalis

    1992-01-01

    The behaviour of the 10.7 cm solar flux, surface air temperature and sea surface pressure are discussed on the basis of the 11-year solar cycle and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) over Greece. In this respect a strong negative correlation was identified between the 11-year solar cycle and the sea surface pressure during the winter west phase years of the QBO,

  7. Centrifugal Pump for a 20-m/s, 1-cm-Diameter Mercury Jet

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Centrifugal Pump for a 20-m/s, 1-cm-Diameter Mercury Jet Ernst de Haas, Kirk T. McDonald Joseph) centrifugal pump from R.S. Cor- coran, powered by a 20-hp, 480 V motor from Baldor. A photograph of this pump

  8. A laser-lock concept to reach cm s-1-precision in Doppler experiments with Fabry-Pérot wavelength calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiners, A.; Banyal, R. K.; Ulbrich, R. G.

    2014-09-01

    State-of-the-art Doppler experiments require wavelength calibration with precision at the cm s-1 level. A low-finesse Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) can provide a wavelength comb with a very large bandwidth as required for astronomical experiments, but unavoidable spectral drifts are difficult to control. Instead of actively controlling the FPI cavity, we propose to passively stabilize the interferometer and track the time-dependent cavity length drift externally using the 87Rb D2 atomic line. A dual-finesse cavity allows drift tracking during observation. In the low-finesse spectral range, the cavity provides a comb transmission spectrum tailored to the astronomical spectrograph. The drift of the cavity length is monitored in the high-finesse range relative to an external standard: a single narrow transmission peak is locked to an external cavity diode laser and compared to an atomic frequency from a Doppler-free transition. Following standard locking schemes, tracking at sub-mm s-1 precision can be achieved. This is several orders of magnitude better than currently planned high-precision Doppler experiments, and it allows freedom for relaxed designs including the use of a single-finesse interferometer under certain conditions. All components for the proposed setup are readily available, rendering this approach particularly interesting for upcoming Doppler experiments. We also show that the large number of interference modes used in an astronomical FPI allows us to unambiguously identify the interference mode of each FPI transmission peak defining its absolute wavelength solution. The accuracy reached in each resonance with the laser concept is then defined by the cavity length that is determined from the one locked peak and by the group velocity dispersion. The latter can vary by several 100 m s-1 over the relevant frequency range and severely limits the accuracy of individual peak locations, although their interference modes are known. A potential way to determine the absolute peak positions is to externally measure the frequency of each individual peak with a laser frequency comb (LFC). Thus, the concept of laser-locked FPIs may be useful for applying the absolute accuracy of an LFC to astronomical spectrographs without the need for an LFC at the observatory.

  9. {UNGERADE} Polyads in the 45800 - 46500 CM-1 Region of the S_1 State of C_2H_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraban, J. H.; Changala, P. B.; Shaver, R. G.; Field, R. W.; Merer, A. J.

    2012-06-01

    We present an analysis of {ungerade} vibrational polyads in the 45800 - 46500 cm-1 region of the S_1 state of C_2H_2. This congested region is expected to hold at least 22 highly interacting vibrational levels. The polyads were observed in IR-UV double resonance LIF spectra, using ?''_3(?_u^+), ?_3+?''_4(?_u), and ?_1+?''_5(?_u) as ground state vibrational intermediates. The assignments of the levels will be discussed, as well as a comparison between the observed structure and that predicted by effective constants from lower energy polyads, supplemented by ab initio theory where such constants are not available. We will also discuss local regions of interest, including perturbations. The goals of this analysis are to enable an extension of our understanding of the level structure to higher energies, nearing the cis-trans transition state, as well as to establish the trans level structure comprehensively, thereby permitting the identification of interloper states belonging to the cis manifold.

  10. A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s$^{-1}$

    E-print Network

    Chih-Hao Li; Andrew J. Benedick; Peter Fendel; Alexander G. Glenday; Franz X. Kaertner; David F. Phillips; Dimitar Sasselov; Andrew Szentgyorgyi; Ronald L. Walsworth

    2008-04-07

    Searches for extrasolar planets using the periodic Doppler shift of stellar spectral lines have recently achieved a precision of 60 cm/s (ref 1), which is sufficient to find a 5-Earth-mass planet in a Mercury-like orbit around a Sun-like star. To find a 1-Earth-mass planet in an Earthlike orbit, a precision of 5 cm/s is necessary. The combination of a laser frequency comb with a Fabry-Perot filtering cavity has been suggested as a promising approach to achieve such Doppler shift resolution via improved spectrograph wavelength calibration, with recent encouraging results. Here we report the fabrication of such a filtered laser comb with up to 40- GHz (1-A) line spacing, generated from a 1- GHz repetition-rate source, without compromising long-term stability, reproducibility or spectral resolution. This wide-line-spacing comb, or `astro-comb', is well matched to the resolving power of high-resolution astrophysical spectrographs. The astro-comb should allow a precision as high as 1 cm/s in astronomical radial velocity measurements.

  11. Improvement of Electron Mobility above 100,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 in MgxZn1-xO/ZnO Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasaka, Shunsuke; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Nakahara, Ken; Ohtomo, Akira; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2011-08-01

    We discuss the electron mobility (µ) of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) confined at the MgxZn1-xO/ZnO heterointerface grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. With increasing x from 0.05 to 0.2, the electron density (n) was enhanced and µ was suppressed due to interface roughness or alloy disorder scattering. By the optimization of growth conditions, in particular growth rate, ionized impurity scattering in the ZnO channel could be reduced significantly. With tuning n by a gate voltage on top-gated Hall-bar devices, the peak µ at 2 K was enhanced to 130,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at n = 3×1011 cm-2.

  12. UltraHigh Hall Mobility (1 x 106 cm2V-1S-1) in a Two-Dimensional Hole Gas in a Strained Germanium Quantum Well Grown by Reduced Pressure CVD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy Dobbie; Maksym Myronov; Richard J. H. Morris; Martin J. Prest; James S. Richardson-Bullock; Amna H. A. H. Hassan; Vishal A. Shah; Evan H. C. Parker; Terry E. Whall; David R. Leadley

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we report a hole mobility of one million in germanium. This extremely high value of 1.1 x 106 cm2V-1s-1 at a carrier sheet density of 3.0 x 1011 cm-2 was observed in a strained Ge quantum well structure grown by reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition (RP-CVD) and is nearly an order of magnitude higher than previously reported values

  13. Growth of ˜5 cm2V-1s-1 mobility, p-type Copper(I) oxide (Cu2O) films by fast atmospheric atomic layer deposition (AALD) at 225°C and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, D.; Jordan, M.; Yeoh, C.; Marin, A. T.; Kursumovic, A.; Dunlop, L. A.; Iza, D. C.; Chen, A.; Wang, H.; MacManus Driscoll, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Phase pure, dense Cu2O thin films were grown on glass and polymer substrates at 225°C by rapid atmospheric atomic layer deposition (AALD). Carrier mobilities of 5 cm2V-1s-1 and carrier concentrations of ˜1016 cm-3 were achieved in films of thickness 50 - 120 nm, over a >10 cm2 area. Growth rates were ˜1 nm.min-1 which is two orders of magnitude faster than conventional ALD.. The high mobilities achieved using the atmospheric, low temperature method represent a significant advance for flextronics and flexible solar cells which require growth on plastic substrates.

  14. CM (S1 S12) Merdredi 15h45-17h45 Amphi Numroter par ordre de prfrence TD (S3 S12) 1 Mercredi 8h00-10h00 Salle UFR E31-TD1

    E-print Network

    Pellier, Damien

    28/07/2011 LS3E311B CM (S1 à S12) Merdredi 15h45-17h45 Amphi Numéroter par ordre de préférence TD (S3 à S12) 1 Mercredi 8h00-10h00 Salle UFR E31-TD1 2 Mercredi 10h15-12h15 (parcours enrichi) E31-TD2 3 Mercredi 13h30-15h30 Salle UFR E31-TD3 4 Vendredi 10h15-12h15 Salle UFR E31-TD4 5 Vendredi 13h30

  15. 44 CFR 10.7 - Planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    44 Emergency Management and Assistance... 10.7 Section 10.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency...

  16. 44 CFR 10.7 - Planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    44 Emergency Management and Assistance... 10.7 Section 10.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency...

  17. 44 CFR 10.7 - Planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    44 Emergency Management and Assistance... 10.7 Section 10.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency...

  18. 44 CFR 10.7 - Planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    44 Emergency Management and Assistance... 10.7 Section 10.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency...

  19. 44 CFR 10.7 - Planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    44 Emergency Management and Assistance... 10.7 Section 10.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency...

  20. 33 CFR 6.10-7 - Identification credentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification credentials. 6.10-7 Section...HARBORS, AND WATERFRONT FACILITIES Identification and Exclusion of Persons From Vessels...Waterfront Facilities § 6.10-7 Identification credentials. The...

  1. RESEARCH PAPER: Forecast daily indices of solar activity, F10.7, using support vector regression method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cong; Liu, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jing-Song

    2009-06-01

    The 10.7 cm solar radio flux (F10.7), the value of the solar radio emission flux density at a wavelength of 10.7 cm, is a useful index of solar activity as a proxy for solar extreme ultraviolet radiation. It is meaningful and important to predict F10.7 values accurately for both long-term (months-years) and short-term (days) forecasting, which are often used as inputs in space weather models. This study applies a novel neural network technique, support vector regression (SVR), to forecasting daily values of F10.7. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of SVR in short-term F10.7 forecasting. The approach, based on SVR, reduces the dimension of feature space in the training process by using a kernel-based learning algorithm. Thus, the complexity of the calculation becomes lower and a small amount of training data will be sufficient. The time series of F10.7 from 2002 to 2006 are employed as the data sets. The performance of the approach is estimated by calculating the norm mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. It is shown that our approach can perform well by using fewer training data points than the traditional neural network.

  2. 46 CFR 113.10-7 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 113.10-7 Connection boxes. Each connection box must be constructed in accordance with Type 4 or 4X of NEMA 250 or IP 56 of IEC 60529 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) requirements. [USCG-2003-16630, 73 FR...

  3. 46 CFR 113.10-7 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 113.10-7 Connection boxes. Each connection box must be constructed in accordance with Type 4 or 4X of NEMA 250 or IP 56 of IEC 60529 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) requirements. [USCG-2003-16630, 73 FR...

  4. 46 CFR 113.10-7 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 113.10-7 Connection boxes. Each connection box must be constructed in accordance with Type 4 or 4X of NEMA 250 or IP 56 of IEC 60529 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) requirements. [USCG-2003-16630, 73 FR...

  5. 46 CFR 113.10-7 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 113.10-7 Connection boxes. Each connection box must be constructed in accordance with Type 4 or 4X of NEMA 250 or IP 56 of IEC 60529 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) requirements. [USCG-2003-16630, 73 FR...

  6. 46 CFR 113.10-7 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 113.10-7 Connection boxes. Each connection box must be constructed in accordance with Type 4 or 4X of NEMA 250 or IP 56 of IEC 60529 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) requirements. [USCG-2003-16630, 73 FR...

  7. Ubiquitous CM and DM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Sandra L.

    2000-01-01

    Ubiquitous is a real word. I thank a former Total Quality Coach for my first exposure some years ago to its existence. My version of Webster's dictionary defines ubiquitous as "present, or seeming to be present, everywhere at the same time; omnipresent." While I believe that God is omnipresent, I have come to discover that CM and DM are present everywhere. Oh, yes; I define CM as Configuration Management and DM as either Data or Document Management. Ten years ago, I had my first introduction to the CM world. I had an opportunity to do CM for the Space Station effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center. I learned that CM was a discipline that had four areas of focus: identification, control, status accounting, and verification. I was certified as a CMIl graduate and was indoctrinated about clear, concise, and valid. Off I went into a world of entirely new experiences. I was exposed to change requests and change boards first hand. I also learned about implementation of changes, and then of technical and CM requirements.

  8. Accelerating the CM method

    E-print Network

    Sutherland, Andrew V

    2010-01-01

    Given a prime q and a negative discriminant D, the CM method constructs an elliptic curve E/F_q by obtaining a root of the Hilbert class polynomial H_D(X) modulo q. We consider an approach based on a decomposition of the ring class field defined by H_D, which we adapt to a CRT setting. This yields two algorithms, each of which obtains a root of H_D mod q without necessarily computing any of its coefficients. Heuristically, our approach uses asymptotically less time and space than the standard CM method for almost all D. The practical efficiency of the new algorithms is demonstrated using parameters |D| > 10^16 and q \\approx 2^256, and also |D| > 10^15 and q \\approx 2^33220.

  9. The Global S$_1$ Ocean Tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The small S$_1$ ocean tide is caused primarily by diurnal atmospheric pressure loading. Its excitation is therefore unlike any other diurnal tide. The global character of $S-1$ is here determined by numerical modeling and by analysis of Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. The two approaches yield reasonably consistent results, and large ( $ greater than $l\\cm) amplitudes in several regions are further confirmed by comparison with coastal tide gauges. Notwithstanding their excitation differences, S$-1$ and other diurnal tides are found to share several common features, such as relatively large amplitudes in the Arabian Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Gulf of Alaska. The most noticeable difference is the lack of an S$-1$ Antarctic Kelvin wave. These similarities and differences can be explained in terms of the coherences between near-diurnal oceanic normal modes and the underlying tidal forcings. While gravitational diurnal tidal forces excite primarily a 28-hour Antarctic-Pacific mode, the S$_1$ air tide excites several other near-diurnal modes, none of which has large amplitudes near Antarctica.

  10. Magnetic phase structure of Saturn's 10.7 h oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, J. N.; Southwood, D. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2015-04-01

    A source of Saturn's magnetic 10.7 h period oscillations has yet to be identified. The oscillations are known to consist of signals with slightly different periods from separate northern and southern sources. Here we present a novel way of examining observations, focusing on signal phase. We show that although the signals are highly periodic they are usually not sinusoidal and that there are differences in both phase structure and polarization between the outer magnetosphere (on the nightside) and the inner dipolar region. Paying particular attention to the deep midtail passes of 2006, the contrasting behavior between the inner and outer regions is clear with approximate sinusoidal behavior in the dipolar region and a pulse-like signal once per cycle in the tail. The latter structure seems to indicate that tail magnetic stress is released impulsively once per cycle in the tail. After equinox, in 2010-2011, we find a different picture in the premidnight sector. The predetermined northern and southern frequencies are closer together and apparently show sudden shifts. Our signal reconstruction approach finds instances where it is likely that the narrow band filtering is not able to track completely the basic north and south periods as we find phase jumps indicating unpredicted beats.

  11. CM-458/U Signal Comparator

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, W. G.; Kestly, J. D.

    1980-06-01

    The development history, the physical and functional characteristics, and the production activity of the CM-458/U Signal Comparator is described. The CM-458/U Signal Comparator is a test device used to verify proper delivery by the aircraft control equipment of the unique signal used in the prearming of modern nuclear weapons. CM-458/U monitors voltage levels, pulse widths and signal sequence to verify correctness.

  12. Record Retention Policy Page 1 of 3 10.7 Record Retention Policy

    E-print Network

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    Record Retention Policy Page 1 of 3 10.7 Record Retention Policy Policy Number & Name: 10.7 Record and destruction of records received or created in the course of University operations (as further defined below, "Records"). It is the intention of this Policy to ensure that the University: (a) Establishes the minimum

  13. 31 CFR 10.7 - Representing oneself; participating in rulemaking; limited practice; special appearances; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01...Section 10.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the...receiver, guardian, personal representative, administrator...receiver, guardian, personal representative,...

  14. S-1 Common Lisp implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney A. Brooks; Richard P. Gabriel; Guy L. Steele Jr.

    1982-01-01

    We are developing a Lisp implementation for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory S-1 Mark IIA computer. The dialect of Lisp is an extension of COMMON Lisp [Steele;1982], a descendant of MacLisp [Moon;1974] and Lisp Machine Lisp [Weinreb;1981]).

  15. 43 CFR 10.7 - Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...patrimony. [Reserved] 10.7 Section 10.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects...

  16. 344 cm x 86 cm low mass vacuum window

    SciTech Connect

    Reimers, R.M.; Porter, J.; Meneghetti, J.; Wilde, S.; Miller, R.

    1983-08-01

    The LBL Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) superconducting magnet contains a 1 m x 3.45 m x 2 m vacuum tank in its gap. A full aperture thin window was needed to minimize background as the products of nuclear collisions move from upstream targets to downstream detectors. Six windows were built and tested in the development process. The final window's unsupported area is 3m/sup 2/ with a 25 cm inward deflection. The design consists of a .11 mm Nylon/aluminum/polypropylene laminate as a gas seal and .55 mm woven aramid fiber for strength. Total mass is 80 milligrams per cm/sup 2/. Development depended heavily on past experience and testing. Safety considerations are discussed.

  17. THE DEEP SWIRE FIELD. II. 90 cm CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS AND 20 cm-90 cm SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, Frazer N.; Klimek, Matthew D.; Greisen, Eric W. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Morrison, G. E. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    We present one of the deepest radio continuum surveys to date at a wavelength {approx}>1 m. The observations were taken with the VLA at 324.5 MHz covering a region of the SWIRE Spitzer Legacy survey, centered at 10{sup h}46{sup m}00{sup s}, 59{sup 0}01'00'' (J2000). The data reduction and analysis are described and an electronic catalog of the sources detected above 5{sigma} is presented. We also discuss the observed angular size distribution for the sample. Using our deeper 20 cm survey of the same field, we calculate spectral indices for sources detected in both surveys. The spectral indices for 90 cm selected sources, defined as S {proportional_to} {nu}{sup -{alpha}}, shows a peak near 0.7 and only a few sources with very steep spectra, i.e., {alpha}{sup 90} {sub 20} > >1. Thus no large population of very steep spectrum {mu}Jy sources seems to exist down to the limit of our survey. For 20 cm selected sources, we find similar mean spectral indices for sources with S {sub 20} > 1 mJy. For weaker sources, below the detection limit for individual sources at 90 cm, we use stacking to study the radio spectra. We find that the spectral indices of small (<3'') 20 cm selected sources with S {sub 20} < 10 mJy have mean and median {alpha}{sup 90} {sub 20} {approx} 0.3-0.5. This is flatter than the spectral indices of the stronger source population. At the low end of the 20 cm survey, the spectral indices appear to be steepening again. We report log N-log S counts at 90 cm which show a flattening below 5 mJy. Given the median redshift of the population, z {approx} 1, the spectral flattening and the flattening of the log N-log S counts occur at radio luminosities normally associated with active galactic nuclei rather than with galaxies dominated by star formation.

  18. AMR on the CM-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Marsha J.; Saltzman, Jeff S.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the development of a structured adaptive mesh algorithm (AMR) for the Connection Machine-2 (CM-2). We develop a data layout scheme that preserves locality even for communication between fine and coarse grids. On 8K of a 32K machine we achieve performance slightly less than 1 CPU of the Cray Y-MP. We apply our algorithm to an inviscid compressible flow problem.

  19. 5cm aperture dipole studies

    SciTech Connect

    McInturff, A.D.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Lundy, R.; Mantech, P.; Strait, J.

    1986-09-30

    The results obtained during the evolution of the design, construction, and testing program of the design ''B'' dipole are presented here. Design ''B'' is one of the original three competing designs for the Superconducting Super Collider ''SSC'' arc dipoles. The final design parameters were as follows: air cored (less than a few percent of the magnetic field derived from any iron present), aluminum collared, two layered winding, 5.5T maximum operating field, and a 5 cm cold aperture. There have been fourteen 64 cm long 5 cm aperture model dipoles cold tested (at 4.3K and less) in this program so far. There was a half length full size (6m) mechanical analog (M-10) built and tested to check the cryostat's mechanical design under ramping and quench conditions. Several deviations from the ''Tevatron'' dipole fabrication technique were incorporated, for example the use of aluminum collars instead of stainless steel. The winding technique variations explored were ''dry welding,'' a technique with the cable covered with Kapton insulation only and ''wet winding'' where the Kapton was covered with a light coat of ''B'' stage epoxy. Test data include quench currents, field quality (Fourier multipole co-efficients), coil magnetization, conductor current performance, and coil loading. Quench current, loss per cycle, and harmonics were measured as a function of the magnitude and rate of change of the magnetic field, and helium bath temperature.

  20. J M Wolfe 10/7/09 PART I: General Information

    E-print Network

    J M Wolfe 10/7/09 page 1 PART I: General Information PREPARED: August, 2009 Name: Jeremy Michael Wolfe Office Address: Visual Attention Lab Brigham & Women's Hospital 64 Sidney St, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA 617-768-8818 Home Address: 4 Arlington St., Newton, MA 02458 617-332-9767 email: wolfe

  1. Helium production in 10.7 A GeV Au induced nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Adamovich; M. M. Aggarwal; Y. A. Alexandrov; R. Amirikas; N. P. Andreeva; Z. V. Anzon; R. Arora; F. A. Avetyan; S. K. Badyal; A. M. Bakich; E. S. Basova; I. K. Bazarov; K. B. Bhalla; A. Bhasin; V. S. Bhatia; V. G. Bogdanov; V. Bradnova; V. I. Bubnov; T. H. Burnett; X. Cai; D. A. Carshiev; I. Y. Chasnikov; L. P. Chernova; M. M. Chernyavski; S. Dhamija; G. Z. Eligbaeva; L. E. Eremenko; A. S. Gaitinov; E. R. Ganssauge; S. Garpman; S. G. Gerassimov; C. Graf; J. Grote; K. G. Gulamov; S. K. Gupta; V. K. Gupta; B. Jakobsson; L. Just; S. Kachroo; G. S. Kalyachkina; E. K. Kanygina; M. Karabova; S. Kitroo; S. P. Kharlamov; A. D. Kovalenko; S. A. Krasnov; V. Kumar; V. G. Larionova; Y. D. Li; L. S. Liu; S. Lokanatan; J. J. Lord; N. S. Lukicheva; S. B. Luo; L. K. Mangotra; N. A. Marutyan; A. Y. Mashkov; N. V. Maslennikova; I. S. Mittra; S. Mokerjee; S. Z. Nasyrov; V. S. Navotny; J. Nystrand; M. Ochs; G. I. Orlova; I. Otterlund; L. S. Peak; N. G. Peresadko; N. V. Petrov; V. A. Plyushchev; V. V. Rusakova; W. Y. Qian; Y. M. Qin; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; N. K. Rao; M. Roeper; N. Saidkhanov; N. A. Salmanova; L. G. Sarkisova; V. R. Sarkisyan; G. S. Shabratova; A. M. Seitimbetov; C. I. Shakhova; S. N. Shpilev; D. Skelding; K. Söderström; Z. I. Solovjeva; E. Stenlund; L. N. Svechnikova; M. Tothova; M. I. Tretyakova; T. P. Trofimova; U. I. Tuleeva; B. P. Tursunov; S. Vokal; J. Vrlakova; H. Q. Wang; Z. Q. Weng; R. J. Wilkes; Y. L. Xia; C. B. Yang; D. H. Zhang; P. Y. Zheng; S. I. Zhokhova; D. C. Zhou

    1994-01-01

    Angular distributions of projectile-associated He fragments from Au induced reactions in nuclear emulsions at 10.7 A GeV have been measured with a precision of +\\/-0.1 mrad. Two emission components are indubitably appearing, one representing fragmentation of a fermionic system while the other one exhibits large transverse momentum transfer. Possible explanations for the latter component are discussed.

  2. UCSD POLICY AND PROCEDURE MANUAL SECTION 516-10.7 PAGE 1 ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY

    E-print Network

    Aluwihare, Lihini

    frequently enough to prevent fly, rodent, or other nuisance problems. B. Toxic and Special Wastes 1. Toxic/8/10 Issuing Office: Environment, Health & Safety Supersedes: 5/1/98 516-10.7 ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION--WASTE Policy and Procedure Manual (PPM) 516-14 Hazardous Waste Disposal II. POLICY All waste materials shall

  3. S-1 Uniprocessor architecture. [S-1 MARK IIA

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-21

    The S-1 Mark IIA uniprocessor is the second generation of a pipelined vector and scalar processing computer with a virtual address space of 2/sup 29/ thirty-six bit words, addressable in quarterwords, and a physical address space of 2/sup 32/ singlewords. This manual describes its native mode instruction set and an assembler for that instruction set. While a Mark IIA uniprocessor can operate alone or as part of a mulitple-instruction-stream multiple-data-stream (MIMD) multiprocessor, this manual deals only with single processor operation. It also avoids implementation-dependent details like instruction timing and numerical values corresponding to opcode mnemonics. Section 1 presents an overview of the architecture. Section 2, which assumes knowledge of the material in Section 1, divides the native mode instructions into groups, preceding each group with architectural details pertaining to that group. Section 3 describes the FASM assembler, but one can understand the assembly language examples in the previous sections without having read this description.

  4. An Absolute Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Temperature at 10.7 GHz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Staggs; N. C. Jarosik; S. S. Meyer; D. T. Wilkinson

    1996-01-01

    A balloon-borne experiment has measured the absolute temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) at 10.7 GHz to be TCMBR = 2.730 +\\/- 0.014 K. The error is the quadratic sum of several systematic errors, with a statistical error of less than 0.1 mK. The instrument is made up of a cooled corrugated horn antenna coupled to a total

  5. A fully differential BiCMOS OTA for a 10.7MHz bandpass filter

    E-print Network

    Ali, Muhammad Imtiaz

    1993-01-01

    . Embabi (Member) Prashad N. Enjeti (Member) Robert H. Benson (Member) Alton . Patton (Head of epartment) August 1993 111 ABSTRACT A Fully Differential BiCMOS OTA for a 10. 7MHz Bandpass Filter. (August 1993) Muhammad Imtiaz Ali, B. S.... , Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Edgar Sanchez-Sinencio The use of electronically programmable bipolar current mirrors in conjunction with a BiCMOS linearized differential input stage produces a...

  6. (Created 1/07; Revised 4/07, 6/07, 10/07, 8/09, 6/10, 7/10, 7/12) UNL Environmental Health and Safety (402) 472-4925 http://ehs.unl.edu

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    (Created 1/07; Revised 4/07, 6/07, 10/07, 8/09, 6/10, 7/10, 7/12) UNL Environmental Health-Lancaster County Health Department (LLCHD) Air Quality Regulations which require the issuance of a construction that store greater than threshold quantities of oil. These regulations, Oil Pollution Prevention and Response

  7. Resistance to He2+ induced irradiation damage in metallic glass Zr64Cu17.8Ni10.7Al7.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Mei, Xianxiu; Zhang, Hongran; Hou, Wenjing; Wang, Younian; Wang, Zhiguang; Dong, Chuang

    2014-01-01

    This paper used He2+ ion-irradiated metallic glass Zr64Cu17.8Ni10.7Al7.5 and metallic W with an energy of 500 keV at fluences of 2 × 1017, 5 × 1017, 1 × 1018 and 2 × 1018 ions/cm2. Zr-based metallic glass remained mainly amorphous at different fluences. At the irradiation fluence of 2 × 1018 ions/cm2, there was a channel-like damage layer appeared within the range of the surface ions. Cracking and peeling along the grain boundary occurred on the surface of metallic W at the fluence of 1 × 1018 ions/cm2; or even multi-layer peeling occurred at the fluence of 2 × 1018 ions/cm2. TEM analysis revealed that there were a lot of helium bubbles at the end of the range of helium ion. The connection and coalescence growth process of a helium bubble was observed. The surface rms roughness ?rms of Zr-based metallic glass increased first and then decreased with the increase in fluence. The resistance to He2+ irradiation in Zr-based metallic glass was superior to the one in metallic tungsten.

  8. An Absolute Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Temperature at 10.7 GHz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Staggs; N. C. Jarosik; S. S. Meyer; D. T. Wilkinson

    1996-01-01

    A balloon-borne experiment has measured the absolute temperature of the\\u000acosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) at 10.7 GHz to be Tcmbr = 2.730\\u000a+- .014 K. The error is the quadratic sum of several systematic errors, with\\u000astatistical error of less than 0.1 mK. The instrument comprises a cooled\\u000acorrugated horn antenna coupled to a total-power radiometer. A cryogenic\\u000amechanical

  9. Gas-phase oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ --thermodynamics of neutral and ionized CmO.

    PubMed

    Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G; Santos, Marta; de Matos, António Pires; Marçalo, Joaquim

    2008-11-13

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm (+) and Cm (2+); parallel studies were carried out with La (+/2+), Gd (+/2+) and Lu (+/2+). Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M (+)-O] (M = Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO (+) with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO (+)] (M = Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electron-transfer reactions from neutrals to the MO (2+) ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO] = 6.4 +/- 0.2 eV; IE[CmO (+)] = 15.8 +/- 0.4 eV; D[Cm-O] = 710 +/- 45 kJ mol (-1); D[Cm (+)-O] = 670 +/- 40 kJ mol (-1); and D[Cm (2+)-O] = 342 +/- 55 kJ mol (-1). Estimates for the M (2+)-O bond energies for M = Cm, La, Gd, and Lu are all intermediate between D[N 2-O] and D[OC-O] - that is, 167 kJ mol (-1) < D[M (2+)-O] < 532 kJ mol (-1) - such that the four MO (2+) ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic oxygen-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO (2+), LaO (2+), GdO (2+), and LuO (2+) dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO 2 (+) ion appeared during the reaction of Cm (+) with O 2 when the intermediate, CmO (+), was not collisionally cooled - although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO 2 (+) is a stable species. PMID:18921989

  10. Gas-Phase Oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ - Thermodynamics of Neutral and Ionized CmO

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, John K [ORNL; Haire, Richard G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Santos, Marta [ORNL; Pires de Matos, Antonio [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem, Portugal; Marcalo, Joaquim [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem, Portugal

    2008-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm+ and Cm2+; parallel studies were carried out with La+/2+, Gd+/2+ and Lu+/2+. Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M+-O] (M ) Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO+ with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO+] (M ) Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electrontransfer reactions from neutrals to the MO2+ ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO] ) 6.4 ( 0.2 eV; IE[CmO+] ) 15.8 ( 0.4 eV; D[Cm-O] ) 710 ( 45 kJ mol-1; D[Cm+-O] ) 670 ( 40 kJ mol-1; and D[Cm2+-O] ) 342 ( 55 kJ mol-1. Estimates for the M2+-O bond energies for M ) Cm, La, Gd, and Lu are all intermediate between D[N2-O] and D[OC-O] - that is, 167 kJ mol-1 < D[M2+-O] < 532 kJ mol-1 - such that the four MO2+ ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic oxygen-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO2+, LaO2+, GdO2+, and LuO2+ dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO2 + ion appeared during the reaction of Cm+ with O2 when the intermediate, CmO+, was not collisionally cooled - although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO2 + is a stable species.

  11. CYP2S1: A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T. [Department of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FI-00250 (Finland) and Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research, National Public Health Institute, FI-00250 (Finland)]. E-mail: sirkku.saarikoski@ktl.fi; Rivera, Steven P. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Hankinson, Oliver [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti [Department of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FI-00250 (Finland)

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation.

  12. Fluorescence and stimulated emission S1 --> S0 spectra of acetylene: Regular and ergodic regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan Abramson; Robert W. Field; Dan Imre; K. K. Innes; James L. Kinsey

    1985-01-01

    The S1 ? S0 transition of acetylene has been studied by spontaneous and stimulated emission. In the spontaneous emission studies, we report new data on low-resolution dispersed fluorescence from an unrelaxed single rotational level of S1. Transitions into S0 levels from the zero-point level up to ?28 000 cm?1 of vibrational energy are reported. Earlier investigations of the emission from

  13. In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10 cm s-1

    E-print Network

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Furesz,2 Franz K¨artner,3 Sylvain Korzennik,2 David F. Phillips,2 Dimitar Sasselov,1,2 Andrew Glenday,1,2 Andrew Benedick,3 Guoqing Noah Chang,3 Li-Jin Chen,3 Claire Cramer,1 Peter Fendel,3,4 Gabor, A. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. Glenday, F. K¨artner, D. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R

  14. ATLAS: Australia Telescope Large Area Survey: Deep Radio Observations of the CDFS-SWIRE and ELAIS-S1 fields

    E-print Network

    Norris, Ray

    ATLAS: Australia Telescope Large Area Survey: Deep Radio Observations of the CDFS-SWIRE and ELAIS: University of Durham, UK. GOODS The Australia Telescope Compact Array used to make the radio images-S1 fields 1. Overview · We are imaging the CDFS and ELAIS-S1 SWIRE fields at 20 cm. Combining radio

  15. An Absolute Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Temperature at 10.7 GHz

    E-print Network

    S. T. Staggs; N. C. Jarosik; S. S. Meyer; D. T. Wilkinson

    1996-09-19

    A balloon-borne experiment has measured the absolute temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) at 10.7 GHz to be Tcmbr = 2.730 +- .014 K. The error is the quadratic sum of several systematic errors, with statistical error of less than 0.1 mK. The instrument comprises a cooled corrugated horn antenna coupled to a total-power radiometer. A cryogenic mechanical waveguide switch alternately connects the radiometer to the horn and to an internal reference load. The small measured temperature difference (radiation from the ground and the balloon. In-flight tests constrain the magnitude of ground radiation contamination, and low level interference is monitored through observations in several narrow frequency bands.

  16. Correlated alteration effects in CM carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Lauren B.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1996-07-01

    Three parameters are proposed to determine the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites. The mineralogic alteration index monitors the relative progress of coupled substitutions in the progressive alteration of cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine and increases with increasing alteration. To calculate values of this index, an algorithm has been developed to estimate the average matrix phyllosilicate composition in individual CM chondrites. The second parameter is the volume percent of isolated matrix silicates, which decreases with progressive alteration due to mineral hydration. Finally, the volume percent of chondrule alteration monitors the extent of chondrule phyllosilicate production and increases as alteration proceeds. These parameters define the first CM alteration scale that relies on multiple indicators of progressive alteration. The following relative order of increasing alteration is established by this model: Murchison ? Bells < Pollen ? Murray < Mighei < Nogoya < Cold Bokkeveld. The relative degree of aqueous processing Cochabamba and Boriskino experienced is less precisely constrained, although both fall near the middle of this sequence. A comparison between the mineralogic alteration index and literature values for the whole-rock chemistry of CM chondrites reveals several correlations. A positive, nearly linear correlation between bulk H content and progressive CM alteration suggests an approximately constant production rate of new phyllosilicates relative to the mineralogical transition from cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine. The abundance of trapped planetary 36Ar decreases systematically in progressively altered CM chondrites, suggesting the wholesale destruction of primary noble gas carrier phase (s) by aqueous reactions. Because low temperature fluid-rock reactions are generally associated with large isotopic mass fractionation factors, we also compared our model predictions with ?18O values for bulk CM samples. Although some of these data are poorly resolved, the order of increasing ?18O values approximates the order of increasing alteration predicted by our model parameters. Multiple correlations between diverse alteration parameters strongly suggest that (a) different CM chondrites experienced similar kinds of processes and conditions, and (b) CM materials experienced in situ alteration on the CM parent body or bodies.

  17. Conducting Retrospective Ontological Clinical Trials in ICD-9-CM in the Age of ICD-10-CM

    PubMed Central

    Venepalli, Neeta K; Shergill, Ardaman; Dorestani, Parvaneh; Boyd, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To quantify the impact of International Classification of Disease 10th Revision Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) transition in cancer clinical trials by comparing coding accuracy and data discontinuity in backward ICD-10-CM to ICD-9-CM mapping via two tools, and to develop a standard ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM bridging methodology for retrospective analyses. BACKGROUND While the transition to ICD-10-CM has been delayed until October 2015, its impact on cancer-related studies utilizing ICD-9-CM diagnoses has been inadequately explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three high impact journals with broad national and international readerships were reviewed for cancer-related studies utilizing ICD-9-CM diagnoses codes in study design, methods, or results. Forward ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM mapping was performing using a translational methodology with the Motif web portal ICD-9-CM conversion tool. Backward mapping from ICD-10-CM to ICD-9-CM was performed using both Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) general equivalence mappings (GEMs) files and the Motif web portal tool. Generated ICD-9-CM codes were compared with the original ICD-9-CM codes to assess data accuracy and discontinuity. RESULTS While both methods yielded additional ICD-9-CM codes, the CMS GEMs method provided incomplete coverage with 16 of the original ICD-9-CM codes missing, whereas the Motif web portal method provided complete coverage. Of these 16 codes, 12 ICD-9-CM codes were present in 2010 Illinois Medicaid data, and accounted for 0.52% of patient encounters and 0.35% of total Medicaid reimbursements. Extraneous ICD-9-CM codes from both methods (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services general equivalent mapping [CMS GEMs, n = 161; Motif web portal, n = 246]) in excess of original ICD-9-CM codes accounted for 2.1% and 2.3% of total patient encounters and 3.4% and 4.1% of total Medicaid reimbursements from the 2010 Illinois Medicare database. DISCUSSION Longitudinal data analyses post-ICD-10-CM transition will require backward ICD-10-CM to ICD-9-CM coding, and data comparison for accuracy. Researchers must be aware that all methods for backward coding are not comparable in yielding original ICD-9-CM codes. CONCLUSIONS The mandated delay is an opportunity for organizations to better understand areas of financial risk with regards to data management via backward coding. Our methodology is relevant for all healthcare-related coding data, and can be replicated by organizations as a strategy to mitigate financial risk. PMID:25452683

  18. Evidence for Quasi Tetrahedral S=As(S1/2)3 local structures in AsxS1-x glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Boolchand, P.; Holbrook, C.; Jackson, K.; Georgiev, D.; Micoulaut, M.

    2008-03-01

    Raman scattering and modulated DSC on bulk AsxS1-x glasses in the 0.08 < x < 0.41 range is studied^1. Vibrational spectroscopy results supported by first principles cluster calculations reveal that modes near 335, 380 and 490 cm-1 represent respectively symmetric stretch, asymmetric stretch and As=S stretch of Quasi- Tetrahedral (QT) S=As(S1/2)3 local structures. Mode at 365 cm-1 is attributed to both symmetric and asymmetric stretch of pyramidal (PYR) As(S1/2)3 units. In addition, modes of Sn chains near 460 cm-1 and those of S8 rings near 475, 430, 217,and 150 cm-1 are observed at x < 0.25. Scattering strengths of modes of QT units are found to display a broad global maximum in the 0.20 < x < 0.30 composition range, while modes of PYR units increase monotonically with x, and modes of Sn and S8 rings monotonically decrease with x in the range examined. These findings are in harmony with the existence of a reversibility window (RW) in the 0.20 < x < 0.30 range. ^1 D.G. Georgiev Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Cincinnati (unpublished) 2003. ^2 D.G.Georgiev and P.Boolchand Phil. Mag.83, 2941(2003). * Supported by NSF grant DMR 04-56472

  19. Chilled Mirror Dew Point Hygrometer (CM) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2005-01-01

    The CM systems have been developed for the ARM Program to act as a moisture standard traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are three CM systems that are each fully portable, self-contained, and require only 110 V AC power. The systems include a CM sensor, air sampling and filtration system, a secondary reference (Rotronic HP043 temperature and relative humidity sensor) to detect system malfunctions, a data acquisition system, and data storage for more than one month of 1-minute data. The CM sensor directly measures dew point temperature at 1 m, air temperature at 2 m, and relative humidity at 2 m. These measurements are intended to represent self-standing data streams that can be used independently or in combinations.

  20. S1JUNE 2006NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC & AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY | STATE OF THE

    E-print Network

    -Pacific basins Annual mean anomalies were most prominent in the tropical Pacific Ocean (Fig. 3.7). Westward anom a short-term anomaly. Additionally, the globally averaged LHF plus SHF has increased by about 10 W m-2- alies of nearly 20 cm s-1 were observed on the equator between 120°W and the date line. Weaker anomalies

  1. Magnetic Polarization and Phase Structure of Saturn's 10.7-Hour Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, J. N.; Southwood, D. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    A source of Saturn's magnetic 10.7-hour period oscillations has yet to be identified. The oscillations are known to consist of signals with slightly different periods from separate northern and southern sources. Here we present a novel way of examining observations, focusing on signal phase. We show that although the signals are highly periodic they are usually not sinusoidal and that there are differences in both phase structure and polarization between the outer magnetosphere (on the nightside) and the inner dipolar region. Paying particular attention to the deep mid-tail passes of 2006, the contrasting behaviour between the inner and outer regions is clear with approximate sinusoidal behaviour in the dipolar region and a pulse like signal once per cycle in the tail. The latter structure seems to indicate that tail magnetic stress is released impulsively once per cycle in the tail. After equinox, in 2010-11, we find a different picture in the pre-midnight sector. The pre-determined northern and southern frequencies are closer together and apparently show sudden shifts. Our signal reconstruction approach finds instances where it is likely that the narrow band filtering is not able to track completely the basic north and south periods as we find phase jumps indicating unpredicted beats.

  2. Correlated Alteration Effects in CM Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Browning, Lauren B.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Three parameters are proposed to determine the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites. The mineralogic alteration index monitors the relative progress of coupled substitutions in the progressive alteration of cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine, and increases with increasing alteration. To calculate values of this index, an algorithm has been developed to estimate the average matrix phyllosilicate composition in individual CM chondrites. The second parameter is the volume percent of isolated matrix silicates, which decreases with progressive alteration due to mineral hydration. Finally, the volume percent of chondrule alteration monitors the extent of chondrule phyllosilicate production, and increases as alteration proceeds. These parameters define the first CM alteration scale that-relies on multiple indicators of progressive alteration. The following relative order of increasing alteration is established by this model: Murchison less than or equal to Bells less than Pollen less than or equal to Murray less than Mighei less than Nogoya less than Cold Bokkeveld. Bulk delta18O values generally increase with progressive alteration, providing additional support for this sequence. The relative degree of aqueous processing Cochabamba and Boriskino experienced is less precisely constrained, although both fall near the middle of this sequence. A comparison between the mineralogic alteration index and literature values of the whole-rock chemistry of CM chondrites reveals several correlations. For example, a positive, nearly linear correlation between bulk H content and progressive CM alteration suggests an approximately constant production rate of new phyllosilicates relative to the mineralogical transition from cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine. Furthermore, the abundance of trapped planetary Ar-36 decreases systematically in progressively altered CM chondrites, suggesting the wholesale destruction of primary noble gas carrier phase(s) by aqueous reactions. Multiple correlations between diverse alteration parameters indicate that different CM chondrites probably experienced the same kinds of processes and conditions during in situ parent body alteration.

  3. Winding Hopfions on R2×S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Michikazu; Nitta, Muneto

    2013-11-01

    We study Hopfions in the Faddeev-Skyrme model with potential terms on R2×S1. Apart from the conventional Hopfions, there exist winding Hopfions, that is, the lump (baby Skyrmion) strings with the lump charge Q with the U(1) modulus twisted P times along S1, having the Hopf charge PQ. We consider two kinds of potential terms, that is, the potential linear in the field and the ferromagnetic potential with two easy axes, and present stable solutions numerically. We also point out that a Q-lump carries the unit Hopf charge per the period in d=2+1.

  4. 10.7 Gb/s reflective electroabsorption modulator monolithically integrated with semiconductor optical amplifier for colorless WDM-PON.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Dong Churl; Kim, Ki-Soo; Choi, Byung-Seok; Kwon, O-Kyun

    2010-10-25

    We demonstrated 10.7 Gb/s reflective electroabsorption modulator monolithically integrated with semiconductor optical amplifier (REAM-SOA) using simplified fabrication process. Good performance at 10.7 Gb/s was obtained with an extinction ratio of > 10 dB and a power penalty of < 1 dB at a 10(-9) bit error rate (BER) up to 20 km transmission. The device operated over a 50 nm spectral range within 1 dB received power variation at a 10(-9) BER. PMID:21164673

  5. Raman spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll a in the S1 state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Ei-ichi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Koyama, Yasushi

    1991-07-01

    The S 1 Raman spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll a is reported for the first time. A one-color experiment using the 351 nm picosecond pulses (duration 50 ps and repetition 1 kHz) for tetrahydrofuran solution detected a transient species, which showed distinct Raman lines at 1567, 1409 and 1320 cm -1 and weak profiles around 1169, 1092, 1051 and 794 cm -1. The other one-color experiment using the 355 nm nanosecond pulses (duration 12 ns and repetition 10 Hz) detected the T 1 species reported previously showing Raman lines at 1578 and 1330 cm -1. Thus, the newly identified transient species, which was pumped and probed within 50 ps, is assigned to S 1.

  6. A novel lead compound CM-118

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lanfang; Shu, Mengjun; Chen, Yaqing; Yang, Dexiao; He, Qun; Zhao, Hui; Feng, Zhiyong; Liang, Chris; Yu, Ker

    2014-01-01

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and the c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase play essential roles in the pathogenesis in multiple human cancers and present emerging targets for cancer treatment. Here, we describe CM-118, a novel lead compound displaying low nanomolar biochemical potency against both ALK and c-Met with selectivity over >90 human kinases. CM-118 potently abrogated hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced c-Met phosphorylation and cell migration, phosphorylation of ALK, EML4-ALK, and ALK resistance mutants in transfected cells. CM-118 inhibited proliferation and/or induced apoptosis in multiple c-Met- and ALK-addicted cancer lines with dose response profile correlating target blockade. We show that the CM-118-induced apoptosis in c-Met-amplified H1993 NSCLC cells involved a rapid suppression of c-Met activity and c-Met-to-EGFR cross-talk, and was profoundly potentiated by EGFR inhibitors as shown by the increased levels of apoptotic proteins cleaved-PARP and Bim as well as reduction of the survival protein Mcl-1. Bim-knockdown or Mcl-1 overexpression each significantly attenuated apoptosis. We also revealed a key role by mTOR in mediating CM-118 action against the EML4-ALK-dependent NSCLC cells. Abrogation of EML4-ALK in H2228 cells profoundly reduced signaling capacity of the rapamycin-sensitive mTOR pathway leading to G1 cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial hyperpolarization, a metabolic perturbation linked to mTOR inhibition. Depletion of mTOR or mTORC1 inhibited H2228 cell growth, and mTOR inhibitors potentiated CM-118’s antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Oral administration of CM-118 at a wide range of well tolerated dosages diminished c-Met- and ALK phosphorylation in vivo, and caused tumor regression or growth inhibition in multiple c-Met- and ALK-dependent tumor xenografts in mice. CM-118 exhibits favorable pharmacokinetic and drug metabolism properties hence presents a candidate for clinical evaluation. PMID:24618813

  7. SD of maximum Stem Diameter (in cm)

    E-print Network

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    SD of maximum Stem Diameter (in cm) 1,4 - 13,3 13,4 - 14,8 14,9 - 15,6 15,7 - 16,5 16,6 - 17,3 17,8 12,9 - 14,3 14,4 - 16,1 16,2 - 30,0 Mean of maximum Stem Diameter (in cm) 0,0 - 13,3 13,4 - 14,5 14 look quite similar. Mean of Stem Height, Stem Diameter and Leaf Number seem to show higher values

  8. Charged particle density distributions in Au induced interactions with emulsion nuclei at 10.7 A GeV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Adamovich; M. M. Aggarwal; Y. A. Alexandrov; R. Amirikas; N. P. Andreeva; Z. V. Anzon; R. Arora; F. A. Avetyan; S. K. Badyal; A. M. Bakich; E. S. Basova; I. K. Bazarov; K. B. Bhalla; A. Bhasin; V. S. Bhatia; V. G. Bogdanov; V. Bradnova; V. I. Bubnov; T. H. Burnett; X. Cai; D. A. Carshiev; I. Y. Chasnikov; L. P. Chernova; M. M. Chernyavski; S. Dhamija; G. Z. Eligbaeva; L. E. Eremenko; A. S. Gaitinov; E. R. Ganssauge; S. Garpman; S. G. Gerassimov; C. Graf; J. Grote; K. G. Gulamov; S. K. Gupta; V. K. Gupta; B. Jakobsson; L. Just; S. Kachroo; G. S. Kalyachkina; E. K. Kanygina; M. Karabova; S. Kitroo; S. P. Kharlamov; A. D. Kovalenko; S. A. Krasnov; V. Kumar; V. G. Larionova; Y. D. Li; L. S. Liu; S. Lokanatan; J. J. Lord; N. S. Lukicheva; S. B. Luo; L. K. Mangotra; N. A. Marutyan; A. Y. Mashkov; N. V. Maslennikova; I. S. Mittra; S. Mokerjee; S. Z. Nasyrov; V. S. Navotny; J. Nystrand; M. Ochs; G. I. Orlova; I. Otterlund; L. S. Peak; N. G. Peresadko; N. V. Petrov; V. A. Plyushchev; V. V. Rusakova; W. Y. Qian; Y. M. Qin; R. Raniwala; N. K. Rao; M. Roeper; N. Saidkhanov; N. A. Salmanova; L. G. Sarkisova; V. R. Sarkisyan; G. S. Shabratova; A. M. Seitimbetov; C. I. Shakhova; S. N. Shpilev; D. Skelding; K. Söderström; Z. I. Solovjeva; E. Stenlund; L. N. Svechnikova; T. Svensson; M. Tothova; M. I. Tretyakova; T. P. Trofimova; U. I. Tuleeva; B. P. Tursunov; S. Vokal; J. Vrlakova; H. Q. Wang; Z. Q. Weng; R. J. Wilkes; Y. L. Xia; C. B. Yang; D. H. Zhang; P. Y. Zheng; S. I. Zhokhova; D. C. Zhou

    1995-01-01

    Charged particle pseudorapidity density distributions in Au induced reactions in nuclear emulsion at 10.7 A GeV have been measured. In peripheral events the shower particle distribution exhibits a two peak structure while in central collisions it has a Gaussian shape. The spectator protons appear in the second peak in the pseudorapidity spectra and exhibits a broader momentum distribution than expected

  9. Fluctuations in 21cm Emission After Reionization

    E-print Network

    Stuart Wyithe; Abraham Loeb

    2007-08-26

    The fluctuations in the emission of redshifted 21cm photons from neutral inter-galactic hydrogen will provide an unprecedented probe of the reionization era. Conventional wisdom assumes that this 21cm signal disappears as soon as reionization is complete, when little atomic hydrogen is left through most of the volume of the inter-galactic medium (IGM). However observations of damped Ly-alpha absorbers indicate that the fraction of hydrogen in its neutral form is significant by mass at all redshifts. Here we use a physically-motivated model to show that residual neutral gas, confined to dense regions in the IGM with a high recombination rate, will generate a significant post-reionization 21cm signal. We show that the power-spectrum of fluctuations in this signal will be detectable by the first generation of low-frequency observatories at a signal-to-noise that is comparable to that achievable in observations of the reionization era. The statistics of 21cm fluctuations will therefore probe not only the pre-reionization IGM, but rather the entire process of HII region overlap, as well as the appearance of the diffuse ionized IGM.

  10. The 21cm Power Spectrum After Reionization

    E-print Network

    Stuart Wyithe; Abraham Loeb

    2009-07-24

    We discuss the 21cm power spectrum (PS) following the completion of reionization. In contrast to the reionization era, this PS is proportional to the PS of mass density fluctuations, with only a small modulation due to fluctuations in the ionization field on scales larger than the mean-free-path of ionizing photons. We derive the form of this modulation, and demonstrate that its effect on the 21cm PS will be smaller than 1% for physically plausible models of damped Ly-alpha systems. In contrast to the 21cm PS observed prior to reionization, in which HII regions dominate the ionization structure, the simplicity of the 21cm PS after reionization will enhance its utility as a cosmological probe by removing the need to separate the PS into physical and astrophysical components. As a demonstration, we consider the Alcock-Paczynski test and show that the next generation of low-frequency arrays could measure the angular distortion of the PS at the percent level for z~3-5.

  11. The 20-cm Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manly, Peter L.

    1999-10-01

    List of illustrations; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. History and development of the 20-cm Schmidt-Cassegrain; 2. First observation - the Moon; 3. Planets, double stars and other bright things; 4. Deep sky; 5. A couple of interesting problems; 6. Some accessories for the telescope; 7. Observing with friends; 8. Projects; 9. Photography; 10. Photometers, computers, image intensifiers and television; 11. Afterword; Ten appendices; Index.

  12. Session Number Session Title Approved CM

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Session Number Session Title Number of Approved CM Credits Morning Plenary The End of Car Culture? Socio-Demographic Trends and Travel Demand 1.50 Session 1 Local Road Safety: Data Collection and Lessons Resilience 1.00 Session 6 Intersection Safety Strategies 1.25 Session 8 Understanding the Relationship

  13. Characterization of 8-cm engineering model thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    Development of 8 cm ion thruster technology which was conducted in support of the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) flight contract (Contract NAS3-21055) is discussed. The work included characterization of thruster performance, stability, and control; a study of the effects of cathode aging; environmental qualification testing; and cyclic lifetesting of especially critical thruster components.

  14. Chancellor's Memorandum CM-38 Substance Abuse Policy

    E-print Network

    Chancellor's Memorandum CM-38 ­ Substance Abuse Policy To: Vice Chancellors, Deans, Administrative and other LSUHSC-NO affiliated individuals may be adversely affected by engaging in substance abuse, or being under the influence of alcohol and the illegal use, abuse, possession, manufacture, dispensation

  15. Prediction of S-1-induced anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun Cheol Chung

    2009-01-01

    S-1, a novel oral fluoropyrimidine, has shown remarkably good tolerability in Korean gastric and colorectal cancer patients\\u000a due to its favorable safety profile. Myelosuppression and diarrhea were the events that precluded dose escalation in Japan,\\u000a whereas gastrointestinal toxicity and skin reaction were the major limiting factors in Western countries. In contrast, the\\u000a major adverse event in Korean patients was anemia,

  16. 1s1w11 2011 Splendiferous

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    's Best Kept Secret The Secretive Saga of a New Bar On Campus 11 The Third Degree Top notch (and totally1s1w11 2011 Splendiferous Splendour Bender The WhiTe house: uNsW's BesT KepT secreT roundhou of Splendour in the Grass highlights, or consider your career options on page 11 with a top notch timetable

  17. Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirocha, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation of global 21-cm signal measurements are detections of Lyman Alpha Emitters at high redshifts and constraints on the midpoint of reionization, both of which are among the primary science objectives of ongoing or near-future experiments.

  18. ICD-10-CM to ICD-10 Based on FY2014 ICD-10-CM codes

    Cancer.gov

    ICD-10-CM to ICD-10 Based on FY2014 ICD-10-CM codes REPORTABLE NEOPLASMS Category and subcategory codes are shaded in grey and marked with an ^ Cells shaded in pink and marked with an *indicate the preferred code when a single code maps to multiple codes

  19. ICD-10 to ICD-9-CM Based on FY2014 ICD-9-CM codes

    Cancer.gov

    ICD-10 to ICD-9-CM Based on FY2014 ICD-9-CM codes REPORTABLE NEOPLASMS Category and subcategory codes are shaded in grey and marked with an ^ Cells shaded in pink and marked with an *indicate the preferred code when a single code maps to multiple codes

  20. ICD-10 to ICD-10-CM Based on FY2014 ICD-10-CM codes

    Cancer.gov

    ICD-10 to ICD-10-CM Based on FY2014 ICD-10-CM codes REPORTABLE NEOPLASMS Category and subcategory codes are shaded in grey and marked with an ^ Cells shaded in pink and marked with an *indicate the preferred code when a single code maps to multiple codes

  1. Extended Performance 8-cm Mercury Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    A slightly modified 8-cm Hg ion thruster demonstrated significant increase in performance. Thrust was increased by almost a factor of five over that of the baseline thruster. Thruster operation with various three grid ion optics configurations; thruster performance as a function of accelerator grid open area, cathode baffle, and cathode orifice size; and a life test of 614 hours at a beam current of 250 mA (17.5 mN thrust) are discussed. Highest thruster efficiency was obtained with the smallest open area accelerator grid. The benefits in efficiency from the low neutral loss grids were mitigated, however, by the limitation such grids place on attainable ion beam current densities. The thruster components suffered negligible weight losses during a life test, which indicated that operation of the 8-cm thruster at extended levels of thrust and power is possible with no significant loss of lifetime.

  2. choose random r record (c,m)

    E-print Network

    Hagiya, Masami

    ,m) search for (c,m) (KeyGen, SID) adversary e e P' (Encrypt, SID, e, m) c (Decrypt, SID, c) m SID SID(P, SID(c) record (c, m) (KeyGen, SID) adversary e e P' (Encrypt, SID, e', m) c (Decrypt, SID, c) m || (P, SID') FPKE FPKE adversary e'P adversary c #12;(e, d) := G record d m := Dd(c) P (KeyGen, id) e P' (Encrypt

  3. ICD-10-CM/PCS: transferring knowledge from ICD-9-CM.

    PubMed

    Sand, Jaime N; Elison-Bowers, Patt

    2013-01-01

    The transition to ICD-10-CM/PCS has expanded educational opportunities for educators and trainers who are taking on the responsibility of training coders on the new system. Coding education currently faces multiple challenges in the areas of how to train the new workforce, what might be the most efficient method of providing that training, how much retraining of the current workforce with ICD-9-CM training will be required, and how to meet the national implementation deadline of 2014 in the most efficacious manner. This research sought to identify if there was a difference between a group of participants with no knowledge of ICD-9-CM and those with some knowledge of ICD-9-CM in scores on an ICD-10-CM/PCS quiz. Results indicate a difference, supporting the idea of knowledge transfer between the systems and providing additional insight into coding education. PMID:23861677

  4. Constraining DM through 21 cm observations

    E-print Network

    M. Valdes; A. Ferrara; M. Mapelli; E. Ripamonti

    2007-01-10

    Beyond reionization epoch cosmic hydrogen is neutral and can be directly observed through its 21 cm line signal. If dark matter (DM) decays or annihilates the corresponding energy input affects the hydrogen kinetic temperature and ionized fraction, and contributes to the Ly_alpha background. The changes induced by these processes on the 21 cm signal can then be used to constrain the proposed DM candidates, among which we select the three most popular ones: (i) 25-keV decaying sterile neutrinos, (ii) 10-MeV decaying light dark matter (LDM) and (iii) 10-MeV annihilating LDM. Although we find that the DM effects are considerably smaller than found by previous studies (due to a more physical description of the energy transfer from DM to the gas), we conclude that combined observations of the 21 cm background and of its gradient should be able to put constrains at least on LDM candidates. In fact, LDM decays (annihilations) induce differential brightness temperature variations with respect to the non decaying/annihilating DM case up to Delta_delta T_b=8 (22) mK at about 50 (15) MHz. In principle this signal could be detected both by current single dish radio telescopes and future facilities as LOFAR; however, this assumes that ionospheric, interference and foreground issues can be properly taken care of.

  5. Combustion of stratified hydrogen-air mixtures in the 10.7 m 3 combustion test facility cylinder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Whitehouse; D. R. Greig; G. W. Koroll

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from hydrogen concentration gradient combustion experiments in a 10.7 m3 cylinder. These gradients, also referred to as stratified mixtures, were formed from dry mixtures of hydrogen and air at atmospheric temperature. Combustion pressures, burn fractions and flame speeds in concentration gradients were compared with combustion of well-mixed gases containing equivalent amounts of hydrogen. The studied

  6. Enhanced FEC OSNR gains in dispersion-uncompensated 10.7Gb\\/s duobinary transmission over 200-km SSMF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang Liu; Zheng Zheng; Noriaki Kaneda; Xing Wei; Moncef Tayahi; Mahan Movassaghi; Stojan Radic; S. Chandrasekhar; David Levy

    2003-01-01

    We report the experimental comparison of 10.7-Gb\\/s duobinary transmissions using generic Reed-Solomon forward error correction (FEC) and an enhanced FEC. The coding gains of the two FECs after transmission over a dispersion-uncompensated 200-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) link are found to be much larger than those quoted in ideal case, with the enhanced FEC further outperforming the generic FEC by

  7. Isotope shifts in methane near 6000/cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, K.; Halsey, G. W.; Jennings, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Isotope shifts for cleanly resolved vibrational-rotational absorption lines of CH4-12 and CH4-13 were measured by a 5-m focal length Littrow spectrometer in the 6000/cm range. The methane isotopes were held in separate absorption cells: 20 torr of CH4-13 in a 1-m cell, and 5 torr of CH4-12 in a White cell of 4-m optical path length. Measured shifts for the cleanly resolved singlets R(0), R(1), Q(1) and P(1) are summarized in tabular form.

  8. Interaction of Integrin ?4 with S1P Receptors in S1P- and HGF-Induced Endothelial Barrier Enhancement†

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xiuqin; Epsthein, Yulia; Chen, Weiguo; Zhou, Tingting; Xie, Lishi; Garcia, Joe G.N.; Jacobson, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) augment EC barrier function and attenuate murine acute lung inury (ALI). While the mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood, S1P and HGF both transactivate the S1P receptor, S1PR1 and integrin ?4 (ITGB4) at membrane caveolin-enriched microdomains (CEMs). In the current study, we investigated the roles of S1PR2 and S1PR3 in S1P/HGF-mediated EC signaling and their associations with ITGB4. Our studies confirmed ITGB4 and S1PR2/3 are recruited to CEMs in human lung EC in response to either S1P (1 ?M, 5 min) or HGF (25 ng/ml, 5 min). Co-immunopreciptation experiments identified an S1P/HGF-mediated interaction of ITGB4 with both S1PR2 and S1PR3. We then employed an in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) to confirm a direct ITGB4-S1PR3 association induced by S1P/HGF although a direct association was not detectable between S1PR2 and ITGB4. S1PR1 knockdown (siRNA), however, abrogated S1P/HGF-induced ITGB4-S1PR2 associations while there was no effect on ITGB4-S1PR3 associations. Moreover, PLA confirmed a direct association between S1PR1 and S1PR2 induced by S1P and HGF. Finally, silencing of S1PR2 significantly attenuated S1P/HGF-induced EC barrier enhancement as measured by transendothelial resistance while silencing of S1PR3 significantly augmented S1P/HGF-induced barrier enhancement. These results confirm an important role for S1PR2 and S1PR3 in S1P/HGF-mediated EC barrier responses that are associated with their complex formation with ITGB4. Our findings elucidate novel mechanisms of EC barrier regulation that may ultimately lead to new therapeutic targets for disorders characterized by increased vascular permeability including ALI. PMID:24851274

  9. Photoexcitation study of the 4s 2S1/2 state of atomic sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiq, M.; Kalyar, M. A.; Baig, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    We report the first measurements of oscillator strengths for 4s 2S1/2 ? np 2P1/2,3/2 (19 <= n <= 57) Rydberg transitions in atomic sodium using a thermionic diode ion detector in conjunction with an Nd:YAG pumped dye laser system. The f-values have been calibrated with the measured photoionization cross-section from the 4s 2S1/2 excited state at the first ionization threshold as 0.65(0.10) Mb. The binding energy of the 4s 2S1/2 level is determined as 15 709.444(8) cm-1 by employing the Rydberg relation to the observed np 2P1/2,3/2 Rydberg series. Addition of the binding energy to the known energy of the 4s 2S1/2 level yields the first ionization potential of sodium as 41 449.44(1) cm-1, which is in excellent agreement with the recognized value.

  10. Complex multiplication Real multiplication On CM and RM constructions

    E-print Network

    Kohel, David R.

    Complex multiplication Real multiplication On CM and RM constructions of abelian surfaces David R 2009 #12;Complex multiplication Real multiplication On CM and RM constructions of abelian surfaces multiplication Real multiplication Contents 1 Complex multiplication CM overview Motivation: Number theory

  11. NASA 30 cm ion thruster development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Haag, Thomas W.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

    1995-03-01

    A 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster is under development at NASA to provide an ion propulsion option for missions of national interest and it is an element of the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness (NSTAR) program established to validate ion propulsion for space flight applications. The thruster has been developed to an engineering model level and it incorporates innovations in design, materials, and fabrication techniques compared to those employed to conventional ion thrusters. The performance of both functional and engineering model thrusters has been assessed including thrust stand measurements, over an input power range of 0.5-2.3 kW. Attributes of the engineering model thruster include an overall mass of 6.4 kg, and an efficiency of 65 percent and thrust of 93 mN at 2.3 kW input power. This paper discusses the design, performance, and lifetime expectations of the functional and engineering model thrusters under development at NASA.

  12. Will point sources spoil 21 cm tomography?

    E-print Network

    Adrian Liu; Max Tegmark; Matias Zaldarriaga

    2009-01-26

    21 cm tomography is emerging as a promising probe of the cosmological dark ages and the epoch of reionization, as well as a tool for observational cosmology in general. However, serious sources of foreground contamination must be subtracted for experimental efforts to be viable. In this paper, we focus on the removal of unresolved extragalactic point sources with smooth spectra, and evaluate how the residual foreground contamination after cleaning depends on instrumental and algorithmic parameters. A crucial but often ignored complication is that the synthesized beam of an interferometer array shrinks towards higher frequency, causing complicated frequency structure in each sky pixel as "frizz" far from the beam center contracts across unresolved radio sources. We find that current-generation experiments should nonetheless be able to clean out this points source contamination adequately, and quantify the instrumental and algorithmic design specifications required to meet this foreground challenge.

  13. 70-cm radar observations of 433 Eros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Pettengill, G. H.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1976-01-01

    Radar observations of 433 Eros were made at the Arecibo Observatory using a wavelength of 70 cm during the close approach of Eros to earth in mid-January, 1975. A peak radar cross section of plus or minus 15 sq km was observed. The spectral broadening obtained was approximately 30 Hz, which is consistent with a value of 16 km for the maximum radius of the asteroid. The surface of Eros appears to be relatively rough at the scale of a wavelength as compared to the surfaces of the terrestrial planets and the moon. The composition of the surface is not well determined, except that it cannot be a highly conducting metal. A single measurement each of round-trip echo times delay and Doppler shift was made.

  14. A New Galactic 6cm Formaldehyde Maser

    E-print Network

    E. Araya; P. Hofner; W. M. Goss; S. Kurtz; H. Linz; L. Olmi

    2006-04-17

    We report the detection of a new H2CO maser in the massive star forming region G23.71-0.20 (IRAS 18324-0820), i.e., the fifth region in the Galaxy where H2CO maser emission has been found. The new H2CO maser is located toward a compact HII region, and is coincident in velocity and position with 6.7 GHz methanol masers and with an IR source as revealed by Spitzer/IRAC GLIMPSE data. The coincidence with an IR source and 6.7 GHz methanol masers suggests that the maser is in close proximity to an embedded massive protostar. Thus, the detection of H2CO maser emission toward G23.71-0.20 supports the trend that H2CO 6cm masers trace molecular material very near young massive stellar objects.

  15. NASA 30 Cm Ion Thruster Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Haag, Thomas W.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster is under development at NASA to provide an ion propulsion option for missions of national interest and it is an element of the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness (NSTAR) program established to validate ion propulsion for space flight applications. The thruster has been developed to an engineering model level and it incorporates innovations in design, materials, and fabrication techniques compared to those employed to conventional ion thrusters. The performance of both functional and engineering model thrusters has been assessed including thrust stand measurements, over an input power range of 0.5-2.3 kW. Attributes of the engineering model thruster include an overall mass of 6.4 kg, and an efficiency of 65 percent and thrust of 93 mN at 2.3 kW input power. This paper discusses the design, performance, and lifetime expectations of the functional and engineering model thrusters under development at NASA.

  16. 21-cm Intensity Mapping with FAST

    E-print Network

    Smoot, George F

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a program to map large-scale cosmic structures on the largest possible scales by using FAST\\cite{Nan:2011} to make a 21-cm (red-shifted) Intensity Map of the sky for the range $0.5 swath of the sky by simple drift scans with a transverse set of beams. This approach would be competitive to galaxy surveys and could be completed before SKA could begin a more detailed and precise effort. The science would be to measure the large-scale structure on the size of the baryon acoustic oscillations and larger scale and the results would be competitive to its contemporary observations and signficant. The survey would be uniquely sensitive to the potential very large-scale features from GUT-scale Inflation and complementary to the CMB observations.

  17. The 30-cm ion thruster power processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, B. G.; Hopper, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A power processor unit for powering and controlling the 30 cm Mercury Electron-Bombardment Ion Thruster was designed, fabricated, and tested. The unit uses a unique and highly efficient transistor bridge inverter power stage in its implementation. The system operated from a 200 to 400 V dc input power bus, provides 12 independently controllable and closely regulated dc power outputs, and has an overall power conditioning capacity of 3.5 kW. Protective circuitry was incorporated as an integral part of the design to assure failure-free operation during transient and steady-state load faults. The implemented unit demonstrated an electrical efficiency between 91.5 and 91.9 at its nominal rated load over the 200 to 400 V dc input bus range.

  18. The Signatures of Particle Decay in 21 cm Absorption from the First Minihalos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Evgenii O.; Shchekinov, Yuri A.

    2013-11-01

    The imprint of decaying dark matter (DM) particles on the characteristics of the "21 cm forest"—absorption at 21 cm from minihalos in the spectra of distant radio-loud sources—is considered within a one-dimensional, self-consistent hydrodynamic description of minihalos from their turnaround point to virialization. The most pronounced influence of decaying DM on the evolution of minihalos is found in the mass range M = 105-106 M ?, for which unstable DM with a current upper limit on its ionization rate of ? L = 0.59 × 10-25 s-1 reduces the 21 cm optical depth by an order of magnitude compared with the standard recombination scenario. Even a rather modest ionization, ? ~ 0.3? L , practically erases absorption features and results in a considerable decrease (by factor of more than 2.5) of the number of strong (W_\

  19. Fabry-Perot Imaging of H 2 1--0 S(1), 2--1 S(1), and Brackett-Gamma Emission in the Orion Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usuda, Tomonori; Sugai, Hajime; Kawabata, Hironobu; Inoue, Motoko Y.; Kataza, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Masuo

    1996-06-01

    We obtained spectral maps of the central 6' × 8' (0.9 pc × 1.2 pc) region of the Orion Nebula. H2 v = 1-0 S(1), 2-1 S(1) [S(1) means J = 3-1], and Br? maps were obtained with the wide field Fabry-Perot imager at the Nasmyth focus of the Communications Research Laboratory 1.5 m telescope, FINAC. In the Bright Bar, a typical photodissociation region (PDR), the H2 2-1 S(1)/1-0 S(1) line ratio (? R2-1/1-0) is between 0.2 and 0.6 and has a tendency to be anticorrelated to the intensity of H2 1-0 S(1) [? I1-0 S(1)]. From a comparison of the observed R2-1/1-0 versus I1-0 S(1) relation with theoretical models, we conclude that the H2 thermal component in this region is due not to shock heating caused by the expansion of the H II region, but to the collisional de-excitation of the lower vibrational levels populated by cascade after UV pumping. Our results strongly suggest that the Bright Bar region is a PDR consisting of a medium density (˜104-105 cm-3) cloud and a small number of denser (?106 cm-3) clumps whose size is smaller than our spatial resolution (8" = 0.02 pc). We also find that the "south region" and "east region" of the Orion Nebula can be described as PDRs similar to the Bright Bar region. In the Orion KL region, a typical shocked gas of a bipolar outflow source, we find that R2-1/1-0 is independent of I1-0 S(1). R2-1/1-0 is ˜0.08 near the central area of KL, the curved bridgelike structure, and the finger-like filaments of the Orion KL region ("finger region"). On the other hand, R2-1/1-0 is ˜0.05 at the edge of the central area. The difference in the ratio suggests that high-velocity shocks exist at the center of KL, while low-velocity shocks surround the central area. The Orion S region contains some thermal H2 clumps which may be shock excited. The distribution of these shocked-H2 clumps, CO J = 2-1 clumps, and far-infrared sources suggests the existence of at least two sets of bipolar outflows associated with young stellar objects in this area. In a global view of the Orion Nebula, the compact distribution of Br? relative to H2 1-0 S(1) indicates the existence of a PDR surrounding the H II region. Moreover the intensity ratio H2 1-0 S(1) from PDRs (R2-1/1-0 ? 0.15; i.e., the PDR including dense molecular clumps) to Br? (?R1-0(PDR)/Br?) is 0.17. By comparing this value for Orion to those for starburst galaxies (cf. R1-0/Br? = 0.4-0.9), we conclude that the typical starburst region has larger H2-emitting areas surrounding H II regions and/or a later average spectral type for exciting stars than the Orion Nebula, if the H2 emission from starburst galaxies is predominantly fluorescent.

  20. Self-aligned Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Transistors with Mobility above 1 cm2 fabricated at 300o

    E-print Network

    stability under gate-bias stress [9-12]. In response we have been raising the a-Si:H TFT process temperature [17, 18]. We have used stress control to develop a crack-free TFT fabrication process at 300o CSelf-aligned Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Transistors with Mobility above 1 cm2 V-1 s-1 fabricated

  1. The 15 cm diameter ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The startup reliability of a 15 cm diameter mercury bombardment ion thruster which employs a pulsed high voltage tickler electrode on the main and neutralizer cathodes is examined. Startup of the thruster is achieved 100% of the time on the main cathode and 98.7% of the time on the neutralizer cathode over a 3640 cycle test. The thruster was started from a 20 C initial condition and operated for an hour at a 600 mA beam current. An energy efficiency of 75% and a propellant utilization efficiency of 77% was achieved over the complete cycle. The effect of a single cusp magnetic field thruster length on its performance is discussed. Guidelines are formulated for the shaping of magnetic field lines in thrusters. A model describing double ion production in mercury discharges is presented. The production route is shown to occur through the single ionic ground state. Photographs of the interior of an operating-hollow cathode are presented. A cathode spot is shown to be present if the cathode is free of low work-function surfaces. The spot is observed if a low work-function oxide coating is applied to the cathode insert. Results show that low work-function oxide coatings tend to migrate during thruster operation.

  2. 1.000"[2.54cm] 4.292"[10.9cm

    E-print Network

    Llope, William J.

    undue force. - PEM nuts and studs to be cleaned before installation in Top Assy. View D Perforations & LOWER BRACKET PEM STUDS TOFr5 TOP ASSY: TOP VIEW, BLIND HOLE POSITIONING FOR TAMP PEM STUDS (Upward.400"[56.896cm] Through Holes for PEM FHLS-632-16, Height 1", Stainless Steel Diameter: 0.137" +0.003" -0

  3. Search for heavy metastable particles decaying to jet pairs in pp? collisions at ?s=1.96??TeV

    E-print Network

    Bauer, Gerry P.

    A search is performed for heavy metastable particles that decay into jet pairs with a macroscopic lifetime (c??1??cm) in pp? collisions at ?s=1.96??TeV using data from the CDF II detector at Fermilab corresponding to an ...

  4. Overscreened Kondo fixed point in S = 1 spin liquid

    E-print Network

    Serbyn, Maksym

    We propose a possible realization of the overscreened Kondo impurity problem by a magnetic s = 1/2 impurity embedded in a two-dimensional S = 1 U(1) spin liquid with a Fermi surface. This problem contains an interesting ...

  5. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P{sub 1} receptor by a novel competitive S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yasuyuki, E-mail: y.fujii@po.rd.taisho.co.jp [Department of Molecular Function and Pharmacology Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 1-403 Saitama, Saitama 331-9530 (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Function and Pharmacology Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 1-403 Saitama, Saitama 331-9530 (Japan); Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi [Department of Molecular Function and Pharmacology Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 1-403 Saitama, Saitama 331-9530 (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Function and Pharmacology Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 1-403 Saitama, Saitama 331-9530 (Japan); Igarashi, Yasuyuki [Laboratory of Biomembrane and Biofunctional Chemistry, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Biomembrane and Biofunctional Chemistry, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Goitsuka, Ryo [Division of Development and Aging, Research Institute for Biological Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-0022 (Japan)] [Division of Development and Aging, Research Institute for Biological Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-0022 (Japan)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of a newly developed S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficacy of S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P{sub 1}) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P{sub 1} and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P{sub 1} antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  6. A sub-cm micromachined electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinerman, A. D.; Crewe, D. A.; Perng, D. C.; Shoaf, S. E.; Crewe, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new approach for fabricating macroscopic (approximately 10x10x10 mm(exp 3)) structures with micron accuracy has been developed. This approach combines the precision of semiconductor processing and fiber optic technologies. A (100) silicon wafer is anisotropically etched to create four orthogonal v-grooves and an aperture on each 10x12 mm die. Precision 308 micron optical fibers are sandwiched between the die to align the v-grooves. The fiber is then anodically bonded to the die above and below it. This procedure is repeated to create thick structures and a stack of 5 or 6 die will be used to create a miniature scanning electron microscope (MSEM). Two die in the structure will have a segmented electrode to deflect the beam and correct for astigmatism. The entire structure is UHV compatible. The performance of an SEM improves as its length is reduced and a sub-cm 2 keV MSEM with a field emission source should have approximately 1 nm resolution. A low voltage high resolution MSEM would be useful for the examination of biological specimens and semiconductors with a minimum of damage. The first MSEM will be tested with existing 6 micron thermionic sources. In the future a micromachined field emission source will be used. The stacking technology presented in this paper can produce an array of MSEMs 1 to 30 mm in length with a 1 mm or larger period. A key question being addressed by this research is the optimum size for a low voltage MSEM which will be determined by the required spatial resolution, field of view, and working distance.

  7. Study of ?(3S,2S)???(1S) and ?(3S,2S)??+?-?(1S) hadronic transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Bondioli, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Stoker, D. P.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Rakitin, A. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Dubrovin, M. S.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Spaan, B.; Kobel, M. J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Nicolaci, M.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Edwards, A. J.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Uwer, U.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Ebert, M.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; Behn, E.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Sciolla, G.; Lindemann, D.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Schram, M.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Nguyen, X.; Taras, P.; de Nardo, G.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Feltresi, E.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Sitt, S.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Pacetti, S.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Piredda, G.; Bünger, C.; Grünberg, O.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Li, S.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; Ofte, I.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yarritu, A. K.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Benitez, J. F.; Burchat, P. R.; Miyashita, T. S.

    2011-11-01

    We study the ?(3S,2S)???(1S) and ?(3S,2S)??+?-?(1S) transitions with 122×106?(3S) and 100×106?(2S) mesons collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. We measure B[?(2S)???(1S)]=(2.39±0.31(stat.)±0.14(syst.))×10-4 and ?[?(2S)???(1S)]/?[?(2S)??+?-?(1S)]=(1.35±0.17(stat.)±0.08(syst.))×10-3. We find no evidence for ?(3S)???(1S) and obtain B[?(3S)???(1S)]<1.0×10-4 and ?[?(3S)???(1S)]/?[?(3S)??+?-?(1S)]<2.3×10-3 as upper limits at the 90% confidence level. We also provide improved measurements of the ?(2S)-?(1S) and ?(3S)-?(1S) mass differences, 562.170±0.007(stat.)±0.088(syst.)MeV/c2 and 893.813±0.015(stat.)±0.107(syst.)MeV/c2, respectively.

  8. Policy S-1.04 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

    E-print Network

    Mazzotti, Frank

    with the College. Print both text and graphics sent through the Internet as e-mails, e-mail attachments, or download files from the Internet. #12;Policy S-1.04 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA COLLEGE OF NURSING SPolicy S-1.04 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA COLLEGE OF NURSING S:\\EVERYONE\\CON-Policies\\S- Student\\S-1(GEN

  9. Screening and identification of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain S1/4 with large and efficient insecticidal activities.

    PubMed

    Sellami, Sameh; Zghal, Taheni; Cherif, Maroua; Zalila-Kolsi, Imen; Jaoua, Samir; Jamoussi, Kaïs

    2013-06-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis was recognized for its entomopathogenic activities related to Cry and Cyt proteins forming the ?-endotoxins and some extracellular activities like the vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIP) and Cry1I. These activities may act specifically against diverse organisms and some of them typically characterize each strain. Here, we screened a set of 212 B. thuringiensis strains to search the higher insecticidal activities. These strains had bipyramidal and cubic crystal morphologies and 30% of them showed PCR amplification of vip3 internal region, from which five isolates (S1/4, S17, S122, S123, and S144) showed plasmid profile variability. These five strains contained the cry1I, cry1Aa and/or cry1Ac, cry1Ab and cry2 genes, and S1/4 harbored in addition the cry1C, vip1, and vip2 genes. They produced from 25 to 46 µg ?-endotoxin per 10(7) spores. Their ?-endotoxins displayed distinct lethal concentrations 50% against either Spodoptera littoralis or Ephestia kuehniella larvae with the lowest one for S1/4, which was also active against Tuta absoluta. Fortunately, the analysis of the culture supernatants revealed that S1/4 had the higher toxicity towards these lepidopteron but it did not show any toxicity against the Tribolium castaneum coleopteran larvae; additionally, S1/4 displayed an antibacterial activity. S1/4 is a good candidate for agricultural pest control, as it is more efficient than the reference strain HD1. PMID:22915162

  10. The elusive S2 state, the S1/S2 splitting, and the excimer states of the benzene dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmer, Franziska A.; Trachsel, Maria A.; van der Avoird, Ad; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-06-01

    We observe the weak S0 ? S2 transitions of the T-shaped benzene dimers (Bz)2 and (Bz-d6)2 about 250 cm-1 and 220 cm-1 above their respective S0 ? S1 electronic origins using two-color resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. Spin-component scaled (SCS) second-order approximate coupled-cluster (CC2) calculations predict that for the tipped T-shaped geometry, the S0 ? S2 electronic oscillator strength fel(S2) is ˜10 times smaller than fel(S1) and the S2 state lies ˜240 cm-1 above S1, in excellent agreement with experiment. The S0 ? S1 (???) transition is mainly localized on the "stem" benzene, with a minor stem ? cap charge-transfer contribution; the S0 ? S2 transition is mainly localized on the "cap" benzene. The orbitals, electronic oscillator strengths fel(S1) and fel(S2), and transition frequencies depend strongly on the tipping angle ? between the two Bz moieties. The SCS-CC2 calculated S1 and S2 excitation energies at different T-shaped, stacked-parallel and parallel-displaced stationary points of the (Bz)2 ground-state surface allow to construct approximate S1 and S2 potential energy surfaces and reveal their relation to the "excimer" states at the stacked-parallel geometry. The fel(S1) and fel(S2) transition dipole moments at the C2v-symmetric T-shape, parallel-displaced and stacked-parallel geometries are either zero or ˜10 times smaller than at the tipped T-shaped geometry. This unusual property of the S0 ? S1 and S0 ? S2 transition-dipole moment surfaces of (Bz)2 restricts its observation by electronic spectroscopy to the tipped and tilted T-shaped geometries; the other ground-state geometries are impossible or extremely difficult to observe. The S0 ? S1/S2 spectra of (Bz)2 are compared to those of imidazole ? (Bz)2, which has a rigid triangular structure with a tilted (Bz)2 subunit. The S0 ? S1/ S2 transitions of imidazole-(benzene)2 lie at similar energies as those of (Bz)2, confirming our assignment of the (Bz)2 S0 ? S2 transition.

  11. The elusive S2 state, the S1/S2 splitting, and the excimer states of the benzene dimer.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Franziska A; Trachsel, Maria A; van der Avoird, Ad; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-06-21

    We observe the weak S0 ? S2 transitions of the T-shaped benzene dimers (Bz)2 and (Bz-d6)2 about 250 cm(-1) and 220 cm(-1) above their respective S0 ? S1 electronic origins using two-color resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. Spin-component scaled (SCS) second-order approximate coupled-cluster (CC2) calculations predict that for the tipped T-shaped geometry, the S0 ? S2 electronic oscillator strength fel(S2) is ?10 times smaller than fel(S1) and the S2 state lies ?240 cm(-1) above S1, in excellent agreement with experiment. The S0 ? S1 (??(?)) transition is mainly localized on the "stem" benzene, with a minor stem ? cap charge-transfer contribution; the S0 ? S2 transition is mainly localized on the "cap" benzene. The orbitals, electronic oscillator strengths fel(S1) and fel(S2), and transition frequencies depend strongly on the tipping angle ? between the two Bz moieties. The SCS-CC2 calculated S1 and S2 excitation energies at different T-shaped, stacked-parallel and parallel-displaced stationary points of the (Bz)2 ground-state surface allow to construct approximate S1 and S2 potential energy surfaces and reveal their relation to the "excimer" states at the stacked-parallel geometry. The fel(S1) and fel(S2) transition dipole moments at the C2v-symmetric T-shape, parallel-displaced and stacked-parallel geometries are either zero or ?10 times smaller than at the tipped T-shaped geometry. This unusual property of the S0 ? S1 and S0 ? S2 transition-dipole moment surfaces of (Bz)2 restricts its observation by electronic spectroscopy to the tipped and tilted T-shaped geometries; the other ground-state geometries are impossible or extremely difficult to observe. The S0 ? S1/S2 spectra of (Bz)2 are compared to those of imidazole ? (Bz)2, which has a rigid triangular structure with a tilted (Bz)2 subunit. The S0 ? S1/ S2 transitions of imidazole-(benzene)2 lie at similar energies as those of (Bz)2, confirming our assignment of the (Bz)2 S0 ? S2 transition. PMID:26093558

  12. S1P/S1P1 signaling stimulates cell migration and invasion in Wilms tumor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei-Hong; Sanchez, Teresa; Yamase, Harold; Hla, Timothy; Oo, Myat Lin; Pappalardo, Anna; Lynch, Kevin R.; Lin, Chen-Yong; Ferrer, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is an important regulator of cellular functions via interaction with its receptors S1P1–5. To date, nothing is known about the S1P receptor expression and the effects of S1P signaling in Wilms tumor. In this study, we found ubiquitous expression of S1P receptors in Wilms tumor specimens and cell lines. We demonstrated that S1P1 acted as a promigratory modulator by employing S1P1 antagonist VPC44116, S1P1 siRNA and adenoviral transduction in Wilms tumor cells. Further, we clarified that S1P1-mediated migration occurred via Gi coupling and activation of PI3K and Rac1. In addition, S1P stimulated WiT49 cell invasion through S1P1/Gi signaling pathway. We consider that targeting S1P1 may be a point of therapeutic intervention in Wilms tumor. PMID:19131156

  13. Macronized Vowels on a Mac (OS X 10.6 & 10.7) In order to type macrons using an Apple Macintosh you must make some

    E-print Network

    Keegan, Te Taka

    1 Macronized Vowels on a Mac (OS X 10.6 & 10.7) In order to type macrons using an Apple Macintosh. Choose System Preferences from the Apple Menu. 2. From the System Preferences Window click on Language

  14. Albumin modulates S1P delivery from red blood cells in perfused microvessels: mechanism of the protein effect

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, R. H.; Clark, J. F.; Radeva, M.; Kheirolomoom, A.; Ferrara, K. W.

    2014-01-01

    Removal of plasma proteins from perfusates increases vascular permeability. The common interpretation of the action of albumin is that it forms part of the permeability barrier by electrostatic binding to the endothelial glycocalyx. We tested the alternate hypothesis that removal of perfusate albumin in rat venular microvessels decreased the availability of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which is normally carried in plasma bound to albumin and lipoproteins and is required to maintain stable baseline endothelial barriers (Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 303: H825–H834, 2012). Red blood cells (RBCs) are a primary source of S1P in the normal circulation. We compared apparent albumin permeability coefficients [solute permeability (Ps)] measured using perfusates containing albumin (10 mg/ml, control) and conditioned by 20-min exposure to rat RBCs with Ps when test perfusates were in RBC-conditioned protein-free Ringer solution. The control perfusate S1P concentration (439 ± 46 nM) was near the normal plasma value at 37°C and established a stable baseline Ps (0.9 ± 0.4 × 10?6 cm/s). Ringer solution perfusate contained 52 ± 8 nM S1P and increased Ps more than 10-fold (16.1 ± 3.9 × 10?6 cm/s). Consistent with albumin-dependent transport of S1P from RBCs, S1P concentrations in RBC-conditioned solutions decreased as albumin concentration, hematocrit, and temperature decreased. Protein-free Ringer solution perfusates that used liposomes instead of RBCs as flow markers failed to maintain normal permeability, reproducing the “albumin effect” in these mammalian microvessels. We conclude that the albumin effect depends on the action of albumin to facilitate the release and transport of S1P from RBCs that normally provide a significant amount of S1P to the endothelium. PMID:24531813

  15. Albumin modulates S1P delivery from red blood cells in perfused microvessels: mechanism of the protein effect.

    PubMed

    Adamson, R H; Clark, J F; Radeva, M; Kheirolomoom, A; Ferrara, K W; Curry, F E

    2014-04-01

    Removal of plasma proteins from perfusates increases vascular permeability. The common interpretation of the action of albumin is that it forms part of the permeability barrier by electrostatic binding to the endothelial glycocalyx. We tested the alternate hypothesis that removal of perfusate albumin in rat venular microvessels decreased the availability of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which is normally carried in plasma bound to albumin and lipoproteins and is required to maintain stable baseline endothelial barriers (Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 303: H825-H834, 2012). Red blood cells (RBCs) are a primary source of S1P in the normal circulation. We compared apparent albumin permeability coefficients [solute permeability (Ps)] measured using perfusates containing albumin (10 mg/ml, control) and conditioned by 20-min exposure to rat RBCs with Ps when test perfusates were in RBC-conditioned protein-free Ringer solution. The control perfusate S1P concentration (439 ± 46 nM) was near the normal plasma value at 37 °C and established a stable baseline Ps (0.9 ± 0.4 × 10(-6) cm/s). Ringer solution perfusate contained 52 ± 8 nM S1P and increased Ps more than 10-fold (16.1 ± 3.9 × 10(-6) cm/s). Consistent with albumin-dependent transport of S1P from RBCs, S1P concentrations in RBC-conditioned solutions decreased as albumin concentration, hematocrit, and temperature decreased. Protein-free Ringer solution perfusates that used liposomes instead of RBCs as flow markers failed to maintain normal permeability, reproducing the "albumin effect" in these mammalian microvessels. We conclude that the albumin effect depends on the action of albumin to facilitate the release and transport of S1P from RBCs that normally provide a significant amount of S1P to the endothelium. PMID:24531813

  16. Solubility of methane in heavy normal paraffins at temperatures from 323 to 423 K and pressures to 10. 7 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Darwish, N.A.; Fathikalajahi, J.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Robinson, R.L. Jr. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Solubility data are presented for methane in four heavy normal paraffins at temperatures from 323 to 423 K and pressures up to 10.7 MPa. The paraffins studied are eicosane (n-C[sub 20]), octacosane(n-C[sub 28]), hexatriacontane (n-C[sub 36]), and tetratetracontane (n-C[sub 44]). The data obtained for the solubility of methane in n-C[sub 20], n-C[sub 28], and n-C[sub 36] are in good agreement with the earlier measurements of Chao and co-workers. The new data can be described with RMS errors of about 0.001 in mole fraction by the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) or Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state when two interaction parameters per isotherm are used. Henry's constants and partial molar volumes at infinite dilution for methane have also been evaluated from the data.

  17. The Evolution of 10-7 to 10-8 Yr Old K0-K2 Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambruster, Carol W.

    Most of the cool dwarfs in the interesting age range 10^7 - 10^8 yr are too faint for IUE, yet such stars are critically important from the viewpoint of stellar evolution. Among stars of this age are the Pleiades K dwarfs, some of which appear to be on the main sequence, and some of which are still arriving there. Over the last few years, we have worked to increase the number of cool stars in this age range in the IUE archives which, in 1988, numbered only 2. We have since added 4 more stars to the list, and some very preliminary results are emerging. Now there is an exceptional opportunity to look at more comprehensive questions such as the rotation-activity connection, and the evolution of variablity properties and atmospheric structure for 10^7-10^8 yr old K dwarfs. We have discovered a small, but important sample of 4 very young, solar neighborhood K dwarfs which are essentially identical in all stelllar parameters except rotation rate. The stars are all singel, are all between spectral types K0-K2, and all have comparable very high Li abundances, and young disk space motions. Their periods range from 1.66 to 5.36 days. Also within the solar neighborhood is a single, K1V member of the Hyades supercluster, approximately ten times older than the 4 other stars (P ~ 11 days), which will provide an important comparison. Finally, in order to understand the energy balance in the atmosphere of early ZAMS stars, we will supplement the IUE observations with observations at other wavelengths (optical, ROSAT) with the goal of obtaining at least 1 simultaneous atmospheric profile of each star.

  18. Nature and degree of aqueous alteration in CM and CI carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takir, Driss; Emery, Joshua P.; McSween, Harry Y.; Hibbitts, Charles A.; Clark, Roger N.; Pearson, Neil; Wang, Alian

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the petrologic, geochemical, and spectral parameters that relate to the type and degree of aqueous alteration in nine CM chondrites and one CI (Ivuna) carbonaceous chondrite. Our underlying hypothesis is that the position and shape of the 3 ?m band is diagnostic of phyllosilicate mineralogy. We measured reflectance spectra of the chondrites under dry conditions (elevated temperatures) and vacuum (10-8 to 10-7 torr) to minimize adsorbed water and mimic the space environment, for subsequent comparison with reflectance spectra of asteroids. We have identified three spectral CM groups in addition to Ivuna. "Group 1," the least altered group as determined from various alteration indices, is characterized by 3 ?m band centers at longer wavelengths, and is consistent with cronstedtite (Fe-serpentine). "Group 3," the most altered group, is characterized by 3 ?m band centers at shorter wavelengths and is consistent with antigorite (serpentine). "Group 2" is an intermediate group between group 1 and 3. Ivuna exhibits a unique spectrum that is distinct from the CM meteorites and is consistent with lizardite and chrysotile (serpentine). The petrologic and geochemical parameters, which were determined using electron microprobe analyses and microscopic observations, are found to be consistent with the three spectral groups. These results indicate that the distinct parent body aqueous alteration environments experienced by these carbonaceous chondrites can be distinguished using reflectance spectroscopy. High-quality ground-based telescopic observations of Main Belt asteroids can be expected to reveal not just whether an asteroid is hydrated, but also details of the alteration state.

  19. Universal Index Theorem on $Mob(S^1)\\Diff_+(S^1)$

    E-print Network

    Lee-Peng Teo

    2006-11-24

    By conformal welding, there is a pair of univalent functions $(f,g)$ associated to every point of the complex K\\"ahler manifold $\\Mob(S^1)\\bk\\Diff_+(S^1)$. For every integer $n\\geq 1$, we generalize the definition of Faber polynomials to define some canonical bases of holomorphic $1-n$ and $n$ differentials associated to the pair $(f,g)$. Using these bases, we generalize the definition of Grunsky matrices to define matrices whose columns are the coefficients of the differentials with respect to standard bases of differentials on the unit disc and the exterior unit disc. We derive some identities among these matrices which are reminiscent of the Grunsky equality. By using these identities, we showed that we can define the Fredholm determinants of the period matrices of holomorphic $n$ differentials $N_n$, which are the Gram matrices of the canonical bases of holomorphic $n$-differentials with respect to the inner product given by the hyperbolic metric. Finally we proved that $\\det N_n =(\\det N_1)^{6n^2-6n+1}$ and $\\pa\\bar{\\pa}\\log\\det N_n$ is $-(6n^2-6n+1)/(6\\pi i)$ of the Weil-Petersson symplectic form.

  20. Lack of Ribosomal Protein S1 in Bacillus stearothermophilus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsumi Isono; Setsuko Isono

    1976-01-01

    The 30S ribosomal subunit of Bacillus stearothermophilus migrated as a single band when electrophoresed on agarose-acrylamide composite gels. The addition of the ribosomal protein S1 purified from Escherichia coli resulted in the appearance of an additional band migrating more slowly; 14C-labeled S1 of E. coli was shown to be associated only with this form. Antibody against E. coli protein S1

  1. Interaction of Escherichia coli Ribosomal Protein S1 with Ribosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Draper; Peter H. von Hippel

    1979-01-01

    The binding affinity of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S1 for 30S ribosomal particles has been determined by a sucrose gradient band sedimentation technique; the association constant (K) for the binding of one S1 protein per active 30S ribosomal subunit is ≈ 2 × 108 M-1. The involvement of the two polynucleotide binding sites of S1 protein (site I binding single-stranded

  2. Search for the decays B0d-->mu+mu- and B0s-->mu+mu- in pp¯ collisions at s=1.8 TeV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Abe; H. Akimoto; A. Akopian; M. G. Albrow; A. Amadon; S. R. Amendolia; D. Amidei; J. Antos; S. Aota; G. Apollinari; T. Arisawa; T. Asakawa; W. Ashmanskas; M. Atac; P. Azzi-Bacchetta; N. Bacchetta; S. Bagdasarov; M. W. Bailey; P. de Barbaro; A. Barbaro-Galtieri; V. E. Barnes; B. A. Barnett; M. Barone; G. Bauer; T. Baumann; F. Bedeschi; S. Behrends; S. Belforte; G. Bellettini; J. Bellinger; D. Benjamin; J. Bensinger; A. Beretvas; J. P. Berge; J. Berryhill; S. Bertolucci; S. Bettelli; B. Bevensee; A. Bhatti; K. Biery; C. Bigongiari; M. Binkley; D. Bisello; R. E. Blair; C. Blocker; S. Blusk; A. Bodek; W. Bokhari; G. Bolla; Y. Bonushkin; D. Bortoletto; J. Boudreau; L. Breccia; C. Bromberg; N. Bruner; R. Brunetti; E. Buckley-Geer; H. S. Budd; K. Burkett; G. Busetto; A. Byon-Wagner; K. L. Byrum; M. Campbell; A. Caner; W. Carithers; D. Carlsmith; J. Cassada; A. Castro; D. Cauz; A. Cerri; P. S. Chang; H. Y. Chao; J. Chapman; M.-T. Cheng; M. Chertok; G. Chiarelli; C. N. Chiou; L. Christofek; M. L. Chu; S. Cihangir; A. G. Clark; M. Cobal; E. Cocca; M. Contreras; J. Conway; J. Cooper; M. Cordelli; D. Costanzo; C. Couyoumtzelis; D. Cronin-Hennessy; R. Culbertson; D. Dagenhart; T. Daniels; F. Dejongh; S. dell'agnello; M. dell'orso; R. Demina; L. Demortier; M. Deninno; P. F. Derwent; T. Devlin; J. R. Dittmann; S. Donati; J. Done; T. Dorigo; N. Eddy; K. Einsweiler; J. E. Elias; R. Ely; E. Engels; W. Erdmann; D. Errede; S. Errede; Q. Fan; R. G. Feild; Z. Feng; C. Ferretti; I. Fiori; B. Flaugher; G. W. Foster; M. Franklin; J. Freeman; J. Friedman; Y. Fukui; S. Gadomski; S. Galeotti; M. Gallinaro; O. Ganel; M. Garcia-Sciveres; A. F. Garfinkel; C. Gay; S. Geer; D. W. Gerdes; P. Giannetti; N. Giokaris; P. Giromini; G. Giusti; M. Gold; A. Gordon; A. T. Goshaw; Y. Gotra; K. Goulianos; H. Grassmann; L. Groer; C. Grosso-Pilcher; G. Guillian; J. Guimaraes da Costa; R. S. Guo; C. Haber; E. Hafen; S. R. Hahn; T. Handa; R. Handler; F. Happacher; K. Hara; A. D. Hardman; R. M. Harris; F. Hartmann; J. Hauser; E. Hayashi; J. Heinrich; W. Hao; B. Hinrichsen; K. D. Hoffman; M. Hohlmann; C. Holck; R. Hollebeek; L. Holloway; Z. Huang; B. T. Huffman; R. Hughes; J. Huston; J. Huth; H. Ikeda; M. Incagli; J. Incandela; G. Introzzi; J. Iwai; Y. Iwata; E. James; H. Jensen; U. Joshi; E. Kajfasz; H. Kambara; T. Kamon; T. Kaneko; K. Karr; H. Kasha; Y. Kato; T. A. Keaffaber; K. Kelley; R. D. Kennedy; R. Kephart; D. Kestenbaum; D. Khazins; T. Kikuchi; B. J. Kim; H. S. Kim; S. H. Kim; Y. K. Kim; L. Kirsch; S. Klimenko; D. Knoblauch; P. Koehn; A. Köngeter; K. Kondo; J. Konigsberg; K. Kordas; A. Korytov; E. Kovacs; W. Kowald; J. Kroll; M. Kruse; S. E. Kuhlmann; E. Kuns; K. Kurino; T. Kuwabara; A. T. Laasanen; I. Nakano; S. Lami; S. Lammel; J. I. Lamoureux; M. Lancaster; M. Lanzoni; G. Latino; T. Lecompte; S. Leone; P. Limon; M. Lindgren; T. M. Liss; J. B. Liu; Y. C. Liu; N. Lockyer; O. Long; C. Loomis; M. Loreti; D. Lucchesi; P. Lukens; S. Lusin; J. Lys; K. Maeshima; P. Maksimovic; M. Mangano; M. Mariotti; J. P. Marriner; A. Martin; J. A. Matthews; P. Mazzanti; P. McIntyre; P. Melese; M. Menguzzato; A. Menzione; E. Meschi; S. Metzler; C. Miao; T. Miao; G. Michail; R. Miller; H. Minato; S. Miscetti; M. Mishina; S. Miyashita; N. Moggi; E. Moore; Y. Morita; A. Mukherjee; T. Muller; P. Murat; S. Murgia; H. Nakada; C. Nelson; D. Neuberger; C. Newman-Holmes; C.-Y. P. Ngan; L. Nodulman; S. H. Oh; T. Ohmoto; T. Ohsugi; R. Oishi; M. Okabe; T. Okusawa; J. Olsen; C. Pagliarone; R. Paoletti; V. Papadimitriou; S. P. Pappas; N. Parashar; A. Parri; J. Patrick; G. Pauletta; M. Paulini; A. Perazzo; L. Pescara; M. D. Peters; T. J. Phillips; G. Piacentino; M. Pillai; K. T. Pitts; R. Plunkett; L. Pondrom; J. Proudfoot; F. Ptohos; G. Punzi; K. Ragan; D. Reher; M. Reischl; A. Ribon; F. Rimondi; L. Ristori; W. J. Robertson; T. Rodrigo; S. Rolli; L. Rosenson; R. Roser; T. Saab; W. K. Sakumoto; D. Saltzberg; A. Sansoni; L. Santi; H. Sato; P. Schlabach; E. E. Schmidt; M. P. Schmidt; A. Scott; A. Scribano; S. Segler; S. Seidel; Y. Seiya; F. Semeria; T. Shah; M. D. Shapiro; N. M. Shaw; P. F. Shepard; T. Shibayama; M. Shimojima; M. Shochet; J. Siegrist; A. Sill; P. Sinervo; P. Singh; K. Sliwa; C. Smith; F. D. Snider; J. Spalding; T. Speer; P. Sphicas; F. Spinella; M. Spiropulu; L. Spiegel; L. Stanco; J. Steele; A. Stefanini; R. Ströhmer; J. Strologas; F. Strumia; D. Stuart; K. Sumorok; J. Suzuki; T. Suzuki; T. Takahashi; T. Takano; R. Takashima; K. Takikawa; M. Tanaka; B. Tannenbaum; F. Tartarelli; W. Taylor; M. Tecchio; P. K. Teng; Y. Teramoto; K. Terashi; S. Tether; D. Theriot; T. L. Thomas; R. Thurman-Keup; M. Timko; P. Tipton; A. Titov; S. Tkaczyk; D. Toback; K. Tollefson; A. Tollestrup; H. Toyoda; W. Trischuk; J. F. de Troconiz; S. Truitt; J. Tseng; N. Turini; T. Uchida; F. Ukegawa; J. Valls; S. C. van den Brink; S. Vejcik; G. Velev; R. Vidal; R. Vilar; D. Vucinic

    1998-01-01

    We present a search for the flavor-changing neutral current decays B0d-->mu+mu- and B0s-->mu+mu- in pp¯ collisions at s=1.8 TeV, using 98 pb-1 of data collected at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We find one candidate event for these decays, which is consistent with the background estimates, and set upper limits on the branching fractions of B(B0d-->mu+mu-)<8.6×10-7 and B(B0s-->mu+mu-)<2.6×10-6 at 95%

  3. Reverse bias voltage testing of 8 cm x 8cm silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woike, T.; Stotlar, S.; Lungu, C.

    1991-01-01

    A study is described of the reverse I-V characteristics of the largest space qualified silicon solar cells currently available (8 x 8 cm) and of reverse bias voltage (RBV) testing performed on these cells. This study includes production grade cells, both with and without cover glass. These cells span the typical output range seen in production. Initial characteristics of these cells are measured at both 28 and 60 C. These measurements show weak correlation between cell output and reverse characteristics. Analysis is presented to determine the proper conditions for RBV stress to simulate shadowing effects on a particular array design. After performing the RBV stress the characteristics of the stressed cells are remeasured. The degradation in cell performance is highly variable which exacerbates cell mismatching over time. The effect of this degradation on array lifetime is also discussed. Generalization of these results to other array configurations is also presented.

  4. Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)? thin film solar cell with 10.7% conversion efficiency obtained by selenization of the Na-doped spray-pyrolyzed sulfide precursor film.

    PubMed

    Septina, Wilman; Kurihara, Masaaki; Ikeda, Shigeru; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Hirano, Toshiyuki; Kawasaki, Yoshihito; Harada, Takashi; Matsumura, Michio

    2015-04-01

    Selenium-rich Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSSe) thin films on an Mo-coated soda-lime glass substrate were fabricated by spray pyrolysis of an aqueous precursor solution containing Cu(NO3)2, In(NO3)3, Ga(NO3)3, and thiourea followed by selenization at 560 °C for 10 min. We studied the effects of intentional sodium addition on the structural and morphological properties of the fabricated CIGSSe films by dissolving NaNO3 in the aqueous precursor solution. The addition of sodium was found to affect the morphology of the final CIGSSe film: the film had denser morphology than that of the CIGSSe film obtained without addition of NaNO3. Photoelectrochemical measurements also revealed that the acceptor density of the nondoped CIGSSe film was relatively high (N(a) = 7.2 × 10(17) cm(-3)) and the addition of sodium led to a more favorable value for solar cell application (N(a) = 1.8 × 10(17) cm(-3)). As a result, a solar cell based on the sodium-modified CIGSSe film exhibited maximum conversion efficiency of 8.8%, which was significantly higher than that of the cell based on nondoped CIGSSe (4.4%). In addition, by applying MgF2 antireflection coating to the device, the maximum efficiency was further improved to 10.7%. PMID:25774908

  5. Supplemental Data S1 Reverse Evolution of Armor Plates

    E-print Network

    Bolnick, Daniel I.

    Supplemental Data S1 Reverse Evolution of Armor Plates in the Threespine Stickleback Jun Kitano not changed significantly over the last 50 years [S1, S2], the rapid increase in armor plates in Lake cause of rapid armor evolution. Experimental Procedures Morphological Analysis All 2005­2007 samples

  6. Experimental determination of kQ factors for cylindrical ionization chambers in 10?cm × 10?cm and 3?cm × 3?cm photon beams from 4?MV to 25?MV.

    PubMed

    Krauss, A; Kapsch, R P

    2014-08-01

    For the ionometric determination of absorbed dose to water, Dw, in megavoltage photon beams from a linear accelerator, beam-quality-dependent correction factors, kQ, are used for the ionization chambers. By using a water calorimeter, these factors can be determined experimentally and with substantially lower standard uncertainties compared to calculated values of the kQ, which are published in various dosimetry protocols. In this investigation, kQ for different types of cylindrical ionization chambers (NE 2561, NE 2571, FC 65?G) were determined experimentally in 10?cm × 10?cm photon beams from 4?MV to 25?MV (corresponding beam quality index TPR20,10 from 0.64 to 0.80). The measurements were carried out at the linear accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. It is shown that the kQ factors for a single ionization chamber in 10?cm × 10?cm photon beams can be measured with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.31%. In addition to these measurements in 10?cm × 10?cm fields, kQ factors for the NE 2561 chamber were also determined in smaller 3?cm × 3?cm photon beams between 6?MV and 25?MV. In this case, relative standard uncertainties between 0.35 % and 0.38 % are achieved for the kQ factors. It is found for this ionization chamber, that the ratio of the kQ factors in 3?cm × 3?cm and in 10?cm × 10?cm beams increases with increasing TPR20,10 to reach a value of 1.0095 at TPR20,10 = 0.8 with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.4 %. PMID:25017482

  7. Possible Existence of Cm247 or Its Daughters in Nature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Diamond; A. M. Friedman; J. E. Gindler; P. R. Fields

    1957-01-01

    The absence of any detectable Pu243 daughter activity in a sample of curium containing two micrograms of Cm247 indicates that the alpha half-life of Cm247 exceeds 4×107 years and probably exceeds 9×107 years. The possibilities of finding Cm247 in nature and of finding high U235: U238 ratios in very old rare-earth minerals are discussed.

  8. Lessons Learned From CM-2 Modal Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Carney, Kelly S.; Otten, Kim D.

    2002-01-01

    The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that launches on Shuttle mission STS-107 in the SPACEHAB Double Research Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is installed into SPACEHAB single and double racks. The CM-2 flight hardware was vibration tested in the launch configuration to characterize the structure's modal response. Cross-orthogonality between test and analysis mode shapes were used to assess model correlation. Lessons learned for pre-test planning and model verification are discussed.

  9. Supplementary Figure S1 Fig. S1. Explanation of stimulus generation, positioning, and scaling. All visual stimuli were rendered using

    E-print Network

    Born, Richard

    ) which have zero equivalent disparity. To present a stimulus that has a particular simulated depth and maintains fixation. However, in practice the 0° equivalent disparity stimulus will produce very smallX Y Z X Y Z X Y Z X Y Z Supplementary Figure S1 Fig. S1. Explanation of stimulus generation

  10. Yu et al, Fig. S1 Fig. S1. Analyses of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked Vps4p complexes.

    E-print Network

    Hill, Chris

    1 Yu et al, Fig. S1 Fig. S1. Analyses of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked Vps4p complexes. SDS-PAGE, with Coomassie blue staining. Bracketed fractions in (C) were pooled and imaged by cryoEM. #12;2 Yu et al, Fig. S2 Fig. S2. Euler angle distributions for the three reconstructions. The relative intensity of each

  11. Radio survey of Markarian galaxies at 6 and 11 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojoian, G.; Tovmasian, Kh. M.; Dickinson, D. F.; Dinger, A. S. C.

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-one objects from Markarian's lists 6 and 7 were observed at 6 cm with a 3 sigma detection limit of about 30 mJy. Eight Markarian objects were detected, six of which were also observed at 11 cm. Forty-five others were negative at this wavelength. Two of the detections, numbers 533 and 668, are Seyfert galaxies; additionally, UB1 was detected at 6 cm and NGC 7715 and III Zw 2 were found at 11 cm.

  12. S1(n, ??), 1A2 fluorescence and T1(n, ??), 3A2 phosphorescence spectra of xanthone vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Takao

    2014-04-01

    Emission spectra of xanthone vapor have been measured at different temperatures along with the excitation and absorption spectra. Fluorescence from the S1(n, ??), 1A2 and phosphorescence from the T1(n, ??), 3A2 states were separated to extract only the fluorescence spectrum. The vibrational structure of the fluorescence was interpreted in terms of the Cdbnd O stretching mode and the modes combined with the Cdbnd O stretching, showing a maximum near 24 000 cm-1. The locations of the S1 and T1 origins are observed at 26 940 and 25 700 cm-1, respectively. Analysis of the data includes the determination of the vibrational frequencies in the fluorescence and phosphorescence.

  13. The topography of the HNCO(S 1) potential energy surface and its implications for photodissociation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klossika, J.-J.; Flöthmann, H.; Beck, C.; Schinke, R.; Yamashita, K.

    1997-09-01

    We report the results of potential energy surface calculations for the S1(1 1A?) state of HNCO. The ab initio calculations are performed at the MRCI level using the CASSCF method for constructing reference wavefunctions. The most crucial degrees of freedom—the HN and the NC bond distances and the NCO bending angle—are explicitly varied. There is a tiny barrier of about 550 cm -1 towards the NH( ?1?) + CO( X1?+) channel, but a large barrier of ca. 8700 cm -1 blocks the H( 2S) + NCO(1 1A?) channel. The features of the calculated S1 potential energy surface qualitatively explains many results of recent photodissociation experiments.

  14. Modelling the H I 21-cm line profile from circumstellar shells around red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoai, D. T.; Nhung, P. T.; Gérard, E.; Matthews, L. D.; Villaver, E.; Le Bertre, T.

    2015-05-01

    We present H I line profiles for various models of circumstellar shells around red giants. In the calculations we take into account the effect of the background at 21 cm, and show that in some circumstances it may have an important effect on the shape and intensity of the observed line profiles. We show that self-absorption should also be considered depending on the mass-loss rate and the temperature reached by circumstellar gas. H I emission from circumstellar shells has been mostly reported from stars with mass-loss rates around 10-7 M? yr-1. We discuss the possible reasons for the non-detection of many sources with larger mass-loss rates that are hallmarks of the end of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. Although radiative transfer effects may weaken the line emission, they cannot alone account for this effect. Therefore, it seems likely that molecular hydrogen, rather than atomic hydrogen, dominates the composition of matter expelled by stars at the end of their evolution on the AGB. However sensitive H I observations can still yield important information on the kinematics and physical properties of the circumstellar material at large distances from central stars with heavy mass-loss, despite the low abundance of atomic hydrogen.

  15. A Transformation from PPTL to S1S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Cong; Duan, Zhenhua

    A transformation from Propositional Projection Temporal Logic (PPTL) as well as Propositional Interval Temporal Logic (PITL) with infinite models to monadic second order logic with one successor (S1S) is presented in this paper. To this end, intervals where PPTL and PITL formulas are interpreted over are represented as T-structures. Further, the semantics of PPTL and PITL formulas are redefined over T-structures. Moreover, according to T-structure semantics, a PPTL or PITL formula is translated to a formula in S1S. As a result, many mature theoretical and technical results, such as decidability etc. for S1S can be easily inherited by PPTL and PITL.

  16. Photofraction of a 5 cm x 2 cm BGO scintillator. [bismuth germanate crystal for use in cosmic gamma ray detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunphy, P. P.; Forrest, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The photofraction of a 5.1 cm x 2.0 cm bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillator was measured over a gamma-ray energy range of 0.2 to 6.1 MeV. Several methods, used to minimize the effect of room scattering on the measurement, are discussed. These include a gamma-gamma coincidence technique, a beta-gamma coincidence technique, and the use of sources calibrated with a standard 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm sodium iodide scintillator.

  17. "The 5 cm Rule": Biopower, Sexuality and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores "the 5 cm rule", a regulation around student contact discovered during an investigation of the sexual culture of schooling with 16-19-year-olds in New Zealand. Implemented to stem "inappropriate and unwanted" touching, it stipulates that students must maintain a physical distance of 5 cm at all times. It is argued this rule…

  18. Ch 6 -MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS H I 21 cm line

    E-print Network

    Sitko, Michael L.

    of atoms along a column of cross-sectional area 1 cm2 ) is N HI( ) =1.82x1013 Tb ( ) d atoms cm-2 in interstellar space. The depletions are greater when the gas is colder. #12;5 Although the depletions of C and O abundances and element depletion from the interstellar gas into interstellar grains. Here the solar abundance

  19. Design and Performance of 40 cm Ion Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    2001-01-01

    A 40 cm ion thruster is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to obtain input power and propellant throughput capabilities of 10 kW and 550 kg. respectively. The technical approach here is a continuation of the "derating" technique used for the NSTAR ion thruster. The 40 cm ion thruster presently utilizes the NSTAR ion optics aperture geometry to take advantage of the large database of lifetime and performance data already available. Dome-shaped grids were chosen for the design of the 40 cm ion optics because this design is naturally suited for large-area ion optics. Ion extraction capabilities and electron backstreaming limits for the 40 cm ion optics were estimated by utilizing NSTAR 30 cm ion optics data. A preliminary service life assessment showed that the propellant throughput goal of 550 kg of xenon may be possible with molybdenum 40 cm ion optics. One 40 cm ion optics' set has been successfully fabricated to date. Additional ion optics' sets are presently being fabricated. Preliminary performance tests were conducted on a laboratory model 40 cm ion thruster.

  20. String order and degenerate entanglement spectrum of S = 1 / 2 and S = 1 Heisenberg bond-alternating chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-Yan; Kong, Long-Juan; Qiang, Ling

    2014-10-01

    Generalized string orders and entanglement spectrum of S = 1/2 and S = 1 Heisenberg bond-alternating chains have been investigated by the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) method. Generalized string order parameters with appropriate ? are capable of distinguishing all the topological phases. Central charges c ? 1 and critical exponents ? ? 1/12 indicate all the topological QPTs belong to the Gaussian universality class. Interestingly, odd- and even-fold degeneracies of the entanglement spectrum are observed. Even-fold (doubly) degenerate entanglement spectra and the typical two-fold degenerate lowest-lying level are found to exist in both the spin-1/2 dimer and the S = 1 Haldane phases. However, odd-fold degenerate entanglement spectra with three-fold degenerate lowest-lying level are observed in both the S = 1 dimer and the S = 2 Haldane phase. The degeneracy of the lowest-lying entanglement spectrum level, which can be understood by entanglement spectra in the dimer limit (J1 = 0), is adopted to estimate the lowest boundary of the bipartite entanglement. The entanglement spectrum and the generalized string orders are valuable for uncovering the underlying features of these symmetry-protect topological (SPT) states. Similar entanglement spectrum shows that the S = 1 (S = 2) Haldane phase is essentially the same as the S = 1/2 (S = 1) dimer phase.

  1. Table S1A. Rate Model summary Type Wilson Cowan

    E-print Network

    Table S1 Table S1A. Rate Model summary Type Wilson Cowan Transfer function Sigmoid logistic.1-0.9) Weights EXC to EXC,INH Static, drawn from normal distribution with µ = 1.25 nS and = 0.1nS - INH to EXC,INH Static, drawn from normal distribution with µ = 2.5 nS and = 0.1nS - CS/CTX to EXC Plastic, drawn from

  2. 10.7 Gb\\/s Over 300 m GI-MMF Using a 2 ?? 2 MIMO System Based on Mode Group Diversity Multiplexing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Schollmann; S. Soneff; W. Rosenkranz

    2007-01-01

    We investigate experimentally the feasibility of a 2x2 MIMO system based on mode group diversity multiplexing to enlarge the bandwidth distance product of MMF. A data rate of 10.7Gb\\/s over 300m GI-MMF is achieved.

  3. 31/01/10 7:30 PMSmart Cars | U Magazine Page 1 of 2http://www.umag.ca/article/smart-cars

    E-print Network

    Habib, Ayman

    31/01/10 7:30 PMSmart Cars | U Magazine Page 1 of 2http://www.umag.ca/article/smart-cars IT MY U And Social Justice For All Bumping Up The Desktop Smart Cars Departments Universal Note Update News Uncover Opinion Unforgettable Imagery Smart Cars Chaminda Basnayake is working on the next generation of smart

  4. Large-Area (over 50 cm 50 cm) Freestanding Films of Colloidal InP/ ZnS Quantum Dots

    E-print Network

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Large-Area (over 50 cm × 50 cm) Freestanding Films of Colloidal InP/ ZnS Quantum Dots Evren of flexible, freestanding films of InP/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) using fatty acid ligands across very large areas and energy transfer dynamics among different-sized InP/ZnS QDs are investigated and a model is proposed. High

  5. Evaluation of CM5 Charges for Condensed-Phase Modeling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed Charge Model 5 (CM5) is tested for its utility in condensed-phase simulations. The CM5 approach, which derives partial atomic charges from Hirshfeld population analyses, provides excellent results for gas-phase dipole moments and is applicable to all elements of the periodic table. Herein, the adequacy of scaled CM5 charges for use in modeling aqueous solutions has been evaluated by computing free energies of hydration (?Ghyd) for 42 neutral organic molecules via Monte Carlo statistical mechanics. An optimal scaling factor for the CM5 charges was determined to be 1.27, resulting in a mean unsigned error (MUE) of 1.1 kcal/mol for the free energies of hydration. Testing for an additional 20 molecules gave an MUE of 1.3 kcal/mol. The high precision of the results is confirmed by free energy calculations using both sequential perturbations and complete molecular annihilation. Performance for specific functional groups is discussed; sulfur-containing molecules yield the largest errors. In addition, the scaling factor of 1.27 is shown to be appropriate for CM5 charges derived from a variety of density functional methods and basis sets. Though the average errors from the 1.27*CM5 results are only slightly lower than those using 1.14*CM1A charges, the broader applicability and easier access to CM5 charges via the Gaussian program are additional attractive features. The 1.27*CM5 charge model can be used for an enormous variety of applications in conjunction with many fixed-charge force fields and molecular modeling programs. PMID:25061445

  6. Eight-cm mercury ion thruster system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The technology status of 8 cm diameter electron bombardment ion thrusters is presented. Much of the technology resulting from the 5 cm diameter thruster has been adapted and improved upon to increase the reliability, durability, and efficiency of the 8 cm thruster. Technology discussed includes: dependence of neutralizer tip erosion upon neutralizer flow rate; impregnated and rolled-foil insert cathode performance and life testing; neutralizer position studies; thruster ion beam profile measurements; high voltage pulse ignition; high utilization ion machined accelerator grids; deposition internal and external to the thruster; thruster vectoring systems; thruster cycling life testing and thruster system weights for typical mission applications.

  7. Randomised phase II trial of S-1 plus oxaliplatin vs S-1 in patients with gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ohkawa, S; Okusaka, T; Isayama, H; Fukutomi, A; Yamaguchi, K; Ikeda, M; Funakoshi, A; Nagase, M; Hamamoto, Y; Nakamori, S; Tsuchiya, Y; Baba, H; Ishii, H; Omuro, Y; Sho, M; Matsumoto, S; Yamada, N; Yanagimoto, H; Unno, M; Ichikawa, Y; Takahashi, S; Watanabe, G; Wakabayashi, G; Egawa, N; Tsuda, M; Hosotani, R; Hamada, C; Hyodo, I

    2015-01-01

    Background: This randomised, open-label, multicenter phase II study compared progression-free survival (PFS) of S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX) with that of S-1 alone in patients with gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic cancer. Methods: Patients with confirmed progressive disease following the first-line treatment with a gemcitabine-based regimen were randomised to receive either S-1 (80/100/120?mg?day?1 based on body surface area (BSA), orally, days 1–28, every 6 weeks) or SOX (S-1 80/100/120?mg?day?1 based on BSA, orally, days 1–14, plus oxaliplatin 100?mg?m?2, intravenously, day 1, every 3 weeks). The primary end point was PFS. Results: Between January 2009 and July 2010, 271 patients were randomly allocated to either S-1 (n=135) or SOX (n=136). Median PFS for S-1 and SOX were 2.8 and 3.0 months, respectively (hazard ratio (HR)=0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.65–1.08; stratified log-rank test P=0.18). Median overall survival (OS) was 6.9 vs 7.4 months (HR=1.03; 95% CI, 0.79–1.34; stratified log-rank test P=0.82). The response rate (RR) was 11.5% vs 20.9% (P=0.04). The major grade 3/4 toxicities (S-1 and SOX) were neutropenia (11.4% and 8.1%), thrombocytopenia (4.5% and 10.3%) and anorexia (12.9% and 14.7%). Conclusions: Although SOX showed an advantage in RR, it provided no significant improvement in PFS or OS compared with S-1 alone. PMID:25880004

  8. Search for neutral, long-lived particles decaying into two muons in p(p)over-bar collisions at root s=1.96 TeV

    E-print Network

    Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Christofek, L.; Coppage, Don; Gardner, J.; Hensel, Carsten; Moulik, Tania; Wilson, Graham Wallace

    2006-10-01

    We present a search for a neutral particle, pair produced in pp collisions at root s=1.96 TeV, which decays into two muons and lives long enough to travel at least 5 cm before decaying. The analysis uses approximate to 380 pb(-1) of data recorded...

  9. CM Chondrite Impact Melt Clast Identified in a Regolithic Howardite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunning, N. G.; Corrigan, C. M.; McSween, H. Y.; Tenner, T. J.; Kita, N.

    2014-09-01

    The first recognized CM chondrite impact melt provides insight into the behavior of volatiles during its formation. Its notable occurrence as a clast in a regolithic howardite fits well with observations of Vesta’s surface by the Dawn spacecraft.

  10. Global 21 cm signal experiments: A designer’s guide

    E-print Network

    Liu, Adrian Chi-Yan

    The global (i.e., spatially averaged) spectrum of the redshifted 21 cm line has generated much experimental interest lately, thanks to its potential to be a direct probe of the epoch of reionization and the dark ages, ...

  11. Benchmarking and performance analysis of the CM-2. [SIMD computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, David W.; Adams, George B., II

    1988-01-01

    A suite of benchmarking routines testing communication, basic arithmetic operations, and selected kernel algorithms written in LISP and PARIS was developed for the CM-2. Experiment runs are automated via a software framework that sequences individual tests, allowing for unattended overnight operation. Multiple measurements are made and treated statistically to generate well-characterized results from the noisy values given by cm:time. The results obtained provide a comparison with similar, but less extensive, testing done on a CM-1. Tests were chosen to aid the algorithmist in constructing fast, efficient, and correct code on the CM-2, as well as gain insight into what performance criteria are needed when evaluating parallel processing machines.

  12. Characterization of Luminescent Minerals in CM2 Chondrite (Jbilet Winselwan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, Y. K.; Ohgo, S. O.; Nishido, H. N.

    2014-09-01

    We have characterized luminescent minerals of forsterite, diopside and spinel in the CM2 chondrite (Jbilet Winselwan) using SEM-CL and to discuss the formation of the luminescent minerals under aqueous conditions.

  13. CM Process Improvement and the International Space Station Program (ISSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, Ginny

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Configuration Management (CM) process improvements planned and undertaken for the International Space Station Program (ISSP). It reviews the 2004 findings and recommendations and the progress towards their implementation.

  14. 21 cm Radio Astrophysics MIT Department of Physics

    E-print Network

    Seager, Sara

    PROBLEMS 1. Explain the origin of the 21 cm line of atomic hy- drogen. 2. Describe the size and shape of the sun at 1420 MHz? Plot the power spectrum of galactic hy- drogen at 40 galactic longitude and identify

  15. An Improved Method for 21cm Foreground Removal

    E-print Network

    Liu, Adrian

    21-cm tomography is expected to be difficult in part because of serious foreground contamination. Previous studies have found that line-of-sight approaches are capable of cleaning foregrounds to an acceptable level on large ...

  16. The 21-cm Signal from the Cosmological Epoch of Recombination

    E-print Network

    Fialkov, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    The redshifted 21-cm emission by neutral hydrogen offers a unique tool for mapping structure formation in the early universe in three dimensions. Here we provide the first detailed calculation of the 21-cm emission signal during and after the epoch of hydrogen recombination in the redshift range of z ~ 500-1,100, corresponding to observed wavelengths of 100-230 meters. The 21-cm line deviates from thermal equilibrium with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) due to the excess Ly-alpha radiation from hydrogen and helium recombinations. The resulting 21-cm signal reaches a brightness temperature of a milli-Kelvin, orders of magnitude larger than previously estimated. Its detection by a future lunar or space-based observatory could improve dramatically the statistical constraints on the cosmological initial conditions compared to existing two-dimensional maps of the CMB anisotropies.

  17. Effects of c.m. motion in nuclear electron scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dellafiore; M. Traini

    1980-01-01

    We study the effect of nuclear c.m. recoil on the Coulomb dynamic structure factor and on its energy-weighted moments (sum rules). For the oscillator shell model it is possible to express the structure factor as a folding of an intrinsic structure factor with a c.m. response function. By exploiting this result we give a simple method for separating spurious from

  18. Optimal scaling factors for CM1 and CM3 atomic charges in RM1-based aqueous simulations.

    PubMed

    Vilseck, Jonah Z; Sambasivarao, Somisetti V; Acevedo, Orlando

    2011-10-01

    Scaling factors for atomic charges derived from the RM1 semiempirical quantum mechanical wavefunction in conjunction with CM1 and CM3 charge models have been optimized by minimizing errors in absolute free energies of hydration, ?G(hyd) , for a set of 40 molecules. Monte Carlo statistical mechanics simulations and free energy perturbation theory were used to annihilate the solutes in gas and in a box of TIP4P water molecules. Lennard-Jones parameters from the optimized potentials for liquid simulations-all atom (OPLS-AA) force field were utilized for the organic compounds. Optimal charge scaling factors have been determined as 1.11 and 1.14 for the CM1R and CM3R methods, respectively, and the corresponding unsigned average errors in ?G(hyd) relative to experiment were 2.05 and 1.89 kcal/mol. Computed errors in aniline and two derivatives were particularly large for RM1 and their removal from the data set lowered the overall errors to 1.61 and 1.75 kcal/mol for CM1R and CM3R. Comparisons are made to the AM1 method which yielded total errors in ?G(hyd) of 1.50 and 1.64 kcal/mol for CM1A*1.14 and CM3A*1.15, respectively. This work is motivated by the need for a highly efficient yet accurate quantum mechanical (QM) method to study condensed-phase and enzymatic chemical reactions via mixed QM and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations. As an initial test, the Menshutkin reaction between NH(3) and CH(3) Cl in water was computed using a RM1/TIP4P-Ew/CM3R procedure and the resultant ?G(‡) , ?G(rxn) , and geometries were in reasonable accord with other computational methods; however, some potentially serious shortcomings in RM1 are discussed. PMID:21732390

  19. S1P signaling: new therapies and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Cabrera, Pedro J.; Brown, Steve; Studer, Sean M.

    2014-01-01

    Development of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) modulators to dampen inflammation and its sequelae is becoming increasingly promising for treating medical conditions characterized by significant immunopathology. As shown by the non-selective S1P receptor modulator FTY720 (fingolimod [Gilenya®]) in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), the ability to use S1P1 modulation to precisely block immune cell traffic—immunomodulation—while maintaining immunosurveillance, has opened therapeutic opportunities in various other immune-derived chronic pathologies, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), lupus, psoriasis, as well as, potentially, in early acute viral respiratory infection. Proof-of-concept studies across validated animal models with S1P receptor modulators highly selective for S1P1, such as BAF-312 (Siponimod), KRP-203, ONO-4641 (Ceralifimod), ponesimod and RPC-1063, and emerging clinical trials for safety and efficacy in humans, particularly in MS, ulcerative colitis (UC) and psoriasis, have set the stage for us to consider additional testing in various other autoimmune diseases. PMID:25580263

  20. Femtosecond dynamics of the forbidden carotenoid S1 state in light-harvesting complexes of purple bacteria observed after two-photon excitation

    PubMed Central

    Walla, Peter J.; Linden, Patricia A.; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Scholes, Gregory D.; Fleming, Graham R.

    2000-01-01

    Time-resolved excited-state absorption intensities after direct two-photon excitation of the carotenoid S1 state are reported for light-harvesting complexes of purple bacteria. Direct excitation of the carotenoid S1 state enables the measurement of subsequent dynamics on a fs time scale without interference from higher excited states, such as the optically allowed S2 state or the recently discovered dark state situated between S1 and S2. The lifetimes of the carotenoid S1 states in the B800-B850 complex and B800-B820 complex of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila are 7 ± 0.5 ps and 6 ± 0.5 ps, respectively, and in the light-harvesting complex 2 of Rhodobacter sphaeroides ?1.9 ± 0.5 ps. These results explain the differences in the carotenoid to bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer efficiency after S2 excitation. In Rps. acidophila the carotenoid S1 to bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer is found to be quite inefficient (?ET1 <28%) whereas in Rb. sphaeroides this energy transfer is very efficient (?ET1 ?80%). The results are rationalized by calculations of the ensemble averaged time constants. We find that the Car S1 ? B800 electronic energy transfer (EET) pathway (?85%) dominates over Car S1 ? B850 EET (?15%) in Rb. sphaeroides, whereas in Rps. acidophila the Car S1 ? B850 EET (?60%) is more efficient than the Car S1 ? B800 EET (?40%). The individual electronic couplings for the Car S1 ? BChl energy transfer are estimated to be approximately 5–26 cm?1. A major contribution to the difference between the energy transfer efficiencies can be explained by different Car S1 energy gaps in the two species. PMID:10984512

  1. S-1-based vs non-S-1-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Zhou, Yan; Min, Ke; Yao, Qiang; Xu, Chun-Ni

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of S-1-based vs non-S-1-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). METHODS: We extracted reported endpoints, including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), time-to-treatment failure (TTF), objective response rate (ORR) and adverse effects, from randomized controlled trials identified in PubMed, the Cochrane library, Science Direct, EMBASE and American Society of Clinical Oncology meetings. Stata software was used to calculate the pooled values. RESULTS: Seven randomized controlled trials involving 2176 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Compared to non-S-1-based regimens, the use of S-1-based regimens were associated with an increase in ORR (RR = 1.300; 95%CI: 1.028-1.645); OS (HR = 0.89; 95%CI: 0.81-0.99; P = 0.025), TTF (HR = 0.83; 95%CI: 0.75-0.92; P = 0.000), and a lower risk of febrile neutropenia (RR = 0.225; P = 0.000) and stomatitis (RR = 0.230; P = 0.032). OS, PFS and TTF were prolonged, especially in the Asian population. In subgroup analysis, statistically significant increases in ORR (RR = 1.454; P = 0.029), OS (HR = 0.895; P = 0.041) and TTF (HR = 0.832; P = 0.000) were found when S-1-based chemotherapy was compared to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. The incidence of leukopenia (RR = 0.584; P = 0.002) and stomatitis (RR = 0.230; P = 0.032) was higher in the 5-FU-based arm. S-1-based regimens had no advantage in ORR, OS, PFS, TTF and grade 3 or 4 adverse events over capecitabine-based regimens. CONCLUSION: S-1-based chemotherapy may be a good choice for AGC because of longer survival times, better tolerance and more convenient use. PMID:25206296

  2. Search for cold gas in z > 2 damped Ly? systems: 21-cm and H2 absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srianand, R.; Gupta, N.; Petitjean, P.; Noterdaeme, P.; Ledoux, C.; Salter, C. J.; Saikia, D. J.

    2012-03-01

    We present the results of a systematic Green Bank Telescope and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope survey for 21-cm absorption in a sample of 10 damped Lyman ? systems (DLAs) at 2 ?zabs? 3.4. Analysis of L-band very long baseline array images of the background QSOs are also presented. We detect 21-cm absorption in only one DLA (at zabs= 3.1745 towards J1337+3152). Thus the detection rate of 21-cm absorption is ˜10 per cent when no limit on the integrated optical depth (??(v)dv) is imposed and ˜13 per cent for a 3? limit of 0.4 km s-1. Combining our data with the data from the literature (a sample of 28 DLAs) and assuming the measured core fraction at milliarcsecond scale to represent the gas covering factor, we find that the H I gas in DLAs at z? 2 is predominantly constituted by a warm neutral medium. The detection rate of 21-cm absorption seems to be higher for systems with higher N(H I) or metallicity. However, no clear correlation is found between the integrated 21-cm optical depth (or the spin temperature, TS) and either N(H I), metallicity or velocity spread of the low-ionization species. There are 13 DLAs in our sample for which high-resolution optical spectra covering the expected wavelength range of H2 absorption are available. We report the detection of H2 molecules in the zabs= 3.3871 21-cm absorber towards J0203+1134 (PKS 0201+113). In eight cases, neither H2 (with molecular fraction f(H2) ? 10-6) nor 21-cm absorption (with TS/fc? 700 K) is detected. The lack of 21-cm and H2 absorption in these systems can be explained if most of the H I in these DLAs originates from low-density high-temperature gas. In one case we have a DLA with 21-cm absorption not showing H2 absorption. In two cases, both species are detected but do not originate from the same velocity component. In the remaining two cases 21-cm absorption is not detected despite the presence of H2 with evidence for the presence of cold gas. All this is consistent with the idea that the H2 components seen in DLAs are compact (with sizes of ?15 pc) and contain only a small fraction (i.e. typically ?10 per cent) of the total N(H I) measured in the DLAs. This implies that the molecular fractions f(H2) reported from the H2 surveys should be considered as conservative lower limits for the H2 components.

  3. Membrane Insertion and Bilayer Perturbation by Antimicrobial Peptide CM15

    PubMed Central

    Pistolesi, Sara; Pogni, Rebecca; Feix, Jimmy B.

    2007-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an important component of innate immunity and have generated considerable interest as a potential new class of antibiotic. The biological activity of AMPs is strongly influenced by peptide-membrane interactions; however, for many of these peptides the molecular details of how they disrupt and/or translocate across target membranes are not known. CM15 is a linear, synthetic hybrid AMP composed of the first seven residues of the cecropin A and residues 2–9 of the bee venom peptide mellitin. Previous studies have shown that upon membrane binding CM15 folds into an ?-helix with its helical axis aligned parallel to the bilayer surface and have implicated the formation of 2.2–3.8 nm pores in its bactericidal activity. Here we report site-directed spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance studies examining the behavior of CM15 analogs labeled with a methanethiosulfonate spin label (MTSL) and a brominated MTSL as a function of increasing peptide concentration and utilize phospholipid-analog spin labels to assess the effects of CM15 binding and accumulation on the physical properties of membrane lipids. We find that as the concentration of membrane-bound CM15 is increased the N-terminal domain of the peptide becomes more deeply immersed in the lipid bilayer. Only minimal changes are observed in the rotational dynamics of membrane lipids, and changes in lipid dynamics are confined primarily to near the membrane surface. However, the accumulation of membrane-bound CM15 dramatically increases accessibility of lipid-analog spin labels to the polar relaxation agent, nickel (II) ethylenediaminediacetate, suggesting an increased permeability of the membrane to polar solutes. These results are discussed in relation to the molecular mechanism of membrane disruption by CM15. PMID:17496013

  4. Static compression of Ca(OH)2 at room temperature - Observations of amorphization and equation of state measurements to 10.7 GPa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, Charles; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    X-ray diffraction measurements are reported for Ca(OH)2 portlandite as it is compressed to 37.6 GPa in the diamond cell at room temperature. Between 10.7 and 15.4 GPa crystalline Ca(OH)2 transforms to a glass, and on decompression the glass recrystallizes between 3.6 and 5.1 GPa. Below pressures of 10.7 GPa the elastic compression of crystalline Ca(OH)2 was measured. A finite strain analysis of these data shows that the isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are 37.8 + or - 1.8 GPa and 5.2 + or - 0.7 at zero pressure. The change in the unit cell dimensions indicates that the linear incompressibilities of Ca(OH)2 differ by a factor of three.

  5. Ribosomal protein S1 induces a conformational change of tmRNA; more than one protein S1 per molecule of tmRNA

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ribosomal protein S1 induces a conformational change of tmRNA; more than one protein S1 per-translationally to the nascent peptide, targeting it for proteolysis. Ribosomal protein S1 is required for tmRNA binding of both recombinant and purified proteins S1 from E. coli is biphasic with apparent binding constants

  6. Complex analysis of gold interactions with photoemulsion nuclei at 10.7 GeV\\/nucleon within the framework of cascade and FRITIOF models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Adamovich; M. M. Aggarwal; Y. A. Alexandrov; R. Amirikas; N. P. Andreeva; Z. V. Anzon; R. Arora; F. A. Avetyan; S. K. Badyal; A. M. Bakich; E. Baklitskaya; E. S. Basova; K. B. Bhalla; A. Bhasin; V. S. Bhatia; V. G. Bogdanov; V. Bradnova; V. I. Bubnov; T. H. Burnett; X. Cai; I. Y. Chasnikov; L. P. Chernova; M. M. Chernyavski; S. Dhamija; G. Z. Eligbaeva; L. E. Eremenko; A. S. Gaitinov; E. R. Ganssauge; S. Garpman; S. G. Gerassimov; C. Graf; J. Grote; K. G. Gulamov; S. K. Gupta; V. K. Gupta; B. Jakobsson; L. Just; S. Kachroo; G. S. Kalyachkina; E. K. Kanygina; M. Karabova; S. P. Kharlamov; A. D. Kovalenko; S. A. Krasnov; V. Kumar; V. G. Larionova; Y. D. Li; L. S. Liu; S. Lokanathan; J. J. Lord; N. S. Lukicheva; S. B. Luo; L. K. Mangotra; N. A. Marutyan; A. Y. Mashkov; N. V. Maslennikova; I. S. Mittra; S. Mokerjee; S. Z. Nasyrov; V. S. Navotny; J. Nystrand; M. Ochs; G. I. Orlova; I. Otterlund; L. S. Peak; N. G. Peresadko; N. V. Petrov; V. A. Plyushchev; W. Y. Qian; Y. M. Qin; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; N. K. Rao; M. Roeper; V. V. Rusakova; N. Saidkhanov; N. A. Salmanova; L. G. Sarkisova; V. R. Sarkisyan; A. M. Seitimbetov; G. S. Shabratova; C. I. Shakhova; D. Skelding; K. Soderstrom; E. Stenlund; L. N. Svechnikova; M. Tothova; M. I. Tretyakova; T. P. Trofimova; U. I. Tuleeva; B. P. Tursunov; V. V. Uzhinskii; S. Vokal; J. Vrlakova; H. Q. Wang; Z. Q. Weng; R. J. Wilkes; Y. L. Xia; C. B. Yang; D. H. Zhang; P. Y. Zheng; S. I. Zhokhova; D. C. Zhou

    1997-01-01

    Complex analysis of Gold interaction with photoemulsion nuclei at 10.7 GeV\\/nucleon has been performed. The data obtained were compared with a modified FRITIOF model which allowance is made for exitation of nuclear residuals (after interaction). A comparison was also made with cascade-evaporation model. Experimental data contradict the CEM supposition of fast resonance decay and complete cascading. The modified FRITIOF model

  7. N % N % N % N % N % N % N % Students who sought or applied for internships* 13 -8 -9 -10 -7 -16 -19 -

    E-print Network

    Neimark, Alexander V.

    N % N % N % N % N % N % N % Students who sought or applied for internships* 13 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 7 - 16 - 19 - Students who obtained internships 13 100 8 100 9 100 10 100 7 100 16 100 19 100 Students who obtained APA/CPA-accredited internships 1 8 2 25 1 11 0 0 2 29 0 0 1 5 Students who obtained APPIC

  8. 1.6Tb\\/s (160×10.7 Gb\\/s) transmission over 4000 km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25GHz channel spacing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Leng; S. Stulz; B. Zhu; L. E. Nelson; B. Edvold; L. Gruner-Nielsen; S. Radic; J. Centanni; A. Gnauck

    2003-01-01

    We report transmission of 1.6 Tb\\/s (160×10.7 Gb\\/s) over 4000 km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing using 100-km amplified spans. Without polarization interleaving and per-channel post dispersion compensation, all channels have better than 1×10-4 bit-error rate, corresponding to error-free performance with forward-error-correction. We present experimental investigation on the transmission impairments and identify potential approaches for performance improvement.

  9. Determining the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, Lauren B.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Zolensky, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The aqueous alteration of CM chondrites provides a record of the processes attending the earliest stages of parent body evolution. However, resolving the alteration pathways of chondritic evolution requires a means for distinguishing the relative extent of alteration that individual samples have experienced. Three new indices for gauging the relative degree of alteration in CM chondrites based on modal and compositional analyses of 7 CM falls were proposed. The proposed alteration parameters are consistent with the basic tenets of several previous models and correlate with additional indices to produce an integrated method for determining the relative extent of alteration. The model predicts the following order of progressive alteration: Murchison (MC) is less than or equal to Bells (BL) is less than Murray (MY) is less than Cochabamba (CC) is less than Mighei (MI) is less than Nogoya (NG) is less than or equal to Cold Bokkeveld (CB). The broad range of CM phyllosilicate compositions observed within individual meteorites is fundamental to the characterization of the aqueous alteration process. Chemical analyses of CM phyllosilicates suggest that these phases became systematically enriched in Mg and depleted in Fe with increasing alteration.

  10. Determining the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Lauren B.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.; Zolensky, Michael

    1993-03-01

    The aqueous alteration of CM chondrites provides a record of the processes attending the earliest stages of parent body evolution. However, resolving the alteration pathways of chondritic evolution requires a means for distinguishing the relative extent of alteration that individual samples have experienced. Three new indices for gauging the relative degree of alteration in CM chondrites based on modal and compositional analyses of 7 CM falls were proposed. The proposed alteration parameters are consistent with the basic tenets of several previous models and correlate with additional indices to produce an integrated method for determining the relative extent of alteration. The model predicts the following order of progressive alteration: Murchison (MC) is less than or equal to Bells (BL) is less than Murray (MY) is less than Cochabamba (CC) is less than Mighei (MI) is less than Nogoya (NG) is less than or equal to Cold Bokkeveld (CB). The broad range of CM phyllosilicate compositions observed within individual meteorites is fundamental to the characterization of the aqueous alteration process. Chemical analyses of CM phyllosilicates suggest that these phases became systematically enriched in Mg and depleted in Fe with increasing alteration.

  11. Maribo—A new CM fall from Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Henning; Grau, Thomas; Bischoff, Addi; Horstmann, Marian; Wasson, John; Sørensen, Anton; Laubenstein, Matthias; Ott, Ulrich; Palme, Herbert; Gellissen, Marko; Greenwood, Richard C.; Pearson, Victoria K.; Franchi, Ian A.; Gabelica, Zelimir; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Maribo is a new Danish CM chondrite, which fell on January 17, 2009, at 19:08:28 CET. The fall was observed by many eye witnesses and recorded by a surveillance camera, an all sky camera, a few seismic stations, and by meteor radar observatories in Germany. A single fragment of Maribo with a dry weight of 25.8 g was found on March 4, 2009. The coarse-grained components in Maribo include chondrules, fine-grained olivine aggregates, large isolated lithic clasts, metals, and mineral fragments (often olivine), and rare Ca,Al-rich inclusions. The components are typically rimmed by fine-grained dust mantles. The matrix includes abundant dust rimmed fragments of tochilinite with a layered, fishbone-like texture, tochilinite-cronstedtite intergrowths, sulfides, metals, and carbonates often intergrown with tochilinite. The oxygen isotopic composition: (?17O = -1.27‰; ?18O = 4.96‰; ?17O = -3.85‰) plots at the edge of the CM field, close to the CCAM line. The very low ?17O and the presence of unaltered components suggest that Maribo is among the least altered CM chondrites. The bulk chemistry of Maribo is typical of CM chondrites. Trapped noble gases are similar in abundance and isotopic composition to other CM chondrites, stepwise heating data indicating the presence of gas components hosted by presolar diamond and silicon carbide. The organics in Maribo include components also seen in Murchison as well as nitrogen-rich components unique to Maribo.

  12. Modular Visualization of Distributed Systems Gustavo A. Guevara S.1

    E-print Network

    Varela, Carlos

    Modular Visualization of Distributed Systems Gustavo A. Guevara S.1 Jason LaPorte2 Carlos A. Varela to developing, analyzing, and optimizing distributed systems. We have developed OverView, a tool for online/offline distributed systems visualization, that enables modular layout mechanisms, so that different distributed

  13. Fisheries REVIEW UNITfD S1 ATES

    E-print Network

    Marine Fisheries REVIEW CONTENTS UNITfD S1 ATES E\\ (,Ilts .Ind 1 r nds ARTICLES F.lnn Credit A t vf), lcholas J. T . LoCasCl .In J m sf. rl tJ r.. Pot Fishmg 10 the \\ Irgm I 1 nds, b J. R . yl p A . Eo Damm

  14. Redox-Controled Mediterranean - S1, Formation, Preservation, and Interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, G. J.; Goudeau, M. L. S.; Hennekam, R.; Filippidi, A.

    2014-12-01

    The repetitive formation of distinctly organic-rich sedimentary units (sapropels) in the Mediterraneran is known to be related to precession-minima, i.e. humid climate conditions. The most-recent sapropel S1 formed basin-wide, synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than ~200m. Increased fresh water (monsoon) input, and associated stratification resulted in the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea to be devoid of oxygen during most of the 4,000 years of S1 formation. This resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1 determined by water depth, as a result of different predominant ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km.The end of this period was marked by a basin-wide sedimentary manganese-oxide peak representing abrupt re-ventilation and remaining oxic conditions thereafter. Other, short-term ventilation events occurred during S1, notably the 8.2 ka event. This basin-wide event marks a brief episode of not only re-oxygenated deep water thus reduced preservation, but also decreased primary productivity thus lower nutrient supply. Ventilation is closely linked to Aegean/Adriatic deepwater formation.Sapropel formation and preservation mechanisms are related to a sensitive interplay between N-African monsoonal and northern climate systems.

  15. L5-S1 Laparoscopic Anterior Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Zeni, Tallal M.; Phillips, Frank M.; Mathur, Sameer; Zografakis, John G.; Moore, Ronald M.; Laguna, Luis E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated our experience with laparoscopic L5-S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF). Methods: This represents a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who underwent L5-S1 laparoscopic ALIF between February 1998 and August 2003. Results: Twenty-eight patients underwent L5-S1 LAIF (15 males and 13 females). The mean age was 43 years (range, 26 to 67). Mean operative time was 225 minutes (range, 137 to 309 minutes). No conversions to an open procedure were necessary. Twenty-four (85.7%) patients underwent successful bilateral cage placement. Four patients (14.3%) in whom only a single cage could be placed underwent supplementary posterior pedicle screw placement. Mean length of stay (LOS) was 4.1 days (range, 2 to 15). Two patients underwent reoperation subacutely secondary to symptomatic lateral displacement of the cage. One patient developed radiculopathy 6 months postoperatively and required reoperation. One patient developed a small bowel obstruction secondary to adhesions to the cage requiring laparoscopic reoperation. Fusion was achieved in all patients. Visual analogue scale scores for back pain were significantly improved from 8.6±0.8 to 2.8±0.8 (P<0.0001) at 1 year. Conclusion: L5-S1 LAIF is feasible and safe with all the advantages of minimally invasive surgery. Fusion rates and pain improvement were comparable to those with an open repair. PMID:17575763

  16. LTERE DEUTSCHE LITERATUR ...............S. 1 FACHDIDAKTIK DEUTSCH ...............S. 8

    E-print Network

    Rossak, Wilhelm R.

    Inhalt: �LTERE DEUTSCHE LITERATUR ...............S. 1 FACHDIDAKTIK DEUTSCH ...............S. 8 NEUERE DEUTSCHE LITERATUR ...............S. 13 �LTERE DEUTSCHE LITERATUR �DL I �ltere deutsche Literatur Mo, 10:15 ­ 11:45 Uhr HS OpWsches Museum, CZ 12 J

  17. Structural silicone performance testing on 2 cm polished granite

    SciTech Connect

    Carbary, L.D. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States); Fulton, J.R. [Walters and Wolf Glass Co., Fremont, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Polished granite panels, 91 cm (36 in.) x 152 cm (60 in.) x 2 cm (3/4 in.) were structurally attached with silicone adhesives to anodized aluminum frames and pressure tested to destruction after 21 days of cure and after six winters of exposed aging in Cold Spring, Minnesota. Silicone adhesives were tested for physical properties using an ASTM C1135 method both initially and after aging. Polished red granite samples were tested to a modified ASTM C880 dry and wet initially and after aging. Adhesive deflection was studied and reported along with ultimate loads required for destruction of the silicone attached granite panel. The structural silicone adhesives were found to be unaffected by the freeze-thaw cycling experienced by the panels. Ultimate performance of the aged composite panels were essentially unchanged from the initial performance. Flexural strength of the granite was found to have decreased over the test period.

  18. CM-2 Environmental / Modal Testing of Spacehab Racks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Farkas, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    Combined environmental/modal vibration testing has been implemented at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Dynamics Laboratory. The benefits of combined vibration testing are that it facilitates test article modal characterization and vibration qualification testing. The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that launches on Shuttle mission STS 107 in the SPACEHAB Research Double Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is integrated into a SPACEHAB single and double rack. CM-2 rack level combined vibration testing was recently completed on a shaker table to characterize the structure's modal response and verify the random vibration response. Control accelerometers and limit force gauges, located between the fixture and rack interface, were used to verify the input excitation. Results of the testing were used to verify the loads and environments for flight on the Shuttle.

  19. CM-2 Environmental/Modal Testing of SPACEHAB Racks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.

    2001-01-01

    Combined environmental/modal vibration testing has been implemented at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Dynamics Laboratory. The benefits of combined vibration testing are that it facilitates test article modal characterization and vibration qualification testing. The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that will launch on shuttle mission STS-107 in the SPACEHAB Research Double Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is integrated into a SPACEHAB single and double rack. CM-2 rack-level combined vibration testing was recently completed on a shaker table to characterize the structure's modal response and verify the random vibration response. Control accelerometers and limit force gauges, located between the fixture and rack interface, were used to verify the input excitation. Results of the testing were used to verify the loads and environments for flight on the shuttles.

  20. GMRT mini-survey to search for 21-cm absorption in quasar-galaxy pairs at z ~ 0.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, N.; Srianand, R.; Bowen, D. V.; York, D. G.; Wadadekar, Y.

    2010-10-01

    We present the results from our 21-cm absorption survey of a sample of five quasar-galaxy pairs (QGPs), with the redshift of the galaxies in the range 0.03 <= zg <= 0.18, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The HI 21-cm absorption was searched towards the nine sightlines with impact parameters ranging from ~10 to ~55 kpc using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). 21-cm absorption was detected only in one case, i.e. towards the quasar (zq = 2.625 SDSS J124157.54+633241.6)-galaxy (zg = 0.143 SDSS J124157.26+633237.6) pair with the impact parameter ~11 kpc. The quasar sightline in this case pierces through the stellar disc of a galaxy having near solar metallicity [i.e. (O/H)+12 = 8.7] and star formation rate uncorrected for dust attenuation of 0.1 Msolar yr-1. The quasar spectrum reddened by the foreground galaxy is well fitted with the Milky Way extinction curve (with an AV of 0.44) and the estimated HI column density is similar to the value obtained from 21-cm absorption assuming a spin temperature (TS) of 100 K. In the remaining cases, our GMRT spectra provide upper limit on N(HI) in the range (1017-1018) × TS cm-2. Combining our sample with the z <= 0.1 data available in the literature, we find the detectability of 21-cm absorption with integrated optical depth greater than 0.1 km s-1 to be 50 per cent for the impact parameter less than 20 kpc. Using the surface brightness profiles and a well-established relationship between the optical size and extent of the HI disc known for nearby galaxies, we conclude that in most of the cases of 21-cm absorption non-detection, the sightlines may not be passing through the HI gas (1? column density of a few times 1019 cm-2). We also find that in comparison to the absorption systems associated with these QGPs, z < 1 damped Lyman-? absorbers (DLAs) with 21-cm absorption detections have lower CaII equivalent widths despite having higher 21-cm optical depths and smaller impact parameters. This suggests that the current sample of DLAs may be a biased population that avoids sightlines through dusty star-forming galaxies. A systematic survey of QGPs over a wider redshift range using a large sample is needed to confirm these findings and understand the nature of 21-cm absorbers.

  1. Cosmological constraints from 21cm surveys after reionization

    E-print Network

    Eli Visbal; Abraham Loeb; Stuart Wyithe

    2009-11-03

    21cm emission from residual neutral hydrogen after the epoch of reionization can be used to trace the cosmological power spectrum of density fluctuations. Using a Fisher matrix formulation, we provide a detailed forecast of the constraints on cosmological parameters that are achievable with this probe. We consider two designs: a scaled-up version of the MWA observatory as well as a Fast Fourier Transform Telescope. We find that 21cm observations dedicated to post-reionization redshifts may yield significantly better constraints than next generation Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. We find the constraints on $\\Omega_\\Lambda$, $\\Omega_{\\rm m}h^2$, and $\\Omega_\

  2. HI 21cm probes of reionization, and beyond

    E-print Network

    C. L. Carilli

    2005-09-02

    I review the potential for observing cosmic reionization using the HI 21cm line of neutral hydrogren. Studies include observations of the evolution of large scale structure of the IGM (density, excitation temperature, and neutral fraction), through HI 21cm emission, as well as observations of small to intermediate scale structure through absorption toward the first discrete radio sources. I summarize predictions for the HI signals, then consider capabilities of facilities being built, or planned, to detect these signals. I also discuss the significant observational challenges.

  3. Increased capabilities of the 30-cm diameter Hg ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.; Hawkins, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    Some space flight missions require advanced ion thrusters which operate at conditions much different than those for which the baseline 30-cm Hg thruster was developed. Results of initial tests of a 30-cm Hg thruster with two and three grid ion accelerating systems, operated at higher values of both thrust and power and over a greater range of specific impulse than the baseline conditions are presented. Thruster lifetime at increased input power was evaluated both by extended tests and real time spectroscopic measurements.

  4. POLYSHIFT Communications Software for the Connection Machine System CM-200

    DOE PAGESBeta

    George, William; Brickner, Ralph G.; Johnsson, S. Lennart

    1994-01-01

    We describe the use and implementation of a polyshift function PSHIFT for circular shifts and end-offs shifts. Polyshift is useful in many scientific codes using regular grids, such as finite difference codes in several dimensions, and multigrid codes, molecular dynamics computations, and in lattice gauge physics computations, such as quantum chromodynamics (QCD) calculations. Our implementation of the PSHIFT function on the Connection Machine systems CM-2 and CM-200 offers a speedup of up to a factor of 3–4 compared with CSHIFT when the local data motion within a node is small. The PSHIFT routine is included in the Connection Machine Scientificmore »Software Library (CMSSL).« less

  5. [A case of Stage IV gastric cancer was successfully treated with multi combination chemotherapy with S-1].

    PubMed

    Ami, Katsunori; Gokita, Kentarou; Kawai, Yousuke; Matsunaga, Yutarou; Fujiya, Keiichi; Ohshima, Nana; Amagasa, Hidetoshi; Ganno, Hideaki; Imai, Kenichirou; Fukuda, Akira; Nagahama, Takeshi; Ando, Masayuki; Okada, Youichi; Akita, Hidetaka; Tei, Shikofumi; Yamada, Yousuke; Takagi, Mariko; Kodaka, Fumi; Arai, Kuniyoshi

    2014-11-01

    Stage IV gastric cancer has poor prognosis, and median survival time (MST) is reported to range from 6 to 13 months. We report a case of long-term survival in a Stage IV gastric cancer patient who was successfully treated with multi combination chemotherapy with S-1. A 73-year-old woman presenting with gastric cancer with pyloric stenosis and peritoneal dissemination at the sigmoid colon underwent distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy and sigmoidectomy. She received adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 and CDDP after surgery. During the twelfth administration of S-1 and CDDP, she developed an anaphylactic reaction against CDDP; therefore, only S-1 was administered for the next 6 courses. Thirty one months postgastrectomy, a left ovarian metastasis (about 4 cm) was detected by computed tomography. Two courses of S-1 and CPT-11 were administered; however, the ovarian metastasis grew to twice its initial size. She underwent hysterectomy and bilateral ovariectomy. The pathological diagnosis was metastatic tumors in the uterus and ovary(Krukenberg tumor). After the second surgery, S-1 and docetaxel therapy was initiated. A metastasis (S2, 5mm diameter) appeared in the right lung around 65 months after the gastrectomy. The patient received a total of 28 courses, up until 69 months post-gastrectomy. At present, she hopes to finish the chemotherapy and is consulting a palliative care facility. At 80 months post-gastrectomy, she has no symptoms because the lung metastasis exhibits slow growth (15 mm diameter), and is maintaining her quality of life (QOL). PMID:25731517

  6. The nature of dark matter from the global high-redshift H I 21 cm signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, M.; Evoli, C.; Mesinger, A.; Ferrara, A.; Yoshida, N.

    2013-02-01

    We study the imprint of dark matter (DM) annihilation on the global 21 cm signal from the Dark Ages to Cosmic Reionization. Motivated by recent observations, we focus on three DM candidates: (i) a 10 GeV Bino-like neutralino; (ii) a 200 GeV Wino and (iii) a 1 TeV heavier particle annihilating into leptons. For each DM candidate we assume two values for the thermally averaged annihilation cross-section , the standard thermal value th = 3 × 10-26 cm3 s-1 and the maximum value allowed by WMAP7 data, max. We include the enhancement of DM annihilations due to collapsed structures, detailed estimates of energy deposition into the intergalactic medium (IGM), as well realistic prescriptions for astrophysical sources of UV and X-ray radiation. In these models, the additional heat input from DM annihilation suppresses the mean 21 cm brightness temperature offset by ?Tb ˜ a few-100 mK. In particular, the very deep ?Tb ˜ -150 mK absorption feature at ˜20 ? z ? 25 predicted by popular models of the first galaxies is considerably reduced or totally erased by some of the considered DM candidates. Such an enhancement in IGM heating could come from either DM annihilations or a stronger-than-expected astrophysical component (i.e. abundant early X-ray sources). However, we find that the two signatures are not degenerate, since the DM heating is dominated by haloes several orders of magnitude smaller than those hosting galaxies, whose fractional abundance evolves more slowly resulting in a smaller gradient: d?Tb/d? ? 4 mK MHz-1 in the range ? ˜ 60-80 MHz. The detection of such signals by future radio telescopes would be clear evidence of DM energy injection at high redshifts.

  7. Concept of a 60-cm domeless solar telescope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Kuehne

    1978-01-01

    The design and operating characteristics of the new 60-cm domeless tower telescope at the observatory of the University of Kyoto are described. Attention is given to such functions of the telescope as monochromatic spectroscopy and magnetography, spectroheliography, simultaneous polychromatic spectrography of transient phenomena, and photography in H-alpha light and in integral light; such design features as the optical system, tower

  8. 21-cm line observations of galaxies from Kazarian's lists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Tamazian; G. Theureau; N. Coudreau-Durand

    1997-01-01

    The 21-cm neutral hydrogen line has been measured for the first time in 39 non-Seyfert type galaxies from Kazarian list, with the Nancay radiotelescope. The line profiles, widths at 20% and 50% of the peak intensity, radial velocities as well as total fluxes are presented. The values of radial velocity are in fairly good agreement with those obtained from optical

  9. Redshifted 21cm Signatures Around the Highest Redshift Quasars

    E-print Network

    Stuart Wyithe; Abraham Loeb

    2004-01-26

    The Ly-alpha absorption spectrum of the highest redshift quasars indicates that they are surrounded by giant HII regions, a few Mpc in size. The neutral gas around these HII regions should emit 21cm radiation in excess of the Cosmic Microwave Background, and enable future radio telescopes to measure the transverse extent of these HII regions. At early times, the HII regions expand with a relativistic speed. Consequently, their measured sizes along the line-of-sight (via Ly-alpha absorption) and transverse to it (via 21 cm emission) should have different observed values due to relativistic time-delay. We show that the combined measurement of these sizes would directly constrain the neutral fraction of the surrounding intergalactic medium (IGM) as well as the quasar lifetime. Based on current number counts of luminous quasars at z>6, an instrument like LOFAR should detect >2 redshifted 21cm shells per field (with a radius of 11 degrees) around active quasars as bright as those already discovered by SDSS, and >200 relic shells of inactive quasars per field. We show that Ly-alpha photons from the quasar are unable to heat the IGM or to couple the spin and kinetic temperatures of atomic hydrogen beyond the edge of the HII region. The detection of the IGM in 21cm emission around high redshift quasars would therefore gauge the presence of a cosmic Ly-alpha background during the reionization epoch.

  10. EUCLID'S ALGORITHM IN QUARTIC CM-FIELDS FRANZ LEMMERMEYER

    E-print Network

    Lemmermeyer, Franz

    is not Euclidean. Proof. Suppose that K is Euclidean; then there is a OK such that P = OK, and for = / we canEUCLID'S ALGORITHM IN QUARTIC CM-FIELDS FRANZ LEMMERMEYER Abstract. In this note we present techniques to compute inhomogeneous minima of norm forms; as an application, we determine all norm-Euclidean

  11. Retrofit and acceptance test of 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Six 30 cm mercury thrusters were modified to the J-series design and evaluated using standardized test procedures. The thruster performance meets the design objectives (lifetime objective requires verification), and documentation (drawings, etc.) for the design is completed and upgraded. The retrofit modifications are described and the test data for the modifications are presented and discussed.

  12. A 5-cm dipole for the SSC-DE-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caspi

    1990-01-01

    A 5cm SSC superconducting dipole that develops 6.6 tesla at 5790 A is proposed. The two layer magnet has 12% more transfer function than the present design as a result of using thin collars and close in'' iron. The thin collars provide precise positioning of the coils; they also provide minimum prestress (perhaps 2000 psi) as aid for magnet assembly.

  13. BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #19 [cm: Connective tissues

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    ME411/511 BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #19 [cm: Connective tissues] General Objectives: Connective tissues are a group of tissues which bind structures together and provide a framework Mechanics of connective tissues and systems Central Framework: Connective tissues provide the mechanical

  14. BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #19 [cm: Connective tissues

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    ME498/599 BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #19 [cm: Connective tissues] General Objectives: Connective tissues are a group of tissues which bind structures together and provide a framework Mechanics of connective tissues and systems Central Framework: Connective tissues provide the mechanical

  15. Corrective maintenance maturity model (CM 3 ): maintainer's education and training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mira Kajko-Mattsson; Stefan Forssander; Ulf H. Olsson

    2001-01-01

    What is the point of improving maintenance processes if the most important asset, people, is not properly utilised? Knowledge of the product(s) maintained, maintenance processes and communications skills is very important for achieving quality software and for improving maintenance and development processes. In this paper, we present CM3: Maintainer's Education and Training — a maturity model for educating and training

  16. Motivating the Corrective Maintenance Maturity Model (CM3)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mira Kajko-mattsson

    2001-01-01

    Many process models have been hitherto suggested. Very few of them, however, deal with the most utilised process today: the maintenance process. The article presents and motivates the “Corrective Maintenance Maturity Model” (CM3), a process model entirely dedicated to only software maintenance

  17. Chancellor's Memorandum CM-42 Information Technology (IT) Infrastructure

    E-print Network

    Chancellor's Memorandum CM-42 ­ Information Technology (IT) Infrastructure To: Vice Chancellors, Deans, Administrative Staff, Department Heads, and Students. From: LSU Health Sciences Center New of Purpose The LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans (LSUHSC-NO) and LSU Health Care Services Division (LSU

  18. Search for Cm-248 in the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavielle, B.; Marti, K.; Pellas, P.; Perron, C.

    1992-09-01

    Possible evidence for the presence of Cm-248 in the early solar system was reported from fission gas studies (Rao and Gopalan, 1973) and recently from studies of very high nuclear track densities (not less than 5 x 10 exp 8/sq cm) in the merrillite of the H4 chondrite Forest Vale (F.V.) (Pellas et al., 1987). We report here an analysis of the isotopic abundances of xenon in F.V. phosphates and results of track studies in phosphate/pyroxene contacts. The fission xenon isotopic signature clearly identifies Pu-244 as the extinct progenitor. We calculate an upper limit Cm-248/Pu-244 to be less than 0.0015 at the beginning of Xe retention in F.V. phosphates. This corresponds to an upper limit of the ratio Cm-248/U-235 of not greater than 5 x 10 exp -5 further constraining the evidence for any late addition of freshly synthesized actinide elements just prior to solar system formation. The fission track density observed after annealing the phosphates at 290C (1 hr, which essentially erases spallation recoil tracks) is also in agreement with the Pu-244 abundance inferred from fission Xe. The spallation recoil tracks produced during the 76 Ma cosmic-ray exposure account for the very high track density in merrillites.

  19. The 21 cm signature of a cosmic string loop

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, Michael; Brandenberger, Robert, E-mail: paganom@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2012-05-01

    Cosmic string loops lead to nonlinear baryon overdensities at early times, even before the time which in the standard LCDM model corresponds to the time of reionization. These overdense structures lead to signals in 21 cm redshift surveys at large redshifts. In this paper, we calculate the amplitude and shape of the string loop-induced 21 cm brightness temperature. We find that a string loop leads to a roughly elliptical region in redshift space with extra 21 cm emission. The excess brightness temperature for strings with a tension close to the current upper bound can be as high as 1deg K for string loops generated at early cosmological times (times comparable to the time of equal matter and radiation) and observed at a redshift of z+1 = 30. The angular extent of these predicted 'bright spots' is x{sup '}. These signals should be detectable in upcoming high redshift 21 cm surveys. We also discuss the application of our results to global monopoles and primordial black holes.

  20. The 21 cm signature of cosmic string wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Danos, Rebecca J.; Hernández, Oscar F.; Holder, Gilbert P., E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: rjdanos@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: oscarh@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: holder@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2010-12-01

    We discuss the signature of a cosmic string wake in 21cm redshift surveys. Since 21cm surveys probe higher redshifts than optical large-scale structure surveys, the signatures of cosmic strings are more manifest in 21cm maps than they are in optical galaxy surveys. We find that, provided the tension of the cosmic string exceeds a critical value (which depends on both the redshift when the string wake is created and the redshift of observation), a cosmic string wake will generate an emission signal with a brightness temperature which approaches a limiting value which at a redshift of z+1 = 30 is close to 400 mK in the limit of large string tension. The signal will have a specific signature in position space: the excess 21cm radiation will be confined to a wedge-shaped region whose tip corresponds to the position of the string, whose planar dimensions are set by the planar dimensions of the string wake, and whose thickness (in redshift direction) depends on the string tension. For wakes created at z{sub i}+1 = 10{sup 3}, then at a redshift of z+1 = 30 the critical value of the string tension ? is G? = 6 × 10{sup ?7}, and it decreases linearly with redshift (for wakes created at the time of equal matter and radiation, the critical value is a factor of two lower at the same redshift). For smaller tensions, cosmic strings lead to an observable absorption signal with the same wedge geometry.

  1. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...related corporations with common paymaster. 31.3121(s)-1 Section 31.3121(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(s)-1 Concurrent employment by related...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...related corporations with common paymaster. 31.3121(s)-1 Section 31.3121(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(s)-1 Concurrent employment by related...

  3. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...related corporations with common paymaster. 31.3121(s)-1 Section 31.3121(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(s)-1 Concurrent employment by related...

  4. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...related corporations with common paymaster. 31.3121(s)-1 Section 31.3121(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(s)-1 Concurrent employment by related...

  5. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling regulates receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, Harunori [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)] [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Kitano, Masayasu, E-mail: mkitano6@hyo-med.ac.jp [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)] [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi [Department of Pharmacy, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, 1-3-6 Minatojima Kobe, Hyogo 650-8530 (Japan)] [Department of Pharmacy, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, 1-3-6 Minatojima Kobe, Hyogo 650-8530 (Japan); Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sato, Chieri; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)] [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Miyazawa, Keiji [Discovery Research III, Research and Development, Kissei Pharmaceutical Company, 4365-1 Hodakakashiwara, Azumino, Nagano 399-8304 (Japan)] [Discovery Research III, Research and Development, Kissei Pharmaceutical Company, 4365-1 Hodakakashiwara, Azumino, Nagano 399-8304 (Japan); Hla, Timothy [Center for Vascular Biology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, Box 69, NY 10065 (United States)] [Center for Vascular Biology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, Box 69, NY 10065 (United States); Sano, Hajime [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)] [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of S1P in MH7A cells was inhibited by specific Gi/Go inhibitors. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling plays an important role in synovial cell proliferation and inflammatory gene expression by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of S1P/S1P1 signaling in the expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) in RA synoviocytes and CD4{sup +} T cells. We demonstrated MH7A cells, a human RA synovial cell line, and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Surprisingly, S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, S1P enhanced RANKL expression induced by stimulation with TNF-{alpha} in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. These effects of S1P in MH7A cells were inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, a specific Gi/Go inhibitor. These findings suggest that S1P/S1P1 signaling may play an important role in RANKL expression by MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling of RA synoviocytes is closely connected with synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA. Thus, regulation of S1P/S1P1 signaling may become a novel therapeutic target for RA.

  6. Bells and Essebi: To Be or Not To Be (CM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallemeyn, G. W.

    1995-09-01

    The Bells and Essebi carbonaceous chondrites have long been associated with the CM group, although petrographic and isotopic observations have questioned that relationship. Samples of Bells and Essebi were obtained for bulk compositional study by neutron activation analysis (INAA) in an attempt to further fuel the debate on this issue. The current INAA work for Bells is complete, but analysis of Essebi is ongoing, and therefore the data is preliminary. Although CM chondrites typically contain <3 wt% magnetite, Bells and Essebi contain approximately 16 wt% and 11 wt% magnetite, respectively [1]. Both Bells and Essebi seem to have suffered more intense aqueous alteration than typical CM chondrites [2]. Bells has a phyllosilicate matrix composition closer to CI chondrites than CM chondrites [3]. The delta 15N value for Bells is much higher than any of the established carbonaceous chondrite groups[4]. Carbonate material in Essebi has delta 13C compositions (+62 per mil to +80 per mil) higher than the CM mode of +40 per mil to +50 per mil [5]. Both Bells and Essebi have whole rock O-isotope compositions in the CM chondrite range, but Essebi has separated matrix and magnetite values similar to whole rock and magnetite values in CI chondrites [6]. Samples of Bells were from two different stones collected after the fall. One stone was collected the day after the fall, the other was collected several days later after a hurricane went through the area. The samples will be referred to as 'normal' Bells and 'weathered' Bells, respectively. The 'normal' and 'weathered' Bells samples are very similar in composition with a few notable exceptions. The Mg-normalized abundances of Na, K and Br in 'weathered' Bells are markedly depleted relative to 'normal' Bells. The abundance of Ca is also lower to a smaller extent. One must be cautious of compositional studies of late-collected Bells specimens as they may have been altered by the affects of rainwater. Refractory lithophile abundances (Mg-normalized) in Bells are at CI chondrite levels, not CM, but volatile lithophile abundances follow a normal CM depletion pattern relative to CI chondrites. Common siderophile (Fe, Co, Ni) abundances are also at CI chondrite levels, but normalized refractory siderophile abundances are elevated relative to CI chondrites, and greater than even CM chondrite abundances. The Au abundance in Bells is lower than those of the common siderophiles, a pattern unlike CM chondrites where the abundances are all very similar. On a Zn/Mn vs. Al/Mn diagram Bells plots just outside the tight cluster of CM chondrites in the direction of CI chondrites. Bells does not easily fall into any classification scheme. It does not appear to be a CM chondrite, though. Only preliminary data is available for Essebi. Refractory siderophile abundances (Ni-normalized) are similar to CM, but volatile siderophile and chalcophile element abundances appear to be noticeably lower, a pattern similar to the anomalous chondrite Al Rais. On a Zn/Mn vs. Al/Mn diagram Essebi plots just outside the CM chondrite cluster on the side opposite Bells and very near Al Rais. Essebi may be related to the same clan as Al Rais, an idea that is also supported by their very similar whole-rock O-isotope compositions [6,7]. It is also probably not closely related to Bells. The picture on Essebi may become clearer once the INAA analysis is complete (including key lithophile elements). References: [1] Hyman M. and Rowe M. W. (1983) LPS XIV, 341-342. [2] Metzler K. et al. (1992) GCA, 56, 2873-2897. [3] Davis A. M. and Olsen E. (1984) LPS XV, 190-191. [4] Kerridge J. F. (1985) GCA, 49, 1707-1714. [5] Grady M. M. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 2855-2866. [6] Rowe M. W. et al. (1994) GCA, 58, 5341-5347. [7] Weisberg M. K. et al. (1993) GCA, 57, 1567-1586. _

  7. A shock tube study on the thermal decomposition of CS2 based on S(3P) and S(1D) concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woiki, D.; Roth, P.

    1994-09-01

    The thermal decomposition of CS2 highly diluted in Ar was studied behind reflected shock waves by monitoring time-dependent absorption profiles of S(3P) and S(1D) using atomic resonance absorption spectroscopy (ARAS). The rate coefficient of the reaction: (R1) 193_2005_Article_BF01418572_TeX2GIFE1.gif begin{gathered} CS_2 + Mmathop to limits^{k_1 } CS + S + M, \\ k_1 = 5.1 × 10^{14} exp left( {{ - 38150K}/T} right)cm^3 mol^{ - 1} s^{ - 1} \\ . was determined in experiments with initial concentrations of CS2 between 5 and 50 ppm at post-shock conditions of 2300 K?T?3360 K and total densities between 2.2×1018 cm-3 and 3.9×1018 cm-3. In experiments with higher initial concentrations of 100 ppm CS2 in Ar, the S(3P) concentrations were found to reach quasi-stationary values. From the steady state assumption a value for the rate coefficient of the most probable S consuming reaction: (R2) 193_2005_Article_BF01418572_TeX2GIFE2.gif begin{gathered} CS_2 + Smathop rightleftharpoons limits^{k_2 } CS + S_2 , \\ k_2 ? 1.2 × 10^{13} cm^3 mol^{ - 1} s^{ - 1} \\ . was estimated at temperatures between 2100 K and 2340 K.

  8. Gutzwiller approach for elementary excitations in S = 1 antiferromagnetic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng-Xin; Zhou, Yi; Ng, Tai-Kai

    2014-08-01

    In a previous paper (Liu et al 2012 Phys. Rev. B 85 195144), a variational Monte Carlo method (based on Gutzwiller projected states) was generalized to S = 1 systems. This method provided very good trial ground states for the gapped phases of an S = 1 bilinear-biquadratic (BLBQ) Heisenberg chain. In this paper, we extend the approach to study the low-lying elementary excitations in S = 1 chains. We calculate the one-magnon and two-magnon excitation spectra of the BLBQ Heisenberg chain and the results agree very well with recent data in the literature. In our approach, the difference of the excitation spectrum between the Haldane phase and the dimer phase (such as the even/odd size effect) can be understood from their different topologies of the corresponding mean field theory. We especially study the Takhtajan-Babujian critical point. Despite the fact that the ‘elementary excitations’ are spin-1 magnons, which are different from the spin-1/2 spinons in Bethe solution, we show that the excitation spectrum, critical exponent (\\eta =0.74) and central charge (c = 1.45) calculated from our theory agree well with the Bethe ansatz solution and conformal field theory predictions.

  9. The 12 micron band of ethane: A spectral catalog from 765 cm(-1) to 900 cm(-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atakan, A. K.; Blass, W. E.; Brault, J. W.; Daunt, S. J.; Halsey, G. W.; Jennings, D. E.; Reuter, D. C.; Susskind, J.

    1983-01-01

    The high resolution laboratory absorption spectrum of the 12 micro band of ethane gas is studied. The data were obtained using the McMath Solar Telescope 1 meter Fourier Transform interferometer at Kitt Peak National Observatory and tunable diode laser spectrometers at the University of Tennessee and NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Over 200 individual vibration rotation transitions were analyzed taking into account many higher order effects including torsional splitting. Line positions were reproduced to better than 0.001/cm. Both ground and upper state molecular constants were determined in the analysis. The experimental details, the analysis procedures and the results are addressed. A list of ethane transitions occurring near (14)CO2 laser lines needed for heterodyne searches for C2H6 in extraterrestrial sources is also included. A spectral catalog of the ethane nu sub g fundamental from 765/cm to 900/cm is provided. A high dispersion (1/cm 12 in.) plot of both the Kitt Peak interferometric data and a simulated spectrum with Doppler limited resolution, a table of over 8500 calculated transitions listed quantum number assignments, frequencies and intensities are provided.

  10. Search for the Flavor-Changing Neutral Current Decay B0s-->mu+mu- in pp¯ Collisions at &surd;(s)=1.96 TeV with the D0 Detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Abazov; B. Abbott; M. Abolins; B. S. Acharya; M. Adams; T. Adams; M. Agelou; J.-L. Agram; S. H. Ahn; M. Ahsan; G. D. Alexeev; G. Alkhazov; A. Alton; G. Alverson; G. A. Alves; M. Anastasoaie; S. Anderson; B. Andrieu; Y. Arnoud; A. Askew; B. Åsman; O. Atramentov; C. Autermann; C. Avila; F. Badaud; A. Baden; B. Baldin; P. W. Balm; S. Banerjee; E. Barberis; P. Bargassa; P. Baringer; C. Barnes; J. F. Bartlett; U. Bassler; D. Bauer; A. Bellavance; S. Beauceron; M. Begel; S. B. Beri; G. Bernardi; R. Bernhard; I. Bertram; M. Besançon; R. Beuselinck; V. A. Bezzubov; P. C. Bhat; V. Bhatnagar; M. Binder; K. M. Black; I. Blackler; G. Blazey; F. Blekman; S. Blessing; D. Bloch; U. Blumenschein; A. Boehnlein; O. Boeriu; T. A. Bolton; F. Borcherding; G. Borissov; K. Bos; T. Bose; A. Brandt; R. Brock; G. Brooijmans; A. Bross; N. J. Buchanan; D. Buchholz; M. Buehler; V. Buescher; S. Burdin; T. H. Burnett; E. Busato; J. M. Butler; J. Bystricky; W. Carvalho; B. C. Casey; N. M. Cason; H. Castilla-Valdez; S. Chakrabarti; D. Chakraborty; K. M. Chan; A. Chandra; D. Chapin; F. Charles; E. Cheu; L. Chevalier; D. K. Cho; S. Choi; T. Christiansen; L. Christofek; D. Coppage; B. Clément; C. Clément; Y. Coadou; M. Cooke; W. E. Cooper; M. Corcoran; J. Coss; A. Cothenet; M.-C. Cousinou; S. Crépé-Renaudin; M. Cristetiu; M. A. Cummings; D. Cutts; H. da Motta; B. Davies; G. Davies; G. A. Davis; K. de; P. de Jong; S. J. de Jong; E. de La Cruz-Burelo; C. de Oliveira Martins; S. Dean; F. Déliot; P. A. Delsart; M. Demarteau; R. Demina; P. Demine; D. Denisov; S. P. Denisov; S. Desai; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; M. Doidge; H. Dong; S. Doulas; L. Duflot; S. R. Dugad; A. Duperrin; J. Dyer; A. Dyshkant; M. Eads; D. Edmunds; T. Edwards; J. Ellison; J. Elmsheuser; J. T. Eltzroth; V. D. Elvira; S. Eno; P. Ermolov; O. V. Eroshin; J. Estrada; D. Evans; H. Evans; A. Evdokimov; V. N. Evdokimov; J. Fast; S. N. Fatakia; L. Feligioni; T. Ferbel; F. Fiedler; F. Filthaut; W. Fisher; H. E. Fisk; M. Fortner; H. Fox; W. Freeman; S. Fu; S. Fuess; T. Gadfort; C. F. Galea; E. Gallas; E. Galyaev; C. Garcia; A. Garcia-Bellido; J. Gardner; V. Gavrilov; P. Gay; D. Gelé; R. Gelhaus; K. Genser; C. E. Gerber; Y. Gershtein; G. Ginther; T. Golling; B. Gómez; K. Gounder; A. Goussiou; P. D. Grannis; S. Greder; H. Greenlee; Z. D. Greenwood; E. M. Gregores; Ph. Gris; J.-F. Grivaz; L. Groer; S. Grünendahl; M. W. Grünewald; S. N. Gurzhiev; G. Gutierrez; P. Gutierrez; A. Haas; N. J. Hadley; S. Hagopian; I. Hall; R. E. Hall; C. Han; L. Han; K. Hanagaki; K. Harder; R. Harrington; J. M. Hauptman; R. Hauser; J. Hays; T. Hebbeker; D. Hedin; J. M. Heinmiller; A. P. Heinson; U. Heintz; C. Hensel; G. Hesketh; M. D. Hildreth; R. Hirosky; J. D. Hobbs; B. Hoeneisen; M. Hohlfeld; S. J. Hong; R. Hooper; P. Houben; Y. Hu; J. Huang; I. Iashvili; R. Illingworth; A. S. Ito; S. Jabeen; M. Jaffré; S. Jain; V. Jain; K. Jakobs; A. Jenkins; R. Jesik; K. Johns; M. Johnson; A. Jonckheere; P. Jonsson; H. Jöstlein; A. Juste; M. M. Kado; D. Käfer; W. Kahl; S. Kahn; E. Kajfasz; A. M. Kalinin; J. Kalk; D. Karmanov; J. Kasper; D. Kau; R. Kehoe; S. Kermiche; S. Kesisoglou; A. Khanov; A. Kharchilava; Y. M. Kharzheev; K. H. Kim; B. Klima; M. Klute; J. M. Kohli; M. Kopal; V. M. Korablev; J. Kotcher; B. Kothari; A. Koubarovsky; A. V. Kozelov; J. Kozminski; S. Krzywdzinski; S. Kuleshov; Y. Kulik; S. Kunori; A. Kupco; T. Kurca; S. Lager; N. Lahrichi; G. Landsberg; J. Lazoflores; A.-C. Le Bihan; P. Lebrun; S. W. Lee; W. M. Lee; A. Leflat; F. Lehner; C. Leonidopoulos; P. Lewis; J. Li; Q. Z. Li; J. G. Lima; D. Lincoln; S. L. Linn; J. Linnemann; V. V. Lipaev; R. Lipton; L. Lobo; A. Lobodenko; M. Lokajicek; A. Lounis; H. J. Lubatti; L. Lueking; M. Lynker; A. L. Lyon; A. K. Maciel; R. J. Madaras; P. Mättig; A. Magerkurth; A.-M. Magnan; N. Makovec; P. K. Mal; S. Malik; V. L. Malyshev; H. S. Mao; Y. Maravin; M. Martens; S. E. Mattingly; A. A. Mayorov; R. McCarthy; R. McCroskey; D. Meder; H. L. Melanson; A. Melnitchouk; M. Merkin; K. W. Merritt; A. Meyer; H. Miettinen; D. Mihalcea; J. Mitrevski; N. Mokhov; J. Molina; N. K. Mondal; H. E. Montgomery; R. W. Moore; G. S. Muanza; M. Mulders; Y. D. Mutaf; E. Nagy; M. Narain; N. A. Naumann; H. A. Neal; J. P. Negret; S. Nelson; P. Neustroev; C. Noeding; A. Nomerotski; S. F. Novaes; T. Nunnemann; E. Nurse; V. O'dell; D. C. O'Neil; V. Oguri; N. Oliveira; N. Oshima; G. J. Otero Y Garzón; P. Padley; N. Parashar; S. K. Park; J. Parsons; R. Partridge; N. Parua; A. Patwa; P. M. Perea; E. Perez; O. Peters; P. Pétroff; M. Petteni; L. Phaf; R. Piegaia; P. L. Podesta-Lerma; V. M. Podstavkov; Y. Pogorelov; B. G. Pope; W. L. Prado da Silva; H. B. Prosper; S. Protopopescu; M. B. Przybycien; J. Qian; A. Quadt; B. Quinn; K. J. Rani; P. A. Rapidis; P. N. Ratoff; N. W. Reay; S. Reucroft; M. Rijssenbeek; I. Ripp-Baudot; F. Rizatdinova; C. Royon; P. Rubinov

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a search for the flavor-changing neutral current decay B0s-->mu+mu- using a data set with integrated luminosity of 240 pb-1 of pp¯ collisions at &surd;(s)=1.96 TeV collected with the D0 detector in run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We find the upper limit on the branching fraction to be B(B0s-->mu+mu-)<=5.0×10-7 at the 95% C.L. assuming

  11. Studying 21cm power spectrum with one-point statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimabukuro, Hayato; Yoshiura, Shintaro; Takahashi, Keitaro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Ichiki, Kiyotomo

    2015-07-01

    The redshifted 21cm line signal from neutral hydrogens is a promising tool to probe the cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization. Ongoing and future low-frequency radio experiments are expected to detect its fluctuations, especially through the power spectrum. In this paper, we give a physical interpretation of the time evolution of the power spectrum of the 21cm brightness temperature fluctuations, which can be decomposed into dark matter density, spin temperature and neutral fraction of hydrogen fluctuations. From the one-point statistics of the fluctuations, such as variance and skewness, we find that the peaks and dips in the time evolution are deeply related to X-ray heating of the intergalactic gas, which controls the spin temperature. We suggest the skewness of the brightness temperature distribution is a key observable to identify the onset of X-ray heating.

  12. Performance of the NASA 30 cm Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Haag, Thomas W.; Hovan, Scot A.

    1993-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster is under development at NASA to provide an ion propulsion option for missions of national interest, and is being proposed for use on the USAF/TRW Space Surveillance, Tracking and Autonomous Repositioning (SSTAR) platform to validate ion propulsion. The thruster incorporates innovations in design, materials, and fabrication techniques compared to those employed in conventional ion thrusters. Specific development efforts include thruster design optimizations, component life testing and validation, vibration testing, and performance characterizations. Under this test program, the ion thruster will be brought to engineering model development status. This paper discusses the performance and power throttling test data for the NASA 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster over an input power envelope of 0.7 to 4.9 kW, and corresponding thruster lifetime expectations.

  13. 21 cm cosmology in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Jonathan R; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-08-01

    Imaging the Universe during the first hundreds of millions of years remains one of the exciting challenges facing modern cosmology. Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line of atomic hydrogen offer the potential of opening a new window into this epoch. This will transform our understanding of the formation of the first stars and galaxies and of the thermal history of the Universe. A new generation of radio telescopes is being constructed for this purpose with the first results starting to trickle in. In this review, we detail the physics that governs the 21 cm signal and describe what might be learnt from upcoming observations. We also generalize our discussion to intensity mapping of other atomic and molecular lines. PMID:22828208

  14. Precision measurement of cosmic magnification from 21 cm emitting galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengjie; /Fermilab; Pen, Ue-Li; /Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.

    2005-04-01

    We show how precision lensing measurements can be obtained through the lensing magnification effect in high redshift 21cm emission from galaxies. Normally, cosmic magnification measurements have been seriously complicated by galaxy clustering. With precise redshifts obtained from 21cm emission line wavelength, one can correlate galaxies at different source planes, or exclude close pairs to eliminate such contaminations. We provide forecasts for future surveys, specifically the SKA and CLAR. SKA can achieve percent precision on the dark matter power spectrum and the galaxy dark matter cross correlation power spectrum, while CLAR can measure an accurate cross correlation power spectrum. The neutral hydrogen fraction was most likely significantly higher at high redshifts, which improves the number of observed galaxies significantly, such that also CLAR can measure the dark matter lensing power spectrum. SKA can also allow precise measurement of lensing bispectrum.

  15. Instrumental Simulations of the 21cm Epoch of Reionization Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Carina; Parsons, Aaron; Liu, Adrian; Zheng, Haoxuan; HERA Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Epoch of Reionization (EoR) represents an unexplored phase in early cosmic history when the light from the first galaxies and stars ionized the majority of the hydrogen in the universe. A powerful way of probing EoR fluctuations is by mapping the red-shifted 21cm hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen, and current telescope arrays such as the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and their recently funded successor, the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Arrays (HERA) aim to do this. Because the detection of EoR requires the difficult isolation of a signal ?105 times fainter than galactic foregrounds, as well as unprecedented levels of sensitivity, it is important to develop realistic end-to-end simulations that accurately capture instrumental effects. Here we present simulation efforts within the HERA collaboration, demonstrating capabilities that will be necessary for a confirmed detection of the cosmological 21cm signal.

  16. Neptune's microwave spectrum from 1 MM to 20 CM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, I.; Richmond, M.

    1989-07-01

    Total flux densities and disk-averaged brightness temperatures have been tabulated on the basis of VLA observations of Neptune at 1.3, 2, 6, and 20 cm wavelengths; a recalibration is also conducted of previous observations in order to accurately ascertain the spectral shape of this planet, which is found to have increasing brightness temperature with increasing wavelength, in contrast with that of Uranus. If all the detected emission is atmospheric thermal radiation, ammonia abundance must either be a factor of about 50 lower than the solar N value throughout the Neptune atmosphere, or the planet must emit about 0.3-0.5 mJy synchrotron radiation at 20 cm; the latter possibility is consistent with a planetary magnetic field strength of about 0.5 G at the surface.

  17. 2112 new 21-cm line measurements (Theureau+ 1998)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Theureau; L. Bottinelli; N. Coudreau-Durand; L. Gouguenheim; N. Hallet; M. Loulergue; G. Paturel; P. Teerikorpi

    1998-01-01

    This catalogue contains 2112 new 21-cm neutral hydrogen line measurements carried out with the meridian transit Nancay radiotelescope. Among these data we give also 213 new radial velocities which complement those listed in three previous papers of this series. Table2.dat is the list of corrected astrophysical HI-parameters (name, coordinates, systemic heliocentric velocity, line-width at two levels, log of maximum circular

  18. 4000 cm D2 MAGNET D3 MAGNET

    E-print Network

    Tokyo, University of

    0 1000 2000 3000 -1500-1000-500050010001500 X (cm) #12;1 electron 0 5 10 15 20 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 nsec 2 electron 0 5 10 15 20 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 nsec 3 electron 0 5 10 15 20 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 nsec #12;0 500 1000 0 100 200 300 400 500

  19. The overtone dynamics of acetylene above 10 000 cm?1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian C. SmithS; John S. Winn

    1991-01-01

    The 10 000–13 000 cm?1 C–H stretching spectra of normal acetylene have been measured with a high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer and a long path gas cell. Over 400 rovibrational lines were assigned and analyzed yielding band origins and rotational constants. Comparison of calculated and observed rotational constants and intensities confirmed the vibrational assignments made in this region. A vibrational

  20. Control of a 30 cm diameter mercury bombardment thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terdan, F. F.; Bechtel, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Control logic functions were established for three automatic modes of operation of a 30-cm thruster using a power conditioner console with flight-like characteristics. The three modes provide: (1) automatic startup to reach thermal stability, (2) steady-state closed-loop control, and (3) the reliable recycling of the high voltages following an arc breakdown to reestablish normal operation. Power supply impedance characteristics necessary for stable operation and the effect of the magnetic baffle on the reliable recycling was studied.

  1. Redshifted Neutral Hydrogen 21cm Absorption toward Red Quasars

    E-print Network

    C. L. Carilli; K. M. Menten; M. J. Reid; M. P. Rupen; M. S. Yun

    1997-09-03

    We have searched for redshifted neutral hydrogen 21cm absorption toward sources from the Stickel et al. `red quasar' sub-sample. Five of these red quasars have been searched for redshifted HI 21cm absorption to optical depth levels of a few percent, and four show strong absorption. This 80% success rate for the red quasars compares to the much lower success rate of only 11% for detecting HI 21cm absorption associated with optically selected Mg II absorption line systems. The large neutral hydrogen column densities seen toward the red quasars provide circumstantial evidence supporting the dust reddening hypothesis, as opposed to an intrinsically red spectrum for the AGN emission mechanism. The data on the red quasar sub-sample support the models of Fall and Pei for dust obscuration by damped Ly alpha absorption line systems and suggest that: (i) there may be a significant, but not dominant, population of quasars missing from optically selected samples due to dust obscuration, perhaps as high as 20% at the POSS limit for an optical sample with a redshift distribution similar to the 1 Jy, flat spectrum quasar sample, and (ii) optically selected samples may miss about half the high column density quasar absorption line systems. The redshifted HI 21cm absorption line detections are toward the sources: 0108+388 at z = 0.6685, 0500+019 at z = 0.5846, and 1504+377 at z = 0.6733. No absorption is seen toward 2149+056 at z = 0.740 at a level below that seen for the three detections. In some systems the absorbing gas is in the vicinity of the AGN, either circumnuclear material or material in the general ISM of the AGN's host galaxy, and in other systems the absorption is by gas associated with galaxies cosmologically distributed along the line of sight to the quasar.

  2. How accurately can 21 cm tomography constrain cosmology?

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Yi [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Tegmark, Max [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); McQuinn, Matthew [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Zaldarriaga, Matias [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Jefferson Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Zahn, Oliver [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, and Lawrence Berkeley National Labs, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    There is growing interest in using 3-dimensional neutral hydrogen mapping with the redshifted 21 cm line as a cosmological probe. However, its utility depends on many assumptions. To aid experimental planning and design, we quantify how the precision with which cosmological parameters can be measured depends on a broad range of assumptions, focusing on the 21 cm signal from 6cm tomography measured the matter power spectrum directly. A future square kilometer array optimized for 21 cm tomography could improve the sensitivity to spatial curvature and neutrino masses by up to 2 orders of magnitude, to {delta}{omega}{sub k}{approx_equal}0.0002 and {delta}m{sub {nu}}{approx_equal}0.007 eV, and give a 4{sigma} detection of the spectral index running predicted by the simplest inflation models.

  3. Detecting ionized bubbles in redshifted 21-cm maps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanan K. Datta; Somnath Bharadwaj; T. Roy Choudhury

    2007-01-01

    The reionization of the Universe, it is believed, occurred by the growth of ionized regions (bubbles) in the neutral intergalactic medium. We study the possibility of detecting these bubbles in radio-interferometric observations of redshifted neutral hydrogen (HI) 21-cm radiation. The signal (<1mJy) will be buried in noise and foregrounds, the latter being at least a few orders of magnitude stronger

  4. Energy (cm-1 MolarExtinctionCoefficient(M-1

    E-print Network

    Reid, Philip J.

    Chloroform Dichloromethane Acetonitrile -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 -1 Time (ps) OD(mOD) -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0 in acetonitrile following photoexcitation at 266 nm. Measured at probe frequencies ranging from1820 cm-1 to 1920- stretch fundamental transition of ClNO dis- solved in acetonitrile following 266-nm pho- tolysis

  5. Focused 70-cm Wavelength Radar Mapping of the Moon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce A. Campbell; Donald B. Campbell; J. L. Margot; Rebecca R. Ghent; Michael Nolan; John Chandler; Lynn M. Carter; Nicholas J. S. Stacy

    2007-01-01

    We describe new 70-cm wavelength radar images of the lunar near-side and limb regions obtained via a synthetic-aperture-radar patch-focusing reduction technique. The data are obtained by transmitting a circularly polarized pulsed waveform from the Arecibo telescope in Puerto Rico and receiving the echo in both senses of circular polarization with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia.

  6. Solar Noble Gas Microdistributions in Murchison and CM Rim Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Woolum; C. M. Hohenberg; K. Kehm; K. Poelstra; E. Guntalilib

    1995-01-01

    Introduction. Identifiable components of certain carbonaceous chondrites have been interpreted as nebula products. MacPherson et al. [1] described some rims around refractory inclusions in Allende (C3V) as accretionary, and Metzler et al. [2] attributed a nebular origin to fine-grained dust mantles (rims) in CM meteorites. In nebula formation scenarios such as that evoked by Metzler et al., we would expect

  7. IDENTIFYING IONIZED REGIONS IN NOISY REDSHIFTED 21 cm DATA SETS

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, Matthew; Lidz, Adam, E-mail: mattma@sas.upenn.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    One of the most promising approaches for studying reionization is to use the redshifted 21 cm line. Early generations of redshifted 21 cm surveys will not, however, have the sensitivity to make detailed maps of the reionization process, and will instead focus on statistical measurements. Here, we show that it may nonetheless be possible to directly identify ionized regions in upcoming data sets by applying suitable filters to the noisy data. The locations of prominent minima in the filtered data correspond well with the positions of ionized regions. In particular, we corrupt semi-numeric simulations of the redshifted 21 cm signal during reionization with thermal noise at the level expected for a 500 antenna tile version of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and mimic the degrading effects of foreground cleaning. Using a matched filter technique, we find that the MWA should be able to directly identify ionized regions despite the large thermal noise. In a plausible fiducial model in which {approx}20% of the volume of the universe is neutral at z {approx} 7, we find that a 500-tile MWA may directly identify as many as {approx}150 ionized regions in a 6 MHz portion of its survey volume and roughly determine the size of each of these regions. This may, in turn, allow interesting multi-wavelength follow-up observations, comparing galaxy properties inside and outside of ionized regions. We discuss how the optimal configuration of radio antenna tiles for detecting ionized regions with a matched filter technique differs from the optimal design for measuring power spectra. These considerations have potentially important implications for the design of future redshifted 21 cm surveys.

  8. 10.7 Gb/s uncompensated transmission over a 470 km hybrid fiber link with in-line SOAs using MLSE and duobinary signals.

    PubMed

    Downie, John D; Hurley, Jason; Mauro, Yihong

    2008-09-29

    We experimentally demonstrate uncompensated 8-channel wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and single channel transmission at 10.7 Gb/s over a 470 km hybrid fiber link with in-line semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). Two different forms of the duobinary modulation format are investigated and compared. Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation (MLSE) receiver technology is found to significantly mitigate nonlinear effects from the SOAs and to enable the long transmission, especially for optical duobinary signals derived from differential phase shift keying (DPSK) signals directly detected after narrowband optical filter demodulation. The MLSE also helps to compensate for a non-optimal Fabry-Perot optical filter demodulator. PMID:18825215

  9. Redshifted 21cm Observations of High Redshift Quasar Proximity Zones

    E-print Network

    Stuart Wyithe

    2008-04-03

    The introduction of low-frequency radio arrays is expected to revolutionize the study of the reionization epoch. Observation of the contrast in redshifted 21cm emission between a large HII region and the surrounding neutral inter-galactic medium (IGM) will be the simplest and most easily interpreted signature. However the highest redshift quasars known are thought to reside in an ionized IGM. Using a semi-analytic model we describe the redshifted 21cm signal from the IGM surrounding quasars discovered using the i-drop out technique (i.e. quasars at z~6). We argue that while quasars at z<6.5 seem to reside in the post overlap IGM, they will still provide valuable probes of the late stages of the overlap era because the light-travel time across a quasar proximity zone should be comparable to the duration of overlap. For redshifted 21cm observations within a 32MHz bandpass, we find that the subtraction of a spectrally smooth foreground will not remove spectral features due to the proximity zone. These features could be used to measure the neutral hydrogen content of the IGM during the late stages of reionization. The density of quasars at z~6 is now well constrained. We use the measured quasar luminosity function to estimate the prospects for discovery of high redshift quasars in fields that will be observed by the Murchison Widefield Array.

  10. Distinct Distribution of Purines in CM and CR Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Smith, Karen E.; Martin, Mildred G.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of organic molecules and delivered pre biotic organic compounds, including purines and pyrimidines, to the early Earth (and other planetary bodies), seeding it with the ingredients likely required for the first genetic material. We have investigated the distribution of nucleobases in six different CM and CR type carbonaceous chondrites, including fivc Antarctic meteorites never before analyzed for nucleobases. We employed a traditional formic acid extraction protocol and a recently developed solid phase extraction method to isolate nucleobases. We analyzed these extracts by high performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV -MS/MS) targeting the five canonical RNAIDNA bases and hypoxanthine and xanthine. We detected parts-per-billion levels of nucleobases in both CM and CR meteorites. The relative abundances of the purines found in Antarctic CM and CR meteorites were clearly distinct from each other suggesting that these compounds are not terrestrial contaminants. One likely source of these purines is formation by HCN oligomerization (with other small molecules) during aqueous alteration inside the meteorite parent body. The detection of the purines adenine (A), guanine (0), hypoxanthine (HX), and xanthine (X) in carbonaceous meteorites indicates that these compounds should have been available on the early Earth prior to the origin of the first genetic material.

  11. High Redshift HI 21cm Absorption toward Red Quasars

    E-print Network

    C. L. Carilli; Karl M. Menten; C. P. Moore

    1998-12-09

    We have searched for redshifted absorption in the 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen toward `red quasars', which are extragalactic radio sources with a steep spectral drop between optical and infrared wavelengths. The success rate for detecting HI 21cm absorption toward a representative sample of such sources is 80%. This compares to the much lower success rate of 11% for detecting HI 21cm absorption associated with optically selected Mg II absorption line systems. The large neutral hydrogen column densities seen toward red quasars supports the hypothesis that these sources are reddened by dust, as opposed to having an intrinsically red spectrum due to the AGN emission mechanism. The lower limits to the spin temperatures for the neutral hydrogen are between 50 K and 1000 K, assuming a Galactic dust-to-gas ratio. We consider the question of biases in optically selected samples of quasars due to dust obscuration. The data on the red quasar sub-sample support the models of Fall and Pei for dust obscuration by damped Ly alpha absorption line systems, and suggest that: (i) there may be a significant, but not dominant, population of quasars missing from optically selected samples due to dust obscuration, perhaps as high as 20% at the POSS limit for an optical sample with a redshift distribution similar to the 1 Jy, flat spectrum quasar sample, and (ii) optically selected samples may miss about half the high column density quasar absorption line systems.

  12. Reionization History from Coupled CMB/21cm Line Data

    E-print Network

    R. Salvaterra; B. Ciardi; A. Ferrara; C. Baccigalupi

    2005-02-21

    We study CMB secondary anisotropies produced by inhomogeneous reionization by means of cosmological simulations coupled with the radiative transfer code CRASH. The reionization history is consistent with the WMAP Thomson optical depth determination. We find that the signal arising from this process dominates over the primary CMB component for l > 4000 and reaches a maximum amplitude of l(l+1)C_l/2\\pi ~ 1.6 x 10^{-13} on arcmin scale, i.e. l as large as several thousands. We then cross-correlate secondary CMB anisotropy maps with neutral hydrogen 21cm line emission fluctuations obtained from the same simulations. The two signals are highly anti-correlated on angular scales corresponding to the typical size of HII regions (including overlapping) at the 21cm map redshift. We show how the CMB/21cm cross-correlation can be used to: (a) study the nature of the reionization sources, (b) reconstruct the cosmic reionization history, (c) infer the mean cosmic ionization level at any redshift. We discuss the feasibility of the proposed experiment with forthcoming facilities.

  13. Volatiles on solar system objects: Carbon dioxide on Iapetus and aqueous alteration in CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Eric Edward

    2009-12-01

    Volatiles are critical in understanding the history of the solar system. We conducted two case studies intended to further this understanding. First, we analyzed the presence of CO2 on Iapetus. Second, we evaluated aqueous alteration in CM chondrites. We studied the distribution, stability and production of CO2 on Saturn's moon Iapetus. We determined that CO2 is concentrated exclusively on Iapetus' dark material with an effective thickness of 31 nm. The total CO2 on Iapetus' surface is 2.3x108 kg. However, CO2 should not be present because it has a limited residence time on the surface of Iapetus. Our thermal calculations and modeling show that CO2 in the form of frost will not remain on Iapetus' surface beyond a few hundred years. Thus, it must be complexed with dark material. However, photodissociation will destroy the observed inventory in ˜1/2 an Earth year. The lack of thermal and radiolytic stability requires an active source. We conducted experiments showing UV radiation generates CO2 under Iapetus-like conditions. We created a simulated regolith by mixing crushed water ice with isotopically labeled carbon. We then irradiated it with UV light at low temperature and pressure, producing 1.1x1015 parts m-2 s-1. Extrapolating to Iapetus, photolysis could generate 8.4x107 kg y-1, which makes photolytic production a good candidate for the source of the CO2 detected on Iapetus. We also studied the aqueous alteration of metal-bearing assemblages in CM chondrites. We examined Murchison, Cold Bokkeveld, Nogoya, and Murray using microscopy, electron microprobe analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Alteration on CM meteorites occurred within at least three microchemical environments: S-rich water, Si-rich water and water without substantial reactive components. Kamacite alters into tochilinite, cronstedtite, or magnetite. Sulfur associated alteration can form accessory minerals: P-rich sulfides, eskolaite and schreibersite. Additionally, we determined that there were two alteration events for some CM chondrites. The first formed a hydrated matrix prior to accretion, indicated by unaltered kamacite surrounded by a hydrated matrix. The second occurred after parent body formation. This event is indicated by large regions with consistent alteration features, surrounded by other regions of less altered material.

  14. S1P lyase in thymic perivascular spaces promotes egress of mature thymocytes via up-regulation of S1P receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yasuhiro; Yagi, Hideki; Takemoto, Kana; Utsumi, Hiroyuki; Fukunari, Atsushi; Sugahara, Kunio; Masuko, Takashi; Chiba, Kenji

    2014-05-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) play an important role in the egress of mature CD4 or CD8 single-positive (SP) thymocytes from the thymus. Fingolimod hydrochloride (FTY720), an S1P1 functional antagonist, induced significant accumulation of CD62L(high)CD69(low) mature SP thymocytes in the thymic medulla. Immunohistochemical staining using anti-S1P1 antibody revealed that S1P1 is predominantly expressed on thymocytes in the thymic medulla and is strongly down-regulated even at 3h after FTY720 administration. 2-Acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI), an S1P lyase inhibitor, also induced accumulation of mature SP thymocytes in the thymic medulla with an enlargement of the perivascular spaces (PVS). At 6h after THI administration, S1P1-expressing thymocytes reduced partially as if to form clusters and hardly existed in the proximity of CD31-expressing blood vessels in the thymic medulla, suggesting S1P lyase expression in the cells constructing thymic medullary PVS. To determine the cells expressing S1P lyase in the thymus, we newly established a mAb (YK19-2) specific for mouse S1P lyase. Immunohistochemical staining with YK19-2 revealed that S1P lyase is predominantly expressed in non-lymphoid thymic stromal cells in the thymic medulla. In the thymic medullary PVS, S1P lyase was expressed in ER-TR7-positive cells (reticular fibroblasts and pericytes) and CD31-positive vascular endothelial cells. Our findings suggest that S1P lyase expressed in the thymic medullary PVS keeps the tissue S1P concentration low around the vessels and promotes thymic egress via up-regulation of S1P1. PMID:24343820

  15. Selecting against S1P 3 enhances the acute cardiovascular tolerability of 3-(N-benzyl)aminopropylphosphonic acid S1P receptor agonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Hale; George Doherty; Leslie Toth; Sander G. Mills; Richard Hajdu; Carol Ann Keohane; Mark Rosenbach; James Milligan; Gan-Ju Shei; Gary Chrebet; James Bergstrom; Deborah Card; Michael Forrest; Shu-Yu Sun; Sarah West; Huijuan Xie; Naomi Nomura; Hugh Rosen; Suzanne Mandala

    2004-01-01

    Structurally modified 3-(N-benzylamino)propylphosphonic acid S1P receptor agonists that maintain affinity for S1P1, and have decreased affinity for S1P3 are efficacious, but exhibit decreased acute cardiovascular toxicity in rodents than do nonselective agonists.

  16. Indole-propionic acid derivatives as potent, S1P3-sparing and EAE efficacious sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 (S1P1) receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qinghua; Zhao, Baowei; Xu, Qiongfeng; Xu, Xuesong; Deng, Guanghui; Li, Chengyong; Luan, Linbo; Ren, Feng; Wang, Hailong; Xu, Heng; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Haibo; Xiang, Jia-Ning; Elliott, John D; Guo, Taylor B; Zhao, Yonggang; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Hongtao; Lin, Xichen

    2012-04-15

    Novel indole-propionic acid derivatives were developed as sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists through a systematic SAR study. The optimized and S1P(3) selective S1P(1) agonist 9f induced peripheral blood lymphocyte reduction in vivo and has an excellent efficacy in mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). PMID:22429468

  17. Water Masses From Two NOAA/GFDL Coupled Climate Models (CM2G and CM2M) in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Two NOAA/GFDL coupled climate models are compared while focusing on the North Pacific circulation and water masses. The two coupled models, CM2G and CM2M, share the same components except the oceans, which are an isopycnal model GOLD in CM2G, and MOM4 in CM2M. In general both models reproduce known features such as the North Pacific Mode waters and Intermediate Waters, but there are some differences. CM2G produces stronger Kuroshio and the Kuroshio and Oyashio Fronts are reproduced better compared to CM2M. Concerning the North Pacific Mode Waters, temperature and salinity are better with CM2M but volumetric census and stratification are better with CM2G. For the North Pacific Intermediate Water, CM2M shows relatively young water originating from the subpolar ocean, but CM2G shows that young water is produced north of the Kuroshio extension.

  18. Laser Guiding at > 10^18 W\\/cm^2 in cm - scale Gas Jets using the Ignitor Heater Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cameron Geddes; Eric Esarey; Jerome Faure; Wim Leemans; Csaba Toth; Jeroen Vantilborg

    2003-01-01

    Laser wakefield accelerators in the self guided regime and in pre formed channels are studied at LBNL's l'OASIS facility (10TW, 2×10^19W\\/cm^2) with the goal of a compact 0.1-1GeV accelerator module. A self modulated, self guided drive beam produced nC electron beams up to 50MeV with large energy spread. Simulations indicate plasma channeled accelerators can substantially increase particle energy and reduce

  19. Management of solitary 1 cm to 2 cm liver nodules in patients with compensated cirrhosis: A decision analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bremner, Karen E; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Sherman, Morris; Krahn, Murray D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Current guidelines, based on expert opinion, recommend that suspected 1 cm to 2 cm hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detected on screening be biopsied and, if positive, treated (eg, resection or transplantation). Alternative strategies are immediate treatment or observation until disease progression occurs. METHODS: A Markov decision model was developed that compared three management strategies – immediate resection, biopsy and resection if positive, and ultrasound surveillance every three months until disease progression – for a single 1 cm to 2 cm liver nodule suspicious for HCC following ultrasound screening and computed tomography confirmation. The cohort included 55-year-old patients with compensated cirrhosis and no significant comorbidities. The model used in the present study incorporated the probabilities of false-positive and false-negative results, needle-track seeding, HCC recurrence, cirrhosis progression and death. The quality-adjusted life expectancy (LE) and the unadjusted LE were evaluated and the model’s strength was assessed with sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: In the base case analysis, biopsy, resection and surveillance yielded an unadjusted LE of 60.5, 59.7 and 56.6 months, respectively, and a quality-adjusted LE of 46.6, 45.6 and 43.8 months, respectively. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, biopsy was the preferred strategy 69.5% of the time, resection 30.5% of the time and surveillance never. Resection was the optimal decision if the sensitivity of biopsy was very low (less than 0.45) or if the accuracy of the imaging tests resulted in a high percentage of HCC-positive patients (greater than 76%) in the screened cohort, as with expert interpretation of triphasic computed tomography. CONCLUSIONS: The present model suggests that biopsy is the preferred management strategy for these patients. When postimaging probability of HCC is high or pathology expertise is lacking, resection is the best alternative. Surveillance is never the optimal strategy. PMID:17703248

  20. Prospects for Redshifted 21-cm observations of quasar HII regions

    E-print Network

    Stuart Wyithe; Abraham Loeb; David Barnes

    2005-06-02

    The introduction of low-frequency radio arrays over the coming decade is expected to revolutionize the study of the reionization epoch. Observation of the contrast in redshifted 21cm emission between a large HII region and the surrounding neutral IGM will be the simplest and most easily interpreted signature. We find that an instrument like the planned Mileura Widefield Array Low-Frequency Demonstrator (LFD) will be able to obtain good signal to noise on HII regions around the most luminous quasars, and determine some gross geometric properties, e.g. whether the HII region is spherical or conical. A hypothetical follow-up instrument with 10 times the collecting area of the LFD (MWA-5000) will be capable of mapping the detailed geometry of HII regions, while SKA will be capable of detecting very narrow spectral features as well as the sharpness of the HII region boundary. The MWA-5000 will discover serendipitous HII regions in widefield observations. We estimate the number of HII regions which are expected to be generated by quasars. Assuming a late reionization at z~6 we find that there should be several tens of quasar HII regions larger than 4Mpc at z~6-8 per field of view. Identification of HII regions in forthcoming 21cm surveys can guide a search for bright galaxies in the middle of these regions. Most of the discovered galaxies would be the massive hosts of dormant quasars that left behind fossil HII cavities that persisted long after the quasar emission ended, owing to the long recombination time of intergalactic hydrogen. A snap-shot survey of candidate HII regions selected in redshifted 21cm image cubes may prove to be the most efficient method for finding very high redshift quasars and galaxies.

  1. Performance of 30-cm ion thrusters with dished accelerator grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen sets of dished accelerator grids were treated on five different 30 cm diameter bombardment thrusters to evaluate the effects of grid geometry variations on thruster discharge chamber performance. The dished grid parameters varied were: grid-to-grid spacing, screen and accelerator grid hole diameter, screen and accelerator open area fraction, compensation for beam divergence losses, and accelerator grid thickness. The effects on discharge chamber performance of main magnetic field changes, magnetic baffle current, cathode pole piece length and cathode position were also investigated.

  2. Extending and Exploring the 2 cm Survey Sample

    E-print Network

    E. Ros

    2004-09-14

    We present new results from the VLBA 2 cm Survey, an imaging survey of active galactic nuclei (AGN) at sub-milliarcsecond resolution. We extend the structural variability monitoring program of more than 130 extragalactic parsec-scale radio jets from over 170 AGN to a total of eight years. The sample is explored further in time for all sources, and intensively for individual objects. We report new detailed results on the compact sources III Zw 2, AO 0235+16, and NRAO 512.

  3. Long lifetime hollow cathodes for 30-cm mercury ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Kerslake, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation of hollow cathodes for 30-cm Hg bombardment thrusters was carried out. Both main and neutralizer cathode configurations were tested with both rolled foil inserts coated with low work function material and impregnated porous tungsten inserts. Temperature measurements of an impregnated insert at various positions in the cathode were made. These, along with the cathode thermal profile are presented. A theory for rolled foil and impregnated insert operation and lifetime in hollow cathodes is developed. Several endurance tests, as long as 18000 hours at emission currents of up to 12 amps were attained with no degradation in performance.

  4. The 8-CM ion thruster characterization. [mercury ion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessel, F. J.; Williamson, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    The performance capabilities of the 8 cm diameter mercury ion thruster were increased by modifying the thruster operating parameters and component hardware. The initial performance levels, representative of the Hughes/NASA Lewis Research Center Ion Auxiliary Propulsion Subsystem (IAPS) thruster, were raised from the baseline values of thrust, T = 5 mN, and specific impulse, I sub sp = 2,900s, to thrust, T = 25 mN and specific impulse, I sub sp = 4,300 s. Performance characteristics including estmates of the erosion rates of various component surfaces are presented.

  5. Studies of dished accelerator grids for 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Geometrically different sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five 30-cm thrusters. The geometric variation of the grids included the grid-to-grid spacing, the screen and accelerator hole diameters and thicknesses, the screen and accelerator open area fractions, ratio of dish depth to the dish diameter, compensation, and aperture shape. In general, the data taken over a range of beam currents for each grid set included the minimum total accelerating voltage required to extract a given beam current and the minimum accelerator grid voltage required to prevent electron backstreaming.

  6. Control of a 30 cm diameter mercury bombardment thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terdan, F. F.; Bechtel, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Increased thruster performance has made closed-loop automatic control more difficult than previously. Specifically, high perveance optics tend to make reliable recycling more difficult. Control logic functions were established for three automatic modes of operation of a 30-cm thruster using a power conditioner console with flight-like characteristics. The three modes provide (1) automatic startup to reach thermal stability, (2) steady-state closed-loop control, and (3) the reliable recycling of the high voltages following an arc breakdown to reestablish normal operation. Power supply impedance characteristics necessary for stable operation and the effect of the magnetic baffle on the reliable recycling was studied.

  7. Status of 30 cm mercury ion thruster development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.; King, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    Two engineering model 30-cm ion thrusters were assembled, calibrated, and qualification tested. This paper discusses the thruster design, performance, and power system. Test results include documentation of thrust losses due to doubly charged mercury ions and beam divergence by both direct thrust measurements and beam probes. Diagnostic vibration tests have led to improved designs of the thruster backplate structure, feed system, and harness. Thruster durability is being demonstrated over a thrust range of 97 to 113 mN at a specific impulse of about 2900 seconds. As of August 15, 1974, the thruster has successfully operated for over 4000 hours.

  8. 30 cm Engineering Model thruster design and qualification tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnelker, D. E.; Collett, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    Development of a 30-cm mercury electron bombardment Engineering Model ion thruster has successfully brought the thruster from the status of a laboratory experimental device to a point approaching flight readiness. This paper describes the development progress of the Engineering Model (EM) thruster in four areas: (1) design features and fabrication approaches, (2) performance verification and thruster to thruster variations, (3) structural integrity, and (4) interface definition. The design of major subassemblies, including the cathode-isolator-vaporizer (CIV), main isolator-vaporizer (MIV), neutralizer isolator-vaporizer (NIV), ion optical system, and discharge chamber/outer housing is discussed along with experimental results.

  9. Performance documentation of the engineering model 30-cm diameter thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Rawlin, V. K.

    1976-01-01

    The results of extensive testing of two 30-cm ion thrusters which are virtually identical to the 900 series Engineering Model Thruster in an ongoing 15,000-hour life test are presented. Performance data for the nominal fullpower (2650 W) operating point; performance sensitivities to discharge voltage, discharge losses, accelerator voltage, and magnetic baffle current; and several power throttling techniques (maximum Isp, maximum thrust/power ratio, and two cases in between are included). Criteria for throttling are specified in terms of the screen power supply envelope, thruster operating limits, and control stability. In addition, reduced requirements for successful high voltage recycles are presented.

  10. Performance capabilities of the 8-cm mercury ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary characterization of the performance capabilities of the 8-cm thruster in order to initiate an evaluation of its application to LSS propulsion requirements is presented. With minor thruster modifications, the thrust was increased by about a factor of four while the discharge voltage was reduced from 39 to 22 volts. The thruster was operated over a range of specific impulse of 1950 to 3040 seconds and a maximum total efficiency of about 54 percent was attained. Preliminary analysis of component lifetimes, as determined by temperature and spectroscopic line intensity measurements, indicated acceptable thruster lifetimes are anticipated at the high power level operation.

  11. Recycle Requirements for NASA's 30 cm Xenon Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical breakdowns have been observed during ion thruster operation. These breakdowns, or arcs, can be caused by several conditions. In flight systems, the power processing unit must be designed to handle these faults autonomously. This has a strong impact on power processor requirements and must be understood fully for the power processing unit being designed for the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness program. In this study, fault conditions were investigated using a NASA 30 cm ion thruster and a power console. Power processing unit output specifications were defined based on the breakdown phenomena identified and characterized.

  12. LCLS-S1 optical transition radiation monitor.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, W. J.; Yang, B.; X.; Erwin, L. L.; Shoaf, S. E.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

    2008-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a high- resolution optical transition radiation (OTR) imaging monitor for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) injection linac at SLAC. The imaging station,OTR-S1, will be located at the S1 spectrometer with a beam energy of 135 MeV. The system will be used to acquire 2-D transverse beam distributions of the accelerated photocathode-gun-generated electron beam. We anticipate an average beam current of 0.2 to 1 nC and nominal beam spot size of 130 mum (sigmax), 100 mum (sigmay). The imaging system was designed for a field of view x/y: 10 times 7.5 mm. The spatial resolution of {approx}12 microns was verified over the central 5times4 mm region in the visible. A 12-bit digital camera acquires the image and a Mac-based digital frame-capturing system was employed for the initial lab-based performance testing of the device. We report on system development, testing methods, and data analysis.

  13. The S1/S2 exciton interaction in 2-pyridone.6-methyl-2-pyridone: Davydov splitting, vibronic coupling, and vibronic quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heid, Cornelia G.; Ottiger, Philipp; Leist, Roman; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2011-10-01

    The excitonic splitting between the S1 and S2 electronic states of the doubly hydrogen-bonded dimer 2-pyridone.6-methyl-2-pyridone (2PY.6M2PY) is studied in a supersonic jet, applying two-color resonant two-photon ionization (2C-R2PI), UV-UV depletion, and dispersed fluorescence spectroscopies. In contrast to the C2h symmetric (2-pyridone)2 homodimer, in which the S1 ? S0 transition is symmetry-forbidden but the S2 ? S0 transition is allowed, the symmetry-breaking by the additional methyl group in 2PY.6M2PY leads to the appearance of both the S1 and S2 origins, which are separated by ?exp = 154 cm-1. When combined with the separation of the S1 ? S0 excitations of 6M2PY and 2PY, which is ? = 102 cm-1, one obtains an S1/S2 exciton coupling matrix element of VAB, el = 57 cm-1 in a Frenkel-Davydov exciton model. The vibronic couplings in the S1/S2 ? S0 spectrum of 2PY.6M2PY are treated by the Fulton-Gouterman single-mode model. We consider independent couplings to the intramolecular 6a' vibration and to the intermolecular ?' stretch, and obtain a semi-quantitative fit to the observed spectrum. The dimensionless excitonic couplings are C(6a') = 0.15 and C(?') = 0.05, which places this dimer in the weak-coupling limit. However, the S1/S2 state exciton splittings ?calc calculated by the configuration interaction singles method (CIS), time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TD-HF), and approximate second-order coupled-cluster method (CC2) are between 1100 and 1450 cm-1, or seven to nine times larger than observed. These huge errors result from the neglect of the coupling to the optically active intra- and intermolecular vibrations of the dimer, which lead to vibronic quenching of the purely electronic excitonic splitting. For 2PY.6M2PY the electronic splitting is quenched by a factor of ˜30 (i.e., the vibronic quenching factor is ?exp = 0.035), which brings the calculated splittings into close agreement with the experimentally observed value. The 2C-R2PI and fluorescence spectra of the tautomeric species 2-hydroxypyridine.6-methyl-2-pyridone (2HP.6M2PY) are also observed and assigned.

  14. Euclidean quantum M5 brane theory on {S}^{1}\\times {S}^{5}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    We consider Euclidean quantum M5 brane theory on {S}1× {S}5. Dimensional reduction along S1 gives a 5d SYM on S5. We derive this 5d SYM theory from a classical Lorentzian M5 brane Lagrangian on {S}1× {S}5, where S1 is a timelike circle of radius T, by performing a Scherk–Schwarz reduction along S1 followed by Wick rotation of T.

  15. Euclidean quantum M5 brane theory on $S^1 \\times S^5$

    E-print Network

    Andreas Gustavsson

    2015-01-28

    We consider Euclidean quantum M5 brane theory on $S^1\\times S^5$. Dimensional reduction along $S^1$ gives a 5d SYM on $S^5$. We derive this 5d SYM theory from a classical Lorentzian M5 brane Lagrangian on $S^1 \\times S^5$, where $S^1$ is a timelike circle of radius $T$, by performing a Scherk-Schwarz reduction along $S^1$ followed by Wick rotation of $T$.

  16. Power processor for a 20CM ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Schoenfeld, A. D.; Cohen, E.

    1973-01-01

    A power processor breadboard for the JPL 20CM Ion Engine was designed, fabricated, and tested to determine compliance with the electrical specification. The power processor breadboard used the silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) series resonant inverter as the basic power stage to process all the power to the ion engine. The breadboard power processor was integrated with the JPL 20CM ion engine and complete testing was performed. The integration tests were performed without any silicon-controlled rectifier failure. This demonstrated the ruggedness of the series resonant inverter in protecting the switching elements during arcing in the ion engine. A method of fault clearing the ion engine and returning back to normal operation without elaborate sequencing and timing control logic was evolved. In this method, the main vaporizer was turned off and the discharge current limit was reduced when an overload existed on the screen/accelerator supply. After the high voltage returned to normal, both the main vaporizer and the discharge were returned to normal.

  17. Tank testing of a 2500-cm2 solar panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, R. S.; Staskus, J.

    1981-01-01

    A 50 cm by 50 cm solar array panel test patch was investigated for spacecraft charging and arcing effects. Bombardment with monochromatic electron was carried out. Some objectives of the test were: (1) to estimate at what voltage of electron bombardment arcing would be probable; (2) to find whether the arc's energy would be tolerable or damagingly large; (3) to try and separate thermal and photoeffects; and, (4) to see whether materials used were such as to minimize arcing. Some conclusions were: In sunlight the tracking data relay satellite's solar panel which has ceria glass on the front and conductive paint on the backside is probably a good design for reducing charge-up. In a geomagnetic substorm simulated in testing there will be arcing at the interconnects during eclipse and transitions into and out of eclipse in testing especially in view of the very cold temperatures that will be reached by this lightweight array. Ceria-doped glass is preferred to fused silica glass for reducing charge build up. The Kapton bare patch should still be conductively painted. The differential voltages on the panel determine when arcing first begins, and the electron beam voltages vary depending upon whether the metallic structure is directly grounded or semifloating.

  18. Arecibo Observatory: The New 21-cm Line Zeeman Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiles, C.

    1999-05-01

    The newly finished Arecibo Observatory is ideal for measuring Zeeman splitting of the 21-cm line in emission and absorption. We describe our measurements of instrumental parameters and new detections made during an observing run in February/March 1999. The essence is measuring the Stokes V parameters, which is the difference between the two circular polarizations. In all previous measurements this difference has been obtained directly by polarization switching. At Arecibo we obtained it by a far superior technique: cross-correlation of two linear polarizations. This technique is superior for two reasons: (1) one obtains all four Stokes parameters simultaneously; (2) polarization purity can be measured and calibrated to exquisite precision. We find beam squint (the difference in direction between the two circular polarizations) to be 0.7'', about three times smaller than the best previously-used telescope; this corresponds to a typical instrumental contribution to measured field strength of 0.2 microG, and even this small value can be reduced by corrective techniques. We describe three new detections of Zeeman splitting and discuss their astrophysical significance. Finally, we discuss the first detection of linear polarization in 21-cm absorption lines. This work was supported in part by an NSF grant to the author.

  19. Probing Patchy Reionization through ?-21 cm Correlation Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerburg, P. Daniel; Dvorkin, Cora; Spergel, David N.

    2013-12-01

    We consider the cross-correlation between free electrons and neutral hydrogen during the epoch of reionization (EoR). The free electrons are traced by the optical depth to reionization ?, while the neutral hydrogen can be observed through 21 cm photon emission. As expected, this correlation is sensitive to the detailed physics of reionization. Foremost, if reionization occurs through the merger of relatively large halos hosting an ionizing source, the free electrons and neutral hydrogen are anticorrelated for most of the reionization history. A positive contribution to the correlation can occur when the halos that can form an ionizing source are small. A measurement of this sign change in the cross-correlation could help disentangle the bias and the ionization history. We estimate the signal-to-noise ratio of the cross-correlation using the estimator for inhomogeneous reionization \\hat{\\tau }_{\\ell m} proposed by Dvorkin and Smith. We find that with upcoming radio interferometers and cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments, the cross-correlation is measurable going up to multipoles l ~ 1000. We also derive parameter constraints and conclude that, despite the foregrounds, the cross-correlation provides a complementary measurement of the EoR parameters to the 21 cm and CMB polarization autocorrelations expected to be observed in the coming decade.

  20. Electric prototype power processor for a 30cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.; Schoenfeld, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical prototype power processor unit was designed, fabricated and tested with a 30 cm mercury ion engine for primary space propulsion. The power processor unit used the thyristor series resonant inverter as the basic power stage for the high power beam and discharge supplies. A transistorized series resonant inverter processed the remaining power for the low power outputs. The power processor included a digital interface unit to process all input commands and internal telemetry signals so that electric propulsion systems could be operated with a central computer system. The electrical prototype unit included design improvement in the power components such as thyristors, transistors, filters and resonant capacitors, and power transformers and inductors in order to reduce component weight, to minimize losses, and to control the component temperature rise. A design analysis for the electrical prototype is also presented on the component weight, losses, part count and reliability estimate. The electrical prototype was tested in a thermal vacuum environment. Integration tests were performed with a 30 cm ion engine and demonstrated operational compatibility. Electromagnetic interference data was also recorded on the design to provide information for spacecraft integration.

  1. 10/4/10 7:45 AMNRC Rankings Overview: Psychology -Faculty -The Chronicle of Higher Education Page 1 of 13http://chronicle.com/article/NRC-Rankings-Overview-/124708/#top

    E-print Network

    Kovalev, Leonid

    10/4/10 7:45 AMNRC Rankings Overview: Psychology - Faculty - The Chronicle of Higher Education Page | Microbiology | Music | Neuroscience and Neurobiology | Nursing | Nutrition | Oceanography, Atmospheric Sciences from faculty publications, citation rates, grants, and awards. Students: Derived from students

  2. On the mechanism of the cis-trans isomerization in the lowest electronic states of azobenzene: S0, S1, and T1.

    PubMed

    Cembran, Alessandro; Bernardi, Fernando; Garavelli, Marco; Gagliardi, Laura; Orlandi, Giorgio

    2004-03-17

    In this paper, we identify the most efficient decay and isomerization route of the S(1), T(1), and S(0) states of azobenzene. By use of quantum chemical methods, we have searched for the transition states (TS) on the S(1) potential energy surface and for the S(0)/S(1) conical intersections (CIs) that are closer to the minimum energy path on the S(1). We found only one TS, at 60 degrees of CNNC torsion from the E isomer, which requires an activation energy of only 2 kcal/mol. The lowest energy CIs, lying also 2 kcal/mol above the S(1) minimum, were found on the torsion pathway for CNNC angles in the range 95-90 degrees. The lowest CI along the inversion path was found ca. 25 kcal/mol higher than the S(1) minimum and was characterized by a highly asymmetric molecular structure with one NNC angle of 174 degrees. These results indicate that the S(1) state decay involves mainly the torsion route and that the inversion mechanism may play a role only if the molecule is excited with an excess energy of at least 25 kcal/mol with respect to the S(1) minimum of the E isomer. We have calculated the spin-orbit couplings between S(0) and T(1) at several geometries along the CNNC torsion coordinate. These spin-orbit couplings were about 20-30 cm(-)(1) for all the geometries considered. Since the potential energy curves of S(0) and T(1) cross in the region of twisted CNNC angle, these couplings are large enough to ensure that the T(1) lifetime is very short ( approximately 10 ps) and that thermal isomerization can proceed via the nonadiabatic torsion route involving the S(0)-T(1)-S(0) crossing with preexponential factor and activation energy in agreement with the values obtained from kinetic measures. PMID:15012153

  3. Comparative analysis of the vibrational structure of the absorption spectra of acrolein in the excited ( S 1) electronic state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroleva, L. A.; Tyulin, V. I.; Matveev, V. K.; Pentin, Yu. A.

    2012-04-01

    The assignments of absorption bands of the vibrational structure of the UV spectrum are compared with the assignments of bands obtained by the CRDS method in a supersonic jet from the time of laser radiation damping for the trans isomer of acrolein in the excited ( S 1) electronic state. The ?00 trans = 25861 cm-1 values and fundamental frequencies, including torsional vibration frequency, obtained by the two methods were found to coincide in the excited electronic state ( S 1) for this isomer. The assignments of several absorption bands of the vibrational structure of the spectrum obtained by the CRDS method were changed. Changes in the assignment of (0-v') transition bands of the torsional vibration of the trans isomer in the Deslandres table from the ?00 trans trans origin allowed the table to be extended to high quantum numbers v'. The torsional vibration frequencies up to v' = 5 were found to be close to the frequencies found by analyzing the vibrational structure of the UV spectrum and calculated quantum-mechanically. The coincidence of the barrier to internal rotation (the cis-trans transition) in the one-dimensional model with that calculated quantum-mechanically using the two-dimensional model corresponds to a planar structure of the acrolein molecule in the excited ( S 1) electronic state.

  4. S1<--S0 transition of 2,3-benzofluorene at low temperatures in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staicu, A.; Rouillé, G.; Henning, Th.; Huisken, F.; Pouladsaz, D.; Scholz, R.

    2008-08-01

    The S1(1A')<--S0(1A') absorption spectrum of jet-cooled 2,3-benzofluorene (Bzf) has been measured by cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The potential energy surfaces of the Sn=0,1,2 states of Bzf have been investigated with calculations based on the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). At the B3LYP/TZ level of theory, TD-DFT does not deliver a realistic difference between the excited S1 and S2 potential energy surfaces, a problem which can be avoided by introducing a reference geometry where this difference coincides with the observation. In this geometry, an expression for the Herzberg-Teller corrected intensities of the vibronic bands is proposed, allowing a straightforward assignment of the observed a' modes below 900 cm-1, including realistic calculated intensities. For vibronic bands at higher energies, the agreement between calculated and observed modes is deteriorated by substantial Dushinsky rotations and nonparabolicities of the potential energy surface S1.

  5. New Measurements of H2 16O Line Intensities around 8800 CM-1 and 1300 CM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudot, C.; Regalia, L.; Le Wang; Daumont, L.; Thomas, X.; von der Heyden, P.; Decatoire, D.

    2010-06-01

    A precise knowledge of spectroscopic parameters for atmospheric molecules is necessary for the control and the modelling of the Earth's atmosphere. The water vapor take a special key as it participate to the global radiative balance of the atmosphere. Our laboratory is engaged since many years in the study of H216O vapor and its isotopologues [1, 2, 3]. An important work has been already made in the spectral region of 4000 to 6600 cm-1 [3] and it continues now in the following spectral window : 6600-9000 cm-1. We have focused on the lines around 8800 cm-1, as the latest version of HITRAN database still relies on the work of Mandin et al. performed in 1988 [4, 5]. We have recorded several spectra of water vapor with our step-by-step Fourier Transform Spectrometer built in our laboratory [6, 7]. We present here our intensity measurements compared to recent literature data [8] and HITRAN2008 database. Also we have performed a study around 1300 cm-1. The precise knowledge of water vapor for this spectral range is very useful for inversion of IASI spectra. We show some comparisons between our new intensity measurements and LISA database, HITRAN2004, and recent literature data [9]. References: [1] M. Carleer, A. Jenouvrier, A.-C. Vandaele, M.-F. Mérienne, R. Colin, N. F. Zobov, O. L. Polyansky, J. Tennyson and V. A. Savin, J. Chem Phys 111 (1999) 2444-2450. [2] M.-F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, C. Hermans, A.-C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, R. Colin, S. Fally, M. Bachc J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans. 82 (2003) 99-117. [3] A. Jenouvrier, L. Daumont, L. RÉgalia-Jarlot, Vl. G. Tyuterev, M. Carleer, A. C. Vandaele, S. Mikhailenko and S. Fally, JQSRT, 105 (2007) 326-355. [4] J.-Y. Mandin, J.-P. Chevillard, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, Can. J. Phys, 66 (1988) 997-1011. [5] J.-Y. Mandin, J.-P. Chevillard, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, J. Mol. Spectrosc, 132 (1988) 352-360. [6] J-J. Plateaux, A. Barbe and A. Delahaigue, Spectrochim. Acta, 51A (1995) 1169-1153 [7] L. Régalia, Thesis, Reims, 1996 (France). [8] R. N. Tolchenov, J. Tennyson, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 231 (2005) 23-27. [9] L.H. Coudert, G.Wagner, M.Birk, U.I. Baranov, M.J. Lafferty, J-M. Flaud, J. Mol. Spect, 251 (2008) 357-339

  6. Cal Poly Report Employee Newsletter October 2, 2013 file:///V:/UA/Marketing and Communications/Web_Sites_Private/calpol... 1 of 7 10/7/2013 3:21 PM

    E-print Network

    Sze, Lawrence

    Cal Poly Report Employee Newsletter October 2, 2013 file:///V:/UA/Marketing and Communications/Web:///V:/UA/Marketing and Communications/Web_Sites_Private/calpol... 2 of 7 10/7/2013 3:21 PM #12;Cal Poly Report Employee Newsletter October 2, 2013 file:///V:/UA/Marketing and Communications/Web_Sites_Private/calpol... 3 of 7 10/7/2013 3

  7. Transitive Lie groups on S^1\\times S^{2m}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatsevich, Vladimir V.

    2007-10-01

    The structure of Lie groups acting transitively on the direct product of a circle and an even-dimensional sphere is described. For products of two spheres of dimension >1 a similar problem has already been solved by other authors. The minimal transitive Lie groups on S^1 and S^{2m} are also indicated. As an application of these results, the structure of the automorphism group of one class of geometric structures, generalized quadrangles (a special case of Tits buildings) is considered. A conjecture put forward by Kramer is proved: the automorphism group of a connected generalized quadrangle of type (1,2m) always contains a transitive subgroup that is the direct product of a compact simple Lie group and a one-dimensional Lie group. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  8. The Jovian electron spectrum and synchrotron radiation at 375 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    The synchrotron radiation expected at Earth from the region L=2.9-5 R sub J of Jupiter's magnetosphere is calculated using the Pioneer 10 electron model. The result is approximately 21 flux units (f.u.). This value is to be compared with 6.0 + or - 0.7 f.u., the flux density of synchrotron radiation measured from Jupiter's entire magnetosphere in ground-based radio observations. Most of the radiation at 375 cm is emitted by electrons in the 1 to 10 MeV range. If the electron model used for calculations is cut off below 10 MeV, the calculated flux is reduced to approximately 4 f.u., a level compatible with the radio observations.

  9. Astronaut Risk Levels During Crew Module (CM) Land Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.; Littell, Justin

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) is investigating the merits of water and land landings for the crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The merits of these two options are being studied in terms of cost and risk to the astronauts, vehicle, support personnel, and general public. The objective of the present work is to determine the astronaut dynamic response index (DRI), which measures injury risks. Risks are determined for a range of vertical and horizontal landing velocities. A structural model of the crew module (CM) is developed and computational simulations are performed using a transient dynamic simulation analysis code (LS-DYNA) to determine acceleration profiles. Landing acceleration profiles are input in a human factors model that determines astronaut risk levels. Details of the modeling approach, the resulting accelerations, and astronaut risk levels are provided.

  10. Atlas of lunar radar maps at 70-cm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    The intensity distribution of lunar radar echoes has been mapped for two-thirds of the earth-visible lunar surface at a wavelength of 70 cm. The depolarizing effects of the lunar surface were observed by simultaneously receiving the radar echoes in opposite polarizations. These echoes were mapped with areal resolutions of 25-100 sq km. Mapping with this resolution confirmed that the young craters have enhanced returns. A few craters were found to have enhanced echoes only from their rims. Backscattering differences were also observed between various areas within a mare, between different highland areas, and between maria and adjacent highlands. These scattering differences were interpreted with a simple model, which assumed that the surface backscattered with varying amounts of quasi-specular and diffuse power. Only an increase in the diffuse power was needed to give the numerical values of the enhancements.

  11. An HI 21-cm line survey of evolved stars

    E-print Network

    Gerard, E; Libert, Y

    2011-01-01

    The HI line at 21 cm is a tracer of circumstellar matter around AGB stars, and especially of the matter located at large distances (0.1-1 pc) from the central stars. It can give unique information on the kinematics and on the physical conditions in the outer parts of circumstellar shells and in the regions where stellar matter is injected into the interstellar medium. However this tracer has not been much used up to now, due to the difficulty of separating the genuine circumstellar emission from the interstellar one. With the Nancay Radiotelescope we are carrying out a survey of the HI emission in a large sample of evolved stars. We report on recent progresses of this long term programme, with emphasis on S-type stars.

  12. Probing Primordial Magnetic Fields with the 21cm Fluctuations

    E-print Network

    Hiroyuki Tashiro; Naoshi Sugiyama

    2006-07-10

    Primordial magnetic fields possibly generated in the very early universe are one of the candidates for the origin of magnetic fields observed in many galaxies and galaxy clusters. After recombination, the dissipation process of the primordial magnetic fields increases the baryon temperature. The Lorentz force acts on the residual ions and electrons to generate density fluctuations. These effects are imprinted on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) brightness temperature fluctuations produced by the neutral hydrogen 21cm line. We calculate the angular power spectrum of brightness temperature fluctuations for the model with the primordial magnetic fields of a several nano Gauss strength and a power-law spectrum. It is found that the overall amplitude and the shape of the brightness temperature fluctuations depend on the strength and the spectral index of the primordial magnetic fields. Therefore, it is expected that the observations of the CMB brightness temperature fluctuations give us a strong constraint on the primordial magnetic fields.

  13. Compensated control loops for a 30-cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    The vaporizer dynamic control characteristics of a 30-cm diameter mercury ion thruster were determined by operating the thruster in an open loop steady state mode and then introducing a small sinusoidal signal on the main, cathode, or neutralizer vaporizer current and observing the response of the beam current, discharge voltage, and neutralizer keeper voltage, respectively. This was done over a range of frequencies and operating conditions. From these data, Bode plots for gain and phase were made and mathematical models were obtained. The Bode plots and mathematical models were analyzed for stability and appropriate compensation networks determined. The compensated control loops were incorporated into a power processor and operated with a thruster. The time responses of the compensated loops to changes in set points and recovery from arc conditions are presented.

  14. Cosmic (super)string constraints from 21 cm radiation

    E-print Network

    Rishi Khatri; Benjamin D. Wandelt

    2008-01-29

    We calculate the contribution of cosmic strings arising from a phase transition in the early universe, or cosmic superstrings arising from brane inflation, to the cosmic 21 cm power spectrum at redshifts z > 30. Future experiments can exploit this effect to constrain the cosmic string tension Gu and probe virtually the entire brane inflation model space allowed by current observations. Although current experiments with a collecting area of ~ 1 km^2 will not provide any useful constraints, future experiments with a collecting area of 10^4-10^6 km^2 covering the cleanest 10% of the sky can in principle constrain cosmic strings with tension Gu > 10^(-10) to 10^(-12) (superstring/phase transition mass scale >10^13 GeV).

  15. Hollow cathode restartable 15 cm diameter ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of substituting high perveance dished grids for low perveance flat ones on performance variables and plasma properties within a 15 cm modified SERT II thruster are discussed. Results suggest good performance may be achieved as an ion thruster is throttled if the screen grid transparency is decreased with propellant flow rate. Thruster startup tests, which employ a pulsed high voltage tickler electrode between the keeper and the cathode to initiate the discharge, are described. High startup reliability at cathode tip temperatures of about 500 C without excessive component wear over 2000 startup cycles is demonstrated. Testing of a single cusp magnetic field concept of discharge plasma containment is discussed. A theory which explains the observed behavior of the device is presented and proposed thruster modifications and future testing plans are discussed.

  16. Power processor for a 30cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.

    1974-01-01

    A thermal vacuum power processor for the NASA Lewis 30cm Mercury Ion Engine was designed, fabricated and tested to determine compliance with electrical specifications. The power processor breadboard used the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) series resonant inverter as the basic power stage to process all the power to an ion engine. The power processor includes a digital interface unit to process all input commands and internal telemetry signals so that operation is compatible with a central computer system. The breadboard was tested in a thermal vacuum environment. Integration tests were performed with the ion engine and demonstrate operational compatibility and reliable operation without any component failures. Electromagnetic interference data were also recorded on the design to provide information on the interaction with total spacecraft.

  17. 18-cm OH distribution in the Galactic Center Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Sandqvist, A.; Karlsson, R.; Whiteoak, J.B.; Gardner, F.F.

    1987-04-15

    The 18-cm OH distribution in the Galactic Center region near Sgr A has been studied in all four of the 1612, 1665, 1667 and 1720 MHz OH lines using the VLA with 4 arcsec angular resolution and 9 km s/sup -1/ velocity resolution. Three 1667 MHz OH spectral line absorption maps, at +51, +25 and -1 km s/sup -1/, covering a 4'.3 x 4'.3 region around Sgr A are presented together with an 18-cm continuum map. In addition, a complete set of velocity maps from +139 to -159 km s/sup -1/, covering a 3' x 3' region around the Galactic Center nuclear torus, is presented. Absorption by the +50 and +20 km s/sup -1/ molecular cloud belt is seen towards Sgr A East, but not towards Sgr A West. Absorption is also seen towards Sgr A* in the velocity ranges of +43 to -36 km s/sup -1/ and -142 to -151 km s/sup -1/. The Northeast and Southwest torus components can be traced out to velocities of +139 and -151 km s/sup -1/. A ''Northwest'' feature, starting northwest of the Western continuum arc, appears faintly at a velocity of +51 km s/sup -1/ and then migrates slightly southward until it merges with another feature at a velocity of +78 km s/sup -1/. This other feature ''Sweeps'' in towards Sgr A* as the velocity decreases from +78 to +16 km s/sup -1/.

  18. CM-SAF high-resolution radiation budget products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicula, Bogdan; Dewitte, Steven; Clerbaux, Nicolas

    2003-04-01

    In this paper the system employed at the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMIB) within the Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility (CM-SAF) for the production of Top Of the Atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget components is described. One of the goals of the CM-SAF is to provide consistent TOA and surface radiation budget components and cloud properties at high spatial resolution and on an approximate equal area grid for a region that covers at least Europe and part of the North Atlantic Ocean. The TOA radiation products will be based on data from polar orbiting satellites for northern latitudes, and on data from MSG (METEOSAT Second Generation) for mid latitudes. The instruments used for the reflected solar and emitted thermal flux estimates will be GERB (Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget) and SEVIRI as the geostationary instruments and CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) for the non geostationary instruments. Daily means, monthly means and monthly mean diurnal cycles are to be provided. Until MSG fluxes will become available, fluxes from METEOSAT and CERES are used for development. At the TOA the three radiative flux components of incoming solar radiation, reflected solar radiation and emitted thermal radiation will be given. The daily mean GERB and CERES fluxes will be merged to produce a homogenized TOA flux product. The method used for the merging of the TOA fluxes and together with results using currently available input data are shown. The merging consists in the collocation of the two instruments, detection and the removal of the systematic dependencies of the flux estimates on scene type and viewing angles and regridding on a common grid.

  19. [Experimental evaluation of the cross sections in Cs (6D(1/2)) + Cs(6S(1/2)) inelastic collisions].

    PubMed

    Guo, Qi-cun; Wu, Hong-ping; Kang, Li-kui; Wan, Hong-fei; Dai, Kang; Shen, Yi-fan

    2009-09-01

    At a Cs density higher than 9 x 10(14) cm(-3), cesium vapor was irradiated in a glass fluorescence cell with pulses of radiation from an YAG-laser-pumped OPO laser, populating 6D(5/2) state by two-photon absorption. Energy transfer in Cs6(D(5/2)) + Cs (6S) collisions was studied using methods of atomic fluorescence. At the different Cs densities, we have measured the time-integrated intensities of the components and fitted a three-state rate equation model to obtain the cross sections. The experimental points were fitted to a straight line very well. The authors converted the gradient and intercept into cross sections. The cross section for 6D(5/2)-->6D(3/2) transfer is (2.1 +/- 0.4) x 10(14) cm2. The cross section for excitation transfer out of the 6D doublet is sigmaQ = (1.6 +/- 0.4) x 10(-14) cm2. The cross section on contains information on reverse energy pooling collisions [i.e., Cs(6D(3/2)) + Cs (6S(1/2))-->Cs(6P) + 6Cs(P)] and contribution from mining in 6Dj-->7P(J'), This latter contribution could be subtracted out using the results of a second experiment. At a Cs density lower than 6.0 x 10(12) cm3, the laser was used to pump the 6D(3/2) and 6D(5/2) states, respectively. The resulting fluorescence included the direct component emitted in the decay of the 6D(J) state and the sensitized component arising from the collisionally populated 7P(J') state. Relative intensities of the components yielded the cross sections. The cross-sections for the processes Cs(6D(5/2)) + Cs(6S(1/2))-->Cs(7P(J')) + Cs(6S(1/2)) are (1.6 +/- 0.5) x 10(-15) cm2. for J'= 3/2 and (6.5 +/- 2.1) x 10(-16) cm2, for J' = 1/2, respectively. The cross-sections for the processes Cs(6D(3/2) + Cs(6S(1/2))-->Cs (7P(J')) + Cs(6S(1/2)) are (1.9 +/- 0.6) x 10(-15) cm2. for J' = 3/2 and (7.6 + 2.4) x 10(-16) cm2, for J' = 1/2, respectively. The 6D(J) -->7P(J'), energy transfer rate coefficient is small. The total quenching rate coefficient out of the 6D(J) state is much larger. Evidence suggests that the quenching of the 6D(J) state is caused predominantly by reverse energy-pooling process. The cross section for this process, i.e., Cs(6D(3/2))+Cs(6S(1/2))-->Cs(6P) + Cs(6P) is (1.3 +/- 0.4) x 10(-14) cm2. PMID:19950617

  20. Charge and spin fluctuations Cu2+(S=1\\/2)Cu3+(S=1)in HTSCs. new model of narrow impurity bands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikhail Eremin; Oleg Anikeenok

    1991-01-01

    The energy band of oxide superconductors is theoretically investigated when charge and spin fluctuations of Cu2+ (S=1\\/2)-O- (S=0) Cu3+ (S=1)-O2- (S=1\\/2) take place. It is shown that two narrow bands arise near Fermi level under hole doping. The dynamic admixture of 3z2-r2 state to the x2-y2 state is equal to approximately 10%.

  1. Large-area (over 50 cm × 50 cm) freestanding films of colloidal InP/ZnS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Mutlugun, Evren; Hernandez-Martinez, Pedro Ludwig; Eroglu, Cuneyt; Coskun, Yasemin; Erdem, Talha; Sharma, Vijay K; Unal, Emre; Panda, Subhendu K; Hickey, Stephen G; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmüller, Alexander; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2012-08-01

    We propose and demonstrate the fabrication of flexible, freestanding films of InP/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) using fatty acid ligands across very large areas (greater than 50 cm × 50 cm), which have been developed for remote phosphor applications in solid-state lighting. Embedded in a poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix, although the formation of stand-alone films using other QDs commonly capped with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and oleic acid is not efficient, employing myristic acid as ligand in the synthesis of these QDs, which imparts a strongly hydrophobic character to the thin film, enables film formation and ease of removal even on surprisingly large areas, thereby avoiding the need for ligand exchange. When pumped by a blue LED, these Cd-free QD films allow for high color rendering, warm white light generation with a color rendering index of 89.30 and a correlated color temperature of 2298 K. In the composite film, the temperature-dependent emission kinetics and energy transfer dynamics among different-sized InP/ZnS QDs are investigated and a model is proposed. High levels of energy transfer efficiency (up to 80%) and strong donor lifetime modification (from 18 to 4 ns) are achieved. The suppression of the nonradiative channels is observed when the hybrid film is cooled to cryogenic temperatures. The lifetime changes of the donor and acceptor InP/ZnS QDs in the film as a result of the energy transfer are explained well by our theoretical model based on the exciton-exciton interactions among the dots and are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The understanding of these excitonic interactions is essential to facilitate improvements in the fabrication of photometrically high quality nanophosphors. The ability to make such large-area, flexible, freestanding Cd-free QD films pave the way for environmentally friendly phosphor applications including flexible, surface-emitting light engines. PMID:22783904

  2. A practical process for the preparation of [(32)P]S1P and binding assay for S1P receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Adam J; Liu, Hui; Tu, Zhude

    2015-08-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) are important regulators of vascular permeability, inflammation, angiogenesis and vascular maturation. Identifying a specific S1PR PET radioligand is imperative, but it is hindered by the complexity and variability of current for binding affinity measurement procedures. Herein, we report a streamlined protocol for radiosynthesis of [(32)P]S1P with good radiochemical yield (36-50%) and high radiochemical purity (>99%). We also report a reproducible procedure for determining the binding affinity for compounds targeting S1PRs in vitro. PMID:25931137

  3. A 1.3 cm line survey toward IRC +10216

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y.; Henkel, C.; Spezzano, S.; Thorwirth, S.; Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F.; Mao, R. Q.; Klein, B.

    2015-02-01

    Context. IRC +10216 is the prototypical carbon star exhibiting an extended molecular circumstellar envelope. Its spectral properties are therefore the template for an entire class of objects. Aims: The main goal is to systematically study the ? ~ 1.3 cm spectral line characteristics of IRC +10216. Methods: We carried out a spectral line survey with the Effelsberg-100 m telescope toward IRC +10216. It covers the frequency range between 17.8 GHz and 26.3 GHz (K-band). Results: In the circumstellar shell of IRC +10216, we find 78 spectral lines, among which 12 remain unidentified. The identified lines are assigned to 18 different molecules and radicals. A total of 23 lines from species known to exist in this envelope are detected for the first time outside the solar system and there are additional 20 lines first detected in IRC +10216. The potential orgin of "U" lines is also discussed. Assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), we then determine rotational temperatures and column densities of 17 detected molecules. Molecular abundances relative to H2 are also estimated. A non-LTE analysis of NH3 shows that the bulk of its emission arises from the inner envelope with a kinetic temperature of 70 ± 20 K. Evidence for NH3 emitting gas with higher kinetic temperature is also obtained, and potential abundance differences between various 13C-bearing isotopologues of HC5N are evaluated. Overall, the isotopic 12C/13C ratio is estimated to be 49 ± 9. Finally, a comparison of detected molecules in the ? ~ 1.3 cm range with the dark cloud TMC-1 indicates that silicate-bearing molecules are more predominant in IRC +10216. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgSpectra as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/574/A56

  4. Possible Dust Models for C/2012 S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) provided a great opportunity to study a dynamically new Oort-cloud comet on its initial and only passage through the inner solar system. Contrary to expectations, the comet's activity fluctuated from high through a quiescent phase, and a major outburst days before its perihelion passage, ending in a dramatic race to complete disintegration on perihelion day, 28 November 2013. Amateur observations to professional ground-based, sub-orbital telescopes indicate the various changes of visible factors such as Afrho, a proxy for dust activity, and the measured production rates for water, consistent with the disintegration of the nucleus. Hines et al. (2013; ApJ Lett. 780) detected positive polarization in the inner coma and negative polarization in the outer coma, indicative of a jet, independently confirmed by Li et al. (2013, ApJ Lett., 779). Thermal emission observations of the comet pre-perihelion from NAOJ/Subaru/COMICS, a mid-infrared spectrometer, indicated a body with an equivalent brightness temperature of 265K (Ootsubo et al., 2013, ACM, Helsinki,FI); thermal observations acquired at the NASA/Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) with The Aerospace Corporation spectrometer (BASS, PI. R. Russell), before and after the November 12, 2013 outburst observed by the CIOC_ISON amateur network, indicates a brightness temperature of 330K and the presence, albeit weak, of the 11.3-micron crystalline silicate feature (Sitko et al., 2014, LPI abstract 1537). A Monte Carlo comet dust tail model, applied to extract the dust environment parameters of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from both Earth-based and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) calibrated observations, performed from about 6 AU (inbound), to right after perihelion passage, when just a small portion of the original comet nucleus survived in the form of a cloud of tiny particles, indicates that particles underwent disintegration and fragmentation (Moreno et al., 2014, ApJ Lett., 791). Ongoing work on possible dust models that incorporate both the observed polarization and thermal emission will be discussed.

  5. Observing Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) With Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, Carey M.; Vervack, R. J.; Weaver, H. A.; Bauer, J. M.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Kelley, M. S.; Knight, M. M.; Hines, D. C.; Li, J.; Reach, W. T.; Sitko, M. L.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Meech, K. J.; Rayner, J. T.

    2013-10-01

    In this talk we discuss the design, implementation, and reduction of observations of Comet ISON from space using the Spitzer Space Telescope on 13.00 - 13.96 Jun UT and from the ground at Lowell Observatory on Jun 11.16 UT and from APO on 14.13 Jun UT. The comet was at distance rh = 3.34 AU from the Sun, distance ?Spitzer = 3.29 AU and 17.4o phase from SST, and distance ?Earth = 4.25 AU and 6.8 - 7.3o phase at the time of observation. Preliminary analyses show ISON's Spitzer coma morphology was relatively compact and simple, with a linear anti-solar dust tail > 3x105 km in length and a 1/p profile gas coma extending > 105 km from the nucleus. Afp values in an 18,200 km radius aperture of 840, 890, and 840 ± 80 cm were found at VRI, and 650 ± 100 cm were found at 3.6 micron. Together, the ground-based and Spitzer photometry imply near-neutral dust scattering from the visual through the infrared. An excess at 4.5 µm due to emission from a neutral gas coma is clearly found both morphologically and photometrically. The gas coma total flux and spatial profile and ISON’s discovery distance imply a coma dominated by the stronger CO_2 line emission at 4.67 ?m, but we cannot rule out a preponderance of CO emission at 4.26 ?m. No variability in our Spitzer photometry at the 0.03 mag level over 24 hrs was seen. We present our imagery, spectrophotometry, and lightcurves, and discuss the physical implications of these measurements of the comet made well outside the ice line.

  6. A 1.3 cm Line Survey toward Orion KL

    E-print Network

    Gong, Y; Thorwirth, S; Spezzano, S; Menten, K M; Walmsley, C M; Wyrowski, F; Mao, R Q; Klein, B

    2015-01-01

    Orion KL has served as a benchmark for spectral line searches throughout the (sub)millimeter regime. The main goal is to systematically study spectral characteristics of Orion KL in the 1.3 cm band. We carried out a spectral line survey (17.9 GHz to 26.2 GHz) with the Effelsberg-100 m telescope towards Orion KL. We find 261 spectral lines, yielding an average line density of about 32 spectral features per GHz above 3$\\sigma$. The identified lines include 164 radio recombination lines (RRLs) and 97 molecular lines. A total of 23 molecular transitions from species known to exist in Orion KL are detected for the first time in the interstellar medium. Non-metastable 15NH3 transitions are detected in Orion KL for the first time. Based on the velocity information of detected lines and the ALMA images, the spatial origins of molecular emission are constrained and discussed. A narrow feature is found in SO2 ($8_{1,7}-7_{2,6}$), possibly suggesting the presence of a maser line. Column densities and fractional abundanc...

  7. Foregrounds in Wide-field Redshifted 21 cm Power Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Bowman, Judd D.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bernardi, G.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, Han-Seek; Kittiwisit, P.; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Line, J.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Neben, A. R.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, Sourabh; Pindor, B.; Pober, J. C.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Sethi, Shiv K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Sullivan, I. S.; Tegmark, M.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2015-05-01

    Detection of 21 cm emission of H i from the epoch of reionization, at redshifts z\\gt 6, is limited primarily by foreground emission. We investigate the signatures of wide-field measurements and an all-sky foreground model using the delay spectrum technique that maps the measurements to foreground object locations through signal delays between antenna pairs. We demonstrate interferometric measurements are inherently sensitive to all scales, including the largest angular scales, owing to the nature of wide-field measurements. These wide-field effects are generic to all observations but antenna shapes impact their amplitudes substantially. A dish-shaped antenna yields the most desirable features from a foreground contamination viewpoint, relative to a dipole or a phased array. Comparing data from recent Murchison Widefield Array observations, we demonstrate that the foreground signatures that have the largest impact on the H i signal arise from power received far away from the primary field of view. We identify diffuse emission near the horizon as a significant contributing factor, even on wide antenna spacings that usually represent structures on small scales. For signals entering through the primary field of view, compact emission dominates the foreground contamination. These two mechanisms imprint a characteristic pitchfork signature on the “foreground wedge” in Fourier delay space. Based on these results, we propose that selective down-weighting of data based on antenna spacing and time can mitigate foreground contamination substantially by a factor of ?100 with negligible loss of sensitivity.

  8. The 15 cm mercury ion thruster research 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Doubly charged ion current measurements in the beam of a SERT II thruster are shown to introduce corrections which bring its calculated thrust into close agreement with that measured during flight testing. A theoretical model of doubly charged ion production and loss in mercury electron bombardment thrusters is discussed and is shown to yield doubly-to-singly charged ion density ratios that agree with experimental measurements obtained on a 15 cm diameter thruster over a range of operating conditions. Single cusp magnetic field thruster operation is discussed and measured ion beam profiles, performance data, doubly charged ion densities, and discharge plasma characteristics are presented for a range of operating conditions and thruster geometries. Variations in the characteristics of this thruster are compared to those observed in the divergent field thruster and the cusped field thruster is shown to yield flatter ion beam profiles at about the same discharge power and propellant utilization operating point. An ion optics test program is described and the measured effects of grid system dimensions on ion beamlet half angle and diameter are examined. The effectiveness of hollow cathode startup using a thermionically emitting filament within the cathode is examined over a range of mercury flow rates and compared to results obtained with a high voltage tickler startup technique. Results of cathode plasma property measurement tests conducted within the cathode are presented.

  9. The 40 cm Monitoring Telescope of the Universitätssternwarte Bochum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramolla, M.; Drass, H.; Lemke, R.; Westhues, C.; Pozo Nuñez, F.; Barr Dominguez, A.; Haas, M.; Chini, R.; Murphy, M.

    2013-12-01

    The new 40 cm Bochum Monitoring Telescope (BMT) has started routine operation at the Universitätssternwarte Bochum (USB), located near Cerro Armazones in Chile. It has a 41' {×} 27' field of view (FoV) and is equipped with B and V broad band filters and three narrow band filters at 670, 680, and 690 nm. This makes the BMT ideally suited to perform photometric reverberation mapping of the H? emission line of active galactic nuclei, where the line is redshifted into the narrow bands, and to monitor bright stars which would be saturated with large telescopes. As a complement to our Robotic Bochum Twin Telescope (RoBoTT) with 2.7° FoV and 14 filters, the BMT is an efficient instrument to accurately study the variability of individual sources, provided that its smaller FoV covers a sufficient number of suitable comparison stars. Here we describe the telescope and its fully robotic operation, and present science verification data demonstrating the performance of the BMT.

  10. Redshift space 21 cm power spectra from reionization

    E-print Network

    Xiaomin Wang; Wayne Hu

    2006-04-27

    We construct a simple but self-consistent analytic ionization model for rapid exploration of 21cm power spectrum observables in redshift space. It is fully described by the average ionization fraction $x_e(z)$ and HII patch size $R(z)$ and has the flexibility to accommodate various reionization scenarios. The model associates ionization regions with dark matter halos of the number density required to recover $x_e$ and treats redshift space distortions self-consistently with the virial velocity of such halos. Based on this model, we study the line-of-sight structures in the brightness fluctuations since they are the most immune to foreground contamination. We explore the degeneracy between the HII patch size and nonlinear redshift space distortion in the one dimensional power spectrum. We also discuss the limitations experimental frequency and angular resolutions place on their distinguishability. Angular resolution dilutes even the radial signal and will be a serious limitation for resolving small bubbles before the end of reionization. Nonlinear redshift space distortions suggest that a resolution of order 1 -- 10\\arcsec and a frequency resolution of 10kHz will ultimately be desirable to extract the full information in the radial field at $z\\sim 10$. First generation instruments such as LOFAR and MWA can potentially measure radial HII patches of a few comoving Mpc and larger at the end of reionization and are unlikely to be affected by nonlinear redshift space distortions.

  11. Sensitivity for 21 cm bispectrum from Epoch of Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiura, Shintaro; Shimabukuro, Hayato; Takahashi, Keitaro; Momose, Rieko; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Imai, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    The 21-cm line brightness temperature brings rich information about Epoch of Reionizaton (EoR) and high-z universe (Cosmic Dawn and Dark Age). While the power spectrum is a useful tool to investigate the EoR signal statistically, higher order statistics such as bispectrum are also valuable because the EoR signal is expected to be highly non-Gaussian. In this paper, we develop a formalism to calculate the bispectrum contributed from the thermal noise taking array configuration of telescopes into account, by extending a formalism for the power spectrum. We apply our formalism to the ongoing and future telescopes such as expanded Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR), Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) and Square Kilometre Array (SKA). We find that expanded MWA does not have enough sensitivity to detect the bispectrum signal. On the other hand, LOFAR has better sensitivity and will be able to detect the peaks of the bispectrum as a function of redshift at large scales with comoving wavenumber k ? 0.03 Mpc-1. The SKA has enough sensitivity to detect the bispectrum for much smaller scales k ? 0.3 Mpc-1 and redshift z ? 20.

  12. Survey of CM Continuum Emission Toward Protostars in Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Masao; Beltran, Maria T.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Kawabe, Ryohei

    1999-10-01

    We carried out 3.6 cm VLA observations of 17 embedded sources with CO wing emission in Taurus. We detected continuum emission toward 12 embedded sources and 7 were newly detected. Most detected sources are not resolved with 3" beam. The X band emission at the embedded phase likely originates from partially thick thermal free-free emission of ionized jets (e.g. Anglada et al. 1998). Our results indicate that the compact thermal jets (< 100 AU) are ubiquitous phenomena even in low-mass protostars. Although X band fluxes of some detected sources in our study are in agreement with those measured previously, we found that the flux of L1551 NE became stronger by a factor of a few as that in 1994 (Rodriguez et al. 1995). This result suggests that the jet activity, probably related to accretion rate, changed in a few years. We also discuss observations of jets around low-mass protostars with the ALMA array. Anglada, G. et al. 1998, AJ, 116, 2953 Rodriguez, L. F. et al. 1995, ApJ, 454, L149

  13. Ion thruster system (8-cm) cyclic endurance test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulgeroff, C. R.; Beattie, J. R.; Poeschel, R. L.; Hyman, J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the qualification test of an Engineering-Model 5-mN-thrust 8-cm-diameter mercury ion thruster which is representative of the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) thrusters. Two of these thrusters are scheduled for future flight test. The cyclic endurance test described herein was a ground-based test performed in a vacuum facility with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled cryo-surface and a frozen mercury target. The Power Electronics Unit, Beam Shield, Gimal, and Propellant Tank that were used with the thruster in the endurance test are also similar to those of the IAPS. The IAPS thruster that will undergo the longest beam-on-time during the actual space test will be subjected to 7,055 hours of beam-on-time and 2,557 cycles during the flight test. The endurance test was successfully concluded when the mercury in the IAPS Propellant Tank was consumed. At that time, 8,471 hours of beam-on-time and 599 cycles had been accumulated. Subsequent post-test-evaluation operations were performed (without breaking vacuum) which extended the test values to 652 cycles and 9,489 hours of beam-on-time. The Power Electronic Unit (PEU) and thruster were in the same vacuum chamber throughout the test. The PEU accumulated 10,268 hr of test time with high voltage applied to the operating thruster or dummy load.

  14. Piezo-Operated Shutter Mechanism Moves 1.5 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Robert; Bamford, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The figure shows parts of a shutter mechanism designed to satisfy a number of requirements specific to its original intended application as a component of an atomic clock to be flown in outer space. The mechanism may also be suitable for use in laboratory and industrial vacuum systems on Earth for which there are similar requirements. The requirements include the following: a) To alternately close, then open, a 1.5-cm-diameter optical aperture twice per second, with a stroke time of no more than 15 ms, during a total operational lifetime of at least a year; b) To attenuate light by a factor of at least 1012 when in the closed position; c) To generate little or no magnetic field; d) To be capable of withstanding bakeout at a temperature of 200 C to minimize outgassing during subsequent operation in an ultrahigh vacuum; and e) To fit within a diameter of 12 in. (=305 mm) a size limit dictated by the size of an associated magnetic shield. The light-attenuation requirement is satisfied by use of overlapping shutter blades. The closure of the aperture involves, among other things, insertion of a single shutter blade between a pair of shutter blades. The requirement to minimize the magnetic field is satisfied by use of piezoelectric actuators. Because piezoelectric actuators cannot withstand bakeout, they must be mounted outside the vacuum chamber, and, hence, motion must be transmitted from the actuators to the shutter levers via a vacuum-chamber-wall diaphragm.

  15. Final report on EURAMET.AUV.A-S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Figueroa, Salvador; Nielsen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The supplementary Regional Comparison EURAMET.AUV.A-S1 has been carried out under the auspices of EURAMET's Technical Committee for Acoustics, Ultrasound and Vibration, and the Consultative Committee for Acoustics, Ultrasound and Vibration (CCAUV) of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM). The participating NMIs are the Centro Nacional de Metrología (CENAM, Mexico), the Danish Fundamental Metrology (DFM, Denmark) and the Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals (DMDM, Serbia). The role of the Pilot laboratory was jointly undertaken by the DFM and CENAM. The time schedule was organized in a single star configuration. Two LS1P microphones and two LS2aP were circulated among participants. This report includes the measurement results from the participants, and the analysis leading to a proposal for the reference values for the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Ribosomal protein S1 induces a conformational change of the 30S ribosomal subunit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sultan Ch. Agalarov; Artem A. Kalinichenko; Aigar A. Kommer; Alexander S. Spirin

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of the 30S ribosomal subunit in the complex with protein S1 and the subunit depleted of this protein has been carried out by the hot tritium bombardment method. Differences in exposure of some ribosomal proteins within the 30S subunit depleted of S1 and within the 30S–S1 complex were found. It was concluded that protein S1 binds in

  17. Expression and RNA binding properties of the chloroplast ribosomal protein S1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Livia Merendino; Angela Falciatore; Jean-David Rochaix

    2003-01-01

    The gene encoding the chloroplast ribosomal protein S1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CreS1, was cloned and the RNA binding properties and the expression patterns were studied. Gel-shift analysis revealed that CreS1 binds AU-rich 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTR) of chloroplast mRNAs with higher affinity than the corresponding sequence of a GC-rich nuclear transcript. The binding affinity of CreS1 for a mutant form of

  18. The high-resolution infrared spectrum of pyrrole between 900 and 1500 cm-1 revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Hegelund; R. Wugt Larsen; M. H. Palmer

    2008-01-01

    The Fourier transform gas-phase infrared spectrum of pyrrole, C4H5N, has been recorded with a resolution of ca. 0.003 cm-1 in the 900 1500 cm-1 spectral region. Four fundamental bands, nu8(A1; 1016.9 cm-1), nu23(B2; 1049.1 cm-1), nu7(A1; 1074.6 cm-1), nu20(B2; 1424.4 cm-1) and the overtone band 2nu16(A1; 962.7 cm-1) have been analysed using the Watson model. The nu8 and 2nu16 bands

  19. The high-resolution infrared spectrum of pyrrole between 900 and 1500 cm ?1 revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Hegelund; R. Wugt Larsen; M. H. Palmer

    2008-01-01

    The Fourier transform gas-phase infrared spectrum of pyrrole, C4H5N, has been recorded with a resolution of ca. 0.003cm?1 in the 900–1500cm?1 spectral region. Four fundamental bands, ?8(A1; 1016.9cm?1), ?23(B2; 1049.1cm?1), ?7(A1; 1074.6cm?1), ?20(B2; 1424.4cm?1) and the overtone band 2?16(A1; 962.7cm?1) have been analysed using the Watson model. The ?8 and 2?16 bands are unperturbed; the ?7 and ?23 bands are

  20. String Tests of 3S1P Configurations for Electric Energy Storage Applications

    E-print Network

    String Tests of 3S1P Configurations for Electric Energy Storage Applications Prepared for the U or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. #12;1 StringTestsof3S1 ......................................................................... 4 2.1.2. Performance of 3S1P strings

  1. Detecting ionized bubbles in redshifted 21 cm maps

    E-print Network

    Kanan K. Datta; Somnath Bharadwaj; T. Roy Choudhury

    2007-09-05

    The reionization of the Universe, it is believed, occurred by the growth of ionized regions (bubbles) in the neutral intergalactic medium (IGM). We study the possibility of detecting these bubbles in radio-interferometric observations of redshifted neutral hydrogen (HI) 21 cm radiation. The signal 1 mJy will be buried in noise and foregrounds, the latter being at least a few orders of magnitude stronger than the signal. We develop a visibility based formalism that uses a filter to optimally combine the entire signal from a bubble while minimizing the noise and foreground contributions. This formalism makes definite predictions on the ability to detect an ionized bubble or conclusively rule out its presence in a radio- interferometric observation. We make predictions for the currently functioning GMRT and a forthcoming instrument, the MWA at a frequency of 150 MHz (corresponding to a redshift of 8.5). For both instruments, we show that a 3 sigma detection will be possible for a bubble of comoving radius R_b > 40 Mpc (assuming it to be spherical) in 100 hrs of observation and R_b 22 Mpc in 1000 hrs of observation, provided the bubble is at the center of the field of view. In both these cases the filter effectively removes the expected foreground contribution so that it is below the signal, and the system noise is the deciding criteria. We find that there is a fundamental limitation on the smallest bubble that can be detected arising from the statistical fluctuations in the HI distribution. Assuming that the HI traces the dark matter we find that it will not be possible to detect bubbles with R_b < 8 Mpc using the GMRT and R_b < 16 Mpc using the MWA, however large be the integration time.

  2. No differences observed among multiple clinical S1P1 receptor agonists (functional antagonists) in S1P1 receptor down-regulation and degradation.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Susan; Patnaude, Lori; Haxhinasto, Sokol; Slavin, Anthony; Hill-Drzewi, Melissa; Horan, Josh; Modis, Louise Kelly

    2014-03-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive metabolite with pleiotropic effects on multiple cellular processes in health and disease. Responses elicited by S1P are a result of binding to five specific G-protein-coupled receptors. We have developed multiple assays to systematically study the downstream signaling of these receptors, including early events such as direct receptor activation (GTP?S) as well as more distal events such as S1P1 receptor degradation. Employing such assays, we have characterized and compared multiple S1P1 agonists that are in clinical development including FTY720, BAF312, CS-0777, and other molecules from the S1P1 patent literature. Our parallel assessment has allowed us to compare their potency against S1P1, their selectivity against the four other S1P receptors, as well as species cross-reactivity. We note that all of the compounds studied signal in an identical manner through S1P1, leading to receptor degradation. PMID:24003058

  3. Modeling the behavior of Cm and Am during separation by complexing extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Chuveleva, E.A.; Kharitonov, O.V.; Firsova, L.A.

    1994-11-01

    Certain heavy rare earths (REE), Cm, and Am are separated by complexing extraction chromatography using solutions of DTPA and DTPA-citric acid as eluents. The separation coefficients of REE from Cm and Am are calculated. Tracers are proposed for the Cm and Am separations. These are Tm for Cm elution using 0.025 M DTPA and Ho for Cm elution using 0.025 M DTPA with 0.025 citric acid. The tracer for Am in both instances is Tb.

  4. Impact-Induced Chondrule Deformation and Aqueous Alteration of CM2 Murchison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, R. D.; Zolensky, M.; Ketcham, R. A.; Behr, W. M.; Martinez, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Deformed chondrules in CM2 Murchison have been found to define a prominent foliation [1,2] and lineation [3] in 3D using X-ray computed tomography (XCT). It has been hypothesized that chondrules in foliated chondrites deform by "squeezing" into surrounding pore space [4,5], a process that also likely removes primary porosity [6]. However, shock stage classification based on olivine extinction in Murchison is consistently low (S1-S2) [4-5,7] implying that significant intracrystalline plastic deformation of olivine has not occurred. One objective of our study is therefore to determine the microstructural mechanisms and phases that are accommodating the impact stress and resulting in relative displacements within the chondrules. Another question regarding impact deformation in Murchison is whether it facilitated aqueous alteration as has been proposed for the CMs which generally show a positive correlation between degree of alteration and petrofabric strength [7,2]. As pointed out by [2], CM Murchison represents a unique counterpoint to this correlation: it has a strong petrofabric but a relatively low degree of aqueous alteration. However, Murchison may not represent an inconsistency to the proposed causal relationship between impact and alteration, if it can be established that the incipient aqueous alteration post-dated chondrule deformation. Methods: Two thin sections from Murchison sample USNM 5487 were cut approximately perpendicular to the foliation and parallel to lineation determined by XCT [1,3] and one section was additionally polished for EBSD. Using a combination of optical petrography, SEM, EDS, and EBSD several chondrules were characterized in detail to: determine phases, find microstructures indicative of strain, document the geometric relationships between grain-scale microstructures and the foliation and lineation direction, and look for textural relationships of alteration minerals (tochilinite and Mg-Fe serpentine) that indicate timing of their formation relative to deformation event(s). Preliminary Results: Deformed chondrules are dominated by forsterite and clinoenstatite with lesser amounts of Fe-Mg serpentine, sulfides, and low calcium pyroxene. Olivine grains are commonly fractured but generally show sharp optical extinction. The pyroxene, in contrast, is not only fractured but also often displays undulose extinction. In addition, the clinoenstatite is frequently twinned but it is unclear whether the twins are the result of mechanical deformation or inversion from protoenstatite [8]. EBSD work is currently ongoing to determine if areas of higher crystallographic strain can be imaged and mapped, and to determine the pyroxene twin orientations. In regards to alteration, we have found evidence for post-deformation formation of tochilinite and Mg-Fe serpentine indicating that aqueous alteration has indeed post-dated the deformation of the chondrules.

  5. The turbomachine blading design using S2-S1 approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, T. S.; Bencherif, L.; Viney, B.; Duc, J. M. Nguyen

    1991-01-01

    The boundary conditions corresponding to the design problem when the blades being simulated by the bound vorticity distribution are presented. The 3D flow is analyzed by the two steps S2 - S1 approach. In the first step, the number of blades is supposed to be infinite, the vortex distribution is transformed into an axisymmetric one, so that the flow field can be analyzed in a meridional plane. The thickness distribution of the blade producing the flow channel striction is taken into account by the modification of metric tensor in the continuity equation. Using the meridional stream function to define the flow field, the mass conservation is satisfied automatically. The governing equation is deduced from the relation between the azimuthal component of the vorticity and the meridional velocity. The value of the azimuthal component of the vorticity is provided by the hub to shroud equilibrium condition. This step leads to the determination of the axisymmetric stream sheets as well as the approximate camber surface of the blade. In the second step, the finite number of blades is taken into account, the inverse problem corresponding to the blade to blade flow confined in each stream sheet is analyzed. The momentum equation implies that the free vortex of the absolute velocity must be tangential to the stream sheet. The governing equation for the blade to blade flow stream function is deduced from this condition. At the beginning, the upper and the lower surfaces of the blades are created from the camber surface obtained from the first step with the assigned thickness distribution. The bound vorticity distribution and the penetrating flux conservation applied on the presumed blade surface constitute the boundary conditions of the inverse problem. The detection of this flux leads to the rectification of the geometry of the blades.

  6. Constrainingquasar and intergalactic medium properties through bubble detection in redshifted 21-cm maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Suman; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Choudhury, T. Roy

    2012-11-01

    The infrared detection of a z > 7 quasar has opened up a window to directly probe the intergalactic medium (IGM) during the epoch of reionization. It is anticipated that future observations will yield more quasars extending to higher redshifts. In this paper, we theoretically consider the possibility of detecting the ionized bubble around a z = 8 quasar using targeted redshifted 21-cm observations with the GMRT. The apparent shape and size of the ionized bubble, as seen by a distant observer, depends on the parameters N? phs /C, xH i /c and ?Q, where N? phs and ?Q are, respectively, the ionizing photon emission rate and age of the quasar, and xH i and C are, respectively, the neutral fraction and clumping factor of the IGM. The 21-cm detection of an ionized bubble, thus, holds the promise of allowing us to probe the quasar and IGM properties at z = 8. In this work we have analytically calculated the apparent shape and size of a quasar's ionized bubble assuming a uniform IGM and ignoring other ionizing sources besides the quasar, and used this as a template for matched-filter bubble search with the GMRT visibility data. We have assumed that N? phs is known from the observed infrared spectrum, and C = 30 from theoretical considerations, which gives us the two free parameters xH i and ?Q for bubble detection. Considering 1000'h of observation, we find that there is a reasonably large region of parameter space bounded within (xH i , (?Q/107 yr ))=(1.0, 0.5) and (0.2, 7.0) where a 3? detection is possible if (N? phs /1057 s-1)=3. The available region increases if N? phs is larger, whereas we need xH i ?0.4 and (?Q/107 yr )?2.0 if (N? phs /1057 s-1)=1.3. Considering parameter estimation, we find that in many cases it will be possible to quite accurately constrain ?Q and place a lower limit on xH i with 1000'h of observation, particularly if the bubble is in the early stage of growth and we have a very luminous quasar or a high neutral fraction. Deeper follow-up observations (4000 and 9000'h) can be used to further tighten the constraints on ?Q and xH i . We find that the estimated xH i is affected by uncertainty in the assumed value of C. The quasar's age ?Q however is robust and is unaffected by the uncertainty in C. The presence of other ionizing sources and inhomogeneities in the IGM distort the shape and size of the quasar's ionized bubble. This is a potential impediment for bubble detection and parameter estimation. We have used the seminumerical technique to simulate the apparent shape and size of quasar ionized bubbles incorporating these effects. If we consider a 9000'h of observation with the GMRT, we find that the estimated parameters ?Q and xH i are expected to be within the statistical uncertainties.

  7. SpS1-Gas in protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Miwa

    2010-11-01

    High resolution infrared spectroscopy is the key technique to look at the inner regions of protoplanetary disks. As molecular hydrogen is an inefficient emitter, CO gas is the single most important molecular probe of the disk. The energy gaps of the vibrationally excited levels (?E > 3000 K) and the critical density required to keep the molecules in the excited state (nc ~ 1010cm-3) match well to the physical condition of the inner regions of protoplanetary disks. In order to resolve the vibrational lines of different rotational states, a spectral resolving power of ?/?? > 10000 is necessary; or even higher (> 30000 -100000), if we would like to fully resolve the gas kinematics. Scoville et al. (1980) provided the fundamentals of the excitation mechanisms, which is essential for the interpretation of the vibrational transitions of CO, and pioneered the study of the circumstellar environment with infrared CO lines in the observation of BN (Scoville et al. (1983)). The bandhead emission of CO at 2.3 ?m from young stars was unambiguously attributed to the circumstellar disks by Carr (1989) and Najita et al. (1996), because the gas kinematics matches well to what is expected from Keplerian rotation. Since then, the gas kinematics have been extensively used to shed light on peculiar disk structures, such as the inner truncation (Brittain et al. 2003), the outer truncation (Najita et al. 2008), and the gap (van der Plas et al. 2008; though this is an oxygen forbidden line).

  8. TRAPPIST monitoring of comets C/2012 S1 (ISON) and C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitom, C.; Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J.; Hutsemékers, D.; Gillon, M.

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of a dense photometric monitoring of comets C/2012 S1 (Ison) and C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) using narrow-band cometary filters and the 60-cm TRAPPIST robotic telescope [1]. We were able to isolate the emission of the OH, NH, CN, C_2, and C_3 radicals for both comets as well as the dust continuum in four bands. By applying a Haser model [2] and fitting the observed profiles, we derive gas production rates. From the continuum bands, we computed the dust Af? parameters [3]. We were able to follow the evolution of the gas and dust activity of these comets for weeks, looking for changes with the heliocentric distance, study the coma morphology, and analyze their composition and dust coma properties. Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was observed about three times a week from October 12 (r=1.43 au) to November 23, 2013. It was then at a heliocentric distance of 0.33 au, only five days before perihelion, when it disintegrated. This dense monitoring allowed us to detect fast changes of the cometary activity. We observed a slowly rising activity in October and early November, and two major outbursts around November 13 and November 19 [4], the gas and dust production rates being multiplied by at least a factor of five during each outburst and then slowly decreasing in the following days. These outbursts were correlated with changes in gas-production-rate ratios. The coma morphology study revealed strong jets in both gas and dust filters. Since the comet was very active in November, we were even able to detect OH jets in our images. Comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) was observed before perihelion from September 9 (r=1.94 au) to November 16 (r=1.12 au), 2013 when the comet was too far North. We recovered the comet post-perihelion on February 13 (r=1.24 au), 2014 and planned to observe it until May (r=2.5 au) with narrow-band filters. We compare the evolution of gas and dust activity as well as the evolution of gas production rates ratios on both sides of perihelion. The morphological study of both gas and dust coma we already performed on pre-perihelion images revealed structures in gas and dust filters. We compare the gas and dust features in all filters and study their evolution.

  9. centimeters (cm) 0.39 inches (in.) in. 2.54 cm meters (m) 3.28 feet (ft) ft 0.305 m

    E-print Network

    Homes, Christopher C.

    centimeters (cm) 0.39 inches (in.) in. 2.54 cm meters (m) 3.28 feet (ft) ft 0.305 m kilometers (km) gal 3.785 L cubic meters (m3 ) 35.32 cubic feet (ft3 ) ft3 0.03 m3 hectares (ha) 2.47 acres acres 0 (cm) 0.39 inches (in.) in. 2.54 cm meters (m) 3.28 feet (ft) ft 0.305 m kilometers (km) 0.62 miles (mi

  10. Risk Factors for Discontinuation of S-1 Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kawazoe, Hitoshi; Shimasaki, Maya; Ueno, Masaki; Sumikawa, Satomi; Takatori, Shingo; Namba, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Motohira; Sato, Koichi; Kojima, Yoh; Watanabe, Yuji; Moriguchi, Toshihide; Tanaka, Akihiro; Araki, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to clarify the risk factors for discontinuing tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil potassium (S-1) adjuvant chemotherapy following gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: We retrospectively investigated patients with curatively-resected gastric cancer who received S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy. S-1 was administered orally at 80-120 mg/day, depending on body surface area, on days 1-28 every 6 weeks for 1 year. The dose and treatment schedule were modified at the clinicians' discretion, according to toxicity. Results: Seventy-one patients were included in the study, 26 of whom discontinued S-1 therapy. The relapse-free survival rates in the S-1-completed and S-1-discontinuation groups at 5 years post-surgery were 88.1% and 55.8%, respectively. The overall survival rates in the S-1-completed and S-1-discontinuation groups at 5 years post-surgery were 89.4% and 59.8%, respectively. The hazard ratios for relapse and death were significantly lower in the S-1-completed group compared with those in the S-1-discontinuation group (0.18; p<0.001 and 0.19; p=0.002, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that S-1 discontinuation was significantly associated with an initial overdose of S-1, having stage I cancer, creatinine clearance <66 mL/min, and a side effect of nausea. Conclusions: These results suggest that assessing renal function to avoid initial overdose of S-1, together with the early management of side effects, may support the continuation of S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:25874010

  11. Experimental shock metamorphism of the Murchison CM carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomeoka, Kazushige; Yamahana, Yasuhiro; Sekine, Toshimori

    1999-11-01

    A series of shock-recovery experiments were carried out on the Murchison CM carbonaceous chondrite by using a single-stage propellant gun. The Murchison samples were shocked in nine experiments at peak pressures from 4 to 49 GPa. The recovered samples were studied in detail by using an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope and an electron-probe microanalyzer. Chondrules are flattened in the plane of the shock front at 4 to 30 GPa. The mean aspect ratio of chondrules increases from 1.17 to 1.57 roughly in proportion to the intensity of shock pressure up to ˜25 GPa. At 25 to 30 GPa, the mean aspect ratio does not increase further, and chondrules show increasingly more random orientations and degrade their preferred orientations, and at ˜35 GPa, they are extensively disrupted. Most coarse grains of olivine and pyroxene are irregularly fractured, fracture density increases with increasing shock pressure and at ˜30 GPa almost all are thoroughly fractured with subgrains of <1 to 5 ?m in size. At ˜20 GPa, subparallel fractures begin to form in the matrix in directions roughly perpendicular to the compression axis and their densities increase with pressure, especially dramatically at 25 to 30 GPa; thus, the sample is increasingly comminuted and becomes fragile. Local shock melting occurs as melt veins and pockets at 20 to 30 GPa. Fracture-filling veins of fine grains of matrix are also produced at 25 to 30 GPa. The melts and the fine grains seem to result mainly from frictional heating due to displacement along fractures. At ˜35 GPa, melting occurs pervasively throughout the matrix. The melts are mainly produced from the matrix; however, they are consistently more enriched in Fe, S, and Ca, which indicates that these elements are selectively incorporated into the melts. The melts contain tiny spherules of Fe-Ni metal, Fe sulfide, and numerous vesicles. At 49 GPa, the matrix is totally melted and coarse grains of olivine are partially melted. The melts contain much larger vesicles (50-300 ?m in diameter) than those in the samples shocked at lower pressures, which indicates that much more intense devolatilization and gas expansion took place. For the purpose of comparing shock thermal effects between the experimentally shocked samples and naturally shocked targets (surface materials in the Murchison parent body), we calculated internal energy increase for compression by multiple shock wave reflections (experimental case) and for compression by a single shock wave (natural case). The results suggest that postshock thermal effects observed at each experiment may be attained by impact on the natural targets at a considerably lower shock pressure than the peak shock pressure. From the results of our experiments and calculations, we conclude that if the Murchison parent body were shocked on the surface at pressures higher than ˜25 GPa, shocked material would probably undergo drastic increase in the degree of comminution and simultaneous generation of strong expansive forces on pressure release. Thus the results support the hypothesis of Scott et al. (1992) that volatile-rich carbonaceous chondrites shocked above 20 to 30 GPa escaped from the parent body and formed particles that are too small to survive as meteorites.

  12. The Clinically-tested S1P Receptor Agonists, FTY720 and BAF312, Demonstrate Subtype-Specific Bradycardia (S1P1) and Hypertension (S1P3) in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Ryan M.; Muthukumarana, Akalushi; Harrison, Paul C.; Nodop Mazurek, Suzanne; Chen, Rong Rhonda; Harrington, Kyle E.; Dinallo, Roger M.; Horan, Joshua C.; Patnaude, Lori; Modis, Louise K.; Reinhart, Glenn A.

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P) and S1P receptor agonists elicit mechanism-based effects on cardiovascular function in vivo. Indeed, FTY720 (non-selective S1PX receptor agonist) produces modest hypertension in patients (2–3 mmHg in 1-yr trial) as well as acute bradycardia independent of changes in blood pressure. However, the precise receptor subtypes responsible is controversial, likely dependent upon the cardiovascular response in question (e.g. bradycardia, hypertension), and perhaps even species-dependent since functional differences in rodent, rabbit, and human have been suggested. Thus, we characterized the S1P receptor subtype specificity for each compound in vitro and, in vivo, the cardiovascular effects of FTY720 and the more selective S1P1,5 agonist, BAF312, were tested during acute i.v. infusion in anesthetized rats and after oral administration for 10 days in telemetry-instrumented conscious rats. Acute i.v. infusion of FTY720 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 mg/kg/20 min) or BAF312 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/20 min) elicited acute bradycardia in anesthetized rats demonstrating an S1P1 mediated mechanism-of-action. However, while FTY720 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/d) elicited dose-dependent hypertension after multiple days of oral administration in rat at clinically relevant plasma concentrations (24-hr mean blood pressure?=?8.4, 12.8, 16.2 mmHg above baseline vs. 3 mmHg in vehicle controls), BAF312 (0.3, 3.0, 30.0 mg/kg/d) had no significant effect on blood pressure at any dose tested suggesting that hypertension produced by FTY720 is mediated S1P3 receptors. In summary, in vitro selectivity results in combination with studies performed in anesthetized and conscious rats administered two clinically tested S1P agonists, FTY720 or BAF312, suggest that S1P1 receptors mediate bradycardia while hypertension is mediated by S1P3 receptor activation. PMID:23285242

  13. RegCM4-HadGEM2-ES simulated cyclone climatology (1979-2005) over the Southwestern South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfírio da Rocha, Rosmeri; Simões Reboita, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Cyclones over the Southwestern South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) are a subject of great interest once they modify the weather and control the climate near east coast of South America (SA). In this study we compare the cyclones climatology in the period 1979-2005 simulated by Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) with that from ERA-Interim reanalysis (ECMWF). RegCM4 was nested in HadGEM2-ES output and the simulation used the SA domain of CORDEX project, with a horizontal grid of 50 km and 18 sigma-pressure levels in the vertical. The RegCM4 simulation used the land surface Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) and the mixed convection Emanuel-Grell scheme configurations. This simulation is part of the CREMA (CORDEX REgCM4 hyper-MAtrix) experiment. The cyclones were identified using an automated tracking scheme based on minima (cyclonic in Southern Hemisphere) of relative vorticity from the wind at 925 hPa. The threshold of -1.5 x 10-5s-1 was used in the algorithm. All cyclones in RegCM4 and ERA-Interim with relative vorticity lower than this threshold and with lifetime higher or equal 24 hours were included in the climatology. ERA-Interim shows three main cyclogenetic regions near east coast of SA. In general, RegCM4 simulated these same regions but with an underestimation of the number of cyclones. In each of these regions, there is a different season of higher cyclones frequency. Over extreme south of southern Brazil and Uruguay the higher frequency of cyclones occurs in winter, while southeastern Brazil and southeastern Argentina cyclones are most frequent during summer. RegCM4 is able to simulate this observed seasonality.

  14. The dust environment of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, F.; Pozuelos, F.; Aceituno, F.; Casanova, V.; Duffard, R.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Molina, A.; Ortiz, J. L.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Sota, A.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Astronomical Association Cometas-Obs, Amateur

    2014-07-01

    A Monte Carlo comet dust tail model has been applied to extract the dust environment parameters of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from both Earth-based and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) calibrated observations, performed from about 6 Astronomical Units (au) inbound, to right after perihelion passage, when just a small portion of the original comet nucleus survived in the form of a cloud of tiny particles. The early Af? and image data are consistent with particle ejection from an extended active area occupying a large region between latitudes 35°N to 90°N (for a prograde rotating nucleus), with the spin axis having a large obliquity (I ? 70°). This configuration fits nicely the early images and Af? data until approximately 3.9 au inbound, where the emission should become isotropic in order to fit the data. This isotropic ejection model perfectly mimics the minimum in the Af? data found observationally 60 days before perihelion and the steep rise afterwards owing to the strong outburst of activity detected by many observers during the first hours of November 14, 2013. The comparison of the derived dust loss rates with water production rates implies a dust-to-gas ratio which generally decreases with increasing heliocentric distance, and a particle ejection velocity law that is close to a r_h^{-2} dependence. The analysis of SOHO LASCO C3 images around comet's perihelion reveals that, assuming an original nucleus of R_N = 500 m with ? = 1000 kg m^{-3}, at least half of the mass of the nucleus was vaporized when the comet was at about 17 solar radii inbound. We conclude that at that time the nucleus suffered a cataclysmic fragmentation releasing a huge amount of material of 2.3×10^{11} kg, for a particle density of 1000 kg m^{-3}, equivalent to a sphere of 380 m in radius. The model results on a later pre-perihelion image at about 5.5 solar radii implies a further reduction in mass of about 300 to that at 17 solar radii, a consequence of vaporization of comet material. However, the total mass contained in the post-perihelion tails analyzed are about the same of that at 5.5 solar radii pre-perihelion, but with much smaller particles in the distribution, implying that the dominating process at perihelion was particle fragmentation. The total mass contained in the last SOHO LASCO C3 post-perihelion image analyzed, at 27.5 solar radii post-perihelion, the surviving ISON material is just 6.7×10^8 kg or a sphere of 54 m in radius with the density of 1000 kg m^{-3}. The dust contained in the post-perihelion tails is very small in size, with particles having 0.1-50 ? m in radius, distributed following a power law of index -3.5.

  15. Tissue-specific and nutrient regulation of the branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase phosphatase, protein phosphatase 2Cm (PP2Cm).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Meiyi; Lu, Gang; Gao, Chen; Wang, Yibin; Sun, Haipeng

    2012-07-01

    Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) homeostasis is maintained through highly regulated catabolic activities where the rate-limiting step is catalyzed by branched-chain ?-keto dehydrogenase (BCKD). Our previous study has identified a mitochondria-targeted protein phosphatase, PP2Cm, as the BCKD phosphatase and thus serves as a key regulator for BCAA catabolism. In this report, we performed comprehensive molecular and biochemical studies of PP2Cm regulation using both in vivo and in vitro systems. We show that PP2Cm expression is highly enriched in brain, heart, liver, kidney, and diaphragm, but low in skeletal muscle. The PP2Cm expression is regulated at the transcriptional level in response to nutrient status. Furthermore, we have established that PP2Cm interacts with the BCKD E2 subunit and competes with the BCKD kinase in a substrate-dependent and mutually exclusive manner. These data suggest that BCAA homeostasis is at least in part contributed by nutrient-dependent PP2Cm expression and interaction with the BCKD complex. Finally, a number of human PP2Cm single nucleotide polymorphic changes as identified in the public data base can produce either inactive or constitutive active mutant phosphatases, suggesting that putative PP2Cm mutations may contribute to BCAA catabolic defects in human. PMID:22589535

  16. Tissue-specific and Nutrient Regulation of the Branched-chain ?-Keto Acid Dehydrogenase Phosphatase, Protein Phosphatase 2Cm (PP2Cm)*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Meiyi; Lu, Gang; Gao, Chen; Wang, Yibin; Sun, Haipeng

    2012-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) homeostasis is maintained through highly regulated catabolic activities where the rate-limiting step is catalyzed by branched-chain ?-keto dehydrogenase (BCKD). Our previous study has identified a mitochondria-targeted protein phosphatase, PP2Cm, as the BCKD phosphatase and thus serves as a key regulator for BCAA catabolism. In this report, we performed comprehensive molecular and biochemical studies of PP2Cm regulation using both in vivo and in vitro systems. We show that PP2Cm expression is highly enriched in brain, heart, liver, kidney, and diaphragm, but low in skeletal muscle. The PP2Cm expression is regulated at the transcriptional level in response to nutrient status. Furthermore, we have established that PP2Cm interacts with the BCKD E2 subunit and competes with the BCKD kinase in a substrate-dependent and mutually exclusive manner. These data suggest that BCAA homeostasis is at least in part contributed by nutrient-dependent PP2Cm expression and interaction with the BCKD complex. Finally, a number of human PP2Cm single nucleotide polymorphic changes as identified in the public data base can produce either inactive or constitutive active mutant phosphatases, suggesting that putative PP2Cm mutations may contribute to BCAA catabolic defects in human. PMID:22589535

  17. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF NASA 5 CM BY 5 CM BI-SUPPORTED SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELLS OPERATED IN BOTH FUEL CELL AND STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. OBrien; J. E. OBrien; C. M. Stoots; X. Zhang; S. C. Farmer; T. L. Cable; J. A. Setlock

    2011-01-01

    A series of 5 cm by 5 cm bi-supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC) were produced by NASA for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and tested under the INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis program. The results from the experimental demonstration of cell operation for both hydrogen production and operation as fuel cells is presented. An overview of the cell technology,

  18. ATP8A2/sh#1 NM_016529.3-2446s1c1 ATP8A2/sh#2 NM_016529.3-180s1c1

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    .32 0.22 0.55 0.05 FLT3/sh#1 NM_004119.x-2743s1c1 FLT3/sh#2 NM_004119.x-2237s1c1 FLT3/sh#3 NM_004119.x-2461s1c1 FLT3/sh#4 NM_004119.x-139s1c1 FLT3/sh#5 NM_004119.x-2908s1c1 FLT3/sh#6 NM_004119.x-3309s1c1

  19. Frequency-Stabilized 1520-nm Diode Laser with Rubidium 5S_1\\/2 --> 7S_1\\/2 Two-Photon Absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiang-Chen Chui; Yi-Wei Liu; Jow-Tsong Shy; Sen-Yen Shaw; Rostislav V. Roussev; Martin M. Fejer

    2004-01-01

    A 760-nm light source of >10 mW is obtained from a frequency-doubled external-cavity diode laser by use of using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier and a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide. The 5S_1\\/2 --> 7S_1\\/2 two-photon transitions of rubidium are observed with such a light source. This laser frequency is locked to the Rb two-photon transitions with an instability of 10

  20. Exploring S1 plasticity and probing S1' subsite of mammalian aminopeptidase N/CD13 with highly potent and selective aminobenzosuberone inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Revelant, Germain; Al-Lakkis-Wehbe, Mira; Schmitt, Marjorie; Alavi, Sarah; Schmitt, Céline; Roux, Lionel; Al-Masri, Mounir; Schifano-Faux, Nadège; Maiereanu, Carmen; Tarnus, Céline; Albrecht, Sébastien

    2015-07-01

    In order to probe the S1 and S1' mammalian aminopeptidase N subsites, racemic 1- or 4-substituted 7-aminobenzocyclohepten-6-one derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit mammalian aminopeptidase N. We focused on improving the physicochemical and ADME properties of this series by targeting lipophilicity and LELP score. Some 4-heteroaryl substituted analogues displayed reduced lipophilicity and enhanced inhibition potency with Ki values in the nanomolar range. PMID:25982416

  1. Randomised phase II study of S-1/cisplatin plus TSU-68 vs S-1/cisplatin in patients with advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, W; Yamaguchi, K; Hosaka, H; Takinishi, Y; Nakayama, N; Hara, T; Muro, K; Baba, H; Sasaki, Y; Nishina, T; Fuse, N; Esaki, T; Takagi, M; Gotoh, M; Sasaki, T

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine whether combination S-1 plus cisplatin (CDDP) therapy, the most widely used therapy for Japanese patients with advanced gastric cancer, and the novel oral antiangiogenic agent TSU-68 could contribute to gastric cancer treatment. Methods: Ninety-three patients with chemotherapy-naïve unresectable or recurrent advanced gastric cancers were randomised into two groups: TSU-68 plus S-1/CDDP (group A) and S-1/CDDP (group B) groups. Both patient groups received identical S-1 and CDDP dosages. TSU-68 was orally administered for 35 consecutive days. Group B patients received S-1 orally twice daily for three consecutive weeks, followed by intravenous CDDP on day 8. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Median PFS periods were 208 and 213 days in groups A and B, respectively (P=0.427). Median survival periods for groups A and B were 497.0 and 463.5 days, respectively (P=0.219). No statistically significant differences were noted for PFS, survival or the adverse event (AE) incidence rate. All AEs were expected according to previous reports for TSU-68, TS-1, and CDDP. Conclusion: Combination therapy involving TSU-68, S-1, and CDDP was safe and well tolerated in patients with chemotherapy-naïve unresectable or recurrent advanced gastric cancers. However, factors related to therapeutic efficacy should be investigated further. PMID:24045669

  2. 9/28/10 7:30 PMHoles Exposed in BP's Oil Spill Probe -CBS News Page 1 of 4http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/09/26/national/main6903300.shtml

    E-print Network

    Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

    9/28/10 7:30 PMHoles Exposed in BP's Oil Spill Probe - CBS News Page 1 of 4http on the well kill 153 days after the worst offshore oil spill in U.S. history. C Holes Exposed in BP's Oil Spill Probe Engineering Experts Question Thoroughness of Oil Giant's Internal Investigation on Massive

  3. 1/13/10 7:48 AMUniversity of Oregon's Institute of Molecular Biology Celebrates 50 Years Page 1 of 3http://www.asbmb.org/asbmbtoday/asbmbtoday_article_print.aspx?id=5014

    E-print Network

    Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    1/13/10 7:48 AMUniversity of Oregon's Institute of Molecular Biology Celebrates 50 Years Page 1's Institute of Molecular Biology Celebrates 50 Years BY CHRIS TACHIBANA In 1959, the University of Oregon on the structure of DNA, the university founded its Institute of Molecular Biology, bringing scientists from

  4. S1/S2 excitonic splittings and vibronic coupling in the excited state of the jet-cooled 2-aminopyridine dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottiger, Philipp; Leutwyler, Samuel; Köppel, Horst

    2009-11-01

    We analyze the vibronic band structure of the excitonically coupled S1?S0/S2?S0 excitations of the 2-aminopyridine (2AP) self-dimer (2AP)2, using a linear vibronic coupling model [R. Fulton and M. Gouterman, J. Chem. Phys. 41, 2280 (1964)]. The vibronic spectra of supersonically cooled (2AP)2 and its C13-isotopomer were measured by two-color resonant two-photon ionization and UV/UV-depletion spectroscopies. In the C2-symmetric form of (2AP)2, the S1?S0 (A1?A1) transition is very weak, while the close-lying S2?S0 (B1?A1) transition is fully allowed. A single C12/C13 isotopic substitution breaks the symmetry of the dimer so that the (2AP)2-C13 isotopologue exhibits both S1 and S2 electronic origins, which are split by 11 cm-1. In Fulton-Gouterman-type treatments, the linear vibronic coupling is mediated by intramolecular vibrational modes and couplings to intermolecular vibrations are not considered. For (2AP)2, a major vibronic coupling contribution arises from the intramolecular 6a' vibration. However, the low-energy part of the spectrum is dominated by intermolecular shear (?') and stretching (?') vibrational excitations that also exhibit excitonic splittings; we apply a linear vibronic coupling analysis for these also. The respective excitation transfer integrals VAB are 50%-80% of that of the intramolecular 6a ' vibration, highlighting the role of intermolecular vibrations in mediating electronic energy exchange. The S1/S2 electronic energy gap calculated by the approximate second-order coupled-cluster method is ˜340 cm-1. This purely electronic exciton splitting is quenched by a factor of 40 by the vibronic couplings to the Franck-Condon active intramolecular vibrations.

  5. HDL serves as a S1P signaling platform mediating a multitude of cardiovascular effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelley M. Argraves; W. Scott Argraves

    2007-01-01

    The lysosphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a component of HDL. Findings from a growing num- ber of studies indicate that S1P is a mediator of many of the cardiovascular effects of HDL, including the ability to promote vasodilation, vasoconstriction, and angiogenesis, protect against ischemia\\/reperfusion injury, and inhibit\\/ reverse atherosclerosis. These latter cardioprotective effects are being shown to involve the S1P-mediated

  6. S1P? localizes to the colonic vasculature in ulcerative colitis and maintains blood vessel integrity.

    PubMed

    Montrose, David C; Scherl, Ellen J; Bosworth, Brian P; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Jung, Bongnam; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Hla, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    Signaling through sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor? (S1P?) promotes blood vessel barrier function. Degradation of S1P? results in increased vascular permeability in the lung and may explain side effects associated with administration of FTY720, a functional antagonist of the S1P? receptor that is currently used to treat multiple sclerosis. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by an increased density of abnormal vessels. The expression or role of S1P? in blood vessels in the colon has not been investigated. In the present study, we show that S1P? is overexpressed in the colonic mucosa of UC patients. This increase in S1P? levels reflects increased vascular density in the inflamed mucosa. Genetic deletion of S1pr1 in mice increases colonic vascular permeability under basal conditions and increases bleeding in experimental colitis. In contrast, neither FTY720 nor AUY954, two S1P receptor-targeting agents, increases bleeding in experimental colitis. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that S1P? is critical to maintaining colonic vascular integrity and may play a role in UC pathogenesis. PMID:23296878

  7. Sequential desensitization of CXCR4 and S1P5 controls natural killer cell trafficking.

    PubMed

    Mayol, Katia; Biajoux, Vincent; Marvel, Jacqueline; Balabanian, Karl; Walzer, Thierry

    2011-11-01

    During development, natural killer (NK) cells exit the BM to reach the blood. CXCR4 retains NK cells in the BM, whereas the sphingosine-1 phosphate receptor 5 (S1P5) promotes their exit from this organ. However, how the action of these receptors is coordinated to preserve NK-cell development in the BM parenchyma while providing mature NK cells at the periphery is unclear. The role of CXCR4 and S1P5 in NK-cell recirculation at the periphery is also unknown. In the present study, we show that, during NK-cell differentiation, CXCR4 expression decreases whereas S1P5 expression increases, thus favoring the exit of mature NK cells via BM sinusoids. Using S1P5(-/-) mice and a new knockin mouse model in which CXCR4 cannot be desensitized (a mouse model of warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis [WHIM] syndrome), we demonstrate that NK-cell exit from the BM requires both CXCR4 desensitization and S1P5 engagement. These 2 signals occur independently of each other: CXCR4 desensitization is not induced by S1P5 engagement and vice versa. Once in the blood, the S1P concentration increases and S1P5 responsiveness decreases. This responsiveness is recovered in the lymph nodes to allow NK-cell exit via lymphatics in a CXCR4-independent manner. Therefore, coordinated changes in CXCR4 and S1P5 responsiveness govern NK-cell trafficking. PMID:21911833

  8. Lifetime of the metastable 6s' [(1/2)](0) clock state in xenon.

    PubMed

    Walhout, M; Sterr, U; Witte, A; Rolston, S L

    1995-05-15

    To investigate the potential of a proposed optical frequency standard, we have measured the lifetime of the metastable 6s' [(1/2)](0) state in xenon. Magneto-optically trapped xenon atoms were prepared in the 6s' [(1/2)](0) state, and the time dependence of the vacuum-ultraviolet decay signature was analyzed. The total decay rate of 75(3) s(-1) is the sum of a 7.8(38)-s(-1) spontaneous emission rate (1-sigma uncertainties) and a much larger deexcitation rate that is due to a transition driven by room-temperature blackbody radiation. PMID:19859469

  9. The molecular origin of birefringence in skeletal muscle. Contribution of myosin subfragment S-1.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, H M; Baskin, R J; Yeh, Y

    1991-01-01

    The state of optical polarization of He-Ne laser light diffracted by single skinned frog skeletal muscle fibers has been determined after decoration of the thin filaments of rigor fibers with exogenous S-1. Light on the first diffraction order was analyzed using optical ellipsometry for changes occurring in total birefringence (delta nT) and total differential field ratio (rT) and the experimental results compared with theoretical predictions. Fibers were examined with SDS-gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy as independent assays of S-1 binding. The binding of S-1 to the thin filaments caused a significant increase in rT and a small but significant decrease in delta nT. Release of bound exogenous S-1 with magnesium pyrophosphate demonstrated that the effect of S-1 on the optical parameters was reversible and both electrophoresis and electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of S-1 specifically bound to the thin filaments. Model simulations based on the theory of Yeh, Y., and R. Baskin (1988. Biophys. J. 54:205-218) showed that the values of delta nT and rT were sensitive to the axial bonding angle of exogenous S-1 as well as to the volume fraction of added S-1. Analysis of the data in light of the model showed that an average axial S-1 binding angle of 68 degrees +/- 7 degrees best fit the data. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:1760508

  10. Blocking peptides against HBV: PreS1 protein selected from a phage display library

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Zu, Xiangyang; Jin, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xiao, Gengfu, E-mail: xiaogf@wh.iov.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Successfully selected specific PreS1-interacting peptides by using phage displayed library. {yields} Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a consensus PreS1 binding motif. {yields} A highly enriched peptide named P7 had a strong binding ability for PreS1. {yields} P7 could block PreS1 attachment. -- Abstract: The PreS1 protein is present on the outermost part of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface and has been shown to have a pivotal function in viral infectivity and assembly. The development of reagents with high affinity and specificity for PreS1 is of great significance for early diagnosis and treatment of HBV infection. A phage display library of dodecapeptide was screened for interactions with purified PreS1 protein. Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a putative consensus PreS1 binding motif of HX{sub n}HX{sub m}HP/R. Moreover, a peptide named P7 (KHMHWHPPALNT) was highly enriched and occurred with a surprisingly high frequency of 72%. A thermodynamic study revealed that P7 has a higher binding affinity to PreS1 than the other peptides. Furthermore, P7 was able to abrogate the binding of HBV virions to the PreS1 antibody, suggesting that P7 covers key functional sites on the native PreS1 protein. This newly isolated peptide may, therefore, be a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of HBV. The consensus motif could be modified to deliver imaging, diagnostic, and therapeutic agents to tissues affected by HBV.

  11. Heavy actinide production from the interactions of sup 40 Ar with sup 248 Cm and a comparison with the sup 44 Ca- sup 248 Cm system

    SciTech Connect

    Leyba, J.D.; Henderson, R.A.; Hall, H.L.; Gannett, C.M.; Chadwick, R.B.; Czerwinski, K.R.; Kadkhodayan, B.A.; Kreek, S.A.; Haynes, G.R.; Gregorich, K.E.; Lee, D.M.; Nurmia, M.J.; Hoffman, D.C. (Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (US) Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720)

    1990-05-01

    Excitation functions have been measured for isotopes of Bk, Cf, Es, and Fm produced from the interactions of 207- to 286-MeV {sup 40}Ar ions with {sup 248}Cm. The measured isotopic distributions were found to be essentially symmetric with full widths at half maximum between 2.0 and 3.5 mass units. These results are comparable to those obtained in previous studies using {sup 40,44,48}Ca with {sup 248}Cm. The maxima of the isotopic distributions from the {sup 40}Ar-{sup 248}Cm system show shifts, to both heavier and lighter mass numbers, of 0 to 2 mass units relative to the corresponding maxima of the isotopic distributions from the {sup 40,44,48}Ca-{sup 248}Cm systems.

  12. Plaque forming specialized transducing phage P1: Isolation of P1CmSmSu, a precursor of P1Cm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeru Iida; Werner Arber

    1977-01-01

    E. coli strains lysogenic for various types of P1-R hybrids were isolated. These carry all the essential genes for vegetative phage production and lysogenization including P1 immunity and P1 incompatibility, together with drug resistance genes derived from the R plasmid NR1. In particular, P1Cm and P1CmSmSu derivatives were studied. When strains lysogenic for these phages were induced in the absence

  13. Heat Transfer -1 Consider a composite pipe of inner diameter 10 cm and outer diameter 10.6 cm subjected to an external

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Heat Transfer - 1 Consider a composite pipe of inner diameter 10 cm and outer diameter 10.6 cm subjected to an external constant uniform heat flux of 100,000 W/m2 . The composite material of the pipe has/mK in the axial direction. Both ends of the pipe are insulated from any heat loss. The pipe is cooled by water

  14. Host endothelial S1PR1 regulation of vascular permeability modulates tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Sarkisyan, Gor; Gay, Laurie J.; Nguyen, Nhan; Felding, Brunhilde H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding vascular growth and maturation in developing tumors has important implications for tumor progression, spread, and ultimately host survival. Modulating the signaling of endothelial G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in blood and lymphatic vessels can enhance or limit tumor progression. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) is a GPCR for circulating lysophospholipid S1P that is highly expressed in blood and lymphatic vessels. Using the S1PR1- enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) mouse model in combination with intravital imaging and pharmacologic modulation of S1PR1 signaling, we show that boundary conditions of high and low S1PR1 signaling retard tumor progression by enhancing or destabilizing neovasculature integrity, respectively. In contrast, midrange S1PR1 signaling, achieved by receptor antagonist titration, promotes abundant growth of small, organized vessels and thereby enhances tumor progression. Furthermore, in vivo S1PR1 antagonism supports lung colonization by circulating tumor cells. Regulation of endothelial S1PR1 dynamically controls vascular integrity and maturation and thus modulates angiogenesis, tumor growth, and hematogenous metastasis. PMID:24740542

  15. Resonance assignment of the ribosome binding domain of E. coli ribosomal protein S1.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Pierre; Créchet, Jean-Bernard; Uzan, Marc; Bontems, François; Sizun, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Ribosomal protein S1 is an essential actor for protein synthesis in Escherichia coli. It is involved in mRNA recruitment by the 30S ribosomal subunit and recognition of the correct start codon during translation initiation. E. coli S1 is a modular protein that contains six repeats of an S1 motif, which have distinct functions despite structural homology. Whereas the three central repeats have been shown to be involved in mRNA recognition, the two first repeats that constitute the N-terminal domain of S1 are responsible for binding to the 30S subunit. Here we report the almost complete (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignment of two fragments of the 30S binding region of S1. The first fragment comprises only the first repeat. The second corresponds to the entire ribosome binding domain. Since S1 is absent from all high resolution X-ray structures of prokaryotic ribosomes, these data provide a first step towards atomic level structural characterization of this domain by NMR. Chemical shift analysis of the first repeat provides evidence for structural divergence from the canonical OB-fold of an S1 motif. In contrast the second domain displays the expected topology for an S1 motif, which rationalizes the functional specialization of the two subdomains. PMID:24682851

  16. Proteolytic specificity of cathepsin G on bovine ? s1- and ?-caseins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Considine; S. Geary; A. L. Kelly; P. L. H. McSweeney

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland which results in an increase in numbers of somatic cells, particularly polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN), which contain very active proteinases. The objective of this study was to determine the cleavage specificity of cathepsin G, one of the principal PMN proteinases, on ?s1- and ?-casein. ?s1- or ?-casein (5 mg ml?1) were dissolved in

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Extreme frequencies of the s1-casein "null" variant

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Extreme frequencies of the s1-casein "null" variant in milk from Norwegian dairy in milk from Norwegian dairy goats-- Implications for milk composition, micellar size and renneting properties of milk from Norwegian dairy goats. Class of s1-casein significantly affected milk composition

  18. Memo Has a Novel Role in S1P Signaling and Crucial for Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Shunya; Bottos, Alessia; Allegood, Jeremy C.; Masson, Regis; Maurer, Francisca G.; Genoud, Christel; Kaeser, Patrick; Huwiler, Andrea; Murakami, Masato; Spiegel, Sarah; Hynes, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Memo is a conserved protein that was identified as an essential mediator of tumor cell motility induced by receptor tyrosine kinase activation. Here we show that Memo null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are impaired in PDGF-induced migration and this is due to a defect in sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling. S1P is a bioactive phospholipid produced in response to multiple stimuli, which regulates many cellular processes. S1P is secreted to the extracellular milieu where it exerts its function by binding a family of G-protein coupled receptors (S1PRs), causing their activation in an autocrine or paracrine manner. The process, termed cell-autonomous S1PR signaling, plays a role in survival and migration. Indeed, PDGF uses cell-autonomous S1PR signaling to promote cell migration; we show here that this S1P pathway requires Memo. Using vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) with Memo knock-down we show that their survival in conditions of serum-starvation is impaired. Furthermore, Memo loss in HUVECs causes a reduction of junctional VE-cadherin and an increase in sprout formation. Each of these phenotypes is rescued by S1P or S1P agonist addition, showing that Memo also plays an important role in cell-autonomous S1PR signaling in endothelial cells. We also produced conventional and endothelial cell-specific conditional Memo knock-out mouse strains and show that Memo is essential for embryonic development. Starting at E13.5 embryos of both strains display bleeding and other vascular problems, some of the phenotypes that have been described in mouse strains lacking S1PRs. The essential role of Memo in embryonic vascular development may be due in part to alterations in S1P signaling. Taken together our results show that Memo has a novel role in the S1P pathway and that Memo is needed to promote cell-autonomous S1PR activation. PMID:24714781

  19. The S1P2 sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor is essential for auditory and vestibular function.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, A John; Benner, Shannon J; Andringa, Anastasia; Chaves, Alicia H; Rosing, Joanna L; Vesey, Rachel; Karpman, Adam M; Cronier, Samantha A; Lee, Nancy; Erway, Larry C; Miller, Marian L

    2006-10-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is an endogenous growth factor with potent effects on many different cell types. Most of these effects are produced by activation of one or more of a family of G-protein coupled receptors. The S1P2 receptor can mediate S1P-induced proliferation, differentiation and survival in a wide variety of cells in culture. However, identifying essential in vivo functions for S1P2 has been hampered by its ubiquitous expression and the failure to detect any anatomical abnormalities in initial analyses of S1P2 knockout mice. We report here that all S1P2 knockout mice are profoundly deaf from postnatal day 22 and approximately half display a progressive loss of vestibular function with aging. Anatomically, both the auditory and vestibular systems appear to develop normally but then degrade. Morphological defects associated with hearing are first detected at 3 weeks postnatal as deformations of the organ of Corti/Nuel's space. By one year of age structures within the scala media are dramatically altered. The S1P2 knockout mice also display a loss of otoconia consistent with the vestibular impairment. The present data are the first to indicate that S1P signaling plays critical roles, in vivo, in auditory and vestibular functions. The data further establish that the S1P signaling occurs through the S1P2 receptor and makes an essential contribution to the structural maintenance of these systems, raising the possibility that properly targeted enhancement of this signaling may prove to be clinically beneficial. PMID:16945494

  20. Discovery of 3-arylpropionic acids as potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P 1) with high selectivity against all other known S1P receptor subtypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Yan; Pei Huo; George Doherty; Lesile Toth; Jeffrey J. Hale; Sander G. Mills; Richard Hajdu; Carol A. Keohane; Mark J. Rosenbach; James A. Milligan; Gan-Ju Shei; Gary Chrebet; James Bergstrom; Deborah Card; Elizabeth Quackenbush; Alexandra Wickham; Suzanne M. Mandala

    2006-01-01

    A series of 3-arylpropionic acids were synthesized as S1P1 receptor agonists. Structure–activity relationship studies on the pendant phenyl ring revealed several structural features offering selectivity of S1P1 binding against S1P2–5. These highly selective S1P1 agonists induced peripheral blood lymphocyte lowering in mice and one of them was found to be efficacious in a rat skin transplantation model, supporting that S1P1

  1. The Vicência meteorite fall: A new unshocked (S1) weakly metamorphosed (3.2) LL chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Klaus; Zucolotto, Maria E.; Krot, Alexander N.; Doyle, Patricia M.; Telus, Myriam; Krot, Tatiana V.; Greenwood, Richard C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Wasson, John T.; Welten, Kees C.; Caffee, Marc W.; Sears, Derek W. G.; Riebe, My; Wieler, Rainer; Santos, Edivaldo; Scorzelli, Rosa B.; Gattacceca, Jerome; Lagroix, France; Laubenstein, Matthias; Mendes, Julio C.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Harir, Mourad; Moutinho, Andre L. R.

    2015-06-01

    The Vicência meteorite, a stone of 1.547 kg, fell on September 21, 2013, at the village Borracha, near the city of Vicência, Pernambuco, Brazil. It was recovered immediately after the fall, and our consortium study showed it to be an unshocked (S1) LL3.2 ordinary chondrite. The LL group classification is based on the bulk density (3.13 g cm-3); the chondrule mean apparent diameter (0.9 mm); the bulk oxygen isotopic composition (?17O = 3.768 ± 0.042‰, ?18O = 5.359 ± 0.042‰, ?17O = 0.981 ± 0.020‰); the content of metallic Fe,Ni (1.8 vol%); the Co content of kamacite (1.73 wt%); the bulk contents of the siderophile elements Ir and Co versus Au; and the ratios of metallic Fe0/total iron (0.105) versus total Fe/Mg (1.164), and of Ni/Mg (0.057) versus total Fe/Mg. The petrologic type 3.2 classification is indicated by the beautifully developed chondritic texture, the standard deviation (~0.09) versus mean Cr2O3 content (~0.14 wt%) of ferroan olivine, the TL sensitivity and the peak temperature and peak width at half maximum, the cathodoluminescence properties of chondrules, the content of trapped 132Xetr (0.317 × 10-8cm3STP g-1), and the Raman spectra for organic material in the matrix. The cosmic ray exposure age is ~72 Ma, which is at the upper end of the age distribution of LL group chondrites. The meteorite is unusual in that it contains relatively large, up to nearly 100 ?m in size, secondary fayalite grains, defined as olivine with Fa>75, large enough to allow in situ measurement of oxygen and Mn-Cr isotope systematics with SIMS. Its oxygen isotopes plot along a mass-dependent fractionation line with a slope of ~0.5 and ?17O of 4.0 ± 0.3‰, and are similar to those of secondary fayalite and magnetite in the unequilibrated chondrites EET 90161, MET 96503, and Ngawi. These data suggest that secondary fayalite in Vicência was in equilibrium with a fluid with a ?17O of ~4‰, consistent with the composition of the fluid in equilibrium with secondary magnetite and fayalite in other unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Secondary fayalite and the chondrule olivine phenocrysts in Vicência are not in isotopic equilibrium, consistent with low-temperature formation of fayalite during aqueous alteration on the LL parent body. That alteration, as dated by the 53Mn-53Cr chronology age of secondary fayalite, took place 4.0-1.1+1.4 Ma after formation of CV CAIs when anchored to the quenched angrite D'Orbigny.

  2. The Vicência meteorite fall: A new unshocked (S1) weakly metamorphosed (3.2) LL chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Klaus; Zucolotto, Maria E.; Krot, Alexander N.; Doyle, Patricia M.; Telus, Myriam; Krot, Tatiana V.; Greenwood, Richard C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Wasson, John T.; Welten, Kees C.; Caffee, Marc W.; Sears, Derek W. G.; Riebe, My; Wieler, Rainer; Santos, Edivaldo; Scorzelli, Rosa B.; Gattacceca, Jerome; Lagroix, France; Laubenstein, Matthias; Mendes, Julio C.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Harir, Mourad; Moutinho, Andre L. R.

    2015-05-01

    The Vicência meteorite, a stone of 1.547 kg, fell on September 21, 2013, at the village Borracha, near the city of Vicência, Pernambuco, Brazil. It was recovered immediately after the fall, and our consortium study showed it to be an unshocked (S1) LL3.2 ordinary chondrite. The LL group classification is based on the bulk density (3.13 g cm-3); the chondrule mean apparent diameter (0.9 mm); the bulk oxygen isotopic composition (?17O = 3.768 ± 0.042‰, ?18O = 5.359 ± 0.042‰, ?17O = 0.981 ± 0.020‰); the content of metallic Fe,Ni (1.8 vol%); the Co content of kamacite (1.73 wt%); the bulk contents of the siderophile elements Ir and Co versus Au; and the ratios of metallic Fe0/total iron (0.105) versus total Fe/Mg (1.164), and of Ni/Mg (0.057) versus total Fe/Mg. The petrologic type 3.2 classification is indicated by the beautifully developed chondritic texture, the standard deviation (~0.09) versus mean Cr2O3 content (~0.14 wt%) of ferroan olivine, the TL sensitivity and the peak temperature and peak width at half maximum, the cathodoluminescence properties of chondrules, the content of trapped 132Xetr (0.317 × 10-8cm3STP g-1), and the Raman spectra for organic material in the matrix. The cosmic ray exposure age is ~72 Ma, which is at the upper end of the age distribution of LL group chondrites. The meteorite is unusual in that it contains relatively large, up to nearly 100 ?m in size, secondary fayalite grains, defined as olivine with Fa>75, large enough to allow in situ measurement of oxygen and Mn-Cr isotope systematics with SIMS. Its oxygen isotopes plot along a mass-dependent fractionation line with a slope of ~0.5 and ?17O of 4.0 ± 0.3‰, and are similar to those of secondary fayalite and magnetite in the unequilibrated chondrites EET 90161, MET 96503, and Ngawi. These data suggest that secondary fayalite in Vicência was in equilibrium with a fluid with a ?17O of ~4‰, consistent with the composition of the fluid in equilibrium with secondary magnetite and fayalite in other unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Secondary fayalite and the chondrule olivine phenocrysts in Vicência are not in isotopic equilibrium, consistent with low-temperature formation of fayalite during aqueous alteration on the LL parent body. That alteration, as dated by the 53Mn-53Cr chronology age of secondary fayalite, took place 4.0-1.1+1.4 Ma after formation of CV CAIs when anchored to the quenched angrite D'Orbigny.

  3. "Diversity in structure and function of the Ets family PNT domains" C.D. Mackereth, M. Schrpf, L.N. Gentile, S.E. MacIntosh, C.M. Slupsky, and L.P. McIntosh

    E-print Network

    McIntosh, Lawrence P.

    .N. Gentile, S.E. MacIntosh, C.M. Slupsky, and L.P. McIntosh 1 Supplementary Figure S1. Phylogenetic alignment. The following sequences were used in the alignment (with SwissProt accession numbers): dvYan (O96416), dYan (Q S4. The dispersion and linewidths of the amide resonances in the 1 H-NMR jump-return echo spectra

  4. Reduction of CM Noise Emissions From PLC Modem Using Optically Coupled Signaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Y. See; A. Kamarul; P. L. So

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of implementing an optical coupler in the analog front-end (AFE) circuit of a power line communication (PLC) modem to reduce the common mode (CM) noise coupling onto the power lines. Based on a two-current-probe measurement approach, an equivalent CM circuit model is developed to predict the expected CM current generated by the PLC modem when

  5. Error analysis of Cm measurement under the whole-cell patch-clamp recording.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Qu, Anlian; Luo, Jie; Luo, Jie

    2010-01-15

    We present a method for analysing propagation errors in membrane capacitance (C(m)) measurements under the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration, which mainly focusses on errors in C(m) estimates due to the 'residual' fast capacitance (DeltaC(p)). The method employs a quasi-phasor diagram for visualisation of the analysis. Our results show that both under- and over-compensation of fast capacitance will cause errors in C(m), and errors in the magnitude and in the phase angle of cell admittance make their respective and opposite contributions to propagation errors in C(m). Within optimal frequencies, over-compensation of fast capacitance will cause a smaller propagation error in C(m) and produce more accurate C(m) estimates than under-compensation of fast capacitance will do. Information about how other cell parameters, such as smaller series resistance, baseline C(m) value and the stimulus frequency, change the total error in C(m) due to DeltaC(p) is also provided. Guidelines for accurate C(m) recordings are given to make it easy for users to perform their own error analysis. PMID:19835911

  6. Structural basis for the interaction of protein S1 with the Escherichia coli ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Byrgazov, Konstantin; Grishkovskaya, Irina; Arenz, Stefan; Coudevylle, Nicolas; Temmel, Hannes; Wilson, Daniel N.; Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Moll, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, the multi-domain protein S1 is essential for translation initiation, as it recruits the mRNA and facilitates its localization in the decoding centre. In sharp contrast to its functional importance, S1 is still lacking from the high-resolution structures available for Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus ribosomes and thus the molecular mechanism governing the S1–ribosome interaction has still remained elusive. Here, we present the structure of the N-terminal S1 domain D1 when bound to the ribosome at atomic resolution by using a combination of NMR, X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. Together with biochemical assays, the structure reveals that S1 is anchored to the ribosome primarily via a stabilizing ?-stacking interaction within the short but conserved N-terminal segment that is flexibly connected to domain D1. This interaction is further stabilized by salt bridges involving the zinc binding pocket of protein S2. Overall, this work provides one hitherto enigmatic piece in the ?ribosome puzzle?, namely the detailed molecular insight into the topology of the S1–ribosome interface. Moreover, our data suggest novel mechanisms that have the potential to modulate protein synthesis in response to environmental cues by changing the affinity of S1 for the ribosome. PMID:25510494

  7. Beyond the CM-5: A case study in performance analysis for the CM-5, T3D, and high performance RISC workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Beazley, D.M. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Lomdahl, P.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-03-22

    We present a comprehensive performance evaluation of our molecular dynamics code SPaSM on the CM-5 in order to devise optimization strategies for the CM-5, T3D, and RISC workstations. In this analysis, we focus on the effective use of the SPARC microprocessor by performing measurements of instruction set utilization, cache effects, memory access patterns, and pipeline stall cycles. We then show that we can account for more than 99% of observed execution time of our program. Optimization strategies are devised and we show that our highly optimized ANSI C program running only on the SPARC microprocessor of the CM-5 is only twice as slow as our Gordon-Bell prize winning code that utilized the CM-5 vector units. On the CM-5E, we show that this optimized code run faster than the vector unit version. We then apply these techniques to the Cray T3D and measure resulting speedups. Finally, we show that simple optimization strategies are effective on a wide variety of high performance RISC workstations.

  8. Towards the complete experiment: measurement of S((1)D2) polarization in correlation with single rotational states of CO(J) from the photodissociation of oriented OCS(v2 = 1|JlM = 111).

    PubMed

    Lipciuc, M Laura; Rakitzis, T Peter; Meerts, W Leo; Groenenboom, Gerrit C; Janssen, Maurice H M

    2011-05-14

    In this paper we report slice imaging polarization experiments on the state-to-state photodissociation at 42,594 cm(-1) of spatially oriented OCS(v(2) = 1|JlM = 111) ? CO(J) + S((1)D(2)). Slice images were measured of the three-dimensional recoil distribution of the S((1)D(2)) photofragment for different polarization geometries of the photolysis and probe laser. The high resolution slice images show well separated velocity rings in the S((1)D(2)) velocity distribution. The velocity rings of the S((1)D(2)) photofragment correlate with individual rotational states of the CO(J) cofragment in the J(CO) = 57-65 region. The angular distribution of the S((1)D(2)) velocity rings are extracted and analyzed using two different polarization models. The first model assumes the nonaxial dynamics evolves after excitation to a single potential energy surface of an oriented OCS(v(2) = 1|JlM = 111) molecule. The second model assumes the excitation is to two potential energy surfaces, and the OCS molecule is randomly oriented. In the high J region (J(CO) = 62-65) it appears that both models fit the polarization very well, in the region J(CO) = 57-61 both models seem to fit the data less well. From the molecular frame alignment moments the m-state distribution of S((1)D(2)) is calculated as a function of the CO(J) channel. A comparison is made with the theoretical m-state distribution calculated from the long-range electrostatic dipole-dipole plus quadrupole interaction model. The S((1)D(2)) photofragment velocity distribution shows a very pronounced strong peak for S((1)D(2)) fragments born in coincidence with CO(J = 61). PMID:21431125

  9. Growth and optoelectronic characteristic of n-Si/p-CuIn(S 1-xSe x) 2 thin-film solar cell by solution growth technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavhan, S.; Sharma, R.

    2006-07-01

    The p-CuIn(S 1-xSe x) 2 (CISS) thin films have been grown on n-Si substrate by solution growth technique. The deposition parameters, such as pH (10.5), deposition time (60 min), deposition temperature (50 °C), and concentration of bath solution (0.1 M) were optimized. Elemental analysis of the p-CuIn(S 1-xSe x) 2 thin film was confirmed by energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX). The SEM study of absorber layer shows the uniform morphology of film as well as the continuous smooth deposition onto the n-Si substrates, whose grain size is 130 nm. CuIn(S 1-xSe x) 2 ( x=0.5) reveals (1 1 2) orientation peak and exhibits the chalcopyrite structure with lattice constant a=5.28 Å and c=11.45 Å. The J- V characteristics were measured in dark and light. The device parameters have been calculated for solar cell fabrication, V=411.09 mV, and J=14.55 mA. FF=46.55% and ?=4.64% under an illumination of 60 mW/cm 2. The J- V characteristics of the device under dark condition were also studied and the ideality factor was calculated, which is equal to 2.2 for n-Si/p-CuIn(S 0.5Se 0.5) 2 heterojunction thin film.

  10. Characterization of CdS 1? x Se x thin films by chemical bath deposition technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mariappan; V. Ponnuswamy; M. Ragavendar

    The cadmium sulfo selenide CdS1?xSex thin films were chemical bath deposited in aqueous media onto coated glass substrates. As-deposited CdS1?xSex thin films were annealed at 350°C in air for 30min. The structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties of deposited CdS1?xSex thin films were studied using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX), and UV-Vis-NIR

  11. The Transition from Atomic to Molecular Hydrogen in Interstellar Clouds: 21cm Signature of the Evolution of Cold Atomic Hydrogen in Dense Clouds

    E-print Network

    Paul F. Goldsmith; Di Li; Marko Krco

    2006-10-12

    We have investigated the time scale for formation of molecular clouds by examining the conversion of HI to H2 using a time-dependent model. H2 formation on dust grains and cosmic ray and photo destruction are included in one-dimensional model slab clouds which incorporate time-independent density and temperature distributions. We calculate 21cm spectral line profiles seen in absorption against a background provided by general Galactic HI emission, and compare the model spectra with HI Narrow Self-Absorption, or HINSA, profiles absorbed in a number of nearby molecular clouds. The time evolution of the HI and H2 densities is dramatic, with the atomic hydrogen disappearing in a wave propagating from the central, denser regions which have a shorter H2 formation time scale, to the edges, where the density is lower and the time scale for H2 formation longer. The model 21cm spectra are characterized by very strong absorption at early times, when the HI column density through the model clouds is extremely large. The minimum time required for a cloud to have evolved to its observed configuration, based on the model spectra, is set by the requirement that most of the HI in the outer portions of the cloud, which otherwise overwhelms the narrow absorption, be removed. The characteristic time that has elapsed since cloud compression and initiation of the HI to H2 conversion is a few x 10^{14} s or ~ 10^7 yr. This sets a minimum time for the age of these molecular clouds and thus for the star formation that may take place within them.

  12. A biokinetic model of inhaled Cm compounds in dogs: Application to human exposure data

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, R.A.; Mewhinney, J.A. (Lovelace Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Curium isotopes are major by-products in irradiated nuclear reactor fuel and comprise a significant fraction of the alpha-emitting radionuclide inventory. Although little use is currently being made of purified Cm sources, such usage is possible if reprocessing of spent fuel becomes feasible. Because little information is available on the biokinetics and dosimetry of inhaled Cm compounds, a study was conducted in which adult beagle dogs received a single inhalation exposure to either a monodisperse aerosol of 244Cm2O3 (1.4 micron activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD); sigma g = 1.16) or a polydisperse aerosol of 244Cm (NO3)3 (1.1 micron AMAD; sigma g = 1.74). At times ranging from 4 h to 2 y after exposure, animals were sacrificed and their tissues analyzed for Cm content. The data describing the uptake and retention of 244Cm in the different organs and tissues and the measured rates of excretion of these dogs formed the basis on which a biokinetic model of Cm metabolism was constructed. This Cm model was based on a previously published model of the biokinetics of 241Am that was shown to be applicable to data from human cases of inhalation exposure to 241Am aerosols. This Cm model was found to be adequate to describe the biological distribution of Cm in dogs and was also applied to the sparse data from humans. Reasonable agreement was found between the model predictions for lung retention of Cm and for urinary excretion patterns in humans.

  13. Amino acids in Antarctic CM1 meteorites and their relationship to other carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, Oliver; Martins, Zita; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2007-08-01

    CM2 carbonaceous chondrites are the most primitive material present in the solar system, and some of their subtypes, the CM and CI chondrites, contain up to 2 wt% of organic carbon. The CM2 carbonaceous chondrites contain a wide variety of complex amino acids, while the CI1 meteorites Orgueil and Ivuna display a much simpler composition, with only glycine and ?-alanine present in significant abundances. CM1 carbonaceous chondrites show a higher degree of aqueous alteration than CM2 types and therefore provide an important link between the CM2 and CI1 carbonaceous chondrites. Relative amino acid concentrations have been shown to be indicative for parent body processes with respect to the formation of this class of compounds. In order to understand the relationship of the amino acid composition between these three types of meteorites, we have analyzed for the first time three Antarctic CM1 chondrites, Meteorite Hills (MET) 01070, Allan Hills (ALH) 88045, and LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 02277, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD). The concentrations of the eight most abundant amino acids in these meteorites were compared to those of the CM2s Murchison, Murray, Mighei, Lewis Cliff (LEW) 90500, ALH 83100, as well as the CI1s Orgueil and Ivuna. The total amino acid concentration in CM1 carbonaceous chondrites was found to be much lower than the average of the CM2s. Relative amino acid abundances were compared in order to identify synthetic relationships between the amino acid compositions in these meteorite classes. Our data support the hypothesis that amino acids in CM- and CI-type meteorites were synthesized under different physical and chemical conditions and may best be explained with differences in the abundances of precursor compounds in the source regions of their parent bodies in combination with the decomposition of amino acids during extended aqueous alteration.

  14. Safeguard aspects of sup 244 Cm as a multiplier in cylindrical hybrid blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kusayer, T.A.; Sahin, S.

    1986-01-01

    Presently, nuclear power plants are producing substantial amounts of actinides in the form of nuclear waste material. Previous work has demonstrated that some of the nuclear waste actinides, such as {sup 241}Am and {sup 244}Cm, are effective neutron multipliers in a hybrid blanket. They will be converted, partially, to new types of nuclear fuel wit superior neutronic properties, such as {sup 242m}Am and {sup 245}Cm. In this work, the neutron multiplication and breeding performance of {sup 244}Cm is analyzed in connection with a deuterium-tritium (D-T)-driven experimental hybrid blanket in cylindrical geometry within the research program AYMAN in order to simulate relatively realistic neutron spectra for future hybrid reactors. Four blanket configurations with different multipliers are investigated for comparison. In all configurations, the ThO{sub 2} fuel zone is 13 cm, making 10 rows in hexagonal range. The {sup 244}Cm multiplier is introduced by replacing the first ThO{sub 2} row with a mixed fuel made of 50% CmO{sub 2} and 50% ThO{sub 2}. One can observe that a {sup 244}Cm multiplier leads to the highest tritium breeding ratio. Uranium-233 production is reduced compared to beryllium and lead multipliers. The 50% {sup 244}Cm in the first row contributes to the fission rate more than all of the {sup 232}Th in the blanket. About 20% of the {sup 244}Cm is converted into {sup 245}Cm, while 80% of the {sup 244}Cm burns up. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Ab initio calculation of vibrational frequencies of clusters in As x S1-x glass and Raman spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Keshav; Radhika Devi, V.; Abu Kassim, Hasan; Jalil, Ithnin Abdul; Yusof, Norhasliza

    2007-03-01

    We have used the density functional theory (DFT) to calculate the vibrational frequencies from first principles by making clusters of atoms on a high speed computer. We have made the clusters, AsS4, As2S3, As3S2, As4S, AsS7, As2S6,As3S5,As4S4,As5S3,As6S2, As7S, L-As4S3, CS-As4S,CS-AsS4,ES-As2S6(L=linear zig-zag, CS=corner sharing, ES=edge sharing) and optimized the bond lengths and angles for the minimum energy. The number of computed values of the vibrational frequencies are consistent with 3N-3, where N is the number of atoms in a cluster. All of the computed values are tabulated and compared with those found in the Raman spectra of AsxS1-x (x=0.35-0.45) glasses. The experimentally found modes at 183, 221, 355, 371 cm-1 are consistent with those calculated for chain mode-As4S3, As3S2, As2S6, AsS7. In the net work glass the frequencies found are, 195, 206, 227, 351, 369, 371, 388 cm-1 which are consistent with those calculated for, As7S, As5S3, As7S, As6S2, As5S3, AsS7 and As4S. We have previously interpreted the Raman spectra of GeSI galass by this method ,V.R. Devi, et al, J. Non Cryst. Solids 351,489-494(2005).

  16. HgCdTe Growth on 6 cm × 6 cm CdZnTe Substrates for Large-Format Dual-Band Infrared Focal-Plane Arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Reddy; J. M. Peterson; D. D. Lofgreen; T. Vang; E. A. Patten; W. A. Radford; S. M. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes molecular-beam epitaxy growth of mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) dual-band\\u000a device structures on large-area (6 cm × 6 cm) CdZnTe substrates. Wafer-level composition and defect mapping techniques were\\u000a used to investigate the limiting mechanisms in improving the cutoff wavelength (?\\u000a c) uniformity and reducing the defect density. Structural quality of epitaxial layers was monitored using etch pit density\\u000a (EPD)

  17. REFRACTORY INCLUSIONS FROM THE CM2 CHONDRITE LEW85311. S. B. Simon1

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Lawrence

    REFRACTORY INCLUSIONS FROM THE CM2 CHONDRITE LEW85311. S. B. Simon1 , C. G. Keaton2 , and L to be an effective technique for recovery of refractory inclusions from CM chondrites [1]; yet, few meteorites have refractory inclusion population and to compare it to that of the well-studied Murchison. We selected

  18. Lower stratospheric densities from solar occultation measurements of continuum absorption near 2400 cm?1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Curtis P. Rinsland; Martin J. McHugh; Fredrick W. Irion

    2004-01-01

    Continuous absorption in the atmospheric window near 2400 cm?1 has been analyzed from infrared solar occultation spectra recorded by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectrometer at 0.01 cm?1 spectral resolution during its 4 shuttle flights between 1985 and 1994. The spring and autumn measurements were recorded over a wide range of temperatures and sulfate aerosol loadings. We

  19. Neutral Hydrogen 21cm Absorption at Redshift 0.673 towards 1504+377

    E-print Network

    Carilli, C L; Reid, M J; Rupen, M P; Menten, Karl M.; Reid, Mark J.

    1996-01-01

    We detect the 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen in absorption at a redshift of 0.673 towards the 1 Jy radio source 1504+377. The 1504+377 radio source is located toward the center of what appears to be an inclined disk galaxy at z = 0.674. The 21 cm absorption line shows multiple velocity components over a velocity range of about 100 km sec$^{-1}$, with a total HI column density: N(HI) = $3.8\\times10^{19}\\times({{T_s}\\over{f}})$ cm$^{-2}$. The velocity-integrated optical depth of this system is the largest yet seen for redshifted HI 21 cm absorption line systems (Carilli 1995). The 21 cm absorption line is coincident in redshift with a previously detected broad molecular absorption line system (Wiklind and Combes 1996). We do not detect HI 21 cm absorption associated with the narrow molecular absorption line system at z = 0.67150, nor do we detect absorption at these redshifts by the 18 cm lines of OH, nor by the 2 cm transition of H$_2$CO. There is no evidence for a bright optical AGN in 1504+377, suggesting si...

  20. Modifications to the cosmic 21-cm background frequency spectrum by scattering via electrons in galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4186 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The cosmic 21-cm background frequency spectrum related to the spin-flip transition of neutral hydrogen present during and before the era of reionization is rich in features associated with physical processes that govern transitions between the two spin states. The intervening electrons in foreground galaxy clusters inversely Compton scatter the 21-cm background spectrum and modify it just as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectrum is modified by inverse-Compton scattering. Towards typical galaxy clusters at low redshifts, the resulting modification is a few tenths milli-Kelvin correction to the few tens milli-Kelvin temperature of 21-cm signal relative to that of the cosmic microwave background blackbody spectrum. The modifications are mostly associated with sharp changes in the cosmic 21-cm background spectrum such as due to the onset of a Lyman-{alpha} radiation field or heating of neutral gas. Though low-frequency radio interferometers that are now planned for 21-cm anisotropy measurements are insensitive to the mean 21-cm spectrum, differential observations of galaxy clusters with these interferometers can be utilized to indirectly establish global features in the 21-cm frequency spectrum. We discuss the feasibility to detect the spectrum modified by clusters and find that, for upcoming interferometers, while a detection towards an individual cluster is challenging, one can average signals over a number of clusters, selected based on the strength of the Sunyave-Zel'dovich effect at high radio frequencies involving CMB scattering alone, to establish the mean 21-cm spectrum.

  1. Study of the high-j states in {sup 249}Cm

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B. B.; Chasman, R. R.; Greene, J. P.; Ishii, T.; Morss, L. R. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Berg, G. P. A.; Foster, C. C.; Lozowski, W. R.; Schmitt, W.; Stephenson, E. J.; Yamanaka, T. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Bacher, A

    1998-12-21

    We have performed the reaction {sup 248}Cm({sup 4}He, {sup 3}He) using 98.5-MeV alpha particles from the IUCF cyclotron to populate high-j states in {sup 249}Cm. A tentative assignment of the k{sub 17/2} component of the 1/2{sup +}[880] Nilsson state has been made.

  2. Magnesium isotopic fractionation in chondrules from the Murchison and Murray CM2 carbonaceous chondrites

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Lawrence

    Magnesium isotopic fractionation in chondrules from the Murchison and Murray CM2 carbonaceous). The compositions of CM2 chondrules are consistent with isotopic fractionation toward heavy Mg being associated) Abstract­We present high-precision measurements of the Mg isotopic compositions of a suite of types I

  3. 14. Supporting Information S1. Climate and geology of the Maritime Alps

    E-print Network

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    1 14. Supporting Information S1. Climate and geology of the Maritime Alps are the two seasons with the heaviest precipitation in the Maritime Alps in autumn. During the last decades, the Maritime Alps experienced long summer

  4. Mathematical Details S1: The emergence of HIV transmitted resistance in Botswana

    E-print Network

    Blower, Sally

    Mathematical Details S1: The emergence of HIV transmitted resistance in Botswana: "When describes the dynamics of the emergence of acquired and transmitted drug- resistant HIV in a population: definition and estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.3 The initial

  5. Correlations between 21-cm radiation and the cosmic microwave background from active sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndsen, Aaron; Pogosian, Levon; Wyman, Mark

    2010-09-01

    Neutral hydrogen is ubiquitous, absorbing and emitting 21-cm radiation throughout much of the Universe's history. Active sources of perturbations, such as cosmic strings, would generate simultaneous perturbations in the distribution of neutral hydrogen and in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation from recombination. Moving strings would create wakes leading to 21-cm brightness fluctuations, while also perturbing CMB light via the Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect. This would lead to spatial correlations between the 21-cm and CMB anisotropies. Passive sources, like inflationary perturbations, predict no cross-correlations prior to the onset of reionization. Thus, observation of any cross-correlation between CMB and 21-cm radiation from dark ages would constitute evidence for new physics. We calculate the cosmic string-induced correlations between CMB and 21-cm radiation and evaluate their observability.

  6. Strong illposedness of the incompressible Euler equation in integer $C^m$ spaces

    E-print Network

    Jean Bourgain; Dong Li

    2014-12-02

    We consider the $d$-dimensional incompressible Euler equations. We show strong illposedness of velocity in any $C^m$ spaces whenever $m\\ge 1$ is an \\emph{integer}. More precisely, we show for a set of initial data dense in the $C^m$ topology, the corresponding solutions lose $C^m$ regularity instantaneously in time. In the $C^1$ case, our proof is based on an anisotropic Lagrangian deformation and a short-time flow expansion. In the $C^m$, $m\\ge 2$ case, we introduce a flow decoupling method which allows to tame the nonlinear flow almost as a passive transport. The proofs also cover illposedness in Lipschitz spaces $C^{m-1,1}$ whenever $m\\ge 1$ is an integer.

  7. Combination therapy with S-1 and interferon-? in hepatocellular carcinoma patients with lung metastasis

    PubMed Central

    AKITA, HIROFUMI; MARUBASHI, SHIGERU; WADA, HIROSHI; HAMA, NAOKI; KAWAMOTO, KOICHI; KOBAYASHI, SHOGO; EGUCHI, HIDETOSHI; DOKI, YUICHIRO; MORI, MASAKI; NAGANO, HIROAKI

    2015-01-01

    Managing extrahepatic recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is crucial for improving prognosis. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of using combination therapy with S-1 and interferon (IFN)- ? in HCC patients with lung metastasis. Of the 646 patients who underwent radical surgery for HCC at our institute, 62 developed their first distant metastasis in the lung. Among these patients, 11 received S-1 combination therapy, while the remaining 51 patients received other conventional therapy, such as 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin or best supportive care. We retrospectively evaluated the toxicity and efficiency of combination therapy with S-1 and IFN- ?. Hematological toxicity was observed in 5 patients and was grade 1 or 2 in all cases, except 1 patient (9.1%) who developed grade 3 leukopenia. Non-hematological toxicity was observed in 6 patients and was grade 1 in all cases, except 1 patient who exhibited a grade 2 increase of serum bilirubin levels. No patient required discontinuation of the S-1 combination therapy and no treatment-related mortality was reported during this study. Patients who received S-1 treatment exhibited significantly better survival after distant recurrence (SADR) compared to those without S-1 treatment (3-year survival rate, 81.8 vs. 43.1%, respectively; P=0.014). The multivariate analysis revealed that the S-1 treatment was prognostically significant for SADR (P=0.0091; hazard ratio = 0.343). In conclusion, combination therapy with S-1 and IFN- ? may be efficient for HCC patients with lung metastasis. PMID:25798261

  8. A(molm-2s-1) 0 300 600 900 1200 1500

    E-print Network

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 A(µmolm-2s-1) 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 Ci (µmol mol-1) PAR=1500 PAR=200 600 900 1200 1500 Ci (µmol mol-1) PAR=1500 PAR=200 Figure 1 Rose leaf photosynthesis (A) in response 20 25 30 35 40 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 High light grown Low light grown Photosynthesis(µmolm-2s-1) Ci

  9. Phytosphingosine 1-phosphate: a high affinity ligand for the S1P 4\\/Edg-6 receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mari Rios Candelore; Michael J Wright; Laurie M Tota; James Milligan; Gan-ju Shei; James D Bergstrom; Suzanne M Mandala

    2002-01-01

    It has been reported recently that the phosphorylated form of the immunomodulator FTY720 activates sphingosine 1-phosphate G protein-coupled receptors [1,2]. Therefore, understanding the biology of this new class of receptors will be important in clarifying the immunological function of bioactive lysosphingolipid ligands. The S1P4 receptor has generated interest due to its lymphoid tissue distribution. While the S1P4 receptor binds the

  10. Experimental confirmation of recombination upstream of the S1 hypervariable region of infectious bronchitis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Wang; Yuan Xu; Ellen W Collisson

    1997-01-01

    Chimeric infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) genomes with cross-over sites in the S1 gene were generated by co-infection with two distinct IBV strains. Recombinant viruses were collected from chicken embryos, embryonic cultured cells and chickens co-infected with Ark99 and Mass41 strains and purified by differential centrifugation. The recombinant S1 genes were identified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) using heterologous

  11. Molecular cloning of a RNA binding protein, S1-1.

    PubMed

    Inoue, A; Takahashi, K P; Kimura, M; Watanabe, T; Morisawa, S

    1996-08-01

    S1 proteins A-D constitute a nuclear protein family that are liberated rapidly in a set from chromatin by mild digestion with a DNA or RNA hydrolyzing enzyme. With an anti-S1-protein B antiserum that reacted with B2, C1 and D1, a cDNA clone, pS1-1, was obtained, which encoded a protein of 852 amino acids. The S1-1 protein, encoded within the cells by a mRNA of 3480 nt, was a novel protein and could be distinguished from the S1 proteins B, C and D by their amino acid sequences. The S-1-1 protein synthesized by in vitro translation bound to RNA homopolymers, with a preference for G and U polyribonucleotides and little for poly(A). The protein contained two tandem RNP motifs and several intriguing sequences, such as a novel repeat of five octamers with a consensus sequence DP-S(Q/G)YYY and a potentially perfect amphipathic alpha-helix of five turns with basic and acidic amino acids positioned in an ordered way. The two RNP motif sequences were similar, although homologies were low, to the RNP motif sequences of yeast NSR1 protein, animal nucleolins, Drosophila hnRNP Al and tobacco chloroplast RNP precursor protein, suggesting a functional uniqueness of the S1-1 protein in RNA metabolism and also the evolution of its RNP motif structure before plants and animals diverged. These results indicate that the S1-1 protein encoded by the cDNA is a new class of RNA binding protein. PMID:8760884

  12. Kerr metric as an exact solution for unpolarized S1×S2 Gowdy models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Obregón; H. Quevedo; M. P. Ryan

    2002-01-01

    Unpolarized Gowdy models are inhomogeneous cosmological models that depend on time and one spatial variable with complicated nonlinear equations of motion. There are three topologies associated with these models: T3 (three-torus), S1×S2 and S3. The T3 models have been used for numerical studies because it seems to be difficult to find analytic solutions to their nonlinear Einstein equations. The S1×S2

  13. Intermediate binding of phycocyanobilin to the lyase, CpeS1, and transfer to apoprotein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-Ming Tu; Michaela Kupka; Stephan Böhm; Matthias Plöscher; Lutz Eichacker; Kai-Hong Zhao; Hugo Scheer

    2008-01-01

    The phycobilin: Cysteine-84-phycobiliprotein lyase, CpeS1, catalyzes phycocyanobilin (PCB) and phycoerythrobilin attachment\\u000a to nearly all cysteine-84 (consensus sequence) binding sites of phycoerythrin, phycoerythrocyanin, phycocyanin and allophycocyanin\\u000a (Zhao et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:14300–14305). We now show that CpeS1 can bind PCB, as assayed by Ni2+ chelating affinity chromatography. Binding is rapid, and the chromophore is bound in an extended conformation

  14. Isotope shift measurements in the 2s1/2 transition of Be

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    Isotope shift measurements in the 2s1/2 2p3/2 transition of Be + and extraction of the nuclear.1088/0954-3899/37/5/055107 Isotope shift measurements in the 2s1/2 2p3/2 transition of Be+ and extraction of the nuclear charge Published 1 April 2010 Online at stacks.iop.org/JPhysG/37/055107 Abstract We have performed isotope shift

  15. Ceramide and S1P signaling in embryonic stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bieberich, Erhard

    2013-01-01

    Summary Recent studies show that bioactive lipids are important regulators for stem cell survival and differentiation. The sphingolipid ceramide and its derivative, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), can act synergistically on embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. We show here simple methods to analyze sphingolipids in differentiating ES cells and to use ceramide and S1P analogs for the guided differentiation of mouse ES cells toward neuronal and glial lineage. PMID:22528448

  16. Evaluation of the optimal dosage of S-1 in adjuvant SOX chemotherapy for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    YANG, LIN; YANG, YI; QIN, QIONG; ZHOU, AIPING; ZHAO, JIANJUN; WANG, JINWAN; SHU, CHANG; YUAN, XINGHUA; HU, SONGNIAN

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The usual treatment of GC consists of surgery with additional adjuvant chemotherapy. In the present study, the feasibility and safety of adjuvant S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX) chemotherapy for patients with GC and the optimal dosage of S-1 were determined. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to either arm A (30 cases) receiving 70 mg/m2 S-1 (in two seperate half doses) daily or arm B (30 cases) receiving 80 mg/m2 S-1 (in two seperate half doses) daily. The S-1 was administered twice daily for 14 days followed by a 7-day rest period for the third week. A total of 130 mg/m2 oxaliplatin was administered on day 1 every 3 weeks for each arm. The cumulative rates of the relative total administration dose of S-1 at 100% in the 6th treatment course was 71.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 56.5–90.3%] in arm A, which was significantly higher than 21.4% (95% CI, 10.5–43.6%) in arm B (P=0.001). The most common grade 3/4 toxicities were neutropenia (19.6%), thrombocytopenia (19.6%) and vomiting (16.1%). Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia was observed in 7.1% of patients in arm A and in 32.1% of patients in arm B (P=0.019). With regard to the adverse events induced by S-1 administration, the incidence of diarrhea (3.6 vs. 42.9%; P<0.001) was significantly higher in arm B than in arm A, as anticipated. Collectively, adjuvant SOX therapy for GC is feasible and safe, and when combined with 130 mg/m2 oxaliplatin, 70 mg/m2/day S-1 appears to the optimal dose. PMID:25663930

  17. Decorin in human oral cancer: a promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Ishige, Shunsaku; Kasama, Hiroki; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2015-01-30

    We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and is a predictive immunomarker of the response to S-1 NAC and patient prognosis. PMID:25550184

  18. STS-112 S1 truss in Payload Changeout Room at Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The payload canister is ready to be opened in the Payload Changeout Room at the pad. Inside is the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, primary payload on mission STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during the mission. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  19. Supporting Information -S1-Q. Sun, H. Nelson, T. Ly, B. M. Stoltz, R. R. Julian

    E-print Network

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    Supporting Information -S1- Q. Sun, H. Nelson, T. Ly, B. M. Stoltz, R. R. Julian Supporting Data.............................................S7 #12;Supporting Information -S2- Q. Sun, H. Nelson, T. Ly, B. M. Stoltz, R. R. Julian Figure S1 Information -S3- Q. Sun, H. Nelson, T. Ly, B. M. Stoltz, R. R. Julian Figure S2 Figure S2a: CID of [RPPGFSPFR

  20. Bovine coronavirus peplomer glycoproteins: detailed antigenic analyses of S1, S2 and HE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Francois Vautherot; M.-F. Madelaine; P. Boireau; J. Laporte

    1992-01-01

    Forty-four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the G11o isolate of bovine enteric coronavirus were used for the characterization of the peplomer proteins S and HE. Fourteen of these MAbs reacted with HE and the remaining 30 with the products of the S gene, S1 (19 MAbs), $2 (six MAbs) and gp200 (five MAbs). S1 and HE were found to carry major

  1. 3 S 1-3 D 1 mixing and E1 radiative transitions in charmonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Godfrey; Gabriel Karl; Patrick J. O'Donnell

    1986-01-01

    The radiative transitions psi'-->gamma+chi J and chi J -->gamma+psi are studied in the quark model with the psi and psi' interpreted conventionally as3 S 1 cbar c states and the chi J as3 P J cbar c states. In particular, the effect of3 S 1-3 D 1 mixing on the decay widths is calculated. The photon angular distributions in these

  2. Second generation S1P pathway modulators: research strategies and clinical developments.

    PubMed

    Bigaud, Marc; Guerini, Danilo; Billich, Andreas; Bassilana, Frederic; Brinkmann, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system (CNS) through demyelination and neurodegeneration. Until recently, major therapeutic treatments have relied on agents requiring injection delivery. In September 2010, fingolimod/FTY720 (Gilenya, Novartis) was approved as the first oral treatment for relapsing forms of MS. Fingolimod causes down-modulation of S1P1 receptors on lymphocytes which prevents the invasion of autoaggressive T cells into the CNS. In astrocytes, down-modulation of S1P1 by the drug reduces astrogliosis, a hallmark of MS, thereby allowing restoration of productive astrocyte communication with other neural cells and the blood brain barrier. Animal data further suggest that the drug directly supports the recovery of nerve conduction and remyelination. In human MS, such mechanisms may explain the significant decrease in the number of inflammatory markers on brain magnetic resonance imaging in recent clinical trials, and the reduction of brain atrophy by the drug. Fingolimod binds to 4 of the 5 known S1P receptor subtypes, and significant efforts were made over the past 5 years to develop next generation S1P receptor modulators and determine the minimal receptor selectivity needed for maximal therapeutic efficacy in MS patients. Other approaches considered were competitive antagonists of the S1P1 receptor, inhibitors of the S1P lyase to prevent S1P degradation, and anti-S1P antibodies. Below we discuss the current status of the field, and the functional properties of the most advanced compounds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled New Frontiers in Sphingolipid Biology. PMID:24239768

  3. Discovery of 21-cm absorption in a zabs = 2.289 damped Lyman ? system towards TXS 0311+430: the first low spin temperature absorber at z > 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Brian A.; Kanekar, Nissim; Ellison, Sara L.; Pettini, Max

    2007-11-01

    We report the detection of HI 21-cm absorption from the z = 2.289 damped Lyman ? system (DLA) towards TXS 0311+430 with the Green Bank Telescope. The 21-cm absorption has a velocity spread (between nulls) of ~110 km s-1 and an integrated optical depth of . We also present new Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope 602-MHz imaging of the radio continuum. TXS 0311+430 is unresolved at this frequency, indicating that the covering factor of the DLA is likely to be high. Combining the integrated optical depth with the DLA HIcolumn density of yields a spin temperature of Ts = (138 +/- 36) K, assuming a covering factor of unity. This is the first case of a low spin temperature (<350 K) in a z > 1 DLA and is among the lowest temperatures ever measured in any DLA. Indeed, the Ts measured for this DLA is similar to values measured in the Milky Way and local disc galaxies. We also determine a lower limit (Si/H) >~ 1/3 solar for the DLA metallicity, amongst the highest abundances measured in DLAs at any redshift. Based on low-redshift correlations, the low Ts, large 21-cm absorption width and high metallicity all suggest that the z ~ 2.289 DLA is likely to arise in a massive, luminous disc galaxy.

  4. Preparing for ICD-10-CM/PCS Implementation: Impact on Productivity and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Stanfill, Mary H.; Hsieh, Kang Lin; Beal, Kathleen; Fenton, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    Coding productivity is expected to drop significantly during the lead-up to and in the initial stages of ICD-10-CM/PCS implementation, now expected to be delayed until October 1, 2015. This study examined the differences in coding productivity between ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM/PCS for hospital inpatient cases matched for complexity and severity. Additionally, interrater reliability was calculated to determine the quality of the coding. On average, coding of an inpatient record took 17.71 minutes (69 percent) longer with ICD-10-CM/PCS than with ICD-9-CM. A two-tailed T-test for statistical validity for independent samples was significant (p = .001). No coder characteristics such as years of experience or educational level were found to be a significant factor in coder productivity. Coders who had received more extensive training were faster than coders who had received only basic training. Though this difference was not statistically significant, it provides a strong indication of significant return on investment for staff training time. Coder interrater reliability was substantial for ICD-9-CM but only moderate for ICD-10-CM/PCS, though some ICD-10-CM/PCS cases had complete interrater (coder) agreement. Time spent coding a case was negatively correlated with interrater reliability (?0.425 for ICD-10-CM and ?0.349 for ICD-10-PCS). This finding signals that increased time per case does not necessarily translate to higher quality. Adequate training for coders, as well as guidance regarding time invested per record, is important. Additionally, these findings indicate that previous estimates of initial coder productivity loss with ICD-10-CM/PCS may have been understated. PMID:25214823

  5. An ab initio study of the dissociation of HNCO in the S1 electronic state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Jonathan E.; Cui, Qiang; Morokuma, Keiji

    1998-01-01

    Regions of the S1 potential energy surface of HNCO relevant to N-H and C-N bond photodissociation have been investigated with ab initio calculations. Geometries of minima and transition states on S1 as well as those of the product photofragments and the HNCO ground state have been optimized with the CASSCF method, and their energies calculated with MRSDCI and CASPT2 methods. Deep planar trans and cis minima exist on the S1 surface, and are connected by transition states for isomerization. The S0?S1 electronic transition is brighter for trans configurations than for cis, and the initial excitation and dynamics are most likely to proceed through trans configurations. The N-H fission on S1 has a substantial barrier; it occurs more easily through the planar cis transition state, which is about 20 kcal/mol above the dissociation threshold, than through the trans transition state. The C-N fission on S1 can take place both via the planar trans and the planar cis transition state with a low barrier over the dissociation threshold; the reverse barrier is estimated to be a few kcal/mol.

  6. (407), cm5. [DOI: 10.1126/stke.4072007cm5]2007Sci. STKE Bruno Mller and Jen Sheen (9 October 2007)

    E-print Network

    Sheen, Jen

    ) Cytokinin Signaling PathwayArabidopsis This information is current as of 10 October 2007. The following/407/cm5 Page 1 Cytokinins are essential plant hormones that control cell division, shoot meristem, fertility, seed de- velopment, senescence, and stress tolerance. The Arabidopsis cytokinin signal

  7. (407), cm4. [DOI: 10.1126/stke.4072007cm4]2007Sci. STKE Bruno Mller and Jen Sheen (9 October 2007)

    E-print Network

    Sheen, Jen

    ) Cytokinin Signaling Pathway This information is current as of 10 October 2007. The following resources/407/cm4 Page 1 Cytokinins are key regulators of a large number of processes in plant development, which is highly plastic and adaptive, and remarkably resilient and self-perpetuating. Cytokinin signaling involves

  8. Functional Characterization of Cucumis metuliferus Proteinase Inhibitor Gene (CmSPI) in Potyviruses Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Mei-Hsiu; Lin, Yu-Tsung; Chung, Chien-Hung; Ku, Hsin-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are ubiquitous proteins that block the active center or interact allosterically with proteinases and are involved in plant physiological processes and defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The CmSPI gene identified from Cucumis metuliferus encodes a serine type PI (8 kDa) that belongs to potato I type family. To evaluate the effect of silencing CmSPI gene on Papaya ringspot virus resistance, RNA interference (RNAi) with an inter-space hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct was introduced into a PRSV-resistant C. metuliferus line. CmSPI was down-regulated in CmSPI RNAi transgenic lines in which synchronously PRSV symptoms were evident at 21 day post inoculation. Alternatively, heterogeneous expression of CmSPI in Nicotiana benthamiana was also conducted and showed that CmSPI can provide resistance to Potato virus Y, another member of Potyvirus, in transgenic N. benthamiana lines. This study demonstrated that CmSPI plays an important role in resistant function against potyviruses in C. metuliferus and N. benthamiana. PMID:26184285

  9. Long-term outcomes of hepatectomy vs percutaneous ablation for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma ??4 cm

    PubMed Central

    Wakai, Toshifumi; Shirai, Yoshio; Suda, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Sakata, Jun; Cruz, Pauldion V; Kawai, Hirokazu; Matsuda, Yasunobu; Watanabe, Masashi; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Hatakeyama, Katsuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine which treatment modality - hepatectomy or percutaneous ablation - is more beneficial for patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (??4 cm) in terms of long-term outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 149 patients with HCC ??4 cm was conducted. Eighty-five patients underwent partial hepatectomy (anatomic in 47 and non-anatomic in 38) and 64 underwent percutaneous ablation (percutaneous ethanol injection in 37, radiofrequency ablation in 21, and microwave coagulation in 6). The median follow-up period was 69 mo. RESULTS: Hepatectomy was associated with larger tumor size (P?cm vs >?2 cm, the favorable effects of hepatectomy on long-term survival was seen only in patients with tumors >2 cm (P?=?0.0001). The Cox proportional hazards regression model revealed that hepatectomy (P?=?0.006) and tumors ??2 cm (P?=?0.017) were independently associated with better survival. CONCLUSION: Hepatectomy provides both better local control and better long-term survival for patients with HCC ??4 cm compared with percutaneous ablation. Of the patients with HCC ??4 cm, those with tumors >?2 cm are good candidates for hepatectomy, provided that the hepatic functional reserve of the patient permits resection. PMID:16489666

  10. Transarterial infusion chemotherapy with cisplatin plus S-1 for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment: a phase I trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Japan, transarterial infusion chemotherapy using cisplatin (CDDP-TAI) is frequently used for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Moreover, oral chemotherapy with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine derivative, has also elicited promising responses in HCC patients. We determined the recommended dosage for CDDP-TAI plus S-1 combination therapy for advanced HCC. Methods Twelve Child–Pugh class A or B patients with advanced HCC who met the eligibility criteria were enrolled in this phase I trial. Patients received CDDP-TAI (infusion, day 1) plus S-1 (oral administration, days 1–21) every 5 weeks until disease progression. Results Cisplatin (65 mg/m2) was administered with S-1 at 50 mg?·?m-2 day-1 (level 1, 3 patients), 60 mg?·?m-2 day-1 (level 2, 3 patients), or 80 mg?·?m-2 day-1 (level 3, 6 patients). The total number of treatment courses was 25 (median, 2 courses/patient; range, 1–6 courses). Dose-limiting toxicity was not observed in any patient at any level; therefore, the recommended dosage for cisplatin and S-1 in combination was level 3. Grade 3 adverse events were elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (2 patients), elevated aspartate aminotransferase levels (2 patients), anemia (1 patient), and decreased platelet counts (1 patient). Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 73 days and 328 days, respectively. The disease control rate was 58% (7/12); 17% (2/12) of patients achieved partial response and 42% (5/12) achieved stable disease. CDDP-TAI plus S-1 is safe for the treatment of HCC. Conclusion The recommended dosage for further evaluation of this combination therapy in phase II studies is 65 mg/m2 CDDP and 80 mg/m2 S-1. Trial registration UMIN; number: UMIN000003113 PMID:24779747

  11. Pan-STARRS 1 observations of the unusual active Centaur P/2011 S1(Gibbs)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H. W.; Ip, W. H.; Chen, W. P. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y. T. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lacerda, P. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Holman, M.; Protopapas, P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Price, P. A., E-mail: edlin@gm.astro.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is an outer solar system comet or active Centaur with a similar orbit to that of the famous 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has been observed by the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) sky survey from 2010 to 2012. The resulting data allow us to perform multi-color studies of the nucleus and coma of the comet. Analysis of PS1 images reveals that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has a small nucleus <4 km radius, with colors g {sub P1} – r {sub P1} = 0.5 ± 0.02, r {sub P1} – i {sub P1} = 0.12 ± 0.02, and i {sub P1} – z {sub P1} = 0.46 ± 0.03. The comet remained active from 2010 to 2012, with a model-dependent mass-loss rate of ?100 kg s{sup –1}. The mass-loss rate per unit surface area of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is as high as that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, making it one of the most active Centaurs. The mass-loss rate also varies with time from ?40 kg s{sup –1} to 150 kg s{sup –1}. Due to its rather circular orbit, we propose that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1-like outbursts that control the outgassing rate. The results indicate that it may have a similar surface composition to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. Our numerical simulations show that the future orbital evolution of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is more similar to that of the main population of Centaurs than to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The results also demonstrate that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is dynamically unstable and can only remain near its current orbit for roughly a thousand years.

  12. S1pr2/G?13 signaling controls myocardial migration by regulating endoderm convergence.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ding; Lin, Fang

    2013-02-01

    A key process during vertebrate heart development is the migration of bilateral populations of myocardial precursors towards the midline to form the primitive heart tube. In zebrafish, signaling mediated by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its cognate G protein-coupled receptor (S1pr2/Mil) is essential for myocardial migration, but the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. Here, we show that suppression of G?(13) signaling disrupts myocardial migration, leading to the formation of two bilaterally located hearts (cardia bifida). Genetic studies indicate that G?(13) acts downstream of S1pr2 to regulate myocardial migration through a RhoGEF-dependent pathway. Furthermore, disrupting any component of the S1pr2/G?(13)/RhoGEF pathway impairs endoderm convergence during segmentation, and the endodermal defects correlate with the extent of cardia bifida. Moreover, endoderm transplantation reveals that the presence of wild-type anterior endodermal cells in G?(13)-deficient embryos is sufficient to rescue the endoderm convergence defect and cardia bifida, and, conversely, that the presence of anterior endodermal cells defective for S1pr2 or G?(13) in wild-type embryos causes such defects. Thus, S1pr2/G?(13) signaling probably acts in the endoderm to regulate myocardial migration. In support of this notion, cardiac-specific expression of G?(13) fails to rescue cardia bifida in the context of global G?(13) inhibition. Our data demonstrate for the first time that the G?(13)/RhoGEF-dependent pathway functions downstream of S1pr2 to regulate convergent movement of the endoderm, an event that is crucial for coordinating myocardial migration. PMID:23318642

  13. Sorption of Cm(III) and Eu(III) onto clay minerals under saline conditions: Batch adsorption, laser-fluorescence spectroscopy and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnurr, Andreas; Marsac, Rémi; Rabung, Thomas; Lützenkirchen, Johannes; Geckeis, Horst

    2015-02-01

    The present work reports experimental data for trivalent metal cation (Cm/Eu) sorption onto illite (Illite du Puy) and montmorillonite (Na-SWy-2) in NaCl solutions up to 4.37 molal (m) in the absence of carbonate. Batch sorption experiments were carried out for a given ionic strength at fixed metal concentration (mEu = 2 × 10-7 m, labeled with 152Eu for ?-counting) and at a constant solid to liquid ratio (S:L = 2 g/L) for 3 < pHm < 12 (pHm = -log mH+). The amount of clay sorbed Eu approaches almost 100% (with log KD > 5) for pHm > 8, irrespective of the NaCl concentration. Variations in Eu uptake are minor at elevated NaCl concentrations. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) studies on Cm sorption covering a wide range of NaCl concentrations reveal nearly identical fluorescence emission spectra after peak deconvolution, i.e. no significant variation of Cm surface speciation with salinity. Beyond the three surface complexes already found in previous studies an additional inner-sphere surface species with a fluorescence peak maximum at higher wavelength (? ? 610 nm) could be resolved. This new surface species appears in the high pH range and is assumed to correspond to a clay/curium/silicate complex as already postulated in the literature for kaolinite. The 2 site protolysis non-electrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange sorption model (2SPNE SC/CE) was applied to describe Eu sorption data by involving the Pitzer and SIT (specific ion interaction) formalism in the calculation of the activities of dissolved aqueous species. Good agreement of model and experiment is achieved for sorption data at pHm < 6 without the need of adjusting surface complexation constants. For pHm > 6 in case of illite and pHm > 8 in case of montmorillonite calculated sorption data systematically fall below experimental data with increasing ionic strength. Under those conditions sorption is almost quantitative and deviations must be discussed considering uncertainties of measured Eu concentrations in the range of analytical detection limits.

  14. Phase I study of postoperative radiotherapy concurrent with S-1 in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Meng; Peng, Xing-Chen; Bi, Feng; Wang, Xin; Li, Qiu; Xu, Feng; Li, Zhi-Ping; Shen, Ya-Li; Liu, Ji-Yan; Zhao, Ya-Qing; Cao, Dan; Gou, Hong-Feng; Yang, Yu; Chen, Ye; Yi, Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with concurrent 5-fluorouracil is the standard care for gastric cancer patients after curative surgery. The previous studies revealed that the subgroup of patients with high recurrence risk would benefit most from adjuvant CRT. S-1, a novel oral fluorouracil, has showed very effective in metastatic gastric cancer and became the standard option for gastric cancer with D2 dissection. The safety and dosage of S-1 combined with postoperative radiotherapy have not yet been evaluated. This study is to determine the maximum tolerate dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of S-1 given concurrently with postoperative high-dose radiotherapy in gastric cancer. Patients with more advanced stage (pT4 and/or pN+) after R0 resection were recruited. Eligible patients received one cycle standard SOX (S-1 plus oxaliplatin) chemotherapy, then S-1 monotherapy with concurrent radiotherapy for 6 weeks, followed by additional three cycles of SOX. During the concurrent CRT, S-1 was administered on every radiotherapy treatment day according to a predefined dose-escalation schedule. Radiotherapy (3D-RT or IMRT) was given to a total dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. DLT was defined as grade 3 or 4 hematologic and non-hematologic toxicity. From March 2011 to October 2012, 21 patients were enrolled at five dose levels: 40 (n = 3), 50 (n = 3), 60 (n = 6), 70 (n = 6) and 80 mg/m(2)/day (n = 3). D2-dissection was performed in 18 patients (85.7 %) and 15 patients (71.4 %) had stage III disease. The most common dose-related toxicity was anorexia, nausea and vomiting, fatigue and leucopenia. DLT was occurred in one patient at 60 mg/m(2)/day (grade 3 fatigue), one patient at 70 mg/m(2)/day (grade 3 vomiting and anorexia), two patients at 80 mg/m(2)/day (one with grade 3 vomiting and anorexia; another with grade 3 febrile leucopenia). Four patients did not complete CRT as planned. Overall, this phase I study demonstrated that postoperative CRT with daily S-1 was feasible in gastric cancer and the MTD of S-1 concurrent with radiotherapy was 70 mg/m(2)/day. This S-1-based postoperative CRT will be investigated in a multicenter phase III study in West China. PMID:26025485

  15. Selection of HBV preS1-binding penta-peptides by phage display.

    PubMed

    He, Yonggang; Ye, Xiaoli; Tiollais, Pierre; Zhang, Jiming; Zhang, Junqi; Liu, Jing; Xie, Youhua

    2014-08-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current therapies have a very limited efficacy in virus clearance. New antiviral targets and agents are urgently needed. The envelope of HBV virion contains three surface glycoproteins, namely the large (LHBs), middle (MHBs), and small (SHBs) proteins. LHBs has an amino terminal preS which is composed of the preS1 and preS2 domains. The amino half of preS1 which is myristoylated plays a pivotal role in HBV entry, which can be exploited as an antiviral target. A common motif of five amino acids had been previously discovered to bind preS11–65 and HBV particles. In this study, we used preS11–65 to screen a phage display library of random penta-peptides to select the penta-peptides possessing a high preS1-binding affinity. After nine rounds of panning, we obtained one peptide designated as A5 which could bind preS1 with a high affinity. By systematically substituting each residue of A5 with the other 19 amino acids, we identified a novel peptide with an increased preS1-binding affinity. Both peptides could inhibit HBV attachment to HepG2 cells, making them be potential candidates for HBV entry inhibitors. PMID:24966187

  16. Corneal Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency Associated with the Anticancer Drug S-1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyeong Hwan; Kim, Wan Soo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose An oral antineoplastic drug, S-1, is known to be more effective with less toxicity and fewer gastrointestinal side effects than the conventional intravenous 5-fluorouracil. We report a case of limbal stem cell deficiency that occurred in a patient receiving chemotherapy using S-1 alone for gastric cancer. Case Report A 65-year-old woman with symptoms of grittiness and epiphora in both eyes for several months was referred to the ophthalmology clinic. She had been receiving S-1 orally after total gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer. Slit lamp examination revealed an irregular hazy corneal epithelium in both eyes that extended to the center of the cornea overlying the pupil and showed late staining with fluorescein dye. Palisades of Vogt at the superior limbus were absent in both eyes. Best-corrected distance vision was 20/50 in both eyes with all other structures of the anterior and posterior segment unremarkable including a patent lacrimal drainage system. There was no change in the corneal lesions of either eye despite 3 months of topical therapy. The lesions did resolve in 4 months after discontinuation of S-1 therapy owing to acute renal failure. Conclusions Early detection of this adverse reaction before significant visual loss through regular follow-up appears to be important in patients receiving S-1 therapy. PMID:25756340

  17. Initial exploration of 21-cm cosmology with imaging and power spectra from the Murchison Widefield Array

    E-print Network

    Williams, Christopher Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a new low-frequency radio array under construction in Western Australia with a primary goal of measuring the power spectrum of the 21-cm signal from neutral hydrogen during the Epoch ...

  18. 76 FR 51985 - ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ...Removal. ICD-10-PCS Topics Implantable meshes. ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Topics Aggressive periodontitis. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Chronic periodontitis. Gingival recession. Agenda items are subject to change as priorities dictate....

  19. Bayesian semi-blind component separation for foreground removal in interferometric 21 cm observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Le; Tmbie, Peter; Wandelt, Benjamin; Sutter, Paul; Karakci, Ata; Bunn, Emory; Korotkov, Andrei; Tucker, Gregory

    2015-04-01

    We present a new Bayesian semi-blind approach which is an extension of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) from two-dimensional (2-D) CMB map to the three-dimensional (3-D) 21-cm cosmological signal. This technique provides a fully Bayesian inference of power spectra and maps. Only relying on the statistical independence of the components, this approach can jointly estimate the 3-D power spectrum of the 21-cm signal and, the 2-D angular power spectrum and the frequency dependence of each foreground component, without any prior assumptions about foregrounds. This approach has been tested intensively by applying it to mock data from an interferometric 21-cm intensity mapping observation. Based on the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm, this blind approach provides much better performance in 21-cm power spectrum recovery over all the scales than the commonly used Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This technique could be straightforwardly applied to the epoch of reionization measurements.

  20. A method for 21 cm power spectrum estimation in the presence of foregrounds

    E-print Network

    Liu, Adrian Chi-Yan

    The technique of 21 cm tomography promises to be a powerful tool for estimating cosmological parameters, constraining the epoch of reionization, and probing the so-called dark ages. However, realizing this promise will ...

  1. The Sino-German ?6cm polarization survey of the Galactic plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J. L.; Reich, W.; Sun, X. H.; Gao, X. Y.; Xiao, L.; Reich, P.; Shi, W. B.; Wielebinski, R.

    2015-03-01

    After Prof. R. Wielebinski visited China in 1999, we started to plan the Sino-German ?6 cm polarization survey of the Galactic plane, using the Urumqi 25-m radio telescope of Xinjiang (formerly Urumqi) Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It is a high-frequency complement of previous Effelsberg 21-cm and 11-cm surveys, using the same observing and processing methods. The telescope is located at an altitude of 2029 m above sea level at geographic longitude of 87°E and latitude 43°N. The dual-channel ?6 cm receiver with a polarimeter and a bandwidth of 600 MHz was designed by O. Lochner and constructed at the MPIfR in Germany with involvements by the Urumqi engineers M.Z. Chen and J. Ma. In August 2004, the receiver was installed at the secondary focus of the Urumqi 25-m telescope.

  2. ICES CM 2006/H :19 Body condition and evolution of maturation of Atlantic cod in Newfoundland

    E-print Network

    Dieckmann, Ulf

    ICES CM 2006/H :19 Body condition and evolution of maturation of Atlantic cod in Newfoundland Loïc Newfoundland and Labrador underwent severe depletions that started in the late 1980s and led to moratoria

  3. The rotationally-resolved absorption spectrum of formaldehyde from 6547 to 6804 cm -1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staak, Michael; Gash, Edward W.; Venables, Dean S.; Ruth, Albert A.

    2005-01-01

    The room temperature absorption spectrum of formaldehyde, H 2CO, from 6547 to 6804 cm -1 (1527-1470 nm) is reported with a spectral resolution of 0.001 cm -1. The spectrum was measured using cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) and absorption cross-sections were calculated after calibrating the system using known absorption lines of H 2O and CO 2. Several vibrational combination bands occur in this region and give rise to a congested spectrum with over 8000 lines observed. Pressure broadening coefficients in N 2, O 2, and H 2CO are reported for an absorption line at 6780.871 cm -1, and in N 2 for an absorption line at 6684.053 cm -1.

  4. An intensity map of hydrogen 21-cm emission at redshift z~0.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tzu-Ching; Pen, Ue-Li; Bandura, Kevin; Peterson, Jeffrey B.

    2010-07-01

    Observations of 21-cm radio emission by neutral hydrogen at redshifts z~0.5 to ~2.5 are expected to provide a sensitive probe of cosmic dark energy. This is particularly true around the onset of acceleration at z~1, where traditional optical cosmology becomes very difficult because of the infrared opacity of the atmosphere. Hitherto, 21-cm emission has been detected only to z = 0.24. More distant galaxies generally are too faint for individual detections but it is possible to measure the aggregate emission from many unresolved galaxies in the `cosmic web'. Here we report a three-dimensional 21-cm intensity field at z = 0.53 to 1.12. We then co-add neutral-hydrogen (HI) emission from the volumes surrounding about 10,000 galaxies (from the DEEP2 optical galaxy redshift survey). We detect the aggregate 21-cm glow at a significance of ~4?.

  5. New Control Software of the 188cm Telescope of Okayama Astrophysical Observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michitoshi Yoshida; Yasuhiro Shimizu; Etsuji Watanabe; Kenshi Yanagisawa; Fumihiro Uraguchi

    2002-01-01

    We developed the telescope control software for the 188cm telescope of Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (OAO) based on Java technology. Basically, the software consists of two processes running on separate Java virtual machines; one of which is the \\

  6. Probing the epoch of reionization with redshifted 21 cm HI emission

    E-print Network

    Bowman, Judd D. (Judd David)

    2007-01-01

    Emission and absorption features in the spectrum of the diffuse radio background below 200 MHz due to the 21 cm hyperfine transition line of neutral hydrogen gas in the high redshift intergalactic medium offer a new and ...

  7. Juan de Fuca plate: Aseismic subduction at 1. 8 cm/yr

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, H.

    1981-11-01

    Volcanic activity in the Cascades in historic times suggests that the Juan de Fuca plate is underthrusting aseismically at about 1.8 cm/yr. This rate of underthrusting is identical to the rate computed from sediment studies.

  8. Improvements in collimator design for verification of uranium enrichment in gaseous centrifuge header pipes of diameter 4.45 cm and 10.16 cm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, D. A.; Pratt, J. C.

    1987-06-01

    A technique that has been developed determines whether the process gas in a gaseous uranium centrifuge header pipe has an enrichment ? 20% or > 20%. Improvements have been made in the detector collimator to improve the ability to discriminate between gas and deposit in the header pipes. The new detector collimator has been characterized for pipes having inner diameters of 4.45 and 10.16 cm. A statistical analysis indicates that this new design is well suited to the smaller diameter pipe.

  9. Distinguishing natural from synthetic amethyst: the presence and shape of the 3595?cm ?1 peak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Karampelas; E. Fritsch; T. Zorba; K. M. Paraskevopoulos; S. Sklavounos

    2005-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectrum of amethyst in the region of stretching vibrations of X–OH groups reveals several bands that have been used for the separation of natural from synthetic amethyst. The intensity and shape of these bands have been measured as a function of crystallographic orientation. Using a resolution of 0.5?cm?1 the 3595?cm?1 band is present in all infrared spectra

  10. Neutral Hydrogen 21cm Absorption at Redshift 0.673 towards 1504+377

    E-print Network

    C. L. Carilli; Karl M. Menten; Mark J. Reid; M. P. Rupen

    1996-10-10

    We detect the 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen in absorption at a redshift of 0.673 towards the 1 Jy radio source 1504+377. The 1504+377 radio source is located toward the center of what appears to be an inclined disk galaxy at z = 0.674. The 21 cm absorption line shows multiple velocity components over a velocity range of about 100 km sec$^{-1}$, with a total HI column density: N(HI) = $3.8\\times10^{19}\\times({{T_s}\\over{f}})$ cm$^{-2}$. The velocity-integrated optical depth of this system is the largest yet seen for redshifted HI 21 cm absorption line systems (Carilli 1995). The 21 cm absorption line is coincident in redshift with a previously detected broad molecular absorption line system (Wiklind and Combes 1996). We do not detect HI 21 cm absorption associated with the narrow molecular absorption line system at z = 0.67150, nor do we detect absorption at these redshifts by the 18 cm lines of OH, nor by the 2 cm transition of H$_2$CO. There is no evidence for a bright optical AGN in 1504+377, suggesting significant obscuration through the disk -- a hypothesis supported by the strong absorption observed. The 1504+377 system resembles the ``red quasar'' PKS 1413+135, which has been modeled as a optically obscured AGN with a very young radio jet in the center of a gas rich disk galaxy (Perlman et al. 1996). The presence of very bright radio jets at the centers of these two disk galaxies presents a challenge to unification schemes for extragalactic radio sources and to models for the formation of radio loud AGN.

  11. Small-scale production of 4-cm2 ITO\\/InP photovoltaic solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Gessert; X. Li; T. J. Coutts; P. W. Phelps; N. Tzafaras

    1991-01-01

    The procedures and results of a project that produced large-area (4-cm2) cells using the sputtering process used to form small-area indium tin oxide (ITO)\\/InP solar cells are described. Although only a small number of the 4-cm2 ITO\\/InP cells (approximately 10 cells total) were fabricated, the efficiency of the best cell compares favorably with the best result reported from a larger

  12. Metathesis Cascade Strategies (ROM-RCM-CM): A DOS approach to Skeletally Diverse Sultams

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Kyu Ok; Rayabarapu, Dinesh; Rolfe, Alan; Volp, Kelly; Omar, Iman

    2009-01-01

    The development of a ring-opening metathesis/ring-closing metathesis/cross metathesis (ROM-RCM-CM) cascade strategy to the synthesis of a diverse collection of bi- and tricyclic sultams is reported. In this study, functionalized sultam scaffolds derived from intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) reactions undergo metathesis cascades to yield a collection tricyclic sultams. Additional appendage based diversity was achieved by utilizing a variety of CM partners. PMID:20161277

  13. Study of the high-{ital j} states in {sup 249}Cm

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Chasman, R.R.; Greene, J.P.; Ishii, T.; Morss, L.R. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Foster, C.C.; Lozowski, W.R.; Schmitt, W.; Stephenson, E.J.; Yamanaka, T. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    1998-12-01

    We have performed the reaction {sup 248}Cm({sup 4}He,{sup 3}He) using 98.5-MeV alpha particles from the IUCF cyclotron to populate high-{ital j} states in {sup 249}Cm. A tentative assignment of the k{sub 17/2} component of the 1/2{sup +}[880] Nilsson state has been made. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Noble-Gas Distribution in the Murchison, Murray, Nogoya and Yamato791198 CM Chondrites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Nakamura; K. Metzler; K. Nagao; N. Takaoka

    1996-01-01

    Laser-spot analysis was carried out on the Murchison, Murray, Nogoya, and Yamato (Y)-791198 CM chondrites in order to see microdistribution of noble gases. Primordial noble gases are rich in rims around chondrules in the four meteorites. This suggests that large fractions of the primordial noble-gas carrier phases in the CM chondrites might have accreted on chondrules prior to formation of

  15. The imprint of warm dark matter on the cosmological 21-cm signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitwell, Michael; Mesinger, Andrei; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Sigurdson, Kris

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the effects of warm dark matter (WDM) on the cosmic 21-cm signal. If dark matter exists as WDM instead of cold dark matter (CDM), its non-negligible velocities can inhibit the formation of low-mass haloes that normally form first in CDM models, therefore delaying star formation. The absence of early sources delays the build-up of UV and X-ray backgrounds that affect the 21-cm radiation signal produced by neutral hydrogen. With use of the 21CMFAST code, we demonstrate that the pre-reionization 21-cm signal can be changed significantly in WDM models with a free-streaming length equivalent to that of a thermal relic with mass mX of up to ˜10-20 keV. In such a WDM cosmology, the 21-cm signal traces the growth of more massive haloes, resulting in a delay of the 21-cm absorption signature and followed by accelerated X-ray heating. CDM models where astrophysical sources have a suppressed photon-production efficiency can delay the 21-cm signal as well, although its subsequent evolution is not as rapid as compared to WDM. This motivates using the gradient of the global 21-cm signal to differentiate between some CDM and WDM models. Finally, we show that the degeneracy between the astrophysics and mX can be broken with the 21-cm power spectrum, as WDM models should have a bias-induced excess of power on large scales. This boost in power should be detectable with current interferometers for models with mX ? 3 keV, while next-generation instruments will easily be able to measure this difference for all relevant WDM models.

  16. A Measurement of the Cosmic Background Radiation Temperature at3.0 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, S.D.; Smoot, G.F.; De Amici, G.; Witebsky, C.

    1983-06-01

    We describe a measurement of the cosmic background radiation temperature at a wavelength of 3.0 cm. The experiment was made in conjunction with measurements at four other wavelengths in an effort to measure the long wavelength spectrum to high accuracy. The result at 3 cm, T{sub CBR} = 2.91 {+-} 0.19 K, is in good agreement with the values at neighboring wavelengths, and consistent with previous results.

  17. A Doppler-limited rubidium atlas in ascii format, 9500–12 300 cm ?1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda J. Ross; Victor Bertrand; Heather Harker; Patrick Crozet

    2010-01-01

    We present a Doppler-limited transmission spectrum of the rubidium dimer, suitable for frequency calibration of near infrared (e.g. Ti:sapphire) excitation experiments in the region 9500–12300cm?1. It provides an abundant source of reference peaks that can be used in a graphic environment to calibrate short (<1cm?1) scans of excitation spectrum. This is a sequel to an iodine atlas in ascii format

  18. Fine structure of the Sun at 1.3 cm wavelength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Kundu; T. Velusamy

    1974-01-01

    The two-element interferometer at Hat Creek Observatory was used at 1.3 cm wavelength to study the fine structure of the radio emissive regions on the Sun. Observations of the quiet Sun at 1.3 cm show sudden changes in the fringe amplitude and phase, lasting for typically about 5–8 min. Assuming that these events are identical in nature, a plot of

  19. Genetic Environment and Stability of cfr in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus CM05

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Jeffrey B.; Rahawi, Shahad; LaMarre, Jacqueline; Mankin, Alexander S.

    2012-01-01

    The Cfr methyltransferase confers resistance to many 50S ribosomal subunit-targeted antibiotics, including linezolid (LZD), via methylation of the 23S rRNA base A2503 in the peptidyl transferase center. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain CM05 is the first clinical isolate documented to carry cfr. While cfr is typically plasmid borne, in CM05 it is located on the chromosome and is coexpressed with ermB as part of the mlr operon. Here we evaluated the chromosomal locus, association with mobile genetic elements, and stability of the cfr insertion region in CM05. The cfr-containing mlr operon is located within a 15.5-kb plasmid-like insertion into 23S rRNA allele 4. The region surrounding the cfr gene has a high degree of sequence similarity to the broad-host-range toxin/antitoxin multidrug resistance plasmid pSM19035, including a second ermB gene downstream of the mlr locus and istAS-istBS. Analysis of several individual CM05 colonies revealed two distinct populations for which LZD MICs were either 8 or 2 ?g/ml. In the LZDs colonies (designated CM05?), a recombination event involving the two ermB genes had occurred, resulting in the deletion of cfr and the 3? flanking region (cfr-istAS-istBS-ermB). The fitness advantage of CM05? over CM05 (though not likely due to the cfr deletion itself) results in the predominance of CM05? in the absence of selective pressure. Minicircles resulting from the ermB recombination event and the novel association of cfr with the pSM19035 plasmid system support the potential for the continued dissemination of cfr. PMID:22024827

  20. Reconstructing the nature of the first cosmic sources from the anisotropic 21-cm signal.

    PubMed

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Barkana, Rennan; Cohen, Aviad

    2015-03-13

    The redshifted 21-cm background is expected to be a powerful probe of the early Universe, carrying both cosmological and astrophysical information from a wide range of redshifts. In particular, the power spectrum of fluctuations in the 21-cm brightness temperature is anisotropic due to the line-of-sight velocity gradient, which in principle allows for a simple extraction of this information in the limit of linear fluctuations. However, recent numerical studies suggest that the 21-cm signal is actually rather complex, and its analysis likely depends on detailed model fitting. We present the first realistic simulation of the anisotropic 21-cm power spectrum over a wide period of early cosmic history. We show that on observable scales, the anisotropy is large and thus measurable at most redshifts, and its form tracks the evolution of 21-cm fluctuations as they are produced early on by Lyman-? radiation from stars, then switch to x-ray radiation from early heating sources, and finally to ionizing radiation from stars. In particular, we predict a redshift window during cosmic heating (at z?15), when the anisotropy is small, during which the shape of the 21-cm power spectrum on large scales is determined directly by the average radial distribution of the flux from x-ray sources. This makes possible a model-independent reconstruction of the x-ray spectrum of the earliest sources of cosmic heating. PMID:25815921

  1. A Novel Substituted Piperazine, CM156, Attenuates the Stimulant and Toxic Effects of Cocaine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-Tong; Kaushal, Nidhi; Shaikh, Jamaluddin; Wilson, Lisa L.; Mésangeau, Christophe; McCurdy, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine is a highly abused drug without effective pharmacotherapies to treat it. It interacts with sigma (?) receptors, providing logical targets for the development of medications to counteract its actions. Cocaine causes toxic and stimulant effects that can be categorized as acute effects such as convulsions and locomotor hyperactivity and subchronic effects including sensitization and place conditioning. In the present study, 3-(4-(4-cyclohexylpiperazin-1-yl)butyl)benzo[d]thiazole-2(3H)-thione (CM156), a novel compound, was developed and tested for interactions with ? receptors using radioligand binding studies. It was also evaluated against cocaine-induced effects in behavioral studies. The results showed that CM156 has nanomolar affinities for each of the ? receptor subtypes in the brain and much weaker affinities for non-? binding sites. Pretreatment of male Swiss-Webster mice with CM156, before administering either a convulsive or locomotor stimulant dose of cocaine, led to a significant attenuation of these acute effects. CM156 also significantly reduced the expression of behavioral sensitization and place conditioning evoked by subchronic exposure to cocaine. The protective effects of CM156 are consistent with ? receptor-mediated actions. Together with previously reported findings, the data from CM156 and related ? compounds indicate that ? receptors can be targeted to alleviate deleterious actions of cocaine. PMID:20100904

  2. Handling Age Specification in the SNOMED CT to ICD-10-CM Cross-map

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junchuan; Fung, Kin Wah

    2012-01-01

    A SNOMED CT-encoded problem list will be required to satisfy the Certification Criteria for Stage 2 “Meaningful Use” of the EHR incentive program. ICD-10-CM will be replacing ICD-9-CM as the reimbursement code set in the near future. Having a cross-map from SNOMED CT to ICD-10-CM will promote the use of SNOMED CT as the primary problem list terminology, while easing the transition to ICD-10-CM. This rule-based map will support semi-automatic generation of ICD-10-CM codes from SNOMED CT-encoded data. Among the different types of rules, the age rule is used to handle age-specific code assignment in ICD-10-CM. To supplement the manual process of creation of age rules, a special QA process was implemented to flag maps that were potentially missing age rules. The QA flagged 342 concepts for review (out of 7,277), of which 172 concepts (50.3%) were true positives. Without the special QA, many of the age rules would have been missed. PMID:23304377

  3. RESEARCH PAPER: Foreground removal of 21 cm fluctuation with multifrequency fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Li-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The 21 centimeter (21 cm) line emission from neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshifts is strongly contaminated by foreground sources such as the diffuse Galactic synchrotron emission and free-free emission from the Galaxy, as well as emission from extragalactic radio sources, thus making its observation very complicated. However, the 21 cm signal can be recovered through its structure in frequency space, as the power spectrum of the foreground contamination is expected to be smooth over a wide band in frequency space while the 21 cm fluctuations vary significantly. We use a simple polynomial fitting to reconstruct the 21 cm signal around four frequencies 50, 100, 150 and 200MHz with an especially small channel width of 20 kHz. Our calculations show that this multifrequency fitting approach can effectively recover the 21 cm signal in the frequency range 100 ~ 200 MHz. However, this method doesn't work well around 50 MHz because of the low intensity of the 21 cm signal at this frequency. We also show that the fluctuation of detector noise can be suppressed to a very low level by taking long integration times, which means that we can reach a sensitivity of approx10 mK at 150 MHz with 40 antennas in 120 hours of observations.

  4. Handling age specification in the SNOMED CT to ICD-10-CM cross-map.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junchuan; Fung, Kin Wah

    2012-01-01

    A SNOMED CT-encoded problem list will be required to satisfy the Certification Criteria for Stage 2 "Meaningful Use" of the EHR incentive program. ICD-10-CM will be replacing ICD-9-CM as the reimbursement code set in the near future. Having a cross-map from SNOMED CT to ICD-10-CM will promote the use of SNOMED CT as the primary problem list terminology, while easing the transition to ICD-10-CM. This rule-based map will support semi-automatic generation of ICD-10-CM codes from SNOMED CT-encoded data. Among the different types of rules, the age rule is used to handle age-specific code assignment in ICD-10-CM. To supplement the manual process of creation of age rules, a special QA process was implemented to flag maps that were potentially missing age rules. The QA flagged 342 concepts for review (out of 7,277), of which 172 concepts (50.3%) were true positives. Without the special QA, many of the age rules would have been missed. PMID:23304377

  5. Absolute absorption cross sections for two selected lines of formaldehyde around 6625 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morajkar, Pranay; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Fittschen, Christa

    2012-11-01

    Absolute absorption cross sections of formaldehyde, CH2O, have been measured at total pressures of 14.5 and 66 mbar Helium by cw-CRDS for two selected lines at around 6625 cm-1. Absolute CH2O concentrations have been determined in situ by measuring the pseudo-first order decays of OH radicals using high repetition rate laser induced fluorescence (LIF). OH radicals have been generated by laser photolysis of H2O2 in the presence of CH2O and from the well-known rate constant of the reaction of CH2O with OH radicals, the absolute CH2O concentration has been determined. Concentrations between 1.5 and 4 × 1014 cm-3 have been used. The line strengths for the lines at 6624.779 cm-1 and 6625.248 cm-1 have been found to be (9.1 ± 1.8) × 10-24 cm and (5.3 ± 1.0) × 10-24 cm, respectively. The broadening coefficients in Helium have also been determined for both lines. Converting the line strengths to absorption cross sections it is found that these values are a factor of 2 smaller than the only known determination of these absorption cross sections in the literature (Staak et al., J. Molec. Spectroscopy 229 (2005) 115-121).

  6. VLA observations of broad 6-cm excited state OH lines in W49A

    E-print Network

    Patrick Palmer; W. M. Goss

    2005-04-05

    Using the Very Large Array (VLA), we observed all three of the 6-cm lines of the doublet Pi 1/2, J=1/2 state of OH with sub-arcsecond resolution (about 0.4 arcsec) in W49A. While the spatial distribution and the range in velocities of the 6-cm lines are similar to those of the ground state (18-cm) OH lines, a large fraction of the total emission in all three 6-cm lines has large linewidths (about 5 -- 10 km/s) and is spatially-extended, very unlike typical ground state OH masers which typically are point-like at VLA resolutions and have linewidths less than 1 km/s. We find brightness temperatures of 5900 K, 4700 K, and greater than 730 K for the 4660-MHz, 4750-MHz, and 4765-MHz lines, respectively. We conclude that these are indeed maser lines. However, the gains are about 0.3, again very unlike the 18-cm lines which have gains greater than 10000. We compare the excited state OH emission with that from other molecules observed with comparable angular resolution to estimate physical conditions in the regions emitting the peculiar, low-gain maser lines. We also comment on the relationship with the 18-cm masers

  7. 21cm-line bispectrum as method to probe Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionization

    E-print Network

    Shimabukuro, Hayato; Takahashi, Keitaro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Ichiki, Kiyotomo

    2015-01-01

    Redshifted 21cm signal is a promising tool to investigate the state of intergalactic medium (IGM) in the Cosmic Dawn (CD) and Epoch of Reionization(EoR). In our previous work (Shimabukuro et al 2015), we studied the variance and skewness to give a clear interpretation of 21cm power spectrum and found that skewness is a good indicator of the epoch when X-ray heating becomes effective. Thus, the non-Gaussian feature of the spatial distribution of the 21cm signal is expected to be useful to investigate the astrophysical effects in the CD and EoR. In this paper, in order to investigate such a non-Gaussian feature in more detail, we focus on the bispectrum of the 21cm signal. It is expected that the 21cm brightness temperature bispectrum is produced by non-gaussianity due to the various astrophysical effects such as Wouthysen-Field (WF) effect, X-ray heating and reionization. We study the various properties of 21cm bispectrum such as scale dependence, shape dependence and redshift evolution. And also we study the ...

  8. Two Wave Functions and dS/CFT on S^1 x S^2

    E-print Network

    Gabriele Conti; Thomas Hertog

    2015-06-26

    We evaluate the tunneling and Hartle-Hawking wave functions on S^1 x S^2 boundaries in Einstein gravity with a positive cosmological constant. In the large overall volume limit the classical predictions of both wave functions include an ensemble of Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes. We show that the Hartle-Hawking tree level measure on the classical ensemble converges in the small S^1 limit. A divergence in this regime can be identified in the tunneling state. However we trace this to the contribution of an unphysical branch of saddle points associated with negative mass black holes. Using a representation in which all saddle points have an interior Euclidean anti-de Sitter region we also generalise the holographic formulation of the semiclassical Hartle-Hawking wave function to S^1 x S^2 boundaries.

  9. Miniopen oblique lateral L5-s1 interbody fusion: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Keijiro; Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Miyagi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Kanamoto, Hiroto; Toyone, Tomoaki; Inoue, Gen; Hanaoka, Eiji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) has been widely used for minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), but an approach to L5-S1 is difficult because of the iliac crest. In the current study, we present 2 cases using minimally invasive oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) of L5-S1. The patients showed foraminal stenosis between L5 and S1 and severe low back and leg pain. The patients were placed in a lateral decubitus position and underwent OLIF surgery (using a cage and bone graft from the iliac crest) without posterior decompression. Posterior screws were used in the patients. Pain scores significantly improved after surgery. There was no spinal nerve, major vessel, peritoneal, or urinary injury. OLIF surgery was minimally invasive and produced good surgical results without complications. PMID:25400963

  10. Miniopen Oblique Lateral L5-S1 Interbody Fusion: A Report of 2 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Keijiro; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hiroto; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) has been widely used for minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), but an approach to L5-S1 is difficult because of the iliac crest. In the current study, we present 2 cases using minimally invasive oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) of L5-S1. The patients showed foraminal stenosis between L5 and S1 and severe low back and leg pain. The patients were placed in a lateral decubitus position and underwent OLIF surgery (using a cage and bone graft from the iliac crest) without posterior decompression. Posterior screws were used in the patients. Pain scores significantly improved after surgery. There was no spinal nerve, major vessel, peritoneal, or urinary injury. OLIF surgery was minimally invasive and produced good surgical results without complications. PMID:25400963

  11. Visualizing S1P-directed cellular egress by intravital imaging

    PubMed Central

    Giannouli, Christina C.; Chandris, Panagiotis; Proia, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that provides cellular signals through plasma membrane G protein-coupled receptors. The S1P receptor signaling system has a fundamental and widespread function in licensing the exit and release of hematopoietically derived cells from various tissues into the circulation. Although the outlines of the mechanism have been established through genetic and pharmacologic perturbations, the temporal and spatial dynamics of the cellular events involved have been unclear. Recently, two-photon intravital imaging has been applied to living tissues to visualize the cellular movements and interactions that occur during egress processes. Here we discuss how some of these recent findings provide a clearer picture regarding S1P receptor signaling in modulating cell egress into the circulation. PMID:24090699

  12. Structural interactions between lipids, water and S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains

    PubMed Central

    Krepkiy, Dmitriy; Gawrisch, Klaus; Swartz, Kenton J.

    2012-01-01

    Membrane proteins serve crucial signaling and transport functions, yet relatively little is known about their structures in membrane environments or how lipids interact with these proteins. For voltage-activated ion channels, X-ray structures suggest that the mobile voltage-sensing S4 helix would be exposed to the membrane, and functional studies reveal that lipid modification can profoundly alter channel activity. Here we use solid-state NMR to investigate structural interactions of lipids and water with S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains, and to explore whether lipids influence the structure of the protein. Our results demonstrate that S1-S4 domains exhibit extensive interactions with lipids, and that these domains are heavily hydrated when embedded in a membrane. We also find evidence for preferential interactions of anionic lipids with S1-S4 domains, and that these interactions have lifetimes on the timescale of 10?3s. Arg residues within S1-S4 domains are well-hydrated and are positioned in close proximity to lipids, exhibiting local interactions with both lipid head groups and acyl chains. Comparative studies with a positively charged lipid lacking a phosphodiester group reveal that this lipid modification has only modest effects on the structure and hydration of S1-S4 domains. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Arg residues in S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains reside in close proximity to the hydrophobic interior of the membrane, yet are well-hydrated, a requirement for carrying charge and driving protein motions in response to changes in membrane voltage. PMID:22858867

  13. S1 of distinct IBV population expressed from recombinant adenovirus confers protection against challenge.

    PubMed

    Toro, H; Zhang, J F; Gallardo, R A; van Santen, V L; van Ginkel, F W; Joiner, K S; Breedlove, C

    2014-06-01

    Protective properties of three distinct infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Ark Delmarva poultry industry (ArkDPI) S1 proteins encoded from replication-defective recombinant adenovirus vectors were investigated. Using a suboptimal dose of each recombinant virus, we demonstrated that IBV S1 amino acid sequences showing > or = 95.8% amino acid identity to the S1 of the challenge strain differed in their ability at conferring protection. Indeed, the S1 sequence of the IBV population previously designated C4 (AdIBVS1.C4), which protected the most poorly, differs from the S1 sequence of population C2 (AdIBVS1.C2), which provided the highest protection, only at amino acid position 56. The fact that a change in one amino acid in this region significantly altered the induction of a protective immune response against this protein provides evidence that the first portion of S1 displays relevant immunoprotective epitopes. Use of an optimal dose of AdIBVS1.C2 effectively protected chickens from clinical signs and significantly reduced viral load after IBV Ark virulent challenge. Moreover, increased numbers of both IgA and IgG IBV-specific antibody secreting lymphocytes were detected in the spleen after challenge. The increased response detected for both IgA and IgG lymphocytes after challenge might be explained by vaccine-induced B memory cells. The fact that a single vaccination with Ad/IBVS1.C2 provides protection against IBV challenge is promising, because Ad-vectored vaccines can be mass delivered by in ovo inoculation using automated in ovo injectors. PMID:25055623

  14. STS-112 S1 truss in Payload Changeout Room at Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Payload Changeout Room at the pad, the payload is moved out of the payload canister for transfer to Space Shuttle Atlantis' payload bay for mission STS-112. The primary payload on the mission is the S1 Integrated Truss Structure. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during the mission. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  15. Inhomogeneous waveguides with CdS(1-x)Se(x) semiconductor layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykovskii, Iu. A.; Ermakov, A. I.; Smirnov, V. L.; Sorokovnikov, V. N.; Terekhov, A. Iu.

    1986-10-01

    The depth profile of the Se concentration in a diffused CdS(1-x)Se(x) waveguide is analyzed. The index profile is determined and the electrooptic modulation of light in a CdS(1-x)Se(x) strip comb waveguide is investigated. The measured phase change of the transmitted light is shown to be dependent on the applied voltage. The maximum measured half-wave voltage of 15.5 V corresponds to a maximum modulation percentage of 80 percent. It is noted that the performance of the modulator can be improved by optimizing the size and shape of the electrodes.

  16. On the S1 ? S0 internal conversion in the photodissociation of HNCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klossika, Jörg-Joachim; Flöthmann, Heiner; Schinke, Reinhard; Bittererová, Martina

    1999-11-01

    We discuss a possible pathway for the S 0/S 1 internal conversion in the photodissociation of HNCO in the first absorption band. For this purpose, two-dimensional potential energy surfaces for the lowest two singlet states are calculated using the multi-reference configuration-interaction ab initio method; the NCO bending angle and the out-of-plane torsional angle are varied. According to our calculations, the transition from the S 1 to the S 0 state is likely to occur near a conical intersection at small NCO angles, which can be reached by large-amplitude NCO bending motion.

  17. Coherent Quantum Control of $S_2 \\leftrightarrow S_1$ Internal Conversion in Pyrazine via $S_0 \\to S_2/S_1$ Weak Field Excitation

    E-print Network

    Timur Grinev; Moshe Shapiro; Paul Brumer

    2015-05-11

    Coherent control of internal conversion (IC) between the first ($S_1$) and second ($S_2$) singlet excited electronic states in pyrazine, where the $S_2$ state is populated from the ground singlet electronic state $S_0$ by weak field excitation, is examined. Control is implemented by shaping the laser which excites $S_2$. Excitation and IC are considered simultaneously, using the recently introduced resonance-based control approach. Highly successful control is achieved by optimizing both the amplitude and phase profiles of the laser spectrum. The dependence of control on the properties of resonances in $S_2$ is demonstrated.

  18. Organic matter evolution throughout a 100-cm ombrotrophic profile from an Italian floating mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Claudio; D'Orazio, Valeria; Lobianco, Daniela; Miano, Teodoro M.

    2015-04-01

    The curious sight of an island floating and moving on a lake naturally, already described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis historia (AD 77-79), fascinated people from time immemorial. Floating mires are defined by the occurrence of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, since much of their evolution, as well as the changes of the surrounding areas, is recorded in their peat deposits. A complete, 4-m deep peat core was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum centre. Here, some of the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur. The 14C age dating of macrofossils removed from the sample at 360 cm of depth revealed that the island probably formed more than 500 yrs ago (435±20 yr BP). In the present work, we show preliminary results regarding the evolution of the organic matter along the first, ombrotrophic 100 cm of depth, hoping also to provide some insight into the possible mechanism of the evolution of this floating island. The 100 cm monolith was collected using a Wardenaar corer and cut frozen in 1-cm layers. It consists almost exclusively of Sphagnum mosses, often spaced out, in the top 20-30 cm, by leaves of Populus tremula that annually fell off. This section shows a very low bulk density, ranging from 0.017 and 0.059 g cm-3 (avg. value, 0.03±0.01 g cm-3), an average water content of 96.1±1.1%, and a gravimetric water content ranging between 14.3 and 41.5 gwater gdrypeat-1. The pH of porewaters was in the range 5-5.5. The C content along the profile ranged between 35 and 47% (avg., 41±1%), whereas the N between 0.3 and 0.9% (avg., 0.6±0.1%). Main atomic ratios seem to confirm what found during the visual inspection of the core, i.e., Sphagnum material so well preserved that it is hard to classify it as 'peat'. In fact, the F14C age dating suggests that the first 95 cm of Sphagnum material accumulate in less than 55 yrs, thus resulting in an average growing rate of ca. 1.7-1.8 cm yr-1. At the same time, C/N, H/C and O/C ratios show their lowest values between 20 and 55 cm of depth, corresponding to the section with highest bulk density (0.025-0.059 g cm-3). This seems to suggest a slightly more decomposed material. Consequently, the depth of 55-60 cm could represent the emerged (i.e., less anaerobic) section of this floating mire. Finally, the first 100 cm of the core show a great potential to be used as archive of environmental changes, especially considering their high resolution (1 cm = 0.5 yr ca.), although the short time-space covered could be a limiting factor. The Authors thank the Municipality of Posta Fibreno (FR), Managing Authority of the Regional Natural Reserve of Lake Posta Fibreno, for allowing peat cores sampling. C.Z. is indebted to the Staff of the Regional Natural Reserve for the help during samplings and for their continuous feedbacks.

  19. Distinctive 21-cm structures of the first stars, galaxies and quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Li, Yuexing

    2014-12-01

    Observations of the redshifted 21-cm line with forthcoming radio telescopes promise to transform our understanding of the cosmic reionization. To unravel the underlying physical process, we investigate the 21-cm structures of three different ionizing sources - Population (Pop) III stars, the first galaxies and the first quasars - by using radiative transfer simulations that include both ionization of neutral hydrogen and resonant scattering of Ly? photons. We find that Pop III stars and quasars produce a smooth transition from an ionized and hot state to a neutral and cold state, because of their hard spectral energy distribution with abundant ionizing photons, in contrast to the sharp transition in galaxies. Furthermore, Ly? scattering plays a dominant role in producing the 21-cm signal because it determines the relation between hydrogen spin temperature and gas kinetic temperature. This effect, also called Wouthuysen-Field coupling, depends strongly on the ionizing source. It is strongest around galaxies, where the spin temperature is highly coupled to that of the gas, resulting in extended absorption troughs in the 21-cm brightness temperature. However, in the case of Pop III stars, the 21-cm signal shows both emission and absorption regions around a small H II bubble. For quasars, a large emission region in the 21-cm signal is produced, and the absorption region decreases as the size of the H II bubble becomes large due to the limited travelling time of photons. We predict that future surveys from large radio arrays, such as the Murchison Widefield Array, the Low Frequency Array and the Square Kilometre Array, might be able to detect the 21-cm signals of primordial galaxies and quasars, but possibly not those of Pop III stars, because of their small angular diameters.

  20. Descending from on high: Lyman series cascades and spin-kinetic temperature coupling in the 21 cm line

    E-print Network

    Jonathan R. Pritchard; Steven R. Furlanetto

    2006-01-25

    We examine the effect of Lyman continuum photons on the 21 cm background in the high-redshift universe. The brightness temperature of this transition is determined by the spin temperature T_s, which describes the relative populations of the singlet and triplet hyperfine states. Once the first luminous sources appear, T_s is set by the Wouthuysen-Field effect, in which Lyman-series photons mix the hyperfine levels. Here we consider coupling through n>2 Lyman photons. We first show that coupling (and heating) from scattering of Lyman-n photons is negligible, because they rapidly cascade to lower-energy photons. These cascades can result in either a Lyman-alpha photon -- which will then affect T_s according to the usual Wouthuysen-Field mechanism -- or photons from the 2s -> 1s continuum, which escape without scattering. We show that a proper treatment of the cascades delays the onset of strong Wouthuysen-Field coupling and affects the power spectrum of brightness fluctuations when the overall coupling is still relatively weak (i.e., around the time of the first stars). Cascades damp fluctuations on small scales because only ~ 1/3 of Lyn photons cascade through Lyman-alpha, but they do not affect the large-scale power because that arises from those photons that redshift directly into the Lyman-alpha transition. We also comment on the utility of Lyman-n transitions in providing "standard rulers" with which to study the high-redshift universe.

  1. Search for heavy metastable particles decaying to jet pairs in pp collisions at sqrt{s} = 1.96 TeV

    E-print Network

    CDF Collaboration

    2012-02-13

    A search is performed for heavy metastable particles that decay into jet pairs with a macroscopic lifetime (ctau ~ 1 cm) in ppbar collisions at sqrt{s} = 1.96 TeV using data from the CDF II detector at Fermilab corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb^-1. To estimate the standard model background a data-driven approach is used. Probability-density functions are constructed to model secondary vertices from known processes. No statistically significant excess is observed above the background. Limits on the production cross section in a hidden valley benchmark phenomenology are set for various Higgs boson masses as well as metastable particle masses and lifetimes.

  2. Correlated distributions in the photodissociation of HNCO to NH(X 3?-, a 1?) + CO(X 1?+) near the barrier on S 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droz-Georget, Thierry; Zyrianov, Mikhail; Reisler, Hanna; Chandler, David W.

    1997-09-01

    The photodissociation of HNCO is examined at 230.1 nm, near the threshold to NH(a 1?) + CO(X 1?+). CO products are generated from NH(X 3?-) + CO(X 1?+) and NH(a 1?) + CO(X 1?+). Although the two contributions overlap spectroscopically, they are resolved in velocity space when using photofragment ion imaging. For both channels the CO rotational distribution is cold and non-statistical. A high resolution variant of imaging is employed to obtain NH(a 1?) distributions correlating with specific JCO levels. Combining these measurements with NH(a 1?) photofragment yield spectra and rotational distributions, we establish that decomposition to NH(a 1?) + CO(X 1 ?) evolves over a small barrier on S 1, estimated at 400-600 cm -1.

  3. The Spectral Index of the Dust Emission at 1 CM Wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundy, L. G.; Looney, L. W.; Carlstrom, J.; Joy, M.

    1997-12-01

    We present observations of the lambda =1 cm continuum emission from ten young stellar systems with the BIMA array. Accurate measurements of the flux at lambda =1.1 cm and lambda =0.9 cm were possible for eight of the systems. The power-law spectral index of the emission from these systems varies from 0.4 for L1551 IRS5 to 2.6 for NGC 1333 IRAS4. In the former case, the emission is dominated by free-free radiation; in the later, the emission arises mainly from dust. One of the target sources with detectable emission is the close binary system GG Tau which is known to have a circumbinary disk. Combining our data with previous measurements at other wavelengths, and with modeling of the disks and envelopes, we estimate the relative contributions from free-free and dust emissions and derive estimates of the spectral index of the dust emission in several systems. The data allow us to look at the spectral index of the dust emissivity at lambda =1 cm and to extend our analysis to other wavelengths to estimate the spectral index between 1 cm, 2.7 mm and 1.3 mm. The wavelength dependence of the dust emissivity provides a rough measure of mean grain sizes in these systems, hence a view into the dust coagulation process and the building of planetesimals.

  4. Laser excitation spectrum of C 3 in the region 26 000-30 700 cm -1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chiao-Wei; Merer, Anthony J.; Chao, Jun-Mei; Hsu, Yen-Chu

    2010-09-01

    The vibrational structure of the A˜1? electronic state of C 3 in the region 26 000-30 775 cm -1 has been re-examined, using laser excitation spectra of jet-cooled molecules. Rotational constants and vibrational energies have been determined for over 60 previously-unreported vibronic levels; a number of other levels have been re-assigned. The vibrational structure is complicated by interactions between levels of the upper and lower Born-Oppenheimer components of the A˜1? state, and by the effects of the double minimum potential in the Q coordinate, recognized by Izuha and Yamanouchi [16]. The present work shows that there is also strong anharmonic resonance between the overtones of the ?1 and ?3 vibrations. For instance, the levels 2 1 + 1 and 0 1 + 3 are nearly degenerate in zero order, but as a result of the resonance they give rise to two levels 139 cm -1 apart, centered about the expected position of the 2 1 + 1 level. With these irregularities recognized, every observed vibrational level up to 30 000 cm -1 (a vibrational energy of over 5000 cm -1) can now be assigned. A ?u+ vibronic level at 30181.4 cm -1, which has a much lower B' rotational constant than nearby levels of the A˜1? state, possibly represents the onset of vibronic perturbations by the B˜'1? electronic state; this state is so far unknown, but is predicted by the ab initio calculations of Ahmed et al. [36].

  5. Mass estimates of very small reactor cores fueled by Uranium-235, U-233 and Cm-245

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2001-02-01

    This paper explores the possibility of manufacturing very small reactors from U-235, U-233 and Cm-245. Pin type reactor systems fueled with uranium or curium metal zirconium hydride (UZrH or CmZrH) are compared with similar designs using U-235. Criticality measurements of homogeneous water uranium systems, suggest that reactor subsystem masses have a broad minimum for hydrogen-to-uranium atom ratios that vary from 25-250. This paper compares the masses of metal-hydride fueled reactor systems that use U-235, U-233, and Cm-245 fuel with hydrogen-to-metal atom ratios from 20-300 when cooled by gas (HeXe), liquid metal (Na), and water. The results indicate that water cooled reactors in general have the smallest reactor subsystem mass. For gas and liquid-metal cooled reactors U-233 subsystems have total masses that are about 1/2 those of similarly designed U-235 fuel reactors. Reactor subsystems consisting of 11.2% enriched Cm-245 (balance Cm-244) that can be obtained from fuel reprocessing have system masses comparable to that of U-233. The smallest reactor subsystem masses were on the order of 60-80 kg for U-233 fueled water cooled reactors. .

  6. Demonstration of a 17 cm robust carbon fiber deformable mirror for adaptive optics

    SciTech Connect

    Ammons, S M; Hart, M; Coughenour, B; Romeo, R; Martin, R; Rademacher, M

    2011-09-12

    Carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite is an attractive material for fabrication of optics due to its high stiffness-to-weight ratio, robustness, zero coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and the ability to replicate multiple optics from the same mandrel. We use 8 and 17 cm prototype CFRP thin-shell deformable mirrors to show that residual CTE variation may be addressed with mounted actuators for a variety of mirror sizes. We present measurements of surface quality at a range of temperatures characteristic of mountaintop observatories. For the 8 cm piece, the figure error of the Al-coated reflective surface under best actuator correction is {approx}43 nm RMS. The 8 cm mirror has a low surface error internal to the outer ring of actuators (17 nm RMS at 20 C and 33 nm RMS at -5 C). Surface roughness is low (< 3 nm P-V) at a variety of temperatures. We present new figure quality measurements of the larger 17 cm mirror, showing that the intra-actuator figure error internal to the outer ring of actuators (38 nm RMS surface with one-third the actuator density of the 8 cm mirror) does not scale sharply with mirror diameter.

  7. Unveiling the nature of dark matter with high redshift 21 cm line experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evoli, C.; Mesinger, A.; Ferrara, A.

    2014-11-01

    Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line from neutral hydrogen will open a new window on the early Universe. By influencing the thermal and ionization history of the intergalactic medium (IGM), annihilating dark matter (DM) can leave a detectable imprint in the 21 cm signal. Building on the publicly available 21cmFAST code, we compute the 21 cm signal for a 10 GeV WIMP DM candidate. The most pronounced role of DM annihilations is in heating the IGM earlier and more uniformly than astrophysical sources of X-rays. This leaves several unambiguous, qualitative signatures in the redshift evolution of the large-scale (k simeq 0.1 Mpc-1) 21 cm power amplitude: (i) the local maximum (peak) associated with IGM heating can be lower than the other maxima; (ii) the heating peak can occur while the IGM is in emission against the cosmic microwave background (CMB); (iii) there can be a dramatic drop in power (a global minimum) corresponding to the epoch when the IGM temperature is comparable to the CMB temperature. These signatures are robust to astrophysical uncertainties, and will be easily detectable with second generation interferometers. We also briefly show that decaying warm dark matter has a negligible role in heating the IGM.

  8. CM101-mediated recovery of walking ability in adult mice paralyzed by spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Wamil, Artur W.; Wamil, Barbara D.; Hellerqvist, Carl G.

    1998-01-01

    CM101, an antiangiogenic polysaccharide derived from group B streptococcus, was administered by i.v. injection 1 hr post-spinal-cord crush injury in an effort to prevent inflammatory angiogenesis and gliosis (scarring) in a mouse model. We postulated that gliosis would sterically prevent the reestablishment of neuronal connectivity; thus, treatment with CM101 was repeated every other day for five more infusions for the purpose of facilitating regeneration of neuronal function. Twenty-five of 26 mice treated with CM101 survived 28 days after surgery, and 24 of 26 recovered walking ability within 2–12 days. Only 6 of 14 mice in the control groups survived 24 hr after spinal cord injury, and none recovered function in paralyzed limbs. MRI analysis of injured untreated and treated animals showed that CM101 reduced the area of damage at the site of spinal cord compression, which was corroborated by histological analysis of spinal cord sections from treated and control animals. Electrophysiologic measurements on isolated central nervous system and neurons in culture showed that CM101 protected axons from Wallerian degeneration; reversed ?-aminobutyrate-mediated depolarization occurring in traumatized neurons; and improved recovery of neuronal conductivity of isolated central nervous system in culture. PMID:9789063

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 5cm OH masers survey (Baudry+ 1997)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudry, A.; Desmurs, J.-F.; Wilson, T. L.; Cohen, R. J.

    1997-05-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive search for 5 cm OH masers in regions visible from Effelsberg with the 100-m telescope (i.e., those with declinations above -29o). Our sample is based on bright sources taken from the IRAS Point Source Catalog and/or from previous 18cm OH and H 2O surveys. Among the 165 sources observed, 16 are new (15 exhibit emission and one source shows both absorption and emission). Two new absorption line sources have been tentatively detected. The general properties of the 5cm OH sources are presented and discussed. The 6035MHz line is more often detected than the 6031MHz line. Nevertheless, the latter line is frequently present, a fact that is not explained by present OH excitation models. Simple calculations tend to show that there are enough FIR photons to pump the 6035 and 6031MHz masers, and we found that the statistics of the ratio S radio/S IR at 18, 5 and 6cm suggest that the maser pumping efficiency decreases with increasing OH excitation. Variability on short (months) or long (years) time-scales is a common feature in many 5 cm OH sources. We also present observations of the 6 GHz satellite lines and report, besides W3(OH), on two certain and perhaps two newly detected weak sources. Some implications on the excitation of OH are briefly discussed. (6 data files).

  10. Safeguard aspects of /sup 244/Cm as a multiplier in cylindrical hybrid blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kusayer, T.A.; Sahin, S.

    1986-01-01

    In this work, the neutron multiplication and breeding performance of /sup 244/Cm is analyzed in connection with a deuterium-tritium (D-T)-driven experimental hybrid blanket in cylindrical geometry within the research program AYMAN in order to simulate relatively realistic neutron spectra for future hybrid reactors. Results show that the /sup 244/Cm(n,..gamma..) reaction rate of 0.0148 per D-T fusion neutron corresponds to a production rate of 50 g//sup 245/Cm per year-MW(t) fusion chamber power by a load factor of 75%. A relatively small fusion driver with 100 MW(t) of power would lead to the production of approx. 5 kg /sup 245/Cm per year under similar spectral conditions, enough to provide fuel for up to 50 explosives per year. The raw material required for this process would be approx. 25 kg of /sup 244/Cm per year, which can be extracted from the inventory of minor actinides from 30 tons of heavy metal, after a burnup of 33 GWd/ton in a 1250-MW(e) pressurized water reactor plant, containing 30% conventional mixed-oxide fuel (U-Pu) and 70% uranium and plutonium recycling. These numbers demonstrate clearly the necessity of revising safeguarding regulations prior to the introduction of fusion reactors.

  11. Alpha s1-casein, milk composition and coagulation properties of goat milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Clark; J. W. Sherbon

    2000-01-01

    Amounts of alphas1-casein (?s1-CN), protein, fat, SNF and total solids were measured in 125 goat milk samples. Coagulation time, coagulation rate and curd firmness were measured in 75 goat milk samples by dynamic mechanical analysis using a Bohlin VOR Rheometer. After adjustments were made for month, time of milk collection and animal age, it was confirmed that goat milk with

  12. Molecular structures and functions of pyocins S1 and S2 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Y; Matsui, H; Kobayashi, M; Kageyama, M

    1993-01-01

    Pyocins S1 and S2 are S-type bacteriocins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with different receptor recognition specificities. The genetic determinants of these pyocins have been cloned from the chromosomes of P. aeruginosa NIH-H and PAO, respectively. Each determinant constitutes an operon encoding two proteins of molecular weights 65,600 and 10,000 (pyocin S1) or 74,000 and 10,000 (pyocin S2) with a characteristic sequence (P box), a possible regulatory element involved in the induction of pyocin production, in the 5' upstream region. These pyocins have almost identical primary sequences; only the amino-terminal portions of the large proteins are substantially different. The sequence homology suggests that pyocins S1 and S2, like pyocin AP41, originated from a common ancestor of the E2 group colicins. Purified pyocins S1 and S2 make up a complex of the two proteins. Both pyocins cause breakdown of chromosomal DNA as well as complete inhibition of lipid synthesis in sensitive cells. The large protein, but not the pyocin complex, shows in vitro DNase activity. This activity is inhibited by the small protein of either pyocin. Putative domain structures of these pyocins and their killing mechanism are discussed. Images PMID:8491711

  13. Evaluation of Riemann Zeta function on the Line $\\Re(s) = 1$ and Odd Arguments

    E-print Network

    Arunachalam, Srinivasan

    2011-01-01

    We have looked at the evaluation of the riemann zeta function at odd arguments and have provided a simple formula to approximate the value with exponential convergence. We have compared it with various other formulae present in literature. We have also evaluated an expression for the zeta function on the plane $\\Re(s) = 1$.

  14. Two-Photon 2s1s Transitions during Recombination of Hydrogen in the Universe

    E-print Network

    E. E. Kholupenko; A. V. Ivanchik

    2006-11-13

    Based on the standard cosmological model, we calculate the correction to the rate of two-photon 2s1s transitions in the hydrogen atom under primordial hydrogen plasma recombination conditions that arises when the induced transitions under equilibrium background radiation with a blackbody spectrum and plasma recombination radiation are taken into account.

  15. 09s1: COMP9417 Machine Learning and Data Mining Machine Learning for Numeric

    E-print Network

    Bain, Mike

    09s1: COMP9417 Machine Learning and Data Mining Machine Learning for Numeric Prediction April 1, 2009 Acknowledgement: Material derived from slides for the book Machine Learning, Tom M. Mitchell, Mc by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Aims This lecture will enable you to describe and reproduce machine learning

  16. 09s1: COMP9417 Machine Learning and Data Mining Introduction to Machine Learning

    E-print Network

    Bain, Mike

    09s1: COMP9417 Machine Learning and Data Mining Introduction to Machine Learning March 12, 2008 Acknowledgement: Material derived from slides for the book Machine Learning, Tom Mitchell, McGraw-Hill, 1997 http to describe the motivation, scope and some application areas of machine learning. Following it you should

  17. Observation of Exclusive ?? Production in pp? Collisions at ?s=1.96??TeV

    E-print Network

    Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo

    We have observed exclusive ?? production in proton-antiproton collisions at ?s=1.96??TeV, using data from 1.11±0.07??fb[superscript -1] integrated luminosity taken by the Run II Collider Detector at Fermilab. We selected ...

  18. Fundamental linewidth in solitary, ultranarrow output PbS(1-x)Se(x) diode lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, C.; Bielinski, J. W.; Lo, W.

    1983-01-01

    The fundamental, quantum phase noise limited Lorentzian linewidth was directly measured from the beat-note spectra generated by heterodyning PbS(1-x)Se(x) diode lasers with a stable CO gas laser. The experimental results were matched by calculated theoretical line profiles. Linewidths as narrow as 22 kHz full width at half-maximum power were observed.

  19. 09s1: COMP9417 Machine Learning and Data Mining Learning and Logic

    E-print Network

    Bain, Mike

    09s1: COMP9417 Machine Learning and Data Mining Learning and Logic May 6, 2009 Acknowledgement.cs.cmu.edu/~tom/mlbook.html and the book Inductive Logic Programming: Techniques and Applications principles describing protein fold space". Journal of Molecular Biology, 2003. (available at http

  20. Unusual selection on the KIR3DL1\\/S1 natural killer cell receptor in Africans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Abi-Rached; Ketevan Gendzekhadze; Daniel Korbel; Michael Gleimer; Don Rowley; Dan Bruno; Christine V F Carrington; Dasdayanee Chandanayingyong; Yih-Hsin Chang; Catalina Crespí; Güher Saruhan-Direskeneli; Patricia A Fraser; Kamran Hameed; Giorgi Kamkamidze; Kwadwo A Koram; Zulay Layrisse; Nuria Matamoros; Joan Milà; Myoung Hee Park; Ramasamy M Pitchappan; D Dan Ramdath; Ming-Yuh Shiau; Henry A F Stephens; Siske Struik; David H Verity; Robert W Vaughan; Dolly Tyan; Ronald W Davis; Eleanor M Riley; Mostafa Ronaghi; Paul J Norman; Peter Parham

    2007-01-01

    Interactions of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I ligands diversify natural killer cell responses to infection. By analyzing sequence variation in diverse human populations, we show that the KIR3DL1\\/S1 locus encodes two lineages of polymorphic inhibitory KIR3DL1 allotypes that recognize Bw4 epitopes of protein\\

  1. 09s1: COMP9417 Machine Learning and Data Mining Genetic Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Bain, Mike

    09s1: COMP9417 Machine Learning and Data Mining Genetic Algorithms April 22, 2009 Acknowledgement learning approaches using genetic algorithms. Following it you should be able to: · outline evolutionary computation · reproduce the basic form of a genetic algorithm · describe a representation for rule learning

  2. Project Summary Report 0-4386-S 1 The University of Texas at Austin

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Project Summary Report 0-4386-S ­ 1 ­ The University of Texas at Austin Center for Transportation Research PROJECTSUMMARYREPORT CENTER FOR TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN Project Summary Report 0-4386-S Project 0-4386: Expediting Highway Construction While Retaining Quality Authors: C

  3. Conference on Learning Disabilities: A Review of Indiana's Rule S-1. LD Series #5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Patricia H., Ed.; Middleton, Thomas O., Ed.

    The document is a collection of papers presented at a conference on the delivery of services to learning disabled children in Indiana that focused on Indiana's Rule S-1, which implements the mandatory special education act through multidisciplinary identification, assessment, and placement of handicapped children. Titles and authors include "The…

  4. An Ontology for PACS Integration Charles E. Kahn Jr., M.D., M.S.,1

    E-print Network

    Rubin, Daniel L.

    An Ontology for PACS Integration Charles E. Kahn Jr., M.D., M.S.,1 David S. Channin, M.D.,2 and Daniel L. Rubin, M.D., M.S.3 An ontology describes a set of classes and the relation- ships among them. We explored the use of an ontology to integrate picture archiving and communication systems (PACS

  5. Anomalie d’émergence radiculaire par racine conjointe S1: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Kessely, Yannick Canton; Sakho, Maguette Gaye; Fondo, Alidji; Daisy, Akerey Diop; Thiam, Aley; Sakho, Youssoupha

    2015-01-01

    De découverte per-opératoire pour hernie discale, les anomalies d’émergence radiculaires constituent une entité rare. La présentation clinique est généralement identique à celle d'une radiculopathie. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient âgé de 35 ans présentant une sciatique droite S1 hyperalgique rebelle aux multiples médications. L'IRM du rachis lombo-sacré avait mis en évidence une discopathie protrusive de petit volume en L5 S1 droite et un aspect de grosse racine ou de kyste de Tarlov au niveau de l’émergence droite de S1. Une fenestration inter lamaire L5-S1 droite avec une ablation du ligament jaune a montré une émergence radiculaire double au niveau de l'espace retro-discal. Un geste de foraminostomie a été réalisé sans discectomie. L’évolution a très favorable avec une rétrocession dès le lendemain. L'analyse pré-opératoire fine et rigoureuse de l'imagerie est indispensable. Une bonne libération améliore l’état clinique du patient. Y penser en cas de sciatique hyperalgique sans Lasègue.

  6. Ultrafast excited state dynamics of S2 and S1 states of triphenylmethane dyes.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Pallavi; Ghosh, Hirendra N

    2014-08-21

    Excited state dynamics of S2 and S1 states for a series of TPM dyes, pyrogallol red (PGR), bromopyrogallol red (Br-PGR) and aurin tricarboxylic acid (ATC), have been monitored by using ultrafast transient absorption and fluorescence up-conversion techniques. Optical absorption studies indicate that all the TPM dyes exist as keto-enol tautomers depending upon the pH of the solution. Interestingly, all the TPM dyes give S2 emission (major emitting state) in addition to weak S1 emission. S2 emission lifetimes as fast as ?150-300 fs and S1 emission lifetimes of 2-5 ns were observed depending upon the molecular structure of the dyes. Femtosecond transient absorption studies suggest the presence of an ultrafast non-radiative decay channel from the S2 state in addition to S2 luminescence. The vibrational relaxation time from hot S1 state is found to be 2-6 ps. The heavy atom effect has been observed in ultrafast relaxation dynamics of Br-PGR. PMID:25003589

  7. Diboson production cross-sections at square root s = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    A. Robson

    2004-08-02

    Recent results of W{gamma}, Z{gamma} and WW cross-section measurements in the electron and muon channels are reported from p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV recorded by the CDF and D0 collaborations. Total cross-sections and kinematic distributions are found to be consistent with Standard Model expectations.

  8. Exercises on defaults Consider the following knowledge base: S1 Cats don't attack people

    E-print Network

    Alechina, Natasha

    Exercises on defaults Consider the following knowledge base: S1 Cats don't attack people S2 Wild cats are cats S3 Wild cats when threatened attack people S4 a is a cat S5 b is a wild cat implications, which are true without exceptions. Use unary predicates C for cat, W for wild cat, A for attack

  9. Supplementary Material Table S1. Calibration data for ammonium sulfate. Calculation of water activity and surface

    E-print Network

    in Sc (based on the reproducibility of experiments at a seed diameter of 31 nm) are ± 4.6% of the base. Figure S1. Schematic diagram of the Harvard Environmental Chamber shown with injection systems the continuously injected sulfate seed particles (2 Lpm), -pinene vapor (4 Lpm), ozone (

  10. A phase I trial of S-1 with concurrent radiotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, M; Okusaka, T; Ito, Y; Ueno, H; Morizane, C; Furuse, J; Ishii, H; Kawashima, M; Kagami, Y; Ikeda, H

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the maximum tolerated dose of S-1 based on the frequency of its dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) with concurrent radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. S-1 was administered orally at escalating doses from 50 to 80?mg?m?2 b.i.d. on the day of irradiation during radiotherapy. Radiation therapy was delivered through four fields as a total dose of 50.4?Gy in 28 fractions over 5.5 weeks, and no prophylactic nodal irradiation was given. Twenty-one patients (50 three; 60 five; 70 six; 80?mg?m?2 seven patients) were enrolled in this trial. At a dose of 70?mg?m?2 S-1, two of six patients demonstrated DLT involving grade 3 nausea and vomiting and grade 3 haemorrhagic gastritis, whereas no patients at doses other than 70?mg?m?2 demonstrated any sign of DLT. Among the 21 enrolled patients, four (19.0%) showed a partial response. The median progression-free survival time and median survival time for the patients overall were 8.9 and 11.0 months, respectively. The recommended dose of S-1 therapy with concurrent radiotherapy is 80?mg?m?2?day?1. A multi-institutional phase II trial of this regimen in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer is now underway. PMID:17533388

  11. Measurement of the scalar polarizability within the 5P1/2-6S1/2, 410 nm transition in atomic indium

    E-print Network

    Ranjit, G; Lorenzo, A T; Schneider, A E; Majumder, P K

    2013-01-01

    We have completed a new measurement of the Stark shift in 115In within the 410 nm 5P1/2- 6S1/2 transition. We measure the Stark shift constant to be kS= - 122.92(33)kHz/(kV/cm)^2, corresponding to a difference in the 6S1/2 and 5P1/2 state polarizabilities, \\Delta\\alpha_0, of 1000.2 (2.7) a.u.(in atomic units). This result is a factor of 30 more precise than previous measurements and is in excellent agreement with a new theoretical value based on an ab initio calculation of the wave functions in this three-valence-electron system. The measurement was performed in an indium atomic beam apparatus, used a GaN laser diode system, and exploited an FM spectroscopy technique to extract laser transmission spectra under conditions where our interaction region optical depth was typically less than 10^-3.

  12. Index theorem for topological excitations on R^3 * S^1 and Chern-Simons theory

    E-print Network

    Erich Poppitz; Mithat Unsal

    2009-03-12

    We derive an index theorem for the Dirac operator in the background of various topological excitations on an R^3 \\times S^1 geometry. The index theorem provides more refined data than the APS index for an instanton on R^4 and reproduces it in decompactification limit. In the R^3 limit, it reduces to the Callias index theorem. The index is expressed in terms of topological charge and the eta-invariant associated with the boundary Dirac operator. Neither topological charge nor eta-invariant is typically an integer, however, the non-integer parts cancel to give an integer-valued index. Our derivation is based on axial current non-conservation--an exact operator identity valid on any four-manifold--and on the existence of a center symmetric, or approximately center symmetric, boundary holonomy (Wilson line). We expect the index theorem to usefully apply to many physical systems of interest, such as low temperature (large S^1, confined) phases of gauge theories, center stabilized Yang-Mills theories with vector-like or chiral matter (at S^1 of any size), and supersymmetric gauge theories with supersymmetry-preserving boundary conditions (also at any S^1). In QCD-like and chiral gauge theories, the index theorem should shed light into the nature of topological excitations responsible for chiral symmetry breaking and the generation of mass gap in the gauge sector. We also show that imposing chirally-twisted boundary condition in gauge theories with fermions induces a Chern-Simons term in the infrared. This suggests that some QCD-like gauge theories should possess components with a topological Chern-Simons phase in the small S^1 regime.

  13. A complementary approach for evaluating S1-root in diabetic neuropathic patients.

    PubMed

    Emad, M Reza; Gheisi, A Reza

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common causes of peripheral neuropathy. Conventional electrodiagnostic evaluation or even magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lumbosacral vertebrae cannot confirm radiculopathy (e.g S1-root irritation) in diabetic neuropathic patients definitely. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate spinal nerve pathway of H-reflex in diabetic neuropathic patients by the central loop of H-reflex when its conventional pathway was impaired. No similar study, however, has been done on this subject. Forty two diabetic neuropathic patients with impaired conventional H-reflex were studied by the central loop of H-reflex bilaterally. The central loop of H-reflex was elicited by monopolar needle stimulation of S1 nerve root at the level of S1 foramen and recorded in the half way of the line from popliteal crease to the medial malleolus. In 82 out of 84 (97.6%) limbs with impaired conventional H-reflex, the central loop of H-reflex was measurable with latency less than 8 ms. Therefore the central loop of H-reflex was a more reliable approach for investigating S1-root in these patients with significant statistical difference (P < 0.001). The central loop of H-reflex latency in this study was 6.34 +/- 0.96 ms with the range of 4.3-7.85 ms. In conclusion the presence of central loop of H-reflex with latency less than 8 ms can be used as a complementary approach for assessment of S1-root sparing in diabetics. PMID:20349560

  14. Kinetic mechanism of myosinV-S1 using a new fluorescent ATP analogue.

    PubMed

    Forgacs, Eva; Cartwright, Suzanne; Kovács, Mihály; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Sellers, James R; Corrie, John E T; Webb, Martin R; White, Howard D

    2006-10-31

    We have used a new fluorescent ATP analogue, 3'-(7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carbonylamino)-3'-deoxyadenosine-5'-triphosphate (deac-aminoATP), to study the ATP hydrolysis mechanism of the single headed myosinV-S1. Our study demonstrates that deac-aminoATP is an excellent substrate for these studies. Although the deac-amino nucleotides have a low quantum yield in free solution, there is a very large increase in fluorescence emission ( approximately 20-fold) upon binding to the myosinV active site. The fluorescence emission intensity is independent of the hydrolysis state of the nucleotide bound to myosinV-S1. The very good signal-to-noise ratio that is obtained with deac-amino nucleotides makes them excellent substrates for studying expressed proteins that can only be isolated in small quantities. The combination of the fast rate of binding and the favorable signal-to-noise ratio also allows deac-nucleotides to be used in chase experiments to determine the kinetics of ADP and Pi dissociation from actomyosin-ADP-Pi. Although phosphate dissociation from actomyosinV-ADP-Pi does not itself produce a fluorescence signal, it produces a lag in the signal for deac-aminoADP dissociation. The lag provides direct evidence that the principal pathway of product dissociation from actomyosinV-ADP-Pi is an ordered mechanism in which phosphate precedes ADP. Although the mechanism of hydrolysis of deac-aminoATP by (acto)myosinV-S1 is qualitatively similar to the ATP hydrolysis mechanism, there are significant differences in some of the rate constants. Deac-aminoATP binds 3-fold faster to myosinV-S1, and the rate of deac-aminoADP dissociation from actomyosinV-S1 is 20-fold slower. Deac-aminoATP supports motility by myosinV-HMM on actin at a rate consistent with the slower rate of deac-aminoADP dissociation. PMID:17059220

  15. Carbonaceous chondrites. I - Characterization and significance of carbonaceous chondrite /CM/ xenoliths in the Jodzie howardite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Chang, S.; Frick, U.; Neil, J.; Moreland, G.

    1979-01-01

    Mineralogical, chemical, textural, and isotopic studies of the abundant carbonaceous inclusions in the Jodzie howardite which are consistent with carbonaceous chondrite (CM) characteristics are examined. These CM xenoliths show regolith alteration comparable to the Murray and Murchison meteorites but less than Nogoya, flow-oriented development of phyllosilicates and 'poorly characterized phases', and partial oxidation of sulfides. Temperature-programmed pyrolysis mass spectrometry indicates that gas release patterns of volatiles and hydrocarbons, and N, C, and S contents are typical of CM meteorites. The fact that the Ne content is typical for 'solar' values and the isotopic structure of Xe is 'planetary' indicates that these gases were entrapped by different mechanisms, and cosmic ray exposure ages for the xenoliths agree with the reported exposure age for the eucritic host.

  16. Overcoming the barrier to 1000 A/cm width superconducting coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foltyn, S. R.; Wang, H.; Civale, L.; Jia, Q. X.; Arendt, P. N.; Maiorov, B.; Li, Y.; Maley, M. P.; MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.

    2005-10-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in the development of YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO)-based coated conductors, and the problems of continuous processing of commercially viable tape lengths are being rapidly solved by companies around the world. However, the current carried by these tapes is presently limited to about 100A for a 1-cm-wide tape, and this is due to a rapid decrease of critical current density (Jc) as the coating thickness is increased. We have now overcome this problem by separating relatively thin YBCO layers with very thin layers of CeO2. Using this multilayer technology, we have achieved Jc values on metal substrates of up to 4.0MA /cm2 (75K, self-field) in films as thick as 3.5?m, for an extrapolated current of 1400A/cm width.

  17. Measurement of the intensity of the cosmic background radiation at 3. 0 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, S.D.

    1984-01-01

    The intensity of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) has been measured at a wavelength of 3.0 cm as part of a program to measure th Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum of the CBR at five wavelengths between 0.33 cm and 12 cm. The instrument used is a dual-antenna Dicke-switched radiometer with a double-sideband noise temperature of 490 K and a sensitivity of 46 mK/Hz/sup 1/2/. The entire radiometer is mounted on bearings. The atmospheric emission was measured by rotating the radiometer, and thus directing one antenna to zenith angles of +- 30/sup 0/ and +- 40/sup 0/. 61 references, 24 figures, 18 tables.

  18. Spin-orbit holds the heavyweight title for Pu and Am: Exchange regains it for Cm

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K; der Laan, G v; Soderlind, P

    2008-01-10

    The conclusions of this paper are: (1) The 5f electrons in Cm are near an LS coupling scheme. (2) This coupling scheme allows for a large spin polarization of the 5f electrons, which in turn stabilizes the Cm III crystal structure. (3) Results for Cm show us the recipe for magnetic stabilization of the crystal structure of metals: (A) The metal must be near the itinerant-localized transition where multiple crystal structures have close energies; (B) The metal is just on the magnetic side of the transition; and (C) There must be a magnetic moment large enough to overcome the energy difference between crystal structures, thus dictating the atomic geometry. (4) These results solidify our understanding of magnetically-stabilized metals, showing us where to look for engineered materials with magnetic applications.

  19. 21-cm radiation: a new probe of variation in the fine-structure constant.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Rishi; Wandelt, Benjamin D

    2007-03-16

    We investigate the effect of variation in the value of the fine-structure constant (alpha) at high redshifts (recombination > z > 30) on the absorption of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 21 cm hyperfine transition of the neutral atomic hydrogen. We find that the 21 cm signal is very sensitive to the variations in alpha and it is so far the only probe of the fine-structure constant in this redshift range. A change in the value of alpha by 1% changes the mean brightness temperature decrement of the CMB due to 21 cm absorption by >5% over the redshift range z < 50. There is an effect of similar magnitude on the amplitude of the fluctuations in the brightness temperature. The redshift of maximum absorption also changes by approximately 5%. PMID:17501040

  20. 21 cm radiation - a new probe of variation in the fine structure constant

    E-print Network

    Rishi Khatri; Benjamin D. Wandelt

    2007-03-17

    We investigate the effect of variation in the value of the fine structure constant at high redshifts (recombination > z > 30) on the absorption of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 21 cm hyperfine transition of the neutral atomic hydrogen. We find that the 21 cm signal is very sensitive to the variations in the fine structure constant and it is so far the only probe of the fine structure constant in this redshift range. A change in the value of the fine structure constant by 1% changes the mean brightness temperature decrement of the CMB due to 21 cm absorption by > 5% over the redshift range z < 50. There is an effect of similar magnitude on the amplitude of the fluctuations in the brightness temperature. The redshift of maximum absorption also changes by ~ 5%.

  1. Biased Reionisation and Non-Gaussianity in Redshifted 21cm Intensity Maps of the Reionisation Epoch

    E-print Network

    Stuart Wyithe; Miguel Morales

    2007-03-05

    Spatial dependence in the statistics of redshifted 21cm fluctuations promises to provide the most powerful probe of the reionisation epoch. In this paper we consider the second and third moments of the redshifted 21cm intensity distribution using a simple model that accounts for galaxy bias during the reionisation process. We demonstrate that skewness in redshifted 21cm maps should be substantial throughout the reionisation epoch and on all angular scales, owing to the effects of galaxy bias which leads to early reionisation in over-dense regions of the IGM. The variance (or power-spectrum) of 21cm fluctuations will exhibit a minimum in redshift part way through the reionisation process, when the global ionisation fraction is around 50%. This minimum is generic, and is due to the transition from 21cm intensity being dominated by over-dense too under-dense regions as reionisation progresses. We show that the details of the reionisation history, including the presence of radiative feedback are encoded in the evolution of the auto-correlation and skewness functions with redshift and mean IGM neutral fraction. We discuss the detection of skewness by first generation instruments, and conclude that the Mileura Widefield Array - Low Frequency Demonstrator will have sufficient sensitivity to detect skewness on a range of angular scales at redshifts near the end of reionisation, while a subsequent instrument of 10 times the collecting area could map out the evolution of skewness in detail. The observation of a minimum in variance during the reionisation history, and the detection of skewness would both provide important confirmation of the cosmological origin of redshifted 21cm intensity fluctuations.

  2. Cosmological Parameter Estimation Using 21 cm Radiation from the Epoch of Reionization

    E-print Network

    Matthew McQuinn; Oliver Zahn; Matias Zaldarriaga; Lars Hernquist; Steven R. Furlanetto

    2006-10-31

    A number of radio interferometers are currently being planned or constructed to observe 21 cm emission from reionization. Not only will such measurements provide a detailed view of that epoch, but, since the 21 cm emission also traces the distribution of matter in the Universe, this signal can be used to constrain cosmological parameters at 6 < z < 20. The sensitivity of an interferometer to the cosmological information in the signal may depend on how precisely the angular dependence of the 21 cm 3-D power spectrum can be measured. Utilizing an analytic model for reionization, we quantify all the effects that break the spherical symmetry of the 3-D 21 cm power spectrum and produce physically motivated predictions for this power spectrum. We find that upcoming observatories will be sensitive to the 21 cm signal over a wide range of scales, from larger than 100 to as small as 1 comoving Mpc. We consider three methods to measure cosmological parameters from the signal: (1) direct fitting of the density power spectrum to the signal, (2) using only the velocity field fluctuations in the signal, (3) looking at the signal at large enough scales such that all fluctuations trace the density field. With the foremost method, the first generation of 21 cm observations should moderately improve existing constraints on cosmological parameters for certain low-redshift reionization scenarios, and a two year observation with the second generation interferometer MWA5000 can improve constraints on Omega_w, Omega_m h^2, Omega_b h^2, Omega_nu, n_s, and alpha_s. If the Universe is substantially ionized by z = 12 or if spin temperature fluctuations are important, we show that it will be difficult to place competitive constraints on cosmological parameters with any of the considered methods.

  3. The subpulse modulation properties of pulsars at 92 cm and the frequency dependence of subpulse modulation

    E-print Network

    P. Weltevrede; B. W. Stappers; R. T. Edwards

    2007-04-26

    A large sample of pulsars has been observed to study their subpulse modulation at an observing wavelength (when achievable) of both 21 and 92 cm using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. In this paper we present the 92-cm data and a comparison is made with the already published 21-cm results. We analysed 191 pulsars at 92 cm using fluctuation spectra. The sample of pulsars is as unbiased as possible towards any particular pulsar characteristics. For 15 pulsars drifting subpulses are discovered for the first time and 26 of the new drifters found in the 21-cm data are confirmed. We discovered nulling for 8 sources and 8 pulsars are found to intermittently emit single pulses that have pulse energies similar to giant pulses. It is estimated that at least half of the total population of pulsars have drifting subpulses when observations with a high enough signal-to-noise ratio would be available. It could well be that the drifting subpulse mechanism is an intrinsic property of the emission mechanism itself, although for some pulsars it is difficult or impossible to detect. Drifting subpulses are in general found at both frequencies, although the chance of detecting drifting subpulses is possibly slightly higher at 92 cm. It appears that the youngest pulsars have the most disordered subpulses and the subpulses become more and more organized into drifting subpulses as the pulsar ages. The correlations with the modulation indices are argued to be consistent with the picture in which the radio emission can be divided in a drifting subpulse signal plus a quasi-steady signal which becomes, on average, stronger at high observing frequencies. The measured values of P3 at the two frequencies are highly correlated, but there is no evidence for a correlation with other pulsar parameters.

  4. Spin Forming Aluminum Crew Module (CM) Metallic Aft Pressure Vessel Bulkhead (APVBH) - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.; Torres, Pablo D.; McGill, Preston B.; Tayon, Wesley A.; Bennett, Jay E.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the Orion crew module (CM) aft pressure vessel bulkhead. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) alloy 2219 aft bulkhead resulting in the elimination of the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify CM fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design. Phase I (NASA TM-2014-218163, (1)) of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece CM forward pressure vessel bulkhead. The MPCV Program and Lockheed Martin (LM) recently made two critical decisions relative to the NESC Phase I work scope: (1) LM selected the spin forming process to manufacture a singlepiece aft bulkhead for the Orion CM, and (2) the aft bulkhead will be manufactured from Al 2219. Based on the Program's new emphasis related to the spin forming process, the NESC was asked to conduct a Phase II assessment to assist in the LM manufacture of the aft bulkhead and to conduct a feasibility study into spin forming the Orion CM cone. This activity was approved on June 19, 2013. Dr. Robert Piascik, NASA Technical Fellow for Materials at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The project plan was approved by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Review Board (NRB) on July 18, 2013. The primary stakeholders for this assessment are the NASA and LM MPCV Program offices. Additional benefactors are commercial launch providers developing CM concepts.

  5. Design of a {O}94 cm mirror mount for the Petawatt Project on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, R.; Tietbohl, G.L.

    1995-10-01

    The authors have designed a large optical gimbal mount that will be used on the Petawatt Project currently under construction on the Nova laser. These mounts are designed to hold and tilt {O}94 cm mirrors and gratings that will redirect the {O}60 cm beam through the Petawatt vacuum compressor. Lacking the commercial availability to house this size optic, they have engineered a large mirror mount with a high natural frequency (42 Hz), low self-weight deflection of the mirror (< {lambda}/46), and high positioning accuracy characteristics (< 1 {micro}rad using flexures and stepping motors). Analysis details and methodology are presented.

  6. Atlas of absorption lines from 0 to 17 900 cm(-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. H.; Rothman, L. S.; Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.; Richardson, D. J.; Larsen, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Plots of absorption line strength versus line position for wavenumbers from 0 to 17,900 cm(-1) are shown for 20 atmospheric gases (H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, CO, CH4, O2, NO, SO2, NO2, NH3, HNO3, OH, HF, HCl, HBr, HI, ClO, OCS, H2CO). Also shown are similar plots of lower-state energy values for adsorption lines for the strongly adsorbing atmospheric gases (H2O, CO2, O3, and CH4) for wavenumbers from 0 to 5000 cm(-1).

  7. The 5200 cycle test of an 8-cm diameter Hg ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.; Wintucky, E. G.

    1978-01-01

    An accelerated cycle test was conducted in which an 8-cm Engineering Model Thruster (EMT) prototype successfully completed 5200 on-off cycles and a total of more than 1300hours of thruster operation at a 4.5 mN thrust level. Cathode tip heater powers required for starting and keeper voltages remained well within acceptable limits. The discharge chamber utilization and electrical efficiency were nearly constant over the duration of the test. It was concluded that on-off cyclic operation by itself does not appreciably degrade starting capability or performance of the 8-cm EMT.

  8. Titan's Far-Infrared 220 cm-1 Cloud Seen for the First Time in the South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Donald; Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; Nixon, Conor; Flasar, Michael; Teanby, Nick; de Kok, Remco; Coustenis, Athena; Vinatier, Sandrine

    2013-04-01

    In 2012 an emission feature at 220 cm-1 in Titan's far-infrared spectrum was seen for the first time in the south [1]. Attributed to a stratosphere ice cloud formed at the winter pole, the 220 cm-1 emission had previously been seen only at high northern latitudes where it had been decreasing since the arrival of Cassini in 2004 [2]. Our far-infrared observations were performed with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini [3]. Although it had been expected that the 220 cm-1 emission would eventually appear in the south, the emission appeared rather suddenly, increasing by a factor of at least four between February (when it was not detected) and July 2012. At the time of our observations, one Titan month after equinox, the 220 cm-1feature was present in both the north and south and showed a trend of continued slow decrease in the north and steep increase in the south. As has been the case in the north, the emission in the south was confined to high latitudes associated with winter polar shadowing. Our spectroscopic detection of the southern 220 cm-1 ice cloud coincided with the rapid formation in 2012 of a haze hood and vortex at the south pole as seen in Cassini images [4]. The 220 cm-1 feature was first observed by the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) on Voyager 1 [5, 6] and has been extensively studied in the north by CIRS [7-10]. Until now the 220 cm-1 emission, like the polar hood, has been associated solely with the north, owing to the fact that Voyager and Cassini have viewed Titan only during winter-spring. In 2012 we witnessed the start of a seasonal shift of this pattern to the south. The 220 cm-1 emission arises from altitudes of 80-150 km and peaks sharply near 140 km. The material responsible for the spectral feature is not known, but indirect evidence hints at a condensate arising from complex nitriles, which also tend to be present only at high winter latitudes. References: [1] Jennings, D. E., et al., ApJ, 761, L15, 2012. [2] Jennings, D. E., et al., ApJ, 754, L3, 2012. [3] Flasar, F. M., et al., Space Sci. Rev., 115, 169, 2004. [4] West, R. A., et al., DPS, paper 300.04, 2012. [5] Kunde et al. 1981, [6] Coustenis et al., 1999. [7] de Kok et al., Icarus, 191, 223, 2007. [8] de Kok et al., Icarus, 197, 572, 2008. [9] Samuelson et al., Icarus, 189, 63, 2007. [10] Anderson, et al., presented at workshop "Titan Through Time 2", 2012.

  9. Aqueous alteration on asteroids: Linking the mineralogy and spectroscopy of CM and CI chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdam, M. M.; Sunshine, J. M.; Howard, K. T.; McCoy, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    CM/CI meteorites range in degree of aqueous alteration suggesting differences in initially accreted materials including water ice and possible spatial heterogeneities within their parent bodies. As alteration progresses, the total abundance and magnesium content of phyllosilicates increases. In this paper we present the results of a coordinated spectral-mineralogical study of a well-characterized suite of CM/CI meteorites that range from 60 to 90% alteration. By acquiring spectra the same meteorite powders as Howard et al. (Howard, K.T., Benedix, G.K., Bland, P.A., Cressey, G. [2009]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73, 4576-4589; Howard, K.T., Benedix, G.K., Bland, P.A., Cressey, G. [2011]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 2735-2751) and Bland et al. (Bland, P.A., Cressey, G., Menzies, O.N. [2004]. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 39(1), 3-16), we are able for the first time to directly correlate mineralogy with features in reflectance spectra. At visible/near-infrared wavelength, the presence of a 0.7-?m charge transfer band is indicative of aqueous alteration. However, not all altered CM/CI meteorites exhibit this feature; thus the lack of a 0.7 ?m absorption band in asteroids does not necessarily signify a lack of aqueous alteration. Furthermore, the position and depth of 0.7-?m charge transfer band shows no correlation with the mineralogical changes associated with aqueous alteration. Similarly, the near-infrared slope, which is not directly related to the mineralogic progression associated with increasing alteration, is not unambiguously related to degree of alteration in the CM/CI meteorites studied. However, the mid-infrared reflectance spectra of CM/CI meteorites contain a broad absorption feature in the 10-13-?m region, which is a convolution of vibrational features due to Mg-rich phyllosilicates and unaltered olivine. The overall feature continuously changes with total phyllosilicate abundance from a shorter wavenumber/longer wavelength peak (815 cm-1, 12.3-?m) for less altered meteorites to a longer wavenumber/shorter wavelength (875 cm-1, 11.4-?m) peak in the highly altered meteorites, with roughly equal spectral contributions producing a doublet in intermediately altered meteorites, Using the results from the mid-infrared analyses of meteorite spectra, it is possible to estimate the degree of alteration on dark primitive asteroids. We find Asteroid (24) Themis to have a 1000-700 cm-1 (10-13-?m) peak at longer wavelengths suggesting Themis has a complex surface mineralogy with approximately 70 vol.% phyllosilicates and 25 vol.% anhydrous silicates.

  10. New 21 cm Power Spectrum Upper Limits From PAPER I : Results from PAPER 64

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraz Ali, Zaki; Parsons, Aaron; Pober, Jonathan; Team Paper

    2015-01-01

    We present power spectrum results from a new season of observations with the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER)-64. PAPER is a low frequency radio interferometer that aims to directly observe the Epoch of Reionization through the highly redshifted 21 cm transition. With more antennas, longer integration times, and an improved analysis pipeline, this represents further improvements upon existing published upper limits on the 21 cm power spectrum during reionization. This new upper limit enables stringent constraints on X-ray heating of the IGM during EoR.

  11. COSMOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF ATOMIC GAS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR 21 cm H I ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Braun@csiro.au [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2012-04-10

    Galaxy disks are shown to contain a significant population of atomic clouds of 100 pc linear size which are self-opaque in the 21 cm transition. These objects have H I column densities as high as 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2} and contribute to a global opacity correction factor of 1.34 {+-} 0.05 that applies to the integrated 21 cm emission to obtain a total H I mass estimate. High-resolution, opacity-corrected images of the nearest external galaxies have been used to form a robust redshift zero distribution function of H I, f(N{sub HI}, X, z = 0), the probability of encountering a specific H I column density along random lines of sight per unit comoving distance. This is contrasted with previously published determinations of f(N{sub HI}, X) at z = 1 and 3. A systematic decline of moderate column density (18 < log(N{sub H)} < 21) H I is observed with decreasing redshift that corresponds to a decline in surface area of such gas by a factor of five since z = 3. The number of equivalent Damped Lyman Alpha absorbers (log(N{sub HI})>20.3) has also declined systematically over this redshift interval by a similar amount, while the cosmological mass density in such systems has declined by only a factor of two to its current, opacity-corrected value of {Omega}{sup DLA}{sub HI}(z = 0) = 5.4 {+-} 0.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}. We utilize the tight but strongly nonlinear dependence of 21 cm absorption opacity on column density at z = 0 to transform our high-resolution H I images into ones of 21 cm absorption opacity. These images are used to calculate distribution and pathlength functions of integrated 21 cm opacity. We suggest that that this z = 0 calibration may also apply at higher redshift. In this case, the incidence of deep 21 cm absorption systems is predicted to show very little evolution with redshift, while that of faint absorbers should decline by a factor of 5 between z = 3 and the present. We explicitly consider the effects of H I absorption against background sources that are extended relative to the 100 pc intervening absorber size scale. Extended background sources result in dramatically altered distribution and pathlength functions which are insensitive to the predicted redshift evolution. Future surveys of 21 cm absorption will require very high angular resolution, of about 15 mas, for their unambiguous interpretation.

  12. Configuration Management (CM) Support for KM Processes at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Collection and processing of information are critical aspects of every business activity from raw data to information to an executable decision. Configuration Management (CM) supports KM practices through its automated business practices and its integrated operations within the organization. This presentation delivers an overview of JSC/Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) and its methods to encourage innovation through collaboration and participation. Specifically, this presentation will illustrate how SLSD CM creates an embedded KM activity with an established IT platform to control and update baselines, requirements, documents, schedules, budgets, while tracking changes essentially managing critical knowledge elements.

  13. Evolution and status of the 30-cm engineering model ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, T. D.; Poeschel, R. L.; Collett, C. R.; Schnelker, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    In the past five years the 30-cm ion thruster has developed from infancy to maturity through the joint efforts of the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL). The evolution of the 30-cm thruster from the 200-series design to the present 900-series is described. This evolution has included both breadboard and engineering model type thrusters. The evolution description includes functional requirements, design, performance, endurance test results, and major features. The major part of the discussion centers on Hughes-built hardware although NASA LeRC contributions are reflected in the designs.

  14. Beauty production cross section measurements at E(cm) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    D'Onofrio, Monica; /Geneva U.

    2005-05-01

    The RunII physics program at the Tevatron started in spring 2001 with protons and antiprotons colliding at an energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, and it is carrying on with more than 500 pb{sup -1} of data as collected by both the CDF and D0 experiments. Recent results on beauty production cross section measurements are here reported.

  15. The emission probabilities of long range alpha particles from even-even 244-252Cm isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Krishnan, Sreejith; Priyanka, B.

    2014-10-01

    The alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of even-even 244Cm, 246Cm, 248Cm, 250Cm and 252Cm isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of the Coulomb and proximity potential with the fragments in equatorial configuration. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold reaction valley plot and by calculating the relative yield for the charge minimized fragments. In the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the 244Cm isotope, the highest yield is found for the fragment combination 110Ru+4He+130Sn, which possess near doubly magic nuclei 130Sn. For the ternary fission of 246Cm, 248Cm, 250Cm and 252Cm isotopes with 4He as the light charged particle, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination with doubly magic nuclei 132Sn as the heavier fragment. The emission probabilities and kinetic energies of long range alpha particles have been computed for the 242,244,246,248Cm isotopes and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The relative yields for the 4He accompanied ternary fission (equatorial and collinear) of 242-252Cm isotopes are compared with the corresponding yield for binary fission. The effect of deformation and orientation of fragments in the 4He accompanied ternary fission of 244-252Cm isotopes are studied. Our study reveals that the ground state deformation has as an important role in the alpha accompanied ternary fission as that of the shell effect.

  16. The emission probabilities of long range alpha particles from even-even 244-252Cm isotopes

    E-print Network

    K. P. Santhosh; Sreejith Krishnan; B. Priyanka

    2014-09-02

    The alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of even-even 244Cm, 246Cm, 248Cm, 250Cm and 252Cm isotopes have been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential with the fragments in equatorial configuration. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold reaction valley plot and by calculating the relative yield for the charge minimized fragments. In the alpha accompanied ternary fission of 244Cm isotope, the highest yield is found for the fragment combination 110Ru+4He+130Sn, which possess near doubly magic nuclei 130Sn. For the ternary fission of 246Cm, 248Cm, 250Cm and 252Cm isotopes with 4He as light charged particle, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination with doubly magic nuclei 132Sn as the heavier fragment. The emission probabilities and kinetic energies of long range alpha particle have been computed for the 242,244,246,248Cm isotopes and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The relative yields for the 4He accompanied ternary fission (equatorial and collinear) of 242-252Cm isotopes are compared with the corresponding yield for binary fission. The effect of deformation and orientation of fragments in the 4He accompanied ternary fission of 244-252Cm isotopes are studied. Our study reveals that the ground state deformation has an important role in the alpha accompanied ternary fission as that of shell effect.

  17. Western North Pacific Integrated Physical-Biogeochemical Ocean Observation Experiment: Summary of the Intensive Observation Around the Biogeochemical Mooring S1 (S1-INBOX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suga, T.; Inoue, R.; Kouketsu, S.; Hosoda, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Sato, K.; Nakajima, H.; Honda, M. C.; Fujiki, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Kawano, T.; Saino, T.

    2014-12-01

    The interdisciplinary project called the Western North Pacific Integrated Physical-Biogeochemical Experiment (INBOX) has been conducted since 2011. As the first phase of INBOX, more than 20 profiling floats with a dissolved oxygen sensor were deployed in late July 2011 within the 150-km square area centered at the biogeochemical mooring site S1 (30N, 145E) in the oligotrophic subtropics. The horizontal (30 km) and temporal (2 days) resolutions of the float array were set in order to capture relationship between biogeochemical phenomena and physical processes such as westward propagating eddies and atmospheric disturbances. The observations of large mass flux at 200 m, a high chlorophyll-a concentration in the deep chlorophyll maximum layer, large Fv/Fm ration and high dissolved oxygen concentration in the shallow oxygen maximum layer will be summarized and interpreted as biogeochemical responses to physical processes in and around mesoscale eddies including submesoscale motions, diapycnal mixing and surface wind forcing.

  18. Reaction coordinate analysis of the S2-S1 internal conversion of phenylacetylene.

    PubMed

    Amatatsu, Yoshiaki

    2006-04-01

    The reaction coordinate of the S(2)-S(1) internal conversion (IC) of phenylacetylene (PA) was analyzed using the ab initio complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method. In the first process after electronic excitation into S(2), the aromatic benzene ring is transformed into a nonaromatic quinoid structure. The ethynyl part (-C[triple bond]CH) takes an incomplete allenoid structure in which the CC bond elongates to an intermediate value between typical C[triple bond]C triple and C=C double bonds, but the bend angle of -CCH is 180 degrees . In the second process, PA takes a complete allenoid structure with an out-of-plane location of the beta-H atom (i.e., the H atom of the ethynyl part) and a further elongation of the CC bond so that PA is most stable in S(2) (S(2)-bent). The conical intersection between S(2) and S(1) (S(2)/S(1)-CIX) is located near the S(2)-bent geometry and is slightly unstable energetically. After transition at S(2)/S(1)-CIX, PA quickly loses both quinoid and allenoid structures and recovers the aromaticity of the benzene ring in S(1). Analysis of the dipole moment along the reaction coordinate shows that the weak electron-withdrawing group of the ethynyl part in S(0) suddenly changes into an electron-donating group in S(2) after the main transition of S(0)-S(2). The photoinduced change of the dipole moment is a driving force to the formation of a quinoid structure in S(2). Regarding the benefit of the reaction coordinate analysis of the multidimensional potential energy surfaces of PA, the present picture of the IC process is much more elaborate than our previous representation (Amatatsu, Y.; Hasebe, Y. J. Phys. Chem. A 2003 107, 11169-11173). Vibrational analyses along the reaction coordinate were also performed to support a time-resolved spectroscopic experiment on the S(2)-S(1) IC process of PA. PMID:16571053

  19. Design Professional-Schedule of Project Details Page 1 of 5 Form Date: CM January 2010

    E-print Network

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    For Construction Manager Projects (Form Date: CM January 2010) [PROJECT NAME] U-M Project No. P_______________ (P of Construction Cost" (Paragraph 1.2) $________________________. 3. Basic Lump Sum Fee (Paragraph 4.1) The Basic, %, ("Basic Fee Percentage") times the Fixed Limit of Construction Cost, regardless of what the actual

  20. INTERPRETING THE GLOBAL 21 cm SIGNAL FROM HIGH REDSHIFTS. I. MODEL-INDEPENDENT CONSTRAINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mirocha, Jordan; Harker, Geraint J. A.; Burns, Jack O., E-mail: jordan.mirocha@colorado.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Campus Box 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    The sky-averaged (global) 21 cm signal is a powerful probe of the intergalactic medium (IGM) prior to the completion of reionization. However, so far it has been unclear whether it will provide more than crude estimates of when the universe's first stars and black holes formed, even in the best case scenario in which the signal is accurately extracted from the foregrounds. In contrast to previous work, which has focused on predicting the 21 cm signatures of the first luminous objects, we investigate an arbitrary realization of the signal and attempt to translate its features to the physical properties of the IGM. Within a simplified global framework, the 21 cm signal yields quantitative constraints on the Ly? background intensity, net heat deposition, ionized fraction, and their time derivatives without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves. The 21 cm absorption signal is most easily interpreted, setting strong limits on the heating rate density of the universe with a measurement of its redshift alone, independent of the ionization history or details of the Ly? background evolution. In a companion paper, we extend these results, focusing on the confidence with which one can infer source emissivities from IGM properties.