Science.gov

Sample records for 10-7 cm s-1

  1. 10.7-cm solar radio flux and modulation of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rajesh Kumar; Agarwal Mishra, Rekha

    In this paper an attempt is made to study the occurrence of a large number high amplitude anisotropic wave train events in cosmic ray intensity and to identify a possible corre-lation with 10.7-cm solar radio flux (solar activity) using the hourly cosmic ray neutron monitor data. The diurnal time of maximum for both high amplitude events as well as for all days is found to significantly shift towards an earlier time as compared to the corotational/azimuthal direction since the year 1991 onward. It is found that diurnal amplitude and 10.7-cm solar radio flux significantly deviates and reaches to its maximum and phase remains in the corotational direction during the years close to solar activity maximum for high amplitude events. The occurrence of high amplitude anisotropic wave train events is dominant during solar activity minimum as well as maximum years. The amplitude as well as phase of the cosmic ray diurnal anisotropy during high amplitude events is well correlated with solar activity. The amplitude as well as phase of diurnal anisotropy shows very nominal correlation with 10.7-cm solar radio flux (r = 0.48, 0.47). However, the frequency of occurrence of high amplitude events shows a very weak correlation (r = -0.36) with 10.7-cm solar radio flux

  2. Modeling Research of the 27-day Forecast of 10.7 cm Solar Radio Flux (I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Si-Qing; Zhong, Qiu-Zhen; Wen, Jing; Dou, Xian-Kang

    2010-07-01

    Adopting the autoregressive method for time-series modeling, we have made a study on the medium-term forecast of solar 10.7 cm radio flux (F10.7). The result of forecast experiments and the error analysis indicate that when the solar activity is at a rather low level and the 27-day periodicity of F10.7 is apparent, the autoregressive forecast method has a high accuracy and relatively ideal effectiveness, but when a large active region appears or disappears on the solar dusk, the forecast effectiveness is not ideal. This means that the autoregressive method for the time-series modeling can reflect well the 27-day periodicity of F10.7, and that it has certain applicability for building a mediumterm forecast model of F10.7. By comparing the forecast results in the period from 21th September 2005 to 7th June 2007, it is demonstrated that the accuracy of the autoregressive forecast method is equivalent to that of the forecast made by the American Air Force.

  3. The 10.7-cm microwave observations of AR 5395 and related terrestrial effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaizauskas, V.; Hughes, T. J.; Tapping, K. F.

    1989-01-01

    The 10.7 cm flux patrols in Canada recorded 4 Great Bursts (peaks greater than 500 sfu) during the disk passage of AR 5395 in March 1989. The Great Bursts of 16 and 17 March were simple events of great amplitude and with half-life durations of only several minutes. Earlier Great Bursts, originating on 6 March towards the NE limb and on 10 March closer to the central meridian, belong to an entirely different category of event. Each started with a very strong impulsive event lasting just minutes. After an initial recovery, however, the emission climbed back to level as greater or greater than the initial impulsive burst. The events of 6 and 10 March stayed above the Great Burst threshold for at least 100 minutes. The second component of long duration in these cases is associated with Type 4 continuum emission and thus very likely with CMEs. Major geomagnetic disturbances did not occur as a result of the massive complex event of 6 March or the two simple but strong events of 16 and 17 March. But some 55 hours after the peak in the long-enduring burst of 10 March, a storm began which qualifies as the fourth strongest geomagnetic storm in Canada since 1932. The vertical component of the earth's field measured during the storm by a fluxgate magnetometer at a station in Manitoba is presented. Within a minute of the sudden commencement of this storm, a series of breakdowns began in the transmission system of Hydro-Quebec which resulted in a total loss of power, on a bitterly cold winter's day, for at least 10 hours. The loss of power provoked an enormous outcry from the public resulting in the power utilities being more receptive to the need to monitor solar as well as geomagnetic activity.

  4. Possible Estimation of the Solar Cycle Characteristic Parameters by the 10.7 cm Solar Radio Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampropoulos, George; Mavromichalaki, Helen; Tritakis, Vasilis

    2016-03-01

    Two independent methods for estimating basic parameters of the solar cycle are presented. The first of them, the ascending-descending triangle method, is based on a previous work by Tritakis (Astrophys. Space Sci. 82, 463, 1982), which described how the fundamental parameters of a certain solar cycle could be predicted from the shape of the previous one. The relation between the two cycles before and after a specific 11-year solar cycle is tighter than between the two cycles belonging to the same 22-year solar cycle (even-odd cycle). The second is the MinimaxX method, which uses a significant relation in the international sunspot number between the maximum value of a solar cycle and its value 2.5 or 3 years (depending on the enumeration of the even or odd cycle) before the preceding minimum. The tests applied to Cycles 12 to 24 indicate that both methods can estimate the peak of the 11-year solar radio flux at a high confidence level. The data used in this study are the 10.7 cm solar radio flux since 1947, which have been extrapolated back to 1848 from the strong correlation between the monthly international sunspot numbers and the adjusted values of the 10.7 cm radio flux.

  5. Design of a 10**36 CM-2 S-1 Super-B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Guiducci, S.; Raimondi, P.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; Bertsche, Kirk J.; Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; Wittmer, W.; Bettoni, S.; Paoloni, E.; Marchiori, G.; Bogomyagkov, A.; Koop, I.; Levichev, E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2011-10-24

    Parameters have been studied for a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at the Upsilon 4S that would deliver a luminosity of 1 to 4 x 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s. This collider, called a Super-B Factory, would use a combination of linear collider and storage ring techniques. In this scheme an electron beam and a positron beam are stored in low-emittance damping rings similar to those designed for a Linear Collider (LC) or the next generation light source. A LC style interaction region is included in the ring to produce sub-millimeter vertical beta functions at the collision point. A large crossing angle (+/- 24 mrad) is used at the collision point to allow beam separation. A crab-waist scheme is used to reduce the hourglass effect and restore peak luminosity. Beam currents of 1.8 A at 4 x 7 GeV in 1251 bunches can produce a luminosity of 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s with upgrade possibilities. Such a collider would produce an integrated luminosity of about 10,000 fb{sup -1} (10 ab{sup -1}) in a running year (10{sup 7} sec) at the {gamma}(4S) resonance. Further possibilities include having longitudinally polarized e- at the IR and operating at the J/Psi and Psi beam energies.

  6. A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s(-1).

    PubMed

    Li, Chih-Hao; Benedick, Andrew J; Fendel, Peter; Glenday, Alexander G; Kärtner, Franz X; Phillips, David F; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald L

    2008-04-01

    Searches for extrasolar planets using the periodic Doppler shift of stellar spectral lines have recently achieved a precision of 60 cm s(-1) (ref. 1), which is sufficient to find a 5-Earth-mass planet in a Mercury-like orbit around a Sun-like star. To find a 1-Earth-mass planet in an Earth-like orbit, a precision of approximately 5 cm s(-1) is necessary. The combination of a laser frequency comb with a Fabry-Pérot filtering cavity has been suggested as a promising approach to achieve such Doppler shift resolution via improved spectrograph wavelength calibration, with recent encouraging results. Here we report the fabrication of such a filtered laser comb with up to 40-GHz (approximately 1-A) line spacing, generated from a 1-GHz repetition-rate source, without compromising long-term stability, reproducibility or spectral resolution. This wide-line-spacing comb, or 'astro-comb', is well matched to the resolving power of high-resolution astrophysical spectrographs. The astro-comb should allow a precision as high as 1 cm s(-1) in astronomical radial velocity measurements. PMID:18385734

  7. Nondispersive hole transport in a polyfluorene copolymer with a mobility of 0.01 cm2 V-1 s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, H. H.; Papadimitratos, Alexios; Malliaras, George G.

    2006-10-01

    The hole mobility in the fluorene copolymer poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(4,4'-(N-(4-sec-butylphenyl)) diphenylamine)] (TFB) was measured using the time-of-flight technique. Transport was found to be nondispersive throughout the temperature range between 220 and 350K, indicating the absence of intrinsic traps in this material. At room temperature, TFB shows a hole mobility of 0.01cm2V-1s-1, with a weak field dependence. The hole mobility is independent of sample thickness in the range between 0.9 and 6.4μm. These results are in agreement with a narrow transport manifold, with a width of 65.9±0.5meV.

  8. Attaining Doppler Precision of 10 cm s-1 with a Lock-in Amplified Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Muirhead, Philip S.; Bottom, Michael; Wallace, J. Kent; Vasisht, Gautam; Johnson, John Asher

    2015-11-01

    We explore the radial velocity performance benefits of coupling starlight to a fast-scanning interferometer and a fast-readout spectrometer with zero readout noise. By rapidly scanning an interferometer, we can decouple wavelength calibration errors from precise radial velocity measurements, exploiting the advantages of lock-in amplification. In a Bayesian framework, we investigate the correlation between wavelength calibration errors and resulting radial velocity errors. We construct an end-to-end simulation of this approach to address the feasibility of achieving 10 cm s-1 radial velocity precision on a typical Sun-like star using existing, 5 m-class telescopes. We find that such a precision can be reached in a single night, opening up possibilities for ground-based detections of Earth-Sun analog systems.

  9. In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10 cm s(-1).

    PubMed

    Li, Chih-Hao; Glenday, Alexander G; Benedick, Andrew J; Chang, Guoqing; Chen, Li-Jin; Cramer, Claire; Fendel, Peter; Furesz, Gabor; Kärtner, Franz X; Korzennik, Sylvain; Phillips, David F; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald L

    2010-06-01

    Improved wavelength calibrators for high-resolution astrophysical spectrographs will be essential for precision radial velocity (RV) detection of Earth-like exoplanets and direct observation of cosmological deceleration. The astro-comb is a combination of an octave-spanning femtosecond laser frequency comb and a Fabry-Pérot cavity used to achieve calibrator line spacings that can be resolved by an astrophysical spectrograph. Systematic spectral shifts associated with the cavity can be 0.1-1 MHz, corresponding to RV errors of 10-100 cm/s, due to the dispersive properties of the cavity mirrors over broad spectral widths. Although these systematic shifts are very stable, their correction is crucial to high accuracy astrophysical spectroscopy. Here, we demonstrate an in-situ technique to determine the systematic shifts of astro-comb lines due to finite Fabry-Pérot cavity dispersion. The technique is practical for implementation at a telescope-based spectrograph to enable wavelength calibration accuracy better than 10 cm/s. PMID:20588453

  10. Electron Mobility Exceeding 10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and Band-Like Charge Transport in Solution-Processed n-Channel Organic Thin-Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaomin; Yao, Yifan; Shan, Bowen; Gu, Xiao; Liu, Danqing; Liu, Jinyu; Xu, Jianbin; Zhao, Ni; Hu, Wenping; Miao, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Solution-processed n-channel organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) that exhibit a field-effect mobility as high as 11 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature and a band-like temperature dependence of electron mobility are reported. By comparison of solution-processed OTFTs with vacuum-deposited OTFTs of the same organic semiconductor, it is found that grain boundaries are a key factor inhibiting band-like charge transport. PMID:27151777

  11. Complexity of the Earth's space-atmosphere interaction region (SAIR) response to the solar flux at 10.7 cm as seen through the evaluation of five solar cycle two-line element (TLE) records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaverdikhani, Karan; Ajabshirizadeh, Ali; Davoudifar, Pantea; Lashkanpour, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Orbital debris are long-standing threats to space systems. They also contribute to the flux of macroscopic particles into the Earth's atmosphere and eventually affects environmental processes across several other related regions. As impactful space debris may be, debris along with other Low Earth Orbit (LEO) orbiting objects, also serve as valuable long-monitoring probes to deduce the properties of geospace environment in-situ. We define the Daily Decay Rate (DDR) as a suitable indicator of how the Earth's space-atmosphere interaction region (SAIR) responds to solar activity and how solar activity directly affects the orbital evolution of a LEO orbiter. We present a computationally simplified technique that simultaneously solves the motion equations for DDR and cross-sectional area to mass ratio (A/m) from consecutive TLE records. By evaluating more than 50 million TLE records we estimate A/m of 15,307 NORAD-indexed objects and determine how DDR varies. We observe the thermospheric "natural thermostat" in our results, consistent with previous studies. We compare the observed DDRs with two models based on NRLMSISE-00 and DTM-2013, and present evidence the models display a systemic altitudinal bias. We propose several possibilities to explain this altitudinal bias including the overestimated CD at low altitudes in our models (presumably due to the despinning effect of perturbing forces on the orbiting objects), and incomplete and limited coverage of in-situ observations at high solar activity. We conclude that the density models do not reliably reproduce the densities and atmospheric-thermospheric behaviors at high solar active conditions, especially for F10.7 cm above 300 sfu.

  12. A laser-lock concept to reach cm s-1-precision in Doppler experiments with Fabry-Pérot wavelength calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiners, A.; Banyal, R. K.; Ulbrich, R. G.

    2014-09-01

    State-of-the-art Doppler experiments require wavelength calibration with precision at the cm s-1 level. A low-finesse Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) can provide a wavelength comb with a very large bandwidth as required for astronomical experiments, but unavoidable spectral drifts are difficult to control. Instead of actively controlling the FPI cavity, we propose to passively stabilize the interferometer and track the time-dependent cavity length drift externally using the 87Rb D2 atomic line. A dual-finesse cavity allows drift tracking during observation. In the low-finesse spectral range, the cavity provides a comb transmission spectrum tailored to the astronomical spectrograph. The drift of the cavity length is monitored in the high-finesse range relative to an external standard: a single narrow transmission peak is locked to an external cavity diode laser and compared to an atomic frequency from a Doppler-free transition. Following standard locking schemes, tracking at sub-mm s-1 precision can be achieved. This is several orders of magnitude better than currently planned high-precision Doppler experiments, and it allows freedom for relaxed designs including the use of a single-finesse interferometer under certain conditions. All components for the proposed setup are readily available, rendering this approach particularly interesting for upcoming Doppler experiments. We also show that the large number of interference modes used in an astronomical FPI allows us to unambiguously identify the interference mode of each FPI transmission peak defining its absolute wavelength solution. The accuracy reached in each resonance with the laser concept is then defined by the cavity length that is determined from the one locked peak and by the group velocity dispersion. The latter can vary by several 100 m s-1 over the relevant frequency range and severely limits the accuracy of individual peak locations, although their interference modes are known. A potential way to

  13. High Charge-Carrier Mobility of 2.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from a Water-Borne Colloid of a Polymeric Semiconductor via Smart Surfactant Engineering.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jangwhan; Cheon, Kwang Hee; Ahn, Hyungju; Park, Kwang Hun; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yun-Hi; Chung, Dae Sung

    2015-10-01

    Semiconducting polymer nanoparticles dispersed in water are synthesized by a novel method utilizing non-ionic surfactants. By developing a smart surfactant engineering technique involving a selective post-removal process of surfactants, an unprecedentedly high mobility of 2.51 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from a water-borne colloid is demonstrated for the first time. PMID:26288123

  14. Growth of ˜5 cm2V-1s-1 mobility, p-type Copper(I) oxide (Cu2O) films by fast atmospheric atomic layer deposition (AALD) at 225°C and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, D.; Jordan, M.; Yeoh, C.; Marin, A. T.; Kursumovic, A.; Dunlop, L. A.; Iza, D. C.; Chen, A.; Wang, H.; MacManus Driscoll, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Phase pure, dense Cu2O thin films were grown on glass and polymer substrates at 225°C by rapid atmospheric atomic layer deposition (AALD). Carrier mobilities of 5 cm2V-1s-1 and carrier concentrations of ˜1016 cm-3 were achieved in films of thickness 50 - 120 nm, over a >10 cm2 area. Growth rates were ˜1 nm.min-1 which is two orders of magnitude faster than conventional ALD.. The high mobilities achieved using the atmospheric, low temperature method represent a significant advance for flextronics and flexible solar cells which require growth on plastic substrates.

  15. Mg dopant in Cu2SnSe3: An n-type former and a promoter of electrical mobility up to 387 cm2 V-1 s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Dong-Hau; Wubet, Walelign

    2014-10-01

    Mg-doped Cu2SnSe3 bulk materials with the (Cu2-xMgx)SnSe3 (Mg-x-CTSe) formula at x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 were prepared at 550 °C for 2 h with soluble sintering aids of Sb2S3 and Te. Defect chemistry was studied by measuring structural and electrical properties of Mg-doped Cu2SnSe3 as a function of dopant concentration. Mg-x-CTSe pellets show p-type at x=0, 0.05 and 0.1 and n-type at x=0.15 and 0.2. The low hole concentration of 3.2×1017 cm-3 and high mobility of 387 cm2 V-1 s-1 were obtained for (Cu2-xMgx)SnSe3 bulks at x=0.1 (5% Mg) as compared to 2.2×1018 cm-3 and 91 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the undoped one. The explanation based upon the Mg-to-Cu antisite donor defect for the changes in electrical property was declared. A high Mg content for Mg-x-CTSe at x≥0.1 can lead to the formation of second phases. The study in bulk Mg-x-CTSe has been based upon defect states and is consistent and supported by the data of structural and electrical properties.

  16. Mg dopant in Cu2ZnSnSe4: An n-type former and a promoter of electrical mobility up to 120 cm2 V-1 s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Dong-Hau; Wubet, Walelign

    2014-07-01

    Mg-doped Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) bulk materials with the (Cu2-xMgx)ZnSnSe4 formula at x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 were prepared at 600 °C for 2 h with soluble sintering aids of Sb2S3 and Te. Defect chemistry was studied by measuring structural and electrical properties of Mg-doped CZTSe as a function of dopant concentration. Except at x=0, all Mg-doped CZTSe pellets showed an n-type behavior. The Mg-doped CZTSe pellets showed an n-type behavior. n-Type Mg-CZTSe pellets at x=0.1 showed the highest electrical conductivity of 24.6 S cm-1 and the net hole mobility of 120 cm2 V-1 s-1, while they were 11.8 S cm-1 and 36.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the undoped p-type CZTSe. Mg dopant is a strong promoter of electrical mobility. Mg dopant behaves as a donor defect in CZTSe at a 5% doping content, but is also used as an acceptor at a high content above 5%. Mg doping has further developed CZTSe into a promising semiconductor.

  17. Speculations on a relativistic strong focusing self-collider with very high luminosity (≥10 40 cm -2s -1): Macroproduction of antinuclei and other micro cross section events and formation of ambiplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maglich, Bogdan C.

    1988-08-01

    The luminosity of the weak focusing self-collider (ESCOL) is intrinsically 10 8-10 10 times greater than that of conventional colliding beams, due to the product of the solid angle factor, ˜10 6, and the neutralization factor, ˜10 2 -10 4. We extrapolate to 10-GeV protons the parameters of a recent low energy experiment demonstrating that a 1-MeV deuteron beam, stored in ESCOL as migma, can be neutralized bo oscillating electrons and operate an order of magnitude above the space charge limit without instabilities. With the number density achieved in ESCOL, n = 3.2 × 10 9 ions cm -3, such a relativistic strong focusing self-collider (XYDER) would have a luminosity L ˜ 10 38 cm -2 s -1 for 10-GeV-on-10-GeV protons (equivalent to 250 GeV beam-on-target). At the diamagnetic "limit" density, which for 10 tesla is n = 10 12 ions cm -3, l ˜ 10 43 cm -2 s -1; this would produce 4 × 10 16 antiprotons/s (2 gram of overlinep/year). Other particles, rare nuclei, and rare effects produced with micro- (10 -16), nano- (10 -9 b), and picoscopic (10 -12 b) cross sections will be macro-produced in XYDER. A newly proposed annular magnet would provide a large volume of stored, V = 10 9 cm 3, as well as automatic ejection along the +z and -z axes of the overlinep's and other particles whose momentum is lower than that of the primary proton migma. Antiprotons, being produced with low rapidity, will have energies below 1 GeV in COM, and thus are suitable for beaming, extraction, cooling, abd slowing down to be either stored for space propulsion or used as a source for acceleration. If the magnetic field strength is adjusted for the antiprotons to be confined, an unusual plasma will be formed, consisting of the protons, antiprotons, electrons, and positrons (from pion-muon-electron decays), and similar to Alfvèns "ambiplasman". Its plasmic beta will be unity already at low densities (˜10 11 cm -3 where ωpi/ ωci ≤ 1); the ion-to-electron "temperature" ratio will never achieve

  18. 44 CFR 10.7 - Planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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  19. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

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  20. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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  1. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

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  2. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

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  3. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

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  4. 32 CFR 10.7 - Reservation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

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  5. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

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  6. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

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  7. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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  8. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

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  9. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

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  11. 46 CFR 30.10-7 - Certificated-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

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  13. 32 CFR 10.7 - Reservation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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  14. RESEARCH PAPER: Forecast daily indices of solar activity, F10.7, using support vector regression method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cong; Liu, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jing-Song

    2009-06-01

    The 10.7 cm solar radio flux (F10.7), the value of the solar radio emission flux density at a wavelength of 10.7 cm, is a useful index of solar activity as a proxy for solar extreme ultraviolet radiation. It is meaningful and important to predict F10.7 values accurately for both long-term (months-years) and short-term (days) forecasting, which are often used as inputs in space weather models. This study applies a novel neural network technique, support vector regression (SVR), to forecasting daily values of F10.7. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of SVR in short-term F10.7 forecasting. The approach, based on SVR, reduces the dimension of feature space in the training process by using a kernel-based learning algorithm. Thus, the complexity of the calculation becomes lower and a small amount of training data will be sufficient. The time series of F10.7 from 2002 to 2006 are employed as the data sets. The performance of the approach is estimated by calculating the norm mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. It is shown that our approach can perform well by using fewer training data points than the traditional neural network.

  15. Linearized pipe flow to Reynolds number 10 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer, Á.; Trefethen, L. N.

    2003-03-01

    A Fourier-Chebyshev Petrov-Galerkin spectral method is described for high-accuracy computation of linearized dynamics for flow in an infinite circular pipe. Our code is unusual in being based on solenoidal velocity variables and in being written in MATLAB. Systematic studies are presented of the dependence of eigenvalues, transient growth factors, and other quantities on the axial and azimuthal wave numbers and the Reynolds number R for R ranging from 10 2 to the idealized (physically unrealizable) value 10 7. Implications for transition to turbulence are considered in the light of recent theoretical results of S.J. Chapman.

  16. Ubiquitous CM and DM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Sandra L.

    2000-01-01

    Ubiquitous is a real word. I thank a former Total Quality Coach for my first exposure some years ago to its existence. My version of Webster's dictionary defines ubiquitous as "present, or seeming to be present, everywhere at the same time; omnipresent." While I believe that God is omnipresent, I have come to discover that CM and DM are present everywhere. Oh, yes; I define CM as Configuration Management and DM as either Data or Document Management. Ten years ago, I had my first introduction to the CM world. I had an opportunity to do CM for the Space Station effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center. I learned that CM was a discipline that had four areas of focus: identification, control, status accounting, and verification. I was certified as a CMIl graduate and was indoctrinated about clear, concise, and valid. Off I went into a world of entirely new experiences. I was exposed to change requests and change boards first hand. I also learned about implementation of changes, and then of technical and CM requirements.

  17. The diffusion of cesium in the graphitic matrix A3-3 in the presence of helium at pressures up to 10 7 Pa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensel, W.; Hoinkis, E.

    1995-07-01

    The migration of 137CS in the graphitic matrix A3-3 was studied at helium pressures of 4 × 10 6 and 10 7 Pa by use of the thin film technique with vapor deposited carrier-free 137Cs. The penetration profiles did not satisfy Fick's second law, but we applied successfully the solution of the diffusion equation with terms for trapping and re-emission derived by Gaus. Compared to 137Cs migration in a vacuum a high helium pressure lead to a decrease in the coefficient D for diffusion of mobile 137Cs and an increase in the activation energies for diffusion and trapping. D and the trapping coefficient μ are given by D = 10.3 exp (-1.76/kT) cm 2s -1 and μ = 2.2 × 10 3 exp(-1.63/kT) s -1 in the temperature range 1073-1273 K at a helium pressure of 4 × 10 6 Pa, where k = 8.618 × 10 -5 eV/K.

  18. 21-cm Intensity Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tzu-Ching; GBT-HIM Team

    2016-01-01

    The redshifted 21-cm emission from neutral hydrogen has emerged as a powerful probe for large-scale structure; a significant fraction of the observable universe can be mapped in the Intensity Mapping regime out to high redshifts. At redshifts around unity, the 21-cm emission traces the matter distribution and can be used to measure the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) signature and constrain dark energy properties. I will describe our HI Intensity Mapping program at the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), aiming at measuring the 21cm power spectrum at z=0.8. A 800-MHz multi-beam focal-plane array for the GBT is currently under construction in order to facilitate a large-scale survey for BAO and the redshift-space distortion measurements for cosmological constraints.

  19. Halogens in CM Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, J. M.; Caron, B.; Jambon, A.; Michel, A.; Villemant, B.

    2013-09-01

    We set up an extraction line of halogens (fluorine, chlorine) by pyrohydrolysis with 50 mg of rock. We analyzed 7 CM2 chondrites found in Antarctica and found that the Cl content of meteorites with an intact fusion crust is higher than those without.

  20. The Global S$_1$ Ocean Tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The small S$_1$ ocean tide is caused primarily by diurnal atmospheric pressure loading. Its excitation is therefore unlike any other diurnal tide. The global character of $S-1$ is here determined by numerical modeling and by analysis of Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. The two approaches yield reasonably consistent results, and large ( $ greater than $l\\cm) amplitudes in several regions are further confirmed by comparison with coastal tide gauges. Notwithstanding their excitation differences, S$-1$ and other diurnal tides are found to share several common features, such as relatively large amplitudes in the Arabian Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Gulf of Alaska. The most noticeable difference is the lack of an S$-1$ Antarctic Kelvin wave. These similarities and differences can be explained in terms of the coherences between near-diurnal oceanic normal modes and the underlying tidal forcings. While gravitational diurnal tidal forces excite primarily a 28-hour Antarctic-Pacific mode, the S$_1$ air tide excites several other near-diurnal modes, none of which has large amplitudes near Antarctica.

  1. Magnetic phase structure of Saturn's 10.7 h oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, J. N.; Southwood, D. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2015-04-01

    A source of Saturn's magnetic 10.7 h period oscillations has yet to be identified. The oscillations are known to consist of signals with slightly different periods from separate northern and southern sources. Here we present a novel way of examining observations, focusing on signal phase. We show that although the signals are highly periodic they are usually not sinusoidal and that there are differences in both phase structure and polarization between the outer magnetosphere (on the nightside) and the inner dipolar region. Paying particular attention to the deep midtail passes of 2006, the contrasting behavior between the inner and outer regions is clear with approximate sinusoidal behavior in the dipolar region and a pulse-like signal once per cycle in the tail. The latter structure seems to indicate that tail magnetic stress is released impulsively once per cycle in the tail. After equinox, in 2010-2011, we find a different picture in the premidnight sector. The predetermined northern and southern frequencies are closer together and apparently show sudden shifts. Our signal reconstruction approach finds instances where it is likely that the narrow band filtering is not able to track completely the basic north and south periods as we find phase jumps indicating unpredicted beats.

  2. Extending F10.7's time resolution to capture solar flare phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acebal, Ariel

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation ionizes the neutral components in the atmosphere, which is partly responsible for the formation of the ionosphere, and contributes to heating of the atmosphere. Solar flares change the solar spectrum at times by several orders of magnitude. These changes modify the Earth's upper atmosphere, causing problems to communication systems and space operations, such as increased satellite drag. Unfortunately, solar UV measurements are limited since they can only be observed with space-based sensors. In order to work around this limitation, the solar radio emissions at a wavelength of 10.7 cm have been used as a proxy for the solar UV radiation. These measurements, known as the F10.7 index, are a snapshot of the solar activity at the time they are taken and do not capture the changes that occur throughout the day, such as flares. In order to capture this daily variation, we used 1-second cadence solar radio data and compared it to solar UV measurements taken once per orbit by the TIMED satellite. We found significant correlations between some radio frequencies and different UV wavelengths during quiet times. These correlations changed in terms of radio frequency and UV wavelength during solar flares.

  3. 41 CFR 301-10.7 - How should I route my travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... travel? 301-10.7 Section 301-10.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES General § 301-10.7 How should I route my travel? You must travel to your destination by the...

  4. Newly Installed S-1 Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. This is a view of the newly installed S1 Truss as photographed during the mission's first scheduled EVA. The Station's Canadarm2 is in the foreground. Visible are astronauts Piers J. Sellers (lower left) and David A. Wolf (upper right), both STS-112 mission specialists.

  5. 7S(1/2) ? 9S(1/2) two-photon spectroscopy of trapped francium.

    PubMed

    Simsarian, J E; Shi, W; Orozco, L A; Sprouse, G D; Zhao, W Z

    1996-12-01

    We report on the spectroscopic measurement of the (210)Fr 9S(1/2) energy obtained by two-photon excitation of atoms confined and cooled in a magneto-optic trap. The resonant intermediate level 7P(3/2) is the upper state of the trapping transition. We have measured the energy difference between the 9S(1/2) state and the 7S(1/2) ground state to be 25 671.021 +/- 0.006 cm(-1). PMID:19881852

  6. 20 CFR 10.7 - What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA? 10.7 Section 10.7 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT... Authorization of Examination and/or Treatment. (12) CA-17 Duty Status Report. (13) CA-20 Attending...

  7. 20 CFR 10.7 - What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA? 10.7 Section 10.7 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT... Duty Status Report (12) CA-20 Attending Physician's Report (b) Copies of the forms listed in...

  8. KELT-10b: The First Transiting Exoplanet from the KELT-South Survey - A Hot Sub-Jupiter Transiting a V=10.7 Early G-Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Collins, Karen A.; Lund, Michael B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Colón, Knicole D.; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip A.; James, David J.; Penev, Kaloyan; Zhou, George; Bayliss, Daniel; Tan, T. G.; Curtis, Ivan A.; Udry, Stephane; Segransan, Damien; Mawet, Dimitri; Dhital, Saurav; Soutter, Jack; Hart, Rhodes; Carter, Brad; Gaudi, B. Scott; Myers, Gordon; Beatty, Thomas G.; Eastman, Jason D.; Reichart, Daniel E.; Haislip, Joshua B.; Kielkopf, John; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Stevens, Daniel J.

    2016-04-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-10b, the first transiting exoplanet discovered using the KELT-South telescope. KELT-10b is a highly inflated sub-Jupiter mass planet transiting a relatively bright V = 10.7 star (TYC 8378-64-1), with Teff = 5948 ± 74 K, log g = 4.319_{-0.030}^{+0.020} and [Fe/H] = 0.09_{-0.10}^{+0.11}, an inferred mass M★ = 1.112_{-0.061}^{+0.055} M⊙ and radius R★ = 1.209_{-0.035}^{+0.047} R⊙. The planet has a radius Rp = 1.399_{-0.049}^{+0.069} RJ and mass Mp = 0.679_{-0.038}^{+0.039} MJ. The planet has an eccentricity consistent with zero and a semi-major axis a = 0.05250_{-0.00097}^{+0.00086} AU. The best fitting linear ephemeris is T0 = 2457066.72045±0.00027 BJDTDB and P = 4.1662739±0.0000063 days. This planet joins a group of highly inflated transiting exoplanets with a radius larger and a mass less than that of Jupiter. The planet, which boasts deep transits of 1.4%, has a relatively high equilibrium temperature of Teq = 1377_{-23}^{+28} K, assuming zero albedo and perfect heat redistribution. KELT-10b receives an estimated insolation of 0.817_{-0.054}^{+0.068} × 109 erg s-1 cm-2, which places it far above the insolation threshold above which hot Jupiters exhibit increasing amounts of radius inflation. Evolutionary analysis of the host star suggests that KELT-10b may not survive beyond the current subgiant phase, depending on the rate of in-spiral of the planet over the next few Gyr. The planet transits a relatively bright star and exhibits the third largest transit depth of all transiting exoplanets with V < 11 in the southern hemisphere, making it a promising candidate for future atmospheric characterization studies.

  9. Solar F10.7 radiation - A short term model for Space Station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, John D.; Tabor, Jill L.

    1991-01-01

    A new method is described for statistically modeling the F10.7 component of solar radiation for 91-day intervals. The resulting model represents this component of the solar flux as a quasi-exponentially correlated, Weibull distributed random variable, and thereby demonstrates excellent agreement with observed F10.7 data. Values of the F10.7 flux are widely used in models of the earth's upper atmosphere because of its high correlation with density fluctuations due to solar heating effects. Because of the direct relation between atmospheric density and drag, a realistic model of the short term fluctuation of the F10.7 flux is important for the design and operation of Space Station Freedom. The method of modeling this flux described in this report should therefore be useful for a variety of Space Station applications.

  10. Serpentine Nanotubes in CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zega, Thomas J.; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Dodony, Istvan; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    The CM chondrites are primitive meteorites that formed during the early solar system. Although they retain much of their original physical character, their matrices and fine-grained rims (FGRs) sustained aqueous alteration early in their histories [1- 3]. Serpentine-group minerals are abundant products of such alteration, and information regarding their structures, compositions, and spatial relationships is important for determining the reactions that produced them and the conditions under which they formed. Our recent work on FGRs and matrices of the CM chondrites has revealed new information on the structures and compositions of serpentine-group minerals [4,5] and has provided insights into the evolution of these primitive meteorites. Here we report on serpentine nanotubes from the Mighei and Murchison CM chondrites [6].

  11. 344 cm x 86 cm low mass vacuum window

    SciTech Connect

    Reimers, R.M.; Porter, J.; Meneghetti, J.; Wilde, S.; Miller, R.

    1983-08-01

    The LBL Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) superconducting magnet contains a 1 m x 3.45 m x 2 m vacuum tank in its gap. A full aperture thin window was needed to minimize background as the products of nuclear collisions move from upstream targets to downstream detectors. Six windows were built and tested in the development process. The final window's unsupported area is 3m/sup 2/ with a 25 cm inward deflection. The design consists of a .11 mm Nylon/aluminum/polypropylene laminate as a gas seal and .55 mm woven aramid fiber for strength. Total mass is 80 milligrams per cm/sup 2/. Development depended heavily on past experience and testing. Safety considerations are discussed.

  12. AMR on the CM-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Marsha J.; Saltzman, Jeff S.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the development of a structured adaptive mesh algorithm (AMR) for the Connection Machine-2 (CM-2). We develop a data layout scheme that preserves locality even for communication between fine and coarse grids. On 8K of a 32K machine we achieve performance slightly less than 1 CPU of the Cray Y-MP. We apply our algorithm to an inviscid compressible flow problem.

  13. 43 CFR 10.7 - Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony. 10.7 Section 10.7 Public Lands... REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony From Federal or Tribal Lands § 10.7 Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or...

  14. KELT-10b: the first transiting exoplanet from the KELT-South survey - a hot sub-Jupiter transiting a V = 10.7 early G-star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Collins, Karen A.; Lund, Michael B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Colón, Knicole D.; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip A.; James, David J.; Penev, Kaloyan; Zhou, George; Bayliss, Daniel; Tan, T. G.; Curtis, Ivan A.; Udry, Stephane; Segransan, Damien; Mawet, Dimitri; Dhital, Saurav; Soutter, Jack; Hart, Rhodes; Carter, Brad; Gaudi, B. Scott; Myers, Gordon; Beatty, Thomas G.; Eastman, Jason D.; Reichart, Daniel E.; Haislip, Joshua B.; Kielkopf, John; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Stevens, Daniel J.

    2016-07-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-10b, the first transiting exoplanet discovered using the KELT-South telescope. KELT-10b is a highly inflated sub-Jupiter mass planet transiting a relatively bright V = 10.7 star (TYC 8378-64-1), with Teff = 5948 ± 74 K, log g = 4.319_{-0.030}^{+0.020} and [Fe/H] = 0.09_{-0.10}^{+0.11}, an inferred mass M* = 1.112_{-0.061}^{+0.055} M⊙ and radius R* = 1.209_{-0.035}^{+0.047} R⊙. The planet has a radius Rp = 1.399_{-0.049}^{+0.069} RJ and mass Mp = 0.679_{-0.038}^{+0.039} MJ. The planet has an eccentricity consistent with zero and a semimajor axis a = 0.052 50_{-0.000 97}^{+0.000 86} au. The best-fitting linear ephemeris is T0 = 2457 066.720 45 ± 0.000 27 BJDTDB and P = 4.166 2739 ± 0.000 0063 d. This planet joins a group of highly inflated transiting exoplanets with a larger radius and smaller mass than that of Jupiter. The planet, which boasts deep transits of 1.4 per cent, has a relatively high equilibrium temperature of Teq = 1377_{-23}^{+28} K, assuming zero albedo and perfect heat redistribution. KELT-10b receives an estimated insolation of 0.817_{-0.054}^{+0.068} × 109 erg s-1 cm-2, which places it far above the insolation threshold above which hot Jupiters exhibit increasing amounts of radius inflation. Evolutionary analysis of the host star suggests that KELT-10b may not survive beyond the current subgiant phase, depending on the rate of in-spiral of the planet over the next few Gyr. The planet transits a relatively bright star and exhibits the third largest transit depth of all transiting exoplanets with V < 11 in the Southern hemisphere, making it a promising candidate for future atmospheric characterization studies.

  15. CYP2S1: A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T. . E-mail: sirkku.saarikoski@ktl.fi; Rivera, Steven P.; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation.

  16. CYP2S1: a short review.

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T; Rivera, Steven P; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation. PMID:16054184

  17. Safety assessment for the S-1 Spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R. Jr.; Stencel, J.R.

    1984-02-01

    The S-1 machine is part of the Magnetic Fusion Program. The goal of the Magnetic Fusion Program is to develop and demonstrate the practical application of fusion. S-1 is an experimental device which will provide an essential link in the research effort aiming at the realization of fusion power.

  18. Wavelet Analysis of the Quasi-27d Oscillations of Solar Index F10.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Rui-ping; Ji, Qiao; Xu, Ji-yao

    2007-10-01

    By using the daily averages of F10.7 in 1956—2003 and adopting the method of Morelet wavelet transform, the characteristics of the quasi-27d oscillations and their relation with the 11-year cycle of solar activity are analyzed. The results demonstrate that the amplitude and period of the quasi-27d oscillations of F10.7 exhibit obvious phenomena of short-tern variations. The degrees of variations in various years differ greatly. In some years, the undulations are quite violent. In periods of several days to several tens of days, the change of amplitude may attain ten more times, and the period may change abruptly by several days or even ten more days. In some years, the changes of amplitude are rather large, yet the undulations are small and the period is comparatively steady. In the annual averages of the variation of quasi-27d oscillaions there appear evident changes from year to year, and this is conspicuouly related to solar activity. Generally speaking, the higher is F10.7, the larger is the amplitude of quasi-27d oscillations. Nevertheless, in the peak of the 19th cycle the values of F10.7 is higher than those of all the other cycles, yet the amplitude of quasi-27d oscillations is lower than those of other cycles. The period of quasi-27d oscillations also exhibits evident changes from year to year. Except certain individual years (e.g., 1987), the annual averages vary in the range from 24 to 31 days, and this has no evident relation with the period of solar activity. The mean period in 48 years is 27.3d. On the whole, the period shows a tendency of gradual shortening. In 48 years, it has decreased by about 1.5d. The causes of quasi-27d oscillations are very complicated, and this awaits further deepgoing investigation.

  19. Hypothalamic S1P/S1PR1 axis controls energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vagner R R; Micheletti, Thayana O; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Katashima, Carlos K; Lenhare, Luciene; Morari, Joseane; Mendes, Maria Carolina S; Razolli, Daniela S; Rocha, Guilherme Z; de Souza, Claudio T; Ryu, Dongryeol; Prada, Patrícia O; Velloso, Lício A; Carvalheira, José B C; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Cintra, Dennys E; Ropelle, Eduardo R

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) that has a role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Here we show that the S1P/S1PR1 signalling pathway in hypothalamic neurons regulates energy homeostasis in rodents. We demonstrate that S1PR1 protein is highly enriched in hypothalamic POMC neurons of rats. Intracerebroventricular injections of the bioactive lipid, S1P, reduce food consumption and increase rat energy expenditure through persistent activation of STAT3 and the melanocortin system. Similarly, the selective disruption of hypothalamic S1PR1 increases food intake and reduces the respiratory exchange ratio. We further show that STAT3 controls S1PR1 expression in neurons via a positive feedback mechanism. Interestingly, several models of obesity and cancer anorexia display an imbalance of hypothalamic S1P/S1PR1/STAT3 axis, whereas pharmacological intervention ameliorates these phenotypes. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the neuronal S1P/S1PR1/STAT3 signalling axis plays a critical role in the control of energy homeostasis in rats. PMID:25255053

  20. 43 CFR 10.7 - Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony. 10.7 Section 10.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND...

  1. 43 CFR 10.7 - Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony. 10.7 Section 10.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND...

  2. 43 CFR 10.7 - Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony. 10.7 Section 10.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects,...

  3. 77 FR 8877 - ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M) Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M... Standards Staff, announces the following meeting. Name: ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M... attend the ICD- 9-CM C&M meeting on March 5, 2012, must submit their name and organization by February...

  4. The Mid-term Forecast Method of Solar Radiation Index {F}_{10.7}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. B.; Xiong, J. N.; Zhao, C. Y.

    2014-07-01

    In the low earth orbit satellite's orbit computation, the solar radiation index F_{10.7} is an important parameter, which is usually used to describe the solar activity's effect on the thermosphere density and the orbit perturbation. So the accuracy of index F_{10.7} will affect the precision of orbit prediction. In this paper, based on the characteristics of the solar 27-day short-term activity, we bring up a forecast method of F_{10.7} which can use the historical indices of the past 135 days to predict the solar radiation indices in the next 54 days. That is to say, the method is able to forecast the variations of solar radiation for about two rotation-cycles in the future. In this paper, we compare this method with those widely-used methods. The detail results are as follows: (1) This paper's method is observably better than the traditional triangle function method; (2) In the short-term forecast (7 days) , this paper's method is little better than the method developed by Space Weather Prediction Center in America, since the root mean square could be reduced by about 19% when using this paper's method; (3) In the mid-termforecast (2 7 days), the accuracy of this paper's method is almost equal to the 54-order self-regression method which is used widely in our country. However, fewer parameters and observation data are needed in this paper's method, leading to the more convenient application in orbit computation. Moreover, on the 54th day the correlation coefficient between the prediction and actual index is still greater than 0.92, implying that the method can keep stable in mid-term forecast. All in all, the advantage of this paper's method is that it could use fewer historical indices to predict the mid-term solar radiation independent of extra solar real-time observation, and it is very helpful to the orbit short- and mid-term predictions in some space flight missions.

  5. A planetary wave model for Saturn's 10.7-h periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. G. A.; Ray, L. C.; Achilleos, N. A.

    2016-04-01

    A proposed resolution of the unexplained 10.7-h periodicities in Saturn's magnetosphere is a system of atmospheric vortices in the polar regions of the planet. We investigate a description of such vortices in terms of planetary-scale waves. Approximating the polar regions as flat, we use theory developed originally by Haurwitz (Haurwitz, B. [1975]. Geophys. Bioklimatol. 24, 1-18) to find circumpolar Rossby wave solutions for Saturn's upper stratosphere and lower thermosphere. We find vertically propagating twin vortex solutions that drift slowly westwards at <1% of the deep planetary angular velocity and are thus ideal candidates for explaining the observed periodicities. To produce integrated field-aligned currents of the order of 1 MA we require wind velocities of ∼ 70ms-1 . A particular class of vertically propagating solutions are potentially consistent with wave energy being 'trapped' between the deep atmosphere and lower thermosphere, at altitudes suited to the production of the necessary field-aligned current systems.

  6. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ∼1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (∼0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (<300°C) thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  7. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (<300°C) thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  8. High redshift signatures in the 21 cm forest due to cosmic string wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Silk, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic strings induce minihalo formation in the early universe. The resultant minihalos cluster in string wakes and create a ``21 cm forest'' against the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectrum. Such a 21 cm forest can contribute to angular fluctuations of redshifted 21 cm signals integrated along the line of sight. We calculate the root-mean-square amplitude of the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings and show that these fluctuations can dominate signals from minihalos due to primordial density fluctuations at high redshift (zgtrsim10), even if the string tension is below the current upper bound, Gμ < 1.5 × 10-7. Our results also predict that the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) can potentially detect the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings with Gμ ≈ 7.5 × 10-8 for the single frequency band case and 4.0 × 10-8 for the multi-frequency band case.

  9. Gas-Phase Oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ -- Thermodynamics of neutral and ionized CmO

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G.; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Marcalo, Joaquim

    2008-12-08

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm+ and Cm2+; parallel studies were carried out with La+/2+, Gd+/2+ and Lu+/2+. Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M+-O](M = Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO+ with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO+](M = Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electron-transfer reactions from neutrals to the MO2+ ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO]= 6.4+-0.2 eV; IE[CmO+]= 15.8+-0.4 eV; D[Cm-O]= 710+-45 kJ mol-1; D[Cm+-O]= 670+-40 kJ mol-1; and D[Cm2+-O]= 342+-55 kJ mol-1. Estimates for the M2+-O bond energies for M = Cm, La, Gd and Lu are all intermediate between D[N2-O]and D[OC-O]--i.e., 167 kJ mol-1< D[M2+-O]< 532 kJ mol-1 -- such that the four MO2+ ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic O-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO2+, LaO2+, GdO2+ and LuO2+ dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO2+ ion appeared during the reaction of Cm+ with O2 when the intermediate, CmO+, was not collisionally cooled -- although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO2+ is a stable species.

  10. Intersystem crossing rates of S1 state keto-amino cytosine at low excess energy.

    PubMed

    Lobsiger, Simon; Etinski, Mihajlo; Blaser, Susan; Frey, Hans-Martin; Marian, Christel; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-12-21

    The amino-keto tautomer of supersonic jet-cooled cytosine undergoes intersystem crossing (ISC) from the v = 0 and low-lying vibronic levels of its S1((1)ππ(∗)) state. We investigate these ISC rates experimentally and theoretically as a function of S1 state vibrational excess energy Eexc. The S1 vibronic levels are pumped with a ∼5 ns UV laser, the S1 and triplet state ion signals are separated by prompt or delayed ionization with a second UV laser pulse. After correcting the raw ISC yields for the relative S1 and T1 ionization cross sections, we obtain energy dependent ISC quantum yields QISC (corr)=1%-5%. These are combined with previously measured vibronic state-specific decay rates, giving ISC rates kISC = 0.4-1.5 ⋅ 10(9) s(-1), the corresponding S1⇝S0 internal conversion (IC) rates are 30-100 times larger. Theoretical ISC rates are computed using SCS-CC2 methods, which predict rapid ISC from the S1; v = 0 state with kISC = 3 ⋅ 10(9) s(-1) to the T1((3)ππ(∗)) triplet state. The surprisingly high rate of this El Sayed-forbidden transition is caused by a substantial admixture of (1)nOπ(∗) character into the S1((1)ππ(∗)) wave function at its non-planar minimum geometry. The combination of experiment and theory implies that (1) below Eexc = 550 cm(-1) in the S1 state, S1⇝S0 internal conversion dominates the nonradiative decay with kIC ≥ 2 ⋅ 10(10) s(-1), (2) the calculated S1⇝T1 ((1)ππ(∗)⇝(3)ππ(∗)) ISC rate is in good agreement with experiment, (3) being El-Sayed forbidden, the S1⇝T1 ISC is moderately fast (kISC = 3 ⋅ 10(9) s(-1)), and not ultrafast, as claimed by other calculations, and (4) at Eexc ∼ 550 cm(-1) the IC rate increases by ∼50 times, probably by accessing the lowest conical intersection (the C5-twist CI) and thereby effectively switching off the ISC decay channels. PMID:26696056

  11. Intersystem crossing rates of S1 state keto-amino cytosine at low excess energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobsiger, Simon; Etinski, Mihajlo; Blaser, Susan; Frey, Hans-Martin; Marian, Christel; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    The amino-keto tautomer of supersonic jet-cooled cytosine undergoes intersystem crossing (ISC) from the v = 0 and low-lying vibronic levels of its S1(1ππ∗) state. We investigate these ISC rates experimentally and theoretically as a function of S1 state vibrational excess energy Eexc. The S1 vibronic levels are pumped with a ˜5 ns UV laser, the S1 and triplet state ion signals are separated by prompt or delayed ionization with a second UV laser pulse. After correcting the raw ISC yields for the relative S1 and T1 ionization cross sections, we obtain energy dependent ISC quantum yields QISC corr = 1 % -5%. These are combined with previously measured vibronic state-specific decay rates, giving ISC rates kISC = 0.4-1.5 ṡ 109 s-1, the corresponding S1⇝S0 internal conversion (IC) rates are 30-100 times larger. Theoretical ISC rates are computed using SCS-CC2 methods, which predict rapid ISC from the S1; v = 0 state with kISC = 3 ṡ 109 s-1 to the T1(3ππ∗) triplet state. The surprisingly high rate of this El Sayed-forbidden transition is caused by a substantial admixture of 1nOπ∗ character into the S1(1ππ∗) wave function at its non-planar minimum geometry. The combination of experiment and theory implies that (1) below Eexc = 550 cm-1 in the S1 state, S1⇝S0 internal conversion dominates the nonradiative decay with kIC ≥ 2 ṡ 1010 s-1, (2) the calculated S1⇝T1 (1ππ∗⇝3ππ∗) ISC rate is in good agreement with experiment, (3) being El-Sayed forbidden, the S1⇝T1 ISC is moderately fast (kISC = 3 ṡ 109 s-1), and not ultrafast, as claimed by other calculations, and (4) at Eexc ˜ 550 cm-1 the IC rate increases by ˜50 times, probably by accessing the lowest conical intersection (the C5-twist CI) and thereby effectively switching off the ISC decay channels.

  12. Label-free fluorometric detection of S1 nuclease activity by using polycytosine oligonucleotide-templated silver nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihui; Ma, Keke; Zhang, Yaodong

    2014-09-28

    S1 nuclease has an important function in DNA transcription, replication, recombination, and repair. A label-free fluorescent method for the detection of S1 nuclease activity has been developed using polycytosine oligonucleotide-templated silver nanoclusters (dC12-Ag NCs). In this assay, dC12 can function as both the template for the stabilization of Ag NCs and the substrate of the S1 nuclease. Fluorescent Ag NCs could be effectively formed using dC12 as the template without S1 nuclease. In the presence of S1 nuclease, dC12 is degraded to mono- or oligonucleotide fragments, thereby resulting in a reduction in fluorescence. S1 nuclease with an activity as low as 5×10(-8)Uμl(-1) (signal/noise=3) can be determined with a linear range of 5×10(-7) to 1×10(-3)Uμl(-1). The promising application of the proposed method in S1 nuclease inhibitor screening has been demonstrated using pyrophosphate as the model inhibitor. Furthermore, the S1 nuclease concentrations in RPMI 1640 cell medium were validated. The developed method for S1 nuclease is sensitive and facile because its operation does not require any complicated DNA labeling or laborious fluorescent dye synthesis. PMID:25263815

  13. Photometry of distant active comet C/2010 S1 (LINEAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubina, O.; Kulyk, I.; Korsun, P.; Romanjuk, Ya.

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of photometric observations of a dynamically new comet C/2010 S1 (LINEAR), conducted on June 18, 2012. The comet demonstrated a considerable level of physical activity at a heliocentric distance of 6.3 AU. The brightness, measured under a phase angle of 8.9 degrees, was equal to 14.55^{m}±0.06^{m} and 14.21^{m}±0.04^{m} in V- and R-bands, respectively. The brightness distribution over the coma was found to be inversely proportional to the projected onto the sky plane nucleocentric distance, with a slope of approximately -1. Therefore, the calculated Afρ parameter, approximately 8400 cm and 8200 cm for V and R filters, respectively, was used to estimate the dust production rate. Assuming a steady outflow of dust particles from the nucleus, the dust production rate was estimated to be between 20 and 60 kg/s, depending on the assumed value of the grain's albedo. The V-R colour index obtained from the near-nucleus region of the coma is in agreement with the solar V-R colour index, and does not indicate significant reddening of the reflected solar radiation in the spectral region of 540-683 nm.

  14. Comet C/2012 S1 (Ison)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, S.; Kadota, K.; Ikari, Y.

    2013-12-01

    S. Nakano, Sumoto, Japan, has also reported the following unsuccessful CCD searches for the comet after perihelion, with limiting magnitudes: Dec. 8.85 UT, [16.6 (K. Kadota, Ageo, Japan, 0.16-m f/3.3 hyperbolic astrograph); 8.88, [15 (Katsumi Yoshimoto, Yamaguchi, Japan, 16-cm reflector); 10.85, [17.2 (Kadota); 12.86, [17 (Y. Ikari, Moriyama, Shiga-ken, Japan, 0.26-m reflector); 14.86, [15.5 (Yoshimoto, Nikon digital camera + 180-mm f/2.8 lens).

  15. 8-cm mercury ion thruster system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The technology status of 8-cm diameter electron bombardment ion thrusters is presented. Much of the technology resulting from the 5-cm diameter thruster has been adapted and improved upon to increase the reliability, durability, and efficiency of the 8-cm thruster. Technology discussed includes: dependence of neutralizer tip erosion upon neutralizer flow rate; impregnated and rolled-foil insert cathode performance and life testing; neutralizer position studies; thruster ion beam profile measurements; high voltage pulse ignition; high utilization ion machined accelerator grids; deposition internal and external to the thruster; thruster vectoring systems; thruster cycling life testing and thruster system weights for typical mission applications.

  16. Chilled Mirror Dew Point Hygrometer (CM) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2005-01-01

    The CM systems have been developed for the ARM Program to act as a moisture standard traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are three CM systems that are each fully portable, self-contained, and require only 110 V AC power. The systems include a CM sensor, air sampling and filtration system, a secondary reference (Rotronic HP043 temperature and relative humidity sensor) to detect system malfunctions, a data acquisition system, and data storage for more than one month of 1-minute data. The CM sensor directly measures dew point temperature at 1 m, air temperature at 2 m, and relative humidity at 2 m. These measurements are intended to represent self-standing data streams that can be used independently or in combinations.

  17. Astrophysics with the 60-cm telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zverko, J.

    2014-03-01

    Observational programs and selection from scientific results with the 60-cm telescope achieved at the Skalnaté Pleso Observatory since its putting into operation is reviewed: novae, eclipsing and interacting binaries, symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, chemically peculiar stars, comets. Possible targets among newly detected binaries are proposed for determining orbital parameters using the new spectrograph of the 60-cm telescope at the Stará Lesná Observatory.

  18. Growth of rhodococcus S1 on anthracene.

    PubMed

    Tongpim, S; Pickard, M A

    1996-03-01

    Three slow-growing bacteria were isolated from a mixed culture enriched for growth on anthracene, using creosote-contaminated soil as the inoculum. Organisms were shown to use anthracene by the production of a clear zone around the colony after a mineral salts agar plate was sprayed with anthracene. All three bacteria were nonmotile, nonsporulating, gram-positive rods and stained acid-fast. Physiological and biochemical tests, GC content, and cell wall lipid patterns of whole cell methanolysates indicated that they belonged to the Nocardia-Mycobacterium-Rhodococcus group. On the basis of these characteristics and pyrolysis gas chromatography, they were assigned to the genus Rhodococcus. Growth of the isolates was slow on crystalline anthracene, giving a doubling time of 1.5-3 days, and they grew mainly on the crystal surface. When anthracene was supplied by precipitation from a solvent, doubling time was reduced to 1 day. All three isolates mineralized anthracene but not phenanthrene or naphthalene, nor could they grow on naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene, fluoranthene, acenaphthene, pyrene, chrysene, or naphthacene as sole carbon source. One isolate, Rhodococcus S1, was able to use 2-methylanthracene or 2-chloroanthracene as carbon source but not 1- or 9-substituted analogs. These results suggest that the initial enzyme attacking anthracene in these isolates has a narrow substrate specificity. PMID:8868237

  19. Raman spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll a in the S1 state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Ei-ichi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Koyama, Yasushi

    1991-07-01

    The S 1 Raman spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll a is reported for the first time. A one-color experiment using the 351 nm picosecond pulses (duration 50 ps and repetition 1 kHz) for tetrahydrofuran solution detected a transient species, which showed distinct Raman lines at 1567, 1409 and 1320 cm -1 and weak profiles around 1169, 1092, 1051 and 794 cm -1. The other one-color experiment using the 355 nm nanosecond pulses (duration 12 ns and repetition 10 Hz) detected the T 1 species reported previously showing Raman lines at 1578 and 1330 cm -1. Thus, the newly identified transient species, which was pumped and probed within 50 ps, is assigned to S 1.

  20. Correlated alteration effects in CM carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Lauren B.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1996-07-01

    Three parameters are proposed to determine the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites. The mineralogic alteration index monitors the relative progress of coupled substitutions in the progressive alteration of cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine and increases with increasing alteration. To calculate values of this index, an algorithm has been developed to estimate the average matrix phyllosilicate composition in individual CM chondrites. The second parameter is the volume percent of isolated matrix silicates, which decreases with progressive alteration due to mineral hydration. Finally, the volume percent of chondrule alteration monitors the extent of chondrule phyllosilicate production and increases as alteration proceeds. These parameters define the first CM alteration scale that relies on multiple indicators of progressive alteration. The following relative order of increasing alteration is established by this model: Murchison ≤ Bells < Pollen ≤ Murray < Mighei < Nogoya < Cold Bokkeveld. The relative degree of aqueous processing Cochabamba and Boriskino experienced is less precisely constrained, although both fall near the middle of this sequence. A comparison between the mineralogic alteration index and literature values for the whole-rock chemistry of CM chondrites reveals several correlations. A positive, nearly linear correlation between bulk H content and progressive CM alteration suggests an approximately constant production rate of new phyllosilicates relative to the mineralogical transition from cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine. The abundance of trapped planetary 36Ar decreases systematically in progressively altered CM chondrites, suggesting the wholesale destruction of primary noble gas carrier phase (s) by aqueous reactions. Because low temperature fluid-rock reactions are generally associated with large isotopic mass fractionation factors, we also compared our model predictions with δ18O values for bulk CM samples. Although some of these data are

  1. Correlated Alteration Effects in CM Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Browning, Lauren B.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Three parameters are proposed to determine the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites. The mineralogic alteration index monitors the relative progress of coupled substitutions in the progressive alteration of cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine, and increases with increasing alteration. To calculate values of this index, an algorithm has been developed to estimate the average matrix phyllosilicate composition in individual CM chondrites. The second parameter is the volume percent of isolated matrix silicates, which decreases with progressive alteration due to mineral hydration. Finally, the volume percent of chondrule alteration monitors the extent of chondrule phyllosilicate production, and increases as alteration proceeds. These parameters define the first CM alteration scale that-relies on multiple indicators of progressive alteration. The following relative order of increasing alteration is established by this model: Murchison less than or equal to Bells less than Pollen less than or equal to Murray less than Mighei less than Nogoya less than Cold Bokkeveld. Bulk delta18O values generally increase with progressive alteration, providing additional support for this sequence. The relative degree of aqueous processing Cochabamba and Boriskino experienced is less precisely constrained, although both fall near the middle of this sequence. A comparison between the mineralogic alteration index and literature values of the whole-rock chemistry of CM chondrites reveals several correlations. For example, a positive, nearly linear correlation between bulk H content and progressive CM alteration suggests an approximately constant production rate of new phyllosilicates relative to the mineralogical transition from cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine. Furthermore, the abundance of trapped planetary Ar-36 decreases systematically in progressively altered CM chondrites, suggesting the wholesale destruction of primary noble gas carrier phase(s) by aqueous reactions. Multiple

  2. PMMA Cementoplasty in Symptomatic Metastatic Lesions of the S1 Vertebral Body

    SciTech Connect

    Dehdashti, Amir R.; Martin, Jean-Baptiste; Jean, Beatrix; Ruefenacht, Daniel A.

    2000-03-15

    We describe a lateral transiliac direct puncture approach to the S1 vertebral body for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cementoplasty of painful metastatic lesions. This approach was performed using a 15-cm-long trocar needle with 3-mm outer diameter, introduced under general anesthesia and fluoroscopic control. A lateral projection was used to center the needle just in front of the spinal canal and subjacent to the superior plate of the S1 vertebral body. Needle progression was controlled using anteroposterior and lateral fluoroscopic projections alternately with a needle course parallel to an axial plane, avoiding conflict with the S1 foramen. After needle tip placement in the center of the S1 vertebral body, diluted PMMA with a setting time of 8 min was delivered. Ipsilateral lesions of the lateral sacral compartment were filled with the same needle by stepwise withdrawal and continuous PMMA injection.

  3. Detection of Thermal 2 cm and 1 cm Formaldehyde Emission in NGC 7538

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liang; Araya, E. D.; Hofner, P.; Kurtz, S.; Pihlstrom, Y.

    2011-05-01

    Formaldehyde is a tracer of high density gas in massive star forming regions. The K-doublet lines from the three lowest rotational energy levels of ortho-formaldehyde correspond to wavelengths of 6, 2 and 1 cm. Thermal emission of these transitions is rare, and maser emission has only been detected in the 6 cm line. NGC 7538 is an active site of massive star formation in the Galaxy, and one of only a few regions known to harbor 6 cm formaldehyde (H2CO) masers. Using the NRAO 100 m Green Bank Telescope (GBT), we detected 2 cm H2CO emission toward NGC 7538 IRS1. The velocity of the 2 cm H2CO line is very similar to the velocity of one of the 6 cm H2CO masers but the linewidth is greater. To investigate the nature of the 2 cm emission, we conducted observations of the 1 cm H2CO transition, and obtained a cross-scan map of the 2 cm line. We detected 1 cm emission and found that the 2 cm emission is extended (greater than 30"), which implies brightness temperatures of ˜0.2 K. Assuming optically thin emission, LTE, and that the 1 cm and 2 cm lines originate from the same volume of gas, both these detections are consistent with thermal emission of gas at ˜30 K. We conclude that the 1 cm and 2 cm H2CO lines detected with the GBT are thermal, which implies molecular densities above ˜105 cm-3. LY acknowledges support from WIU. PH acknowledges partial support from NSF grant AST-0908901.

  4. 43 CFR 10.7 - Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Disposition of unclaimed human remains... REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony From Federal or Tribal Lands § 10.7 Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or...

  5. Probing lepton asymmetry with 21 cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: oyamayo@post.kek.jp E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the issue of how accurately we can constrain the lepton number asymmetry ξ{sub ν}=μ{sub ν}/T{sub ν} in the Universe by using future observations of 21 cm line fluctuations and cosmic microwave background (CMB). We find that combinations of the 21 cm line and the CMB observations can constrain the lepton asymmetry better than big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Additionally, we also discuss constraints on ξ{sub ν} in the presence of some extra radiation, and show that the 21 cm line observations can substantially improve the constraints obtained by CMB alone, and allow us to distinguish the effects of the lepton asymmetry from the ones of extra radiation.

  6. CV and CM chondrite impact melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunning, Nicole G.; Corrigan, Catherine M.; McSween, Harry Y.; Tenner, Travis J.; Kita, Noriko T.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Volatile-rich and typically oxidized carbonaceous chondrites, such as CV and CM chondrites, potentially respond to impacts differently than do other chondritic materials. Understanding impact melting of carbonaceous chondrites has been hampered by the dearth of recognized impact melt samples. In this study we identify five carbonaceous chondrite impact melt clasts in three host meteorites: a CV3red chondrite, a CV3oxA chondrite, and a regolithic howardite. The impact melt clasts in these meteorites respectively formed from CV3red chondrite, CV3oxA chondrite, and CM chondrite protoliths. We identified these impact melt clasts and interpreted their precursors based on their texture, mineral chemistry, silicate bulk elemental composition, and in the case of the CM chondrite impact melt clast, in situ measurement of oxygen three-isotope signatures in olivine. These impact melts typically contain euhedral-subhedral olivine microphenocrysts, sometimes with relict cores, in glassy groundmasses. Based on petrography and Raman spectroscopy, four of the impact melt clasts exhibit evidence for volatile loss: these melt clasts either contain vesicles or are depleted in H2O relative to their precursors. Volatile loss (i.e., H2O) may have reduced the redox state of the CM chondrite impact melt clast. The clasts that formed from the more oxidized precursors (CV3oxA and CM chondrites) exhibit phase and bulk silicate elemental compositions consistent with higher intrinsic oxygen fugacities relative to the clast that formed from a more reduced precursor (CV3red chondrite). The mineral chemistries and assemblages of the CV and CM chondrite impact melt clasts identified here provide a template for recognizing carbonaceous chondrite impact melts on the surfaces of asteroids.

  7. WILL COMET ISON (C/2012 S1) SURVIVE PERIHELION?

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Matthew M.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2013-10-10

    On 2013 November 28 Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) will pass by the Sun with a perihelion distance of 2.7 solar radii. Understanding the possible outcomes for the comet's response to such a close passage by the Sun is important for planning observational campaigns and for inferring ISON's physical properties. We present new numerical simulations and interpret them in context with the historical track record of comet disruptions and of sungrazing comet behavior. Historical data suggest that sizes below ∼200 m are susceptible to destruction by sublimation driven mass loss, while we find that for ISON's perihelion distance, densities lower than 0.1 g cm{sup –3} are required to tidally disrupt a retrograde or non-spinning body. Such low densities are substantially below the range of the best-determined comet nucleus densities, though dynamically new comets such as ISON have few measurements of physical properties. Disruption may occur for prograde rotation at densities up to 0.7 g cm{sup –3}, with the chances of disruption increasing for lower density, faster prograde rotation, and increasing elongation of the nucleus. Given current constraints on ISON's nucleus properties and the typically determined values for these properties among all comets, we find tidal disruption to be unlikely unless other factors (e.g., spin-up via torquing) affect ISON substantially. Whether or not disruption occurs, the largest remnant must be big enough to survive subsequent mass loss due to sublimation in order for ISON to remain a viable comet well after perihelion.

  8. The Multidimensional Curriculum Model (MdCM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidergor, Hava E.

    2010-01-01

    The multidimensional Curriculum Model (MdCM) helps teachers to better prepare gifted and able students for our changing world, acquiring much needed skills. It is influenced by general learning theory of constructivism, notions of preparing students for 21st century, Teaching the Future Model, and current comprehensive curriculum models for…

  9. The 150/220 cm Schmidt telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Ke-Ren; Li, De-Pei; Yi, Mei-Liang; Zhu, Li-Qing; Li, Chang-Jin; Xu, Jian-Hua; Zhu, Neng-Hong; Wang, Lang-Juan; Zheng, Yi-Jin

    1990-09-01

    This paper deals with the overall design of the 150/220 cm Schmidt telescope. The optics, main structure, main mirror cell and the focus keeping device, achromatic Schmidt control cell, hydrostatic bearing of polar axis, drive, CCD auto-guider, and multi microcomputer control system are discussed in detail.

  10. Characterization of 8-cm engineering model thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    Development of 8 cm ion thruster technology which was conducted in support of the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) flight contract (Contract NAS3-21055) is discussed. The work included characterization of thruster performance, stability, and control; a study of the effects of cathode aging; environmental qualification testing; and cyclic lifetesting of especially critical thruster components.

  11. Exogenous S1P Exposure Potentiates Ischemic Stroke Damage That Is Reduced Possibly by Inhibiting S1P Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eunjung; Han, Jeong Eun; Jeon, Sejin; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Choi, Ji Woong; Chun, Jerold

    2015-01-01

    Initial and recurrent stroke produces central nervous system (CNS) damage, involving neuroinflammation. Receptor-mediated S1P signaling can influence neuroinflammation and has been implicated in cerebral ischemia through effects on the immune system. However, S1P-mediated events also occur within the brain itself where its roles during stroke have been less well studied. Here we investigated the involvement of S1P signaling in initial and recurrent stroke by using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (M/R) model combined with analyses of S1P signaling. Gene expression for S1P receptors and involved enzymes was altered during M/R, supporting changes in S1P signaling. Direct S1P microinjection into the normal CNS induced neuroglial activation, implicating S1P-initiated neuroinflammatory responses that resembled CNS changes seen during initial M/R challenge. Moreover, S1P microinjection combined with M/R potentiated brain damage, approximating a model for recurrent stroke dependent on S1P and suggesting that reduction in S1P signaling could ameliorate stroke damage. Delivery of FTY720 that removes S1P signaling with chronic exposure reduced damage in both initial and S1P-potentiated M/R-challenged brain, while reducing stroke markers like TNF-α. These results implicate direct S1P CNS signaling in the etiology of initial and recurrent stroke that can be therapeutically accessed by S1P modulators acting within the brain. PMID:26576074

  12. Negative infrared photoconductivity in CdS1-xSex films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdinov, A. S.; Jafarov, M. A.; Mamedov, H. M.; Nasirov, E. F.

    2003-09-01

    The negative infrared photoconductivity (NPH) has been observed for the first time in CdS1-xSex films, in the wavelength region of 0.700 - 1.23 μm. at values of stimulating light intensity Φ = 100 - 400 Lk. electrical field E = 0.5 - 130 V/cm and temperature T = 265 - 310 Κ. It is established, that basic laws of NPH explains on the basis of two-barrier model and in the considered conditions a charge carriers, overcome a barrier by tunneling. A films of CdS1-xSex can be used in IR engineering and negatronics.

  13. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P{sub 1} receptor by a novel competitive S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of a newly developed S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficacy of S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P{sub 1}) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P{sub 1} and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P{sub 1} antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  14. Hydrogen-Broadened Water from 50 to 300 cm-1 and 1300 to 4000 cm-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L.; Peterson, D.; Plymate, C.

    1995-01-01

    To support remote sensing of the outer planets, absorption spectra of H2O broadened by H2 were recorded at room temperature using two Fourier transform spectrometers. The data from 1300 to 4000 cm-1 were obtained at 0.012 cm-1 resolution with the McMath FTS located at Kitt Peak National Observatory/National Solar Observatory. The remainder of the spectral data from 55 to 320 cm-1 were taken at 0.0056 cm-1 with the Bruker FTS.

  15. Inferring the distances of fast radio bursts through associated 21-cm absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margalit, Ben; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-07-01

    The distances of fast radio burst (FRB) sources are currently unknown. We show that the 21-cm absorption line of hydrogen can be used to infer the redshifts of FRB sources, and determine whether they are Galactic or extragalactic. We calculate a probability of ˜10 per cent for the host galaxy of an FRB to exhibit a 21-cm absorption feature of equivalent width ≳10 km s-1. Arecibo, along with several future radio observatories, should be capable of detecting such associated 21-cm absorption signals for strong bursts of ≳several Jy peak flux densities.

  16. Conformationally Constrained, Stable, Triplet Ground State (S = 1) Nitroxide Diradicals. Antiferromagnetic Chains of S = 1 Diradicals

    SciTech Connect

    Rajca, Andrzej; Takahashi, Masahiro; Pink, Maren; Spagnol, Gaelle; Rajca, Suchada

    2008-06-30

    Nitroxide diradicals, in which nitroxides are annelated to m-phenylene forming tricyclic benzobisoxazine-like structures, have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, magnetic resonance (EPR and {sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy, as well as magnetic studies in solution and in solid state. For the octamethyl derivative of benzobisoxazine nitroxide diradical, the conformationally constrained nitroxide moieties are coplanar with the m-phenylene, leading to large values of 2J (2J/k > 200 K in solution and 2J/k >> 300 K in the solid state). For the diradical, in which all ortho and para positions of the m-phenylene are sterically shielded, distortion of the nitroxide moieties from coplanarity is moderate, such that the singlet-triplet gaps remain large in both solution (2J/k > 200 K) and the solid state (2J/k {approx} 400-800 K), though an onset of thermal depopulation of the triplet ground state is detectable near room temperature. These diradicals have robust triplet ground states with strong ferromagnetic coupling and good stability at ambient conditions. Magnetic behavior of the nitroxide diradicals at low temperature is best fit to the model of one-dimensional S = 1 Heisenberg chains with intrachain antiferromagnetic coupling. The antiferromagnetic coupling between the S = 1 diradicals may be associated with the methyl nitroxide C-H {hor_ellipsis} O contacts, including nonclassical hydrogen bonds. These unprecedented organic S = 1 antiferromagnetic chains are highly isotropic, compared to those of the extensively studied Ni(II)-based chains.

  17. 15 cm multipole gas ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaacson, G. C.; Kaufman, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    A 15-cm multipole thruster was operated on argon and xenon. The multipole approach used has been shown capable of low discharge losses and flat ion beam profiles with a minimum of redesign. This approach employs low magnetic field strengths and flat or cylindrical sheet-metal parts, hence is suited to rapid optimization and scaling. Only refractory metal cathodes were used in this investigation.

  18. Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation in endothelial cells by S1P1 and S1P3.

    PubMed

    Tölle, M; Klöckl, L; Wiedon, A; Zidek, W; van der Giet, M; Schuchardt, M

    2016-08-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays a crucial role in vascular homeostasis. Lysophospholipid interaction with sphingosine 1-phosphat (S1P) receptors results in eNOS activation in different cells. In endothelial cells, eNOS activation via S1P1 or S1P3 was shown controversially. The aim of this study is to investigate the meaning of both S1P receptors for eNOS activation in human endothelial cells. Therefore, several S1P1 and S1P3 agonists in combination with antagonists and specific RNAi approach were used. eNOS activation was measured in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) via DAF2-DA-based fluorescence microscopy. For investigation of the signaling pathway, agonists/antagonist studies, RNAi approach, Luminex™ multiplex, and Western Blot were used. In HUVEC, both the S1P1 agonist AUY954 as well as the S1P1,3 agonist FTY720P induced eNOS activation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Other S1P1 agonists activated eNOS to a lesser extent. The AUY954-induced eNOS activation was blocked by the S1P1 antagonist W146, the combination of W146 and the S1P3 antagonist CAY10444 and the S1P1,3 antagonist VPC23019, but not by CAY10444 indicating the meaning of S1P1 for the AUY954-induced eNOS activation. The FTY720P-induced eNOS activation was blocked only by the combination of W146 and CAY10444 and the combined S1P1,3 antagonist VPC23019, but not by W146 or CAY10444 indicating the importance of both S1P1 and S1P3 for FTY720-induced eNOS activation. These results were confirmed using specific siRNA against S1P1 and S1P3. The S1P1,3 activation results in Akt phosphorylation and subsequent activation of eNOS via phosphorylation at serine(1177) and dephosphorylation at threonine(495). Beside former investigations with rather unspecific S1P receptor activation these data show potent selective S1P1 activation by using AUY954 and with selective S1P receptor inhibition evidence was provided that both S1P1 and S1P3 lead to downstream activation of eNOS in

  19. Constraining dark matter through 21-cm observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, M.; Ferrara, A.; Mapelli, M.; Ripamonti, E.

    2007-05-01

    Beyond reionization epoch cosmic hydrogen is neutral and can be directly observed through its 21-cm line signal. If dark matter (DM) decays or annihilates, the corresponding energy input affects the hydrogen kinetic temperature and ionized fraction, and contributes to the Lyα background. The changes induced by these processes on the 21-cm signal can then be used to constrain the proposed DM candidates, among which we select the three most popular ones: (i) 25-keV decaying sterile neutrinos, (ii) 10-MeV decaying light dark matter (LDM) and (iii) 10-MeV annihilating LDM. Although we find that the DM effects are considerably smaller than found by previous studies (due to a more physical description of the energy transfer from DM to the gas), we conclude that combined observations of the 21-cm background and of its gradient should be able to put constrains at least on LDM candidates. In fact, LDM decays (annihilations) induce differential brightness temperature variations with respect to the non-decaying/annihilating DM case up to ΔδTb = 8 (22) mK at about 50 (15) MHz. In principle, this signal could be detected both by current single-dish radio telescopes and future facilities as Low Frequency Array; however, this assumes that ionospheric, interference and foreground issues can be properly taken care of.

  20. Mapmaking for precision 21 cm cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Joshua S.; Tegmark, Max; Liu, Adrian; Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Morales, Miguel F.; Neben, Abraham R.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Zheng, Haoxuan

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the "Cosmic Dawn" and the Epoch of Reionization with 21 cm tomography, we need to statistically separate the cosmological signal from foregrounds known to be orders of magnitude brighter. Over the last few years, we have learned much about the role our telescopes play in creating a putatively foreground-free region called the "EoR window." In this work, we examine how an interferometer's effects can be taken into account in a way that allows for the rigorous estimation of 21 cm power spectra from interferometric maps while mitigating foreground contamination and thus increasing sensitivity. This requires a precise understanding of the statistical relationship between the maps we make and the underlying true sky. While some of these calculations would be computationally infeasible if performed exactly, we explore several well-controlled approximations that make mapmaking and the calculation of map statistics much faster, especially for compact and highly redundant interferometers designed specifically for 21 cm cosmology. We demonstrate the utility of these methods and the parametrized trade-offs between accuracy and speed using one such telescope, the upcoming Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array, as a case study.

  1. Polyhedral Serpentine Grains in CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zega, Thomas J.; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Dodony, Istvan; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    CM chondrites are primitive rocks that experienced aqueous alteration in the early solar system. Their matrices and fine-grained rims (FGRs) sustained the effects of alteration, and the minerals within them hold clues to the aqueous reactions. Sheet silicates are an important product of alteration, and those of the serpentine group are abundant in the CM2 chondrites. Here we expand on our previous efforts to characterize the structure and chemistry of serpentines in CM chondrites and report results on a polyhedral form that is structurally similar to polygonal serpentine. Polygonal serpentine consists of tetrahedral (T) sheets joined to M(2+)-centered octahedral (O) sheets (where (M2+) is primarily Mg(2+) and Fe(2+)), which give rise to a 1:1 (TO) layered structure with a 0.7-nm layer periodicity. The structure is similar to chrysotile in that it consists of concentric lizardite layers wrapped around the fiber axis. However, unlike the rolled-up chrysotile, the tetrahedral sheets of the lizardite layers are periodically inverted and kinked, producing sectors. The relative angles between sectors result in 15- and 30-sided polygons in terrestrial samples.

  2. ICD-10-CM/PCS: Transferring Knowledge from ICD-9-CM

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Jaime N.; Elison-Bowers, Patt

    2013-01-01

    The transition to ICD-10-CM/PCS has expanded educational opportunities for educators and trainers who are taking on the responsibility of training coders on the new system. Coding education currently faces multiple challenges in the areas of how to train the new workforce, what might be the most efficient method of providing that training, how much retraining of the current workforce with ICD-9-CM training will be required, and how to meet the national implementation deadline of 2014 in the most efficacious manner. This research sought to identify if there was a difference between a group of participants with no knowledge of ICD-9-CM and those with some knowledge of ICD-9-CM in scores on an ICD-10-CM/PCS quiz. Results indicate a difference, supporting the idea of knowledge transfer between the systems and providing additional insight into coding education. PMID:23861677

  3. Detailed modelling of the 21-cm forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelin, B.

    2016-01-01

    The 21-cm forest is a promising probe of the Epoch of Reionization. The local state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is encoded in the spectrum of a background source (radio-loud quasars or gamma-ray burst afterglow) by absorption at the local 21-cm wavelength, resulting in a continuous and fluctuating absorption level. Small-scale structures (filaments and minihaloes) in the IGM are responsible for the strongest absorption features. The absorption can also be modulated on large scales by inhomogeneous heating and Wouthuysen-Field coupling. We present the results from a simulation that attempts to preserve the cosmological environment while resolving some of the small-scale structures (a few kpc resolution in a 50 h-1 Mpc box). The simulation couples the dynamics and the ionizing radiative transfer and includes X-ray and Lyman lines radiative transfer for a detailed physical modelling. As a result we find that soft X-ray self-shielding, Ly α self-shielding and shock heating all have an impact on the predicted values of the 21-cm optical depth of moderately overdense structures like filaments. A correct treatment of the peculiar velocities is also critical. Modelling these processes seems necessary for accurate predictions and can be done only at high enough resolution. As a result, based on our fiducial model, we estimate that LOFAR should be able to detect a few (strong) absorptions features in a frequency range of a few tens of MHz for a 20 mJy source located at z = 10, while the SKA would extract a large fraction of the absorption information for the same source.

  4. Infrared reflectivity spectra of GaS 1-xSe x mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, V.; Neumann, H.; Sobotta, H.; Lévy, F.

    1980-04-01

    Infrared reflectivity spectra of GaS 1- xSe x mixed crystals are measured for E ‖ c in the wavenumber range from 180 to 4000 cm -1. Two-mode behaviour is found for the infrared active optical modes. The composition dependence of the mode frequencies can be described by the MREI model if a nonlinear change of the force constants with composition is assumed.

  5. Roles for lysophospholipid S1P receptors in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Kyoko; Chun, Jerold

    2011-02-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been highlighted by the efficacy of FTY720 (fingolimod), which upon phosphorylation can modulate S1P receptor activities. FTY720 has become the first oral treatment for relapsing MS that was approved by the FDA in September 2010. Phosphorylated FTY720 modulates four of the five known S1P receptors (S1P(1), S1P(3), S1P(4), and S1P(5)) at high affinity. Studies in human MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have revealed that FTY720 exposure alters lymphocyte trafficking via sequestration of auto-aggressive lymphocytes within lymphoid organs, representing the current understanding of its mechanism of action. These effects primarily involve S1P(1), which is thought to attenuate inflammatory insults in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, FTY720's actions may involve direct effects on S1P receptor-mediated signaling in CNS cells, based upon the known expression of S1P receptors in CNS cell types relevant to MS, access to the CNS through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and in vitro studies. These data implicate lysophospholipid signaling--via S1P(1) and perhaps other lysophospholipid receptors--in therapeutic approaches to MS and potentially other diseases with immunological and/or neurological components. PMID:20979571

  6. A 30-cm diameter argon ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter argon ion source was evaluated. Ion source beam currents up to 4a were extracted with ion energies ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 KeV. An ion optics scaling relation was developed for predicting ion beam extraction capability as a function of total extraction voltage, gas type, and screen grid open area. Ignition and emission characteristics of several hollow cathode geometries were assessed for purposes of defining discharge chamber and neutralizer cathodes. Also presented are ion beam profile characteristics which exhibit broad beam capability well suited for ion beam sputtering applications.

  7. Isotope shifts in methane near 6000/cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, K.; Halsey, G. W.; Jennings, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Isotope shifts for cleanly resolved vibrational-rotational absorption lines of CH4-12 and CH4-13 were measured by a 5-m focal length Littrow spectrometer in the 6000/cm range. The methane isotopes were held in separate absorption cells: 20 torr of CH4-13 in a 1-m cell, and 5 torr of CH4-12 in a White cell of 4-m optical path length. Measured shifts for the cleanly resolved singlets R(0), R(1), Q(1) and P(1) are summarized in tabular form.

  8. An engineering model 30 cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; King, H. J.; Schnelker, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    Thruster development at Hughes Research Laboratories and NASA Lewis Research Center has brought the 30-cm mercury bombardment ion thruster to the state of an engineering model. This thruster has been designed to have sufficient internal strength for direct mounting on gimbals, to weigh 7.3 kg, to operate with a corrected overall efficiency of 71%, and to have 10,000 hours lifetime. Subassemblies, such as the ion optical system, isolators, etc., have been upgraded to meet launch qualification standards. This paper presents a summary of the design specifications and performance characteristics which define the interface between the thruster module and the remainder of the propulsion system.

  9. Vibrational spectrum of p-fluoroanisole in the first excited state (S 1) and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Daoqing; Yu, Dan; Xu, Xiling; Yu, Zijun; Du, Yikui; Gao, Zhen; Zhu, Qihe; Zhang, Cunhao

    2008-06-01

    The vibronic structure of p-fluoroanisole in the first excited state (S 1) has been investigated with mass selected resonance-enhanced two photon ionization spectroscopy. The band origin of S 1 ← S 0 transition of p-fluoroanisole is measured to be 35149 cm -1, which is red-shifted by 1234 cm -1 with respect to that of anisole. Combining with the ab initio calculations, the measured frequencies 397, 487, 559, 840 and 1150 cm -1 in the S 1 state are assigned as the in-plane ring vibrational mode 9 b, 6 a, 6 b, 1 and 9 a, respectively. The optimized molecular geometries and vibrational frequencies of p-fluoroanisole in the ground state (S 0) and cation ground state (D 0) are also achieved from DFT calculations.

  10. Fuel elements of research reactor CM

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, A.V.; Morozov, A.V.; Vatulin, A.V.; Ershov, S.A.

    2013-07-01

    In 1961 the CM research reactor was commissioned at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (Dimitrovgrad, Russia), it was intended to carry on investigations and the production of transuranium nuclides. The reactor is of a tank type. Original fuel assembly contained plate fuels that were spaced with vanes and corrugated bands. Nickel was used as a cladding material, fuel meat was produced from UO{sub 2} + electrolytic nickel composition. Fuel plates have been replaced by self-spacing cross-shaped dispersion fuels clad in stainless steel. In 2005 the reactor was updated. The purpose of this updating was to increase the quantity of irradiation channels in the reactor core and to improve the neutron balance. The updating was implemented at the expense of 20 % reduction in the quantity of fuel elements in the core which released a space for extra channels and decreased the mass of structural materials in the core. The updated reactor is loaded with modified standard fuel elements with 20 % higher uranium masses. At the same time stainless steel in fuel assembly shrouds was substituted by zirconium alloy. Today in progress are investigations and work to promote the second stage of reactor updating that involve developments of cross-shaped fuel elements having low neutron absorption matrix materials. This article gives an historical account of the design and main technical changes that occurred for the CM reactor since its commissioning.

  11. Redundant Array Configurations for 21 cm Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Joshua S.; Parsons, Aaron R.

    2016-08-01

    Realizing the potential of 21 cm tomography to statistically probe the intergalactic medium before and during the Epoch of Reionization requires large telescopes and precise control of systematics. Next-generation telescopes are now being designed and built to meet these challenges, drawing lessons from first-generation experiments that showed the benefits of densely packed, highly redundant arrays—in which the same mode on the sky is sampled by many antenna pairs—for achieving high sensitivity, precise calibration, and robust foreground mitigation. In this work, we focus on the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) as an interferometer with a dense, redundant core designed following these lessons to be optimized for 21 cm cosmology. We show how modestly supplementing or modifying a compact design like HERA’s can still deliver high sensitivity while enhancing strategies for calibration and foreground mitigation. In particular, we compare the imaging capability of several array configurations, both instantaneously (to address instrumental and ionospheric effects) and with rotation synthesis (for foreground removal). We also examine the effects that configuration has on calibratability using instantaneous redundancy. We find that improved imaging with sub-aperture sampling via “off-grid” antennas and increased angular resolution via far-flung “outrigger” antennas is possible with a redundantly calibratable array configuration.

  12. 30-cm electron cyclotron plasma generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goede, Hank

    1987-01-01

    Experimental results on the development of a 30-cm-diam electron cyclotron resonance plasma generator are presented. This plasma source utilizes samarium-cobalt magnets and microwave power at a frequency of 4.9 GHz to produce a uniform plasma with densities of up to 3 x 10 to the 11th/cu cm in a continuous fashion. The plasma generator contains no internal structures, and is thus inherently simple in construction and operation and inherently durable. The generator was operated with two different magnetic geometries. One used the rare-earth magnets arranged in an axial line cusp configuration, which directly showed plasma production taking place near the walls of the generator where the electron temperature was highest but with the plasma density peaking in the central low B-field regions. The second configuration had magnets arranged to form azimuthal line cusps with approximately closed electron drift surfaces; this configuration showed an improved electrical efficiency of about 135 eV/ion.

  13. Combining galaxy and 21-cm surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, J. D.; White, Martin; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Holder, Gil; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Doré, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Acoustic waves travelling through the early Universe imprint a characteristic scale in the clustering of galaxies, QSOs and intergalactic gas. This scale can be used as a standard ruler to map the expansion history of the Universe, a technique known as baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). BAO offer a high-precision, low-systematics means of constraining our cosmological model. The statistical power of BAO measurements can be improved if the `smearing' of the acoustic feature by non-linear structure formation is undone in a process known as reconstruction. In this paper, we use low-order Lagrangian perturbation theory to study the ability of 21-cm experiments to perform reconstruction and how augmenting these surveys with galaxy redshift surveys at relatively low number densities can improve performance. We find that the critical number density which must be achieved in order to benefit 21-cm surveys is set by the linear theory power spectrum near its peak, and corresponds to densities achievable by upcoming surveys of emission line galaxies such as eBOSS and DESI. As part of this work, we analyse reconstruction within the framework of Lagrangian perturbation theory with local Lagrangian bias, redshift-space distortions, {k}-dependent noise and anisotropic filtering schemes.

  14. THE METALLICITY OF THE CM DRACONIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Fleming, Scott W.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Deshpande, Rohit; Bender, Chad F.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Feiden, Gregory A.

    2012-11-20

    The CM Draconis system comprises two eclipsing mid-M dwarfs of nearly equal mass in a 1.27 day orbit. This well-studied eclipsing binary has often been used for benchmark tests of stellar models, since its components are among the lowest mass stars with well-measured masses and radii ({approx}< 1% relative precision). However, as with many other low-mass stars, non-magnetic models have been unable to match the observed radii and effective temperatures for CM Dra at the 5%-10% level. To date, the uncertain metallicity of the system has complicated comparison of theoretical isochrones with observations. In this Letter, we use data from the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility to measure the metallicity of the system during primary and secondary eclipses, as well as out of eclipse, based on an empirical metallicity calibration in the H and K near-infrared (NIR) bands. We derive an [Fe/H] = -0.30 {+-} 0.12 that is consistent across all orbital phases. The determination of [Fe/H] for this system constrains a key dimension of parameter space when attempting to reconcile model isochrone predictions and observations.

  15. Fission probabilities of 242Am,243Cm , and 244Cm induced by transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessedjian, G.; Jurado, B.; Barreau, G.; Marini, P.; Mathieu, L.; Tsekhanovich, I.; Aiche, M.; Boutoux, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Ducasse, Q.

    2015-04-01

    We have measured the fission probabilities of 242Am,243Cm , and 244Cm induced by the transfer reactions 243Am(3He,4He) ,243Am(3He,t ) , and 243Am(3He,d ) , respectively. The details of the experimental procedure and a rigorous uncertainty analysis, including a correlation matrix, are presented. For 243Cm our data show clear structures well below the fission threshold. To our knowledge, it is the first time that these structures have been observed for this nucleus. We have compared the measured fission probabilities to calculations based on the statistical model to obtain information on the fission barriers of the produced fissioning nuclei.

  16. Aliphatic amines in Antarctic CR2, CM2, and CM1/2 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponte, José C.; McLain, Hannah L.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2016-09-01

    Meteoritic water-soluble organic compounds provide a unique record of the processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system and the chemistry preceding the origins of life on Earth. We have investigated the molecular distribution, compound-specific δ13C isotopic ratios and enantiomeric compositions of aliphatic monoamines present in the hot acid-water extracts of the carbonaceous chondrites LAP 02342 (CR2), GRA 95229 (CR2), LON 94101 (CM2), LEW 90500 (CM2), and ALH 83100 (CM1/2). Analyses of the concentration of monoamines in these meteorites revealed: (a) the CR2 chondrites studied here contain higher concentrations of monoamines relative to the analyzed CM2 chondrites; (b) the concentration of monoamines decreases with increasing carbon number; and (c) isopropylamine is the most abundant monoamine in these CR2 chondrites, while methylamine is the most abundant amine species in these CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. The δ13C values of monoamines in CR2 chondrite do not correlate with the number of carbon atoms; however, in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites, the 13C enrichment decreases with increasing monoamine carbon number. The δ13C values of methylamine in CR2 chondrites ranged from -1 to +10‰, while in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites the δ13C values of methylamine ranged from +41 to +59‰. We also observed racemic compositions of sec-butylamine, 3-methyl-2-butylamine, and sec-pentylamine in the studied carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we compared the abundance and δ13C isotopic composition of monoamines to those of their structurally related amino acids. We found that monoamines are less abundant than amino acids in CR2 chondrites, with the opposite being true in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. We used these collective data to evaluate different primordial synthetic pathways for monoamines in carbonaceous chondrites and to understand the potential common origins these molecules may share with meteoritic amino acids.

  17. Overcoming the Challenges of 21cm Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pober, Jonathan

    The highly-redshifted 21cm line of neutral hydrogen is one of the most promising and unique probes of cosmology for the next decade and beyond. The past few years have seen a number of dedicated experiments targeting the 21cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) begin operation, including the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR), the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER). For these experiments to yield cosmological results, they require new calibration and analysis algorithms which will need to achieve unprecedented levels of separation between the 21cm signal and contaminating foreground emission. Although much work has been spent developing these algorithms over the past decade, their success or failure will ultimately depend on their ability to overcome the complications associated with real-world systems and their inherent complications. The work in this dissertation is closely tied to the late-stage commissioning and early observations with PAPER. The first two chapters focus on developing calibration algorithms to overcome unique problems arising in the PAPER system. To test these algorithms, I rely on not only simulations, but on commissioning observations, ultimately tying the success of the algorithm to its performance on actual, celestial data. The first algorithm works to correct gain-drifts in the PAPER system caused by the heating and cooling of various components (the amplifiers and above ground co-axial cables, in particular). It is shown that a simple measurement of the ambient temperature can remove ˜ 10% gain fluctuations in the observed brightness of calibrator sources. This result is highly encouraging for the ability of PAPER to remove a potentially dominant systematic in its power spectrum and cataloging measurements without resorting to a complicated system overhaul. The second new algorithm developed in this dissertation solves a major calibration challenge not

  18. The 30-cm ion thruster power processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, B. G.; Hopper, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A power processor unit for powering and controlling the 30 cm Mercury Electron-Bombardment Ion Thruster was designed, fabricated, and tested. The unit uses a unique and highly efficient transistor bridge inverter power stage in its implementation. The system operated from a 200 to 400 V dc input power bus, provides 12 independently controllable and closely regulated dc power outputs, and has an overall power conditioning capacity of 3.5 kW. Protective circuitry was incorporated as an integral part of the design to assure failure-free operation during transient and steady-state load faults. The implemented unit demonstrated an electrical efficiency between 91.5 and 91.9 at its nominal rated load over the 200 to 400 V dc input bus range.

  19. 70-cm radar observations of 433 Eros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Pettengill, G. H.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1976-01-01

    Radar observations of 433 Eros were made at the Arecibo Observatory using a wavelength of 70 cm during the close approach of Eros to earth in mid-January, 1975. A peak radar cross section of plus or minus 15 sq km was observed. The spectral broadening obtained was approximately 30 Hz, which is consistent with a value of 16 km for the maximum radius of the asteroid. The surface of Eros appears to be relatively rough at the scale of a wavelength as compared to the surfaces of the terrestrial planets and the moon. The composition of the surface is not well determined, except that it cannot be a highly conducting metal. A single measurement each of round-trip echo times delay and Doppler shift was made.

  20. NASA 30 Cm Ion Thruster Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Haag, Thomas W.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster is under development at NASA to provide an ion propulsion option for missions of national interest and it is an element of the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness (NSTAR) program established to validate ion propulsion for space flight applications. The thruster has been developed to an engineering model level and it incorporates innovations in design, materials, and fabrication techniques compared to those employed to conventional ion thrusters. The performance of both functional and engineering model thrusters has been assessed including thrust stand measurements, over an input power range of 0.5-2.3 kW. Attributes of the engineering model thruster include an overall mass of 6.4 kg, and an efficiency of 65 percent and thrust of 93 mN at 2.3 kW input power. This paper discusses the design, performance, and lifetime expectations of the functional and engineering model thrusters under development at NASA.

  1. Resonating Valence Bond states for low dimensional S=1 antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng-Xin; Zhou, Yi; Ng, Tai-Kai

    2014-03-01

    We study S = 1 spin liquid states in low dimensions. We show that the resonating-valence-bond (RVB) picture of S = 1 / 2 spin liquid state can be generalized to S = 1 case. For S = 1 system, a many-body singlet (with even site number) can be decomposed into superposition of products of two-body singlets. In other words, the product states of two-body singlets, called the singlet pair states (SPSs), are over complete to span the Hilbert space of many-body singlets. Furthermore, we generalized fermionic representation and the corresponding mean field theory and Gutzwiller projected stats to S = 1 models. We applied our theory to study 1D anti-ferromagnetic bilinear-biquadratic model and show that both the ground states (including the phase transition point) and the excited states can be understood excellently well within the framework. Our method can be applied to 2D S = 1 antiferromagnets.

  2. Evaluation of Argonne 9-cm and 10-cm Annular Centrifugal Contactors for SHINE Solution Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Wardle, Kent E.; Pereira, Candido; Vandegrift, George

    2015-02-01

    Work is in progress to evaluate the SHINE Medical Technologies process for producing Mo-99 for medical use from the fission of dissolved low-enriched uranium (LEU). This report addresses the use of Argonne annular centrifugal contactors for periodic treatment of the process solution. In a letter report from FY 2013, Pereira and Vandegrift compared the throughput and physical footprint for the two contactor options available from CINC Industries: the V-02 and V-05, which have rotor diameters of 5 cm and 12.7 cm, respectively. They suggested that an intermediately sized “Goldilocks” contactor might provide a better balance between throughput and footprint to meet the processing needs for the uranium extraction (UREX) processing of the SHINE solution to remove undesired fission products. Included with the submission of this letter report are the assembly drawings for two Argonne-design contactors that are in this intermediate range—9-cm and 10-cm rotors, respectively. The 9-cm contactor (drawing number CE-D6973A, stamped February 15, 1978) was designed as a single-stage unit and built and tested in the late 1970s along with other size units, both smaller and larger. In subsequent years, a significant effort to developed annular centrifugal contactors was undertaken to support work at Hanford implementing the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process. These contactors had a 10-cm rotor diameter and were fully designed as multistage units with four stages per assembly (drawing number CMT-E1104, stamped March 14, 1990). From a technology readiness perspective, these 10-cm units are much farther ahead in the design progression and, therefore, would require significantly less re-working to make them ready for UREX deployment. Additionally, the overall maximum throughput of ~12 L/min is similar to that of the 9-cm unit (10 L/min), and the former could be efficiently operated over much of the same range of throughput. As a result, only the 10-cm units are considered here

  3. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prior regulation provisions of § 1.414(s)-1T. (See § 1.414(s)-1T as contained in the CFR edition revised... to the extent necessary to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR 2530.204-2(d) (regarding double... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 1.414(s)-1 Section...

  4. Detecting the 21 cm forest in the 21 cm power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Dillon, Joshua S.; Mesinger, Andrei; Hewitt, Jacqueline

    2014-07-01

    We describe a new technique for constraining the radio-loud population of active galactic nuclei at high redshift by measuring the imprint of 21 cm spectral absorption features (the 21 cm forest) on the 21 cm power spectrum. Using semi-numerical simulations of the intergalactic medium and a semi-empirical source population, we show that the 21 cm forest dominates a distinctive region of k-space, k ≳ 0.5 Mpc- 1. By simulating foregrounds and noise for current and potential radio arrays, we find that a next-generation instrument with a collecting area of the order of ˜ 0.1 km2 (such as the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array) may separately constrain the X-ray heating history at large spatial scales and radio-loud active galactic nuclei of the model we study at small ones. We extrapolate our detectability predictions for a single radio-loud active galactic nuclei population to arbitrary source scenarios by analytically relating the 21 cm forest power spectrum to the optical depth power spectrum and an integral over the radio luminosity function.

  5. Engineering model 8-cm thruster subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, B. G.; Hyman, J.; Hopper, D. J.; Williamson, W. S.; Dulgeroff, C. R.; Collett, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    An Engineering Model (EM) 8 cm Ion Thruster Propulsion Subsystem was developed for operation at a thrust level 5 mN (1.1 mlb) at a specific impulse 1 sub sp = 2667 sec with a total system input power P sub in = 165 W. The system dry mass is 15 kg with a mercury-propellant-reservoir capacity of 8.75 kg permitting uninterrupted operation for about 12,500 hr. The subsystem can be started from a dormant condition in a time less than or equal to 15 min. The thruster has a design lifetime of 20,000 hr with 10,000 startup cycles. A gimbal unit is included to provide a thrust vector deflection capability of + or - 10 degrees in any direction from the zero position. The EM subsystem development program included thruster optimization, power-supply circuit optimization and flight packaging, subsystem integration, and subsystem acceptance testing including a cyclic test of the total propulsion package.

  6. The 15 cm diameter ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The startup reliability of a 15 cm diameter mercury bombardment ion thruster which employs a pulsed high voltage tickler electrode on the main and neutralizer cathodes is examined. Startup of the thruster is achieved 100% of the time on the main cathode and 98.7% of the time on the neutralizer cathode over a 3640 cycle test. The thruster was started from a 20 C initial condition and operated for an hour at a 600 mA beam current. An energy efficiency of 75% and a propellant utilization efficiency of 77% was achieved over the complete cycle. The effect of a single cusp magnetic field thruster length on its performance is discussed. Guidelines are formulated for the shaping of magnetic field lines in thrusters. A model describing double ion production in mercury discharges is presented. The production route is shown to occur through the single ionic ground state. Photographs of the interior of an operating-hollow cathode are presented. A cathode spot is shown to be present if the cathode is free of low work-function surfaces. The spot is observed if a low work-function oxide coating is applied to the cathode insert. Results show that low work-function oxide coatings tend to migrate during thruster operation.

  7. 25 CFR 10.7 - Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? 10.7 Section 10.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? The BIA has...

  8. 25 CFR 10.7 - Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? 10.7 Section 10.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? The BIA has...

  9. 25 CFR 10.7 - Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? 10.7 Section 10.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? The BIA has...

  10. 25 CFR 10.7 - Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? 10.7 Section 10.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? The BIA has...

  11. 25 CFR 10.7 - Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Where do I find help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? 10.7 Section 10.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... help or receive technical assistance in complying with the policies and standards? The BIA has...

  12. Precision polarizability measurements of atomic cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Hannah; Kortyna, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    We report hyperfine-resolved scalar polarizabilities for cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states using resonant two-photon spectroscopy. Two single-mode, external-cavity diode lasers drive the 6 s 2S1 / 2 --> 6 p 2P1 / 2 --> ns 2S1 / 2 transition (n = 8 or 9). Both laser beams are split and counter-propagate through an effusive beam and a vapor cell. An electric field applied across two parallel plates imposes Stark shifts on the ns 2S1 / 2 levels in the effusive beam. Electric-field strengths are measured in situ. The laser frequency is calibrated in the vapor cell using a phase modulation technique, with the modulation frequency referenced to the ground-state hyperfine splitting of atomic rubidium. Our measured 8 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 38370 +/- 380 a03, agrees with previous theory and experiments. Our measured 9 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 150700 +/- 1100 a03, agrees within two sigma of theory, but we are unaware of previous measurements. We also verify that these polarizabilities are independent of the hyperfine levels, placing upper limits on the differential polarizabilities of 200 +/- 260 a03 for the 8 s 2S1 / 2 state and 490 +/- 450 a03 for the 9 s 2S1 / 2 state. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-0653107.

  13. A 21-cm Neutral Hydrogen Study of Arp 213

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, S. J.; Simpson, C. E.

    2002-12-01

    We present 21-cm VLA observations of the Sab galaxy Arp 213. An extended HI disk (approx. 2.3 RHolm) was detected, with a bifurcated or extra arm on the west featuring a large HI knot. Based on the kinematics, this knot does not appear to be a dwarf or small companion, but a local enhancement in the arm. Although no unusual kinematics appear in the region of the odd radial dust lanes that attracted Arp's attention to this galaxy, there is a very low level HI cloud just north of the galaxy at the same position angle. The total HI mass for the galaxy was measured to be 2.9 x 109 Msun. Arp 213 has a high rotational velocity (300 km s-1), and a flat rotation curve that rises in the outermost regions. The calculated dynamical mass for the system is quite high at 4.4 x 1011 Msun. The rotation curve and dynamic mass indicate the presence of a large dark matter halo. Further optical data is needed to confirm its mass. This work was supported by NSF grant AST-0097616 and the SARA Consortium REU program.

  14. A sub-cm micromachined electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinerman, A. D.; Crewe, D. A.; Perng, D. C.; Shoaf, S. E.; Crewe, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new approach for fabricating macroscopic (approximately 10x10x10 mm(exp 3)) structures with micron accuracy has been developed. This approach combines the precision of semiconductor processing and fiber optic technologies. A (100) silicon wafer is anisotropically etched to create four orthogonal v-grooves and an aperture on each 10x12 mm die. Precision 308 micron optical fibers are sandwiched between the die to align the v-grooves. The fiber is then anodically bonded to the die above and below it. This procedure is repeated to create thick structures and a stack of 5 or 6 die will be used to create a miniature scanning electron microscope (MSEM). Two die in the structure will have a segmented electrode to deflect the beam and correct for astigmatism. The entire structure is UHV compatible. The performance of an SEM improves as its length is reduced and a sub-cm 2 keV MSEM with a field emission source should have approximately 1 nm resolution. A low voltage high resolution MSEM would be useful for the examination of biological specimens and semiconductors with a minimum of damage. The first MSEM will be tested with existing 6 micron thermionic sources. In the future a micromachined field emission source will be used. The stacking technology presented in this paper can produce an array of MSEMs 1 to 30 mm in length with a 1 mm or larger period. A key question being addressed by this research is the optimum size for a low voltage MSEM which will be determined by the required spatial resolution, field of view, and working distance.

  15. Degenerative Sacrolisthesis of S1-S2: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rajendra, Thakre Kunwar; Issac, Thomas; Swamy, B Mallikarjuna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is usually seen at L4-L5 level and less frequently at L5-S1 level. This is a rare case report of spondylolisthesis of S1 over S2 with lumbarization of S1. Lumbarization of S1 is seen in just 1-2% of the population and to have spondylolisthesis in this segment is even rarer. The purpose is to report a rare case of DS at S1-S2 level. Case Report: This is a single case report of a 66-year-old gentleman who presented with complains of lower backache for 2 years and acute retention of urine to the emergency department. Detailed clinical and radiological evaluation of the spine was done which revealed lumbarization of S1 with spondylolisthesis at S1-S2 and facetal hypertrophy at L5, S1, and S2. He underwent decompression and stabilization at L5, S1, and S2 along with placement of autologous bone graft. The bladder symptoms disappeared after 3 weeks. At 1-year follow-up, patient’s clinical symptoms were relieved, and he improved clinically. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is probably the first case of DS of sacral vertebrae to be reported in English literature. The prevalence of complete lumbarization is around 1.8% and to get spondylolisthesis in this segment is even rarer, hence the lack of literature in this regard. Since this is the first of its kind of case, further case series or longitudinal studies of such cases may help understand better the pathomechanics related to spondylolisthesis at this level. PMID:27299082

  16. A cm scale electret-based electrostatic wind turbine for low-speed energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, M.; Boisseau, S.; Gasnier, P.; Willemin, J.; Geisler, M.; Reboud, J. L.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a small-scale airflow energy harvester built on an axial turbine architecture and exploiting an electret-based electrostatic converter. When the airflow velocity is high enough, the windmill starts rotating and creates a periodic relative motion between a stator and a rotor which induces variations of capacitance. These ones are directly converted into electricity thanks to the use of Teflon electrets charged at -1400 V which polarize the variable capacitors. We focus our study on a 4-blade axial turbine with a diameter of D = 40 mm, a depth of W = 10 mm, for a total volume of 12.6 cm3. This windmill has been tested with various blade angles and different types of electrostatic converters and output powers up to 90 μW at 1.5 m s-1 (7.5 μW cm-3) and 1.8 mW at 10 m s-1 (111 μW cm-3) have been obtained so far. The coefficient of power reaches C p = 5.8% and among the small-scale airflow energy harvesters previously reported, this one has the lowest cut-in speed (1.5 m s-1).

  17. Wavelength-tunable lasing in single-crystal CdS1-XSeX nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. K.; Zapien, J. A.; Shan, Y. Y.; Tang, H.; Lee, C. S.; Lee, S. T.

    2007-09-01

    Alloyed ternary CdS1-XSeX nanoribbons of variable composition X were synthesized by the combination of thermal evaporation and laser ablation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction showed that the ternary CdS1-XSeX nanoribbons were single phase and highly crystalline. Room-temperature optical measurements showed that band-gap engineering could be realized in CdS1-XSeX nanoribbons via modulation in composition X. Lasing emission between the band-gap energy of CdS (512 nm) and that of CdSe (710 nm) was observed for composition 0cm-2. Cathodoluminescence imaging and spectroscopy of single CdS1-XSeX nanoribbons reveal the uniform optical properties of the nanoribbons, which supports the absence of phase segregation within the nanoribbon. Fine tuning of the lasing wavelength via composition changes is shown to be smaller than 0.1 nm, and is capable of overlapping thermally induced tuning, demonstrating the possibility of continuous tuning in the lasing wavelength. The broad and fine tunable lasing properties of ternary nanoribbons have potential applications in color-tuned nanolasers, biological labels, and nano-optoelectronics.

  18. Spin-dependent, optogalvanic effects of laser-pumped He(2/3/S1) atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schearer, L. D.; Tin, Pedetha

    1989-10-01

    Spin-dependent optogalvanic effects of laser-pumped He(2/3/S1) atoms are demonstrated. As helium atoms are excited with an IR tunable laser, changes in the conductivity of helium radio-frequency discharge are observed. With approximately 1 mW/sq cm of tunable laser power near 1.083 microns, the intensity-modulated optogalvanic effect signals are obtained as the laser is tuned through the D0(2/3/S1-2/3/P0), D1(2/3/S1-2/3/P1), and D2(2/3/S1-2/3/P2) transitions at 1.082908, 1.083025, and 1.083034 microns, respectively. If the laser emission is now circularly polarized and directed onto the helium discharge cell with the applied field parallel to the pump axis, some of the metastable atoms are oriented with their electronic spins along the field direction, modulating the coil current. One of the important applications of spin-polarized ensembles of metastable 4He is in extremely sensitive magnetic-field measuring devices.

  19. PROCESS OF PRODUCING Cm$sup 244$ AND Cm$sup 24$$sup 5$

    DOEpatents

    Manning, W.M.; Studier, M.H.; Diamond, H.; Fields, P.R.

    1958-11-01

    A process is presented for producing Cm and Cm/sup 245/. The first step of the process consists in subjecting Pu/sup 2339/ to a high neutron flux and subsequently dissolving the irradiated material in HCl. The plutonium is then oxidized to at least the tetravalent state and the solution is contacted with an anion exchange resin, causing the plutonium values to be absorbed while the fission products and transplutonium elements remain in the effluent solution. The effluent solution is then contacted with a cation exchange resin causing the transplutonium, values to be absorbed while the fission products remain in solution. The cation exchange resin is then contacted with an aqueous citrate solution and tbe transplutonium elements are thereby differentially eluted in order of decreasing atomic weight, allowing collection of the desired fractions.

  20. The elusive S2 state, the S1/S2 splitting, and the excimer states of the benzene dimer.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Franziska A; Trachsel, Maria A; van der Avoird, Ad; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-06-21

    We observe the weak S0 → S2 transitions of the T-shaped benzene dimers (Bz)2 and (Bz-d6)2 about 250 cm(-1) and 220 cm(-1) above their respective S0 → S1 electronic origins using two-color resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. Spin-component scaled (SCS) second-order approximate coupled-cluster (CC2) calculations predict that for the tipped T-shaped geometry, the S0 → S2 electronic oscillator strength fel(S2) is ∼10 times smaller than fel(S1) and the S2 state lies ∼240 cm(-1) above S1, in excellent agreement with experiment. The S0 → S1 (ππ(∗)) transition is mainly localized on the "stem" benzene, with a minor stem → cap charge-transfer contribution; the S0 → S2 transition is mainly localized on the "cap" benzene. The orbitals, electronic oscillator strengths fel(S1) and fel(S2), and transition frequencies depend strongly on the tipping angle ω between the two Bz moieties. The SCS-CC2 calculated S1 and S2 excitation energies at different T-shaped, stacked-parallel and parallel-displaced stationary points of the (Bz)2 ground-state surface allow to construct approximate S1 and S2 potential energy surfaces and reveal their relation to the "excimer" states at the stacked-parallel geometry. The fel(S1) and fel(S2) transition dipole moments at the C2v-symmetric T-shape, parallel-displaced and stacked-parallel geometries are either zero or ∼10 times smaller than at the tipped T-shaped geometry. This unusual property of the S0 → S1 and S0 → S2 transition-dipole moment surfaces of (Bz)2 restricts its observation by electronic spectroscopy to the tipped and tilted T-shaped geometries; the other ground-state geometries are impossible or extremely difficult to observe. The S0 → S1/S2 spectra of (Bz)2 are compared to those of imidazole ⋅ (Bz)2, which has a rigid triangular structure with a tilted (Bz)2 subunit. The S0 → S1/ S2 transitions of imidazole-(benzene)2 lie at similar energies as those of (Bz)2, confirming our assignment of the

  1. Characterization of cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1). A developmentally regulated elastase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yoo, B C; Aoki, K; Xiang, Y; Campbell, L R; Hull, R J; Xoconostle-Cázares, B; Monzer, J; Lee, J Y; Ullman, D E; Lucas, W J

    2000-11-10

    We report on the molecular, biochemical, and functional characterization of Cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1), a novel 42-kDa serine proteinase inhibitor that is developmentally regulated and has anti-elastase properties. CmPS-1 was purified to near homogeneity from C. maxima (pumpkin) phloem exudate and, based on microsequence analysis, the cDNA encoding CmPS-1 was cloned. The association rate constant (k(a)) of phloem-purified and recombinant His(6)-tagged CmPS-1 for elastase was 3.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(5) and 2.7 +/- 0.4 x 10(5) m(-)(1) s(-)(1), respectively. The fraction of complex-forming CmPS-1, X(inh), was estimated at 79%. CmPS-1 displayed no detectable inhibitory properties against chymotrypsin, trypsin, or thrombin. The elastase cleavage sites within the reactive center loop of CmPS-1 were determined to be Val(347)-Gly(348) and Val(350)-Ser(351) with a 3:2 molar ratio. In vivo feeding assays conducted with the piercing-sucking aphid, Myzus persicae, established a close correlation between the developmentally regulated increase in CmPS-1 within the phloem sap and the reduced ability of these insects to survive and reproduce on C. maxima. However, in vitro feeding experiments, using purified phloem CmPS-1, failed to demonstrate a direct effect on aphid survival. Likely roles of this novel phloem serpin in defense against insects/pathogens are discussed. PMID:10960478

  2. A new atlas of infrared methane spectra between 1120 per cm and 1800 per cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blatherwick, R. D.; Goldman, A.; Lutz, B. L.; Silvaggio, P. M.; Boese, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    An atlas of 1339 methane absorption lines in the range 1120 to 1800 reciprocal centimeters, including the nu(4) and nu(2) bands, is presented. Laboratory spectra were obtained by a Nicolet Fourier transform Michelson interferometer with a resolution of approximately 0.06 reciprocal cm and a path length of 6.35 m of 0.98, 4.86 and 19.97 torr. Observed spectra are also compared with spectral intensities calculated line-by-line on the basis of tabulated intensities of the observed spectral lines.

  3. A signature of transience in bedrock river incision rates over timescales of 10(4)-10(7) years.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Noah J; Schumer, Rina; Finnegan, Seth

    2014-01-16

    Measured rates of river incision into bedrock are commonly interpreted as proxies for rates of rock uplift (see refs 1 and 2, for example) and indices of the strength of climatic forcing of erosion over time (see refs 3 and 4, for example). This approach implicitly assumes that river incision rates are in equilibrium with external forcings over a wide range of timescales. Here we directly test this assumption by examining the temporal scaling of bedrock river incision from 155 independent measurements of river incision compiled from 14 sites. Of these sites, 11 exhibit a negative power-law dependence of bedrock river incision rate on measurement interval, a relationship that is apparent over timescales of 10(4)-10(7) years and is independent of tectonic and geomorphic setting. Thus, like rates of sediment accumulation, rates of river incision into bedrock exhibit non-steady-state behaviour even over very long measurement intervals. Non-steady-state behaviour can be explained by episodic hiatuses in river incision triggered by alluvial deposition, if such hiatuses have a heavy-tailed length distribution. Regardless of its cause, the dependence of incision rate on measurement interval complicates efforts to infer tectonic or climatic forcing from changes in rates of river incision over time or from comparison of rates computed over different timescales. PMID:24429636

  4. Structural biology of the S1P1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Michael A; Peach, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor family has been studied widely since the initial discovery of its first member, endothelium differentiation gene 1. Since this initial discovery, the family has been renamed and the primary member of the family, the S1P1 receptor, has been targeted for a variety of disease indications and successfully drugged for the treatment of patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. Recently, the three-dimensional structure of the S1P1 receptor has been determined by X-ray crystallography and the specifics of the sphingosine 1 phosphate ligand binding pocket mapped. Key structural features for the S1P1 receptor will be reviewed and the potential binding modes of additional pharmacologically active agents against the receptor will be analyzed in an effort to better understand the structural basis of important receptor-ligand interactions. PMID:24728592

  5. S1-hypersensitive sites in eukaryotic promoter regions.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, T; Schon, E; Gora-Maslak, G; Patterson, J; Efstratiadis, A

    1984-01-01

    We have examined by fine mapping the S1 nuclease-hypersensitivity of the 5' flanking regions of the human beta-globin and rat preproinsulin II genes and of the SV40 origin/enhancer region. In all cases S1-hypersensitive sites are located in known or presumed promoter/regulatory regions. Though a consensus DNA sequence is not evident, all of these sites reside in predominantly homopurine-homopyrimidine stretches. The alternate (non-B) DNA structure which is revealed by the enzymatic probe is a sequence-dependent feature of a short stretch of DNA, which is retained upon transplantation into a foreign environment. The alternate structure exhibits S1-nicking patterns uniquely different from those associated with the presence of Z-DNA. Images PMID:6095186

  6. S-1-based vs non-S-1-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Zhou, Yan; Min, Ke; Yao, Qiang; Xu, Chun-Ni

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of S-1-based vs non-S-1-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). METHODS: We extracted reported endpoints, including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), time-to-treatment failure (TTF), objective response rate (ORR) and adverse effects, from randomized controlled trials identified in PubMed, the Cochrane library, Science Direct, EMBASE and American Society of Clinical Oncology meetings. Stata software was used to calculate the pooled values. RESULTS: Seven randomized controlled trials involving 2176 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Compared to non-S-1-based regimens, the use of S-1-based regimens were associated with an increase in ORR (RR = 1.300; 95%CI: 1.028-1.645); OS (HR = 0.89; 95%CI: 0.81-0.99; P = 0.025), TTF (HR = 0.83; 95%CI: 0.75-0.92; P = 0.000), and a lower risk of febrile neutropenia (RR = 0.225; P = 0.000) and stomatitis (RR = 0.230; P = 0.032). OS, PFS and TTF were prolonged, especially in the Asian population. In subgroup analysis, statistically significant increases in ORR (RR = 1.454; P = 0.029), OS (HR = 0.895; P = 0.041) and TTF (HR = 0.832; P = 0.000) were found when S-1-based chemotherapy was compared to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. The incidence of leukopenia (RR = 0.584; P = 0.002) and stomatitis (RR = 0.230; P = 0.032) was higher in the 5-FU-based arm. S-1-based regimens had no advantage in ORR, OS, PFS, TTF and grade 3 or 4 adverse events over capecitabine-based regimens. CONCLUSION: S-1-based chemotherapy may be a good choice for AGC because of longer survival times, better tolerance and more convenient use. PMID:25206296

  7. Investigation of internal friction in fused quartz, steel, Plexiglass, and Westerly granite from 0.01 to 1.00 Hertz at 10- 8 to 10-7 strain amplitude.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hsi-Ping, Liu; Peselnick, L.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed evaluation on the method of internal friction measurement by the stress-strain hysteresis loop method from 0.01 to 1 Hz at 10-8-10-7 strain amplitude and 23.9oC is presented. Significant systematic errors in relative phase measurement can result from convex end surfaces of the sample and stress sensor and from end surface irregularities such as nicks and asperities. Preparation of concave end surfaces polished to optical smoothness having a radius of curvature >3.6X104 cm reduces the systematic error in relative phase measurements to <(5.5+ or -2.2)X10-4 radians. -from Authors

  8. The S=1 Underscreened Anderson Lattice model for Uranium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Simões, A. S. R.; Iglesias, J. R.; Lacroix, C.; Perkins, N. B.; Coqblin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic properties of uranium and neptunium compounds showing coexistence of the Kondo effect and ferromagnetic order are investigated within the degenerate Anderson Lattice Hamiltonian, describing a 5f2 electronic configuration with S = 1 spins. Through the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, both an exchange Kondo interaction for the S = 1 f-spins and an effective f-band term are obtained, allowing to describe the coexistence of Kondo effect and ferromagnetic ordering and a weak delocalization of the 5f-electrons. We calculate the Kondo and Curie temperatures and we can account for the pressure dependence of the Curie temperature of UTe.

  9. Winding Hopfions on R2×S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Michikazu; Nitta, Muneto

    2013-11-01

    We study Hopfions in the Faddeev-Skyrme model with potential terms on R2×S1. Apart from the conventional Hopfions, there exist winding Hopfions, that is, the lump (baby Skyrmion) strings with the lump charge Q with the U(1) modulus twisted P times along S1, having the Hopf charge PQ. We consider two kinds of potential terms, that is, the potential linear in the field and the ferromagnetic potential with two easy axes, and present stable solutions numerically. We also point out that a Q-lump carries the unit Hopf charge per the period in d=2+1.

  10. Reverse bias voltage testing of 8 cm x 8cm silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woike, T.; Stotlar, S.; Lungu, C.

    1991-01-01

    A study is described of the reverse I-V characteristics of the largest space qualified silicon solar cells currently available (8 x 8 cm) and of reverse bias voltage (RBV) testing performed on these cells. This study includes production grade cells, both with and without cover glass. These cells span the typical output range seen in production. Initial characteristics of these cells are measured at both 28 and 60 C. These measurements show weak correlation between cell output and reverse characteristics. Analysis is presented to determine the proper conditions for RBV stress to simulate shadowing effects on a particular array design. After performing the RBV stress the characteristics of the stressed cells are remeasured. The degradation in cell performance is highly variable which exacerbates cell mismatching over time. The effect of this degradation on array lifetime is also discussed. Generalization of these results to other array configurations is also presented.

  11. Bacterial versus human sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (S1PL) in the design of potential S1PL inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sanllehí, Pol; Abad, José-Luis; Casas, Josefina; Bujons, Jordi; Delgado, Antonio

    2016-09-15

    A series of potential active-site sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (S1PL) inhibitors have been designed from scaffolds 1 and 2, arising from virtual screening using the X-ray structures of the bacterial (StS1PL) and the human (hS1PL) enzymes. Both enzymes are very similar at the active site, as confirmed by the similar experimental kinetic constants shown by the fluorogenic substrate RBM13 in both cases. However, the docking scoring functions used probably overestimated the weight of electrostatic interactions between the ligands and key active-site residues in the protein environment, which may account for the modest activity found for the designed inhibitors. In addition, the possibility that the inhibitors do not reach the enzyme active site should not be overlooked. Finally, since both enzymes show remarkable structural differences at the access channel and in the proximity to the active site cavity, caution should be taken when designing inhibitors acting around that area, as evidenced by the much lower activity found in StS1PL for the potent hS1PL inhibitor D. PMID:27475537

  12. Reduced dimension rovibrational variational calculations of the S(1) state of C2H2. II. The S(1) rovibrational manifold and the effects of isomerization.

    PubMed

    Changala, P Bryan; Baraban, Joshua H; Stanton, John F; Merer, Anthony J; Field, Robert W

    2014-01-14

    Reduced dimension variational calculations have been performed for the rovibrational level structure of the S1 state of acetylene. The state exhibits an unusually complicated level structure, for various reasons. First, the potential energy surface has two accessible conformers, trans and cis. The cis conformer lies about 2700 cm(-1) above the trans, and the barrier to cis-trans isomerization lies about 5000 cm(-1) above the trans minimum. The trans vibrations ν4 (torsion) and ν6 (asym. bend) interact very strongly by Darling-Dennison and Coriolis resonances, such that their combination levels and overtones form polyads with unexpected structures. Both conformers exhibit very large x36 cross-anharmonicity since the pathway to isomerization is a combination of ν6 and ν3 (sym. bend). Near the isomerization barrier, the vibrational levels show an even-odd K-staggering of their rotational levels as a result of quantum mechanical tunneling through the barrier. The present calculations address all of these complications, and reproduce the observed K-structures of the bending and C-C stretching levels with good qualitative accuracy. It is expected that they will assist with the assignment of the irregular patterns near the isomerization barrier. PMID:24437883

  13. THE S1 SHELL AND INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD AND GAS NEAR THE HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, Priscilla C.

    2010-05-10

    Many studies of the Loop I magnetic superbubble place the Sun at the edges of the bubble. One recent study models the polarized radio continuum of Loop I as two magnetic shells with the Sun embedded in the rim of the 'S1' shell. If the Sun is in such a shell, it should be apparent in both the local interstellar magnetic field and the distribution of nearby interstellar material. The properties of these subshells are compared to the interstellar magnetic field and the distribution of interstellar Fe{sup +} and Ca{sup +} within {approx}55 pc of the Sun. Although the results are not conclusive, the interstellar magnetic field direction obtained from polarized stars within {approx}30 pc is consistent with the interstellar magnetic field direction of the S1 shell. The distribution of nearby interstellar Fe{sup +} with log N(Fe{sup +}) < 12.5 cm{sup -2} is described equally well by a uniform distribution or an origin in spherical shell-like features. Higher column densities of Fe{sup +} (log N(Fe{sup +})>12.5 cm{sup -2}) tend to be better described by the path length of the sightline through the S1 and S2 subshells. Column densities of the recombinant ion Ca{sup +} are found to increase with the strength of the interstellar radiation field, rather than with star distance or total pathlength through the two magnetic subshells. The ion Ca{sup +} cannot be used to trace the distribution of local interstellar gas unless the spatial variations in the radiation field are included in the calculation of the ionization balance, in addition to possible abundance variations. The result is that a model of Loop I as composed of two spherical magnetic subshells remains a viable description of the distribution of nearby low density interstellar medium, but is not yet proven.

  14. Human alpha s1-casein: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, L K; Due, H A; Petersen, T E

    1995-05-01

    The human counterpart of alpha s1-casein has been purified by a combination of gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography under denaturing conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the presence of a diffuse ladder with a high molecular mass which upon reduction was replaced by several closely spaced bands of lower molecular masses and a broad diffuse band corresponding to kappa-casein. Amino acid sequence analysis of the closely spaced bands all resulted in the same N-terminal sequence which was found to be homologous with alpha s1-casein from other species. Sequence analysis of a major radiolabelled tryptic peptide from purified 14C-carboxymethylated alpha s1-casein demonstrated that the protein contains at least two cysteine residues. As judged by SDS-PAGE in the presence or absence of a reducing agent, the molecular structure of the polymers constituting the ladder is composed of heteropolymers of alpha s1- and kappa-casein cross-linked by disulfide bonds. PMID:7749638

  15. Late-stage optimization of a tercyclic class of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Horan, Joshua C; Kuzmich, Daniel; Liu, Pingrong; DiSalvo, Darren; Lord, John; Mao, Can; Hopkins, Tamara D; Yu, Hui; Harcken, Christian; Betageri, Raj; Hill-Drzewi, Melissa; Patenaude, Lori; Patel, Monica; Fletcher, Kimberly; Terenzzio, Donna; Linehan, Brian; Xia, Heather; Patel, Mita; Studwell, Debbie; Miller, Craig; Hickey, Eugene; Levin, Jeremy I; Smith, Dustin; Kemper, Raymond A; Modis, Louise K; Bannen, Lynne C; Chan, Diva S; Mac, Morrison B; Ng, Stephanie; Wang, Yong; Xu, Wei; Lemieux, René M

    2016-01-15

    Poor solubility and cationic amphiphilic drug-likeness were liabilities identified for a lead series of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 agonists originally developed from a high-throughput screening campaign. This work describes the subsequent optimization of these leads by balancing potency, selectivity, solubility and overall molecular charge. Focused SAR studies revealed favorable structural modifications that, when combined, produced compounds with overall balanced profiles. The low brain exposure observed in rat suggests that these compounds would be best suited for the potential treatment of peripheral autoimmune disorders. PMID:26687487

  16. Is the addition of cisplatin to S-1 better than S-1 alone for patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancer?

    PubMed

    Ajani, Jaffer A

    2008-09-01

    The investigators of the recent phase III SPIRITS trial found that the addition of cisplatin to S-1 (a fourth generation oral fluoropyrimidine) provided a significant overall survival advantage (P = 0.04) over treatment with S-1 alone among previously untreated patients with advanced gastric cancer. In addition, the combination had an acceptable safety profile. This trial establishes a new first-line standard treatment for patients with advanced gastric cancer in Japan. Level 1 evidence for prolonged survival of patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancer has been established for docetaxel (V-325 trial) and cisplatin (SPIRITS trial) but not for S-1. Fluoropyrimidines (S-1 included) have been considered part of standard front-line therapy without the establishment of level 1 evidence for prolonging survival. The future lies in the rapid incorporation of biologic agents in combination with cytotoxics, with a continued focus on safety and convenience, and efforts to individualize therapy for each patient. Individualized therapy may be defined as the selection of optimum treatment for a specific patient on the basis of knowledge of the cancer's genetic and epigenetic alterations and the patient's genotype. PMID:18628737

  17. The Character of the Long-Lived State Formed from S_1 of Phenylacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Philip M.; Sears, Trevor J.

    2013-06-01

    Compared to other small aromatic molecules, phenylacetylene (PA) and benzonitrile exhibit strikingly anomalous photophysics on excitation to the S_1 state. Firstly, products are formed on S_1 excitation of a beam-cooled sample that seem to live indefinitely (as defined by the flight time through the apparatus), while action spectra of their formation mirror the rotationally-resolved absorption spectrum of the monomer. Secondly, the long lived products appear immediately during the nsec. laser pulse rather than build up during the lifetime of the singlet level, as is seen in benzene, for example. The question has therefore arisen: is the long lived product of the S_1 excitation the triplet state, as is assumed in all previous work on other molecules, or is it an isomer of some sort? New pump-probe ionization mass spectroscopy experiments have been performed to study the distribution of fragments and metastable ions produced by PA cation derived from the neutral S_1 state, and from the long-lived species. These combined with other experimental results showing weak long-lived components in both the S_1 fluorescence and pump-probe photoelectron spectra that we interpret as recurrence behavior, definitively show the long-lived state is a triplet state of PA, not an isomer. PA with a singlet-triplet gap of 10000 cm^{-1} is acting like intermediate case molecules with much smaller singlet-triplet gaps such as pyrazine and pyrimidine. Calculations point to the existence of four triplet states of PA at or below the energy of S_1 providing a very large density of vibronic states in which to distribute the energy from singlet-triplet crossing. PA T_1 is calculated to be non-planar, in contrast to what is found in benzene, possibly helping to explain the different photophysics. Acknowledgments: We gratefully acknowledge G. V. Lopez for his contributions to some of the experimental masurements. Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was carried out under Contract No. DE-AC02

  18. Molecular structure of Si_xS_(1-x) glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Boolchand, P.

    2000-03-01

    Bulk Si_xS_1-x glasses in the 0.15S_1/2)4 tetrahedra, S_8-ring and Sn chains. The observed lineshapes change systematically with x, in a manner qualitatively similar to the case of corresponding Selenide glasses( D. Selvanathan, W. J. Bresser, P. Boolchand, B. Goodman Solid State Comm. 111, 619(1999)). Glass transition temperatures established by T-modulated DSC show an increase with x. Results of Raman and MDSC will be correlated, and discussed in relation to the nature of stiffness transitions anticipated in this binary glass system near x ~0.20.

  19. An ANN approach in predicting solar radio enhancements at 11 cm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinaro, Marco; Gregorio, Anna; Messerotti, Mauro

    The decimetric radio emission from the solar corona is both an effective indicator of solar activity and a proxy for the EUV solar emission, which can cause perturbations in the terrestrial ionosphere. Therefore the 10.7 cm solar radio index is widely used in various ionospheric models and in any models where a reliable quantitative measure of the solar activity level is needed. The time evolution of this radio index closely matches that of the 1-min Soft X-Ray (SXR) measurements, resulting in an effective diagnostics for flaring processes. In fact, the occurrence of decimetric radio flares is associated with that of the correspondent SXR signature. Hence, the capability of predicting decimetric radio flares is a fundamental feature for space weather applications. In this work, we present preliminary results obtained via an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach for the prediction of solar radio enhancements at 11 cm wavelength. The data used to feed and run the ANN are the 1-min average radio index provided by the Trieste Solar Radio System, a dedicated multichannel solar radio polarimeters' set operated by the INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Trieste. Different use cases are discussed in the framework of future developments for advanced space weather nowcasting and forecasting via radio diagnostics, based on the unique feature of TSRS which acquires the data with a routinary time cadence of 1 millisecond and this allows to get deeper insights of the events' time evolution and prediction.

  20. The Global S_1 Tide in Earth's Nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Einšpigel, David; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    Diurnal S_1 tidal oscillations in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system induce small perturbations of Earth's prograde annual nutation, but matching geophysical model estimates of this Sun-synchronous rotation signal with the observed effect in geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data has thus far been elusive. The present study assesses the problem from a geophysical model perspective, using four modern-day atmospheric assimilation systems and a consistently forced barotropic ocean model that dissipates its energy excess in the global abyssal ocean through a parameterized tidal conversion scheme. The use of contemporary meteorological data does, however, not guarantee accurate nutation estimates per se; two of the probed datasets produce atmosphere-ocean-driven S_1 terms that deviate by more than 30 μ as (microarcseconds) from the VLBI-observed harmonic of -16.2+i113.4 μ as. Partial deficiencies of these models in the diurnal band are also borne out by a validation of the air pressure tide against barometric in situ estimates as well as comparisons of simulated sea surface elevations with a global network of S_1 tide gauge determinations. Credence is lent to the global S_1 tide derived from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the operational model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). When averaged over a temporal range of 2004 to 2013, their nutation contributions are estimated to be -8.0+i106.0 μ as (MERRA) and -9.4+i121.8 μ as (ECMWF operational), thus being virtually equivalent with the VLBI estimate. This remarkably close agreement will likely aid forthcoming nutation theories in their unambiguous a priori account of Earth's prograde annual celestial motion.

  1. Angular momentum budget of the radiational S1 ocean tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Dobslaw, Henryk; Poropat, Lea; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    The balance of diurnal S1 oceanic angular momentum (OAM) variations through torques at the sea surface and the bottom topography is validated using both a barotropic and a baroclinic numerical tide model. This analysis discloses the extent to which atmosphere-driven S1 forward simulations are reliable for use in studies of high-frequency polar motion and changes in length-of-day. Viscous and dissipative torques associated with wind stress, bottom friction, as well as internal tidal energy conversion are shown to be small, and they are overshadowed by gravitational and pressure-related interaction forces. In particular, the zonal OAM variability of S1 is almost completely balanced by the water pressure torque on the local bathymetry, whereas in the prograde equatorial case also the air pressure torque on the seafloor as well as ellipsoidal contributions from the non-spherical atmosphere and solid Earth must be taken into account. Overall, the OAM budget is well closed in both the axial and the equatorial directions, thus allowing for an identification of the main diurnal angular momentum sinks in the ocean. The physical interaction forces are found to be largest at shelf breaks and continental slopes in low latitudes, with the most dominant contribution coming from the Indonesian archipelago.

  2. S1P metabolism in cancer and other pathological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Weng In

    2010-01-01

    Nearly two decades ago, the sphingolipid metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate was discovered to function as a lipid mediator and regulator of cell proliferation. Since that time, sphingosine 1-phosphate has been shown to mediate a diverse array of fundamental biological processes including cell proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, vascular maturation and lymphocyte trafficking. Sphingosine 1-phosphate acts primarily via signaling through five ubiquitously expressed G protein-coupled receptors. Intracellular sphingosine 1-phosphate molecules are transported extracellularly and gain access to its cognate receptors for autocrine and paracrine fashion and for signaling at distant sites reached through blood and lymphatic circulation systems. Intracellular pools of sphingosine 1-phosphate available for signaling are tightly regulated by three enzymes that include sphinosine kinase, S1P lyase and S1P phosphatase. Alterations in S1P levels as well as the enzymes involved in its synthesis and catabolism have been observed in many types of malignancy. These enzymes are being evaluated for their role in mediating cancer formation and progression, as well as their potential to serve as targets of anti-cancer therapeutics. In this review, the impact of sphingosine 1-phosphate, its cognate receptors, and the enzymes of sphingosine 1-phosphate metabolism on cell survival, apoptosis, autophagy, cellular transformation, invasion, angiogenesis and hypoxia in relation to cancer biology and treatment are discussed. PMID:20167244

  3. Search for ammonia in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, S.; Codella, C.; Tozzi, G. P.; Comoretto, G.; Crovisier, J.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Boissier, J.; Brucato, J. R.; Bolli, P.; Massi, F.; Tofani, G.

    2015-12-01

    Comets are uniquely pristine bodies providing unique insights about the formation of our Solar System. In this work, we focus on a dynamically new comet as it enters the inner Solar System for the first time after residing for billion of years in the Oort Cloud. Such comets are particularly important because they are thought to be not differentiated by solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of organic matter close to the surface. Here we report the results of a search for NH3(1,1) emission at 23.7 GHz towards comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) using a new dual-feed K band receiver mounted on the Medicina 32-m antenna. We observed the comet close to its perihelion, from 25 to 29 November 2013, when its heliocentric distance changed from 0.25 AU to 0.03 AU. We derive an upper limit of Q(NH3) of about 2.5×1029 mol s-1 on 26 November, that is consistent with the last peak of water production rate of ∼2×1030 mol s-1 within the last few days before the perihelion.

  4. P/2008 CL94 (Lemmon) and P/2011 S1 (Gibbs): comet-like activity at large heliocentric distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyk, I.; Korsun, P.; Rousselot, P.; Afanasiev, V.; Ivanova, O.

    2016-06-01

    Based on spectroscopic and photometric observations we analyzed the dust environment of two minor distant objects, P/2008 CL94 (Lemmon) and P/2011 S1 (Gibbs). Both targets demonstrated the comet-like activity beyond the "zone of water-ice sublimation". Meanwhile the spectrum of P/2008 CL94 (Lemmon) did not reveal molecular emission features above reflected continuum in a spectral region of 4100-6800Å. Reddening of the continuum is linear along the dispersion with the mean normalized reflectivity gradient equals to 2.0% ± 0.4%. The normalized reflectivity of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) derived from the V-R and R-I color indices equals 11% ± 9% and 26% ± 6% respectively. Both objects have likely small nuclei (about 2 and 4 km in the radii for P/2008 CL94 and P/2011 S1 respectively), which are consistent with nucleus sizes of 'Jupiter-family' comets. The level of physical activity of P/2008 CL94 and S/2011 S1 is characterized by R-Afρ quantity of 106 ± 3 cm and 76 ± 8 cm respectively. The Afρ values are resulted in dust production rates of about 1-2 kg/s, assuming the average geometric albedo of grains of 0.1 and the dust outflow velocities between 1 and 10 m/s.

  5. Lessons Learned From CM-2 Modal Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Carney, Kelly S.; Otten, Kim D.

    2002-01-01

    The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that launches on Shuttle mission STS-107 in the SPACEHAB Double Research Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is installed into SPACEHAB single and double racks. The CM-2 flight hardware was vibration tested in the launch configuration to characterize the structure's modal response. Cross-orthogonality between test and analysis mode shapes were used to assess model correlation. Lessons learned for pre-test planning and model verification are discussed.

  6. Visualization on massively parallel computers using CM/AVS

    SciTech Connect

    Krogh, M.F.; Hansen, C.D.

    1993-09-01

    CM/AVS is a visualization environment for the massively parallel CM-5 from Thinking Machines. It provides a backend to the standard commercially available AVS visualization product. At the Advanced Computing Laboratory at Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have been experimenting and utilizing this software within our visualization environment. This paper describes our experiences with CM/AVS. The conclusions reached are applicable to any implimentation of visualization software within a massively parallel computing environment.

  7. Energy Levels of the Nitrate Radical Below 2000 CM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, J. F.; Simmons, C. S.

    2012-06-01

    Highly sophisticated quantum chemistry techniques have been employed to build a three-state diabatic Hamiltonian for the nitrate radical (NO_3). Eigenvalues of this Hamiltonian (which includes effects beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation) are consistent with the known ``vibrational'' levels of NO_3 up to ca. 2100 cm-1 above the zero-point level; with a small empirical adjustment of the diabatic coupling strength, calculated levels are within 20 cm-1 of the measured level positions for those that have been observed experimentally. Of the eleven states with e' symmetry calculated below 2000 cm-1, nine of these have been observed either in the gas phase by Hirota and collaborators as well as Neumark and Johnston, or in frozen argon by Jacox. However, the Hamiltonian produces two levels that have not been seen experimentally: one calculated to lie at 1075 cm-1 (which is the third e' state, above ν_4 and 2ν_4) and another at 1640 cm-1 which is best assigned as one of the two e' sublevels of 4ν_4. A significant result is that the state predicted at 1075 cm-1 is not far enough above the predicted 2ν_4 level (777 cm-1 v. ca. 760 cm-1 from experiment) to be plausibly assigned as 3ν_4 (which is at 1155 cm-1: experimental position: 1173 cm-1), nor is its nodal structure consistent with such an idea. Rather, it is quite unambiguously the ν_3 level. Given the fidelity of the results generated by this model Hamiltonian as compared to experiment, it can safely be concluded that the prominent infrared band seen at 1492 cm-1 (corresponding to a calculated level at 1500 cm-1) is not ν_3, but rather a multiquantum state best viewed as a sublevel of the ν_3 + ν_4 combination.

  8. Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)₂ thin film solar cell with 10.7% conversion efficiency obtained by selenization of the Na-doped spray-pyrolyzed sulfide precursor film.

    PubMed

    Septina, Wilman; Kurihara, Masaaki; Ikeda, Shigeru; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Hirano, Toshiyuki; Kawasaki, Yoshihito; Harada, Takashi; Matsumura, Michio

    2015-04-01

    Selenium-rich Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSSe) thin films on an Mo-coated soda-lime glass substrate were fabricated by spray pyrolysis of an aqueous precursor solution containing Cu(NO3)2, In(NO3)3, Ga(NO3)3, and thiourea followed by selenization at 560 °C for 10 min. We studied the effects of intentional sodium addition on the structural and morphological properties of the fabricated CIGSSe films by dissolving NaNO3 in the aqueous precursor solution. The addition of sodium was found to affect the morphology of the final CIGSSe film: the film had denser morphology than that of the CIGSSe film obtained without addition of NaNO3. Photoelectrochemical measurements also revealed that the acceptor density of the nondoped CIGSSe film was relatively high (N(a) = 7.2 × 10(17) cm(-3)) and the addition of sodium led to a more favorable value for solar cell application (N(a) = 1.8 × 10(17) cm(-3)). As a result, a solar cell based on the sodium-modified CIGSSe film exhibited maximum conversion efficiency of 8.8%, which was significantly higher than that of the cell based on nondoped CIGSSe (4.4%). In addition, by applying MgF2 antireflection coating to the device, the maximum efficiency was further improved to 10.7%. PMID:25774908

  9. 47 CFR 25.146 - Licensing and operating rules for the non-geostationary orbit Fixed-Satellite Service in the 10.7...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-geostationary orbit Fixed-Satellite Service in the 10.7 GHz-14.5 GHz bands. 25.146 Section 25.146... Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.146 Licensing and operating rules for the non-geostationary orbit... submitted for the proposed non-geostationary satellite orbit Fixed-Satellite Service (NGSO FSS) system...

  10. New H I 21-cm absorbers at low and intermediate redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwaan, M. A.; Liske, J.; Péroux, C.; Murphy, M. T.; Bouché, N.; Curran, S. J.; Biggs, A. D.

    2015-10-01

    We present the results of a survey for intervening H I 21-cm absorbers at intermediate and low redshift (0 < z < 1.2). For our total sample of 24 systems, we obtained high-quality data for 17 systems, the other seven being severely affected by radio frequency interference (RFI). Five of our targets are low-redshift (z < 0.17) optical galaxies with small impact parameters (<20 kpc) towards radio-bright background sources. Two of these were detected in 21-cm absorption, showing narrow, high optical depth absorption profiles, the narrowest having a velocity dispersion of only 1.5 km s- 1, which puts an upper limit on the kinetic temperature of Tk < 270 K. Combining our observations with results from the literature, we measure a weak anticorrelation between impact parameter and integral optical depth in local (z < 0.5) 21-cm absorbers. Of 11 Ca II and Mg II systems searched, two were detected in 21-cm absorption, and six were affected by RFI to a level that precludes a detection. For these two systems at z ˜ 0.6, we measure spin temperatures of Ts = (65 ± 17) K and Ts > 180 K. A subset of our systems was also searched for OH absorption, but no detections were made.

  11. "The 5 cm Rule": Biopower, Sexuality and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores "the 5 cm rule", a regulation around student contact discovered during an investigation of the sexual culture of schooling with 16-19-year-olds in New Zealand. Implemented to stem "inappropriate and unwanted" touching, it stipulates that students must maintain a physical distance of 5 cm at all times. It is argued this rule…

  12. Design and Performance of 40 cm Ion Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    2001-01-01

    A 40 cm ion thruster is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to obtain input power and propellant throughput capabilities of 10 kW and 550 kg. respectively. The technical approach here is a continuation of the "derating" technique used for the NSTAR ion thruster. The 40 cm ion thruster presently utilizes the NSTAR ion optics aperture geometry to take advantage of the large database of lifetime and performance data already available. Dome-shaped grids were chosen for the design of the 40 cm ion optics because this design is naturally suited for large-area ion optics. Ion extraction capabilities and electron backstreaming limits for the 40 cm ion optics were estimated by utilizing NSTAR 30 cm ion optics data. A preliminary service life assessment showed that the propellant throughput goal of 550 kg of xenon may be possible with molybdenum 40 cm ion optics. One 40 cm ion optics' set has been successfully fabricated to date. Additional ion optics' sets are presently being fabricated. Preliminary performance tests were conducted on a laboratory model 40 cm ion thruster.

  13. Photofraction of a 5 cm x 2 cm BGO scintillator. [bismuth germanate crystal for use in cosmic gamma ray detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunphy, P. P.; Forrest, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The photofraction of a 5.1 cm x 2.0 cm bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillator was measured over a gamma-ray energy range of 0.2 to 6.1 MeV. Several methods, used to minimize the effect of room scattering on the measurement, are discussed. These include a gamma-gamma coincidence technique, a beta-gamma coincidence technique, and the use of sources calibrated with a standard 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm sodium iodide scintillator.

  14. Picosecond transient gratings in CdS1- xSex mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörnfeld, C.; Noll, G.; Schwab, H.; Hvam, J. M.; Weber, Ch.; Renner, R.; Göbel, E. O.; Reznitsky, A.; Lyssenko, V.; Pendjur, S. A.; Talensky, O. N.; Klingshirn, C.

    1990-04-01

    We performed transient grating experiments to study various relaxation processes of localized excitons in CdS1 xSex mixed crystals. At low temperatures we observe a strong nonlinear response, spectrally in the localized states. We measured the phase relaxation time of localized excitons with a correlation technique. At low excitation levels we found long phase relaxation times of 75 ps. In a three beam configuration of a transient grating experiment we investigated the recombination as well as the diffusion of excitons within the localized states. We observed a reduced mobility compared to the mobility of free excitons in the pure compounds and found diffusion coefficients D < 2 cm2/ s.

  15. Argyres-Douglas theories, S 1 reductions, and topological symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buican, Matthew; Nishinaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper, we proposed closed-form expressions for the superconformal indices of the ({A}1,{A}2n-3) and ({A}1,{D}2n) Argyres-Douglas (AD) superconformal field theories (SCFTs) in the Schur limit. Following up on our results, we turn our attention to the small S 1 regime of these indices. As expected on general grounds, our study reproduces the S 3 partition functions of the resulting dimensionally reduced theories. However, we show that in all cases—with the exception of the reduction of the ({A}1,{D}4) SCFT—certain imaginary partners of real mass terms are turned on in the corresponding mirror theories. We interpret these deformations as R symmetry mixing with the topological symmetries of the direct S 1 reductions. Moreover, we argue that these shifts occur in any of our theories whose four-dimensional { N }=2 superconformal U{(1)}R symmetry does not obey an SU(2) quantization condition. We then use our R symmetry map to find the four-dimensional ancestors of certain three-dimensional operators. Somewhat surprisingly, this picture turns out to imply that the scaling dimensions of many of the chiral operators of the four-dimensional theory are encoded in accidental symmetries of the three-dimensional theory. We also comment on the implications of our work on the space of general { N }=2 SCFTs.

  16. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling regulates receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, Harunori; Kitano, Masayasu; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sato, Chieri; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto; Miyazawa, Keiji; Hla, Timothy; Sano, Hajime

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of S1P in MH7A cells was inhibited by specific Gi/Go inhibitors. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling plays an important role in synovial cell proliferation and inflammatory gene expression by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of S1P/S1P1 signaling in the expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) in RA synoviocytes and CD4{sup +} T cells. We demonstrated MH7A cells, a human RA synovial cell line, and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Surprisingly, S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, S1P enhanced RANKL expression induced by stimulation with TNF-{alpha} in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. These effects of S1P in MH7A cells were inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, a specific Gi/Go inhibitor. These findings suggest that S1P/S1P1 signaling may play an important role in RANKL expression by MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling of RA synoviocytes is closely connected with synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA. Thus, regulation of S1P/S1P1 signaling may become a novel therapeutic target for RA.

  17. [Pharmacological effects of CM6912 and its main metabolites].

    PubMed

    Morishita, H; Kushiku, K; Furukawa, T; Yamaki, Y; Izawa, M; Shibazaki, Y; Shibata, U

    1985-07-01

    Pharmacodynamic effects of ethyl 7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-1H-1,4- benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate (CM6912), a new benzodiazepine derivative, and its main metabolites (CM6913 = M1, CM7116 = M2) on the peripheral systems were investigated in several species of animals. In pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits, CM6912 and M2 (1 or 5 mg/kg, i.v.) had little effect on blood pressure, heart rate and ECG, but it slightly reduced the respiration rate. M1 decreased the heart rate without affecting respiration, blood pressure and ECG. In conscious rabbits, CM6912 and M2 (1 mg/kg, i.v.) did not affect respiration, blood pressure, heart rate and ECG, but M1 (1 mg/kg, i.v.) increased the heart rate. CM6912 (5 or 30 mg/kg), when administered orally, also increased heart rate. In pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs, CM6912 and its metabolites (5 mg/kg, i.v.) decreased respiration and heart rate without affecting blood pressure and ECG. CM 6912 (5 mg/kg, i.v.) did not affect cardiovascular responses to the carotid occlusion, vagus stimulation, and pre- and post-ganglionic stimulation of cardiac ganglion in anesthetized dogs. CM6912 and its metabolites affected neither the spontaneous contraction nor the heart rate of isolated rabbit atria. These compounds also had no action on isolated aortic strips from rabbits. CM6912 and its metabolites did not affect the muscle tone of isolated guinea pig intestine, and it had no effects on the contractile responses to acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin and barium chloride. In isolated rabbit intestine, CM6912 and M2 slightly reduced the amplitude of contraction, while M1 had no effect. CM6912 and its metabolites did not affect the spontaneous motility of isolated non-pregnant and pregnant rat uteri as well as in situ non-pregnant rat uterus and isolated guinea pig vas deferens, including the contractile response to adrenaline. CM6912 and M2 relaxed isolated guinea pig trachea strips only at high concentrations. CM6912 and its

  18. Evaluation of CM5 Charges for Condensed-Phase Modeling.

    PubMed

    Vilseck, Jonah Z; Tirado-Rives, Julian; Jorgensen, William L

    2014-07-01

    The recently developed Charge Model 5 (CM5) is tested for its utility in condensed-phase simulations. The CM5 approach, which derives partial atomic charges from Hirshfeld population analyses, provides excellent results for gas-phase dipole moments and is applicable to all elements of the periodic table. Herein, the adequacy of scaled CM5 charges for use in modeling aqueous solutions has been evaluated by computing free energies of hydration (ΔG hyd) for 42 neutral organic molecules via Monte Carlo statistical mechanics. An optimal scaling factor for the CM5 charges was determined to be 1.27, resulting in a mean unsigned error (MUE) of 1.1 kcal/mol for the free energies of hydration. Testing for an additional 20 molecules gave an MUE of 1.3 kcal/mol. The high precision of the results is confirmed by free energy calculations using both sequential perturbations and complete molecular annihilation. Performance for specific functional groups is discussed; sulfur-containing molecules yield the largest errors. In addition, the scaling factor of 1.27 is shown to be appropriate for CM5 charges derived from a variety of density functional methods and basis sets. Though the average errors from the 1.27*CM5 results are only slightly lower than those using 1.14*CM1A charges, the broader applicability and easier access to CM5 charges via the Gaussian program are additional attractive features. The 1.27*CM5 charge model can be used for an enormous variety of applications in conjunction with many fixed-charge force fields and molecular modeling programs. PMID:25061445

  19. Value of the bipolar lead CM5 in electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Quyyumi, A A; Crake, T; Mockus, L J; Wright, C A; Rickards, A F; Fox, K M

    1986-10-01

    Only bipolar lead recording are available during ambulatory monitoring. Their sensitivity in detecting ST segment changes in relation to standard electrocardiographic leads is not known. The magnitude and direction of ST segment changes in the bipolar lead CM5 were compared with those in standard electrocardiographic leads in patients during exercise testing and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Thirty patients with coronary artery disease were studied during exercise tests in which ST segment depression (greater than 0.5 mm) occurred in one or more standard electrocardiographic leads and 13 patients were studied during angioplasty that resulted in ST segment change in one or more leads (I, II, III, V2, V5, and CM5). Lead CM5 was the most sensitive lead (93%) during exercise testing and also showed the greatest magnitude of ST segment change below the isoelectric line in 93% of the patients. Only two patients, one with ST segment elevation in inferior leads and one with changes restricted to septal leads, had no ST segment depression in lead CM5. When ST segment shift from the baseline electrocardiogram was measured the magnitude of depression was greatest in lead CM5 in only 63% of the patients. During angioplasty of the left anterior descending coronary artery, lead CM5 showed ST segment depression in seven patients, ST segment elevation in two, and a biphasic response in one. Two of the three patients with balloon inflation in right coronary artery developed ST segment elevation in lead CM5. Thus lead CM5 is a reliable lead for detecting subendocardial ischaemia experienced during everyday activities in anginal patients. During total occlusion of coronary arteries (as in variant angina or myocardial infarction) lead CM5 commonly shows ST segment depression and changes due to right coronary artery occlusion may not be detected. PMID:3768217

  20. Value of the bipolar lead CM5 in electrocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Quyyumi, A A; Crake, T; Mockus, L J; Wright, C A; Rickards, A F; Fox, K M

    1986-01-01

    Only bipolar lead recording are available during ambulatory monitoring. Their sensitivity in detecting ST segment changes in relation to standard electrocardiographic leads is not known. The magnitude and direction of ST segment changes in the bipolar lead CM5 were compared with those in standard electrocardiographic leads in patients during exercise testing and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Thirty patients with coronary artery disease were studied during exercise tests in which ST segment depression (greater than 0.5 mm) occurred in one or more standard electrocardiographic leads and 13 patients were studied during angioplasty that resulted in ST segment change in one or more leads (I, II, III, V2, V5, and CM5). Lead CM5 was the most sensitive lead (93%) during exercise testing and also showed the greatest magnitude of ST segment change below the isoelectric line in 93% of the patients. Only two patients, one with ST segment elevation in inferior leads and one with changes restricted to septal leads, had no ST segment depression in lead CM5. When ST segment shift from the baseline electrocardiogram was measured the magnitude of depression was greatest in lead CM5 in only 63% of the patients. During angioplasty of the left anterior descending coronary artery, lead CM5 showed ST segment depression in seven patients, ST segment elevation in two, and a biphasic response in one. Two of the three patients with balloon inflation in right coronary artery developed ST segment elevation in lead CM5. Thus lead CM5 is a reliable lead for detecting subendocardial ischaemia experienced during everyday activities in anginal patients. During total occlusion of coronary arteries (as in variant angina or myocardial infarction) lead CM5 commonly shows ST segment depression and changes due to right coronary artery occlusion may not be detected. PMID:3768217

  1. Evaluation of CM5 Charges for Condensed-Phase Modeling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed Charge Model 5 (CM5) is tested for its utility in condensed-phase simulations. The CM5 approach, which derives partial atomic charges from Hirshfeld population analyses, provides excellent results for gas-phase dipole moments and is applicable to all elements of the periodic table. Herein, the adequacy of scaled CM5 charges for use in modeling aqueous solutions has been evaluated by computing free energies of hydration (ΔGhyd) for 42 neutral organic molecules via Monte Carlo statistical mechanics. An optimal scaling factor for the CM5 charges was determined to be 1.27, resulting in a mean unsigned error (MUE) of 1.1 kcal/mol for the free energies of hydration. Testing for an additional 20 molecules gave an MUE of 1.3 kcal/mol. The high precision of the results is confirmed by free energy calculations using both sequential perturbations and complete molecular annihilation. Performance for specific functional groups is discussed; sulfur-containing molecules yield the largest errors. In addition, the scaling factor of 1.27 is shown to be appropriate for CM5 charges derived from a variety of density functional methods and basis sets. Though the average errors from the 1.27*CM5 results are only slightly lower than those using 1.14*CM1A charges, the broader applicability and easier access to CM5 charges via the Gaussian program are additional attractive features. The 1.27*CM5 charge model can be used for an enormous variety of applications in conjunction with many fixed-charge force fields and molecular modeling programs. PMID:25061445

  2. Eight-cm mercury ion thruster system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The technology status of 8 cm diameter electron bombardment ion thrusters is presented. Much of the technology resulting from the 5 cm diameter thruster has been adapted and improved upon to increase the reliability, durability, and efficiency of the 8 cm thruster. Technology discussed includes: dependence of neutralizer tip erosion upon neutralizer flow rate; impregnated and rolled-foil insert cathode performance and life testing; neutralizer position studies; thruster ion beam profile measurements; high voltage pulse ignition; high utilization ion machined accelerator grids; deposition internal and external to the thruster; thruster vectoring systems; thruster cycling life testing and thruster system weights for typical mission applications.

  3. Ion accelerator systems for high power 30 cm thruster operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.

    1982-01-01

    Two and three-grid accelerator systems for high power ion thruster operation were investigated. Two-grid translation tests show that over compensation of the 30 cm thruster SHAG grid set spacing the 30 cm thruster radial plasma density variation and by incorporating grid compensation only sufficient to maintain grid hole axial alignment, it is shown that beam current gains as large as 50% can be realized. Three-grid translation tests performed with a simulated 30 cm thruster discharge chamber show that substantial beamlet steering can be reliably affected by decelerator grid translation only, at net-to-total voltage ratios as low as 0.05.

  4. Dynamical instability in the S =1 Bose-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaoka, Rui; Tsuchiura, Hiroki; Yamashita, Makoto; Toga, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamical instabilities of superfluid flows in the S =1 Bose-Hubbard model. The time evolution of each spin component in a condensate is calculated based on the dynamical Gutzwiller approximation for a wide range of interactions, from a weakly correlated regime to a strongly correlated regime near the Mott-insulator transition. Owing to the spin-dependent interactions, the superfluid flow of the spin-1 condensate decays at a different critical momentum from a spinless case when the interaction strength is the same. We furthermore calculate the dynamical phase diagram of this model and clarify that the obtained phase boundary has very different features depending on whether the average number of particles per site is even or odd. Finally, we analyze the density and spin modulations that appear in association with the dynamical instability. We find that spin modulations are highly sensitive to the presence of a uniform magnetic field.

  5. Effect of anisotropy in the S=1 underscreened Kondo lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher; da Rosa Simões, Acirete S.; Lacroix, Claudine; Iglesias, José Roberto; Coqblin, Bernard

    2014-12-01

    We study the effect of crystal field anisotropy in the underscreened S=1 Kondo lattice model. Starting from the two orbital Anderson lattice model and including a local anisotropy term, we show, through Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, that local anisotropy is equivalent to an anisotropic Kondo interaction (J∥≠J⊥). The competition and coexistence between ferromagnetism and Kondo effect in this effective model is studied within a generalized mean-field approximation. Several regimes are obtained, depending on the parameters, exhibiting or not coexistence of magnetic order and Kondo effect. Particularly, we show that a re-entrant Kondo phase at low temperature can be obtained. We are also able to describe phases where the Kondo temperature is smaller than the Curie temperature (TK

  6. Confinement and power balance in the S-1 spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Levinton, F.M.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Mayo, R.M.; Janos, A.C.; Ono, Y.; Ueda, Y.; Yamada, M.

    1989-07-01

    The confinement and scaling features of the S-1 spheromak have been investigated using magnetic, spectroscopic, and Thomson scattering data in conjunction with numerical modeling. Results from the multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic shows that the central beta remains constant (/beta//sub to/ /approximately/ 5%) as the plasma current density increases from 0.68--2.1 MA/m/sup 2/. The density is observed to increase slowly over this range, while the central electron temperature increases much more rapidly. Analysis of the global plasma parameters shows a decrease in the volume average beta and energy confinement as the total current is increased. The power balance has been modeled numerically with a 0-D non-equilibrium time-dependent coronal model and is consistent with the experimental observations. 20 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Regulation of human cerebro-microvascular endothelial baso-lateral adhesion and barrier function by S1P through dual involvement of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wiltshire, Rachael; Nelson, Vicky; Kho, Dan Ting; Angel, Catherine E.; O’Carroll, Simon J.; Graham, E. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Herein we show that S1P rapidly and acutely reduces the focal adhesion strength and barrier tightness of brain endothelial cells. xCELLigence biosensor technology was used to measure focal adhesion, which was reduced by S1P acutely and this response was mediated through both S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. S1P increased secretion of several pro-inflammatory mediators from brain endothelial cells. However, the magnitude of this response was small in comparison to that mediated by TNFα or IL-1β. Furthermore, S1P did not significantly increase cell-surface expression of any key cell adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment, included ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Finally, we reveal that S1P acutely and dynamically regulates microvascular endothelial barrier tightness in a manner consistent with regulated rapid opening followed by closing and strengthening of the barrier. We hypothesise that the role of the S1P receptors in this process is not to cause barrier dysfunction, but is related to controlled opening of the endothelial junctions. This was revealed using real-time measurement of barrier integrity using ECIS ZΘ TEER technology and endothelial viability using xCELLigence technology. Finally, we show that these responses do not occur simply though the pharmacology of a single S1P receptor but involves coordinated action of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. PMID:26813587

  8. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of comet ISON (2012 S1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, H.; A'Hearn, M.; Feldman, P.; Bodewits, D.; Combi, M.; Dello Russo, N.; McCandliss, S.

    2014-07-01

    We performed ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to monitor the evolution of CO production with heliocentric distance, search for compositional changes associated with the intense heating episode near perihelion, and measure the D/H ratio. We observed C/ISON with Hubble at four different epochs: May 2.5 (r=3.8 au, Δ=4.3 au), Oct 8.8 (r=1.5 au, Δ= 1.9 au), Oct 21.9 (r=1.23 au, Δ = 1.53 au), and Nov 1.5 (r=1.0 au, Δ =1.2 au). No molecular or atomic emissions were detected in May, but a stringent upper limit on the CO production rate was obtained (Q[CO] ≤ 1.0 × 10^{27} molecules s^{-1}, 3 σ). OH emission was detected during all the later observations and showed strong temporal variations on Nov 1. CO was clearly detected on Oct 21.9 and Nov 1.5, from which we derive CO/H_{2}O ˜0.015. Both atomic carbon and sulfur emissions were detected on Nov 1. No atomic deuterium emission was detected during the attempts to measure it on Nov 1, as the comet's gas production rates were significantly smaller than some early predictions suggested. A lightcurve derived from HST optical imaging observations on Nov 1, contemporaneous with the UV spectroscopy, suggests a nucleus rotational period of ˜10.4 hr, but the range of plausible values is fairly broad.

  9. Characterization of Luminescent Minerals in CM2 Chondrite (Jbilet Winselwan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, Y. K.; Ohgo, S. O.; Nishido, H. N.

    2014-09-01

    We have characterized luminescent minerals of forsterite, diopside and spinel in the CM2 chondrite (Jbilet Winselwan) using SEM-CL and to discuss the formation of the luminescent minerals under aqueous conditions.

  10. Benchmarking and performance analysis of the CM-2. [SIMD computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, David W.; Adams, George B., II

    1988-01-01

    A suite of benchmarking routines testing communication, basic arithmetic operations, and selected kernel algorithms written in LISP and PARIS was developed for the CM-2. Experiment runs are automated via a software framework that sequences individual tests, allowing for unattended overnight operation. Multiple measurements are made and treated statistically to generate well-characterized results from the noisy values given by cm:time. The results obtained provide a comparison with similar, but less extensive, testing done on a CM-1. Tests were chosen to aid the algorithmist in constructing fast, efficient, and correct code on the CM-2, as well as gain insight into what performance criteria are needed when evaluating parallel processing machines.

  11. CmWRKY15 Facilitates Alternaria tenuissima Infection of Chrysanthemum.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qingqing; Song, Aiping; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Wang, Yinjie; Li, Xiran; Chen, Fadi

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has an important role in the responses of plants to pathogens due to its ability to induce stomatal closure and interact with salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in the response of plants to a variety of pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that CmWRKY15, a group IIa WRKY family member, was not transcriptionally activated in yeast cells. Subcellular localization experiments in which onion epidermal cells were transiently transfected with CmWRKY15 indicated that CmWRKY15 localized to the nucleus in vivo. The expression of CmWRKY15 could be markedly induced by the presence of Alternaria tenuissima inoculum in chrysanthemum. Furthermore, the disease severity index (DSI) data of CmWRKY15-overexpressing plants indicated that CmWRKY15 overexpression enhanced the susceptibility of chrysanthemum to A. tenuissima infection compared to controls. To illustrate the mechanisms by which CmWRKY15 regulates the response to A. tenuissima inoculation, the expression levels of ABA-responsive and ABA signaling genes, such as ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, RAB18, DREB1A, DREB2A, PYL2, PP2C, RCAR1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, NCED3A, NCED3B, GTG1, AKT1, AKT2, KAT1, KAT2, and KC1were compared between transgenic plants and controls. In summary, our data suggest that CmWRKY15 might facilitate A. tenuissima infection by antagonistically regulating the expression of ABA-responsive genes and genes involved in ABA signaling, either directly or indirectly. PMID:26600125

  12. CmWRKY15 Facilitates Alternaria tenuissima Infection of Chrysanthemum

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qingqing; Song, Aiping; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Wang, Yinjie; Li, Xiran; Chen, Fadi

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has an important role in the responses of plants to pathogens due to its ability to induce stomatal closure and interact with salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in the response of plants to a variety of pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that CmWRKY15, a group IIa WRKY family member, was not transcriptionally activated in yeast cells. Subcellular localization experiments in which onion epidermal cells were transiently transfected with CmWRKY15 indicated that CmWRKY15 localized to the nucleus in vivo. The expression of CmWRKY15 could be markedly induced by the presence of Alternaria tenuissima inoculum in chrysanthemum. Furthermore, the disease severity index (DSI) data of CmWRKY15-overexpressing plants indicated that CmWRKY15 overexpression enhanced the susceptibility of chrysanthemum to A. tenuissima infection compared to controls. To illustrate the mechanisms by which CmWRKY15 regulates the response to A. tenuissima inoculation, the expression levels of ABA-responsive and ABA signaling genes, such as ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, RAB18, DREB1A, DREB2A, PYL2, PP2C, RCAR1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, NCED3A, NCED3B, GTG1, AKT1, AKT2, KAT1, KAT2, and KC1were compared between transgenic plants and controls. In summary, our data suggest that CmWRKY15 might facilitate A. tenuissima infection by antagonistically regulating the expression of ABA-responsive genes and genes involved in ABA signaling, either directly or indirectly. PMID:26600125

  13. Determination of the threshold value of F10.7 in the dependence of foF2 on solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeniyi, J. O.; Ikubanni, S. O.

    2013-05-01

    By introducing the two-segmented linear regression model instead of the well known quadratic fit, we were able to describe the solar activity dependence of the F2 critical frequency. Saturation features were observed and the corresponding F10.7 values at which this phenomenon occurs were obtained for different hours. The seasonal average values were found to be around 154 sfu, 138 sfu, 177 sfu and 150 sfu for March equinox, June solstice, September equinox and December solstice respectively. These affirmed that saturation phenomenon is more pronounced at the equinoxes than solstices. On the average, the threshold value of F10.7 was obtained to be 154.5 sfu for this station in the African sector of the equatorial region.

  14. Static compression of Ca(OH)2 at room temperature - Observations of amorphization and equation of state measurements to 10.7 GPa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, Charles; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    X-ray diffraction measurements are reported for Ca(OH)2 portlandite as it is compressed to 37.6 GPa in the diamond cell at room temperature. Between 10.7 and 15.4 GPa crystalline Ca(OH)2 transforms to a glass, and on decompression the glass recrystallizes between 3.6 and 5.1 GPa. Below pressures of 10.7 GPa the elastic compression of crystalline Ca(OH)2 was measured. A finite strain analysis of these data shows that the isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are 37.8 + or - 1.8 GPa and 5.2 + or - 0.7 at zero pressure. The change in the unit cell dimensions indicates that the linear incompressibilities of Ca(OH)2 differ by a factor of three.

  15. High resolution interferometric observations of the solar limb at 4.9 and 10.7 GHz during the solar eclipse of October, 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, K. A.; Hurford, G. J.; Zirin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The radial intensity profile of the quiet solar limb has been measured at high spatial resolution using the VLA at 4.9 GHz and the Owens Valley solar interferometer at 10.7 GHz during the partial solar eclipse of October 12, 1977. The spatial resolution (13.8 arcsec at 4.9 GHz and 7.4 arcsec at 10.7 GHz) was provided primarily by the lunar limb. Substantial limb brightening at 4.9 GHz was found with a peak brightness temperature corresponding to an 80% increase over the disk value, and a possible small limb enhancement at 10.7 GHz. The results are consistent with a simple model consisting of a uniform disk (provided by a thoroughly roughened transition zone) overlaid by a corona in hydrostatic equilibrium with a density of 5 x 10 to the 8th at its base. The lack of the secant-like variation in the microwave intensity from center to limb is explained by a corona contained in loop structures rather than in spherically symmetric layers.

  16. Chondrules in the Murray CM2 meteorite and compositional differences between CM-CO and ordinary chondrite chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Wasson, J. T.

    1986-02-01

    Thirteen of the least aqueously altered chondrules in Murray (CM2) were analyzed for bulk compositions, by means of a broad beam electron microprobe, to explore the compositional differences between the CM-CO, and the ordinary chondrite OC chondrules. The CO chondrules are richer in refractory lithophiles and poorer in Cr, Mn, and volatile lithophiles than the OC chondrules; much lower refractory lithophile abundances in CM chondrules resulted from aqueous alteration. Evidence is found for two important lithophile precursor components of CM-CO chondrite chondrules: (1) pyroxene- and refractory-rich, FeO-poor, and (2) olivine-rich, refractoryand FeO-poor. It is suggested that the pyroxene- and refractory-rich, FeO-poor lithophile precursor component has formed by an incomplete evaporation of presolar silicates that brought these materials into the enstatite stability field.

  17. Radar Imaging of Mercury's North and South Poles at 3.5 cm Wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harcke, L. J.; Zebker, H. A.; Jurgens, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar has been used to image the north and south poles of Mercury during the inferior conjunctions of February 2001 and June 2001. The sub-Earth latitude was -10.7 degrees in February during observations of the southern hemisphere, and +8.4 degrees in June during observations of the northern hemisphere. These excellent viewing angles provided an opportunity to resolve the radar bright material in polar craters at 6 km range resolution. Fine-scale (1.5 km) resolution images of the northern craters have previously been obtained at 13 cm wavelengths during the July 1999 inferior conjunction. However, due to geometric constraints, the Arecibo radar cannot observe the southern polar region of Mercury until 2004. Our new Goldstone 6 km data are a factor of two higher resolution than Arecibo data collected in March 1992 at 15 km range resolution, and will remain the most highly resolved images of the south polar region for the next few years. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. New insight into Cm(III) interaction with kaolinite - Influence of mineral dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huittinen, N.; Rabung, Th.; Schnurr, A.; Hakanen, M.; Lehto, J.; Geckeis, H.

    2012-12-01

    Cm(III) speciation in natural kaolinite (St. Austell, UK) suspensions under alkaline conditions was studied by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The spectroscopic investigations were performed under argon atmosphere (O2 < 1 ppm) using a constant curium concentration, ionic strength and mineral content of 2 × 10-7 M, 1 mM NaClO4 and 0.25 g/L, respectively, throughout the study. The impact of kaolinite mineral dissolution on the speciation of the trivalent actinide was investigated in oversaturation experiments where excess amounts of aluminum and/or silicon were added to alkaline kaolinite suspensions. Only silicon addition was found to influence the curium ligand-field under the experimental conditions indicating the formation of a curium-silicate complex in the kaolinite environment. In experiments with 10-3 M added silicon but no solid phase for curium attachment only the hydrolysis species Cm(OH)2+ could be detected at pH 10. Thus, the formation of colloidal silicate species for the attachment of curium could be excluded and the observed species in alkaline kaolinite environments could be assigned to a ternary kaolinite/curium/silicate complex forming between adsorbed curium at the mineral surface and dissolved silicates in solution. A similar curium-silicate complex with identical spectroscopic features was also found in investigations with α-alumina as sorbent phase upon addition of silicon to the mineral suspensions, suggesting that silicon complexation with surface-bound curium is independent of the sorbent material.

  19. Possible Dust Models for C/2012 S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) provided a great opportunity to study a dynamically new Oort-cloud comet on its initial and only passage through the inner solar system. Contrary to expectations, the comet's activity fluctuated from high through a quiescent phase, and a major outburst days before its perihelion passage, ending in a dramatic race to complete disintegration on perihelion day, 28 November 2013. Amateur observations to professional ground-based, sub-orbital telescopes indicate the various changes of visible factors such as Afrho, a proxy for dust activity, and the measured production rates for water, consistent with the disintegration of the nucleus. Hines et al. (2013; ApJ Lett. 780) detected positive polarization in the inner coma and negative polarization in the outer coma, indicative of a jet, independently confirmed by Li et al. (2013, ApJ Lett., 779). Thermal emission observations of the comet pre-perihelion from NAOJ/Subaru/COMICS, a mid-infrared spectrometer, indicated a body with an equivalent brightness temperature of 265K (Ootsubo et al., 2013, ACM, Helsinki,FI); thermal observations acquired at the NASA/Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) with The Aerospace Corporation spectrometer (BASS, PI. R. Russell), before and after the November 12, 2013 outburst observed by the CIOC_ISON amateur network, indicates a brightness temperature of 330K and the presence, albeit weak, of the 11.3-micron crystalline silicate feature (Sitko et al., 2014, LPI abstract 1537). A Monte Carlo comet dust tail model, applied to extract the dust environment parameters of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from both Earth-based and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) calibrated observations, performed from about 6 AU (inbound), to right after perihelion passage, when just a small portion of the original comet nucleus survived in the form of a cloud of tiny particles, indicates that particles underwent disintegration and fragmentation (Moreno et al., 2014, ApJ Lett., 791). Ongoing work

  20. Sphingosine kinase-1, S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 and S1P2 mRNA expressions are increased in liver with advanced fibrosis in human

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masaya; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Kurano, Makoto; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Maki, Harufumi; Kudo, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in liver fibrosis or inflammation was not fully examined in human. Controversy exists which S1P receptors, S1P1 and S1P3 vs S1P2, would be importantly involved in its mechanism. To clarify these matters, 80 patients who received liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma and 9 patients for metastatic liver tumor were enrolled. S1P metabolism was analyzed in background, non-tumorous liver tissue. mRNA levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) but not SK2 were increased in livers with fibrosis stages 3–4 compared to those with 0–2 and to normal liver. However, S1P was not increased in advanced fibrotic liver, where mRNA levels of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) but not S1P-degrading enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, mRNA levels of S1P2 but not S1P1 or S1P3 were increased in advanced fibrotic liver. These increased mRNA levels of SK1, SPNS2 and S1P2 in fibrotic liver were correlated with α-smooth muscle actin mRNA levels in liver, and with serum ALT levels. In conclusion, S1P may be actively generated, transported to outside the cells, and bind to its specific receptor in human liver to play a role in fibrosis or inflammation. Altered S1P metabolism in fibrotic liver may be their therapeutic target. PMID:27562371

  1. Sphingosine kinase-1, S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 and S1P2 mRNA expressions are increased in liver with advanced fibrosis in human.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masaya; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Kurano, Makoto; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Maki, Harufumi; Kudo, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in liver fibrosis or inflammation was not fully examined in human. Controversy exists which S1P receptors, S1P1 and S1P3 vs S1P2, would be importantly involved in its mechanism. To clarify these matters, 80 patients who received liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma and 9 patients for metastatic liver tumor were enrolled. S1P metabolism was analyzed in background, non-tumorous liver tissue. mRNA levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) but not SK2 were increased in livers with fibrosis stages 3-4 compared to those with 0-2 and to normal liver. However, S1P was not increased in advanced fibrotic liver, where mRNA levels of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) but not S1P-degrading enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, mRNA levels of S1P2 but not S1P1 or S1P3 were increased in advanced fibrotic liver. These increased mRNA levels of SK1, SPNS2 and S1P2 in fibrotic liver were correlated with α-smooth muscle actin mRNA levels in liver, and with serum ALT levels. In conclusion, S1P may be actively generated, transported to outside the cells, and bind to its specific receptor in human liver to play a role in fibrosis or inflammation. Altered S1P metabolism in fibrotic liver may be their therapeutic target. PMID:27562371

  2. Observing Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) With Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, Carey M.; Vervack, R. J.; Weaver, H. A.; Bauer, J. M.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Kelley, M. S.; Knight, M. M.; Hines, D. C.; Li, J.; Reach, W. T.; Sitko, M. L.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Meech, K. J.; Rayner, J. T.

    2013-10-01

    In this talk we discuss the design, implementation, and reduction of observations of Comet ISON from space using the Spitzer Space Telescope on 13.00 - 13.96 Jun UT and from the ground at Lowell Observatory on Jun 11.16 UT and from APO on 14.13 Jun UT. The comet was at distance rh = 3.34 AU from the Sun, distance ΔSpitzer = 3.29 AU and 17.4o phase from SST, and distance ΔEarth = 4.25 AU and 6.8 - 7.3o phase at the time of observation. Preliminary analyses show ISON's Spitzer coma morphology was relatively compact and simple, with a linear anti-solar dust tail > 3x105 km in length and a 1/p profile gas coma extending > 105 km from the nucleus. Afp values in an 18,200 km radius aperture of 840, 890, and 840 ± 80 cm were found at VRI, and 650 ± 100 cm were found at 3.6 micron. Together, the ground-based and Spitzer photometry imply near-neutral dust scattering from the visual through the infrared. An excess at 4.5 µm due to emission from a neutral gas coma is clearly found both morphologically and photometrically. The gas coma total flux and spatial profile and ISON’s discovery distance imply a coma dominated by the stronger CO_2 line emission at 4.67 μm, but we cannot rule out a preponderance of CO emission at 4.26 μm. No variability in our Spitzer photometry at the 0.03 mag level over 24 hrs was seen. We present our imagery, spectrophotometry, and lightcurves, and discuss the physical implications of these measurements of the comet made well outside the ice line.

  3. Determining the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, Lauren B.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Zolensky, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The aqueous alteration of CM chondrites provides a record of the processes attending the earliest stages of parent body evolution. However, resolving the alteration pathways of chondritic evolution requires a means for distinguishing the relative extent of alteration that individual samples have experienced. Three new indices for gauging the relative degree of alteration in CM chondrites based on modal and compositional analyses of 7 CM falls were proposed. The proposed alteration parameters are consistent with the basic tenets of several previous models and correlate with additional indices to produce an integrated method for determining the relative extent of alteration. The model predicts the following order of progressive alteration: Murchison (MC) is less than or equal to Bells (BL) is less than Murray (MY) is less than Cochabamba (CC) is less than Mighei (MI) is less than Nogoya (NG) is less than or equal to Cold Bokkeveld (CB). The broad range of CM phyllosilicate compositions observed within individual meteorites is fundamental to the characterization of the aqueous alteration process. Chemical analyses of CM phyllosilicates suggest that these phases became systematically enriched in Mg and depleted in Fe with increasing alteration.

  4. Determining the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Lauren B.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.; Zolensky, Michael

    1993-03-01

    The aqueous alteration of CM chondrites provides a record of the processes attending the earliest stages of parent body evolution. However, resolving the alteration pathways of chondritic evolution requires a means for distinguishing the relative extent of alteration that individual samples have experienced. Three new indices for gauging the relative degree of alteration in CM chondrites based on modal and compositional analyses of 7 CM falls were proposed. The proposed alteration parameters are consistent with the basic tenets of several previous models and correlate with additional indices to produce an integrated method for determining the relative extent of alteration. The model predicts the following order of progressive alteration: Murchison (MC) is less than or equal to Bells (BL) is less than Murray (MY) is less than Cochabamba (CC) is less than Mighei (MI) is less than Nogoya (NG) is less than or equal to Cold Bokkeveld (CB). The broad range of CM phyllosilicate compositions observed within individual meteorites is fundamental to the characterization of the aqueous alteration process. Chemical analyses of CM phyllosilicates suggest that these phases became systematically enriched in Mg and depleted in Fe with increasing alteration.

  5. Advancing precision cosmology with 21 cm intensity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, Kiyoshi Wesley

    In this thesis we make progress toward establishing the observational method of 21 cm intensity mapping as a sensitive and efficient method for mapping the large-scale structure of the Universe. In Part I we undertake theoretical studies to better understand the potential of intensity mapping. This includes forecasting the ability of intensity mapping experiments to constrain alternative explanations to dark energy for the Universe's accelerated expansion. We also considered how 21 cm observations of the neutral gas in the early Universe (after recombination but before reionization) could be used to detect primordial gravity waves, thus providing a window into cosmological inflation. Finally we showed that scientifically interesting measurements could in principle be performed using intensity mapping in the near term, using existing telescopes in pilot surveys or prototypes for larger dedicated surveys. Part II describes observational efforts to perform some of the first measurements using 21 cm intensity mapping. We develop a general data analysis pipeline for analyzing intensity mapping data from single dish radio telescopes. We then apply the pipeline to observations using the Green Bank Telescope. By cross-correlating the intensity mapping survey with a traditional galaxy redshift survey we put a lower bound on the amplitude of the 21 cm signal. The auto-correlation provides an upper bound on the signal amplitude and we thus constrain the signal from both above and below. This pilot survey represents a pioneering effort in establishing 21 cm intensity mapping as a probe of the Universe.

  6. CM Carbonaceous Chondrite Lithologies and Their Space Exposure Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Gregory, Timothy; Takenouchi, Atsushi; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Trieman, Alan; Berger, Eve; Le, Loan; Fagan, Amy; Velbel, Michael; Imae, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The CMs are the most commonly falling C chondrites, and therefore may be a major component of C-class asteroids, the targets of several current and future space missions. Previous work [1] has concluded that CM chondrites fall into at least four distinct cosmic ray space exposure (CRE) age groups (0.1 million years, 0.2 million years, 0.6 million years and greater than 2.0 million years), an unusually large number, but the meaning of these groupings is unclear. It is possible that these meteorites came from different parent bodies which broke up at different times, or instead came from the same parent body which underwent multiple break-up events, or a combination of these scenarios, or something else entirely. The objective of this study is to investigate the diversity of lithologies which make up CM chondrites, in order to determine whether the different exposure ages correspond to specific, different CM lithologies, which permit us to constrain the history of the CM parent body(ies). We have already reported significant petrographic differences among CM chondrites [2-4]. We report here our new results.

  7. Outgassing and chemical evolution of C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dello Russo, Neil; Vervack, Ronald J.; Kawakita, Hideyo; Cochran, Anita; McKay, Adam J.; Harris, Walter M.; Weaver, Harold A.; Lisse, Carey M.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Biver, Nicolas; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Crovisier, Jacques; Opitom, Cyrielle; Jehin, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Volatile production rates, relative abundances, rotational temperatures, and spatial distributions in the coma were measured in C/2012 S1 (ISON) using long-slit high-dispersion (λ/Δλ ~ 25,000) infrared spectroscopy as part of a worldwide observing campaign. Spectra were obtained on UT 2013 October 26 and 28 with NIRSPEC at the W. M. Keck Observatory, and UT 2013 November 19 and 20 with CSHELL at the NASA IRTF. H2O was detected on all dates, with production rates increasing by about a factor of 40 between October 26 (Rh = 1.12 AU) and November 20 (Rh = 0.43 AU). Short-term variability of H2O was also seen as the production rate increased by nearly a factor of two during observations obtained over a period of about six hours on November 19. C2H6, CH3OH and CH4 abundances were slightly depleted relative to H2O in ISON compared to mean values for comets measured at infrared wavelengths. On the November dates, C2H2, HCN and OCS abundances relative to H2O appear to be close to the range of mean values, whereas H2CO and NH3 were significantly enhanced. We will compare derived chemical abundances in ISON to other comets measured with infrared spectroscopy.

  8. CM-2 Environmental / Modal Testing of Spacehab Racks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Farkas, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    Combined environmental/modal vibration testing has been implemented at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Dynamics Laboratory. The benefits of combined vibration testing are that it facilitates test article modal characterization and vibration qualification testing. The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that launches on Shuttle mission STS 107 in the SPACEHAB Research Double Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is integrated into a SPACEHAB single and double rack. CM-2 rack level combined vibration testing was recently completed on a shaker table to characterize the structure's modal response and verify the random vibration response. Control accelerometers and limit force gauges, located between the fixture and rack interface, were used to verify the input excitation. Results of the testing were used to verify the loads and environments for flight on the Shuttle.

  9. CM-2 Environmental/Modal Testing of SPACEHAB Racks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.

    2001-01-01

    Combined environmental/modal vibration testing has been implemented at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Dynamics Laboratory. The benefits of combined vibration testing are that it facilitates test article modal characterization and vibration qualification testing. The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that will launch on shuttle mission STS-107 in the SPACEHAB Research Double Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is integrated into a SPACEHAB single and double rack. CM-2 rack-level combined vibration testing was recently completed on a shaker table to characterize the structure's modal response and verify the random vibration response. Control accelerometers and limit force gauges, located between the fixture and rack interface, were used to verify the input excitation. Results of the testing were used to verify the loads and environments for flight on the shuttles.

  10. Differentiating CDM and baryon isocurvature models with 21 cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: sekiguti@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2011-10-01

    We discuss how one can discriminate models with cold dark matter (CDM) and baryon isocurvature fluctuations. Although current observations such as cosmic microwave background (CMB) can severely constrain the fraction of such isocurvature modes in the total density fluctuations, CMB cannot differentiate CDM and baryon ones by the shapes of their power spectra. However, the evolution of CDM and baryon density fluctuations are different for each model, thus it would be possible to discriminate those isocurvature modes by extracting information on the fluctuations of CDM/baryon itself. We discuss that observations of 21 cm fluctuations can in principle differentiate these modes and demonstrate to what extent we can distinguish them with future 21 cm surveys. We show that, when the isocurvature mode has a large blue-tilted initial spectrum, 21 cm surveys can clearly probe the difference.

  11. Ion accelerator systems for high power 30-cm thruster operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of two- and three-grid accelerator systems for high power ion thruster operation has been performed. Two-grid translation tests show that overcompensation of the 30-cm thruster SHAG (Small Hole Accelerator Grid) leads to a premature impingement limit. By better matching the SHAG grid set spacing to the 30-cm thruster radial plasma density variation and by incorporating grid compensation only sufficient to maintain grid hole axial alignment, it is shown that beam current gains as large as 50% can be realized. Three-grid translation tests performed with a simulated 30-cm thruster discharge chamber show that substantial beamlet steering can be reliably affected by decelerator grid translation only, at net-to-total voltage ratios as low as 0.05.

  12. A model for sunspot associated emission at 6 cm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alissandrakis, C. E.; Kundu, M. R.; Lantos, P.

    1980-01-01

    Two-dimensional maps of total intensity and circular polarization of a sunspot region at 6 cm have been calculated using a simple model for the chromosphere-corona transition region and observations of the longitudinal component of the photospheric magnetic field. The calculations are in good agreement with the high resolution observations of the same sunspot region at 6 cm, obtained with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. It is shown that the 6 cm radiation is predominantly due to gyroresonance absorption process at the second and third harmonics of the gyrofrequency (H = 900-600 G). Estimates of the conductive flux and the electron density in the transition region above the sunspot are also given.

  13. VLA observations of Uranus at 1. 3-20 cm

    SciTech Connect

    De Pater, I.; Gulkis, S.

    1988-08-01

    Observations of Uranus, obtained with resolution 0.5-1.2 arcsec at wavelengths 1.3, 2, 6, and 20 cm using the A and B configurations of the VLA in June-July 1982, October 1983, and February 1984, are reported. The disk-averaged brightness temperatures (DABTs) are determined by model fitting, and the results are presented in extensive graphs and contour maps and characterized in detail. Findings discussed include: (1) an overall spectrum which is relatively flat above 6 cm, (2) 1.3-6-cm brightness which is concentrated nearer to the pole than to the subsolar point, and (3) small changes in DABT from 1982 to 1983/1984 (consistent with an explanation based on a pole-equator temperature gradient). 16 references.

  14. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P) Receptor Agonists Mediate Pro-fibrotic Responses in Normal Human Lung Fibroblasts via S1P2 and S1P3 Receptors and Smad-independent Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, Katrin; Menyhart, Katalin; Killer, Nina; Renault, Bérengère; Bauer, Yasmina; Studer, Rolf; Steiner, Beat; Bolli, Martin H.; Nayler, Oliver; Gatfield, John

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 modulators constitute a new class of drugs for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling, however, is also involved in the development of fibrosis. Using normal human lung fibroblasts, we investigated the induction of fibrotic responses by the S1P receptor (S1PR) agonists S1P, FTY720-P, ponesimod, and SEW2871 and compared them with the responses induced by the known fibrotic mediator TGF-β1. In contrast to TGF-β1, S1PR agonists did not induce expression of the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin. However, TGF-β1, S1P, and FTY720-P caused robust stimulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and increased pro-fibrotic marker gene expression including connective tissue growth factor. Ponesimod showed limited and SEW2871 showed no pro-fibrotic potential in these readouts. Analysis of pro-fibrotic signaling pathways showed that in contrast to TGF-β1, S1PR agonists did not activate Smad2/3 signaling but rather activated PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling to induce ECM synthesis. The strong induction of ECM synthesis by the nonselective agonists S1P and FTY720-P was due to the stimulation of S1P2 and S1P3 receptors, whereas the weaker induction of ECM synthesis at high concentrations of ponesimod was due to a low potency activation of S1P3 receptors. Finally, in normal human lung fibroblast-derived myofibroblasts that were generated by TGF-β1 pretreatment, S1P and FTY720-P were effective stimulators of ECM synthesis, whereas ponesimod was inactive, because of the down-regulation of S1P3R expression in myofibroblasts. These data demonstrate that S1PR agonists are pro-fibrotic via S1P2R and S1P3R stimulation using Smad-independent pathways. PMID:23589284

  15. Precise measurements of primordial power spectrum with 21 cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: oyamayo@post.kek.jp E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the issue of how precisely we can measure the primordial power spectrum by using future observations of 21 cm fluctuations and cosmic microwave background (CMB). For this purpose, we investigate projected constraints on the quantities characterizing primordial power spectrum: the spectral index n{sub s}, its running α{sub s} and even its higher order running β{sub s}. We show that future 21 cm observations in combinations with CMB would accurately measure above mentioned observables of primordial power spectrum. We also discuss its implications to some explicit inflationary models.

  16. Evidence for live 247Cm in the early solar system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatsumoto, M.; Shimamura, T.

    1980-01-01

    Variations of the 238U/235U ratio in the Allende meteorite, ranging from -35% to + 19%, are interpreted as evidence of live 247Cm in the early Solar System. The amounts of these and other r-products in the Solar System indicate values of (9,000??3,000) Myr for the age of the Galaxy and ??? 8 Myr for the time between the end of nucleosynthesis and the formation of meteoritic grains. Three possible explanations are presented for the different values of the latter time period which are indicated by the decay products of 247Cm, 26Al, 244Pu and 129I. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  17. Cycle life testing of 8-cm mercury ion thruster cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, E. G.

    1976-01-01

    Two main cathodes have successfully completed 2800 and 1980 cycles and three neutralizers, 3928, 3050, and 2850 cycles in ongoing cycle life tests of flight-type cathode-isolator-vaporizer and neutralizer-isolator-vaporizer assemblies for the 4.45 mN 8-cm Hg ion thruster system. Each cycle included one hour of cathode operation. Starting and operating conditions simulated those expected in a typical auxiliary propulsion mission duty cycle. The cycle life test results are presented along with results of an insert comparison test which led to the selection of a rolled foil insert type for the 8-cm Engineering Model Thruster cathodes.

  18. Search for ammonia in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, S.; Codella, C.; Tozzi, G.; Comoretto, G.; Crovisier, J.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Boissier, J.; Bolli, P.; Brucato, J.; Massi, F.; Tofani, G.

    2014-07-01

    Comets are pristine bodies of the Solar System and their studies can give precious hints on the formation of the Solar System itself. New comets, coming form the Oort Colud at their first passage close to the Sun, are particularly important, because they are not differentiated by the Solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of organic matter close to the surface. Here we report the results of a search for NH_3(1,1) emission at 23.7 GHz in comet C/2012 S1 ISON using a new dual-feed K-band receiver mounted on the Medicina 32-m antenna. We observed the comet once close to its perihelion, from 2013 Nov. 25 to Nov. 28, when its heliocentric distance changed from 0.25 au to 0.03 au. We integrated about 6 hrs per day, obtaining high-spectral-resolution (1 km/s) spectra with a typical rms noise of 10 mK. Such sensitivity allowed us to derive an upper limit of Q(NH_3) of about 2.5 ×10^{29} mol/s on November 26. This upper limit would correspond to a Q(H_2O) of about 2.5 ×10^{31} mol/s, assuming the typical Q(H_2O)/Q(NH_3) ratio of 100. These findings confirm that no significant Q(H_2O) enhancement happened near the perihelion, consistent with a definitive decrease of molecules production rate.

  19. Ultraviolet Observations Of C/2012 S1 (ISON) By MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crismani, Matteo; Schneider, N.; Stewart, I.; Combi, M.; Fougere, N.

    2013-10-01

    On its journey to Mars, MAVEN has been serendipitously positioned to study the anticipated sungrazing comet C/2012 S1(ISON) and offers important scientific observations. The MAVEN mission is the first to attempt to understand the evolution of the Martian atmosphere by determining the effects of atmospheric loss to space. The IUVS instrument has two large field of regard(55x11 and 24x11 degrees) and observes in the mid and far ultraviolet (115-340 nm). It was designed to be able to map the atmosphere in several neutral and some ionized species. These performance characteristics make IUVS ideal to study ISON, as it can take both two dimensional spatial scans as well as spectral data. Tentative plans indicate the comet can be acquired on Dec 8th, assuming that the comet survives the near sun encounter. If observations prove possible, IUVS will be able to study ISON shortly after perihelion, and from a different vantage point from Earth. Science goals include UV observations of D/H, morphology & time evolution of the hydrogen coma and UV spectroscopy of the inner coma. IUVS can potentially make a major contribution to the international community by measuring D/H, thus contributing to our understanding of the origin of Earth’s water. IUVS will also make MUV and FUV observations of molecular species in the inner coma, valuable for understanding the chemical evolution of cometary molecular gases. The poster will present provisional observation plans as well as simulated spectra and spatial profiles. We welcome input from the community on these plans, in the spirit of maximizing the scientific return of the international campaign. The work has been supported by the MAVEN project and NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX09AB59G.

  20. Gravitational dynamics in s+1+1 dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Gergely, Laszlo A.; Kovacs, Zoltan

    2005-09-15

    We present the concomitant decomposition of an (s+2)-dimensional space-time both with respect to a timelike and a spacelike direction. The formalism we develop is suited for the study of the initial value problem and for canonical gravitational dynamics in braneworld scenarios. The bulk metric is replaced by two sets of variables. The first set consists of one tensorial (the induced metric g{sub ij}), one vectorial (M{sup i}) and one scalar (M) dynamical quantity, all defined on the s space. Their time evolutions are related to the second fundamental form (the extrinsic curvature K{sub ij}), the normal fundamental form (K{sup i}) and normal fundamental scalar (K), respectively. The nondynamical set of variables is given by the lapse function and the shift vector, which however has one component less. The missing component is due to the externally imposed constraint, which states that physical trajectories are confined to the (s+1)-dimensional brane. The pair of dynamical variables (g{sub ij}, K{sub ij}), well known from the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner decomposition is supplemented by the pairs (M{sup i}, K{sup i}) and (M, K) due to the bulk curvature. We give all projections of the junction condition across the brane and prove that for a perfect fluid brane neither of the dynamical variables has jump across the brane. Finally we complete the set of equations needed for gravitational dynamics by deriving the evolution equations of K{sub ij}, K{sup i} and K on a brane with arbitrary matter.

  1. Operation of a Five-Stage 40,000-CM(2)-Area Insulator Stack at 158 KV/CM

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson R.A.; Clark, Robert E.; Corcoran, P.A.; Douglas, John W.; Gilliland, T.L.; Horry, M.L.; Hughes, Thomas P.; Ives, H.C.; Long, F.W.; Martin, T.H.; McDaniel, D.H.; Milton, Osborne; Mostrom, Michael A.; Seamen, J.F.; Shoup, R.W.; Smith, I.D.; Smith, J.W.; Spielman, R.B.; Struve, K.W.; Stygar, W.A.; Vogtlin, George E.; Wagoner, T.C.; Yamamoto, Osamu

    1999-06-30

    We have demonstrated successful operation of a 3.35- m-diameter insulator stack at 158 kV/cm on five consecutive Z-accelerator shots. The stack consisted of five +45°-profile 5.715-cm-thick cross-linked-polystyrene (Rexolite- 1422) insulator rings, and four anodized- aluminum grading rings shaped to reduce the field at cathode triple junctions. The width of the voltage pulse at 89% of peak was 32 ns. We compare this result to a new empirical flashover relation developed from previous small-insulator experiments conducted with flat unanodized electrodes. The relation predicts a 50% flashover probability for a Rexolite insulator during an applied voltage pulse when Emaxe-0.27/d(teffC)1/10 = 224, where Emax is the peak mean electric field (kV/cm), d is the insulator thickness (cm), teff is the effective pulse width (ps), and C is the insulator circumference (cm). We find the Z stack can be operated at a stress at least 19% higher than predicted. This result, and previous experiments conducted by Vogtlin, suggest anodized electrodes with geometries that reduce the field at both anode and cathode triple junctions would improve the flashover strength of +45° insulators.

  2. The Complexity and Challenges of the ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM Transition in Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Krive, Jacob; Patel, Mahatkumar; Gehm, Lisa; Mackey, Mark; Kulstad, Erik; Li, Jianrong ‘John’; Lussier, Yves A.; Boyd, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Beginning October 2015, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) will require medical providers to utilize the vastly expanded ICD-10-CM system. Despite wide availability of information and mapping tools for the next generation of the ICD classification system, some of the challenges associated with transition from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM are not well understood. To quantify the challenges faced by emergency physicians, we analyzed a subset of a 2010 Illinois Medicaid database of emergency department ICD-9-CM codes, seeking to determine the accuracy of existing mapping tools in order to better prepare emergency physicians for the change to the expanded ICD-10-CM system. We found that 27% of 1,830 codes represented convoluted multidirectional mappings. We then analyzed the convoluted transitions and found 8% of total visit encounters (23% of the convoluted transitions) were clinically incorrect. The ambiguity and inaccuracy of these mappings may impact the work flow associated with the translation process and affect the potential mapping between ICD codes and CPT (Current Procedural Codes) codes, which determine physician reimbursement. PMID:25863652

  3. A role of the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)–S1P receptor 2 pathway in epithelial defense against cancer (EDAC)

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Sayaka; Yako, Yuta; Fujioka, Yoichiro; Kajita, Mihoko; Kameyama, Takeshi; Kon, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Susumu; Ohba, Yusuke; Ohno, Yusuke; Kihara, Akio; Fujita, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    At the initial step of carcinogenesis, transformation occurs in single cells within epithelia, where the newly emerging transformed cells are surrounded by normal epithelial cells. A recent study revealed that normal epithelial cells have an ability to sense and actively eliminate the neighboring transformed cells, a process named epithelial defense against cancer (EDAC). However, the molecular mechanism of this tumor-suppressive activity is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated a role for the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)–S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2) pathway in EDAC. First, we show that addition of the S1PR2 inhibitor significantly suppresses apical extrusion of RasV12-transformed cells that are surrounded by normal cells. In addition, knockdown of S1PR2 in normal cells induces the same effect, indicating that S1PR2 in the surrounding normal cells plays a positive role in the apical elimination of the transformed cells. Of importance, not endogenous S1P but exogenous S1P is involved in this process. By using FRET analyses, we demonstrate that S1PR2 mediates Rho activation in normal cells neighboring RasV12-transformed cells, thereby promoting accumulation of filamin, a crucial regulator of EDAC. Collectively these data indicate that S1P is a key extrinsic factor that affects the outcome of cell competition between normal and transformed epithelial cells. PMID:26631556

  4. Retrofit and acceptance test of 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Six 30 cm mercury thrusters were modified to the J-series design and evaluated using standardized test procedures. The thruster performance meets the design objectives (lifetime objective requires verification), and documentation (drawings, etc.) for the design is completed and upgraded. The retrofit modifications are described and the test data for the modifications are presented and discussed.

  5. Search for Cm-248 in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavielle, B.; Marti, K.; Pellas, P.; Perron, C.

    1992-01-01

    Possible evidence for the presence of Cm-248 in the early solar system was reported from fission gas studies (Rao and Gopalan, 1973) and recently from studies of very high nuclear track densities (not less than 5 x 10 exp 8/sq cm) in the merrillite of the H4 chondrite Forest Vale (F.V.) (Pellas et al., 1987). We report here an analysis of the isotopic abundances of xenon in F.V. phosphates and results of track studies in phosphate/pyroxene contacts. The fission xenon isotopic signature clearly identifies Pu-244 as the extinct progenitor. We calculate an upper limit Cm-248/Pu-244 to be less than 0.0015 at the beginning of Xe retention in F.V. phosphates. This corresponds to an upper limit of the ratio Cm-248/U-235 of not greater than 5 x 10 exp -5 further constraining the evidence for any late addition of freshly synthesized actinide elements just prior to solar system formation. The fission track density observed after annealing the phosphates at 290C (1 hr, which essentially erases spallation recoil tracks) is also in agreement with the Pu-244 abundance inferred from fission Xe. The spallation recoil tracks produced during the 76 Ma cosmic-ray exposure account for the very high track density in merrillites.

  6. Adaptation of California Measure of Mental Motivation-CM3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Hasan Fehmi; Demirtasli, Nükhet Çikrikçi

    2015-01-01

    Education without doubt, plays a vital role for individuals to gain the essential personal traits of the 21st century, also known as "knowledge age". One of the most important skills among these fundamental qualities which the individuals should be equipped with is critical thinking. California Measure of Mental Motivation-CM3 was…

  7. Cosmological constraints from 21cm surveys after reionization

    SciTech Connect

    Visbal, Eli; Loeb, Abraham; Wyithe, Stuart E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    2009-10-01

    21cm emission from residual neutral hydrogen after the epoch of reionization can be used to trace the cosmological power spectrum of density fluctuations. Using a Fisher matrix formulation, we provide a detailed forecast of the constraints on cosmological parameters that are achievable with this probe. We consider two designs: a scaled-up version of the MWA observatory as well as a Fast Fourier Transform Telescope. We find that 21cm observations dedicated to post-reionization redshifts may yield significantly better constraints than next generation Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. We find the constraints on Ω{sub Λ}, Ω{sub m}h{sup 2}, and Ω{sub ν}h{sup 2} to be the strongest, each improved by at least an order of magnitude over the Planck CMB satellite alone for both designs. Our results do not depend as strongly on uncertainties in the astrophysics associated with the ionization of hydrogen as similar 21cm surveys during the epoch of reionization. However, we find that modulation of the 21cm power spectrum from the ionizing background could potentially degrade constraints on the spectral index of the primordial power spectrum and its running by more than an order of magnitude. Our results also depend strongly on the maximum wavenumber of the power spectrum which can be used due to non-linearities.

  8. The 21 cm signature of a cosmic string loop

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, Michael; Brandenberger, Robert E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca

    2012-05-01

    Cosmic string loops lead to nonlinear baryon overdensities at early times, even before the time which in the standard LCDM model corresponds to the time of reionization. These overdense structures lead to signals in 21 cm redshift surveys at large redshifts. In this paper, we calculate the amplitude and shape of the string loop-induced 21 cm brightness temperature. We find that a string loop leads to a roughly elliptical region in redshift space with extra 21 cm emission. The excess brightness temperature for strings with a tension close to the current upper bound can be as high as 1deg K for string loops generated at early cosmological times (times comparable to the time of equal matter and radiation) and observed at a redshift of z+1 = 30. The angular extent of these predicted 'bright spots' is x{sup '}. These signals should be detectable in upcoming high redshift 21 cm surveys. We also discuss the application of our results to global monopoles and primordial black holes.

  9. Calorimetric determination of kQ factors for NE 2561 and NE 2571 ionization chambers in 5 cm × 5 cm and 10 cm × 10 cm radiotherapy beams of 8 MV and 16 MV photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Achim; Kapsch, Ralf-Peter

    2007-10-01

    The relative uncertainty of the ionometric determination of the absorbed dose to water, Dw, in the reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams is in the order of 1.5% and is dominated by the uncertainty of the calculated chamber- and energy-dependent correction factors kQ. In the present investigation, kQ values were determined experimentally in 5 cm × 5 cm and 10 cm × 10 cm radiotherapy beams of 8 MV and 16 MV bremsstrahlung by means of a water calorimeter operated at 4 °C. Ionization chambers of the types NE 2561 and NE 2571 were calibrated directly in the water phantom of the calorimeter. The measurements were carried out at the linear accelerator of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. It is shown that the kQ factor of a single ionization chamber can be measured with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.3%. No significant variations of kQ were found for the different lateral sizes of the radiation fields used in this investigation.

  10. Electronic and magnetic properties of Am and Cm

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, N.

    1985-02-01

    A review of the present status of the analyses of the optical spectra of Am and Cm in various oxidation states is given. From these analyses, the magnetic properties of the ground states of these ions can be determined. These predicted values are compared with the various magnetic measurements available.

  11. Behavior of an inversion-based precipitation retrieval algorithm with high-resolution AMPR measurements including a low-frequency 10.7-GHz channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. A.; Xiang, X.; Mugnai, A.; Hood, R. E.; Spencer, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    A microwave-based, profile-type precipitation retrieval algorithm has been used to analyze high-resolution passsive microwave measurements over an ocean background, obtained by the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) flown on a NASA ER-2 aircraft. The analysis is designed to first determine the improvements that can be gained by adding brightness temperature information from the AMPR low-frequency channel (10.7 GHz) to a multispectral retrieval algorithm nominally run with satellite information at 19, 37, and 85 GHz. The impact of spatial resolution degradation of the high-resolution brightness temperature information on the retrieved rain/cloud liquid water contents and ice water contents is then quantified in order to assess the possible biases inherent to satellite-based retrieval. Careful inspection of the high-resolution aircraft dataset reveals five distinctive brightness temperature features associated with cloud structure and scattering effects that are not generally detectable in current passive microwave satellite measurements. Results suggest that the inclusion of 10.7-GHz information overcomes two basic problems associated with three-channel retrieval. Intercomparisons of retrievals carried out at high-resolution and then averaged to a characteristic satellite scale to the corresponding retrievals in which the brightness temperatures are first convolved down to the satellite scale suggest that with the addition of the 10.7-GHz channel, the rain liquid water contents will not be negatively impacted by special resolution degradation. That is not the case with the ice water contents as they appear ti be quite sensitive to the imposed scale, the implication being that as spatial resolution is reduced, ice water contents will become increasingly underestimated.

  12. Maribo—A new CM fall from Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Henning; Grau, Thomas; Bischoff, Addi; Horstmann, Marian; Wasson, John; Sørensen, Anton; Laubenstein, Matthias; Ott, Ulrich; Palme, Herbert; Gellissen, Marko; Greenwood, Richard C.; Pearson, Victoria K.; Franchi, Ian A.; Gabelica, Zelimir; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Maribo is a new Danish CM chondrite, which fell on January 17, 2009, at 19:08:28 CET. The fall was observed by many eye witnesses and recorded by a surveillance camera, an all sky camera, a few seismic stations, and by meteor radar observatories in Germany. A single fragment of Maribo with a dry weight of 25.8 g was found on March 4, 2009. The coarse-grained components in Maribo include chondrules, fine-grained olivine aggregates, large isolated lithic clasts, metals, and mineral fragments (often olivine), and rare Ca,Al-rich inclusions. The components are typically rimmed by fine-grained dust mantles. The matrix includes abundant dust rimmed fragments of tochilinite with a layered, fishbone-like texture, tochilinite-cronstedtite intergrowths, sulfides, metals, and carbonates often intergrown with tochilinite. The oxygen isotopic composition: (δ17O = -1.27‰; δ18O = 4.96‰; Δ17O = -3.85‰) plots at the edge of the CM field, close to the CCAM line. The very low Δ17O and the presence of unaltered components suggest that Maribo is among the least altered CM chondrites. The bulk chemistry of Maribo is typical of CM chondrites. Trapped noble gases are similar in abundance and isotopic composition to other CM chondrites, stepwise heating data indicating the presence of gas components hosted by presolar diamond and silicon carbide. The organics in Maribo include components also seen in Murchison as well as nitrogen-rich components unique to Maribo.

  13. 448 Gbit/s, 32 Gbaud 128 QAM coherent transmission over 150 km with a potential spectral efficiency of 10.7 bit/s/Hz.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Keisuke; Wang, Yixin; Otuya, David Odeke; Yoshida, Masato; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2015-11-01

    We realized a single-carrier, polarization-multiplexed 32 Gbaud 128 QAM coherent transmission. Digital frequency-domain equalization enabled us to achieve waveform distortion compensation of a wideband data signal with high frequency resolution. Thus, we successfully increased the QAM multiplicity to 128 at 32 Gbaud, and transmitted 448 Gbit/s data over 150 km with a potential spectral efficiency of 10.7 bit/s/Hz. This is the highest multiplicity and spectral efficiency yet achieved in a coherent QAM transmission at a baud rate of as high as 32 Gbaud. PMID:26561113

  14. Sensitive 21cm Observations of Neutral Hydrogen in the Local Group near M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Spencer A.; Lockman, Felix J.; Pisano, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Very sensitive 21 cm H i measurements have been made at several locations around the Local Group galaxy M31 using the Green Bank Telescope at an angular resolution of 9.‧1, with a 5σ detection level of NH i = 3.9 × 1017 cm-2 for a 30 km s-1 line. Most of the H i in a 12 square-degree area almost equidistant between M31 and M33 is contained in nine discrete clouds that have a typical size of a few kpc and a H i mass of 105M⊙. Their velocities in the Local Group Standard of Rest lie between -100 and +40 km s-1, comparable to the systemic velocities of M31 and M33. The clouds appear to be isolated kinematically and spatially from each other. The total H i mass of all nine clouds is 1.4 × 106M⊙ for an adopted distance of 800 kpc, with perhaps another 0.2 × 106M⊙ in smaller clouds or more diffuse emission. The H i mass of each cloud is typically three orders of magnitude less than the dynamical (virial) mass needed to bind the cloud gravitationally. Although they have the size and H i mass of dwarf galaxies, the clouds are unlikely to be part of the satellite system of the Local Group, as they lack stars. To the north of M31, sensitive H i measurements on a coarse grid find emission that may be associated with an extension of the M31 high-velocity cloud (HVC) population to projected distances of ˜100 kpc. An extension of the M31 HVC population at a similar distance to the southeast, toward M33, is not observed.

  15. The Paris meteorite, the least altered CM chondrite so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewins, Roger H.; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Zanda, Brigitte; Leroux, Hugues; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Humayun, Munir; Göpel, Christa; Greenwood, Richard C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Pont, Sylvain; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Cournède, Cécile; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Rochette, Pierre; Kuga, Maïa; Marrocchi, Yves; Marty, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The Paris chondrite provides an excellent opportunity to study CM chondrules and refractory inclusions in a more pristine state than currently possible from other CMs, and to investigate the earliest stages of aqueous alteration captured within a single CM bulk composition. It was found in the effects of a former colonial mining engineer and may have been an observed fall. The texture, mineralogy, petrography, magnetic properties and chemical and isotopic compositions are consistent with classification as a CM2 chondrite. There are ∼45 vol.% high-temperature components mainly Type I chondrules (with olivine mostly Fa0-2, mean Fa0.9) with granular textures because of low mesostasis abundances. Type II chondrules contain olivine Fa7 to Fa76. These are dominantly of Type IIA, but there are IIAB and IIB chondrules, II(A)B chondrules with minor highly ferroan olivine, and IIA(C) with augite as the only pyroxene. The refractory inclusions in Paris are amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) and fine-grained spinel-rich Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). The CAI phases formed in the sequence hibonite, perovskite, grossite, spinel, gehlenite, anorthite, diopside/fassaite and forsterite. The most refractory phases are embedded in spinel, which also occurs as massive nodules. Refractory metal nuggets are found in many CAI and refractory platinum group element abundances (PGE) decrease following the observed condensation sequences of their host phases. Mn-Cr isotope measurements of mineral separates from Paris define a regression line with a slope of 53Mn/55Mn = (5.76 ± 0.76) × 106. If we interpret Cr isotopic systematics as dating Paris components, particularly the chondrules, the age is 4566.44 ± 0.66 Myr, which is close to the age of CAI and puts new constraints on the early evolution of the solar system. Eleven individual Paris samples define an O isotope mixing line that passes through CM2 and CO3 falls and indicates that Paris is a very fresh sample, with variation explained

  16. Aberrant expression of the S1P regulating enzymes, SPHK1 and SGPL1, contributes to a migratory phenotype in OSCC mediated through S1PR2

    PubMed Central

    Patmanathan, Sathya Narayanan; Johnson, Steven P.; Lai, Sook Ling; Panja Bernam, Suthashini; Lopes, Victor; Wei, Wenbin; Ibrahim, Maha Hafez; Torta, Federico; Narayanaswamy, Pradeep; Wenk, Markus R.; Herr, Deron R.; Murray, Paul G.; Yap, Lee Fah; Paterson, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a lethal disease with a 5-year mortality rate of around 50%. Molecular targeted therapies are not in routine use and novel therapeutic targets are required. Our previous microarray data indicated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) metabolism and signalling was deregulated in OSCC. In this study, we have investigated the contribution of S1P signalling to the pathogenesis of OSCC. We show that the expression of the two major enzymes that regulate S1P levels were altered in OSCC: SPHK1 was significantly upregulated in OSCC tissues compared to normal oral mucosa and low levels of SGPL1 mRNA correlated with a worse overall survival. In in vitro studies, S1P enhanced the migration/invasion of OSCC cells and attenuated cisplatin-induced death. We also demonstrate that S1P receptor expression is deregulated in primary OSCCs and that S1PR2 is over-expressed in a subset of tumours, which in part mediates S1P-induced migration of OSCC cells. Lastly, we demonstrate that FTY720 induced significantly more apoptosis in OSCC cells compared to non-malignant cells and that FTY720 acted synergistically with cisplatin to induce cell death. Taken together, our data show that S1P signalling promotes tumour aggressiveness in OSCC and identify S1P signalling as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27160553

  17. Ligand-binding pocket shape differences between S1P1 and S1P3 determine efficiency of chemical probe identification by uHTS

    PubMed Central

    Schürer, Stephan C.; Brown, Steven J.; Cabrera, Pedro Gonzales; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Chapman, Jacqueline; Jo, Euijung; Chase, Peter; Spicer, Tim; Hodder, Peter; Rosen, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor system to better understand why certain molecular targets within a closely related family are much more tractable when identifying compelling chemical leads. Five medically important G protein-coupled receptors for S1P regulate heart rate, coronary artery caliber, endothelial barrier integrity, and lymphocyte trafficking. Selective S1P receptor agonist probes would be of great utility to study receptor subtype-specific function. Through systematic screening of the same libraries, we identified novel selective agonists chemotypes for each of the S1P1 and S1P3 receptors. uHTS for S1P1 was more effective than for S1P3, with many selective, low nanomolar hits of proven mechanism emerging for. Receptor structure modeling and ligand docking reveal differences between the receptor binding pockets, which are the basis for sub-type selectivity. Novel selective agonists interact primarily in the hydrophobic pocket of the receptor in the absence of head-group interactions. Chemistry-space and shape-based analysis of the screening libraries in combination with the binding models explain the observed differential hit rates and enhanced efficiency for lead discovery for S1P1 vs. S1P3 in this closely related receptor family. PMID:18590333

  18. [Stable and efficient expression of hepatitis B virus S antigen and preS1 epitope fusion protein (S/preS1) in CHO cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenxi; Li, Shichong; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Miao; Ye, Lingling; Wu, Yanzhuo; Xu, Mingbo; Chen, Zhaolie

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrying preS sequences could be an ideal candidate for a new hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine with higher efficacy. Here we report the success in achieving efficient and stable expression of hepatitis B virus S antigen and preS1 epitope fusion protein (S/preS1) in CHO cells. The HMRCHEF53u/Neo-S/preS1 expression vector carrying S/preS1 gene was constructed and transfected into CHO-S cells. A stable and high-expression CHO cell line, named 10G6, was selected by ELISA and limiting dilution analysis. Western blotting analysis showed S/preS1 expressed from 10G6 cells possessed both S and preS1 antigenicity. 10G6 cells displayed characters of favorable growth and stable S/preS1 expression in repeated batch cultures as evaluated by viable cell density, viability and S/preS1 concentration. And cultivation of 10G6 cells in fed-batch mode resulted in S/preS1 production at 17-20 mg/L with viable cell density at 7 x 10(6)-10 x 10(6) cells/mL. PMID:24660628

  19. Aberrant expression of the S1P regulating enzymes, SPHK1 and SGPL1, contributes to a migratory phenotype in OSCC mediated through S1PR2.

    PubMed

    Patmanathan, Sathya Narayanan; Johnson, Steven P; Lai, Sook Ling; Panja Bernam, Suthashini; Lopes, Victor; Wei, Wenbin; Ibrahim, Maha Hafez; Torta, Federico; Narayanaswamy, Pradeep; Wenk, Markus R; Herr, Deron R; Murray, Paul G; Yap, Lee Fah; Paterson, Ian C

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a lethal disease with a 5-year mortality rate of around 50%. Molecular targeted therapies are not in routine use and novel therapeutic targets are required. Our previous microarray data indicated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) metabolism and signalling was deregulated in OSCC. In this study, we have investigated the contribution of S1P signalling to the pathogenesis of OSCC. We show that the expression of the two major enzymes that regulate S1P levels were altered in OSCC: SPHK1 was significantly upregulated in OSCC tissues compared to normal oral mucosa and low levels of SGPL1 mRNA correlated with a worse overall survival. In in vitro studies, S1P enhanced the migration/invasion of OSCC cells and attenuated cisplatin-induced death. We also demonstrate that S1P receptor expression is deregulated in primary OSCCs and that S1PR2 is over-expressed in a subset of tumours, which in part mediates S1P-induced migration of OSCC cells. Lastly, we demonstrate that FTY720 induced significantly more apoptosis in OSCC cells compared to non-malignant cells and that FTY720 acted synergistically with cisplatin to induce cell death. Taken together, our data show that S1P signalling promotes tumour aggressiveness in OSCC and identify S1P signalling as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27160553

  20. Synthesis, thermal and electrical properties of Al-doped Bi4V1.8Cu0.2O10.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essalim, R.; Ammar, A.; Tanouti, B.; Mauvy, F.

    2016-08-01

    Partial substitution of copper with aluminum in Bi4V1.8Cu0.2O10.7 has led to the Bi4V1.8Cu0.2-xAlxO10.7+x/2 solid solution. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis have shown that the compounds with x=0.05 and x=0.10 are tetragonal with γ‧ form of Bi4V2O11, while the compound with x=0.15 is of β polymorph. The effect of Al3+ doping on electrical conductivity has been studied using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of doped samples along with the amount of Al3+ has been studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the temperature range 250-700 °C. The slope changes observed in the Arrhenius plots agree with the microstructural transitions occurring in these compounds. The highest ionic conductivity values are obtained for the sample with x=0.05.

  1. POLYSHIFT Communications Software for the Connection Machine System CM-200

    DOE PAGESBeta

    George, William; Brickner, Ralph G.; Johnsson, S. Lennart

    1994-01-01

    We describe the use and implementation of a polyshift function PSHIFT for circular shifts and end-offs shifts. Polyshift is useful in many scientific codes using regular grids, such as finite difference codes in several dimensions, and multigrid codes, molecular dynamics computations, and in lattice gauge physics computations, such as quantum chromodynamics (QCD) calculations. Our implementation of the PSHIFT function on the Connection Machine systems CM-2 and CM-200 offers a speedup of up to a factor of 3–4 compared with CSHIFT when the local data motion within a node is small. The PSHIFT routine is included in the Connection Machine Scientificmore » Software Library (CMSSL).« less

  2. Precision measurement of cosmic magnification from 21 cm emitting galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengjie; Pen, Ue-Li; /Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.

    2005-04-01

    We show how precision lensing measurements can be obtained through the lensing magnification effect in high redshift 21cm emission from galaxies. Normally, cosmic magnification measurements have been seriously complicated by galaxy clustering. With precise redshifts obtained from 21cm emission line wavelength, one can correlate galaxies at different source planes, or exclude close pairs to eliminate such contaminations. We provide forecasts for future surveys, specifically the SKA and CLAR. SKA can achieve percent precision on the dark matter power spectrum and the galaxy dark matter cross correlation power spectrum, while CLAR can measure an accurate cross correlation power spectrum. The neutral hydrogen fraction was most likely significantly higher at high redshifts, which improves the number of observed galaxies significantly, such that also CLAR can measure the dark matter lensing power spectrum. SKA can also allow precise measurement of lensing bispectrum.

  3. Intensity Mapping During Reionization: 21 cm and Cross-correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, James E.; HERA Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The first generation of 21 cm epoch of reionization (EoR) experiments are now reaching the sensitivities necessary for a detection of the power spectrum of plausible reionization models, and with the advent of next-generation capabilities (e.g. the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) and the Square Kilometer Array Phase I Low) will move beyond the power spectrum to imaging of the EoR intergalactic medium. Such datasets provide context to galaxy evolution studies for the earliest galaxies on scales of tens of Mpc, but at present wide, deep galaxy surveys are lacking, and attaining the depth to survey the bulk of galaxies responsible for reionization will be challenging even for JWST. Thus we seek useful cross-correlations with other more direct tracers of the galaxy population. I review near-term prospects for cross-correlation studies with 21 cm and CO and CII emission, as well as future far-infrared misions suchas CALISTO.

  4. Performance of the NASA 30 cm Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Haag, Thomas W.; Hovan, Scot A.

    1993-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster is under development at NASA to provide an ion propulsion option for missions of national interest, and is being proposed for use on the USAF/TRW Space Surveillance, Tracking and Autonomous Repositioning (SSTAR) platform to validate ion propulsion. The thruster incorporates innovations in design, materials, and fabrication techniques compared to those employed in conventional ion thrusters. Specific development efforts include thruster design optimizations, component life testing and validation, vibration testing, and performance characterizations. Under this test program, the ion thruster will be brought to engineering model development status. This paper discusses the performance and power throttling test data for the NASA 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster over an input power envelope of 0.7 to 4.9 kW, and corresponding thruster lifetime expectations.

  5. Lensing of 21-cm fluctuations by primordial gravitational waves.

    PubMed

    Book, Laura; Kamionkowski, Marc; Schmidt, Fabian

    2012-05-25

    Weak-gravitational-lensing distortions to the intensity pattern of 21-cm radiation from the dark ages can be decomposed geometrically into curl and curl-free components. Lensing by primordial gravitational waves induces a curl component, while the contribution from lensing by density fluctuations is strongly suppressed. Angular fluctuations in the 21-cm background extend to very small angular scales, and measurements at different frequencies probe different shells in redshift space. There is thus a huge trove of information with which to reconstruct the curl component of the lensing field, allowing tensor-to-scalar ratios conceivably as small as r~10(-9)-far smaller than those currently accessible-to be probed. PMID:23003237

  6. Lensing of 21-cm Fluctuations by Primordial Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Book, Laura; Kamionkowski, Marc; Schmidt, Fabian

    2012-05-01

    Weak-gravitational-lensing distortions to the intensity pattern of 21-cm radiation from the dark ages can be decomposed geometrically into curl and curl-free components. Lensing by primordial gravitational waves induces a curl component, while the contribution from lensing by density fluctuations is strongly suppressed. Angular fluctuations in the 21-cm background extend to very small angular scales, and measurements at different frequencies probe different shells in redshift space. There is thus a huge trove of information with which to reconstruct the curl component of the lensing field, allowing tensor-to-scalar ratios conceivably as small as r˜10-9—far smaller than those currently accessible—to be probed.

  7. Viscoelastic hydrodynamic interactions and anomalous CM diffusion in polymer melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Hendrik; Farago, Jean; Semenov, A. N.

    2014-03-01

    We have recently discovered that anomalous center-of-mass (CM) diffusion occurring on intermediate time scales in polymer melts can be explained by the interplay of viscoelastic and hydrodynamic interactions (VHI). The theory has been solved for unentangled melts in 3D and 2D and excellent agreement between theory and simulation is found. The physical mechanism considers that hydrodynamic interactions are time dependent because of increasing viscosity before the terminal relaxation time; it is generally active in melts of any topology. Surprisingly, the effects are relevant for both, momentum-conserving and Langevin dynamics and this presentation will focus on the differences: The commonly employed Langevin thermostat significantly changes the CM motion on short and intermediate time scales, but approaching the Rouse time, the melt behavior is close to momentum-conserving simulations. On the other hand, if momentum-conserving simulations are run in too small a simulation box, the result looks as if a Langevin thermostat was used.

  8. Development of a 60 cm Magnetic Suspension System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Hideo; Kunimasu, Tetsuya

    A 60cm Magnetic Suspension Balance System (MSBS), which has been developed in the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL), is described in detail. Magnetic field in the MSBS is evaluated analytically and is compared with measured one. Available magnet kinds for the MSBS are selected analytically. The optimum ratio of diameter to length of cylindrical magnet for the MSBS is also evaluated. A model position sensing and the control systems are described with calibration test results. A model holding system is also shown, which is necessary for worker’s safety at suspending a large and massive model. The control system is presented and the measured model position during suspension is examined. The balance accuracy is examined and its error of drag force can be improved by restricting the calibration test to an expected drag range. Flow of the 60cm low-speed wind tunnel equipped with the MSBS is examined to be available for wind tunnel tests.

  9. 21 cm cosmology in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Jonathan R; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-08-01

    Imaging the Universe during the first hundreds of millions of years remains one of the exciting challenges facing modern cosmology. Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line of atomic hydrogen offer the potential of opening a new window into this epoch. This will transform our understanding of the formation of the first stars and galaxies and of the thermal history of the Universe. A new generation of radio telescopes is being constructed for this purpose with the first results starting to trickle in. In this review, we detail the physics that governs the 21 cm signal and describe what might be learnt from upcoming observations. We also generalize our discussion to intensity mapping of other atomic and molecular lines. PMID:22828208

  10. OH 18 cm Transition as a Thermometer for Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisawa, Yuji; Inokuma, Hiroshi; Sakai, Nami; Menten, Karl M.; Maezawa, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    We have observed the four hyperfine components of the 18 cm OH transition toward the translucent cloud eastward of Heiles Cloud 2 (HCL2E), the cold dark cloud L134N, and the photodissociation region of the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud with the Effelsberg 100 m telescope. We have found intensity anomalies among the hyperfine components in all three regions. In particular, an absorption feature of the 1612 MHz satellite line against the cosmic microwave background has been detected toward HCL2E and two positions of the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud. On the basis of statistical equilibrium calculations, we find that the hyperfine anomalies originate from the non-LTE population of the hyperfine levels, and can be used to determine the kinetic temperature of the gas over a wide range of H2 densities (102-107 cm-3). Toward the center of HCL2E, the gas kinetic temperature is determined to be 53 ± 1 K, and it increases toward the cloud peripheries (˜60 K). The ortho-to-para ratio of H2 is determined to be 3.5 ± 0.9 from the averaged spectrum for the eight positions. In L134N, a similar increase of the temperature is also seen toward the periphery. In the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud, the gas kinetic temperature decreases as a function of the distance from the exciting star HD 147889. These results demonstrate a new aspect of the OH 18 cm line that can be used as a good thermometer of molecular cloud envelopes. The OH 18 cm line can be used to trace a new class of warm molecular gas surrounding a molecular cloud, which is not well traced by the emission of CO and its isotopologues.

  11. Control of a 30 cm diameter mercury bombardment thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terdan, F. F.; Bechtel, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Control logic functions were established for three automatic modes of operation of a 30-cm thruster using a power conditioner console with flight-like characteristics. The three modes provide: (1) automatic startup to reach thermal stability, (2) steady-state closed-loop control, and (3) the reliable recycling of the high voltages following an arc breakdown to reestablish normal operation. Power supply impedance characteristics necessary for stable operation and the effect of the magnetic baffle on the reliable recycling was studied.

  12. Identifying Ionized Regions in Noisy Redshifted 21 cm Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Matthew; Lidz, Adam

    2013-04-01

    One of the most promising approaches for studying reionization is to use the redshifted 21 cm line. Early generations of redshifted 21 cm surveys will not, however, have the sensitivity to make detailed maps of the reionization process, and will instead focus on statistical measurements. Here, we show that it may nonetheless be possible to directly identify ionized regions in upcoming data sets by applying suitable filters to the noisy data. The locations of prominent minima in the filtered data correspond well with the positions of ionized regions. In particular, we corrupt semi-numeric simulations of the redshifted 21 cm signal during reionization with thermal noise at the level expected for a 500 antenna tile version of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and mimic the degrading effects of foreground cleaning. Using a matched filter technique, we find that the MWA should be able to directly identify ionized regions despite the large thermal noise. In a plausible fiducial model in which ~20% of the volume of the universe is neutral at z ~ 7, we find that a 500-tile MWA may directly identify as many as ~150 ionized regions in a 6 MHz portion of its survey volume and roughly determine the size of each of these regions. This may, in turn, allow interesting multi-wavelength follow-up observations, comparing galaxy properties inside and outside of ionized regions. We discuss how the optimal configuration of radio antenna tiles for detecting ionized regions with a matched filter technique differs from the optimal design for measuring power spectra. These considerations have potentially important implications for the design of future redshifted 21 cm surveys.

  13. Power distribution for an Am/Cm bushing melter

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.; Hardy, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    Decades of nuclear material production at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has resulted in the generation of large quantities of the isotopes Am{sup 243} and Cm{sup 244}. Currently, the Am and Cm isotopes are stored as a nitric acid solution in a tank. The Am and Cm isotopes have great commercial value but must be transferred to ORNL for processing. The nitric acid solution contains other isotopes and is intensely radioactive, which makes storage a problem and precludes shipment in the liquid form. In order to stabilize the material for onsite storage and to permit transport the material from SRS to ORNL, it has been proposed that the Am and Cm be separated from other isotopes in the solution and vitrified. Vitrification will be effected by depositing a liquid feed stream containing the isotopes in solution, together with a stream of glass frit, onto the top of a molten glass pool in a melter. The glass is non-conducting and the melter is a Platinum/Rhodium alloy vessel which is heated by passing an electric current through it. Because most of the power is required to evaporate the liquid feed at the top of the glass pool, power demands differ for the upper and lower parts of the melter. In addition, the melter is batch fed so that the local power requirements vary with time. In order to design a unique split power supply, which ensures adequate local power delivery, an analysis of the melter power distribution was performed with the ABAQUS finite element code. ABAQUS was used to calculate the electric potential and current density distributions in the melter for a variety of current and potential boundary conditions. The results of the calculation were compared with test data and will be used to compute power densities for input to a computational fluid dynamics model for the melter.

  14. The 21 cm signature of cosmic string wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Danos, Rebecca J.; Hernández, Oscar F.; Holder, Gilbert P. E-mail: rjdanos@physics.mcgill.ca E-mail: holder@physics.mcgill.ca

    2010-12-01

    We discuss the signature of a cosmic string wake in 21cm redshift surveys. Since 21cm surveys probe higher redshifts than optical large-scale structure surveys, the signatures of cosmic strings are more manifest in 21cm maps than they are in optical galaxy surveys. We find that, provided the tension of the cosmic string exceeds a critical value (which depends on both the redshift when the string wake is created and the redshift of observation), a cosmic string wake will generate an emission signal with a brightness temperature which approaches a limiting value which at a redshift of z+1 = 30 is close to 400 mK in the limit of large string tension. The signal will have a specific signature in position space: the excess 21cm radiation will be confined to a wedge-shaped region whose tip corresponds to the position of the string, whose planar dimensions are set by the planar dimensions of the string wake, and whose thickness (in redshift direction) depends on the string tension. For wakes created at z{sub i}+1 = 10{sup 3}, then at a redshift of z+1 = 30 the critical value of the string tension μ is Gμ = 6 × 10{sup −7}, and it decreases linearly with redshift (for wakes created at the time of equal matter and radiation, the critical value is a factor of two lower at the same redshift). For smaller tensions, cosmic strings lead to an observable absorption signal with the same wedge geometry.

  15. Mineralogy of an unusual CM clast in the Kaidun meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Ivanov, A. V.; Yang, S. V.; Barrett, R. A.; Browning, L.

    1994-01-01

    Kaidun is breccia of disparate enstatite and carbonaceous chondrite clasts, and continues to provide real surprises. Many Daidun clasts have been intensely altered by an aqueous fluid, as evidenced by the widespread occurrence of ferromagnesian phyllosilicates and presence of carbonate- and phyllosilicate-filled veins. In this report we describe an unusual CM lithology containing beautiful aggregates of jackstraw pyrrhotites, not previously reported from any meteorite.

  16. Distinct Distribution of Purines in CM and CR Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Smith, Karen E.; Martin, Mildred G.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of organic molecules and delivered pre biotic organic compounds, including purines and pyrimidines, to the early Earth (and other planetary bodies), seeding it with the ingredients likely required for the first genetic material. We have investigated the distribution of nucleobases in six different CM and CR type carbonaceous chondrites, including fivc Antarctic meteorites never before analyzed for nucleobases. We employed a traditional formic acid extraction protocol and a recently developed solid phase extraction method to isolate nucleobases. We analyzed these extracts by high performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV -MS/MS) targeting the five canonical RNAIDNA bases and hypoxanthine and xanthine. We detected parts-per-billion levels of nucleobases in both CM and CR meteorites. The relative abundances of the purines found in Antarctic CM and CR meteorites were clearly distinct from each other suggesting that these compounds are not terrestrial contaminants. One likely source of these purines is formation by HCN oligomerization (with other small molecules) during aqueous alteration inside the meteorite parent body. The detection of the purines adenine (A), guanine (0), hypoxanthine (HX), and xanthine (X) in carbonaceous meteorites indicates that these compounds should have been available on the early Earth prior to the origin of the first genetic material.

  17. The wedge bias in reionization 21-cm power spectrum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Hannes; Majumdar, Suman; Mellema, Garrelt; Lidz, Adam; Iliev, Ilian T.; Dixon, Keri L.

    2016-02-01

    A proposed method for dealing with foreground emission in upcoming 21-cm observations from the epoch of reionization is to limit observations to an uncontaminated window in Fourier space. Foreground emission can be avoided in this way, since it is limited to a wedge-shaped region in k∥, k⊥ space. However, the power spectrum is anisotropic owing to redshift-space distortions from peculiar velocities. Consequently, the 21-cm power spectrum measured in the foreground avoidance window - which samples only a limited range of angles close to the line-of-sight direction - differs from the full redshift-space spherically averaged power spectrum which requires an average over all angles. In this paper, we calculate the magnitude of this `wedge bias' for the first time. We find that the bias amplifies the difference between the real-space and redshift-space power spectra. The bias is strongest at high redshifts, where measurements using foreground avoidance will overestimate the redshift-space power spectrum by around 100 per cent, possibly obscuring the distinctive rise and fall signature that is anticipated for the spherically averaged 21-cm power spectrum. In the later stages of reionization, the bias becomes negative, and smaller in magnitude (≲20 per cent).

  18. Genetic characterization of three qnrS1-harbouring multidrug-resistance plasmids and qnrS1-containing transposons circulating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Le, Vien; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Campbell, James I.; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Schultsz, Constance; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) refers to a family of closely related genes that confer decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMQR genes are generally associated with integrons and/or plasmids that carry additional antimicrobial resistance genes active against a range of antimicrobials. In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we have previously shown a high frequency of PMQR genes within commensal Enterobacteriaceae. However, there are limited available sequence data detailing the genetic context in which the PMQR genes reside, and a lack of understanding of how these genes spread across the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic background facilitating the spread and maintenance of qnrS1, the dominant PMQR gene circulating in HCMC. We sequenced three qnrS1-carrying plasmids in their entirety to understand the genetic context of these qnrS1-embedded plasmids and also the association of qnrS1-mediated quinolone resistance with other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Annotation of the three qnrS1-containing plasmids revealed a qnrS1-containing transposon with a closely related structure. We screened 112 qnrS1-positive commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and in a hospital in HCMC to detect the common transposon structure. We found the same transposon structure to be present in 71.4 % (45/63) of qnrS1-positive hospital isolates and in 36.7 % (18/49) of qnrS1-positive isolates from the community. The resulting sequence analysis of the qnrS1 environment suggested that qnrS1 genes are widely distributed and are mobilized on elements with a common genetic background. Our data add additional insight into mechanisms that facilitate resistance to multiple antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. PMID:26272054

  19. Complete Response Obtained with S-1 Plus CDDP Therapy in a Patient with Multiple Liver Metastases from Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nonoshita, Takashi; Otsuka, Shinya; Inagaki, Masaru; Iwagaki, Hiromi

    2015-12-01

    A 58-year-old woman with advanced gastric cancer underwent total gastrectomy in May 2012. The histological diagnosis was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, cT4a (SE), pN1, cM0; fStage IIIA. Chemotherapy by S-1 was started after surgery. Six months after the operation, two metastatic nodules were noticed on the liver. Therefore, the chemotherapy was switched to S-1 plus cisplatin (CDDP) in November 2012. TS-1 (80 mg/body) was administrated from day 1 to 21 followed by 14 days rest as one course. CDDP (70 mg/body) was infused on day 1. After 3 courses of this combination chemotherapy, remarkable diminution of the metastatic lesions on CT images was observed. Because of the adverse event of Grade 2 nausea, the patient was forced to discontinue chemotherapy. The patient underwent partial resection of the liver (Hr-0: S8, S7) at 1 year after the first operation. The resected specimens showed no sign of malignancy, although uneven fatty deposition was observed more frequently than in the surroundings, and designated as histologically complete response (CR). The patient has been alive 30 months after the second operation without any recurrent sites. Thus, combined use of peroral S-1 and CDDP should be recommended for multiple liver metastases after gastrectomy. PMID:26964156

  20. The S1P/S1PR2 axis regulates early airway T cell infiltration in murine mast cell-dependent acute allergic responses

    PubMed Central

    Oskeritzian, Carole A.; Hait, Nitai C.; Wedman, Piper; Chumanevich, Alena; Kolawole, Elizabeth M.; Price, Megan M.; Falanga, Yves T.; Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Ryan, John J.; Milstien, Sheldon; Sabbadini, Roger; Spiegel, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid produced by mast cells (MC) upon cross-linking of their high affinity receptors for IgE by antigen (Ag) that can amplify MC responses by binding to its S1P receptors. Acute MC-dependent allergic reaction can lead to systemic shock but the early events of its development in lung tissues have not been investigated, and S1P functions in the onset of allergic processes remain to be examined. Objective We used a highly specific neutralizing anti-S1P antibody (mAb) and an S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2) antagonist, JTE-013, to study S1P and S1PR2 signaling contributions to MC- and IgE-dependent airway allergic responses in mice within minutes after Ag challenge. Methods Allergic reaction was triggered by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of Ag in sensitized mice pre-treated i.p. with anti-S1P or isotype control mAb, or JTE-013 or vehicle prior to Ag challenge. Results Kinetics experiments revealed early pulmonary infiltration of mostly T cells around blood vessels of sensitized mice 20 minutes post-Ag exposure. Pre-treatment with anti-S1P mAb inhibited in vitro MC activation, as well as in vivo development of airway infiltration and MC activation, reducing serum levels of histamine, cytokines and the chemokines MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3 and RANTES/CCL5. S1PR2 antagonism or deficiency, or MC deficiency recapitulated these results. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated MC S1PR2 dependency for chemokine release and the necessity for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activation. Conclusion Activation of S1PR2 by S1P and downstream Stat3 signaling in MC regulate early T cell recruitment to antigen-challenged lungs by chemokine production. PMID:25512083

  1. Imaging and timing performance of 1 cm x 1 cm position-sensitive solid-state photomultiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokhale, P.; Schmall, J.; Stapels, C.; Christian, J.; Cherry, S. R.; Squillante, M. R.; Shah, K.

    2013-02-01

    We have designed and built a large-area 1cm × 1cm position-sensitive solid-state photomultiplier (PS-SSPM) for use in detector design for medical imaging applications. Our new large-area PS-SSPM concept implements resistive network between the micro-pixels, which are photodiodes operated in Geiger mode, called Geiger Photodiodes (GPDs), to provide continuous position sensitivity. Here we present imaging and timing performance of the large-area PS-SSPM for different temperatures and operating biases to find the optimum operating parameters for the device in imaging applications. A detector module was built by coupling a polished 8 × 8 LYSO array, with 1 × 1 × 20 mm3 elements, to a 1 × 1 cm2 PS-SSPM. Flood images recorded at room temperature show good crystal separation as all 64 elements were separated from each other. Cooling the device at 10 °C showed significant improvement. The device optimum bias voltage was ~ 4.5V over breakdown voltage. The coincidence timing resolution was improved significantly by increasing the operating bias, as well as by lowering the temperature to 0 °C. Results show excellent imaging performance and good timing response with a large-area PS-SSPM device.

  2. Multiple precursors of secondary mineralogical assemblages in CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Marrocchi, Yves; Vacher, Lionel. G.; Delon, RéMi; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    We report a petrographic and mineralogical survey of tochilinite/cronstedtite intergrowths (TCIs) in Paris, a new CM chondrite considered to be the least altered CM identified to date. Our results indicate that type-I TCIs consist of compact tochilinite/cronstedtite rims surrounding Fe-Ni metal beads, thus confirming kamacite as the precursor of type-I TCIs. In contrast, type-II TCIs are characterized by complex compositional zoning composed of three different Fe-bearing secondary minerals: from the outside inwards, tochilinite, cronstedtite, and amakinite. Type-II TCIs present well-developed faces that allow a detailed morphological analysis to be performed in order to identify the precursors. The results demonstrate that type-II TCIs formed by pseudomorphism of the anhydrous silicates, olivine, and pyroxene. Hence, there is no apparent genetic relationship between type-I and type-II TCIs. In addition, the complex chemical zoning observed within type-II TCIs suggests that the alteration conditions evolved dramatically over time. At least three stages of alteration can be proposed, characterized by alteration fluids with varying compositions (1) Fe- and S-rich fluids; (2) S-poor and Fe- and Si-rich fluids; and (3) S- and Si-poor, Fe-rich fluids. The presence of unaltered silicates in close association with euhedral type-II TCIs suggests the existence of microenvironments during the first alteration stages of CM chondrites. In addition, the absence of Mg-bearing secondary minerals in Paris TCIs suggests that the Mg content increases during the course of alteration.

  3. The foreground wedge and 21-cm BAO surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hee-Jong; Hirata, Christopher M.

    2016-03-01

    Redshifted H I 21 cm emission from unresolved low-redshift large-scale structure is a promising window for ground-based baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) observations. A major challenge for this method is separating the cosmic signal from the foregrounds of Galactic and extra-Galactic origins that are stronger by many orders of magnitude than the former. The smooth frequency spectrum expected for the foregrounds would nominally contaminate only very small k∥ modes; however, the chromatic response of the telescope antenna pattern at this wavelength to the foreground introduces non-smooth structure, pervasively contaminating the cosmic signal over the physical scales of our interest. Such contamination defines a wedged volume in Fourier space around the transverse modes that is inaccessible for the cosmic signal. In this paper, we test the effect of this contaminated wedge on the future 21-cm BAO surveys using Fisher information matrix calculation. We include the signal improvement due to the BAO reconstruction technique that has been used for galaxy surveys and test the effect of this wedge on the BAO reconstruction as a function of signal to noises and incorporate the results in the Fisher matrix calculation. We find that the wedge effect expected at z = 1-2 is very detrimental to the angular diameter distances: the errors on angular diameter distances increased by 3-4.4 times, while the errors on H(z) increased by a factor of 1.5-1.6. We conclude that calibration techniques that clean out the foreground `wedge' would be extremely valuable for constraining angular diameter distances from intensity-mapping 21-cm surveys.

  4. Embolisation of Small (< 3 cm) Brain Arteriovenous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Willinsky, R.; Goyal, M.; terBrugge, K.; Montanera, W.; Wallace*, M.G; Tymianski*, M.

    2001-01-01

    Summary The role of embolisation in the treatment of small (< 3cm) brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) has not been elucidated. We reviewed our experience using embolisation in the treatment of small AVMs and correlated a proposed grading system based on the angioarchitecture to the percentage obliteration achieved by embolisation. Eighty-one small AVMs in 80 patients were embolised from 1984 to 1999. The age range was from 3 to 72 years. The AVMs were given a score from 0 to 6 based on the angioarchitecture. The assigned scores were as follows: nidus (fistula = 0, < 1 cm = 1,1-3 cm = 2), type of feeding arteries (cortical = 0, perforator or choroidal = 1), number of feeding arteries (single = 0, multiple -2) and number of draining veins (single = 0\\ multiple - 1). Angiographic results based on percentage obliteration were grouped into three categories: complete, 66-99%, and 0-65%. The goal of embolisation was cure in 27 AVMs, pre-surgical in 23, pre-radiosurgery in 26, and elimination of an aneurysm in five. Embolisation achieved complete obliteration in 22 (27%) of the 81 AVMs. In the AVMs where the goal was cure, 19 (70%) of 27 were completely obliterated. In the AVMs with angioarchitecture scores of 0-2, 12 (86%) of 14 were cured, with scores of 3-4, 8 (34%) of 24 were cured and with scores of 5-6, 2 (4%) of 44 were cured. Embolisation resulted in transient morbidity of 5.0%, permanent morbidity of 2.5%, and mortality of 1.2%. There were no complications in AVMs with scores of 0-2. Embolisation is an effective treatment of small AVMs when the angioarchitecture is favourable (scores 0-2). This includes pure fistulas and AVMs with a single, pial, feeding artery. PMID:20663327

  5. Ureteroscopic treatment of larger renal calculi (>2 cm)

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Demetrius H.; Healy, Kelly A.; Kleinmann, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the current status of ureteroscopic lithotripsy (UL) for treating renal calculi of >2 cm, as advances in flexible ureteroscope design, accessory instrumentation and lithotrites have revolutionised the treatment of urinary calculi. While previously reserved for ureteric and small renal calculi, UL has gained an increasing role in the selective management of larger renal stone burdens. Methods We searched the available databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus, for relevant reports in English, and the article bibliographies to identify additional relevant articles. Keywords included ureteroscopy, lithotripsy, renal calculi, and calculi >2 cm. Retrieved articles were reviewed to consider the number of patients, mean stone size, success rates, indications and complications. Results In all, nine studies (417 patients) were eligible for inclusion. After one, two or three procedures the mean (range) success rates were 68.2 (23–84)%, 87.1 (79–91)% and 94.4 (90.1–96.7)%, respectively. Overall, the success rate was >90% with a mean of 1.2–2.3 procedures per patient. The overall complication rate was 10.3%, including six (1.4%) intraoperative and 37 (8.9%) postoperative complications, most of which were minor. The most common indications for UL were a failed previous treatment (46%), comorbidities (18.2%), and technical and anatomical factors (12.3%). Conclusions UL is safe and effective for treating large renal calculi. While several procedures might be required for total stone clearance, UL should be considered a standard approach in the urologist’s options treating renal calculi of >2 cm. PMID:26558040

  6. HDL-S1P: cardiovascular functions, disease-associated alterations, and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Levkau, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid contained in High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and has drawn considerable attention in the lipoprotein field as numerous studies have demonstrated its contribution to several functions inherent to HDL. Some of them are partly and some entirely due to the S1P contained in HDL (HDL-S1P). Despite the presence of over 1000 different lipids in HDL, S1P stands out as it possesses its own cell surface receptors through which it exercises key physiological functions. Most of the S1P in human plasma is associated with HDL, and the amount of HDL-S1P influences the quality and quantity of HDL-dependent functions. The main binding partner of S1P in HDL is apolipoprotein M but others may also exist particularly under conditions of acute S1P elevations. HDL not only exercise functions through their S1P content but have also an impact on genuine S1P signaling by influencing S1P bioactivity and receptor presentation. HDL-S1P content is altered in human diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Low HDL-S1P has also been linked to impaired HDL functions associated with these disorders. Although the pathophysiological and molecular reasons for such disease-associated shifts in HDL-S1P are little understood, there have been successful approaches to circumvent their adverse implications by pharmacologically increasing HDL-S1P as means to improve HDL function. This mini-review will cover the current understanding of the contribution of HDL-S1P to physiological HDL function, its alteration in disease and ways for its restoration to correct HDL dysfunction. PMID:26539121

  7. Recycle Requirements for NASA's 30 cm Xenon Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical breakdowns have been observed during ion thruster operation. These breakdowns, or arcs, can be caused by several conditions. In flight systems, the power processing unit must be designed to handle these faults autonomously. This has a strong impact on power processor requirements and must be understood fully for the power processing unit being designed for the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness program. In this study, fault conditions were investigated using a NASA 30 cm ion thruster and a power console. Power processing unit output specifications were defined based on the breakdown phenomena identified and characterized.

  8. Performance mapping of a 30 cm engineering model thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Vahrenkamp, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A 30 cm thruster representative of the engineering model design has been tested over a wide range of operating parameters to document performance characteristics such as electrical and propellant efficiencies, double ion and beam divergence thrust loss, component equilibrium temperatures, operational stability, etc. Data obtained show that optimum power throttling, in terms of maximum thruster efficiency, is not highly sensitive to parameter selection. Consequently, considerations of stability, discharge chamber erosion, thrust losses, etc. can be made the determining factors for parameter selection in power throttling operations. Options in parameter selection based on these considerations are discussed.

  9. Affordable échelle spectroscopy with a 60 cm telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribulla, T.; Garai, Z.; Hambálek, L.; Kollár, V.; Komžík, R.; Kundra, E.; Nedoroščík, J.; Sekeráš, M.; Vaňko, M

    2015-09-01

    A new fiber-fed spectrograph was installed at the 60 cm telescope of the Stará Lesná Observatory. The article presents tests of its performance (spectral resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, radial-velocity stability) and reports observations of selected variable stars and exoplanet host stars. First test observations show that the spectrograph is an ideal tool to observe bright eclipsing and spectroscopic binaries but also symbiotic and nova-like stars. The radial-velocity stability (60-80 ms-1) is sufficient to study spectroscopic binaries and to detect easily the orbital motion of hot-Jupiter extrasolar planets around bright stars.

  10. Studies of dished accelerator grids for 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Eighteen geometrically different sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five 30-cm thrusters. The geometric variation of the grids included the grid-to-grid spacing, the screen and accelerator hole diameters and thicknesses, the screen and accelerator open area fractions, ratio of dish depth to dish diameter, compensation, and aperture shape. In general, the data taken over a range of beam currents for each grid set included the minimum total accelerating voltage required to extract a given beam current and the minimum accelerator grid voltage required to prevent electron backstreaming.

  11. Performance of 30-cm ion thrusters with dished accelerator grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen sets of dished accelerator grids were treated on five different 30 cm diameter bombardment thrusters to evaluate the effects of grid geometry variations on thruster discharge chamber performance. The dished grid parameters varied were: grid-to-grid spacing, screen and accelerator grid hole diameter, screen and accelerator open area fraction, compensation for beam divergence losses, and accelerator grid thickness. The effects on discharge chamber performance of main magnetic field changes, magnetic baffle current, cathode pole piece length and cathode position were also investigated.

  12. Performance documentation of the engineering model 30-cm diameter thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Rawlin, V. K.

    1976-01-01

    The results of extensive testing of two 30-cm ion thrusters which are virtually identical to the 900 series Engineering Model Thruster in an ongoing 15,000-hour life test are presented. Performance data for the nominal fullpower (2650 W) operating point; performance sensitivities to discharge voltage, discharge losses, accelerator voltage, and magnetic baffle current; and several power throttling techniques (maximum Isp, maximum thrust/power ratio, and two cases in between are included). Criteria for throttling are specified in terms of the screen power supply envelope, thruster operating limits, and control stability. In addition, reduced requirements for successful high voltage recycles are presented.

  13. The 100 cm solar telescope primary mirror study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The manufacturing impact of primary mirror configuration on the performance of a 100 cm aperture solar telescope was studied. Three primary mirror configurations were considered: solid, standard lightweight, and mushroom. All of these are of low expansion material. Specifically, the study consisted of evaluating the mirrors with regard to: manufacturing metrology, manufacturing risk factors and ultimate quality assessment. As a result of this evaluation, a performance comparison of the configurations was made, and a recommendation of mirror configuration is the final output. These evaluations, comparisons and recommendations are discussed in detail. Other investigations were completed and are documented in the appendices.

  14. Studies of dished accelerator grids for 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Geometrically different sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five 30-cm thrusters. The geometric variation of the grids included the grid-to-grid spacing, the screen and accelerator hole diameters and thicknesses, the screen and accelerator open area fractions, ratio of dish depth to the dish diameter, compensation, and aperture shape. In general, the data taken over a range of beam currents for each grid set included the minimum total accelerating voltage required to extract a given beam current and the minimum accelerator grid voltage required to prevent electron backstreaming.

  15. Control of a 30 cm diameter mercury bombardment thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terdan, F. F.; Bechtel, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Increased thruster performance has made closed-loop automatic control more difficult than previously. Specifically, high perveance optics tend to make reliable recycling more difficult. Control logic functions were established for three automatic modes of operation of a 30-cm thruster using a power conditioner console with flight-like characteristics. The three modes provide (1) automatic startup to reach thermal stability, (2) steady-state closed-loop control, and (3) the reliable recycling of the high voltages following an arc breakdown to reestablish normal operation. Power supply impedance characteristics necessary for stable operation and the effect of the magnetic baffle on the reliable recycling was studied.

  16. Radiated and conducted EMI from a 30-cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittlesey, A. C.; Peer, W.

    1981-01-01

    In order to properly assess the interaction of a spacecraft with the EMI environment produced by an ion thruster, the EMI environment was characterized. Therefore, radiated and conducted emissions were measured from a 30-cm mercury ion thruster. The ion thruster beam current varied from zero to 2.0 amperes and the emissions were measured from 5 KHz to 200 MHz. Several different types of antennas were used to obtain the measurements. The various measurements that were made included: magnetic field due to neutralizer/beam current loop; radiated electric fields of thruster and plume; and conducted emissions on arc discharge, neutralizer keeper and magnetic baffle lines.

  17. Endurance testing of a 30-cm Kaufman thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a program to demonstrate lifetime capability of a 30-cm Kaufman ion thruster with a 6000 hour endurance test are described. Included in the program are (1) thruster fabrication, (2) design and construction of a test console containing a transistorized high frequency power processor, and control circuits which provide unattended automatic operation of the thruster, and (3) modification of a vacuum facility to incorporate a frozen mercury collector and permit unattended operation. Four tests ranging in duration from 100 to 1100 hours have been completed. These tests and the resulting thruster modifications are described. The status of the endurance test is also presented.

  18. Long lifetime hollow cathodes for 30-cm mercury ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Kerslake, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation of hollow cathodes for 30-cm Hg bombardment thrusters was carried out. Both main and neutralizer cathode configurations were tested with both rolled foil inserts coated with low work function material and impregnated porous tungsten inserts. Temperature measurements of an impregnated insert at various positions in the cathode were made. These, along with the cathode thermal profile are presented. A theory for rolled foil and impregnated insert operation and lifetime in hollow cathodes is developed. Several endurance tests, as long as 18000 hours at emission currents of up to 12 amps were attained with no degradation in performance.

  19. A multiple thruster array for 30-cm thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.; Mantenieks, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    The 3.0-m diameter chamber of the 7.6-m diameter by 21.4-m long vacuum tank at NASA LeRC was modified to permit testing of an array of up to six 30-cm thrusters with a variety of laboratory and thermal vacuum bread-board power systems. A primary objective of the Multiple Thruster Array (MTA) program is to assess the impact of multiple thruster operation on individual thruster and power processor requirements. The areas of thruster startup, steady-state operation, throttling, high voltage recycle, thrust vectoring, and shutdown are of special concern. The results of initial tests are reported.

  20. Performance capabilities of the 8-cm mercury ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary characterization of the performance capabilities of the 8-cm thruster in order to initiate an evaluation of its application to LSS propulsion requirements is presented. With minor thruster modifications, the thrust was increased by about a factor of four while the discharge voltage was reduced from 39 to 22 volts. The thruster was operated over a range of specific impulse of 1950 to 3040 seconds and a maximum total efficiency of about 54 percent was attained. Preliminary analysis of component lifetimes, as determined by temperature and spectroscopic line intensity measurements, indicated acceptable thruster lifetimes are anticipated at the high power level operation.

  1. Status of 30 cm mercury ion thruster development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.; King, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    Two engineering model 30-cm ion thrusters were assembled, calibrated, and qualification tested. This paper discusses the thruster design, performance, and power system. Test results include documentation of thrust losses due to doubly charged mercury ions and beam divergence by both direct thrust measurements and beam probes. Diagnostic vibration tests have led to improved designs of the thruster backplate structure, feed system, and harness. Thruster durability is being demonstrated over a thrust range of 97 to 113 mN at a specific impulse of about 2900 seconds. As of August 15, 1974, the thruster has successfully operated for over 4000 hours.

  2. The 8-CM ion thruster characterization. [mercury ion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessel, F. J.; Williamson, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    The performance capabilities of the 8 cm diameter mercury ion thruster were increased by modifying the thruster operating parameters and component hardware. The initial performance levels, representative of the Hughes/NASA Lewis Research Center Ion Auxiliary Propulsion Subsystem (IAPS) thruster, were raised from the baseline values of thrust, T = 5 mN, and specific impulse, I sub sp = 2,900s, to thrust, T = 25 mN and specific impulse, I sub sp = 4,300 s. Performance characteristics including estmates of the erosion rates of various component surfaces are presented.

  3. Human Being Imaging with cm-Wave UWB Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarovoy, A.; Zhuge, X.; Savelyev, T.; Matuzas, J.; Levitas, B.

    Possibilities of high-resolution human body imaging and concealed weapon detection using centimeter-wave microwave frequencies are investigated. Dependencies of the cross-range resolution of different imaging techniques on operational bandwidth, center frequency, imaging aperture size, and imaging topology have been studied. It has been demonstrated that the cross-range resolution of 2 cm can be achieved using frequencies below 10 GHz. These findings have been verified experimentally by producing high-resolution images of a foil-covered doll and some weapons.

  4. Development of an 8-cm engineering model thruster system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, B. G.; Hyman, J., Jr.; Hopper, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Electric propulsion has been shown to offer major advantages over the techniques currently employed for the control of earth satellites. For a user to realize these advantages, however, requires the availability of a proven, operationally flight-ready propulsion system. Currently an Engineering Model of an 8-cm ion thruster propulsion system is under development. The system includes the thruster unit with its associated reservoir, thruster gimbaling subsystem, and power processing unit. This paper describes the EM System with special emphasis on hardware design and system performance.

  5. Performance of 30-cm ion thrusters with dished accelerator grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five different 30-cm diameter bombardment thrustors to evaluate the effects of grid geometry variations on thrustor discharge chamber performance. The dished grid parameters varied were: grid-to-grid spacing, screen and accelerator grid hole-diameter, screen and accelerator open area fraction, compensation for beam divergence losses, and accelerator grid thickness. Also investigated were the effects on discharge chamber performance of main magnetic field changes, magnetic baffle current cathode pole piece length and cathode position.

  6. Thermoacoustic imaging of fresh prostates up to 6-cm diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patch, S. K.; Hanson, E.; Thomas, M.; Kelly, H.; Jacobsohn, K.; See, W. A.

    2013-03-01

    Thermoacoustic (TA) imaging provides a novel contrast mechanism that may enable visualization of cancerous lesions which are not robustly detected by current imaging modalities. Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most notorious example. Imaging entire prostate glands requires 6 cm depth penetration. We therefore excite TA signal using submicrosecond VHF pulses (100 MHz). We will present reconstructions of fresh prostates imaged in a well-controlled benchtop TA imaging system. Chilled glycine solution is used as acoustic couplant. The urethra is routinely visualized as signal dropout; surgical staples formed from 100-micron wide wire bent to 3 mm length generate strong positive signal.

  7. Search for B0s-->micro+micro- and B0d-->micro+micro- decays in pp collisions at square root s = 1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Acousta, D; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Arguin, J-F; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barker, G J; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Barone, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Booth, P S L; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Bourov, S; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calafiura, P; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canepa, A; Casarsa, M; Carlsmith, D; Carron, S; Carosi, R; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cerri, A; Cerri, C; Cerrito, L; Chapman, J; Chen, C; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chu, M L; Chuang, S; Chung, J Y; Chung, W-H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A G; Clark, D; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Convery, M; Conway, J; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cranshaw, J; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Currat, C; Cyr, D; Dagenhart, D; Da Ronco, S; D'Auria, S; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Agnello, S; Dell'Orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Dininno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Devlin, T; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; Doksus, P; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Donega, M; D'Onnofrio, M; Dorigo, T; Drollinger, V; Ebina, K; Eddy, N; Ely, R; Erbacher, R; Erdmann, M; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H-C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferretti, C; Field, R D; Fiori, I; Flanagan, G; Flaugher, B; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Frisch, H; Fujii, Y; Furic, I; Gajjar, A; Gallas, A; Galyardt, J; Gallinaro, M; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D W; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, D; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Gondcharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guenther, M; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartmann, F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Hayward, H; Heider, E; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Hill, C; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hoffman, K D; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M A; Huffman, B T; Huang, Y; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Ikado, K; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Issever, C; Ivanov, A; Iwata, Y; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jarrell, J; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S; Junk, T; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karagoz Unel, M; Karchin, P E; Kartal, S; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, M S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, T H; Kim, Y K; King, B T; Kirby, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Koehn, P; Kong, D J; Kondo, K; Kongisberg, J; Kordas, K; Korn, A; Korytov, A; Kotelnikov, K; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreymer, A; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuznetsova, N; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lander, R; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Lazzizzera, I; Le, Y; Lecci, C; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Liss, T M; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lukens, P; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Malferrari, L; Manca, G; Marginean, R; Martin, M; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martiínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McGivern, D; McIntyre, P M; McNamara, P; McNulty, R; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, L; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Miquel, R; Miscetti, S; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Miyazaki, Y; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Moulik, T; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, T; Mumford, R; Munar, A; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakamura, I; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Napora, R; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Niell, F; Nielsen, J; Nelson, C; Nelson, T; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Newman-Holmes, C; Nicollerat, A-S; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Oesterberg, K; Ogawa, T; Oh, S; Oh, Y D; Ohsugi, T; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Orejudos, W; Pagliarone, C; Palmonari, F; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Pauly, T; Paus, C; Pellett, D; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pitts, K T; Plager, C; Pompos, A; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Poukhov, O; Prakoshyn, F; Pratt, T; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Rademacker, J; Rakitine, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Ray, H; Reichold, A; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Rinnert, K; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rolli, S; Rosenson, L; Roser, R; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Russ, J; Ruiz, A; Ryan, D; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; St Denis, R; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Sansoni, A; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sato, K; Savard, P; Schemitz, P; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Scodellaro, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shears, T; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sefov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semeria, F; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Shapiro, M D; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Siket, M; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Somalwar, S V; Spalding, J; Spezziga, M; Spiegel, L; Spinella, F; Spiropulu, M; Squillacioti, P; Stadie, H; Stefanini, A; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Takach, S F; Takano, H; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanimoto, N; Tapprogge, S; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tesarek, R J; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tollefson, K; Tonelli, D; Tonnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Trischuk, W; Tseng, J; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Turini, N; Turner, M; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vacavant, L; Vaiciulis, A; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vejcik, S; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Vickey, T; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Volobouev, I; von der Mey, M; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Yamashita, T; Yamamoto, K; Wan, Z; Wang, M J; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Watts, T; Weber, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolter, M; Worcester, M; Worm, S; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Wyatt, A; Yagil, A; Yang, U K; Yao, W; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yoon, P; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S; Yu, Z; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhou, J; Zsenei, A; Zucchelli, S

    2004-07-16

    We report on a search for B(0)(s)-->micro(+)micro(-) and B(0)(d)-->micro(+)micro(-) decays in pp collisions at square root of s=1.96 TeV using 171 pb(-1) of data collected by the CDF II experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The decay rates of these rare processes are sensitive to contributions from physics beyond the standard model. One event survives all our selection requirements, consistent with the background expectation. We derive branching ratio limits of B(B(0)(s)-->micro(+)micro(-))<5.8x10(-7) and B(B(0)(d)-->micro(+)micro(-))<1.5x10(-7) at 90% confidence level. PMID:15323815

  8. 10.7 Gb/s electronic predistortion transmitter using commercial FPGAs and D/A converters implementing real-time DSP for chromatic dispersion and SPM compensation.

    PubMed

    Waegemans, Robert; Herbst, Stefan; Holbein, Ludwig; Watts, Philip; Bayvel, Polina; Fürst, Cornelius; Killey, Robert I

    2009-05-11

    We present an experimental demonstration of simultaneous chromatic dispersion and self-phase modulation compensation at 10.7 Gb/s using real-time electronic digital signal processing. This was achieved using a pre-distorting transmitter based on commercially available field programmable gate arrays and 21.4 GS/s, 6-bit resolution digital-to-analog converters. The digital signal processing employed look-up tables stored in RAM. This resulted in the achievement of a BER of 10(-6) at an OSNR of 16 dB after transmission over a 450 km link of uncompensated standard single mode fiber with + 4 dBm launch power. PMID:19434196

  9. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with common paymaster. 31.3121(s)-1 Section 31.3121(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(s)-1 Concurrent employment by related corporations with... this section. Section 3121(s) and this section apply only to remuneration disbursed in the form...

  10. 26 CFR 1.6050S-1 - Information reporting for qualified tuition and related expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Information reporting for qualified tuition and related expenses. 1.6050S-1 Section 1.6050S-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information Returns § 1.6050S-1 Information reporting for...

  11. Probing patchy reionization through τ-21 cm correlation statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Meerburg, P. Daniel; Spergel, David N.; Dvorkin, Cora E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu

    2013-12-20

    We consider the cross-correlation between free electrons and neutral hydrogen during the epoch of reionization (EoR). The free electrons are traced by the optical depth to reionization τ, while the neutral hydrogen can be observed through 21 cm photon emission. As expected, this correlation is sensitive to the detailed physics of reionization. Foremost, if reionization occurs through the merger of relatively large halos hosting an ionizing source, the free electrons and neutral hydrogen are anticorrelated for most of the reionization history. A positive contribution to the correlation can occur when the halos that can form an ionizing source are small. A measurement of this sign change in the cross-correlation could help disentangle the bias and the ionization history. We estimate the signal-to-noise ratio of the cross-correlation using the estimator for inhomogeneous reionization τ-hat {sub ℓm} proposed by Dvorkin and Smith. We find that with upcoming radio interferometers and cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments, the cross-correlation is measurable going up to multipoles ℓ ∼ 1000. We also derive parameter constraints and conclude that, despite the foregrounds, the cross-correlation provides a complementary measurement of the EoR parameters to the 21 cm and CMB polarization autocorrelations expected to be observed in the coming decade.

  12. Altimeter error sources at the 10-cm performance level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Error sources affecting the calibration and operational use of a 10 cm altimeter are examined to determine the magnitudes of current errors and the investigations necessary to reduce them to acceptable bounds. Errors considered include those affecting operational data pre-processing, and those affecting altitude bias determination, with error budgets developed for both. The most significant error sources affecting pre-processing are bias calibration, propagation corrections for the ionosphere, and measurement noise. No ionospheric models are currently validated at the required 10-25% accuracy level. The optimum smoothing to reduce the effects of measurement noise is investigated and found to be on the order of one second, based on the TASC model of geoid undulations. The 10 cm calibrations are found to be feasible only through the use of altimeter passes that are very high elevation for a tracking station which tracks very close to the time of altimeter track, such as a high elevation pass across the island of Bermuda. By far the largest error source, based on the current state-of-the-art, is the location of the island tracking station relative to mean sea level in the surrounding ocean areas.

  13. Development of 14 cm Period Wiggler at PLS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.E.; Park, K.H.; Lee, H.G.; Suh, H.S.; Han, H.S.; Jung, Y.G.; Chung, C.W.

    2004-05-12

    Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) is developing a 14 cm period wiggler (MPW14) for high flux material science(HFMS) beamline. The MPW14 is a hybrid type device achieving higher peak flux density. PLS MPW14 features period of 14cm, minimum gap of 14mm, 24 full field poles, maximum flux density of 2.02 Tesla, and the total magnetic structure length of 2056mm. The peak flux density is higher compared to the other wigglers of similar pole gap and period. The high peak flux density has been achieved by using advanced new magnetic materials and optimized magnetic geometry. The magnetic performance of the MPW14 is measured using a conventional hall probe scanning system and flipping coil system. The newly developed angularly resolved flipping coil measurement system is very precise and fast. Due to its angular resolving feature, all higher order multipole contents of the MPW14 could be measured. In this article, all the developments efforts for the PLS MPW14 wiggler and the efforts for the angularly resolving flipping coil measurement system are described.

  14. Presolar grains in the CM2 chondrite Sutter's Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuchao; Lin, Yangting; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Zhang, Jianchao; Hao, Jialong; Zolensky, Michael; Jenniskens, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The Sutter's Mill (SM) carbonaceous chondrite is a regolith breccia, composed predominantly of CM2 clasts with varying degrees of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. An investigation of presolar grains in four Sutter's Mill sections, SM43, SM51, SM2-4, and SM18, was carried out using NanoSIMS ion mapping technique. A total of 37 C-anomalous grains and one O-anomalous grain have been identified, indicating an abundance of 63 ppm for presolar C-anomalous grains and 2 ppm for presolar oxides. Thirty-one silicon carbide (SiC), five carbonaceous grains, and one Al-oxide (Al2O3) were confirmed based on their elemental compositions determined by C-N-Si and O-Si-Mg-Al isotopic measurements. The overall abundance of SiC grains in Sutter's Mill (55 ppm) is consistent with those in other CM chondrites. The absence of presolar silicates in Sutter's Mill suggests that they were destroyed by aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid. Furthermore, SM2-4 shows heterogeneous distributions of presolar SiC grains (12-54 ppm) in different matrix areas, indicating that the fine-grained matrix clasts come from different sources, with various thermal histories, in the solar nebula.

  15. Discovery and First Observations of the 21-cm Hydrogen Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, W. T.

    2005-08-01

    Unlike most of the great discoveries in the first decade of radio astronomy after World War II, the 21 cm hydrogen line was first predicted theoretically and then purposely sought. The story is familiar of graduate student Henk van de Hulst's prediction in occupied Holland in 1944 and the nearly simultaneous detection of the line by teams at Harvard, Leiden, and Sydney in 1951. But in this paper I will describe various aspects that are little known: (1) In van de Hulst's original paper he not only worked out possible intensities for the 21 cm line, but also for radio hydrogen recombination lines (not detected until the early 1960s), (2) in that same paper he also used Jansky's and Reber's observations of a radio background to make cosmological conclusions, (3) there was no "race" between the Dutch, Americans, and Australians to detect the line, (4) a fire that destroyed the Dutch team's equipment in March 1950 ironically did not hinder their progress, but actually speeded it up (because it led to a change of their chief engineer, bringing in the talented Lex Muller). The scientific and technical styles of the three groups will also be discussed as results of the vastly differing environments in which they operated.

  16. Power processor for a 20CM ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Schoenfeld, A. D.; Cohen, E.

    1973-01-01

    A power processor breadboard for the JPL 20CM Ion Engine was designed, fabricated, and tested to determine compliance with the electrical specification. The power processor breadboard used the silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) series resonant inverter as the basic power stage to process all the power to the ion engine. The breadboard power processor was integrated with the JPL 20CM ion engine and complete testing was performed. The integration tests were performed without any silicon-controlled rectifier failure. This demonstrated the ruggedness of the series resonant inverter in protecting the switching elements during arcing in the ion engine. A method of fault clearing the ion engine and returning back to normal operation without elaborate sequencing and timing control logic was evolved. In this method, the main vaporizer was turned off and the discharge current limit was reduced when an overload existed on the screen/accelerator supply. After the high voltage returned to normal, both the main vaporizer and the discharge were returned to normal.

  17. Electric prototype power processor for a 30cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.; Schoenfeld, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical prototype power processor unit was designed, fabricated and tested with a 30 cm mercury ion engine for primary space propulsion. The power processor unit used the thyristor series resonant inverter as the basic power stage for the high power beam and discharge supplies. A transistorized series resonant inverter processed the remaining power for the low power outputs. The power processor included a digital interface unit to process all input commands and internal telemetry signals so that electric propulsion systems could be operated with a central computer system. The electrical prototype unit included design improvement in the power components such as thyristors, transistors, filters and resonant capacitors, and power transformers and inductors in order to reduce component weight, to minimize losses, and to control the component temperature rise. A design analysis for the electrical prototype is also presented on the component weight, losses, part count and reliability estimate. The electrical prototype was tested in a thermal vacuum environment. Integration tests were performed with a 30 cm ion engine and demonstrated operational compatibility. Electromagnetic interference data was also recorded on the design to provide information for spacecraft integration.

  18. Measuring the Cosmological 21 cm Monopole with an Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presley, Morgan E.; Liu, Adrian; Parsons, Aaron R.

    2015-08-01

    A measurement of the cosmological 21 {cm} signal remains a promising but as-of-yet unattained ambition of radio astronomy. A positive detection would provide direct observations of key unexplored epochs of our cosmic history, including the cosmic dark ages and reionization. In this paper, we concentrate on measurements of the spatial monopole of the 21 {cm} brightness temperature as a function of redshift (the “global signal”). Most global experiments to date have been single-element experiments. In this paper, we show how an interferometer can be designed to be sensitive to the monopole mode of the sky, thus providing an alternate approach to accessing the global signature. We provide simple rules of thumb for designing a global signal interferometer and use numerical simulations to show that a modest array of tightly packed antenna elements with moderately sized primary beams (FWHM of ∼ 40^\\circ ) can compete with typical single-element experiments in their ability to constrain phenomenological parameters pertaining to reionization and the pre-reionization era. We also provide a general data analysis framework for extracting the global signal from interferometric measurements (with analysis of single-element experiments arising as a special case) and discuss trade-offs with various data analysis choices. Given that interferometric measurements are able to avoid a number of systematics inherent in single-element experiments, our results suggest that interferometry ought to be explored as a complementary way to probe the global signal.

  19. Characterization of an 8-cm Diameter Ion Source System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhongmin; Hawk, C. W.; Hawk, Clark W.; Buttweiler, Mark S.; Williams, John D.; Buchholtz, Brett

    2005-01-01

    Results of tests characterizing an 8-cm diameter ion source are presented. The tests were conducted in three separate vacuum test facilities at the University of Alabama-Huntsville, Colorado State University, and L3 Communications' ETI division. Standard ion optics tests describing electron backstreaming and total-voltage-limited impingement current behavior as a function of beam current were used as guidelines for selecting operating conditions where more detailed ion beam measurements were performed. The ion beam was profiled using an in-vacuum actuating probe system to determine the total ion current density and the ion charge state distribution variation across the face of the ion source. Both current density and ExB probes were utilized. The ion current density data were used to obtain integrated beam current, beam flatness parameters, and general beam profile shapes. The ExB probe data were used to determine the ratio of doubly to singly charged ion current. The ion beam profile tests were performed at over six different operating points that spanned the expected operating range of the DAWN thrusters being developed at L3. The characterization tests described herein reveal that the 8-cm ion source is suitable for use in (a) validating plasma diagnostic equipment, (b) xenon ion sputtering and etching studies of spacecraft materials, (c) plasma physics research, and (d) the study of ion thruster optics at varying conditions.

  20. The phylogeny of C/S1 bZIP transcription factors reveals a shared algal ancestry and the pre-angiosperm translational regulation of S1 transcripts.

    PubMed

    Peviani, Alessia; Lastdrager, Jeroen; Hanson, Johannes; Snel, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Basic leucine zippers (bZIPs) form a large plant transcription factor family. C and S1 bZIP groups can heterodimerize, fulfilling crucial roles in seed development and stress response. S1 sequences also harbor a unique regulatory mechanism, termed Sucrose-Induced Repression of Translation (SIRT). The conservation of both C/S1 bZIP interactions and SIRT remains poorly characterized in non-model species, leaving their evolutionary origin uncertain and limiting crop research. In this work, we explored recently published plant sequencing data to establish a detailed phylogeny of C and S1 bZIPs, investigating their intertwined role in plant evolution, and the origin of SIRT. Our analyses clarified C and S1 bZIP orthology relationships in angiosperms, and identified S1 sequences in gymnosperms. We experimentally showed that the gymnosperm orthologs are regulated by SIRT, tracing back the origin of this unique regulatory mechanism to the ancestor of seed plants. Additionally, we discovered an earlier S ortholog in the charophyte algae Klebsormidium flaccidum, together with a C ortholog. This suggests that C and S groups originated by duplication from a single algal proto-C/S ancestor. Based on our observations, we propose a model wherein the C/S1 bZIP dimer network evolved in seed plants from pre-existing C/S bZIP interactions. PMID:27457880

  1. The phylogeny of C/S1 bZIP transcription factors reveals a shared algal ancestry and the pre-angiosperm translational regulation of S1 transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Peviani, Alessia; Lastdrager, Jeroen; Hanson, Johannes; Snel, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Basic leucine zippers (bZIPs) form a large plant transcription factor family. C and S1 bZIP groups can heterodimerize, fulfilling crucial roles in seed development and stress response. S1 sequences also harbor a unique regulatory mechanism, termed Sucrose-Induced Repression of Translation (SIRT). The conservation of both C/S1 bZIP interactions and SIRT remains poorly characterized in non-model species, leaving their evolutionary origin uncertain and limiting crop research. In this work, we explored recently published plant sequencing data to establish a detailed phylogeny of C and S1 bZIPs, investigating their intertwined role in plant evolution, and the origin of SIRT. Our analyses clarified C and S1 bZIP orthology relationships in angiosperms, and identified S1 sequences in gymnosperms. We experimentally showed that the gymnosperm orthologs are regulated by SIRT, tracing back the origin of this unique regulatory mechanism to the ancestor of seed plants. Additionally, we discovered an earlier S ortholog in the charophyte algae Klebsormidium flaccidum, together with a C ortholog. This suggests that C and S groups originated by duplication from a single algal proto-C/S ancestor. Based on our observations, we propose a model wherein the C/S1 bZIP dimer network evolved in seed plants from pre-existing C/S bZIP interactions. PMID:27457880

  2. The Clinically-tested S1P Receptor Agonists, FTY720 and BAF312, Demonstrate Subtype-Specific Bradycardia (S1P1) and Hypertension (S1P3) in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Ryan M.; Muthukumarana, Akalushi; Harrison, Paul C.; Nodop Mazurek, Suzanne; Chen, Rong Rhonda; Harrington, Kyle E.; Dinallo, Roger M.; Horan, Joshua C.; Patnaude, Lori; Modis, Louise K.; Reinhart, Glenn A.

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P) and S1P receptor agonists elicit mechanism-based effects on cardiovascular function in vivo. Indeed, FTY720 (non-selective S1PX receptor agonist) produces modest hypertension in patients (2–3 mmHg in 1-yr trial) as well as acute bradycardia independent of changes in blood pressure. However, the precise receptor subtypes responsible is controversial, likely dependent upon the cardiovascular response in question (e.g. bradycardia, hypertension), and perhaps even species-dependent since functional differences in rodent, rabbit, and human have been suggested. Thus, we characterized the S1P receptor subtype specificity for each compound in vitro and, in vivo, the cardiovascular effects of FTY720 and the more selective S1P1,5 agonist, BAF312, were tested during acute i.v. infusion in anesthetized rats and after oral administration for 10 days in telemetry-instrumented conscious rats. Acute i.v. infusion of FTY720 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 mg/kg/20 min) or BAF312 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/20 min) elicited acute bradycardia in anesthetized rats demonstrating an S1P1 mediated mechanism-of-action. However, while FTY720 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/d) elicited dose-dependent hypertension after multiple days of oral administration in rat at clinically relevant plasma concentrations (24-hr mean blood pressure = 8.4, 12.8, 16.2 mmHg above baseline vs. 3 mmHg in vehicle controls), BAF312 (0.3, 3.0, 30.0 mg/kg/d) had no significant effect on blood pressure at any dose tested suggesting that hypertension produced by FTY720 is mediated S1P3 receptors. In summary, in vitro selectivity results in combination with studies performed in anesthetized and conscious rats administered two clinically tested S1P agonists, FTY720 or BAF312, suggest that S1P1 receptors mediate bradycardia while hypertension is mediated by S1P3 receptor activation. PMID:23285242

  3. The clinically-tested S1P receptor agonists, FTY720 and BAF312, demonstrate subtype-specific bradycardia (S1P₁) and hypertension (S1P₃) in rat.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Ryan M; Muthukumarana, Akalushi; Harrison, Paul C; Nodop Mazurek, Suzanne; Chen, Rong Rhonda; Harrington, Kyle E; Dinallo, Roger M; Horan, Joshua C; Patnaude, Lori; Modis, Louise K; Reinhart, Glenn A

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P) and S1P receptor agonists elicit mechanism-based effects on cardiovascular function in vivo. Indeed, FTY720 (non-selective S1P(X) receptor agonist) produces modest hypertension in patients (2-3 mmHg in 1-yr trial) as well as acute bradycardia independent of changes in blood pressure. However, the precise receptor subtypes responsible is controversial, likely dependent upon the cardiovascular response in question (e.g. bradycardia, hypertension), and perhaps even species-dependent since functional differences in rodent, rabbit, and human have been suggested. Thus, we characterized the S1P receptor subtype specificity for each compound in vitro and, in vivo, the cardiovascular effects of FTY720 and the more selective S1P₁,₅ agonist, BAF312, were tested during acute i.v. infusion in anesthetized rats and after oral administration for 10 days in telemetry-instrumented conscious rats. Acute i.v. infusion of FTY720 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 mg/kg/20 min) or BAF312 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/20 min) elicited acute bradycardia in anesthetized rats demonstrating an S1P₁ mediated mechanism-of-action. However, while FTY720 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/d) elicited dose-dependent hypertension after multiple days of oral administration in rat at clinically relevant plasma concentrations (24-hr mean blood pressure = 8.4, 12.8, 16.2 mmHg above baseline vs. 3 mmHg in vehicle controls), BAF312 (0.3, 3.0, 30.0 mg/kg/d) had no significant effect on blood pressure at any dose tested suggesting that hypertension produced by FTY720 is mediated S1P₃ receptors. In summary, in vitro selectivity results in combination with studies performed in anesthetized and conscious rats administered two clinically tested S1P agonists, FTY720 or BAF312, suggest that S1P₁ receptors mediate bradycardia while hypertension is mediated by S1P₃ receptor activation. PMID:23285242

  4. Measurement of the WW production cross section in pp collisions at square root[s]=1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J-L; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Arnoud, Y; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Beauceron, S; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Boehnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Butler, J M; Bystricky, J; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clément, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; da Motta, H; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveria Martins, C; Dean, S; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golling, T; Gómez, B; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gurzhiev, S N; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Harder, K; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Kado, M M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kau, D; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Kim, K H; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Krzywdzinski, S; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Lager, S; Lahrichi, N; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A-C; Lebrun, P; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Leonidopoulos, C; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Lubatti, H J; Lueking, L; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A-M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; Mattingly, S E K; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; Meder, D; Melanson, H L; Melnitchouk, A; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mitrevski, J; Mokhov, N; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neustroev, P; Noeding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Nurse, E; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Oshima, N; Otero y Garzón, G J; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Perea, P M; Perez, E; Peters, O; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Phaf, L; Piegaia, R; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pope, B G; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Przybycien, M B; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rani, K J; Rapidis, P A; Ratoff, P N; Reay, N W; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schukin, A A; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shephard, W D; Shpakov, D; Sidwell, R A; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smith, R P; Smolek, K; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Song, Y; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stanton, N R; Stark, J; Steele, J; Steinbrück, G; Stevenson, K; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tentindo-Repond, S; Thomas, E; Thooris, B; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torborg, J; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vlimant, J-R; Von Toerne, E; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Wahl, H D; Walker, R; Wang, L; Wang, Z-M; Warchol, J; Warsinsky, M; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wegner, M; Wermes, N; White, A; White, V; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wijngaarden, D A; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wittlin, J; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xu, Q; Xuan, N; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yen, Y; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zabi, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zdrazil, M; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhang, X; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zitoun, R; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A

    2005-04-22

    We present a measurement of the W boson pair-production cross section in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV. The data, collected with the Run II D0 detector at Fermilab, correspond to an integrated luminosity of 224-252 pb(-1) depending on the final state (ee, emu, or mumu). We observe 25 candidates with a background expectation of 8.1+/-0.6(stat)+/-0.6(syst)+/-0.5(lum) events. The probability for an upward fluctuation of the background to produce the observed signal is 2.3x10(-7), equivalent to 5.2 standard deviations. The measurement yields a cross section of 13.8(+4.3)(-3.8)(stat)+1.2-0.9(syst)+/-0.9(lum) pb, in agreement with predictions from the standard model. PMID:15904132

  5. A randomized phase II study of S-1 plus oral leucovorin versus S-1 monotherapy in patients with gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer†

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, M.; Okusaka, T.; Omuro, Y.; Isayama, H.; Fukutomi, A.; Ikeda, M.; Mizuno, N.; Fukuzawa, K.; Furukawa, M.; Iguchi, H.; Sugimori, K.; Furuse, J.; Shimada, K.; Ioka, T.; Nakamori, S.; Baba, H.; Komatsu, Y.; Takeuchi, M.; Hyodo, I.; Boku, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of adding oral leucovorin (LV) to S-1 when compared with S-1 monotherapy in patients with gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic cancer (PC). Patients and methods Gemcitabine-refractory PC patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive S-1 at 40, 50, or 60 mg according to body surface area plus LV 25 mg, both given orally twice daily for 1 week, repeated every 2 weeks (SL group), or S-1 monotherapy at the same dose as the SL group for 4 weeks, repeated every 6 weeks (S-1 group). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Results Among 142 patients enrolled, 140 were eligible for efficacy assessment (SL: n = 69 and S-1: n = 71). PFS was significantly longer in the SL group than in the S-1 group [median PFS, 3.8 versus 2.7 months; hazard ratio (HR), 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37–0.85; P = 0.003]). The disease control rate was significantly higher in the SL group than in the S-1 group (91% versus 72%; P = 0.004). Overall survival (OS) was similar in both groups (median OS, 6.3 versus 6.1 months; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.54–1.22; P = 0.463). After adjusting for patient background factors in a multivariate analysis, OS tended to be better in the SL group (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.47–1.07; P = 0.099). Both treatments were well tolerated, although gastrointestinal toxicities were slightly more severe in the SL group. Conclusion The addition of LV to S-1 significantly improved PFS in patients with gemcitabine-refractory advanced PC, and a phase III trial has been initiated in a similar setting. Clinical trials number Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center: JapicCTI-111554. PMID:26681680

  6. P-O-rich sulfide phase in CM chondrites: Constraints on its origin on the CM parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ai-Cheng; Itoh, Shoichi; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Hsu, Wei-Biao; Wang, Ru-Cheng; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2016-01-01

    CM chondrites are a group of primitive meteorites that have recorded the alteration history of the early solar system. We report the occurrence, chemistry, and oxygen isotopic compositions of P-O-rich sulfide phase in two CM chondrites (Grove Mountains [GRV] 021536 and Murchison). This P-O-rich sulfide is a polycrystalline aggregate of nanometer-size grains. It occurs as isolated particles or aggregates in both CM chondrites. These grains, in the matrix and in type-I chondrules from Murchison, were partially altered into tochilinite; however, grains enclosed by Ca-carbonate are much less altered. This P-O-rich sulfide in Murchison is closely associated with magnetite, FeNi phosphide, brezinaite (Cr3S4), and eskolaite (Cr2O3). In addition to sulfur as the major component, this sulfide contains ~6.3 wt% O, ~5.4 wt% P, and minor amounts of hydrogen. Analyses of oxygen isotopes by SIMS resulted in an average δ18O value of -22.5 ‰ and an average Δ17O value of 0.2 ± 9.2 ‰ (2σ). Limited variations in both chemical compositions and electron-diffraction patterns imply that the P-O-rich sulfide may be a single phase rather than a polyphase mixture. Several features indicate that this P-O-rich sulfide phase formed at low temperature on the parent body, most likely through the alteration of FeNi metal (a) close association with other low-temperature alteration products, (b) the presence of hydrogen, (c) high Δ17O values and the presence in altered mesostasis of type-I chondrules and absence in type-II chondrules. The textural relations of the P-O-rich sulfide and other low-temperature minerals reveal at least three episodic-alteration events on the parent body of CM chondrites (1) formation of P-O-rich sulfide during sulfur-rich aqueous alteration of P-rich FeNi metal, (2) formation of Ca-carbonate during local carbonation, and (3) alteration of P-O-rich sulfide and formation of tochilinite during a period of late-stage intensive aqueous alteration.

  7. New Measurements of H2 16O Line Intensities around 8800 CM-1 and 1300 CM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudot, C.; Regalia, L.; Le Wang; Daumont, L.; Thomas, X.; von der Heyden, P.; Decatoire, D.

    2010-06-01

    A precise knowledge of spectroscopic parameters for atmospheric molecules is necessary for the control and the modelling of the Earth's atmosphere. The water vapor take a special key as it participate to the global radiative balance of the atmosphere. Our laboratory is engaged since many years in the study of H216O vapor and its isotopologues [1, 2, 3]. An important work has been already made in the spectral region of 4000 to 6600 cm-1 [3] and it continues now in the following spectral window : 6600-9000 cm-1. We have focused on the lines around 8800 cm-1, as the latest version of HITRAN database still relies on the work of Mandin et al. performed in 1988 [4, 5]. We have recorded several spectra of water vapor with our step-by-step Fourier Transform Spectrometer built in our laboratory [6, 7]. We present here our intensity measurements compared to recent literature data [8] and HITRAN2008 database. Also we have performed a study around 1300 cm-1. The precise knowledge of water vapor for this spectral range is very useful for inversion of IASI spectra. We show some comparisons between our new intensity measurements and LISA database, HITRAN2004, and recent literature data [9]. References: [1] M. Carleer, A. Jenouvrier, A.-C. Vandaele, M.-F. Mérienne, R. Colin, N. F. Zobov, O. L. Polyansky, J. Tennyson and V. A. Savin, J. Chem Phys 111 (1999) 2444-2450. [2] M.-F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, C. Hermans, A.-C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, R. Colin, S. Fally, M. Bachc J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans. 82 (2003) 99-117. [3] A. Jenouvrier, L. Daumont, L. RÉgalia-Jarlot, Vl. G. Tyuterev, M. Carleer, A. C. Vandaele, S. Mikhailenko and S. Fally, JQSRT, 105 (2007) 326-355. [4] J.-Y. Mandin, J.-P. Chevillard, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, Can. J. Phys, 66 (1988) 997-1011. [5] J.-Y. Mandin, J.-P. Chevillard, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, J. Mol. Spectrosc, 132 (1988) 352-360. [6] J-J. Plateaux, A. Barbe and A. Delahaigue, Spectrochim. Acta, 51A (1995) 1169

  8. High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy of the S1 ← S0 Transition of Cl-NAPHTHALENES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Shunji; Yamamoto, Ryo

    2015-06-01

    High-resolution fluorescence excitation spectra of the S1 ← S0 electronic transition have been observed for 1-Cl naphthalene (1-ClN) and 2-Cl naphthalene (2-ClN). Sub-Doppler excitation spectra were measured by crossing a single-mode UV laser beam perpendicular to a collimated molecular beam. The absolute wavenumber was calibrated with accuracy 0.0002 cm-1 by measurement of the Doppler-free saturation spectrum of iodine molecule and fringe pattern of the stabilized etalon. For 2-ClN, the rotationally resolved high-resolution spectra were obtained for the 0^0_0 and 0^0_0+1042 cm-1 bands, and these molecular constants were determined in high accuracy. The obtained molecular constants of the 0^0_0 band are good agreement with the ones reported by Plusquellic et. al. For the 0^0_0+1042 cm-1 band, the local energy shifts were found. On the other hand, for 1-ClN, the rotational lines were not fully resolved because the fluorescence lifetime is shorter than the one of 2-ClN. Then we determined the molecular constants of 1-ClN from the comparison the observed spectrum with calculated one. D. F. Plusquellic, S. R. Davis, and F. Jahanmir, J. Chem. Phys., 115, 225 (2001).

  9. Measurement of the 1s2s 1S0-1s2p 3P1 intercombination interval in helium-like silicon.

    PubMed

    Redshaw, M; Myers, E G

    2002-01-14

    Using Doppler-tuned fast-beam laser spectroscopy the 1s2s 1S0-1s2p 3P1 intercombination interval in 28Si12+ has been measured to be 7230.5(2) cm(-1). The experiment made use of a single-frequency Nd:YAG (1.319 microm) laser and a high-finesse optical buildup cavity. The result provides a precision test of modern relativistic and QED atomic theory. PMID:11801009

  10. Global 21 cm signal experiments: A designer's guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Adrian; Pritchard, Jonathan R.; Tegmark, Max; Loeb, Abraham

    2013-02-01

    The global (i.e., spatially averaged) spectrum of the redshifted 21 cm line has generated much experimental interest lately, thanks to its potential to be a direct probe of the epoch of reionization and the dark ages, during which the first luminous objects formed. Since the cosmological signal in question has a purely spectral signature, most experiments that have been built, designed, or proposed have essentially no angular sensitivity. This can be problematic because with only spectral information, the expected global 21 cm signal can be difficult to distinguish from foreground contaminants such as galactic synchrotron radiation, since both are spectrally smooth and the latter is many orders of magnitude brighter. In this paper, we establish a systematic mathematical framework for global signal data analysis. The framework removes foregrounds in an optimal manner, complementing spectra with angular information. We use our formalism to explore various experimental design trade-offs, and find that (1) with spectral-only methods, it is mathematically impossible to mitigate errors that arise from uncertainties in one’s foreground model; (2) foreground contamination can be significantly reduced for experiments with fine angular resolution; (3) most of the statistical significance in a positive detection during the dark ages comes from a characteristic high-redshift trough in the 21 cm brightness temperature; (4) measurement errors decrease more rapidly with integration time for instruments with fine angular resolution; and (5) better foreground models can help reduce errors, but once a modeling accuracy of a few percent is reached, significant improvements in accuracy will be required to further improve the measurements. We show that if observations and data analysis algorithms are optimized based on these findings, an instrument with a 5° wide beam can achieve highly significant detections (greater than 5σ) of even extended (high Δz) reionization scenarios

  11. An 8-cm electron bombardment thruster for auxiliary propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Banks, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    Thruster size, beam current level, and specific impulse trade-offs are considered for mercury electron bombardment ion thrusters to be used for north-south station keeping of geosynchronous spacecraft. An 8-cm diameter thruster operating at 2750 seconds specific impulse at thrust levels of 4.4 mN (1 m1b) to 8.9 mN (2 m6b) with a design life of 20,000 hours and 10,000 cycles is being developed. The thruster will have a dished two-grid system capable of thrust vectoring of + or - 10 degrees in two orthogonal directions. A preliminary thruster has been fabricated and tested; thruster performance characteristics have been determined at 4.45, 6.68, and 8.90 millinewtons.

  12. Gravitational-wave detection using redshifted 21-cm observations

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, Somnath; Guha Sarkar, Tapomoy

    2009-06-15

    A gravitational-wave traversing the line of sight to a distant source produces a frequency shift which contributes to redshift space distortion. As a consequence, gravitational waves are imprinted as density fluctuations in redshift space. The gravitational-wave contribution to the redshift space power spectrum has a different {mu} dependence as compared to the dominant contribution from peculiar velocities. This, in principle, allows the two signals to be separated. The prospect of a detection is most favorable at the highest observable redshift z. Observations of redshifted 21-cm radiation from neutral hydrogen hold the possibility of probing very high redshifts. We consider the possibility of detecting primordial gravitational waves using the redshift space neutral hydrogen power spectrum. However, we find that the gravitational-wave signal, though present, will not be detectable on superhorizon scales because of cosmic variance and on subhorizon scales where the signal is highly suppressed.

  13. 21 cm Power Spectrum Upper Limits from PAPER-64

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraz Ali, Zaki; Parsons, Aaron; Pober, Jonathan; Team PAPER

    2016-01-01

    We present power spectrum results from the 64 antenna deployment of the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER-64). We find an upper limit of Δ2≤(22.4 mK)2 over the range 0.15cm power spectrum constraints to date. In addition, we use these results to place lower limits on the spin temperature at a redshift of 8.4. We find that the spin temperature is at least 10K for a neutral fraction between 15% and 80%. This further suggests that there was heating in the early universe through various sources such as x-ray binaries.

  14. Testing of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory 91-CM telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The 91 cm telescope of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was tested for optical figure errors in the surface of the mirrors and misalignment of the optical components. When the present set of optical components are installed in the telescope in proper alignment, the telescope produces an image with 80% of the energy in a circle of 1.50 arc seconds in diameter; that is, a 0.11 mm spot diameter in the focal plane. The primary mirror, an f/2 parabola, was tested against a flat and has a quality that puts 80% of the energy in a 0.51 arc second diameter spot. Two principal sources account for the residual error: the tertiary folding flat and the chopping secondary. It appears that the method of mounting the folding flat causes some distortion and that the secondary mirror has some residual spherical aberration in its figure.

  15. Viscoelastic hydrodynamic interactions and anomalous CM diffusion in polymer melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Hendrik

    We have recently discovered that anomalous center-of-mass (CM) diffusion occurring on intermediate time scales in polymer melts can be explained by the interplay of viscoelastic and hydrodynamic interactions (VHI). The theory has been solved for unentangled melts in 3D and 2D and excellent agreement between theory and simulation is found, also for alkanes with a force field optimized from neutron scattering. The physical mechanism considers that hydrodynamic interactions are not screened: they are time dependent because of increasing viscosity before the terminal relaxation time. The VHI are generally active in melts of any topology. They are most important at early times well before the terminal relaxation time and thus affect the nanosecond time range typically observable in dynamic neutron scattering experiments. We illustrate the effects with recent molecular dynamics simulations of linear, ring and star polymers. Work performed with A.N. Semenov and J. Farago.

  16. Direct thrust measurement of a 30-cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B.; Rawlin, V.; Weigand, A. J.; Walker, J.

    1975-01-01

    A direct thrust measurement of a 30-cm diameter ion thruster was accomplished by means of a laser interferometer thrust stand. The thruster was supported in a pendulum manner by three 3.65-m long wires. Electrical power was provided by means of 18 mercury filled pots. A movable 23-button planar probe rake was used to determine thrust loss due to ion beam divergence. Values of thrust, thrust loss due to ion beam divergence, and thrust loss due to multiple ionization were measured for ion beam currents ranging from 0.5 A to 2.5 A. Measured thrust values indicate an accuracy of approximately 1% and are in good agreement with thrust values calculated by indirect measurements.

  17. Developing an Interferometer to Measure the Global 21cm Monopole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagalski, Rachel; Patra, Nipanjana; Day, Cherie; Parsons, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    When radio interferometers observe over very small fields of view, they cannot measure the monopole mode of the sky. However, when the field of view extends to a large region of the sky, it becomes possible to use an measure the monopole with an interferometer. We are currently developing such an interferometer at UC Berkeley's Radio Astronomy Lab (RAL) with the goal of measuring the early stages of the Epoch of Reionization by probing the sky for the global 21cm signal between 50 and 100 MHz, and we have deployed a preliminary version of this experiment in Colorado. We present the current status of the interferometer, the future development plans, and some measurements taken in July of 2015. These measurements demonstrate performance of the analog signal chain of the interferometer as well as the RFI environment of the deployment site in Colorado.

  18. Cosmic (Super)String Constraints from 21 cm Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Khatri, Rishi; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2008-03-07

    We calculate the contribution of cosmic strings arising from a phase transition in the early Universe, or cosmic superstrings arising from brane inflation, to the cosmic 21 cm power spectrum at redshifts z{>=}30. Future experiments can exploit this effect to constrain the cosmic string tension G{mu} and probe virtually the entire brane inflation model space allowed by current observations. Although current experiments with a collecting area of {approx}1 km{sup 2} will not provide any useful constraints, future experiments with a collecting area of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} km{sup 2} covering the cleanest 10% of the sky can, in principle, constrain cosmic strings with tension G{mu} > or approx. 10{sup -10}-10{sup -12} (superstring/phase transition mass scale >10{sup 13} GeV)

  19. Cosmic (Super)String Constraints from 21 cm Radiation.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Rishi; Wandelt, Benjamin D

    2008-03-01

    We calculate the contribution of cosmic strings arising from a phase transition in the early Universe, or cosmic superstrings arising from brane inflation, to the cosmic 21 cm power spectrum at redshifts z > or =30. Future experiments can exploit this effect to constrain the cosmic string tension G mu and probe virtually the entire brane inflation model space allowed by current observations. Although current experiments with a collecting area of approximately 1 km2 will not provide any useful constraints, future experiments with a collecting area of 10(4)-10(6) km2 covering the cleanest 10% of the sky can, in principle, constrain cosmic strings with tension G mu > or = 10(-10)-10(-12) (superstring/phase transition mass scale >10(13) GeV). PMID:18352691

  20. Hollow cathode restartable 15 cm diameter ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of substituting high perveance dished grids for low perveance flat ones on performance variables and plasma properties within a 15 cm modified SERT II thruster are discussed. Results suggest good performance may be achieved as an ion thruster is throttled if the screen grid transparency is decreased with propellant flow rate. Thruster startup tests, which employ a pulsed high voltage tickler electrode between the keeper and the cathode to initiate the discharge, are described. High startup reliability at cathode tip temperatures of about 500 C without excessive component wear over 2000 startup cycles is demonstrated. Testing of a single cusp magnetic field concept of discharge plasma containment is discussed. A theory which explains the observed behavior of the device is presented and proposed thruster modifications and future testing plans are discussed.

  1. Forecasted 21 cm constraints on compensated isocurvature perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Christopher; Pritchard, Jonathan R.

    2009-09-15

    A 'compensated' isocurvature perturbation consists of an overdensity (or underdensity) in the cold dark matter which is completely cancelled out by a corresponding underdensity (or overdensity) in the baryons. Such a configuration may be generated by a curvaton model of inflation if the cold dark matter is created before curvaton decay and the baryon number is created by the curvaton decay (or vice versa). Compensated isocurvature perturbations, at the level producible by the curvaton model, have no observable effect on cosmic microwave background anisotropies or on galaxy surveys. They can be detected through their effect on the distribution of neutral hydrogen between redshifts 30-300 using 21 cm absorption observations. However, to obtain a good signal to noise ratio, very large observing arrays are needed. We estimate that a fast Fourier transform telescope would need a total collecting area of about 20 square kilometers to detect a curvaton generated compensated isocurvature perturbation at more than 5 sigma significance.

  2. Power processor for a 30cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.

    1974-01-01

    A thermal vacuum power processor for the NASA Lewis 30cm Mercury Ion Engine was designed, fabricated and tested to determine compliance with electrical specifications. The power processor breadboard used the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) series resonant inverter as the basic power stage to process all the power to an ion engine. The power processor includes a digital interface unit to process all input commands and internal telemetry signals so that operation is compatible with a central computer system. The breadboard was tested in a thermal vacuum environment. Integration tests were performed with the ion engine and demonstrate operational compatibility and reliable operation without any component failures. Electromagnetic interference data were also recorded on the design to provide information on the interaction with total spacecraft.

  3. Astronaut Risk Levels During Crew Module (CM) Land Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.; Littell, Justin

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) is investigating the merits of water and land landings for the crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The merits of these two options are being studied in terms of cost and risk to the astronauts, vehicle, support personnel, and general public. The objective of the present work is to determine the astronaut dynamic response index (DRI), which measures injury risks. Risks are determined for a range of vertical and horizontal landing velocities. A structural model of the crew module (CM) is developed and computational simulations are performed using a transient dynamic simulation analysis code (LS-DYNA) to determine acceleration profiles. Landing acceleration profiles are input in a human factors model that determines astronaut risk levels. Details of the modeling approach, the resulting accelerations, and astronaut risk levels are provided.

  4. An H I 21-cm line survey of evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, E.; Le Bertre, T.; Libert, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The HI line at 21 cm is a tracer of circumstellar matter around AGB stars, and especially of the matter located at large distances (0.1-1 pc) from the central stars. It can give unique information on the kinematics and on the physical conditions in the outer parts of circumstellar shells and in the regions where stellar matter is injected into the interstellar medium. However this tracer has not been much used up to now, due to the difficulty of separating the genuine circumstellar emission from the interstellar one. With the Nançay Radiotelescope we are carrying out a survey of the HI emission in a large sample of evolved stars. We report on recent progresses of this long term programme, with emphasis on S-type stars.

  5. Wilhelm Tempel and his 10.8-cm Steinheil Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Simone; Gasperini, Antonella; Galli, Daniele; Palla, Francesco; Brenni, Paolo; Giatti, Anna

    2010-03-01

    The German astronomer Ernst Wilhelm Leberecht Tempel (1821-1889) owed most of his successes to a 10.8-cm Steinheil refractor, which he bought in 1858. A lithographer, without an academic foundation, but with a strong passion for astronomy, Tempel had sharp eyesight and a talent for drawing, and he discovered with his telescope many celestial objects, including asteroids, comets (most notably, 9 P/Tempel 1) and the Merope Nebula in the Pleiades. Tempel carried his telescope with him throughout his moves in France and Italy. The telescope is now conserved in Florence, at the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, where Tempel was astronomer from 1875 until the end of his life. Using unpublished material from the Arcetri Historical Archive, as well as documents from other archives and published material, we trace the history of the telescope and its use during and after Tempel's life, and describe its recent rediscovery and status.

  6. Autumn at Titan's South Pole: The 220 cm-1 Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Achterberg, R. K.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; de Kok, R. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.

    2015-10-01

    Beginning in 2012 an atmospheric cloud known by its far-infrared emission has formed rapidly at Tit an's South Pole [1, 2]. The build-up of this condensate is a result of deepening temperatures and a gathering of gases as Winter approaches. Emission from the cloud in the south has been doubling each year since 2012, in contrast to the north where it has halved every 3.8 years since 2004. The morphology of the cloud in the south is quite different from that in the north. In the north, the cloud has extended over the whole polar region beyond 55 N, whereas in the south the cloud has been confined to within about 10 degrees of the pole. The cloud in the north has had the form of a uniform hood, whereas the southern cloud has been much more complex. A map from December 2014,recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini, showed the 220 cm-1 emission coming from a distinct ring with a maximum at about 80 S. In contrast, emissions from the gases HC3N, C4H2 and C6H6 peaked near the pole and had a ring at 70 S. The 220 cm-1 ring at 80 S coincided with the minimum in the gas emission pattern. The80 S condensate ring encompassed the vortex cloud seen by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS)[3, 4]. Both the 220 cm-1 ring and the gas "bull's-eye" pattern were centered on a point that was shifted from the geographic South Pole by 4 degrees in the direction of the Sun. This corresponds to the overall tilt of Titan's atmosphere discovered from temperature maps early in the Cassini mission by Achterberg et al. [5]. The tilt may be reinforced by the presumably twice-yearly (north and south) spin-up of the atmosphere at the autumnal pole. The bull's-eye pattern of the gas emissions can be explained by the retrieved abundance distributions, which are maximum near the pole and decrease sharply toward lower latitudes, together with temperatures that are minimum at the pole and increase toward lower latitudes

  7. Rb-Sr studies of CI and CM chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Wetherill, G. W.

    1979-01-01

    Rb-Sr whole rock analyses have been performed on 2 CI and 3 CM chondrites. Four of these stones (Ivuna, Orgueil, Cold Bokkeveld and Erakot) were previously studied in this laboratory and were shown to be discordant from a 4.6 Gyr isochron. The fifth, Murchison, was not previously studied. The new data support the discordance of the first four stones, and indicate that Murchison is also discordant. Studies of Sr isotope ratios in unspiked Orgueil show that the discordance is not due to inhomogeneities in the Sr-84/Sr-86 ratio caused by incomplete mixing of nucleosynthesis products. In order to gauge the effects of weathering, two leaching experiments were performed on fresh, interior samples of Murchison; one for a period of 1.5 hr and the other for 117 hr. The results indicate that the relative solubility of nonradiogenic Sr is approximately twice that of Rb and radiogenic Sr is more soluble than the nonradiogenic Sr.

  8. The Murchison Widefield Array 21 cm Power Spectrum Analysis Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Daniel C.; Hazelton, B. J.; Trott, C. M.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Pindor, B.; Sullivan, I. S.; Pober, J. C.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, Judd D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, HS; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Line, J.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Neben, A. R.; Thyagarajan, N.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, S.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Sethi, Shiv K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tegmark, M.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-07-01

    We present the 21 cm power spectrum analysis approach of the Murchison Widefield Array Epoch of Reionization project. In this paper, we compare the outputs of multiple pipelines for the purpose of validating statistical limits cosmological hydrogen at redshifts between 6 and 12. Multiple independent data calibration and reduction pipelines are used to make power spectrum limits on a fiducial night of data. Comparing the outputs of imaging and power spectrum stages highlights differences in calibration, foreground subtraction, and power spectrum calculation. The power spectra found using these different methods span a space defined by the various tradeoffs between speed, accuracy, and systematic control. Lessons learned from comparing the pipelines range from the algorithmic to the prosaically mundane; all demonstrate the many pitfalls of neglecting reproducibility. We briefly discuss the way these different methods attempt to handle the question of evaluating a significant detection in the presence of foregrounds.

  9. Carma 1 CM Line Survey of Orion-Kl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, Douglas; Looney, Leslie; Corby, Joanna F.; Remijan, Anthony

    2015-06-01

    We have conducted the first 1 cm (27-35 GHz) line survey of the Orion-KL region by an array. With a primary beam of ˜4.5 arcminutes, the survey looks at a region ˜166,000 AU (0.56 pc) across. The data have a resolution of ˜6 arcseconds on the sky and 97.6 kHz(1.07-0.84 km/s) in frequency. This region of frequency space is much less crowded than at 3mm or 1mm frequencies and contains the fundamental transitions of several complex molecular species, allowing us to probe the largest extent of the molecular emission. We present the initial results, and comparison to 3mm results, from several species including, dimethyl ether [(CH_3)_2O], ethyl cyanide [C_2H_5CN], acetone [(CH_3)_2CO], SO, and SO_2.

  10. HIBAYES: Global 21-cm Bayesian Monte-Carlo Model Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwart, Jonathan T. L.; Price, Daniel; Bernardi, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    HIBAYES implements fully-Bayesian extraction of the sky-averaged (global) 21-cm signal from the Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionization in the presence of foreground emission. User-defined likelihood and prior functions are called by the sampler PyMultiNest (ascl:1606.005) in order to jointly explore the full (signal plus foreground) posterior probability distribution and evaluate the Bayesian evidence for a given model. Implemented models, for simulation and fitting, include gaussians (HI signal) and polynomials (foregrounds). Some simple plotting and analysis tools are supplied. The code can be extended to other models (physical or empirical), to incorporate data from other experiments, or to use alternative Monte-Carlo sampling engines as required.

  11. Translation Optics for 30 cm Ion Engine Thrust Vector Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Data were obtained from a 30 cm xenon ion thruster in which the accelerator grid was translated in the radial plane. The thruster was operated at three different throttle power levels, and the accelerator grid was incrementally translated in the X, Y, and azimuthal directions. Plume data was obtained downstream from the thruster using a Faraday probe mounted to a positioning system. Successive probe sweeps revealed variations in the plume direction. Thruster perveance, electron backstreaming limit, accelerator current, and plume deflection angle were taken at each power level, and for each accelerator grid position. Results showed that the thruster plume could easily be deflected up to six degrees without a prohibitive increase in accelerator impingement current. Results were similar in both X and Y direction.

  12. 5 CM OH absorption toward the megamaser galaxy IC 4553

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, C.; Guesten, R.; Batrla, W.

    1986-11-01

    Absorption in the 2Π3/2 J = 5/2 main line of OH at 6035 MHz, 120K above the ground state, is reported from the OH megamaser galaxy IC 4553 (Arp 220). An upper limit is given for Mrk 231. For IC 4553, the authors derive an OH rotation temperature Trot ≡ 45K between the 2Π3/2 J = 5/2 and 3/2 ground levels, that is ≡30% below the dust temperature. Potential pumping mechanisms for the inversion of the ground state doublet are discussed and it is argued that the most likely OH excitation scenario involves pumping by FIR photons (79, 119 μm) and centimeter wave photons (5, 6 cm).

  13. Very Large Array observations of Uranus at 2. 0 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, G.L.; Muhleman, D.O.; Linfield, R.P.

    1988-07-01

    Radio observations of Uranus obtained at 2.0 cm with the B configuration of the VLA during April 1985 are reported. The calibration and data-reduction procedures are described in detail, and the results are presented in tables, maps, and graphs and compared with IRIS 44-micron observations (Hanel et al., 1986). Features discussed include highest brightness centered on the pole rather than on the subearth point, a decrease in brightness temperature (by up to 9 K) at latitudes between -20 and -50 deg (well correlated with the IRIS data), and disk-center position (corrected for the observed radio asymmetry) in good agreement with that found on the basis of the outer contours of the image. 15 references.

  14. Stratospheric measurements of continuous absorption near 2400 cm(-1).

    PubMed

    Rinsland, C P; Smith, M A; Russell Iii, J M; Park, J H; Farmer, C B

    1981-12-15

    Solar occultation spectra obtained with a balloon-borne interferometer have been used to study continuous absorption by N(2) and CO(2) near 2400 cm(-1) in the lower stratosphere. Synthetic continuum transmittances, calculated from published coefficients for far-wing absorption by CO(2) lines and for pressure-induced absorption by the fundamental band of N(2), are in fair agreement with the observed stratospheric values. The continuum close to the nu(3) R-branch band head of CO(2) is sensitive to the CO(2) far-wing line shape. Therefore, given highly accurate knowledge of the N(2) continuum from laboratory data, high-resolution stratospheric spectra provide a sensitive means for in situ testing of various air-broadened CO(2) line shapes at low temperatures. PMID:20372347

  15. S1P lyase in skeletal muscle regeneration and satellite cell activation: Exposing the hidden lyase☆

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Julie D.; de la Garza-Rodea, Anabel S.

    2013-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid whose actions are essential for many physiological processes including angiogenesis, lymphocyte trafficking and development. In addition, S1P serves asamuscle trophic factor that enables efficient muscle regeneration. This is due in part to S1P's ability to activate quiescent muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SCs) that are needed for muscle repair. However, the molecular mechanism by which S1P activates SCs has not been well understood. Further, strategies for harnessing S1P signaling to recruit SCs for therapeutic benefit have been lacking. S1P is irreversibly catabolized by S1P lyase (SPL), a highly conserved enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of S1P at carbon bond C2–3, resulting in formation of hexadecenal and ethanolamine-phosphate. SPL enhances apoptosis through substrate- and product-dependent events, thereby regulating cellular responses to chemotherapy, radiation and ischemia. SPL is undetectable in resting murine skeletal muscle. However, we recently found that SPL is dynamically upregulated in skeletal muscle after injury. SPL upregulation occurred in the context of a tightly orchestrated genetic program that resulted in a transient S1P signal in response to muscle injury. S1P activated quiescent SCs via a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1P2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent pathway, thereby facilitating skeletal muscle regeneration. Mdx mice, which serve as a model for muscular dystrophy (MD), exhibited skeletal muscle SPL upregulation and S1P deficiency. Pharmacological SPL inhibition raised skeletal muscle S1P levels, enhanced SC recruitment and improved mdx skeletal muscle regeneration. These findings reveal how S1P can activate SCs and indicate that SPL suppression may provide a therapeutic strategy for myopathies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in Lysophospholipid Research. PMID:22750505

  16. Performance tests for the NASA Ames Research Center 20 cm x 40 cm oscillating flow wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. J.; Giddings, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of initial tests conducted to assess the performance of the NASA Ames 20 cm x 40 cm oscillating flow wind tunnel. The features of the tunnel are described and two aspects of tunnel operation are discussed. The first is an assessment of the steady mainstream and boundary layer flows and the second deals with oscillating mainstream and boundary layer flows. Experimental results indicate that in steady flow the test section mainstream velocity is uniform in the flow direction and in cross section. The freestream turbulence intensity is about 0.2 percent. With minor exceptions the steady turbulent boundary layer generated on the top wall of the test section exhibits the characteristics of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer generated on a flat plate. The tunnel was designed to generate sinusoidal oscillating mainstream flows. Experiments confirm that the tunnel produces sinusoidal mainstream velocity variations for the range of frequencies (up to 15 Hz). The results of this study demonstrate that the tunnel essentially produces the flows that it was designed to produce.

  17. Performance of a novel 43-cm x 43-cm flat-panel detector with CsI:Tl scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Tatsuya; Tamura, Tomoyuki; Nokita, Makoto; Okada, Satoshi; Hayashida, Shinsuke; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2004-05-01

    We have developed a novel flat-panel detector with CsI:Tl scintillator. The detector consists of a single piece 43cm x 43cm amorphous silicon thin-film transistor (TFT) array with MIS (metal-insulator-semiconductor) photoelectric converter having a pixel pitch of 160μm coated with a needle-like crystal CsI:Tl scintillator. Signal chain was totally revised from current detector utilizing an innovative sensor technology. The novel detector and current detector were equipped to a digital radiography system allowing a quantitative and comparative study. Results show that the novel detector has a linear response covering the radiographic exposure range. It has a moderate modulation transfer function (MTF) sufficient to the radiography tasks and effective to suppress the aliasing. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) was almost twice than the current detector. The result of contrast-detail phantom exposed with a 1/2x dose level is equivalent to that of current detector with a 1x dose level. These results show that performance of novel detector is superior to and expected to reduce the patient dose in half than current detector due to higher DQE and innovative sensor technology.

  18. Pre-perihelion characterization of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Kelley, M. S.; Farnham, T. L.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Knight, M. M.; Weaver, H. A.; Mutchler, M.; Lamy, P. L.; Toth, I.

    2013-12-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) is a dynamically new comet on a sungrazing orbit. As such, C/ISON represents a unique opportunity to study both the cosmic-ray-irradiated surface, produced during the comet's long residence in the Oort cloud, and much deeper layers in the nucleus, exposed when the comet passes within 2 solar radii of the Sun at perihelion. During the first phase of our investigation, we collected broadband images of C/ISON on April 10, 2012 at a heliocentric distance of 4.15 AU, using the Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/UVIS. We used the F606W and F438W filters in three HST orbits covering a total span of ~19 hrs. The comet shows a well delineated coma in the sunward direction extending about 2" from the nucleus, and a dust tail at least 25" long. The coma has an average red color of 5%/0.1 micron within 1.6" from the nucleus, becoming redder towards the tail. Both the color and the size of the coma in the sunward direction are consistent with outflow of micron sized dust. Broadband photometry yielded Afρ of 1376 cm at 589 nm, and 1281 cm at 433 nm, measured with a 1.6" radius aperture. The total brightness of the comet within a 0.12" radius aperture remained unchanged within 0.03 mag for the entire duration of the observations. A well defined sunward jet is visible after removing the 1/ρ brightness distribution. The jet is centered at position angle 290 deg (E of Celestial N), with a cone angle of 45 deg, a projected length of 1.6", and a slight curvature towards the north near the end. No temporal change in the morphology is observed, suggesting the jet is circumpolar. Under this assumption, the jet's apparent position constrains the rotational pole to lie within 30 deg of (RA, Dec) = (330, 0), and an obliquity of 50-80 deg. Preliminary analysis using a coma-nucleus separation technique suggests a nuclear radius less than 2 km. The survival of such a small nucleus during its perihelion at 2.7 solar radii is certainly questionable.

  19. Rotational and vibrational energy transfer in vibrationally excited acetylene at energies near 6560 cm(-1).

    PubMed

    Han, Jiande; Freel, Keith; Heaven, Michael C

    2011-12-28

    Collisional energy transfer kinetics of vibrationally excited acetylene has been examined for states with internal energies near 6560 cm(-1). Total population removal rate constants were determined for selected rotational levels of the (1,0,1,0(0),0(0)) and (0,1,1,2(0),0(0)) states. Values in the range of (10-18) × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1) were obtained. Measurements of state-to-state rotational energy transfer rate constants were also carried out for these states. The rotational energy transfer kinetics was found to be consistent with simple energy gap models for the transfer probabilities. Vibrational transfer out of the (0,1,1,2(0),0(0)) state accounted for no more than 16% of the total removal process. Transfer from (1,0,1,0(0),0(0)) to the u-symmetry (0,2,0,3(1),1(-1)), (0,1,1,2(0),0(0)), and (1,1,0,1(1),1(-1)) states was observed. Applying the principle of detailed balance to these data indicated that vibrational transfer to (1,0,1,0(0),0(0)) accounted for ~0.1% of the population loss from (0,2,0,3(1),1(-1)) or (0,1,1,2(0),0(0)), and 3% of the loss from (1,1,0,1(1),1(-1)). Relative rotational transfer probabilities were obtained for transfer to the g-symmetry (1,1,0,2(0),0(0))∕(0,0,2,0(0),0(0)) dyad. These results are related to recent studies of optically pumped acetylene lasers. PMID:22225153

  20. A 5-cm dipole for the SSC-DE-1

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.

    1990-04-30

    A 5cm SSC superconducting dipole that develops 6.6 tesla at 5790 A is proposed. The two layer magnet has 12% more transfer function than the present design as a result of using thin collars and close in'' iron. The thin collars provide precise positioning of the coils; they also provide minimum prestress (perhaps 2000 psi) as aid for magnet assembly. A welded skin around the iron provides the final prestress and shapes and the coil geometry. A prestressed aluminum bar placed between the vertically split iron yokes provides precise control of the gap between yokes halves and is designed to allow gap to close tightly during cooldown so that there is no decrease of prestress. In order to reduce the effect of iron saturation on the field multipoles the iron ID has been optimized to an elliptical shape. The coil inner layer is a 30 strand cable with 1.3:1 cu/sc. The outer layer is a 36 strand cable wit 1.8:1 cu/sc. At the operating field of 6.6 tesla the current density in the copper is 666 A/mm{sup 2} and 760 A/mm{sup 2} in the inner and outer layers respectively. The magnet short sample performance is limited by the inner layer. Operating at 4.35 K the maximum current and central field are 6896 A and 7.95 tesla. The calculated operating short sample temperature at 6.6 tesla and 5798 A is 5.17 K (0.82 K temperature margin). The magnet stored energy is 100.0 (KJ/m) at the 5790 A operating current. A mechanically similar 5cm bore two layer dipole for the cable test facility (D-16B-1) has been recently built and tested. The magnet had no collars and the iron was placed directly on the coil OD. The magnet's first quench was at 7 tesla with 6000 A and it reached 7.6 tesla at 6600 A. This paper contains tables and figures associated with the design.

  1. Microbiological study of the Murchison CM2 meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2012-10-01

    In 1864, Louis Pasteur attempted to cultivate living microorganisms from pristine samples of the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorite. His results were negative and never published, but recorded it in his laboratory notebooks. At that time, only aerobic liquid or agar-based organic reach media were used, as his research on anaerobes had just started. In our laboratory the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous meteorite was selected to expand on these studies for microbiological study by cultivation on anaerobic mineral media. Since the surface could have been more easily contaminated, interior fragments of a sample of the Murchison meteorite were extracted and crushed under sterile conditions. The resulting powder was then mixed in anoxic medium and injected into Hungate tubes containing anaerobic media with various growth substrates at different pH and salinity and incubated at different temperatures. The goal of the experiments was to determine if living cells would grow from the material of freshly fractured interior fragments of the stone. If any growth occurred, work could then be carried out to assess the nature of the environmental contamination by observations of the culture growth (rates of speed and biodiversity); live/dead fluorescent staining to determine contamination level and DNA analysis to establish the microbial species present. In this paper we report the results of that study.

  2. Piezo-Operated Shutter Mechanism Moves 1.5 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Robert; Bamford, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The figure shows parts of a shutter mechanism designed to satisfy a number of requirements specific to its original intended application as a component of an atomic clock to be flown in outer space. The mechanism may also be suitable for use in laboratory and industrial vacuum systems on Earth for which there are similar requirements. The requirements include the following: a) To alternately close, then open, a 1.5-cm-diameter optical aperture twice per second, with a stroke time of no more than 15 ms, during a total operational lifetime of at least a year; b) To attenuate light by a factor of at least 1012 when in the closed position; c) To generate little or no magnetic field; d) To be capable of withstanding bakeout at a temperature of 200 C to minimize outgassing during subsequent operation in an ultrahigh vacuum; and e) To fit within a diameter of 12 in. (=305 mm) a size limit dictated by the size of an associated magnetic shield. The light-attenuation requirement is satisfied by use of overlapping shutter blades. The closure of the aperture involves, among other things, insertion of a single shutter blade between a pair of shutter blades. The requirement to minimize the magnetic field is satisfied by use of piezoelectric actuators. Because piezoelectric actuators cannot withstand bakeout, they must be mounted outside the vacuum chamber, and, hence, motion must be transmitted from the actuators to the shutter levers via a vacuum-chamber-wall diaphragm.

  3. CM and DM in an ISO R and D Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Sandra L.

    2000-01-01

    ISO 9000 - a common buzz word in industry is making inroads to government agencies. The National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) achieved ISO 9001 certification at each of its nine (9) Centers and Headquarters in 1998-1999. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) was recommended for certification in September 1999. Since then, each of the Centers has been going through the semi-annual surveillance audits. Growing out of the manufacturing industry, successful application of the international quality standard to a research and development (R&D) environment has had its challenges. This paper will address how GRC applied Configuration Management (CM) and Data (or Document) Management (DM) to meet challenges to achieve ISO certification. One of the first challenges was to fit the ISO 9001-1994 elements to the GRC environment. Some of the elements fit well-Management Responsibility (4.1), Internal Audits (4.17), Document and Data Control (4.5). Other elements were not suited or applied easily to the R&D environment-Servicing (4.19), Statistical Techniques (4.20). Since GRC "builds" only one or two items at a time, these elements were considered not applicable to the environment.

  4. The 15 cm mercury ion thruster research 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Doubly charged ion current measurements in the beam of a SERT II thruster are shown to introduce corrections which bring its calculated thrust into close agreement with that measured during flight testing. A theoretical model of doubly charged ion production and loss in mercury electron bombardment thrusters is discussed and is shown to yield doubly-to-singly charged ion density ratios that agree with experimental measurements obtained on a 15 cm diameter thruster over a range of operating conditions. Single cusp magnetic field thruster operation is discussed and measured ion beam profiles, performance data, doubly charged ion densities, and discharge plasma characteristics are presented for a range of operating conditions and thruster geometries. Variations in the characteristics of this thruster are compared to those observed in the divergent field thruster and the cusped field thruster is shown to yield flatter ion beam profiles at about the same discharge power and propellant utilization operating point. An ion optics test program is described and the measured effects of grid system dimensions on ion beamlet half angle and diameter are examined. The effectiveness of hollow cathode startup using a thermionically emitting filament within the cathode is examined over a range of mercury flow rates and compared to results obtained with a high voltage tickler startup technique. Results of cathode plasma property measurement tests conducted within the cathode are presented.

  5. Performance and Vibration of 30 cm Pyrolytic Ion Thruster Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas; Soulas, George C.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon has a sputter erosion rate about an order of magnitude less than that of molybdenum, over the voltages typically used in ion thruster applications. To explore its design potential, 30 cm pyrolytic carbon ion thruster optics have been fabricated geometrically similar to the molybdenum ion optics used on NSTAR. They were then installed on an NSTAR Engineering Model thruster, and experimentally evaluated over much of the original operating envelope. Ion beam currents ranged from 0.51 to 1.76 Angstroms, at total voltages up to 1280 V. The perveance, electron back-streaming limit, and screen-grid transparency were plotted for these operating points, and compared with previous data obtained with molybdenum. While thruster performance with pyrolytic carbon was quite similar to that with molybdenum, behavior variations can reasonably be explained by slight geometric differences. Following all performance measurements, the pyrolytic carbon ion optics assembly was subjected to an abbreviated vibration test. The thruster endured 9.2 g(sub rms) of random vibration along the thrust axis, similar to DS 1 acceptance levels. Despite significant grid clashing, there was no observable damage to the ion optics assembly.

  6. Ion thruster system (8-cm) cyclic endurance test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulgeroff, C. R.; Beattie, J. R.; Poeschel, R. L.; Hyman, J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the qualification test of an Engineering-Model 5-mN-thrust 8-cm-diameter mercury ion thruster which is representative of the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) thrusters. Two of these thrusters are scheduled for future flight test. The cyclic endurance test described herein was a ground-based test performed in a vacuum facility with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled cryo-surface and a frozen mercury target. The Power Electronics Unit, Beam Shield, Gimal, and Propellant Tank that were used with the thruster in the endurance test are also similar to those of the IAPS. The IAPS thruster that will undergo the longest beam-on-time during the actual space test will be subjected to 7,055 hours of beam-on-time and 2,557 cycles during the flight test. The endurance test was successfully concluded when the mercury in the IAPS Propellant Tank was consumed. At that time, 8,471 hours of beam-on-time and 599 cycles had been accumulated. Subsequent post-test-evaluation operations were performed (without breaking vacuum) which extended the test values to 652 cycles and 9,489 hours of beam-on-time. The Power Electronic Unit (PEU) and thruster were in the same vacuum chamber throughout the test. The PEU accumulated 10,268 hr of test time with high voltage applied to the operating thruster or dummy load.

  7. Parallel Preconditioning for CFD Problems on the CM-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Horst D.; Kremenetsky, Mark D.; Richardson, John; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Up to today, preconditioning methods on massively parallel systems have faced a major difficulty. The most successful preconditioning methods in terms of accelerating the convergence of the iterative solver such as incomplete LU factorizations are notoriously difficult to implement on parallel machines for two reasons: (1) the actual computation of the preconditioner is not very floating-point intensive, but requires a large amount of unstructured communication, and (2) the application of the preconditioning matrix in the iteration phase (i.e. triangular solves) are difficult to parallelize because of the recursive nature of the computation. Here we present a new approach to preconditioning for very large, sparse, unsymmetric, linear systems, which avoids both difficulties. We explicitly compute an approximate inverse to our original matrix. This new preconditioning matrix can be applied most efficiently for iterative methods on massively parallel machines, since the preconditioning phase involves only a matrix-vector multiplication, with possibly a dense matrix. Furthermore the actual computation of the preconditioning matrix has natural parallelism. For a problem of size n, the preconditioning matrix can be computed by solving n independent small least squares problems. The algorithm and its implementation on the Connection Machine CM-5 are discussed in detail and supported by extensive timings obtained from real problem data.

  8. Enhanced Detectability of Pre-reionization 21 cm Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Pen, Ue-Li; Chang, Tzu-Ching

    2010-11-01

    Before the universe was reionized, it was likely that the spin temperature of intergalactic hydrogen was decoupled from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) by UV radiation from the first stars through the Wouthuysen-Field effect. If the intergalactic medium (IGM) had not yet been heated above the CMB temperature by that time, then the gas would appear in absorption relative to the CMB. Large, rare sources of X-rays could inject sufficient heat into the neutral IGM, so that δTb >0 at comoving distances of tens to hundreds of Mpc, resulting in large 21 cm fluctuations with δTb ~= 250 mK on arcminute to degree angular scales, an order of magnitude larger in amplitude than that caused by ionized bubbles during reionization, δTb ~= 25 mK. This signal could therefore be easier to detect and probe higher redshifts than that due to patchy reionization. For the case in which the first objects to heat the IGM are QSOs hosting 107 M sun black holes with an abundance exceeding ~1 Gpc-3 at z ~ 15, observations with either the Arecibo Observatory or the Five Hundred Meter Aperture Spherical Telescope could detect and image their fluctuations at greater than 5σ significance in about a month of dedicated survey time. Additionally, existing facilities such as MWA and LOFAR could detect the statistical fluctuations arising from a population of 105 M sun black holes with an abundance of ~104 Gpc-3 at z ~= 10-12.

  9. Estimating 13.8-GHz path-integrated attenuation from 10.7-GHz brightness temperatures for the TRMM combined PR-TMI precipitation algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.A.; Farrar, M.R.; Xiang, X.; Turk, F.J.; Mugnai, A.

    1997-04-01

    This study presents research in support of the design and implementation of a combined radar-radiometer algorithm to be used for precipitation retrieval during the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The combined algorithm approach is expected to overcome various difficulties that arise with a radar-only approach, particularly related to estimates of path-integrated attenuation (PIA)along the TRMM radar beam. A technique is described for estimating PIA at the 13.8-GHz frequency of the TRMM precipitation radar (PR) from 10.7-GHz brightness temperature T{sub B} measurements obtained from the TRMM microwave imager. Through the use of variational or probabilistic techniques, the independent PIA calculations provide a means to adjust for errors that accumulate in estimates of range-dependent rain rates at progressively increasing range positions from radar reflectivity vectors. The accepted radar approach for obtaining PIA from ocean-viewing radar reflectivity measurements is called the surface reference technique, a scheme based on the difference in ocean surface cross sections between cloud-free and raining radar pixels. This technique has encountered problems, which are discussed and analyzed with the aid of coordinated aircraft radar (Airborne Rain Mapping Radar) and radiometer (Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer) measurements obtained during the west Pacific Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment in 1993. 97 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Two-mode multiplexing at 2 × 10.7 Gbps over a 7-cell hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Peucheret, Christophe; Lyngsø, Jens Kristian; Leick, Lasse

    2012-05-21

    Current technologies are fast approaching the capacity limit of single mode fibers (SMFs). Hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers (HC-PBGFs) are expected to provide attractive long-term solutions in terms of ultra-low fiber nonlinearities associated with the possibility of mode scaling, thus enabling mode division multiplexing (MDM). In this work, we demonstrate MDM over a HC-PBGF for the first time. Two 10.7 Gbps channels are simultaneously transmitted over two modes of a 30-m long 7-cell HC-PBGF. Bit error ratio (BER) performances below the FEC threshold limit (3.3 × 10(-3)) are shown for both data channels when the two modes are transmitted simultaneously. No power penalty and up to 3 dB power penalty at a BER of 10(-9) are measured for single mode transmission using the fundamental and the LP(11) mode, respectively. The performance of this exploratory demonstration is expected to improve significantly if advanced mode launching and detection methods are used. PMID:22714232

  11. Synthesis of new ligands for targeting the S1P1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Schilson, Stefanie S; Keul, Petra; Shaikh, Rizwan S; Schäfers, Michael; Levkau, Bodo; Haufe, Günter

    2015-03-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) influences various fundamental biological processes by interacting with a family of five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-5). FTY720, a sphingosine analogue, which was approved for treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, is phosphorylated in vivo and acts as an agonist of four of the five S1P receptor subtypes. Starting from these lead structures we developed new agonists for the S1P1 receptor. The biological activity was tested in vivo and promising ligands were fluorinated at different positions to identify candidates for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging after [(18)F]-labelling. The radioligands shall enable the imaging of S1P1 receptor expression in vivo and thus may serve as novel imaging markers of S1P-related diseases. PMID:25656338

  12. S1PR1-mediated IFNAR1 degradation modulates plasmacytoid dendritic cell interferon-α autoamplification

    PubMed Central

    Teijaro, John R.; Studer, Sean; Leaf, Nora; Kiosses, William B.; Nguyen, Nhan; Matsuki, Kosuke; Negishi, Hideo; Taniguchi, Tadatsugu; Oldstone, Michael B. A.; Rosen, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Blunting immunopathology without abolishing host defense is the foundation for safe and effective modulation of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) agonists are effective in treating infectious and multiple autoimmune pathologies; however, mechanisms underlying their clinical efficacy are yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we uncover an unexpected mechanism of convergence between S1PR1 and interferon alpha receptor 1 (IFNAR1) signaling pathways. Activation of S1PR1 signaling by pharmacological tools or endogenous ligand sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) inhibits type 1 IFN responses that exacerbate numerous pathogenic conditions. Mechanistically, S1PR1 selectively suppresses the type I IFN autoamplification loop in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a specialized DC subset, for robust type I IFN release. S1PR1 agonist suppression is pertussis toxin-resistant, but inhibited by an S1PR1 C-terminal–derived transactivating transcriptional activator (Tat)-fusion peptide that blocks receptor internalization. S1PR1 agonist treatment accelerates turnover of IFNAR1, suppresses signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation, and down-modulates total STAT1 levels, thereby inactivating the autoamplification loop. Inhibition of S1P-S1PR1 signaling in vivo using the selective antagonist Ex26 significantly elevates IFN-α production in response to CpG-A. Thus, multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that S1PR1 signaling sets the sensitivity of pDC amplification of IFN responses, thereby blunting pathogenic immune responses. These data illustrate a lipid G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-IFNAR1 regulatory loop that balances effective and detrimental immune responses and elevated endogenous S1PR1 signaling. This mechanism will likely be advantageous in individuals subject to a range of inflammatory conditions. PMID:26787880

  13. STS-112 S1 Truss is transported to the payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- An overhead crane lifts the S1 Integrated Truss Structure from its workstand. The S1 will be placed in the payload canister for transport it to Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during mission STS-112. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  14. 21 cm Synthesis Observations of VIRGOHI 21-A Possible Dark Galaxy in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchin, Robert; Davies, Jonathan; Disney, Michael; Grossi, Marco; Sabatini, Sabina; Boyce, Peter; Garcia, Diego; Impey, Chris; Jordan, Christine; Lang, Robert; Marble, Andrew; Roberts, Sarah; van Driel, Wim

    2007-12-01

    Many observations indicate that dark matter dominates the extragalactic universe, yet no totally dark structure of galactic proportions has ever been convincingly identified. Previously, we have suggested that VIRGOHI 21, a 21 cm source we found in the Virgo Cluster using Jodrell Bank, was a possible dark galaxy because of its broad line width (~200 km s-1) unaccompanied by any visible gravitational source to account for it. We have now imaged VIRGOHI 21 in the neutral hydrogen line and find what could be a dark, edge-on, spinning disk with the mass and diameter of a typical spiral galaxy. Moreover, VIRGOHI 21 has unquestionably been involved in an interaction with NGC 4254, a luminous spiral with an odd one-armed morphology, but lacking the massive interactor normally linked with such a feature. Numerical models of NGC 4254 call for a close interaction ~108 yr ago with a perturber of ~1011 Msolar. This we take as additional evidence for the massive nature of VIRGOHI 21, as there does not appear to be any other viable candidate. We have also used the Hubble Space Telescope to search for stars associated with the H I and find none down to an I-band surface brightness limit of 31.1+/-0.2 mag arcsec-2.

  15. a Dark Galaxy in the Virgo Cluster Imaged at 21-CM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchin, R.; Disney, M. J.; Davies, J. I.; Marble, A. R.; Impey, C. D.; Boyce, P. J.; Garcia, D. A.; Grossi, M.; Jordan, C. A.; Lang, R. H.; Roberts, S.; Sabatini, S.; van Driel, W.

    Dark Matter supposedly dominates the extragalactic Universe (Peebles 1993; Peacock 1998; Moore et al. 1999; D'Onghi & Lake 2004), yet no dark structure of galactic proportions has ever been convincingly identified. Earlier (Minchin et al. 2005) we suggested that VIRGOHI 21, a 21-cm source we found in the Virgo Cluster at Jodrell Bank using single-dish observations (Davies et al. 2004), was probably such a dark galaxy because of its broad line-width (~200 km s-1) unaccompanied by any visible gravitational source to account for it. We have now imaged VIRGOHI 21 in the neutral-hydrogen line, and have found what appears to be a dark, edge-on, spinning disc with the mass and diameter of a typical spiral galaxy. Moreover the disc has unquestionably interacted with NGC 4254, a luminous spiral with an odd one-armed morphology, but lacking the massive interactor normally linked with such a feature. Published numerical models (Vollmer et al. 2005) of NGC 4254 call for a close interaction ~108 years ago with a perturber of ~1011 solar masses. This we take as further, independent evidence for the massive nature of VIRGOHI 21.

  16. Formation of asteroids from mm-cm sized grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, D.; Johansen, A.; Davies, M. B.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Asteroids and comets are intricately connected to life in the universe. Asteroids are the building blocks of terrestrial planets; water-rich asteroids and comets are likely to be the primary source of water for Earth's oceans and other volatiles (Morbidelli et al. 2000; Hartogh et al. 2011); and they may play role in mass extinctions. Yet, the formation of these objects is poorly understood. There is mounting evidence that the traditional picture of the formation of asteroids must be revised. The size distribution of asteroids is hard to reconcile with a traditional bottomup formation scenario. Instead, asteroids may form top-down, with large 100 - 1000 km sized objects forming first by the gravitational collapse of dense clumps of small particles. Experiments and simulations suggest that dust grains cannot grow to sizes larger than mm-cm in protoplanetary disks (Zsom et al. 2010). Also, primitive meteorites from the asteroid belt contain a large mass fraction in chondrules of sizes from 0.1 mm to a few mm. Hence, it is desirable to find a model for asteroid formation from mm-sized particles. Aims. In this work, we model the dynamics of mm-cm sized grains in dust-enriched inner regions of protoplanetary disks. We model the dust-gas interaction to determine whether dust grains of this size can form dense, self-gravitating clouds that can collapse to form asteroids. Methods. We perform shearing box simulations of the inner disk using the Pencil Code (Brandenburg & Dobler 2002). The simulations start with a Solar-type solids-to-gas ratio of 0.01 and we gradually increase the particle concentration. In a real protoplanetary disk, solid particles are expected to migrate from the outer regions and concentrate in the inner disk. Results. Our simulations show that mm-sized particles can form very dense clumps, driven by a run-away convergence in the radial-drift flow of these particles - this dynamic is known as the streaming instability (Youdin & Goodman 2005

  17. A 1.3 cm line survey toward Orion KL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y.; Henkel, C.; Thorwirth, S.; Spezzano, S.; Menten, K. M.; Walmsley, C. M.; Wyrowski, F.; Mao, R. Q.; Klein, B.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The nearby Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula is one of the most prolific sources of molecular line emission. It has served as a benchmark for spectral line searches throughout the (sub)millimeter regime. Aims: The main goal is to systematically study the spectral characteristics of Orion KL in the λ ~ 1.3 cm band. Methods: We carried out a spectral line survey with the Effelsberg-100 m telescope toward Orion KL. It covers the frequency range between 17.9 GHz and 26.2 GHz, i.e., the radio "K band". We also examined ALMA maps to address the spatial origin of molecules detected by our 1.3 cm line survey. Results: In Orion KL, we find 261 spectral lines, yielding an average line density of about 32 spectral features per GHz above 3σ (a typical value of 3σ is 15 mJy). The identified lines include 164 radio recombination lines (RRLs) and 97 molecular lines. The RRLs, from hydrogen, helium, and carbon, stem from the ionized material of the Orion Nebula, part of which is covered by our beam. The molecular lines are assigned to 13 different molecular species including rare isotopologues. A total of 23 molecular transitions from species known to exist in Orion KL are detected for the first time in the interstellar medium. Non-metastable (J>K) 15NH3 transitions are detected in Orion KL for the first time. Based on the velocity information of detected lines and the ALMA images, the spatial origins of molecular emission are constrained and discussed. A narrow feature is found in SO2 (81,7 - 72,6), but not in other SO2 transitions, possibly suggesting the presence of a maser line. Column densities and fractional abundances relative to H2 are estimated for 12 molecules with local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) methods. Rotational diagrams of non-metastable 14NH3 transitions with J = K + 1 to J = K + 4 yield different results; metastable (J = K) 15NH3 is found to have a higher excitation temperature than non-metastable 15NH3, also indicating that they may trace different

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Acinetobacter parvus CM11, Acinetobacter radioresistens CM38, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia BR12, Isolated from Murine Proximal Colonic Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Saffarian, Azadeh; Mulet, Céline; Naito, Tomoaki; Bouchier, Christiane; Tichit, Magali; Ma, Laurence; Grompone, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report three genome sequences of bacteria isolated from murine proximal colonic tissue and identified as Acinetobacter parvus CM11, Acinetobacter radioresistens CM38, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia BR12. PMID:26472823

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Acinetobacter parvus CM11, Acinetobacter radioresistens CM38, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia BR12, Isolated from Murine Proximal Colonic Tissue.

    PubMed

    Saffarian, Azadeh; Mulet, Céline; Naito, Tomoaki; Bouchier, Christiane; Tichit, Magali; Ma, Laurence; Grompone, Gianfranco; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Pédron, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report three genome sequences of bacteria isolated from murine proximal colonic tissue and identified as Acinetobacter parvus CM11, Acinetobacter radioresistens CM38, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia BR12. PMID:26472823

  20. Blocking peptides against HBV: PreS1 protein selected from a phage display library

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Zu, Xiangyang; Jin, Rui; Xiao, Gengfu

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Successfully selected specific PreS1-interacting peptides by using phage displayed library. {yields} Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a consensus PreS1 binding motif. {yields} A highly enriched peptide named P7 had a strong binding ability for PreS1. {yields} P7 could block PreS1 attachment. -- Abstract: The PreS1 protein is present on the outermost part of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface and has been shown to have a pivotal function in viral infectivity and assembly. The development of reagents with high affinity and specificity for PreS1 is of great significance for early diagnosis and treatment of HBV infection. A phage display library of dodecapeptide was screened for interactions with purified PreS1 protein. Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a putative consensus PreS1 binding motif of HX{sub n}HX{sub m}HP/R. Moreover, a peptide named P7 (KHMHWHPPALNT) was highly enriched and occurred with a surprisingly high frequency of 72%. A thermodynamic study revealed that P7 has a higher binding affinity to PreS1 than the other peptides. Furthermore, P7 was able to abrogate the binding of HBV virions to the PreS1 antibody, suggesting that P7 covers key functional sites on the native PreS1 protein. This newly isolated peptide may, therefore, be a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of HBV. The consensus motif could be modified to deliver imaging, diagnostic, and therapeutic agents to tissues affected by HBV.

  1. What Are Space Exposure Histories Telling Us about CM Carbonaceous Chondrites?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takenouchi, A.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M.; Velbel, M. A.; Ross, K.; Zolensky, P.; Le, L.; Imae, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.

    2013-01-01

    Chondrites are chemically primitive and carbonaceous (C) chondrites are potentially the most primitive among them because they mostly escaped thermal metamor-phism that affected the other chondrite groups and ratios of their major, non-volatile and most of the volatile elements are similar to those of the Sun. Therefore, C chondrites are ex-pected to retain a good record of the origin and early history of the solar system. Carbonaceous chondrites are chemically differentiated from other chondrites by their high Mg/Si ratios and refractory elements, and have experienced various degrees of aqueous alteration. They are subdivided into eight subgroups (CI, CM, CO, CV, CK, CR, CB and CH) based on major element and oxygen isotopic ratios. Their elemental ratios spread over a wide range though those of ordinary and enstatite chondrites are relatively uniform. It is critical to know how many sepa-rate bodies are represented by the C chondrites. In this study, CM chondrites, the most abundant carbona-ceous chondrites, are examined. They are water-rich, chon-drule- and CAI-bearing meteorites and most of them are brec-cias. High-temperature components such as chondrules, iso-lated olivine and CAIs in CMs are frequently altered and some of them are replaced by clay minerals and surrounded by sul-fides whose Fe was derived from mafic silicates. On the basis of degrees of aqueous alteration, CMs have been classified into subtypes from 1 to 2, although Rubin et al. [1] assigned subtype 1 to subtype 2 and subtype 2 to subtype 2.6 using various petrologic properties. The classification is based on petrographic and mineralogic properties. For example, though tochilinite (2[(Fe, Mg, Cu, Ni[])S] 1.57-1.85 [(Mg, Fe, Ni, Al, Ca)(HH)2]) clumps are produced during aqueous alteration, they disappear and sulfide appears with increasing degrees of aqueous alteration. Cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age measurements of CM chondrites reveal an unusual feature. Though CRE ages of other chondrite

  2. ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM mapping of the AAST Emergency General Surgery disease severity grading systems: Conceptual approach, limitations, and recommendations for the future.

    PubMed

    Utter, Garth H; Miller, Preston R; Mowery, Nathan T; Tominaga, Gail T; Gunter, Oliver; Osler, Turner M; Ciesla, David J; Agarwal, Suresh K; Inaba, Kenji; Aboutanos, Michel B; Brown, Carlos V R; Ross, Steven E; Crandall, Marie L; Shafi, Shahid

    2015-05-01

    The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) recently established a grading system for uniform reporting of anatomic severity of several emergency general surgery (EGS) diseases. There are five grades of severity for each disease, ranging from I (lowest severity) to V (highest severity). However, the grading process requires manual chart review. We sought to evaluate whether International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revisions, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM, ICD-10-CM) codes might allow estimation of AAST grades for EGS diseases. The Patient Assessment and Outcomes Committee of the AAST reviewed all available ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes relevant to 16 EGS diseases with available AAST grades. We then matched grades for each EGS disease with one or more ICD codes. We used the Official Coding Guidelines for ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM and the American Hospital Association's "Coding Clinic for ICD-9-CM" for coding guidance. The ICD codes did not allow for matching all five AAST grades of severity for each of the 16 diseases. With ICD-9-CM, six diseases mapped into four categories of severity (instead of five), another six diseases into three categories of severity, and four diseases into only two categories of severity. With ICD-10-CM, five diseases mapped into four categories of severity, seven diseases into three categories, and four diseases into two categories. Two diseases mapped into discontinuous categories of grades (two in ICD-9-CM and one in ICD-10-CM). Although resolution is limited, ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes might have some utility in roughly approximating the severity of the AAST grades in the absence of more precise information. These ICD mappings should be validated and refined before widespread use to characterize EGS disease severity. In the long-term, it may be desirable to develop alternatives to ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM codes for routine collection of disease severity characteristics. PMID:25909431

  3. Effect of ADP on binding of skeletal S1 to F-actin.

    PubMed

    Andreev, O A; Ushakov, D S; Borejdo, J

    1998-12-22

    The proximity of skeletal myosin subfragment-1 (S1) to actin, and its orientation with respect to thin filaments of single muscle fibers, were compared in the presence and in the absence of ADP. The proximity was assessed by the efficiency of carbodiimide-induced cross-linking and the orientation by polarization of fluorescence of probes attached to the essential light chains. ADP made no difference in proximity or orientation when the molar ratio of S1 to actin was low or high. However, at the intermediate ratios, ADP made a significant difference. Strong dissociating agents, AMP-PNP and PPi, made significant differences at all ratios. To explain this behavior, it is unnecessary to invoke the ADP-induced "swinging" of the tail of S1. Rather, it is simply explained by the "two-state" model which we proposed earlier, in which S1 binds to one or to two actin protomers, depending on the saturation of the filaments with S1s. The dissociation induced by the ADP shifts the equilibrium between the two bound states. At high and low degrees of saturation, ADP is unable to significantly decrease the amount of S1 bound to F-actin. However, at intermediate saturation levels, ADP causes significantly more S1s to bind to two actins. These results suggest that the ADP-induced changes seen at the intermediate molar ratios are due to the dissociation-induced reorientation of S1. PMID:9922150

  4. Calcium alone does not fully activate the thin filament for S1 binding to rigor myofibrils.

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, D R; Moss, R L; Greaser, M L

    1996-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contraction is regulated by calcium via troponin and tropomyosin and appears to involve cooperative activation of cross-bridge binding to actin. We studied the regulation of fluorescent myosin subfragment 1 (fS1) binding to rigor myofibrils over a wide range of fS1 and calcium levels using highly sensitive imaging techniques. At low calcium and low fS1, the fluorescence was restricted to the actin-myosin overlap region. At high calcium and very low fS1, the fluorescence was still predominantly in the overlap region. The ratio of nonoverlap to overlap fluorescence intensity showed that increases in the fS1 level resulted in a shift in maximum fluorescence from the overlap to the nonoverlap region at both low and high calcium; this transition occurred at lower fS1 levels in myofibrils with high calcium. At a fixed fS1 level, increases in calcium also resulted in a shift in maximum fluorescence from the overlap region to the nonoverlap region. These results suggest that calcium alone does not fully activate the thin filament for rigor S1 binding and that, even at high calcium, the thin filament is not activated along its entire length. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 11 PMID:8889164

  5. Enhanced Raman scattering from cesium suboxides on silver particles and the structure of S-1 photocathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, C. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An explanation is given for the results of recent enhanced Raman scattering studies of photomultiplier tubes with S-1 photocathode surfaces which indicated the presence of Cs11O3 but not Cs2O. The reason for the discrepancy between the currently accepted model of the S-1 and this recent result is discussed.

  6. VIEW OF THE FROM SIDE OF WHARF S1 FROM WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE FROM SIDE OF WHARF S1 FROM WEST END OF QUARRY LOCK, FACING NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Submarine Base, Berthing Wharf S1, South Waterfront Road along north side of Quarry Loch, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. STS-112 S1 Truss is transported to the payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- An overhead crane moves the S1 Integrated Truss Structure toward the payload canister, which will transport it to Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during mission STS-112. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  8. STS-112 S1 Truss is transported to the payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The S1 Integrated Truss Structure is lowered into the payload canister for transport to Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during mission STS-112. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  9. STS-112 S1 Truss is transported to the payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- An overhead crane moves the S1 Integrated Truss Structure toward the payload canister below, which will transport it to Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during mission STS-112. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  10. Estimates of epistatic and pleiotropic effects of casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genetic markers on beef heifer performance traits enhanced by selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. A stable composite population (MARC II) was subjected to marker assisted selection for two years to equalize CSN1S1 and TG genetic marker frequencies to evaluate the epista...

  11. Ribosomal protein S1 induces a conformational change of tmRNA; more than one protein S1 per molecule of tmRNA.

    PubMed

    Bordeau, Valérie; Felden, Brice

    2002-08-01

    tmRNA (10Sa RNA, ssrA) acts to rescue stalled bacterial ribosomes while encoding a peptide tag added trans-translationally to the nascent peptide, targeting it for proteolysis. Ribosomal protein S1 is required for tmRNA binding to isolated and poly U-programmed ribosomes. Mobility assays on native gels indicate that the binding curves of both recombinant and purified proteins S1 from E. coli is biphasic with apparent binding constants of approximately 90 and approximately 300 nM, respectively, suggesting that more than one protein interacts with tmRNA. Structural probing of native tmRNA in the presence and absence of the purified protein suggest that when S1 binds, tmRNA undergoes a significant conformational change. In the presence of the protein, nucleotides from tmRNA with enhanced (H2, H3, PK1, PK2, PK4, in and around the first triplet to be translated), or decreased (H5 and PK2), reactivity towards a probe specific for RNA single-strands are scattered throughout the molecule, with the exception of the tRNA-like domain that may be dispensable for the interaction. Converging experimental evidence suggests that ribosomal protein S1 binds to pseudoknot PK2. Previous structural studies of tmRNA in solution have revealed several discrepancies between the probing data and the phylogeny, and most of these are reconciled when analyzing tmRNA structure in complex with the protein(s). Ribosomal protein(s) S1 is proposed to set tmRNA in the mRNA mode, relieving strains that may develop when translating a looped mRNA. PMID:12457560

  12. 77 FR 48985 - Notice of Meeting of the ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Notice of Meeting of the ICD-9-CM Coordination... Health Data Standards Staff announces the following meeting: Name: ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance.... Purpose: The ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M) Committee is a public forum for the...

  13. Molecular insights into replication initiation by Qβ replicase using ribosomal protein S1

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Daijiro; Yamashita, Seisuke; Tomita, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S1, consisting of six contiguous OB-folds, is the largest ribosomal protein and is essential for translation initiation in Escherichia coli. S1 is also one of the three essential host-derived subunits of Qβ replicase, together with EF-Tu and EF-Ts, for Qβ RNA replication in E. coli. We analyzed the crystal structure of Qβ replicase, consisting of the virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (β-subunit), EF-Tu, EF-Ts and the N-terminal half of S1, which is capable of initiating Qβ RNA replication. Structural and biochemical studies revealed that the two N-terminal OB-folds of S1 anchor S1 onto the β-subunit, and the third OB-fold is mobile and protrudes beyond the surface of the β-subunit. The third OB-fold mainly interacts with a specific RNA fragment derived from the internal region of Qβ RNA, and its RNA-binding ability is required for replication initiation of Qβ RNA. Thus, the third mobile OB-fold of S1, which is spatially anchored near the surface of the β-subunit, primarily recruits the Qβ RNA toward the β-subunit, leading to the specific and efficient replication initiation of Qβ RNA, and S1 functions as a replication initiation factor, beyond its established function in protein synthesis. PMID:25122749

  14. One-stage surgery through posterior approach-for L5-S1 spondyloptosis

    PubMed Central

    Suslu, Hikmet Turan; Celikoglu, Erhan; Borekcı, Ali; Hıcdonmez, Tufan; Suslu, Hüsnü

    2011-01-01

    Grade 5 spondylolisthesis or spondyloptosis is a rare condition. Generally, the surgical management of spondyloptosis includes multi-staged procedures instead of one-staged procedures. One-stage treatment for spondyloptosis is very rare. A 15-year-old girl with L5-S1 spondyloptosis was admitted with severe low back pain. There was no history of trauma. The patient underwent L5 laminectomy, L5-S1 discectomy, resection of sacral dome, reduction, L3-L4-L5-S1 pedicular screw fixation, and interbody-posterolateral fusion through the posterior approach. The reduction was maintained with bilateral L5-S1 discectomy, resection of the sacral dome, and transpedicular instrumentation from L3 to S1. In this particular case, one-staged approach was adequate for the treatment of L5-S1 spondyloptosis. One-staged surgery using the posterior approach may be adequate for the treatment of L5-S1 spondyloptosis while avoiding the risks inherent in anterior approaches. PMID:23125496

  15. [Combination therapy with S-1 and CDDP for head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masato

    2006-06-01

    The combination with cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-FU is considered the first choice chemotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). S-1, a modulation of tegafur developed in Japan, is an active agent for HNSCC. Some clinical phase I/II studies about the combination with CDDP and S-1 have been reported. The combination showed a good response rate of 67.6% for advanced and recurrent HNSCC in our clinical phase I/II study. The regimens of S-1 combined with carboplatin or nedaplatin have also been reported. Regimens containing S-1 appear to have been effective for HNSCC. Multi-institutional phase II studies with a large sample size are needed in the future. The compliance for patients is better than a 5-FU injection because S-1 is orally administrated. The adverse effect, especially for bone mallow toxicity, is equal or upgraded compared with a 5-FU injection. The efficacy and adverse effects of CDDP plus S-1 should be studied in carefully designed phase II/III trials. S-1 will be one of the key drugs for HNSCC in the future. PMID:16897992

  16. The vascular S1P gradient—Cellular sources and biological significance

    PubMed Central

    Hla, Timothy; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Michaud, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a product of sphingomyelin metabolism, is enriched in the circulatory system whereas it is estimated to be much lower in interstitial fluids of tissues. This concentration gradient, termed the vascular S1P gradient appears to form as a result of substrate availability and the action of metabolic enzymes. S1P levels in blood and lymph are estimated to be in the μM range. In the immune system, the S1P gradient is needed as a spatial cue for lymphocyte and hematopoietic cell trafficking. During inflammatory reactions in which enhanced vascular permeability occurs, a burst of S1P becomes available to its receptors in the extravascular compartment, which likely contributes to the tissue reactions. Thus, the presence of the vascular S1P gradient is thought to contribute to physiological and pathological conditions. From an evolutionary perspective, S1P receptors may have co-evolved with the advent of a closed vascular system and the trafficking paradigms for hematopoietic cells to navigate in and out of the vascular system. PMID:18674637

  17. Autosomal-Recessive Hearing Impairment Due to Rare Missense Variants within S1PR2.

    PubMed

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Faridi, Rabia; Rehman, Atteeq U; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Ansar, Muhammad; Wang, Xin; Morell, Robert J; Isaacson, Rivka; Belyantseva, Inna A; Dai, Hang; Acharya, Anushree; Qaiser, Tanveer A; Muhammad, Dost; Ali, Rana Amjad; Shams, Sulaiman; Hassan, Muhammad Jawad; Shahzad, Shaheen; Raza, Syed Irfan; Bashir, Zil-E-Huma; Smith, Joshua D; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Ahmad, Wasim; Friedman, Thomas B; Leal, Suzanne M

    2016-02-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) are a well-studied class of transmembrane G protein-coupled sphingolipid receptors that mediate multiple cellular processes. However, S1PRs have not been previously reported to be involved in the genetic etiology of human traits. S1PR2 lies within the autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI) locus DFNB68 on 19p13.2. From exome sequence data we identified two pathogenic S1PR2 variants, c.323G>C (p.Arg108Pro) and c.419A>G (p.Tyr140Cys). Each of these variants co-segregates with congenital profound hearing impairment in consanguineous Pakistani families with maximum LOD scores of 6.4 for family DEM4154 and 3.3 for family PKDF1400. Neither S1PR2 missense variant was reported among ∼120,000 chromosomes in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database, in 76 unrelated Pakistani exomes, or in 720 Pakistani control chromosomes. Both DNA variants affect highly conserved residues of S1PR2 and are predicted to be damaging by multiple bioinformatics tools. Molecular modeling predicts that these variants affect binding of sphingosine-1-phosphate (p.Arg108Pro) and G protein docking (p.Tyr140Cys). In the previously reported S1pr2(-/-) mice, stria vascularis abnormalities, organ of Corti degeneration, and profound hearing loss were observed. Additionally, hair cell defects were seen in both knockout mice and morphant zebrafish. Family PKDF1400 presents with ARNSHI, which is consistent with the lack of gross malformations in S1pr2(-/-) mice, whereas family DEM4154 has lower limb malformations in addition to hearing loss. Our findings suggest the possibility of developing therapies against hair cell damage (e.g., from ototoxic drugs) through targeted stimulation of S1PR2. PMID:26805784

  18. Autosomal-Recessive Hearing Impairment Due to Rare Missense Variants within S1PR2

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P.; Faridi, Rabia; Rehman, Atteeq U.; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Ansar, Muhammad; Wang, Xin; Morell, Robert J.; Isaacson, Rivka; Belyantseva, Inna A.; Dai, Hang; Acharya, Anushree; Qaiser, Tanveer A.; Muhammad, Dost; Ali, Rana Amjad; Shams, Sulaiman; Hassan, Muhammad Jawad; Shahzad, Shaheen; Raza, Syed Irfan; Bashir, Zil-e-Huma; Smith, Joshua D.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Ahmad, Wasim; Friedman, Thomas B.; Leal, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) are a well-studied class of transmembrane G protein-coupled sphingolipid receptors that mediate multiple cellular processes. However, S1PRs have not been previously reported to be involved in the genetic etiology of human traits. S1PR2 lies within the autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI) locus DFNB68 on 19p13.2. From exome sequence data we identified two pathogenic S1PR2 variants, c.323G>C (p.Arg108Pro) and c.419A>G (p.Tyr140Cys). Each of these variants co-segregates with congenital profound hearing impairment in consanguineous Pakistani families with maximum LOD scores of 6.4 for family DEM4154 and 3.3 for family PKDF1400. Neither S1PR2 missense variant was reported among ∼120,000 chromosomes in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database, in 76 unrelated Pakistani exomes, or in 720 Pakistani control chromosomes. Both DNA variants affect highly conserved residues of S1PR2 and are predicted to be damaging by multiple bioinformatics tools. Molecular modeling predicts that these variants affect binding of sphingosine-1-phosphate (p.Arg108Pro) and G protein docking (p.Tyr140Cys). In the previously reported S1pr2−/− mice, stria vascularis abnormalities, organ of Corti degeneration, and profound hearing loss were observed. Additionally, hair cell defects were seen in both knockout mice and morphant zebrafish. Family PKDF1400 presents with ARNSHI, which is consistent with the lack of gross malformations in S1pr2−/− mice, whereas family DEM4154 has lower limb malformations in addition to hearing loss. Our findings suggest the possibility of developing therapies against hair cell damage (e.g., from ototoxic drugs) through targeted stimulation of S1PR2. PMID:26805784

  19. Decorin in human oral cancer: A promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Ishige, Shunsaku; Kasama, Hiroki; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DCN is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. • DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. • DCN predicts the clinical responses to S-1 NAC for patients with oral cancer. - Abstract: We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and

  20. Determination of the 243,246,248Cm thermal neutron induced fission cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serot, O.; Wagemans, C.; Vermote, S.; Heyse, J.; Soldner, T.; Geltenbort, P.

    2005-11-01

    The minor actinide waste produced in nuclear power plants contains various Cm-isotopes, and transmutation scenarios require improved fission cross section data. The available thermal neutron induced fission cross section data for 243Cm, 246Cm and 248Cm are not very accurate, so new cross section measurements have been performed at the high flux reactor of the ILL in Grenoble (France) under better experimental conditions (highly enriched samples, very intense and clean neutron beam). The measurements were performed at a neutron energy of 5.38 meV, yielding fission cross section values of (1240±28)b for 243Cm, (25±47)mb for 246Cm and (685±84)mb for 248Cm. From these results, thermal fission cross section values of (572±14)b; (12±25)mb and (316±43)mb have been deduced for 243Cm, 246Cm and 248Cm, respectively.

  1. S = 1 Excitations in Heat Capacity of the Haldane Compound TMNIN Doped with a Nonmagnetic Impurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawae, Tatsuya; Ito, Masakazu; Mito, Masaki; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

    1999-03-01

    We have studied the field dependence of the heat capacity of a typicalHaldane antiferromagnet (CH3)4NNi(NO)3 (TMNIN) doped with thenonmagnetic impurity Zn2+, as well as of a pure TMNIN. The overallfeatures of the magnetic heat capacity, including the characteristic broadmaximum, are almost reproduced by the theoretical curve with J/k B =-12 K for both systems in zero field. The field dependence in the impuresystems is described well by assuming the Schottky heat capacity with S =1, not S = 1/2 expected from the VBS model. A possible reason why the S= 1 model is suitable is discussed.

  2. Impact-Induced Chondrule Deformation and Aqueous Alteration of CM2 Murchison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, R. D.; Zolensky, M.; Ketcham, R. A.; Behr, W. M.; Martinez, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Deformed chondrules in CM2 Murchison have been found to define a prominent foliation [1,2] and lineation [3] in 3D using X-ray computed tomography (XCT). It has been hypothesized that chondrules in foliated chondrites deform by "squeezing" into surrounding pore space [4,5], a process that also likely removes primary porosity [6]. However, shock stage classification based on olivine extinction in Murchison is consistently low (S1-S2) [4-5,7] implying that significant intracrystalline plastic deformation of olivine has not occurred. One objective of our study is therefore to determine the microstructural mechanisms and phases that are accommodating the impact stress and resulting in relative displacements within the chondrules. Another question regarding impact deformation in Murchison is whether it facilitated aqueous alteration as has been proposed for the CMs which generally show a positive correlation between degree of alteration and petrofabric strength [7,2]. As pointed out by [2], CM Murchison represents a unique counterpoint to this correlation: it has a strong petrofabric but a relatively low degree of aqueous alteration. However, Murchison may not represent an inconsistency to the proposed causal relationship between impact and alteration, if it can be established that the incipient aqueous alteration post-dated chondrule deformation. Methods: Two thin sections from Murchison sample USNM 5487 were cut approximately perpendicular to the foliation and parallel to lineation determined by XCT [1,3] and one section was additionally polished for EBSD. Using a combination of optical petrography, SEM, EDS, and EBSD several chondrules were characterized in detail to: determine phases, find microstructures indicative of strain, document the geometric relationships between grain-scale microstructures and the foliation and lineation direction, and look for textural relationships of alteration minerals (tochilinite and Mg-Fe serpentine) that indicate timing of their

  3. Cloning of chrysanthemum high-affinity nitrate transporter family (CmNRT2) and characterization of CmNRT2.1.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chunsun; Song, Aiping; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Haibin; Li, Ting; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Chen, Sumei

    2016-01-01

    The family of NITRATE TRANSPORTER 2 (NRT2) proteins belongs to the high affinity transport system (HATS) proteins which acts at low nitrate concentrations. The relevant gene content of the chrysanthemum genome was explored here by isolating the full length sequences of six distinct CmNRT2 genes. One of these (CmNRT2.1) was investigated at the functional level. Its transcription level was inducible by low concentrations of both nitrate and ammonium. A yeast two hybrid assay showed that CmNRT2.1 interacts with CmNAR2, while a BiFC assay demonstrated that the interaction occurs at the plasma membrane. Arabidopsis thaliana plants heterologously expressing CmNRT2.1 displayed an enhanced rate of labeled nitrogen uptake, suggesting that CmNRT2.1 represents a high affinity root nitrate transporter. PMID:27004464

  4. Cloning of chrysanthemum high-affinity nitrate transporter family (CmNRT2) and characterization of CmNRT2.1

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Chunsun; Song, Aiping; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Haibin; Li, Ting; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Chen, Sumei

    2016-01-01

    The family of NITRATE TRANSPORTER 2 (NRT2) proteins belongs to the high affinity transport system (HATS) proteins which acts at low nitrate concentrations. The relevant gene content of the chrysanthemum genome was explored here by isolating the full length sequences of six distinct CmNRT2 genes. One of these (CmNRT2.1) was investigated at the functional level. Its transcription level was inducible by low concentrations of both nitrate and ammonium. A yeast two hybrid assay showed that CmNRT2.1 interacts with CmNAR2, while a BiFC assay demonstrated that the interaction occurs at the plasma membrane. Arabidopsis thaliana plants heterologously expressing CmNRT2.1 displayed an enhanced rate of labeled nitrogen uptake, suggesting that CmNRT2.1 represents a high affinity root nitrate transporter. PMID:27004464

  5. Expression of S1P metabolizing enzymes and receptors correlate with survival time and regulate cell migration in glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Bien-Möller, Sandra; Lange, Sandra; Holm, Tobias; Böhm, Andreas; Paland, Heiko; Küpper, Johannes; Herzog, Susann; Weitmann, Kerstin; Havemann, Christoph; Vogelgesang, Silke; Marx, Sascha; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Henry W.S.; Rauch, Bernhard H.

    2016-01-01

    A signaling molecule which is involved in proliferation and migration of malignant cells is the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). There are hints for a potential role of S1P signaling in malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) which is characterized by a poor prognosis. Therefore, a comprehensive expression analysis of S1P receptors (S1P1-S1P5) and S1P metabolizing enzymes in human GBM (n = 117) compared to healthy brain (n = 10) was performed to evaluate their role for patient's survival. Furthermore, influence of S1P receptor inhibition on proliferation and migration were studied in LN18 GBM cells. Compared to control brain, mRNA levels of S1P1, S1P2, S1P3 and S1P generating sphingosine kinase-1 were elevated in GBM. Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated an association between S1P1 and S1P2 with patient's survival times. In vitro, an inhibitory effect of the SphK inhibitor SKI-II on viability of LN18 cells was shown. S1P itself had no effect on viability but stimulated LN18 migration which was blocked by inhibition of S1P1 and S1P2. The participation of S1P1 and S1P2 in LN18 migration was further supported by siRNA-mediated silencing of these receptors. Immunoblots and inhibition experiments suggest an involvement of the PI3-kinase/AKT1 pathway in the chemotactic effect of S1P in LN18 cells. In summary, our data argue for a role of S1P signaling in proliferation and migration of GBM cells. Individual components of the S1P pathway represent prognostic factors for patients with GBM. Perspectively, a selective modulation of S1P receptor subtypes could represent a therapeutic approach for GBM patients and requires further evaluation. PMID:26887055

  6. Plastic flow in shock-loaded silver at strain rates from 104 s-1 to 107 s-1 and temperatures from 296 K to 1233 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaretsky, E. B.; Kanel, G. I.

    2011-10-01

    The evolution of elastic-plastic shock waves in 99.9% purity silver samples of 0.127 to 2.0 mm thickness has been studied in a series of VISAR-instrumented planar impact experiments with initial sample temperature varied from 296 to 1233 K. The decay of elastic precursor wave at 933, 1173, and 1233 K temperatures is approximately inversely proportional to the square root of the propagation distance. The latter corresponds to the cubic dependence of initial plastic strain rate, ranged from 104 s-1 to 106 s-1, on the shear stress. At fixed strain rates, the flow stress grows linearly with the temperature but the dependence becomes stronger near the silver melting point, 1234 K. An analysis of the rise times of the plastic shock waves shows that for the same level of shear stress the plastic strain rate at the shock front is significantly higher than that at the top of the elastic precursor wave.

  7. Components-dependent optical nonlinearity in a series of CdSexS1-x and CdSexS1-x/ZnS QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shunlong; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Siwen; Wang, Qian; Li, Songtao; Cheng, Xiaoman

    2016-08-01

    The different compositions of the ternary alloyed CdSexS1-x and CdSexS1-x/ZnS core/shell quantum dots(CSQDs) have been synthesized by the chemical routes. The nonlinear optical properties of these QDs were investigated using Z-scan technique under the excitation of the 1064 nm picosecond laser pulse. The Z-scan results reveal that the nonlinear refractive indices of these QDs can be tuned by changing the ratio of Se and S components. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties have been shown to be enhanced in CSQDs as compared to their core semiconductor counterparts. These QDs exhibit the components-tuned nonlinear refraction indices, which lead to a wide application in the photonic field.

  8. The D{sub s1} and its D*K decays

    SciTech Connect

    Segovia, J.; Entem, D. R.; Fernandez, F.

    2010-08-05

    Recently the Belle Collaboration has measured a new decay channel for the charmed strange meson D{sub s1}(2536){sup +{yields}}D{sup +{pi}-}K{sup +} together with an angular analysis of the D{sub s1}(2536){sup +{yields}}D*{sup +}K{sub S}{sup 0} decay. We study this reaction in a constituent quark model which has been able to reproduce the hadronic phenomenology and the baryon-baryon interaction. The reported branching fraction can be explained through a virtual D*{sup 0} and the properties of the D{sub s1}(2536){sup +} state are nicely reproduced. The influence of other intermediate states in the reaction D{sub s1}(2536){sup +{yields}}D{sup +{pi}-}K{sup +} has been analyzed giving negligible contributions.

  9. Intermediate binding of phycocyanobilin to the lyase, CpeS1, and transfer to apoprotein.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jun-Ming; Kupka, Michaela; Böhm, Stephan; Plöscher, Matthias; Eichacker, Lutz; Zhao, Kai-Hong; Scheer, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    The phycobilin: Cysteine-84-phycobiliprotein lyase, CpeS1, catalyzes phycocyanobilin (PCB) and phycoerythrobilin attachment to nearly all cysteine-84 (consensus sequence) binding sites of phycoerythrin, phycoerythrocyanin, phycocyanin and allophycocyanin (Zhao et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:14300-14305). We now show that CpeS1 can bind PCB, as assayed by Ni(2+) chelating affinity chromatography. Binding is rapid, and the chromophore is bound in an extended conformation similar to that in phycobiliproteins but only poorly fluorescent. Upon addition of apo-biliproteins, the chromophore is transferred to the latter much slower ( approximately 1 h), indicating that chromophorylated CpeS1 is an intermediate in the enzymatic reaction. In addition, imidazole is bound to PCB, as shown by mass spectroscopy of tryptic digests of the intermediate CpeS1-PCB complex. PMID:17912606

  10. Pathway specific modulation of S1P1 receptor signalling in rat and human astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Luke M; Sheridan, Graham K; Pritchard, Adam J; Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Mullershausen, Florian; Dev, Kumlesh K

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor subtype 1 (S1P1R) is modulated by phosphorylated FTY720 (pFTY720), which causes S1P1R internalization preventing lymphocyte migration thus limiting autoimmune response. Studies indicate that internalized S1P1Rs continue to signal, maintaining an inhibition of cAMP, thus raising question whether the effects of pFTY720 are due to transient initial agonism, functional antagonism and/or continued signalling. To further investigate this, the current study first determined if continued S1P1R activation is pathway specific. Experimental Approach Using human and rat astrocyte cultures, the effects of S1P1R activation on cAMP, pERK and Ca2+ signalling was investigated. In addition, to examine the role of S1P1R redistribution on these events, a novel biologic (MNP301) that prevented pFTY720-mediated S1P1R redistribution was engineered. Key Results The data showed that pFTY720 induced long-lasting S1P1R redistribution and continued cAMP signalling in rat astrocytes. In contrast, pFTY720 induced a transient increase of Ca2+ in astrocytes and subsequent antagonism of Ca2+ signalling. Notably, while leaving pFTY720-induced cAMP signalling intact, the novel MNP301 peptide attenuated S1P1R-mediated Ca2+ and pERK signalling in cultured rat astrocytes. Conclusions and Implications These findings suggested that pFTY720 causes continued cAMP signalling that is not dependent on S1P1R redistribution and induces functional antagonism of Ca2+ signalling after transient stimulation. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that pFTY720 causes continued signalling in one pathway (cAMP) versus functional antagonism of another pathway (Ca2+) and which also suggests that redistributed S1P1Rs may have differing signalling properties from those expressed at the surface. PMID:23587004

  11. S1P lyase: a novel therapeutic target for ischemia-reperfusion injury of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Bandhuvula, Padmavathi; Honbo, Norman; Wang, Guan-Ying; Jin, Zhu-Qiu; Fyrst, Henrik; Zhang, Meng; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Dillard, Lisa; Karliner, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that promotes cardiomyocyte survival and contributes to ischemic preconditioning. S1P lyase (SPL) is a stress-activated enzyme responsible for irreversible S1P catabolism. We hypothesized that SPL contributes to oxidative stress by depleting S1P pools available for cardioprotective signaling. Accordingly, we evaluated SPL inhibition as a strategy for reducing cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We measured SPL expression and enzyme activity in murine hearts. Basal SPL activity was low in wild-type cardiac tissue but was activated in response to 50 min of ischemia (n = 5, P < 0.01). Hearts of heterozygous SPL knockout mice exhibited reduced SPL activity, elevated S1P levels, smaller infarct size, and increased functional recovery after I/R compared with littermate controls (n = 5, P < 0.01). The small molecule tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI) is a Federal Drug Administration-approved food additive that inhibits SPL. When given overnight at 25 mg/l in drinking water, THI raised S1P levels and reduced SPL activity (n = 5, P < 0.01). THI reduced infarct size and enhanced hemodynamic recovery in response to 50 min of ischemia and to 40 min of reperfusion in ex vivo hearts (n = 7, P < .01). These data correlated with an increase in MAP kinase-interacting serine/threonine kinase 1, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation levels after I/R, suggesting that SPL inhibition enhances protein translation. Pretreatment with an S1P1 and S1P3 receptor antagonist partially reversed the effects of THI. These results reveal, for the first time, that SPL is an ischemia-induced enzyme that can be targeted as a novel strategy for preventing cardiac I/R injury. PMID:21335477

  12. Characterization of the L4-L5-S1 motion segment using the stepwise reduction method.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Héctor Enrique; Puttlitz, Christian M; McGilvray, Kirk; García, José J

    2016-05-01

    The two aims of this study were to generate data for a more accurate calibration of finite element models including the L5-S1 segment, and to find mechanical differences between the L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments. Then, the range of motion (ROM) and facet forces for the L4-S1 segment were measured using the stepwise reduction method. This consists of sequentially testing and reducing each segment in nine stages by cutting the ligaments, facet capsules, and removing the nucleus. Five L4-S1 human segments (median: 65 years, range: 53-84 years, SD=11.0 years) were loaded under a maximum pure moment of 8Nm. The ROM was measured using stereo-photogrammetry via tracking of three markers and the facet contact forces (CF) were measured using a Tekscan system. The ROM for the L4-L5 segment and all stages showed good agreement with published data. The major differences in ROM between the L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments were found for lateral bending and all stages, for which the L4-L5 ROM was about 1.5-3 times higher than that of the L5-S1 segment, consistent with L5-S1 facet CF about 1.3 to 4 times higher than those measured for the L4-L5 segment. For the other movements and few stages, the L4-L5 ROM was significantly lower that of the L5-S1 segment. ROM and CF provide important baseline data for more accurate calibration of FE models and to understand the role that their structures play in lower lumbar spine mechanics. PMID:27017302

  13. STS-112 S1 truss in Payload Changeout Room at Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The payload canister is ready to be opened in the Payload Changeout Room at the pad. Inside is the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, primary payload on mission STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during the mission. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  14. 6S-1 RNA function leads to a delay in sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Amy T; Wassarman, Karen M

    2013-05-01

    We have discovered that 6S-1 RNA (encoded by bsrA) is important for appropriate timing of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis in that cells lacking 6S-1 RNA sporulate earlier than wild-type cells. The time to generate a mature spore once the decision to sporulate has been made is unaffected by 6S-1 RNA, and, therefore, we propose that it is the timing of onset of sporulation that is altered. Interestingly, the presence of cells lacking 6S-1 RNA in coculture leads to all cell types exhibiting an early-sporulation phenotype. We propose that cells lacking 6S-1 RNA modify their environment in a manner that promotes early sporulation. In support of this model, resuspension of wild-type cells in conditioned medium from ΔbsrA cultures also resulted in early sporulation. Use of Escherichia coli growth as a reporter of the nutritional status of conditioned media suggested that B. subtilis cells lacking 6S-1 RNA reduce the nutrient content of their environment earlier than wild-type cells. Several pathways known to impact the timing of sporulation, such as the skf- and sdp-dependent cannibalism pathways, were eliminated as potential targets of 6S-1 RNA-mediated changes, suggesting that 6S-1 RNA activity defines a novel mechanism for altering the timing of onset of sporulation. In addition, 6S-2 RNA does not influence the timing of sporulation, providing further evidence of the independent influences of these two related RNAs on cell physiology. PMID:23457253

  15. STS-112 S1 Truss is transported to the payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers inside the payload canister watch the S1 Integrated Truss Structure as it is lowered toward them. The canister will transport the truss to Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during mission STS-112. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  16. STS-112 S1 Truss is transported to the payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- An overhead crane moves the S1 Integrated Truss Structure above over other equipment to get to the payload canister for transport to Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during mission STS-112. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  17. Ultrafast S1 to S0 internal conversion dynamics for dimethylnitramine through a conical intersection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanqing; Bhattacharya, Atanu; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2011-09-01

    Electronically nonadiabatic processes such as ultrafast internal conversion (IC) from an upper electronic state (S(1)) to the ground electronic state (S(0)) though a conical intersection (CI), can play an essential role in the initial steps of the decomposition of energetic materials. Such nonradiative processes following electronic excitation can quench emission and store the excitation energy in the vibrational degrees of freedom of the ground electronic state. This excess vibrational energy in the ground electronic state can dissociate most of the chemical bonds of the molecule and can generate stable, small molecule products. The present study determines ultrafast IC dynamics of a model nitramine energetic material, dimethylnitramine (DMNA). Femtosecond (fs) pump-probe spectroscopy, for which a pump pulse at 271 nm and a probe pulse at 405.6 nm are used, is employed to elucidate the IC dynamics of this molecule from its S(1) excited state. A very short lifetime of the S(1) excited state (∼50 ± 16 fs) is determined for DMNA. Complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations show that an (S(1)/S(0))(CI) CI is responsible for this ultrafast decay from S(1) to S(0). This decay occurs through a reaction coordinate involving an out-of-plane bending mode of the DMNA NO(2) moiety. The 271 nm excitation of DMNA is not sufficient to dissociate the molecule on the S(1) potential energy surface (PES) through an adiabatic NO(2) elimination pathway. PMID:21351779

  18. Hyaluroan-regulated lymphatic permeability through S1P receptors is crucial for cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengsi; He, Pingqing; Liu, Yiwen; He, Yiqing; Du, Yan; Wu, Man; Zhang, Guoliang; Yang, Cuixia; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of cancer lymphatic vessel barrier function occurs has been reported to involve in cancer lymphatic metastasis. Hyaluronan (HA), a major glycosaminoglycan component of the extracellular matrix, is associated with cancer metastasis. We investigated the effect of high/low molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA/LMW-HA) on regulation of barrier function and tight junctions in cancer lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) monolayer. Results showed that LMW-HA increased the permeability of cancer LEC monolayers and induced disruption of Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1)-mediated intercellular tight junction and actin stress fiber formation. HMW-HA treatment decreased permeability in cancer LEC monolayers and cortical actin ring formation. As reported, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors are involved in vascular integrity. After silencing of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1), upregulation of S1P receptors (S1P1 and S1P3) induced by HMW-HA/LMW-HA were inhibited, respectively. With S1P3 silenced, the disruption of ZO-1 as well as stress fiber formation and the ROCK1/RhoA signaling pathway induced by LMW-HA was not observed in cancer LEC. These results suggested that S1P receptors may play an important role in HMW-HA-/LMW-HA-mediated regulation of cancer lymphatic vessel integrity, which might be the initial step of cancer lymphatic metastasis and a useful intervention of cancer progression. PMID:25428387

  19. A novel role of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor S1pr1 in mouse thrombopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Orban, Martin; Lorenz, Michael; Barocke, Verena; Braun, Daniel; Urtz, Nicole; Schulz, Christian; von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Tirniceriu, Anca; Gaertner, Florian; Proia, Richard L.; Graf, Thomas; Bolz, Steffen-Sebastian; Montanez, Eloi; Prinz, Marco; Müller, Alexandra; von Baumgarten, Louisa; Billich, Andreas; Sixt, Michael; Fässler, Reinhard; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Junt, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Millions of platelets are produced each hour by bone marrow (BM) megakaryocytes (MKs). MKs extend transendothelial proplatelet (PP) extensions into BM sinusoids and shed new platelets into the blood. The mechanisms that control platelet generation remain incompletely understood. Using conditional mutants and intravital multiphoton microscopy, we show here that the lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) serves as a critical directional cue guiding the elongation of megakaryocytic PP extensions from the interstitium into BM sinusoids and triggering the subsequent shedding of PPs into the blood. Correspondingly, mice lacking the S1P receptor S1pr1 develop severe thrombocytopenia caused by both formation of aberrant extravascular PPs and defective intravascular PP shedding. In contrast, activation of S1pr1 signaling leads to the prompt release of new platelets into the circulating blood. Collectively, our findings uncover a novel function of the S1P–S1pr1 axis as master regulator of efficient thrombopoiesis and might raise new therapeutic options for patients with thrombocytopenia. PMID:23148237

  20. Photolabelling of mutant forms of the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin with NAD+.

    PubMed Central

    Cieplak, W; Locht, C; Mar, V L; Burnette, W N; Keith, J M

    1990-01-01

    The S1 subunit of pertussis toxin catalyses the hydrolysis of NAD+ (NAD+ glycohydrolysis) and the NAD(+)-dependent ADP-ribosylation of guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins. Recently, the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin was shown to be photolabelled by using radiolabelled NAD+ and u.v.; the primary labelled residue was Glu-129, thereby implicating this residue in the binding of NAD+. Studies from various laboratories have shown that the N-terminal portion of the S1 subunit, which shows sequence similarity to cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin, is important to the maintenance of both glycohydrolase and transferase activity. In the present study the photolabelling technique was applied to the analysis of a series of recombinant-derived S1 molecules that possessed deletions or substitutions near the N-terminus of the S1 molecule. The results revealed a positive correlation between the extent of photolabelling with NAD+ and the magnitude of specific NAD+ glycohydrolase activity exhibited by the mutants. Enzyme kinetic analyses of the N-terminal mutants also identified a mutant with substantially reduced activity, a depressed photolabelling efficiency and a markedly increased Km for NAD+. The results support a direct role for the N-terminal region of the S1 subunit in the binding of NAD+, thereby providing a rationale for the effect of mutations in this region on enzymic activity. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2363691

  1. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Ganglioside Hp-s1 Analogues Varying at Glucosyl Moiety.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jung-Tung; Yeh, Chun-Hong; Yang, Shih-An; Lin, Chiu-Ya; Tai, Hung-Ju; Shelke, Ganesh B; Reddy, Daggula Mallikarjuna; Yu, Alice L; Luo, Shun-Yuan

    2016-08-17

    Ganglioside Hp-s1 is isolated from the ovary of sea urchin Diadema setosum. It exhibited better neuritogenic activity than GM1 in pheochromocytoma 12 cells. To explore the roles of glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 in contributing to the neurogenic activity, we developed feasible procedures for synthesis of Hp-s1 analogues (2a-2f). The glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 was replaced with α-glucose, α-galactose, β-galactose, α-mannose, and β-mannose, and their biological activities on SH-SY5Y cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells were evaluated. We found that the orientation of C-2 hydroxyl group at glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 plays an important role to induce neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells. Surprisingly, compound 2d could activate NKT cells to produce interleukin 2, although it did not show great activity on neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells. In general, the Hp-s1 might be considered as a lead compound for the development of novel drugs aimed at modulating the activity of neuronal cells. PMID:27276519

  2. Measurement of the surface-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (SECARS) due to the 1574 cm(-1) surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mode of benzenethiol using low-power (<20 mW) CW diode lasers.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Roshan L; Farrar, Lewis W; Greeneltch, Nathan G; Van Duyne, Richard P; Polla, Dennis L

    2013-02-01

    The surface-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (SECARS) from a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of benzenethiol on a silver-coated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate has been measured for the 1574 cm(-1) SERS mode. A value of 9.6 ± 1.7×10(-14) W was determined for the resonant component of the SECARS signal using 17.8 mW of 784.9 nm pump laser power and 7.1 mW of 895.5 nm Stokes laser power; the pump and Stokes lasers were polarized parallel to each other but perpendicular to the grooves of the diffraction grating in the spectrometer. The measured value of resonant component of the SECARS signal is in agreement with the calculated value of 9.3×10(-14) W using the measured value of 8.7 ± 0.5 cm(-1) for the SERS linewidth Γ (full width at half-maximum) and the value of 5.7 ± 1.4×10(-7) for the product of the Raman cross section σSERS and the surface concentration Ns of the benzenethiol SAM. The xxxx component of the resonant part of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility |3 χxxxx((3)R)| for the 1574 cm(-1) SERS mode has been determined to be 4.3 ± 1.1×10(-5) cm·g(-1)·s(2). The SERS enhancement factor for the 1574 cm(-1) mode was determined to be 3.6 ± 0.9×10(7) using the value of 1.8×10(15) molecules/cm(2) for Ns. PMID:23622430

  3. Improved measurement of the 1s2s 1S0-1s2p 3P1 interval in heliumlike silicon.

    PubMed

    DeVore, Thomas R; Crosby, David N; Myers, Edmund G

    2008-06-20

    Using colinear fast-beam laser spectroscopy with copropagating and counter-propagating beams we have measured the 1s2s 1S0-1s2p 3P1 intercombination interval in 28Si12+ with the result 7230.585(6) cm{-1}. The experiment made use of a dual-wavelength, high-finesse, power build-up cavity excited by single-frequency lasers at 1319 and 1450 nm. The result will provide a precision test of ab initio relativistic many-body atomic theory at moderate Z. PMID:18643579

  4. Measurement of the Radiative Decay Rate and Energy of the Metastable (2s22p51=23s1=2)(J=0) Level in Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Träbert, E.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements at the Livermore electron beam ion trap have been performed in order to infer the energy and the radiative lifetime of the {(1{s}22{s}22{p}1/253{s}1/2)}J=0 level in the Fe xvii spectrum. This is the longest-lived level in the neonlike iron ion, and its radiative decay produces the Fe xvii line at 1153 Å, feeding the population of the {(1{s}22{s}22{p}3/253{s}1/2)}J=1 upper level of one of the most prominent lines in the Fe xvii L-shell X-ray spectrum, commonly dubbed 3G. In the presence of a strong (≥slant few kG) magnetic field, the {(1{s}22{s}22{p}1/253{s}1/2)}J=0 level has a finite probability to decay directly to the {(1{s}22{s}22{p}6)}J=0 neonlike ground level via the emission of an L-shell X-ray. Our measurements allow us to observe this X-ray line in the Fe xvii L-shell spectrum and from it to infer the radiative rate for the magnetic dipole decay of the {(1{s}22{s}22{p}1/253{s}1/2)}J=0 level to the {(1{s}22{s}22{p}3/253{s}1/2)}J=1. Our result of (1.45+/- 0.15)× {10}4 s-1 is in agreement with predictions. We have also measured the wavelength of the associated X-ray line to be 16.804 ± 0.002 Å, which means that the line is displaced 1.20 ± 0.05 eV from the neighboring {(2{s}22{p}1/253{s}1/2)}J=1\\to {(2{s}22{p}6)}J=0 transition, commonly labeled 3F. From our measurement, we infer 5950570 ± 710 cm-1 for the energy of the {(1{s}22{s}22{p}1/253{s}1/2)}J=0 level.

  5. Tables of spectral transmission of the atmosphere in the 2660-2750 cm(-1) and 810-980 cm(-1) ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Thermal sounding data from satellites are presented together with a description of transmission function calculations. Tables contain experimental values for transmission of the entire thickness of the atmosphere for two regions of the spectrum: at 2660 to 2750 cm/1 and at 810 to 980 cm/1. The spectrum was recorded on an infrared spectrophotometer.

  6. 2MTF III. H I 21 cm observations of 1194 spiral galaxies with the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.; Crook, Aidan; Hong, Tao; Jarrett, T. H.; Koribalski, Bärbel S.; Macri, Lucas; Springob, Christopher M.; Staveley-Smith, Lister

    2014-09-01

    We present H I 21 cm observations of 1194 galaxies out to a redshift of 10 000 km s-1 selected as inclined spirals (i ≳ 60°) from the 2MASS redshift survey. These observations were carried out at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This observing programme is part of the 2MASS Tully-Fisher (2MTF) survey. This project will combine H I widths from these GBT observations with those from further dedicated observing at the Parkes Telescope, from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array survey at Arecibo, and S/N > 10 and spectral resolution vres < 10 km s-1 published widths from a variety of telescopes. We will use these H I widths along with 2MASS photometry to estimate Tully-Fisher distances to nearby spirals and investigate the peculiar velocity field of the local Universe. In this paper, we report on detections of neutral hydrogen in emission in 727 galaxies, and measure good signal to noise and symmetric H I global profiles suitable for use in the Tully-Fisher relation in 484.

  7. The Effects of Spinopelvic Parameters and Paraspinal Muscle Degeneration on S1 Screw Loosening

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Bum; Lee, Young-Seok; Nam, Taek-Kyun; Park, Yong-Sook; Kim, Young-Baeg

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk factors for S1 screw loosening after lumbosacral fusion, including spinopelvic parameters and paraspinal muscles. Methods We studied with 156 patients with degenerative lumbar disease who underwent lumbosacral interbody fusion and pedicle screw fixation including the level of L5-S1 between 2005 and 2012. The patients were divided into loosening and non-loosening groups. Screw loosening was defined as a halo sign larger than 1 mm around a screw. We checked cross sectional area of paraspinal muscles, mean signal intensity of the muscles on T2 weight MRI as a degree of fatty degeneration, spinopelvic parameters, bone mineral density, number of fusion level, and the characteristic of S1 screw. Results Twenty seven patients showed S1 screw loosening, which is 24.4% of total. The mean duration for S1 screw loosening was 7.3±4.1 months after surgery. Statistically significant risk factors were increased age, poor BMD, 3 or more fusion levels (p<0.05). Among spinopelvic parameters, a high pelvic incidence (p<0.01), a greater difference between pelvic incidence and lumbar lordotic angle preoperatively (p<0.01) and postoperatively (p<0.05). Smaller cross-sectional area and high T2 signal intensity in both multifidus and erector spinae muscles were also significant muscular risk factors (p<0.05). Small converging angle (p<0.001) and short intraosseous length (p<0.05) of S1 screw were significant screw related risk factors (p<0.05). Conclusion In addition to well known risk factors, spinopelvic parameters and the degeneration of paraspinal muscles also showed significant effects on the S1 screw loosening. PMID:26587190

  8. Phase I study of postoperative radiotherapy concurrent with S-1 in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Meng; Peng, Xing-chen; Bi, Feng; Wang, Xin; Li, Qiu; Xu, Feng; Li, Zhi-ping; Shen, Ya-li; Liu, Ji-yan; Zhao, Ya-qing; Cao, Dan; Gou, Hong-feng; Yang, Yu; Chen, Ye; Yi, Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with concurrent 5-fluorouracil is the standard care for gastric cancer patients after curative surgery. The previous studies revealed that the subgroup of patients with high recurrence risk would benefit most from adjuvant CRT. S-1, a novel oral fluorouracil, has showed very effective in metastatic gastric cancer and became the standard option for gastric cancer with D2 dissection. The safety and dosage of S-1 combined with postoperative radiotherapy have not yet been evaluated. This study is to determine the maximum tolerate dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of S-1 given concurrently with postoperative high-dose radiotherapy in gastric cancer. Patients with more advanced stage (pT4 and/or pN+) after R0 resection were recruited. Eligible patients received one cycle standard SOX (S-1 plus oxaliplatin) chemotherapy, then S-1 monotherapy with concurrent radiotherapy for 6 weeks, followed by additional three cycles of SOX. During the concurrent CRT, S-1 was administered on every radiotherapy treatment day according to a predefined dose-escalation schedule. Radiotherapy (3D-RT or IMRT) was given to a total dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. DLT was defined as grade 3 or 4 hematologic and non-hematologic toxicity. From March 2011 to October 2012, 21 patients were enrolled at five dose levels: 40 (n = 3), 50 (n = 3), 60 (n = 6), 70 (n = 6) and 80 mg/m(2)/day (n = 3). D2-dissection was performed in 18 patients (85.7 %) and 15 patients (71.4 %) had stage III disease. The most common dose-related toxicity was anorexia, nausea and vomiting, fatigue and leucopenia. DLT was occurred in one patient at 60 mg/m(2)/day (grade 3 fatigue), one patient at 70 mg/m(2)/day (grade 3 vomiting and anorexia), two patients at 80 mg/m(2)/day (one with grade 3 vomiting and anorexia; another with grade 3 febrile leucopenia). Four patients did not complete CRT as planned. Overall, this phase I study demonstrated that postoperative CRT with daily S-1

  9. Identification of genetic polymorphisms of CYP2S1 in a Finnish Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T; Suitiala, Tuula; Holmila, Reetta; Impivaara, Olli; Järvisalo, Jorma; Hirvonen, Ari; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2004-10-01

    CYP2S1 is a recently discovered member of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene superfamily. Interestingly, even though the DNA sequence identifies it as the sole member of the new CYP2S family, CYP2S1 exhibits many features typical to CYP1 family members, e.g. dioxin-inducibility mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). In addition, CYP2S1 metabolises some aromatic hydrocarbons as well as cellular substances. These characteristics, together with a wide extrahepatic tissue distribution, suggest that CYP2S1 may have an important role in both exogenous and endogenous metabolism. This is the first study characterising CYP2S1 alleles and naming them with the recommended CYP allele nomenclature. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and direct sequencing to investigate genetic variation of CYP2S1 in 100 male Finnish Caucasians. Those exons in which variation was found were examined in subsequent 100 subjects. The coding region of all of the nine exons, as well as a 449 bp fragment of the proximal promoter region, was analysed. This systematic investigation revealed eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which comprise nine different variant alleles (haplotypes), in addition to the wild-type allele. Seven of the SNPs occurred in the protein-coding areas and one in the proximal 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). Two of these sequence variations (10347C > T and 13106C > T) result in non-conservative amino acid substitutions, i.e. Arg380Cys and Pro466Leu, respectively. The respective allelic variants, CYP2S1*2 ([10347C > T]) and CYP2S1*3 (13106C > T; 13255A > G]), occurred in our study population at frequencies of 0.50 and 3.75%, respectively. The most common of the variant alleles was CYP2S1*1H (23.8%), harbouring a 13255A > G substitution located in the 3'UTR. PMID:15450424

  10. Short-range correlations and the 3 s1 /2 wave function in 206Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, M. R.; Shlomo, S.; Talmi, I.

    2015-09-01

    The charge-density difference between 206Pb and 205Tl , measured by elastic electron scattering, offers a unique opportunity to look for effects of short-range correlations on a shell-model wave function of a single proton. The measured difference is very similar to the charge density due to a proton in a 3 s1 /2 orbit. If there is a potential whose 3 s1 /2 wave function yields the measured difference between the charge distributions, no effect of short-range correlations is evident. To check this point, we look for a potential whose 3 s1 /2 wave function yields the measured data. We developed a novel method to obtain the potential directly from the density and its first and second derivatives. Fits to parametrized potentials were also carried out. The 3 s1 /2 wave functions of the potentials determined here reproduce fairly well the experimental data within the quoted errors. To detect possible effects of two-body correlations on the 3 s1 /2 shell-model wave function, more accurate measurements are required.

  11. Renormalized Traces and Cocycles on the Algebra of S 1-Pseudo-differential Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnot, Jean-Pierre

    2006-02-01

    Using renormalized (or weighted) traces of classical pseudo-differential operators and calculus on formal symbols. We exhibit three cocycles on the Lie algebra of classical pseudo-differential operators Cl(S^1,mathbb{C}^n) acting on L^2(S^1,mathbb{C}^n). We first show that the Schwinger functional c_S^D associated to the Dirac operator is a cocycle on Cl(S^1,mathbb{C}^n), and not only on a restricted algebra Cl(S^1,mathbb{C}^n)^D_res. Then, we investigate two bilinear functionals c+^D and c_{++}^D, which satisfies {1 over 2}c_S^D = c_+^D - c_{++}^D. We show that c+^D and c_{++}^D are two cocycles in Cl(S^1,mathbb{C}^n), and {1 over 2}c_S^D and c_+^D have the same nonvanishing cohomology class. We finaly calculate c+^D on classical pseudo-differential operators of order 1 and on differential operators of order 1, in terms of partial symbols. By this last computation, we recover the Virasoro cocyle and the Kähler form of the loop group.

  12. Novel S1P1 receptor agonists - Part 4: Alkylaminomethyl substituted aryl head groups.

    PubMed

    Lescop, Cyrille; Müller, Claus; Mathys, Boris; Birker, Magdalena; de Kanter, Ruben; Kohl, Christopher; Hess, Patrick; Nayler, Oliver; Rey, Markus; Sieber, Patrick; Steiner, Beat; Weller, Thomas; Bolli, Martin H

    2016-06-30

    In a previous communication we reported on the discovery of alkylamino pyridine derivatives (e.g. 1) as a new class of potent, selective and efficacious S1P1 receptor (S1PR1) agonists. However, more detailed profiling revealed that this compound class is phototoxic in vitro. Here we describe a new class of potent S1PR1 agonists wherein the exocyclic nitrogen was moved away from the pyridine ring (e.g. 11c). Further structural modifications led to the identification of novel alkylaminomethyl substituted phenyl and thienyl derivatives as potent S1PR1 agonists. These new alkylaminomethyl aryl compounds showed no phototoxic potential. Based on their in vivo efficacy and ability to penetrate the brain, the 5-alkyl-aminomethyl thiophenes appeared to be the most interesting class. Potent and selective S1PR1 agonist 20e, for instance, maximally reduced the blood lymphocyte count (LC) for 24 h after oral administration of 10 mg/kg to rat and its brain concentrations reached >500 ng/g over 24 h. PMID:27061986

  13. Efficient Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Infection by a preS1-binding Peptide.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ming; He, Yonggang; Wan, Yanmin; Bai, Weiya; Tao, Shuai; Ren, Yanqin; Zhang, Xinxin; Xu, Jianqing; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Junqi; Hu, Kanghong; Xie, Youhua

    2016-01-01

    Entry inhibitors are promising novel antivirals against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The existing potential entry inhibitors have targeted the cellular receptor(s). In this study, we aim to develop the first entry inhibitor that inhibits HBV infection via targeting viral particles. The preS1 segment of the large envelope glycoprotein of HBV is essential for virion attachment and infection. Previously, we obtained a preS1-binding short peptide B10 by screening a phage display peptide library using the N-terminal half of preS1 (residues 1 to 60, genotype C). We report here that by means of concatenation of B10, we identified a quadruple concatemer 4B10 that displayed a markedly increased preS1-binding activity. The main binding site of 4B10 in preS1 was mapped to the receptor binding enhancing region. 4B10 blocked HBV attachment to hepatic cells and inhibited HBV infection of primary human and tupaia hepatocytes at low nanomolar concentrations. The 4B10-mediated inhibition of HBV infection is specific as it did not inhibit the infection of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein pseudotyped lentivirus or human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Moreover, 4B10 showed no binding activity to hepatic cells. In conclusion, we have identified 4B10 as a promising candidate for a novel class of HBV entry inhibitors. PMID:27384014

  14. S1 pocket of glutamate carboxypeptidase II: a new binding site for amyloid-β degradation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suk Kyung; Kim, Hyunyoung; Cheong, You-Hoon; Kim, Min-Ju; Jo, Sangmee Ahn; Youn, Hyung-Seop; Park, Sang Ick

    2013-09-01

    We recently reported that glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) has a new physiological function degrading amyloid-β (Aβ), distinct from its own hydrolysis activity in N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate (NAAG); however, its underlying mechanism remains undiscovered. Using site-directed mutagenesis and S1 pocket-specific chemical inhibitor (compound 2), which was developed for the present study based on in sillico computational modeling, we discovered that the Aβ degradation occurs through S1 pocket but not through S1' pocket responsible for NAAG hydrolysis. Treatment with compound 2 prevented GCPII from Aβ degradation without any impairment in NAAG hydrolysis. Likewise, 2-PMPA (specific GCPII inhibitor developed targeting S1' pocket) completely blocked the NAAG hydrolysis without any effect on Aβ degradation. Pre-incubation with NAAG and Aβ did not affect Aβ degradation and NAAG hydrolysis, respectively. These data suggest that GCPII has two distinctive binding sites for two different substrates and that Aβ degradation occurs through binding to S1 pocket of GCPII. PMID:23891752

  15. Efficient Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Infection by a preS1-binding Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ming; He, Yonggang; Wan, Yanmin; Bai, Weiya; Tao, Shuai; Ren, Yanqin; Zhang, Xinxin; Xu, Jianqing; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Junqi; Hu, Kanghong; Xie, Youhua

    2016-01-01

    Entry inhibitors are promising novel antivirals against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The existing potential entry inhibitors have targeted the cellular receptor(s). In this study, we aim to develop the first entry inhibitor that inhibits HBV infection via targeting viral particles. The preS1 segment of the large envelope glycoprotein of HBV is essential for virion attachment and infection. Previously, we obtained a preS1-binding short peptide B10 by screening a phage display peptide library using the N-terminal half of preS1 (residues 1 to 60, genotype C). We report here that by means of concatenation of B10, we identified a quadruple concatemer 4B10 that displayed a markedly increased preS1-binding activity. The main binding site of 4B10 in preS1 was mapped to the receptor binding enhancing region. 4B10 blocked HBV attachment to hepatic cells and inhibited HBV infection of primary human and tupaia hepatocytes at low nanomolar concentrations. The 4B10-mediated inhibition of HBV infection is specific as it did not inhibit the infection of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein pseudotyped lentivirus or human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Moreover, 4B10 showed no binding activity to hepatic cells. In conclusion, we have identified 4B10 as a promising candidate for a novel class of HBV entry inhibitors. PMID:27384014

  16. Novel S1P(1) receptor agonists--part 3: from thiophenes to pyridines.

    PubMed

    Bolli, Martin H; Abele, Stefan; Birker, Magdalena; Bravo, Roberto; Bur, Daniel; de Kanter, Ruben; Kohl, Christopher; Grimont, Julien; Hess, Patrick; Lescop, Cyrille; Mathys, Boris; Müller, Claus; Nayler, Oliver; Rey, Markus; Scherz, Michael; Schmidt, Gunther; Seifert, Jürgen; Steiner, Beat; Velker, Jörg; Weller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In preceding communications we summarized our medicinal chemistry efforts leading to the identification of potent, selective, and orally active S1P1 agonists such as the thiophene derivative 1. As a continuation of these efforts, we replaced the thiophene in 1 by a 2-, 3-, or 4-pyridine and obtained less lipophilic, potent, and selective S1P1 agonists (e.g., 2) efficiently reducing blood lymphocyte count in the rat. Structural features influencing the compounds' receptor affinity profile and pharmacokinetics are discussed. In addition, the ability to penetrate brain tissue has been studied for several compounds. As a typical example for these pyridine based S1P1 agonists, compound 53 showed EC50 values of 0.6 and 352 nM for the S1P1 and S1P3 receptor, respectively, displayed favorable PK properties, and penetrated well into brain tissue. In the rat, compound 53 maximally reduced the blood lymphocyte count for at least 24 h after oral dosing of 3 mg/kg. PMID:24367923

  17. Novel S1P1 receptor agonists - Part 5: From amino-to alkoxy-pyridines.

    PubMed

    Bolli, Martin H; Lescop, Cyrille; Birker, Magdalena; de Kanter, Ruben; Hess, Patrick; Kohl, Christopher; Nayler, Oliver; Rey, Markus; Sieber, Patrick; Velker, Jörg; Weller, Thomas; Steiner, Beat

    2016-06-10

    In a previous communication we reported on the discovery of aminopyridine 1 as a potent, selective and orally active S1P1 receptor agonist. More detailed studies revealed that this compound is phototoxic in vitro. As a result of efforts aiming at eliminating this undesired property, a series of alkoxy substituted pyridine derivatives was discovered. The photo irritancy factor (PIF) of these alkoxy pyridines was significantly lower than the one of aminopyridine 1 and most compounds were not phototoxic. Focused SAR studies showed, that 2-, 3-, and 4-pyridine derivatives delivered highly potent S1P1 receptor agonists. While the 2-pyridines were clearly more selective against S1PR3, the corresponding 3- or 4-pyridine analogues showed significantly longer oral half-lives and as a consequence longer pharmacological duration of action after oral administration. One of the best compounds, cyclopentoxy-pyridine 45b lacked phototoxicity, showed EC50 values of 0.7 and 140 nM on S1PR1 and S1PR3, respectively, and maximally reduced the blood lymphocyte count for at least 24 h after oral administration of 10 mg/kg to Wistar rats. PMID:27027817

  18. An oral fluoropyrimidine agent S-1 induced interstitial lung disease: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Hiromichi; Kinugawa, Masahide; Umemura, Shigeki; Shiote, Yasuhiro; Kudo, Kenichiro; Suwaki, Toshimitsu; Kamei, Haruhito; Takigawa, Nagio; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2011-01-01

    A 66-year-old Japanese man with pancreatic cancer received eleven courses of gemcitabine monotherapy. The tumor responded to gemcitabine until metastatic liver tumors progressed. Subsequently, he was treated with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent, as salvage chemotherapy. Forty-two days after initiating S-1, he presented with dyspnea and fever. Chest computed tomography showed diffuse interstitial lesions with thickening of the alveolar septa and ground glass opacity. Serum KL-6 level was elevated to 1,230 U/mL and he did not use any other drugs except insulin. Thus, the development of interstitial lung disease (ILD) was considered to be due to S-1. Arterial blood oxygen pressure was 49.6 Torr in spite of oxygen administration (5 L/min). Steroid therapy improved his symptoms and the interstitial shadows on chest radiograph. Although S-1-induced ILD has mostly been reported to be mild, clinicians should be aware that S-1 has the potential to cause fatal ILD. PMID:21773080

  19. 76 FR 51985 - ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance... Standards Staff, announces the following meeting. Name: ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance Committee... Maintenance (C&M) Committee is a public forum for the presentation of proposed modifications to...

  20. A search for the H2 /3, 0/ S1 line in the spectrum of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muench, G.; Trauger, J. T.; Roesler, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported for measurements of the quadrupole S1 line of the (3, 0) absorption band of H2 in spectra of Titan, which were performed at an effective resolution of 0.09 A by scanning with a PEPSIOS spectrometer over a range of 0.85 A centered at the expected position of the investigated line and sampling in 80 contiguous channels. No statistically significant H2 (3, 0) S1 feature is found in the spectra, but a three-sigma upper limit of 3 mA is set for the equivalent width of the S1 line that might be present in a co-added spectrum. It is concluded that these measurements do not provide any evidence for the presence of H2 in the atmosphere of Titan.

  1. The 2(2S + 1)-formalism and its connection with other descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoeglazov, Valeriy V.

    2016-02-01

    In the framework of the Joos-Weinberg 2(2S + 1)-theory for massless particles, the dynamical invariants have been derived from the Lagrangian density which is considered to be a 4-vector. A la Majorana interpretation of the 6-component “spinors”, the field operators of S = 1 particles, as the left- and right-circularly polarized radiation, leads us to the conserved quantities which are analogous to those obtained by Lipkin and Sudbery. The scalar Lagrangian of the Joos-Weinberg theory is shown to be equivalent to the Lagrangian of a free massless field, introduced by Hayashi. As a consequence of a new “gauge” invariance this skew-symmetric field describes physical particles with the longitudinal components only. The interaction of the spinor field with the Weinberg’s 2(2S + 1)-component massless field is considered. New interpretation of the Weinberg field function is proposed.

  2. Use of S1 nuclease in deep sequencing for detection of double-stranded RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Saya; Nagai, Makoto; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Koyama, Satoshi; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Furuya, Tetsuya; Shirai, Junsuke; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    Metagenomic approach using next-generation DNA sequencing has facilitated the detection of many pathogenic viruses from fecal samples. However, in many cases, majority of the detected sequences originate from the host genome and bacterial flora in the gut. Here, to improve efficiency of the detection of double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses from samples, we evaluated the applicability of S1 nuclease on deep sequencing. Treating total RNA with S1 nuclease resulted in 1.5-28.4- and 10.1-208.9-fold increases in sequence reads of group A rotavirus in fecal and viral culture samples, respectively. Moreover, increasing coverage of mapping to reference sequences allowed for sufficient genotyping using analytical software. These results suggest that library construction using S1 nuclease is useful for deep sequencing in the detection of dsRNA viruses. PMID:25843154

  3. Radiationless deactivation of 6-aminocoumarin from the S1-ICT state in nonspecifically interacting solvents.

    PubMed

    Krystkowiak, Ewa; Dobek, Krzysztof; Burdziński, Gotard; Maciejewski, Andrzej

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a spectral (absorption and emission) and photophysical study of 6-aminocoumarin (6AC) in the solvents with which this molecule interacts only nonspecifically (n-alkanes, tetrachloromethane and 1-chloro-n-alkanes) and in nitriles. The strong effects of the solvents on the emission spectra, fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime of 6AC were observed. The results of the steady-state and time-resolved photophysical study suggest the presence of very fast nonradiative deactivation processes. It is concluded that besides fluorescence, the efficient S(1)-ICT → S(0) internal conversion in nonpolar aprotic solvents arises from vibronic interactions between close-lying S(1)-ICT(π,π*) and S(2)(n,π*) states. Moreover, unexpectedly efficient triplet state formation occurs. In nitriles the intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions with solvent molecules also facilitate the nonradiative decay process involving the S(1)-exciplex. PMID:22622372

  4. Combination chemotherapy with S-1 and docetaxel for cutaneous angiosarcoma resistant to paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Ikko; Kanemaru, Hisashi; Miyake, Taiga; Aoi, Jun; Masuguchi, Shinichi; Fukushima, Satoshi; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2015-02-01

    The prognosis of cutaneous angiosarcoma is very poor compared with that of other skin malignancies. The main reason for this is the limited regimens of chemotherapy available for angiosarcoma, because it is resistant to most common chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify new treatment options. Recently, S-1 and docetaxel therapy was reported to be effective for advanced gastric cancer and metastatic extramammary Paget's disease. Therefore, we treated paclitaxel-resistant angiosarcoma patient with S-1/docetaxel chemotherapy. The progression-free survival was 5.0 months although grade 3 adverse events such as diarrhea and neutropenia developed. Our data need to be confirmed in a large number of patients, but S-1/docetaxel chemotherapy as an additional regimen seems to be an effective treatment option for paclitaxel-resistant angiosarcoma. PMID:25788055

  5. Molecular and immunological characterization of the glycosylated orange allergen Cit s 1.

    PubMed

    Pöltl, Gerald; Ahrazem, Oussama; Paschinger, Katharina; Ibañez, M Dolores; Salcedo, Gabriel; Wilson, Iain B H

    2007-02-01

    The IgE of sera from patients with a history of allergy to oranges (Citrus sinensis) binds a number of proteins in orange extract, including Cit s 1, a germin-like protein. In the present study, we have analyzed its immunological cross-reactivity and its molecular nature. Sera from many of the patients examined recognize a range of glycoproteins and neoglycoconjugates containing beta1,2-xylose and core alpha1,3-fucose on their N-glycans. These reagents also inhibited the interaction of Cit s 1 with patients' sera, thus underlining the critical role of glycosylation in the recognition of this protein by patients' IgE and extending previous data showing that deglycosylated Cit s 1 does not possess IgE epitopes. In parallel, we examined the peptide sequence and glycan structure of Cit s 1, using mass spectrometric techniques. Indeed, we achieved complete sequence coverage of the mature protein compared with the translation of an expressed sequence tag cDNA clone and demonstrated that the single N-glycosylation site of this protein carries oligosaccharides with xylose and fucose residues. Owing to the presumed requirement for multivalency for in vivo allergenicity, our molecular data showing that Cit s 1 is monovalent as regards glycosylation and that the single N-glycan is the target of the IgE response to this protein explain the immunological cross-reactive properties of Cit s 1 as well as its equivocal nature as a clinically relevant allergen. PMID:17095532

  6. 3-cm Fine Structure Masers: A Unique Signature of Supermassive Black Hole Formation via Direct Collapse in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Mark; Sethi, Shiv; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-03-01

    The direct collapse black hole (DCBH) scenario describes the isothermal collapse of a pristine gas cloud directly into a massive, {M}{BH} = 104-106{M}⊙ black hole. In this paper we show that large H i column densities of primordial gas at T˜ {10}4 K with low molecular abundance—which represent key aspects of the DCBH scenario—provide optimal conditions for the pumping of the 2p-level of atomic hydrogen by trapped Lyα photons. This Lyα pumping mechanism gives rise to an inverted level population of the 2{s}1/2-2{p}3/2 transition, and therefore also gives rise to stimulated fine structure emission at λ =3.04 {cm} (rest-frame). We show that simplified models of the DCBH scenario amplify the CMB by up to a factor of ˜ {10}5, above which the maser saturates. Hyperfine splitting of the 3 cm transition gives rise to a characteristic broad (FWHM ˜ tens of MHz in the observers frame) asymmetric line profile. This signal subtends an angular scale of ˜1-10 mas, which translates to a flux of ˜0.3-3 μJy, which is detectable with ultra-deep surveys being planned with SKA1-MID. While challenging, as the signal is visible for a fraction of the collapse time of the cloud, the matching required physical conditions imply that a detection of the redshifted 3-cm emission line could provide direct evidence for the DCBH scenario.

  7. Optimization of a Potent, Orally Active S1P1 Agonist Containing a Quinolinone Core

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The optimization of a series of S1P1 agonists with limited activity against S1P3 is reported. A polar headgroup was used to improve the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters of lead quinolinone 6. When dosed orally at 1 and 3 mg/kg, the azahydroxymethyl analogue 22 achieved statistically significant lowering of circulating blood lymphocytes 24 h postdose. In rats, a dose-proportional increase in exposure was measured when 22 was dosed orally at 2 and 100 mg/kg. PMID:24900374

  8. STS-112 S1 truss in Payload Changeout Room at Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Payload Changeout Room at the pad, the payload is moved out of the payload canister for transfer to Space Shuttle Atlantis' payload bay for mission STS-112. The primary payload on the mission is the S1 Integrated Truss Structure. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during the mission. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  9. 11-cis retinal torsion: A QTAIM and stress tensor analysis of the S1 excited state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maza, Julio R.; Jenkins, Samantha; Kirk, Steven R.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate torsion about the C11-C12 bond mid-point for the S1 state of 11-cis retinal, using a QTAIM and stress tensor analysis. The QTAIM and stress tensor responses to a torsion ±α increase at a faster rate for the preferred direction of torsion though the CI seam. A QTAIM and stress tensor vector-based analysis provides an alternative way of characterising the asymmetry of the S1 potential energy surface. In the vicinity of the CI seam the ellipticity ε attained minimum values. The application of this analysis to molecular rotary motors is briefly discussed.

  10. Observation of an exotic S = +1 baryon in exclusive photoproduction from the deuteron.

    PubMed

    Stepanyan, S; Hicks, K; Carman, D S; Pasyuk, E; Schumacher, R A; Smith, E S; Tedeschi, D J; Todor, L; Adams, G; Ambrozewicz, P; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Audit, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Ball, J P; Barrow, S P; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Berman, B L; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bouchigny, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Carnahan, B; Chen, S; Ciciani, L; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J P; De Sanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; De Vita, R; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Gordon, C I O; Gothe, R; Griffioen, K; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Heimberg, P; Hersman, F W; Hicks, R S; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Joo, K; Juengst, H G; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kuang, Y; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuhn, J; Lachniet, J; Lawrence, D; Li, J; Lima, A; Livingston, K; Lukashin, K; Manak, J J; McAleer, S; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mehrabyan, S; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Morand, L; Morrow, S; Muccifora, V; Mueller, J; Murphy, L Y; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Brien, J; O'Rielly, G V; Opper, A K; Osipenko, M; Park, K; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P; Sabatié, F; Salgado, C; Santoro, J; Sapunenko, V; Serov, V S; Sharabian, Y G; Shaw, J; Simionatto, S; Skabelin, A V; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Strakovsky, I I; Stavinsky, A; Stoler, P; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Weller, H; Weygand, D P; Whisnant, C S; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J

    2003-12-19

    In an exclusive measurement of the reaction gammad-->K(+)K(-)pn, a narrow peak that can be attributed to an exotic baryon with strangeness S=+1 is seen in the K(+)n invariant mass spectrum. The peak is at 1.542+/-0.005 GeV/c(2) with a measured width of 0.021 GeV/c(2) FWHM, which is largely determined by experimental mass resolution. The statistical significance of the peak is (5.2+/-0.6)sigma. The mass and width of the observed peak are consistent with recent reports of a narrow S=+1 baryon by other experimental groups. PMID:14754107

  11. RAPD and ISSR based evaluation of genetic stability of micropropagated plantlets of Morus alba L. variety S-1.

    PubMed

    Saha, Soumen; Adhikari, Sinchan; Dey, Tulsi; Ghosh, Parthadeb

    2016-02-01

    Plant regeneration through rapid in vitro clonal propagation of nodal explants of Morus alba L. variety S-1 was established along with genetic stability analysis of regenerates. Axillary shoot bud proliferation was achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium in various culture regimes. Highest number of shoots (5.62 ± 0.01), with average length 4.19 ± 0.01 cm, was initially achieved with medium containing 0.5 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) and 3% sucrose. Repeated subculturing of newly formed nodal parts after each harvest up to sixth passage, yielded highest number of shoots (about 32.27) per explants was obtained after fourth passage. Rooting of shoots occurred on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/1 Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). About 90% (89.16) of the plantlets transferred to the mixture of sand:soil:organic manure (2:2:1) in small plastic pots acclimatized successfully. Genetic stability of the discussed protocol was confirmed by two DNA-based fingerprinting techniques i.e. RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat). This protocol can be used for commercial propagation and for future genetic improvement studies. PMID:26693403

  12. RAPD and ISSR based evaluation of genetic stability of micropropagated plantlets of Morus alba L. variety S-1

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Soumen; Adhikari, Sinchan; Dey, Tulsi; Ghosh, Parthadeb

    2015-01-01

    Plant regeneration through rapid in vitro clonal propagation of nodal explants of Morus alba L. variety S-1 was established along with genetic stability analysis of regenerates. Axillary shoot bud proliferation was achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium in various culture regimes. Highest number of shoots (5.62 ± 0.01), with average length 4.19 ± 0.01 cm, was initially achieved with medium containing 0.5 mg/l N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 3% sucrose. Repeated subculturing of newly formed nodal parts after each harvest up to sixth passage, yielded highest number of shoots (about 32.27) per explants was obtained after fourth passage. Rooting of shoots occurred on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/1 Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). About 90% (89.16) of the plantlets transferred to the mixture of sand:soil:organic manure (2:2:1) in small plastic pots acclimatized successfully. Genetic stability of the discussed protocol was confirmed by two DNA-based fingerprinting techniques i.e. RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat). This protocol can be used for commercial propagation and for future genetic improvement studies. PMID:26693403

  13. Operating Characteristics of a 15-cm dia. Ion Engine for Small Planetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.; Pless, L. C.; Mueller, J.; Anderson, J.

    1993-01-01

    A 15-cm diameter, scaled-down version of the NASA light-weight 30-cm ion engine has been developed for potential application to very small planetary spacecraft. Integration of the 15-cm ion source into 4x15-cm segmented engine configuration results in a 30-cm equivalent engine which can be throttled over a 7-to-1 input power variation with a constant beam current in each of the four segments. Throttling the segmented engine by turning off individual segments can result in a significant decrease in the required service life (and qualification requirements) of the ion source components.

  14. Heavy actinide production from the interactions of sup 40 Ar with sup 248 Cm and a comparison with the sup 44 Ca- sup 248 Cm system

    SciTech Connect

    Leyba, J.D.; Henderson, R.A.; Hall, H.L.; Gannett, C.M.; Chadwick, R.B.; Czerwinski, K.R.; Kadkhodayan, B.A.; Kreek, S.A.; Haynes, G.R.; Gregorich, K.E.; Lee, D.M.; Nurmia, M.J.; Hoffman, D.C. Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720)

    1990-05-01

    Excitation functions have been measured for isotopes of Bk, Cf, Es, and Fm produced from the interactions of 207- to 286-MeV {sup 40}Ar ions with {sup 248}Cm. The measured isotopic distributions were found to be essentially symmetric with full widths at half maximum between 2.0 and 3.5 mass units. These results are comparable to those obtained in previous studies using {sup 40,44,48}Ca with {sup 248}Cm. The maxima of the isotopic distributions from the {sup 40}Ar-{sup 248}Cm system show shifts, to both heavier and lighter mass numbers, of 0 to 2 mass units relative to the corresponding maxima of the isotopic distributions from the {sup 40,44,48}Ca-{sup 248}Cm systems.

  15. Accelerated aging of 28 Gb s-1 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with multiple thick oxide apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropp, J. R.; Steinle, G.; Schäfer, G.; Shchukin, V. A.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Turkiewicz, J. P.; Zoldak, M.

    2015-04-01

    850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with multiple thick oxide apertures suitable for temperature-insensitive error free transmission at 28 Gb s-1 are subjected to accelerated aging at high current densities and chip temperatures. The devices withstand a 20% power change test at a high current density (18 kA c{{m}-2}) at an ambient temperature of 120 {}^\\circ C for 2500 h. At 90-95 {}^\\circ C at this current density no degradation was observed up to 5000 h. We performed the studies at further elevated current densities and temperatures and define the acceleration factor as AF={{({{J}stress}/{{J}use})}8}exp [(1.3 eV/{{k}B})(1/{{T}use}-1/{{T}stress})]. The extrapolated lifetime for 20% power drop is estimated as 20 thousand years at 300 K at current density of 18 kA c{{m}-2} which is sufficient for 28 Gb s-1 error-free temperature-insensitive data transmission.

  16. Three-dimensional simulation analysis of a 3 cm wavelength free-electron laser afterburner

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C. . High Energy Electronics Research Inst. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA . Center for Beam Physics)

    1994-10-01

    The author has simulated a 3 cm wavelength free-electron laser afterburner (FEL Afterburner) using two sets of parameters: one is for a 3-cm period wiggler and the other is for a 5.4 cm period wiggler. For the 3 cm period wiggler, the input beam energy is 112.5 keV, and for the 5.4 cm period wiggler the beam energy is increased to 290 keV to make the FEL Afterburner operate at the same frequency. It is found, from the simulations, that the FEL Afterburner with a longer period wiggler has a higher power conversion efficiency: larger than 16% $ for the 5.4 cm wiggler while only about 9% for the 3 cm wiggler. It is also shown that to enhance the interaction efficiency in the slow wave cavity, the slow wave number should be a little larger than the sum of the fast wave number and the wiggler wave number.

  17. Observations of the 18-cm lines of the OH radical in comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovisier, J.; Colom, P.; Biver, N.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.

    2015-10-01

    Since 1973, the 18-cm lines of the OH radical have been systematically observed in selected comets with the 300×40 m radio telescope at Nançay. Up to now, 133 comets have been observed (counting different returns of short-period comets as different comets), totalling about 6000 individual observations (typically one hour per day for each observation).These observations trace the water production rates (through its photodissociation product OH) and the coma expansion velocity. They are precious for statistical investigations of the evolution of the activity of the comets. These observations are also made as a participation to multi-wavelength observing campaigns of dedicated comets and as a support to cometary space missions. The observations are organized in a database which is progressively made publicly available: http://www.lesia.obspm.fr/planeto/ cometes/basecom/ [1]The most recent observations are listed in Table 1. Here are some recent highlights: 103P/Hartley 2 was observed in support to its fly-by by the EPOXI mission and to observations with Herschel. [2] The outbursts of the sungrazing comet C/2012 S1 (ISON), preceding its demise as it approached the Sun at 0.012 AU on 28 November 2013, were observed. [3] Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) was detected just before it passed at only 0.001 AU from Mars on 19 October 2014, due to enhanced background radiation as the comet was close to the Galactic plane. [4] The Nançay radio telescope actively participated to the multi-wavelength observing campaigns of the bright comets C/2011 L4 (PANSTARRS), C/2012 F6 (Lemmon), C/2012 X1 (LINEAR), C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) and C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) (Fig. 1), especially in coordination with radio observations with IRAM and ALMA. It should be noted that the Rosetta target 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, which was marginally detected at its 1982 passage due to a relatively close approach to Earth (# = 0.39 AU) [1], is unfavourably placed at its present return for observations at Nançay.

  18. S1P3 receptor influences key physiological properties of fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    PubMed

    Germinario, Elena; Bondì, Michela; Cencetti, Francesca; Donati, Chiara; Nocella, Marta; Colombini, Barbara; Betto, Romeo; Bruni, Paola; Bagni, Maria Angela; Danieli-Betto, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    To examine the role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 3 (S1P3) in modulating muscle properties, we utilized transgenic mice depleted of the receptor. Morphological analyses of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle did not show evident differences between wild-type and S1P3-null mice. The body weight of 3-mo-old S1P3-null mice and the mean cross-sectional area of transgenic EDL muscle fibers were similar to those of wild-type. S1P3 deficiency enhanced the expression level of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors mRNA in S1P3-null EDL muscle. The contractile properties of S1P3-null EDL diverge from those of wild-type, largely more fatigable and less able to recover. The absence of S1P3 appears responsible for a lower availability of calcium during fatigue. S1P supplementation, expected to stimulate residual S1P receptors and signaling, reduced fatigue development of S1P3-null muscle. Moreover, in the absence of S1P3, denervated EDL atrophies less than wild-type. The analysis of atrophy-related proteins in S1P3-null EDL evidences high levels of the endogenous regulator of mitochondria biogenesis peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α); preserving mitochondria could protect the muscle from disuse atrophy. In conclusion, the absence of S1P3 makes the muscle more sensitive to fatigue and slows down atrophy development after denervation, indicating that S1P3 is involved in the modulation of key physiological properties of the fast-twitch EDL muscle. PMID:26718782

  19. Effect of Self-Regulated Learning and Motivation to Achieve against Teacher Professional Capability for Student S1 PGSD of Science Field Compared with Regular Student S1 PGSD at UPBJJ Serang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prayekti

    2015-01-01

    This study is to know effect of self-regulated learning and motivation to achieve against teacher professional capability for student S1 PGSD of science field compared with regular student S1 PGSD. The student uses grades of Classroom Action Research (CAR) and Stabilization of Professional Capability (SPC) on curriculum of S1 PGSD to see…

  20. RegCM4-HadGEM2-ES simulated cyclone climatology (1979-2005) over the Southwestern South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfírio da Rocha, Rosmeri; Simões Reboita, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Cyclones over the Southwestern South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) are a subject of great interest once they modify the weather and control the climate near east coast of South America (SA). In this study we compare the cyclones climatology in the period 1979-2005 simulated by Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) with that from ERA-Interim reanalysis (ECMWF). RegCM4 was nested in HadGEM2-ES output and the simulation used the SA domain of CORDEX project, with a horizontal grid of 50 km and 18 sigma-pressure levels in the vertical. The RegCM4 simulation used the land surface Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) and the mixed convection Emanuel-Grell scheme configurations. This simulation is part of the CREMA (CORDEX REgCM4 hyper-MAtrix) experiment. The cyclones were identified using an automated tracking scheme based on minima (cyclonic in Southern Hemisphere) of relative vorticity from the wind at 925 hPa. The threshold of -1.5 x 10-5s-1 was used in the algorithm. All cyclones in RegCM4 and ERA-Interim with relative vorticity lower than this threshold and with lifetime higher or equal 24 hours were included in the climatology. ERA-Interim shows three main cyclogenetic regions near east coast of SA. In general, RegCM4 simulated these same regions but with an underestimation of the number of cyclones. In each of these regions, there is a different season of higher cyclones frequency. Over extreme south of southern Brazil and Uruguay the higher frequency of cyclones occurs in winter, while southeastern Brazil and southeastern Argentina cyclones are most frequent during summer. RegCM4 is able to simulate this observed seasonality.

  1. A Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope search for associated H I 21 cm absorption in high-redshift flat-spectrum sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aditya, J. N. H. S.; Kanekar, Nissim; Kurapati, Sushma

    2016-02-01

    We report results from a Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope search for `associated' redshifted H I 21 cm absorption from 24 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), at 1.1 < z < 3.6, selected from the Caltech-Jodrell Bank Flat-spectrum (CJF) sample. 22 out of 23 sources with usable data showed no evidence of absorption, with typical 3σ optical depth detection limits of ≈0.01 at a velocity resolution of ≈30 km s-1. A single tentative absorption detection was obtained at z ≈ 3.530 towards TXS 0604+728. If confirmed, this would be the highest redshift at which H I 21 cm absorption has ever been detected. Including 29 CJF sources with searches for redshifted H I 21 cm absorption in the literature, mostly at z < 1, we construct a sample of 52 uniformly selected flat-spectrum sources. A Peto-Prentice two-sample test for censored data finds (at ≈3σ significance) that the strength of H I 21 cm absorption is weaker in the high-z sample than in the low-z sample; this is the first statistically significant evidence for redshift evolution in the strength of H I 21 cm absorption in a uniformly selected AGN sample. However, the two-sample test also finds that the H I 21 cm absorption strength is higher in AGNs with low ultraviolet or radio luminosities, at ≈3.4σ significance. The fact that the higher luminosity AGNs of the sample typically lie at high redshifts implies that it is currently not possible to break the degeneracy between AGN luminosity and redshift evolution as the primary cause of the low H I 21 cm opacities in high-redshift, high-luminosity AGNs.

  2. Sacrum fracture following L5-S1 stand-alone interbody fusion for isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2015-11-01

    We report a 72-year-old man with a rare sacral fracture following stand-alone L5-S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusion for isthmic spondylolisthesis. The man underwent a minimally invasive management strategy using posterior percutaneous pedicle fixation and partial reduction of the deformity. We also discuss the current literature on fusion procedures for isthmic spondylolisthesis. PMID:26100158

  3. SKI-1/S1P inhibitor PF-429242 impairs the onset of HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Matthieu; Sureau, Camille; Guévin, Carl; Seidah, Nabil G; Labonté, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Worldwide, approximately 170 million individuals are afflicted with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To prevent the development of inherent diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, tremendous efforts have been made, leading to the development of promising new treatments. However, their efficiency is still dependent on the viral genotype. Additionally, these treatments that target the virus directly can trigger the emergence of resistant variants. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a long-term (72h) inhibition of SKI-1/S1P, a master lipogenic pathway regulator through activation of SREBP, resulted in impaired HCV genome replication and infectious virion secretion. In the present study, we sought to investigate the antiviral effect of the SKI-1/S1P small molecule inhibitor PF-429242 at the early steps of the HCV lifecycle. Our results indicate a very potent antiviral effect of the inhibitor early in the viral lifecycle and that the overall action of the compound relies on two different contributions. The first one is SREBP/SKI-1/S1P dependent and involves LDLR and NPC1L1 proteins, while the second one is SREBP independent. Overall, our study confirms that SKI-1/S1P is a relevant target to impair HCV infection and that PF-429242 could be a promising candidate in the field of HCV infection treatment. PMID:25573299

  4. The 3P0-VERSUS 3S1-MODELS for Quark-Antiquark Annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, A. M.; Niskanen, J. A.

    A comparison is made between the 3S1- and 3P0-models for quark-antiquark annihilation or creation. Even though the former appears, at first sight, to be superior for Nbar {N} annihilation into two mesons, it is argued from their effects in meson decays that this conclusion is premature.

  5. Installation of the S1 Truss to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronauts Piers J. Sellers (left ) and David A. Wolf work on the newly installed Starboard One (S1) truss to the International Space Station (ISS) during the STS-112 mission. The primary payloads of this mission, ISS Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (S One), the starboard side thermal radiator truss, and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat-rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  6. 26 CFR 1.6050S-1 - Information reporting for qualified tuition and related expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information Returns § 1.6050S-1... relating to substitute forms (see § 601.601(d)(2) of this chapter). (ii) Information included on return. An... form complies with applicable revenue procedures relating to substitute forms (see § 601.601(d)(2)...

  7. 26 CFR 1.6050S-1 - Information reporting for qualified tuition and related expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information Returns § 1.6050S-1... relating to substitute forms (see § 601.601(d)(2) of this chapter). (ii) Information included on return. An... form complies with applicable revenue procedures relating to substitute forms (see § 601.601(d)(2)...

  8. Pyruvate Kinase M2 Activates mTORC1 by Phosphorylating AKT1S1.

    PubMed

    He, Chang-Liang; Bian, Yang-Yang; Xue, Yu; Liu, Ze-Xian; Zhou, Kai-Qiang; Yao, Cui-Fang; Lin, Yan; Zou, Han-Fa; Luo, Fang-Xiu; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Jian-Yuan; Ye, Ming-Liang; Zhao, Shi-Min; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In cancer cells, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) that requires hormonal and nutrient signals for its activation, is constitutively activated. We found that overexpression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) activates mTORC1 signaling through phosphorylating mTORC1 inhibitor AKT1 substrate 1 (AKT1S1). An unbiased quantitative phosphoproteomic survey identified 974 PKM2 substrates, including serine202 and serine203 (S202/203) of AKT1S1, in the proteome of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Phosphorylation of S202/203 of AKT1S1 by PKM2 released AKT1S1 from raptor and facilitated its binding to 14-3-3, resulted in hormonal- and nutrient-signals independent activation of mTORC1 signaling and led accelerated oncogenic growth and autophagy inhibition in cancer cells. Decreasing S202/203 phosphorylation by TEPP-46 treatment reversed these effects. In RCCs and breast cancers, PKM2 overexpression was correlated with elevated S202/203 phosphorylation, activated mTORC1 and inhibited autophagy. Our results provided the first phosphorylome of PKM2 and revealed a constitutive mTORC1 activating mechanism in cancer cells. PMID:26876154

  9. Pyruvate Kinase M2 Activates mTORC1 by Phosphorylating AKT1S1

    PubMed Central

    He, Chang-Liang; Bian, Yang-Yang; Xue, Yu; Liu, Ze-Xian; Zhou, Kai-Qiang; Yao, Cui-Fang; Lin, Yan; Zou, Han-Fa; Luo, Fang-Xiu; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Jian-Yuan; Ye, Ming-Liang; Zhao, Shi-Min; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In cancer cells, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) that requires hormonal and nutrient signals for its activation, is constitutively activated. We found that overexpression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) activates mTORC1 signaling through phosphorylating mTORC1 inhibitor AKT1 substrate 1 (AKT1S1). An unbiased quantitative phosphoproteomic survey identified 974 PKM2 substrates, including serine202 and serine203 (S202/203) of AKT1S1, in the proteome of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Phosphorylation of S202/203 of AKT1S1 by PKM2 released AKT1S1 from raptor and facilitated its binding to 14-3-3, resulted in hormonal- and nutrient-signals independent activation of mTORC1 signaling and led accelerated oncogenic growth and autophagy inhibition in cancer cells. Decreasing S202/203 phosphorylation by TEPP-46 treatment reversed these effects. In RCCs and breast cancers, PKM2 overexpression was correlated with elevated S202/203 phosphorylation, activated mTORC1 and inhibited autophagy. Our results provided the first phosphorylome of PKM2 and revealed a constitutive mTORC1 activating mechanism in cancer cells. PMID:26876154

  10. Study of the Vibrational Spectra of the Mixed Crystal ZnS1-xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Tista; Rao, Mala N.; Chaplot, S. L.

    2011-07-01

    A simple transferable potential model has been employed to study the vibrational mode behavior of the mixed system ZnS1-xSex as a function of concentration and pressure. Further, the existence of a localized resonance mode has also been confirmed, in agreement with experimental data from Raman scattering.

  11. B cell-specific S1PR1 deficiency blocks prion dissemination between secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Mok, Simon W F; Proia, Richard L; Brinkmann, Volker; Mabbott, Neil A

    2012-05-15

    Many prion diseases are peripherally acquired (e.g., orally or via lesions to skin or mucous membranes). After peripheral exposure, prions replicate first upon follicular dendritic cells (FDC) in the draining lymphoid tissue before infecting the brain. However, after replication upon FDC within the draining lymphoid tissue, prions are subsequently propagated to most nondraining secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), including the spleen, by a previously underdetermined mechanism. The germinal centers in which FDC are situated produce a population of B cells that can recirculate between SLO. Therefore, we reasoned that B cells were ideal candidates by which prion dissemination between SLO may occur. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR)1 stimulation controls the egress of T and B cells from SLO. S1PR1 signaling blockade sequesters lymphocytes within SLO, resulting in lymphopenia in the blood and lymph. We show that, in mice treated with the S1PR modulator FTY720 or with S1PR1 deficiency restricted to B cells, the dissemination of prions from the draining lymph node to nondraining SLO is blocked. These data suggest that B cells interacting with and acquiring surface proteins from FDC and recirculating between SLO via the blood and lymph mediate the initial propagation of prions from the draining lymphoid tissue to peripheral tissues. PMID:22504650

  12. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of the yeast Malassezia sympodialis allergen Mala s 1

    SciTech Connect

    Vilhelmsson, Monica; Hallberg, B. Martin; Rasool, Omid; Zargari, Arezou; Scheynius, Annika; Achour, Adnane

    2006-02-01

    Crystals of the M. sympodialis allergen Mala s 1 have been obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set has been collected from native crystals to 1.35 Å resolution. The opportunistic yeast Malassezia sympodialis can act as an allergen and elicit specific IgE- and T-cell reactivity in patients with atopic eczema. The first identified major allergen from M. sympodialis, Mala s 1, is present on the cell surface of the yeast. Recombinant Mala s 1 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and refolded in a soluble form. Crystals of Mala s 1 were obtained in 25% PEG 8K, 0.2 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.4, b = 163.7, c = 50.6 Å, and diffract to 1.35 Å resolution.

  13. Determination of the hyperfine coupling constant of the cesium 7S1/2 state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Jie; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Junmin

    2016-08-01

    We report the hyperfine splitting (HFS) measurement of the cesium (Cs) 7S1/2 state by optical–optical double-resonance spectroscopy with the Cs 6S1/2–6P3/2–7S1/2 (852 nm  +  1470 nm) ladder-type system. The HFS frequency calibration is performed by employing a phase-type waveguide electro-optic modulator together with a stable confocal Fabry–Perot cavity. From the measured HFS between the F″  =  3 and F″  =  4 manifolds of the Cs 7S1/2 state (HFS  =  2183.273  ±  0.062 MHz), we have determined the magnetic dipole hyperfine coupling constant (A  =  545.818  ±  0.016 MHz), which is in good agreement with the previous work but much more precise.

  14. Creation of a S1P Lyase bacterial surrogate for structure-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Argiriadi, Maria A; Banach, David; Radziejewska, Elzbieta; Marchie, Susan; DiMauro, Jennifer; Dinges, Jurgen; Dominguez, Eric; Hutchins, Charles; Judge, Russell A; Queeney, Kara; Wallace, Grier; Harris, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    S1P Lyase (SPL) has been described as a drug target in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. It plays an important role in maintaining intracellular levels of S1P thereby affecting T cell egress from lymphoid tissues. Several groups have already published approaches to inhibit S1P Lyase with small molecules, which in turn increase endogenous S1P concentrations resulting in immunosuppression. The use of structural biology has previously aided SPL inhibitor design. Novel construct design is at times necessary to provide a reagent for protein crystallography. Here we present a chimeric bacterial protein scaffold used for protein X-ray structures in the presence of early small molecule inhibitors. Mutations were introduced to the bacterial SPL from Symbiobacterium thermophilum which mimic the human enzyme. As a result, two mutant StSPL crystal structures resolved to 2.8Å and 2.2Å resolutions were solved and provide initial structural hypotheses for an isoxazole chemical series, whose optimization is discussed in the accompanying paper. PMID:27013389

  15. Dramatic Response of S-1 Administration to Chemorefractory Advanced Thymic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaira, Kyoichi; Naruse, Ichiro; Imai, Hisao; Sunaga, Noriaki; Hisada, Takeshi; Motegi, Masahiko; Asao, Takayuki; Yamada, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    Thymic cancer (TC) is a rare malignancy in thoracic tumors, and there has been no standard therapeutics for advanced or relapsed patients. The clinical significance of second-line or beyond chemotherapy for platinum refractory advanced TC remains unclear. Here, we present the experience of a patient with TC showing a complete response to S-1 as third-line chemotherapy. A 54-year-old female with TC was treated with carboplatin plus paclitaxel and thoracic radiotherapy as first-line chemoradiotherapy and amrubicin as second-line chemotherapy. After 3 cycles of amrubicin administration, the metastatic hepatic lesions revealed a markedly progressive disease. A single agent of S-1 was administered as sequencing chemotherapy. After 2 cycles of S-1, the patient achieved a complete remission of multiple metastatic sites. There was evidence of immunohistochemical staining of a low thymidylate synthase (TS) expression. The expression of TS may be closely associated with the efficacy of S-1 in patients with TC. PMID:26389778

  16. Structure of the S1S2 Glutamate Binding Domain of GluR3

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed H.; Wang, Qi; Sondermann, Holger; Oswald, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Glutamate receptors are the most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the vertebrate central nervous system. Determining the structural differences between the binding sites of different subtypes is crucial to our understanding of neuronal circuits and to the development of subtype specific drugs. The structures of the binding domain (S1S2) of the GluR3 (flip) AMPA receptor subunit bound to glutamate and AMPA and the GluR2 (flop) subunit bound to glutamate were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.9, 2.1, and 1.55 Å, respectively. Overall, the structure of GluR3 (flip) S1S2 is very similar to GluR2 (flop) S1S2 (backbone RMSD of 0.30 ± 0.05 for glutamate-bound and 0.26 ± 0.01 for AMPA-bound). The differences in the flip and flop isoforms are subtle and largely arise from one hydrogen bond across the dimer interface and associated water molecules. Comparison of the binding affinity for various agonists and partial agonists suggest that the S1S2 domains of GluR2 and GluR3 show only small differences in affinity, unlike what is found for the intact receptors (with the exception of one ligand, Cl-HIBO, which has a ten-fold difference in affinity for GluR2 vs GluR3). PMID:19003990

  17. High-Dispersion Spectroscopic Observations of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with the Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Nagashima, Masayoshi; Hitomi, Kobayashi; Decock, Alice; Jehin, Emmanuel; Boice, Daniel C.

    2014-11-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was one of the Oort cloud comets and dynamically new. This comet was broken at its perihelion passage on UT 2013 November 28.1 (at Rh ~ 17 solar radius). We observed the comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) on UT 2013 November 15 with the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) mounted on the Subaru Telescope atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Its heliocentric and geocentric distances were 0.601 and 0.898 AU, respectively. We selected the slit size of 0”.5 x 9”.0 on the sky to achieve the spectral resolution of R = 72,000 from 550 to 830 nm. The total exposure time of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was 1200 seconds. We detected many emission lines caused from radicals (e.g., CN, C2, NH2), ions (H2O+), atoms ([OI] and Na I) and also many unidentified lines in the spectra. We report the (1) the ortho-to-para abundance ratios (OPRs) of water and ammonia estimated from the high-dispersion spectra of H2O+ and NH2, (2) the green-to-red line ratio of forbidden oxygen emissions, (3) the isotopic ratios of C2 (the carbon isotopic ratio from Swan band) and CN (the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios from red band), (4) the sodium-to-continuum ratio of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON).

  18. Pan-STARRS 1 observations of the unusual active Centaur P/2011 S1(Gibbs)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H. W.; Ip, W. H.; Chen, W. P.; Chen, Y. T.; Lacerda, P.; Holman, M.; Protopapas, P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.

    2014-05-01

    P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is an outer solar system comet or active Centaur with a similar orbit to that of the famous 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has been observed by the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) sky survey from 2010 to 2012. The resulting data allow us to perform multi-color studies of the nucleus and coma of the comet. Analysis of PS1 images reveals that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has a small nucleus <4 km radius, with colors g {sub P1} – r {sub P1} = 0.5 ± 0.02, r {sub P1} – i {sub P1} = 0.12 ± 0.02, and i {sub P1} – z {sub P1} = 0.46 ± 0.03. The comet remained active from 2010 to 2012, with a model-dependent mass-loss rate of ∼100 kg s{sup –1}. The mass-loss rate per unit surface area of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is as high as that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, making it one of the most active Centaurs. The mass-loss rate also varies with time from ∼40 kg s{sup –1} to 150 kg s{sup –1}. Due to its rather circular orbit, we propose that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1-like outbursts that control the outgassing rate. The results indicate that it may have a similar surface composition to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. Our numerical simulations show that the future orbital evolution of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is more similar to that of the main population of Centaurs than to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The results also demonstrate that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is dynamically unstable and can only remain near its current orbit for roughly a thousand years.

  19. Characterization of a periplasmic S1-like nuclease coded by the Mesorhizobium loti symbiosis island

    SciTech Connect

    Pimkin, Maxim; Miller, C. Glenn; Blakesley, Lauryn; Oleykowski, Catherine A.; Kodali, Nagendra S.; Yeung, Anthony T. . E-mail: AT_Yeung@fccc.edu

    2006-04-28

    DNA sequences encoding hypothetical proteins homologous to S1 nuclease from Aspergillus oryzae are found in many organisms including fungi, plants, pathogenic bacteria, and eukaryotic parasites. One of these is the M1 nuclease of Mesorhizobium loti which we demonstrate herein to be an enzymatically active, soluble, and stable S1 homolog that lacks the extensive mannosyl-glycosylation found in eukaryotic S1 nuclease homologs. We have expressed the cloned M1 protein in M. loti and purified recombinant native M1 to near homogeneity and have also isolated a homogeneous M1 carboxy-terminal hexahistidine tag fusion protein. Mass spectrometry and N-terminal Edman degradation sequencing confirmed the protein identity. The enzymatic properties of the purified M1 nuclease are similar to those of S1. At acidic pH M1 is 25 times more active on single-stranded DNA than on double-stranded DNA and 3 times more active on single-stranded DNA than on single-stranded RNA. At neutral pH the RNase activity of M1 exceeds the DNase activity. M1 nicks supercoiled RF-I plasmid DNA and rapidly cuts the phosphodiester bond across from the nick in the resultant relaxed RF-II plasmid DNA. Therefore, M1 represents an active bacterial S1 homolog in spite of great sequence divergence. The biochemical characterization of M1 nuclease supports our sequence alignment that reveals the minimal 21 amino acid residues that are necessarily conserved for the structure and functions of this enzyme family. The ability of M1 to degrade RNA at neutral pH implies previously unappreciated roles of these nucleases in biological systems.

  20. The S1 Truss Prior to Installation on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Being attached to the Canadarm2 on the International Space Station (ISS), the Remote Manipulator System arm built by the Canadian Space Agency, the Integrated Truss Assembly (S1) Truss is suspended over the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis' cargo bay. Astronauts Sandra H. Magnus, STS-112 mission specialist, and Peggy A. Whitson, Expedition Five flight engineer, used the Canadarm2 from inside the Destiny laboratory on the ISS to lift the S1 truss out of the orbiter's cargo bay and move it into position prior to its installation on the ISS. The primary payloads of this mission, ISS Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (S One), the starboard side thermal radiator truss, and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat-rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  1. Centennial-scale paleoceanography during sapropel S1 deposition in the NE Aegean (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantaphyllou, Maria; Gogou, Alexandra; Dimiza, Margarita; Kostopoulou, Sofia; Parinos, Constantine; Roussakis, Grigoris; Geraga, Maria; Skampa, Elisavet; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Fleitmann, Dominik; Zervakis, Vassilis; Velaoras, Dimitris; Diamantopoulou, Antonia; Sampatakaki, Angeliki; Lykousis, Vassilis

    2016-04-01

    Combined micropaleontological and geochemical analyses in the high-sedimentation gravity core M-4G, provided new centennial scale paleoceanographic data for the sapropel S1 deposition in the NE Aegean Sea. Sapropel layer S1a (10.2-8.0 ka) is deposited in dysoxic to oxic bottom waters; sediments are characterized by the high abundance of benthic foraminifers Chilostomella mediterranensis and Globobulimina affinis that are able to tolerate surface sediment and/or pore water oxygen depletion and the presence of the oxic mesotrophic-eutrophic U. mediterranea. Adequate preservation of organic matter is proven by the high organic carbon and loliolide and isololiolide contents, whereas the biomarker record and the abundances of eutrophic planktonic foraminifera document enhanced productivity. Both alkenone-based SSTs and δO18 G. bulloides records indicate coolings at 8.2 ka (S1a) and at ~7.8 ka (S1 interruption). Sapropelic layer S1b (7.7-6.4 ka) is characterized by rather oxic conditions marked by the prominent increase of U. mediterranea. The highly fluctuating SSTs demonstrate repeated coolings and associated dense water formation; major event at 7.4 ka, followed by cold spells at 7.0, 6.8, 6.5 ka. Besides, the increase of algal biomarkers, labile organic matter-feeding foraminifera and eutrophic planktonic species pinpoints rise in in situ marine productivity, which is enhanced by more efficient vertical convection due to repeated cold events. The associated contributions of labile marine organic matter (OM) along with fresher terrestrial OM inputs after ~7.7 ka BP imply alternative/ additional than the north Aegean riverine borderland sources for the influx of organic matter at the south Limnos Basin, also related to the inflow of highly productive Marmara/Black Sea waters

  2. Sphingosine 1-phosphate analogue recognition and selectivity at S1P4 within the endothelial differentiation gene family of receptors

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Yuichi; Pham, TrucChi T.; Fujiwara, Yuko; Kohno, Takayuki; Osborne, Daniel A.; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Tigyi, Gabor; Parrill, Abby L.

    2005-01-01

    Synergistic computational and experimental studies provided previously unforeseen details concerning the structural basis of S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate) recognition by the S1P4 G-protein-coupled receptor. Similarly to reports on the S1P1 receptor, cationic and anionic residues in the third transmembrane domain (R3.28 and E3.29 at positions 124 and 125) form ion pairs with the phosphate and ammonium of S1P, and alanine mutations at these positions abolished specific S1P binding, S1P-induced receptor activation and cell migration. Unlike findings on the S1P1 receptor, no cationic residue in the seventh transmembrane domain interacts with the phosphate. Additionally, two previously undiscovered interactions with the S1P polar headgroup have been identified. Trp186 at position 4.64 in the fourth transmembrane domain interacts by a cation-π interaction with the ammonium group of S1P. Lys204 at position 5.38 forms an ion pair with the S1P. The S1P4 and S1P1 receptors show differences in binding-pocket shape and electrostatic distributions that correlate with the published structure–activity relationships. In particular, the binding pocket of mS1P4 (mouse S1P4) has recognition sites for the anionic phosphate and cationic ammonium groups that are equidistant from the end of the non-polar tail. In contrast, the binding pocket of hS1P1 (human S1P4) places the ammonium recognition site 2 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) closer to the end of the non-polar tail than the phosphate recognition site. PMID:15733055

  3. Prognostic factors after hepatic resection for the single hepatocellular carcinoma larger than 5 cm

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Keun Soo; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine which factors affect the prognosis of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) larger than 5 cm, including the prognostic difference between tumor sizes from 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm. Methods The medical records of 114 patients who underwent hepatectomy for single HCC larger than 5 cm were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Results In the analysis of the entire cohort of 114 patients, the 5-year overall and diseases-free survival rates were 50% and 29%, respectively. In a comparison of survival rates between groups, tumor sizes of 5 to 10 cm and larger than 10 cm, the overall and disease-free survival rates were not significantly different, respectively (54% vs. 41%, P = 0.433 and 33% vs. 23%, P = 0.083). On multivariate analysis, positive hepatitis B, high prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II levels over 200 mIU/mL, and vascular invasion (micro- and macrovascular invasion) were independent prognostic factors for recurrence after hepatic resection. However, tumor size larger than 10 cm was not significant for recurrence after resection. Conclusion This study shows that surgical resection of solitary HCC larger than 5 cm showed favorable overall survival. And there is no survival difference with tumors between 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm.

  4. Identification of CM1 as a Pathogenic Factor in Inflammatory Diseases and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Seyeon; Kim, Hyemin; Yu, Yeon Sil; Lee, Na-Eun; Kong, Joo Myoung; Kim, Hang-Rae; Hwang, Young-Il; Song, Yeong Wook

    2011-01-01

    Background CM1 (centrocyte/-blast marker 1) was defined by a mAb against concanavalin A (Con A) activated PBMC. It is expressed in germinal center of human tonsil and on the surface of activated PBMC as well as cancer cells. Recently, increased productions of pro-inflammatory mediators were detected from activated PBMC by CM1 ligation. Methods However, there is a limitation to explain the exact role of CM1 on inflammation and its related mechanisms, since the identity of CM1 is still not clarified. In our previous study, we have already confirmed that soluble form of CM1 was produced by Raji. Therefore, we performed Q-TOF analysis after immunoprecipitation of concentrated Raji culture supernatant using anti-CM1 mAbs. Results As a result, we found that CM1 is identical to enolase-1(ENO1), a glycolytic enzyme, and we confirmed that results by silencing ENO1 using siRNA. It was also confirmed through competition assay between anti-CM1 and anti-ENO1 mAbs. Finally, we investigated the possible role of CM1 in inflammatory response and cancer. The ligation of CM1 on Raji cells with anti-CM1 mAbs induces the extensive production of prostaglandin E2(PGE2). In addition, the increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 was shown in NCI-N87, stomach cancer cell line by CM1 stimulation. Conclusion CM1 is identical to ENO1 and it might be an important role in the regulation of inflammatory responses. PMID:21860611

  5. Exercise Capacity and Response to Training Quantitative Trait Loci in a NZW X 129S1 Intercross and Combined Cross Analysis of Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Massett, Michael P.; Avila, Joshua J.; Kim, Seung Kyum

    2015-01-01

    Genetic factors determining exercise capacity and the magnitude of the response to exercise training are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with exercise training in mice. Based on marked differences in training responses in inbred NZW (-0.65 ± 1.73 min) and 129S1 (6.18 ± 3.81 min) mice, a reciprocal intercross breeding scheme was used to generate 285 F2 mice. All F2 mice completed an exercise performance test before and after a 4-week treadmill running program, resulting in an increase in exercise capacity of 1.54 ± 3.69 min (range = -10 to +12 min). Genome-wide linkage scans were performed for pre-training, post-training, and change in run time. For pre-training exercise time, suggestive QTL were identified on Chromosomes 5 (57.4 cM, 2.5 LOD) and 6 (47.8 cM, 2.9 LOD). A significant QTL for post-training exercise capacity was identified on Chromosome 5 (43.4 cM, 4.1 LOD) and a suggestive QTL on Chromosomes 1 (55.7 cM, 2.3 LOD) and 8 (66.1 cM, 2.2 LOD). A suggestive QTL for the change in run time was identified on Chromosome 6 (37.8 cM, 2.7 LOD). To identify shared QTL, this data set was combined with data from a previous F2 cross between B6 and FVB strains. In the combined cross analysis, significant novel QTL for pre-training exercise time and change in exercise time were identified on Chromosome 12 (54.0 cM, 3.6 LOD) and Chromosome 6 (28.0 cM, 3.7 LOD), respectively. Collectively, these data suggest that combined cross analysis can be used to identify novel QTL and narrow the confidence interval of QTL for exercise capacity and responses to training. Furthermore, these data support the use of larger and more diverse mapping populations to identify the genetic basis for exercise capacity and responses to training. PMID:26710100

  6. The 13CH4 absorption spectrum in the Icosad range (6600-7692 cm-1) at 80 K and 296 K: Empirical line lists and temperature dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campargue, A.; Béguier, S.; Zbiri, Y.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Karlovets, E. V.; Nikitin, A. V.; Rey, M.; Starikova, E. N.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.

    2016-08-01

    The 13CH4 absorption spectrum has been recorded at 296 K and 80 K in the Icosad range between 6600 and 7700 cm-1. The achieved noise equivalent absorption of the spectra recorded by differential absorption spectroscopy (DAS) is about αmin ≈ 1.5 × 10-7 cm-1. Two empirical line lists were constructed including 17,792 and 24,139 lines at 80 K and 296 K, respectively. For comparison, the HITRAN database provides only 1040 13CH4 lines in the region determined from methane spectra with natural isotopic abundance. Empirical values of the lower state energy level, Eemp, were systematically derived from the intensity ratios of the lines measured at 80 K and 296 K. Overall 10,792 Eemp values were determined providing accurate temperature dependence for most of the 13CH4 absorption in the region (93% and 82% at 80 K and 296 K, respectively). The quality of the derived empirical values of the lower state rotational quantum number, Jemp, is illustrated by their clear propensity to be close to an integer. A good agreement is achieved between our small Jemp values, with previous accurate determinations obtained by applying the 2T method to jet and 80 K spectra. The line lists at 296 K and 80 K which are provided as Supplementary material will be used for future rovibrational assignments based on accurate variational calculations.

  7. Comparable patterns of muscle facilitation evoked by individual corticomotoneuronal (CM) cells and by single intracortical microstimuli in primates: evidence for functional groups of CM cells.

    PubMed

    Cheney, P D; Fetz, E E

    1985-03-01

    We compared the averaged responses of forelimb muscles to action potentials of single motor cortex cells and to single intracortical microstimuli (S-ICMS). Activity of precentral neurons and 12 identified forelimb muscles (6 flexors and 6 extensors of wrist and fingers) was recorded in macaques while they performed alternating ramp-and-hold wrist movements. Action potentials of cells that covaried reliably with wrist flexion or extension were used to compile spike-triggered averages (spike-TAs) of rectified electromyographic (EMG) activity of six synergistically coactivated muscles. Cells whose spikes were followed by a clear postspike facilitation (PSF) of rectified muscle activity were designated corticomotoneuronal (CM) cells. CM cells typically facilitated a subset of the coactivated muscles called the cell's target muscles. The relative strength of the PSF in different target muscles ranged from clear increases above base-line fluctuations to weak but significant effects. For each CM cell we characterized the "PSF profile" of facilitation across different muscles, defined as the relative strength of PSF in each of the coactivated agonist muscles. After identifying the CM cell's target muscles, we delivered S-ICMS through the microelectrode at the same site. Biphasic stimuli were delivered during the same wrist movements in which the recorded CM cell had been active. Stimulus intensities were too weak (typically 5-10 microA) and their repetition rate too slow (5-15 Hz) to evoke muscle excitation evident in the raw EMG record. However, stimulus-triggered averages (stimulus-TAs) of the rectified EMGs of coactivated muscles revealed consistent patterns of poststimulus facilitation (PStimF). In most cases the muscles facilitated by the CM cell in spike-TAs (n = 60) were also facilitated by S-ICMS in stimulus-TAs. At sites of CM cells the threshold stimulus intensities for evoking a statistically significant effect were between 0.5 and 2 microA. S-ICMS of 5 micro

  8. Beyond the CM-5: A case study in performance analysis for the CM-5, T3D, and high performance RISC workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Beazley, D.M.; Lomdahl, P.S.

    1995-03-22

    We present a comprehensive performance evaluation of our molecular dynamics code SPaSM on the CM-5 in order to devise optimization strategies for the CM-5, T3D, and RISC workstations. In this analysis, we focus on the effective use of the SPARC microprocessor by performing measurements of instruction set utilization, cache effects, memory access patterns, and pipeline stall cycles. We then show that we can account for more than 99% of observed execution time of our program. Optimization strategies are devised and we show that our highly optimized ANSI C program running only on the SPARC microprocessor of the CM-5 is only twice as slow as our Gordon-Bell prize winning code that utilized the CM-5 vector units. On the CM-5E, we show that this optimized code run faster than the vector unit version. We then apply these techniques to the Cray T3D and measure resulting speedups. Finally, we show that simple optimization strategies are effective on a wide variety of high performance RISC workstations.

  9. Altered expression of CmNRRa changes flowering time of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuman; Lian, Lijuan; Liu, Qing; Xiao, Na; Fang, Rongxiang; Liu, Qinglin; Chen, Xiaoying

    2013-04-01

    Flowering time is an important ornamental trait for chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium, Dendranthema x grandiflorum) floricultural production. In this study, CmNRRa, an orthologous gene of OsNRRa that regulates root growth in response to nutrient stress in rice, was identified from Chrysanthemum and its role in flowering time was studied. The entire CmNRRa cDNA sequence was determined using a combinatorial PCR approach along with 5' and 3' RACE methods. CmNRRa expression levels in various tissues were monitored by real-time RT-PCR. CmNRRa was strongly expressed in flower buds and peduncles, suggesting that CmNRRa plays a regulatory role in floral development. To investigate the biological function of CmNRRa in chrysanthemums, overexpression and knockdown of CmNRRa were carried out using transgenic Chrysanthemum plants generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. CmNRRa expression levels in the transgenic plants were assayed by real-time RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis. The transgenic plants showed altered flowering times compared with nontransgenic plants. CmNRRa-RNAi transgenic plants flowered 40-64 days earlier, while CmNRRa-overexpressing plants exhibited a delayed flowering phenotype. These results revealed a negative effect of CmNRRa on flowering time modulation. Alteration of CmNRRa expression levels might be an effective means of controlling flowering time in Chrysanthemum. These results possess potential application in molecular breeding of chrysanthemums that production year-round, and may improve commercial chrysanthemum production in the flower industry. PMID:23190188

  10. Intensity of the hydrogen peroxide v6/b/ band around 1266 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, F. P. J.; Goorvitch, D.; Boese, R. W.; Bonomo, F. S.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory spectra of the V6(b) band of H2O2 at 1266/cm have been obtained at a resolution of 0.06/cm and at temperatures ranging from 278 to 294 K. A total band intensity of 375 + or - 17 per sq cm per amagat is determined from the spectra. Special techniques to handle the H2O2 samples in a way that minimizes abundance determination errors are discussed.

  11. Search for the flavor-changing neutral current decay B0s--> mu(+) mu(-) in pp Collisions at sqrt[s] = 1.96 TeV with the D0 detector.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J-L; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Arnoud, Y; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Beauceron, S; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Boehnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Butler, J M; Bystricky, J; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clément, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; da Motta, H; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golling, T; Gómez, B; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gurzhiev, S N; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Harder, K; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Kado, M M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kau, D; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Kim, K H; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Krzywdzinski, S; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Lager, S; Lahrichi, N; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A-C; Lebrun, P; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Leonidopoulos, C; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Lubatti, H J; Lueking, L; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A-M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; Mattingly, S E K; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; Meder, D; Melanson, H L; Melnitchouk, A; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mitrevski, J; Mokhov, N; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neustroev, P; Noeding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Nurse, E; O'dell, V; O'neil, D C; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Oshima, N; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Perea, P M; Perez, E; Peters, O; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Phaf, L; Piegaia, R; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pope, B G; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Przybycien, M B; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rani, K J; Rapidis, P A; Ratoff, P N; Reay, N W; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schukin, A A; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shephard, W D; Shpakov, D; Sidwell, R A; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smith, R P; Smolek, K; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Song, Y; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stanton, N R; Stark, J; Steele, J; Steinbrück, G; Stevenson, K; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tentindo-Repond, S; Thomas, E; Thooris, B; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torborg, J; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vlimant, J-R; Von Toerne, E; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Wahl, H D; Walker, R; Wang, L; Wang, Z-M; Warchol, J; Warsinsky, M; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wegner, M; Wermes, N; White, A; White, V; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wijngaarden, D A; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wittlin, J; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xu, Q; Xuan, N; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yen, Y; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zabi, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zdrazil, M; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhang, X; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zitoun, R; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A

    2005-02-25

    We present the results of a search for the flavor-changing neutral current decay B(0)(s)--> mu(+) mu(-) using a data set with integrated luminosity of 240 pb(-1) of pp collisions at sqrt[s] = 1.96 TeV collected with the D0 detector in run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We find the upper limit on the branching fraction to be B(B(0)(s)--> mu(+) mu(-)) < or= 5.0 x 10(-7) at the 95% C.L. assuming no contributions from the decay B(0)(d)--> mu(+) mu(-) in the signal region. This limit is the most stringent upper bound on the branching fraction B(0)(s)--> mu(+) mu(-) to date. PMID:15783803

  12. Enhanced regeneration of phosphorus during formation of the most recent eastern Mediterranean sapropel (S1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slomp, Caroline P.; Thomson, John; de Lange, Gert J.

    2002-04-01

    Phosphorus regeneration and burial fluxes during and after formation of the most recent sapropel S1 were determined for two deep-basin, low-sedimentation sites in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Organic C/P ratios and burial fluxes indicate enhanced regeneration of P relative to C during deposition of sapropel S1. This is largely due to the enhanced release of P from organic matter during sulfate reduction. Release of P from Fe-bound P also increased, but this was only a relatively minor source of dissolved P. Pore-water HPO 42- concentrations remained too low for carbonate fluorapatite formation. An increased burial of biogenic Ca-P (i.e., fish debris) was observed for one site. Estimated benthic fluxes of P during sapropel formation were elevated relative to the present day (˜900 to 2800 vs. ˜70 to 120 μmol m -2 yr -1). The present-day sedimentary P cycle in the deep-basin sediments is characterized by two major zones of reaction: (1) the zone near the sediment-water interface where substantial release of HPO 42- from organic matter takes place, and (2) the oxidation front at the top of the S1 where upward-diffusing HPO 42- from below the sapropel is sorbed to Fe-oxides. The efficiency of aerobic organisms in retaining P is reflected in the low organic C/P ratios in the oxidized part of the sapropel. Burial efficiencies for reactive P were significantly lower during S1 times compared with the present day (˜7 to 15% vs. 64 to 77%). Budget calculations for the eastern Mediterranean Sea demonstrate that the weakening of the antiestuarine circulation and the enhanced regeneration of P both contributed to a significant increase in deep-water HPO 42- concentrations during sapropel S1 times. Provided that sufficient vertical mixing occurred, enhanced regeneration of P at the seafloor may have played a key role in maintaining increased productivity during sapropel S1 formation.

  13. Case Report: Successful Staged Ureteroscopic Treatment of a 5 cm Staghorn Renal Calculus

    PubMed Central

    Ciccone, Joseph M.; McCabe, J. Clinton; Eyre, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that percutaneous nephrostolithotorny (PCNL) is the standard of choice for the removal of large staghorn renal calculi. Although data exists supporting a stagad ureteroscopic as an alternate treatment for stones up to 3 cm in select patients, little data exists to support a ureteroscopic approach for stones as large as 5 cm. We present a case of a 68 year old female with a 5 cm staghorn renal calculus managed successfully with a staged ureteroscopic approach. A staged ureteroscopic approach can be effective in treating stones as large as 5 cm. PMID:22606638

  14. Improving the detection of chronic migraine: Development and validation of Identify Chronic Migraine (ID-CM)

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Daniel; Buse, Dawn C; Pavlovic, Jelena M; Blumenfeld, Andrew M; Dodick, David W; Aurora, Sheena K; Becker, Werner J; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Vincent, Maurice B; Hindiyeh, Nada A; Starling, Amaal J; Gillard, Patrick J; Varon, Sepideh F; Reed, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Background Migraine, particularly chronic migraine (CM), is underdiagnosed and undertreated worldwide. Our objective was to develop and validate a self-administered tool (ID-CM) to identify migraine and CM. Methods ID-CM was developed in four stages. (1) Expert clinicians suggested candidate items from existing instruments and experience (Delphi Panel method). (2) Candidate items were reviewed by people with CM during cognitive debriefing interviews. (3) Items were administered to a Web panel of people with severe headache to assess psychometric properties and refine ID-CM. (4) Classification accuracy was assessed using an ICHD-3β gold-standard clinician diagnosis. Results Stages 1 and 2 identified 20 items selected for psychometric validation in stage 3 (n = 1562). The 12 psychometrically robust items from stage 3 underwent validity testing in stage 4. A scoring algorithm applied to four symptom items (moderate/severe pain intensity, photophobia, phonophobia, nausea) accurately classified most migraine cases among 111 people (sensitivity = 83.5%, specificity = 88.5%). Augmenting this algorithm with eight items assessing headache frequency, disability, medication use, and planning disruption correctly classified most CM cases (sensitivity = 80.6%, specificity = 88.6%). Discussion ID-CM is a simple yet accurate tool that correctly classifies most individuals with migraine and CM. Further testing in other settings will also be valuable. PMID:26002700

  15. Expanding the Landscape of Chromatin Modification (CM)-Related Functional Domains and Genes in Human

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Shuye; Turinsky, Andrei L.; Vlasblom, James; On, Tuan; Xiong, Xuejian; Emili, Andrew; Zhang, Zhaolei; Greenblatt, Jack; Parkinson, John; Wodak, Shoshana J.

    2010-01-01

    Chromatin modification (CM) plays a key role in regulating transcription, DNA replication, repair and recombination. However, our knowledge of these processes in humans remains very limited. Here we use computational approaches to study proteins and functional domains involved in CM in humans. We analyze the abundance and the pair-wise domain-domain co-occurrences of 25 well-documented CM domains in 5 model organisms: yeast, worm, fly, mouse and human. Results show that domains involved in histone methylation, DNA methylation, and histone variants are remarkably expanded in metazoan, reflecting the increased demand for cell type-specific gene regulation. We find that CM domains tend to co-occur with a limited number of partner domains and are hence not promiscuous. This property is exploited to identify 47 potentially novel CM domains, including 24 DNA-binding domains, whose role in CM has received little attention so far. Lastly, we use a consensus Machine Learning approach to predict 379 novel CM genes (coding for 329 proteins) in humans based on domain compositions. Several of these predictions are supported by very recent experimental studies and others are slated for experimental verification. Identification of novel CM genes and domains in humans will aid our understanding of fundamental epigenetic processes that are important for stem cell differentiation and cancer biology. Information on all the candidate CM domains and genes reported here is publicly available. PMID:21124763

  16. Photoionization of DABCO via high vibrational levels of the S 1 state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, S. T.

    2002-07-01

    The photoelectron spectrum following resonant two-photon ionization of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) was recorded with the laser tuned to the origin band of the S 2←S 0 transition. The spectrum is consistent with the rapid radiationless transition from the S 2 state into high vibrational levels of the S 1 state, as proposed by Smith et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 88 (1984) 2250]. Features in the double-resonance spectrum of Smith et al. that were previously assigned to photoionization of S(-) 3s(-) 1A″2 vibrational levels populated by a radiationless transition from the S 2 state are reinterpreted, with the conclusion that the S(-) state has yet to be observed.

  17. S1 and S2 Excited States of Gas-Phase Schiff-Base Retinal Chromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, I. B.; Lammich, L.; Andersen, L. H.

    2006-01-01

    Photoabsorption studies of 11-cis and all-trans Schiff-base retinal chromophore cations in the gas phase have been performed at the electrostatic ion storage ring in Aarhus. A broad absorption band due to the optically allowed excitation to the first electronically excited singlet state (S1) is observed at around 600 nm. A second “dark” excited state (S2) just below 400 nm is reported for the first time. It is located ˜1.2eV above S1 for both chromophores. The S2 state was not visible in a solution measurement where only one highly blueshifted absorption band corresponding to the first excited state was visible. Knowledge of the position of the excited states in retinal is essential for the understanding of the fast photoisomerization in, for example, visual pigments.

  18. L4-L5-S1 human dermatomes: a clinical, electromyographical, imaging and surgical findings.

    PubMed

    Faleiros, Antonio Tadeu de Souza; Resende, Luiz Antonio de Lima; Zanini, Marco Antonio; Castro, Heloisa Amélia de Lima; Gabarra, Roberto Colichio

    2009-06-01

    There is substantial controversy in literature about human dermatomes. We studied L4, L5, and S1 inferior limb dermatomes by comparing clinical signs and symptoms with conduction studies, electromyographical data, neurosurgical findings, and imaging data from computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After analyzing 60 patients, we concluded that L4 is probably located in the medial aspect of the leg, L5 in the lateral aspect of the leg and foot dorsus, and S1 in the posterior aspect of the backside, tight, leg and plantar foot skin. This is the first time that these human dermatomes have been evaluated by combined analysis of clinical, electromyographical, neurosurgical, and imaging data. PMID:19547820

  19. Atheroprotective role of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P).

    PubMed

    Potì, Francesco; Simoni, Manuela; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch

    2014-08-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies documented an inverse relationship between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and the extent of atherosclerotic disease. However, clinical interventions targeting HDL cholesterol failed to show clinical benefits with respect to cardiovascular risk reduction, suggesting that HDL components distinct from cholesterol may account for anti-atherogenic effects attributed to this lipoprotein. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-a lysosphingolipid exerting its biological activity via binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors and regulating a wide array of biological responses in a variety of different organs and tissues including the cardiovascular system-has been identified as an integral constituent of HDL particles. In the present review, we discuss current evidence from epidemiological studies, experimental approaches in vitro, and animal models of atherosclerosis, suggesting that S1P contributes to atheroprotective effects exerted by HDL particles. PMID:24891400

  20. Effects of mutations on enzyme activity and immunoreactivity of the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Lobet, Y; Cieplak, W; Smith, S G; Keith, J M

    1989-01-01

    By introducing a series of six different substitutions at and around position 9, we investigated the structural requirements of the amino-terminal region of the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin for both enzyme activity and immunoreactivity. All mutant S1 analogs with a substitution at this location exhibited severely decreased ADP-ribosyltransferase activity (range, 400- to 2,500-fold). In contrast, alteration of arginine 58 had considerably less effect. The reactivity of the mutant molecules with monoclonal antibody 1B7 varied with the nature of the substitution. These findings indicate an absolute requirement for the presence of an arginine residue at position 9 for the maintenance of efficient ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and illustrate the specific participation of vicinal residues in the formation of the protective epitope. PMID:2807541

  1. [Complete response in a case of anastomotic recurrence of rectal cancer treated with S-1 monotherapy].

    PubMed

    Kabashima, Akira; Kitagawa, Dai; Nakamura, Toshihiko; Kondo, Naoko; Teramoto, Seiichi; Saito, Genkichi; Funahashi, Tomoru; Adachi, Eisuke; Ikeda, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    A 63-year-old woman underwent a low anterior resection for rectal cancer in 2002.A n anastomotic recurrence was diagnosed in July 2011.S he rejected the possibility of colostomy as radical surgery.Chemotherapy consisting of capecitabine+ oxaliplatin (XELOX) or folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX6) + bevacizumab were not possible because of high costs. In view of the lower costs and the potential for ambulation, S-1 monotherapy was started. After 3 months, a reduction in the recurrent lesion was observed.After 19 months, the recurrent lesion revealed a scar, which was judged by biopsy to be Group 1.We had achieved a pathological complete response (CR).The standard treatment for recurrent colon cancer is surgical resection or multidrug chemotherapy. However, in view of a patient's quality of life (QOL), S-1 monotherapy may be considered as a potential therapy. PMID:25731306

  2. [R0 Resection of Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer after Combination Chemotherapy with Gemcitabine and S-1].

    PubMed

    Kametaka, Hisashi; Makino, Hironobu; Fukada, Tadaomi; Seike, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Takashi; Hasegawa, Akio

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old female was referred to our institution in October 2014 for additional therapy for cancer of the head of the pancreas. Utilizing a computed tomography scan, he was initially diagnosed with locally advanced unresectable cancer because of massive invasion to the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Combination chemotherapy consisting of gemcitabine and S-1 was administrated for 10 months. Since the tumor was remarkably reduced after chemotherapy, pancreaticoduodenectomy combined with portal vein resection was performed. Since the histopathological findings indicated few residual cancer tissues, our chemotherapy was considered dramatically effective. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient remains well and without any recurrences 14 months after the surgery. We therefore report a case of locally unresectable pancreatic cancer, which achieved R0 resection after combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and S-1. PMID:26805123

  3. Structure and tensile strength of LaS(1.4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Smoak, Richard H.

    1987-01-01

    The tensile strength of LaS(1.4) has been estimated by diametral stress testing at room temperature, 800 and 1300 K. Brittle, tensile-type failures were obtained at all temperatures when the crosshead speed was 0.0021 mm/s; however, a 1300 K test at 0.00085 mm/s produced plastic flow. The microstructure of LaS(1.4) consisted of two phases with beta-La2S3 comprising about 15 vol percent of the structure and gamma-La2S3 the remainder. Because of the limited amount of material available for testing, no correlation between microstructure and mechanical strength could be drawn.

  4. Diboson Production Cross Sections at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Sekaric, Jadranka

    2009-05-01

    The increasing size of the data recorded by the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron collider at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV makes the diboson physics program more accessible for probes of the electroweak gauge structure in the Standard Model. Here we summarize the most recent measurements of the diboson cross sections and limits on the trilinear gauge boson couplings.

  5. Dihydroartemisinin restricts hepatic stellate cell contraction via an FXR-S1PR2-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenxuan; Lu, Chunfeng; Zhang, Feng; Shao, Jiangjuan; Zheng, Shizhong

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are universally acknowledged to play a stimulative role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension. HSCs when activated in response to liver injury are characterized with many changes, with HSC contraction being the most common cause of portal hypertension. Previous studies have shown that dihydroartemisinine (DHA) is a potential antifibrotic natural product by inducing HSC apoptosis, whereas the role of DHA in regulating HSC contraction and the mechanisms involved remain a riddle. Recent studies have emphasized on the importance of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) in controlling cell contractility. This study showed that DHA strongly induced the mRNA and protein expression of FXR in LX-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and inhibited HSC activation, implying a conceivable impact of DHA on HSC contraction. The gel contraction assays and fluorescence staining of actin cytoskeleton verified that DHA dose-dependently limited contraction of collagen lattices and reorganization of actin stress fibers in LX-2 cells. DHA also decreased the phosphorylation of myosin light chain that is responsible for the contractile force of HSCs. Furthermore, gain- or loss-of-function analyses exhibited a FXR- and S1PR2-dependent mechanism of inhibiting HSC contraction by DHA, and DHA decreased S1PR2 expression by modulating FXR activation. Subsequent work revealed that inhibition of both Ca(2+) -dependent and Ca(2+) -sensitization signaling transductions contributed to DHA-induced HSC relaxation. In summary, these findings suggest that DHA could restrict HSC contraction through modulating FXR/S1PR2 pathway-mediated Ca(2+) -dependent and Ca(2+) -sensitization signaling. Our discoveries make DHA a potential candidate for portal hypertension. © 2016 IUBMB Life 68(5):376-387, 2016. PMID:27027402

  6. Regarding the Charmed-Strange Member of the 23S1 Meson State

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xue-Chao; Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    By employing the mass relations derived from the mass matrix and Regge trajectory, we investigate the masses of charmed and charmed-strange members of the 23S1 meson. The masses are compared with the values predicted by other theoretical approaches and experimental data. The results may be useful for the discovery of the unobserved meson and the determination of the quantum number of the newly discovered states. PMID:24250272

  7. Multiple activities of RNA-binding proteins S1 and Hfq.

    PubMed

    Hajnsdorf, Eliane; Boni, Irina V

    2012-07-01

    In all organisms, RNA-binding proteins participate in modulating all the steps in the life cycle of RNA, including transcription, folding, translation and turnover. In bacteria, RNA-binding proteins may be specific for a few RNA targets (e.g., several ribosomal proteins that recognize both rRNA during ribosome assembly and their own mRNAs when acting as highly specific autogenous repressors) or function as global regulators implicated in numerous regulatory networks. Some RNA-binding proteins combine all these features, and this particularly concerns the ribosomal protein S1 and the Sm-like protein Hfq. S1 is a key mRNA-binding protein in gram-negative bacteria; it recognizes mRNA leaders and provides binding of diverse mRNAs to the ribosome at the initiation step of translation. Moreover, S1 is a highly specific autogenous repressor that is able to distinguish its own mRNA from all the others. Hfq is recognized as a global regulator that facilitates small RNA-mRNA interactions in bacteria; it thereby controls the expression of many mRNAs either positively or negatively. In addition, these two proteins were reported to affect transcription, RNA degradation and other processes. Although they have no sequence specificity, Hfq and S1 preferentially bind A/U-rich single-stranded RNA regions; despite this, they nevertheless carry out very different tasks in the cell. This review is focused on the diversity of functions that can be performed by these abundant RNA-binding bacterial proteins. PMID:22370051

  8. [A case of sigmoid colon cancer with multiple liver metastases responding to S-1].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Tsunehiko; Takagaki, Toshiro; Hara, Ken; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2008-02-01

    A 74-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with complaints of constipation and abdominal distention caused by a sigmoid colon tumor. After examination, she was diagnosed as sigmoid colon cancer with multiple liver metastases. To prevent bowel obstruction, a sigmoid colon resection was performed. On postoperative days 15, S-1 was started, and she was discharged on postoperative day 26. Each course consisted of daily oral administration S-1 for 4 weeks followed by 2 drug-free weeks. However, because of grade 2 anorexia in the 1st course, the treatment plan was changed to administration for 2 weeks and withdrawal for 1 week. After 7 courses of treatment, computed tomography revealed that the liver metastases were remarkably reduced. Although she experienced an adverse event involving a cutaneous symptom of grade 2, the treatment was continued under ambulatory management. After eight courses, elevation of tumor marker and metastasis at the right femur were found, and she died of the cancer 12 months after the operation. S-1 is expected to be an effective agent for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. PMID:18281773

  9. Short Time-Scale Sensory Coding in S1 during Discrimination of Whisker Vibrotactile Sequences.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Leah M; Telian, Gregory; Laboy-Juárez, Keven J; Miyashita, Toshio; Lee, Daniel J; Smith, Katherine A; Feldman, Daniel E

    2016-08-01

    Rodent whisker input consists of dense microvibration sequences that are often temporally integrated for perceptual discrimination. Whether primary somatosensory cortex (S1) participates in temporal integration is unknown. We trained rats to discriminate whisker impulse sequences that varied in single-impulse kinematics (5-20-ms time scale) and mean speed (150-ms time scale). Rats appeared to use the integrated feature, mean speed, to guide discrimination in this task, consistent with similar prior studies. Despite this, 52% of S1 units, including 73% of units in L4 and L2/3, encoded sequences at fast time scales (≤20 ms, mostly 5-10 ms), accurately reflecting single impulse kinematics. 17% of units, mostly in L5, showed weaker impulse responses and a slow firing rate increase during sequences. However, these units did not effectively integrate whisker impulses, but instead combined weak impulse responses with a distinct, slow signal correlated to behavioral choice. A neural decoder could identify sequences from fast unit spike trains and behavioral choice from slow units. Thus, S1 encoded fast time scale whisker input without substantial temporal integration across whisker impulses. PMID:27574970

  10. On the Absence of EUV Emission from Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryans, Paul; Pesnell, W. Dean

    2016-05-01

    When the sungrazing comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) made its perihelion passage within two solar radii of the Sun’s surface, it was expected to be a bright emitter at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths. However, despite solar EUV telescopes repointing to track the orbit of the comet, no emission was detected. This “null result” is interesting in its own right, offering the possibility of placing limits on the size and composition of the nucleus. We explain the lack of detection by considering the properties of the comet and the solar atmosphere that determine the intensity of EUV emission from sungrazing comets. By comparing these properties with those of sungrazing comet C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy), which did emit in the EUV, we conclude that the primary factor resulting in non-detectable EUV emission from C/2012 S1 (ISON) was an insufficiently large nucleus. We conclude that the radius of C/2012 S1 (ISON) was at least a factor of four less than that of C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy). This is consistent with white-light observations in the days before perihelion that suggested the comet was dramatically reducing in size on approach.

  11. Application of the S=1 underscreened Anderson lattice model to Kondo uranium and neptunium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher; da Rosa Simões, Acirete S.; Iglesias, J. R.; Lacroix, C.; Perkins, N. B.; Coqblin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic properties of uranium and neptunium compounds showing the coexistence of the Kondo screening effect and ferromagnetic order are investigated within the Anderson lattice Hamiltonian with a two-fold degenerate f level in each site, corresponding to 5f2 electronic configuration with S=1 spins. A derivation of the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation is presented and the resulting Hamiltonian has an effective f-band term, in addition to the regular exchange Kondo interaction between the S=1 f spins and the s=1/2 spins of the conduction electrons. The resulting effective Kondo lattice model can describe both the Kondo regime and a weak delocalization of the 5f electrons. Within this model we compute the Kondo and Curie temperatures as a function of model parameters, namely the Kondo exchange interaction constant JK, the magnetic intersite exchange interaction JH, and the effective f bandwidth. We deduce, therefore, a phase diagram of the model which yields the coexistence of the Kondo effect and ferromagnetic ordering and also accounts for the pressure dependence of the Curie temperature of uranium compounds such as UTe.

  12. Cloning and characterization of a gene from Rhizobium melilotii 2011 coding for ribosomal protein S1.

    PubMed Central

    Schnier, J; Thamm, S; Lurz, R; Hussain, A; Faist, G; Dobrinski, B

    1988-01-01

    A 7 kb chromosomal DNA fragment from R. melilotii was cloned, which complemented temperature-sensitivity of an E. coli amber mutant in rpsA, the gene for ribosomal protein S1 (ES1). From complementation and maxicell analysis a 58 kd protein was identified as the homolog of protein S1 (RS1). DNA sequence analysis of the R. melilotii rpsA gene identified a protein of 568 amino acids, which showed 47% identical amino acid homology to protein S1 from E. coli. The RS1 protein lacked the two Cys residues which had been reported to play an important role for the function of ES1. Two repeats containing Shine-Dalgarno sequences were identified upstream of the structural gene. Binding studies with RNA polymerase from E. coli and Pseudomonas putida located one RNA-polymerase binding site close to the RS1 gene and another one several hundred basepairs upstream. One possible promoter was also identified by DNA sequence comparison with the corresponding E. coli promoter. Images PMID:3368316

  13. Probing the S1 specificity pocket of the aminopeptidases that generate antigenic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Zervoudi, Efthalia; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Georgiadou, Dimitra; Evnouchidou, Irini; Gajda, Anna; Poreba, Marcin; Salvesen, Guy S.; Drag, Marcin; Hattori, Akira; Swevers, Luc; Vourloumis, Dionisios; Stratikos, Efstratios

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis ER aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1), ER aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) and Insulin Regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) are three homologous enzymes that play critical roles in the generation of antigenic peptides. These aminopeptidases excise amino acids from N-terminally extended precursors of antigenic peptides in order to generate the correct length epitopes for binding onto MHC class I molecules. The specificity of these peptidases can affect antigenic peptide selection, but has not yet been investigated in detail. In the present study we utilized a collection of 82 fluorogenic substrates to define a detailed selectivity profile for each of the three enzymes and to probe structural and functional features of the primary specificity (S1) pocket. Molecular modeling of the three S1 pockets reveals substrate-enzyme interactions that are critical determinants for specificity. The substrate selectivity profiles suggest that IRAP largely combines the S1 specificity of ERAP1 and ERAP2, consistent with its proposed biological function. IRAP however, does not achieve this dual specificity by simply combining structural features of ERAP1 and 2, but rather by a unique amino acid change at position 541. Our results provide insights on antigenic peptide selection and may prove valuable in designing selective inhibitors or activity markers for this class of enzymes. PMID:21314638

  14. Observations of sodium in the coma of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) during outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Carl A.; Johnson, Robert E.; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Mendillo, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Prior to disintegration near its 2.7 R⊙ perihelion, the dynamically new Comet C/2012 S1(ISON) briefly exhibited resonantly scattered sodium emission at the 5890 Å and 5896 Å D lines. In this work, we report a rapid increase in sodium production of >3× between observations made only one day apart and the first observations of cometary sodium during an outburst. Mean Na production is estimated at 1.6 ± 0.3 × 1023 atoms s-1 on UT 19.5 Nov 2013 and 5.8 ± 1 × 1023 atoms s-1 on UT 20.5. At a heliocentric distance of 0.44 AU, the anti-sunward Na tail was detected >106 km from the nucleus. Surprisingly, these production rates are well below those of any previously determined when Na is seen from a comet. Accurately reproducing the emission in the Na tail on UT 20.5 Nov 2013 requires a source near the nucleus that varies with time due to the outburst. Data prior to outburst one day earlier can be reproduced if nearly half of total sodium production is attributed to an extended source such as dust grains. This suggests sources of sodium vapor in cometary coma are sensitive to the dust to gas ratio.

  15. [A Case Report of Advanced Gastric Cancer Demonstrating CR after Treatment with S-1 and Paclitaxel].

    PubMed

    Kudoh, Keisuke; Ogata, Kenichi; Ohchi, Tetsufumi; Ootao, Ryu; Koga, Yuki

    2015-11-01

    Here, we report a case of advanced gastric cancer that demonstrated CR after treatment with S-1 and paclitaxel. The patient was an 80-year-old woman with gastric cancer in whom upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (GIF) revealed a type 3 tumor in the cardia of the stomach that was pathologically diagnosed as a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Computed tomography showed no lymph node involvement or metastasis. Considering her advanced age and cardinal functional disorder, she was administered chemotherapy consisting of S-1 and paclitaxel. Depending on a state, a side effect, I changed a dose and inter-dose interval from head to foot and I treated it by foreign going to hospital and continued it. Gradual tumor reduction was observed on GIF (2011/1/25). CR was diagnosed without tumor disappearance, with accepted malignant findings on biopsy. The patient has now survived for 7 years 9 months after diagnosis. The present case demonstrates that combination therapy of S-1 and paclitaxel is safe and useful for patients with risk factors such as advanced age and underlying disease. PMID:26805267

  16. [Resection of Advanced Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma after an Effective Response to S-1 and Gemcitabine Combination Therapy].

    PubMed

    Kuga, Yoshio; Moriya, Takashi; Fukuda, Saburo; Nishida, Toshihiro

    2016-06-01

    We report curative resection of an advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma that responded well to combined S-1 and gemcitabine chemotherapy(GS therapy). A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital in July 2011 for upper right abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with abdominal para-aortic lymph node metastasis on the basis of the computed tomography (CT) findings. She was treated with GS therapy. One course of S-1(80 mg/m(3)) consisted of the administration of the drug for 14 days, followed by 14 days of rest; GEM(1,000 mg/m(3)) was administered on days 1 and 15 after initiating S-1. After 2 courses of treatment, the sizes of the primary tumor and the lymph node metastasis were observed to be reduced on CT. In September, partial hepatectomy and regional lymph node dissection were performed. The patient subsequently received 22 postoperative courses of GS therapy. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and she remains free of recurrence 49 months since diagnosis. Therefore, GS therapy is a possible option for the management of advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:27306819

  17. Short Time-Scale Sensory Coding in S1 during Discrimination of Whisker Vibrotactile Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Miyashita, Toshio; Lee, Daniel J.; Smith, Katherine A.; Feldman, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Rodent whisker input consists of dense microvibration sequences that are often temporally integrated for perceptual discrimination. Whether primary somatosensory cortex (S1) participates in temporal integration is unknown. We trained rats to discriminate whisker impulse sequences that varied in single-impulse kinematics (5–20-ms time scale) and mean speed (150-ms time scale). Rats appeared to use the integrated feature, mean speed, to guide discrimination in this task, consistent with similar prior studies. Despite this, 52% of S1 units, including 73% of units in L4 and L2/3, encoded sequences at fast time scales (≤20 ms, mostly 5–10 ms), accurately reflecting single impulse kinematics. 17% of units, mostly in L5, showed weaker impulse responses and a slow firing rate increase during sequences. However, these units did not effectively integrate whisker impulses, but instead combined weak impulse responses with a distinct, slow signal correlated to behavioral choice. A neural decoder could identify sequences from fast unit spike trains and behavioral choice from slow units. Thus, S1 encoded fast time scale whisker input without substantial temporal integration across whisker impulses. PMID:27574970

  18. Correlation of charge, hydrophobicity, and structure with antimicrobial activity of S1 and MIRIAM peptides.

    PubMed

    Leptihn, Sebastian; Har, Jia Yi; Wohland, Thorsten; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2010-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are key elements of the innate immune system. Many of them interact with membranes of bacteria leading to perturbation of the lipid bilayer and eventually to inactivation of the pathogen. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria has necessitated innovations of new and more powerful classes of antimicrobials. Here we present the in-depth study of an antimicrobial peptide, MIRIAM, derived from Sushi1 (S1), a well-characterized peptide from the horseshoe crab. MIRIAM interacts strongly with negatively charged lipids, forming an α-helical structure. MIRIAM was found to neutralize LPS and kill Gram-negative bacteria with high efficiency, while not releasing LPS. The promising therapeutic potential of MIRIAM is shown by hemolytic assays, which demonstrate that eukaryotic membranes are unaffected at bactericidal concentrations. Nanoparticle-conjugated MIRIAM used in single-molecule fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments showed that MIRIAM targets bacterial membranes to kill bacteria similarly to parental S1. Furthermore, fragments derived from MIRIAM and S1 provided insights on their molecular mechanisms of action, in particular, the relationships of functional motifs comprised by charge, hydrophobicity, and structure within each peptide. We conclude that the combination of charge, hydrophobicity, and length of the peptide is important. A close interaction of amino acids in a single molecule in a carefully balanced ensemble of sequence position and secondary structure is crucial. PMID:20873868

  19. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF NASA 5 CM BY 5 CM BI-SUPPORTED SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELLS OPERATED IN BOTH FUEL CELL AND STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODES

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. O'Brien; J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; X. Zhang; S. C. Farmer; T. L. Cable; J. A. Setlock

    2011-11-01

    A series of 5 cm by 5 cm bi-supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC) were produced by NASA for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and tested under the INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis program. The results from the experimental demonstration of cell operation for both hydrogen production and operation as fuel cells is presented. An overview of the cell technology, test apparatus and performance analysis is also provided. The INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis laboratory has developed significant test infrastructure in support of single cell and stack performance analyses. An overview of the single cell test apparatus is presented. The test data presented in this paper is representative of a first batch of NASA's prototypic 5 cm by 5 cm SOEC single cells. Clearly a significant relationship between the operational current density and cell degradation rate is evident. While the performance of these cells was lower than anticipated, in-house testing at NASA Glenn has yielded significantly higher performance and lower degradation rates with subsequent production batches of cells. Current post-test microstructure analyses of the cells tested at INL will be published in a future paper. Modification to cell compositions and cell reduction techniques will be altered in the next series of cells to be delivered to INL with the aim to decrease the cell degradation rate while allowing for higher operational current densities to be sustained. Results from the testing of new batches of single cells will be presented in a future paper.

  20. Herschel HIFI observations of the Sgr A +50 km s-1 Cloud. Deep searches for O2 in emission and foreground absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandqvist, Aa.; Larsson, B.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Encrenaz, P.; Gerin, M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Lis, D. C.; Liseau, R.; Pagani, L.; Roueff, E.; Viti, S.

    2015-12-01

    rotation temperatures for CH3OH-A and CH3OH-E lines in the +50 km s-1 Cloud are found to be ≈ 64 and 79 K, respectively, and the fractional abundance of CH3OH is approximately 5 × 10-7. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.