Science.gov

Sample records for 10-7 cm s-1

  1. Improved Statistical Model Of 10.7-cm Solar Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, John D.; Tabor, Jill L.

    1993-01-01

    Improved mathematical model simulates short-term fluctuations of flux of 10.7-cm-wavelength solar radiation during 91-day averaging period. Called "F10.7 flux", important as measure of solar activity and because it is highly correlated with ultraviolet radiation causing fluctuations in heating and density of upper atmosphere. F10.7 flux easily measureable at surface of Earth.

  2. On the Signature of Chaotic Dynamics in 10.7 cm Daily Solar Radio Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Oindrilla; Chatterjee, T. N.

    2015-11-01

    We examine the properties of the time-series of daily values of the 10.7-cm solar radio flux and sunspot-number activity indices, and their relative behavior. The analysis and the comparisons are based upon the estimation of the embedded dimension and the use of recurrence plots. The result shows higher-order chaos in 10.7-cm radio flux, and a similar but not identical chaotic nature in the sunspot number indicative of a change in the phase space of the Sun. Both data series show a stochastic behavior only during the rising and peak phase of Solar Cycle 23.

  3. DECREASING SUNSPOT MAGNETIC FIELDS EXPLAIN UNIQUE 10.7 cm RADIO FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, W.; Penn, M. J.; Svalgaard, L.

    2012-09-20

    Infrared spectral observations of sunspots from 1998 to 2011 have shown that on average sunspots changed, the magnetic fields weakened, and the temperatures rose. The data also show that sunspots or dark pores can only form at the solar surface if the magnetic field strength exceeds about 1500 G. Sunspots appear at the solar surface with a variety of field strengths, and during the period from 1998 to 2002 a histogram of the sunspot magnetic fields shows a normal distribution with a mean of 2436 {+-} 26 G and a width of 323 {+-} 20 G. During this observing period the mean of the magnetic field distribution decreased by 46 {+-} 6 G per year, and we assume that as the 1500 G threshold was approached, magnetic fields appeared at the solar surface which could not form dark sunspots or pores. With this assumption we propose a quantity called the sunspot formation fraction and give an analytical form derived from the magnetic field distribution. We show that this fraction can quantitatively explain the changing relationship between sunspot number and solar radio flux measured at 10.7 cm wavelengths.

  4. The 10.7-cm microwave observations of AR 5395 and related terrestrial effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaizauskas, V.; Hughes, T. J.; Tapping, K. F.

    1989-01-01

    The 10.7 cm flux patrols in Canada recorded 4 Great Bursts (peaks greater than 500 sfu) during the disk passage of AR 5395 in March 1989. The Great Bursts of 16 and 17 March were simple events of great amplitude and with half-life durations of only several minutes. Earlier Great Bursts, originating on 6 March towards the NE limb and on 10 March closer to the central meridian, belong to an entirely different category of event. Each started with a very strong impulsive event lasting just minutes. After an initial recovery, however, the emission climbed back to level as greater or greater than the initial impulsive burst. The events of 6 and 10 March stayed above the Great Burst threshold for at least 100 minutes. The second component of long duration in these cases is associated with Type 4 continuum emission and thus very likely with CMEs. Major geomagnetic disturbances did not occur as a result of the massive complex event of 6 March or the two simple but strong events of 16 and 17 March. But some 55 hours after the peak in the long-enduring burst of 10 March, a storm began which qualifies as the fourth strongest geomagnetic storm in Canada since 1932. The vertical component of the earth's field measured during the storm by a fluxgate magnetometer at a station in Manitoba is presented. Within a minute of the sudden commencement of this storm, a series of breakdowns began in the transmission system of Hydro-Quebec which resulted in a total loss of power, on a bitterly cold winter's day, for at least 10 hours. The loss of power provoked an enormous outcry from the public resulting in the power utilities being more receptive to the need to monitor solar as well as geomagnetic activity.

  5. The Cosmic Ray and the 10.7 cm flux variations during solar cycles 19-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Torres, J. E.; Luo, X.; Salazar, H.

    2014-10-01

    The cosmic ray flux (CRF) and 10.7 cm flux (F10.7) are studied for solar cycles 19-23. The cross-correlations show longer time-dependence at odd than at even cycles. A shift of the maximum at the histograms of CRF{^1}/F10.7{^1} (the ratios of normalized values), does not depend on the polarity of the cycle. The behavior of CRF{^1} vs F10.7{^1} differs for odd and even cycles and also for different cycle phases. We fitted an inverted CRF{^1} profile to the F10.7{^1} profile with a linear function. The F10.7{^1}/CRF{^{inv}} histogram differs for odd and even cycles. The results for sunspot number (SSN) are similar to F10.7 but differ for the F10.7{^1}/CRF{^{inv}} histograms. Summarizing, besides the differences between odd and even cycles, there occur variations at different phases of the cycles and also variations independent of the polarity of the cycle, the latter perhaps arising outside the heliosphere.

  6. Study of Cosmic Ray Flux Modulation by Solar Activity Based on the 10.7 cm Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Torres, Jose Eduardo

    Based on the relation between the Cosmic Ray Flux (CRF) and the radio flux at the 10.7 cm wavelength (F10.7), and also to the Sun Spot Number (SSN), an analysis of the CRF variations is done. Monitoring data of the 19-23 solar cycles is used. The cross-correlation between F10.7 and CRF is similar to that between SSN and CRF and, as in previous works, for odd cycles the correlation lasts longer than for even ones. The histograms of the CRF/ F10.7 ratio shows a maximum at low values whose location shifts from one cycle to other. This is a variation independent of the parity of the cycle that lasts for a time-scale close to half a century and that was not seen before. The relation between the inverted CRF amplitude and the F10.7 reveals a peculiar character of accumulating data around the unity for even cycles and at its sides for odd cycles. The comparison of CRF and F10.7 shows that, from one odd cycle to the next, the CRF has been decaying. This seems a long-term modulation of the odd cycles amplitude. The origin of these variations and the variations that do not depend on the cycle parity are not clear but we can not rule out the possibility of even a cause external to the Heliosphere.

  7. Possible Estimation of the Solar Cycle Characteristic Parameters by the 10.7 cm Solar Radio Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampropoulos, George; Mavromichalaki, Helen; Tritakis, Vasilis

    2016-02-01

    Two independent methods for estimating basic parameters of the solar cycle are presented. The first of them, the ascending-descending triangle method, is based on a previous work by Tritakis (Astrophys. Space Sci. 82, 463, 1982), which described how the fundamental parameters of a certain solar cycle could be predicted from the shape of the previous one. The relation between the two cycles before and after a specific 11-year solar cycle is tighter than between the two cycles belonging to the same 22-year solar cycle (even-odd cycle). The second is the MinimaxX method, which uses a significant relation in the international sunspot number between the maximum value of a solar cycle and its value 2.5 or 3 years (depending on the enumeration of the even or odd cycle) before the preceding minimum. The tests applied to Cycles 12 to 24 indicate that both methods can estimate the peak of the 11-year solar radio flux at a high confidence level. The data used in this study are the 10.7 cm solar radio flux since 1947, which have been extrapolated back to 1848 from the strong correlation between the monthly international sunspot numbers and the adjusted values of the 10.7 cm radio flux.

  8. The variability of solar EUV: A multiscale comparison between sunspot number, 10.7 cm flux, LASP MgII index, and SOHO/SEM EUV flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintoft, Peter

    2011-08-01

    The sunspot number (SSN), 10.7 cm radio flux (F10.7), MgII index, and SOHO/SEM EUV flux have been studied, using wavelet analysis, in order to describe how the first three parameters are related to EUV on scales of days to years. The wavelet transform decomposes the time series into series which captures variability on different temporal scales. The three proxies show weak correlation on time scales of days, thus they are of limited use in space weather when the day-to-day variability is considered. However, the underlying modulation due to the solar rotation and the solar activity cycle is so strong that there is a big influence on the daily values. Both F10.7 and MgII show a more persistent increase in correlation with scale than SSN and should be the preferred proxies. When a linear regression model is used for SEM/EUV the RMS error is about 26% lower, for the analysed period (1996-2010), for MgII compared to F10.7. However, when only the long term is considered (scale ?1.4 yr) the RMS error is 20% larger when MgII is used compared to F10.7. This is caused by an offset between MgII and SEM that appears around the cycle 23 maximum. This offset is not seen between F10.7 and SEM. For space weather purposes, although none of the studied proxies works on a daily basis, the MgII index performs the best, but for the longer time scales F10.7 is the most suitable.

  9. Changed Relation between Solar 10.7-cm Radio Flux and some Activity Indices which describe the Radiation at Different Altitudes of Atmosphere during Cycles 21-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruevich, E. A.; Bruevich, V. V.; Yakunina, G. V.

    2014-03-01

    The correlation coefficients of the linear regression of six solar indices versus 10.7 cm radio flux F 10.7 were analysed in solar cycles 21, 22 and 23. We also analysed the interconnection between these indices and F 10.7 with help of approximation by polynomials of second order. The indices we have studied in this paper are: the relative sunspot numbers - SSN, 530.3 nm coronal line flux - F 530, the total solar irradiance - TSI, Mg II 280 nm core-to-wing ratio UV-index, the Flare Index - FI and the counts of flares. In most cases the regressions of these solar indices vs. F 10.7 are close to the linear regression except the moments of time near the minimums and maximums of the 11-year activity. For the linear regressions, we found that correlation coefficients K corr( t) for the solar indices vs. F 10.7 and SSN dropped to their minimum values twice during each 11-year cycle.

  10. Attaining Doppler Precision of 10cms-1 with a Lock-in Amplified Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Muirhead, Philip S.; Bottom, Michael; Wallace, J. Kent; Vasisht, Gautam; Johnson, John Asher

    2015-11-01

    We explore the radial velocity performance benefits of coupling starlight to a fast-scanning interferometer and a fast-readout spectrometer with zero readout noise. By rapidly scanning an interferometer, we can decouple wavelength calibration errors from precise radial velocity measurements, exploiting the advantages of lock-in amplification. In a Bayesian framework, we investigate the correlation between wavelength calibration errors and resulting radial velocity errors. We construct an end-to-end simulation of this approach to address the feasibility of achieving 10 cm s-1 radial velocity precision on a typical Sun-like star using existing, 5 m-class telescopes. We find that such a precision can be reached in a single night, opening up possibilities for ground-based detections of Earth-Sun analog systems.

  11. Stabilizing a Fabry-Perot Etalon Peak to 3 cm s-1 for Spectrograph Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, C.; Strmer, J.; Gurevich, Y. V.; Fhrer, T.; Lamoreaux, S. K.; Walther, T.; Quirrenbach, A.

    2015-10-01

    We present a method of frequency stabilizing a broadband etalon that can serve as a high-precision wavelength calibrator for an echelle spectrograph. Using a laser to probe the Doppler-free saturated absorption of the rubidium D2 line, we stabilize one etalon transmission peak directly to the rubidium frequency. The rubidium transition is an established frequency standard and has been used to lock lasers to fractional stabilities of < 10-12, a level of accuracy far exceeding the demands of radial velocity (RV) searches for exoplanets. The stabilized bandwidth depends on the dispersion characteristics of the etalon. We describe a simple setup designed specifically for use at an observatory and demonstrate that we can stabilize the etalon peak to a relative precision of < 10-10; this is equivalent to 3 cm s-1 RV precision.

  12. Design of a 10**36 CM-2 S-1 Super-B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Guiducci, S.; Raimondi, P.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; Bertsche, Kirk J.; Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; Wittmer, W.; Bettoni, S.; Paoloni, E.; Marchiori, G.; Bogomyagkov, A.; Koop, I.; Levichev, E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2011-10-24

    Parameters have been studied for a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at the Upsilon 4S that would deliver a luminosity of 1 to 4 x 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s. This collider, called a Super-B Factory, would use a combination of linear collider and storage ring techniques. In this scheme an electron beam and a positron beam are stored in low-emittance damping rings similar to those designed for a Linear Collider (LC) or the next generation light source. A LC style interaction region is included in the ring to produce sub-millimeter vertical beta functions at the collision point. A large crossing angle (+/- 24 mrad) is used at the collision point to allow beam separation. A crab-waist scheme is used to reduce the hourglass effect and restore peak luminosity. Beam currents of 1.8 A at 4 x 7 GeV in 1251 bunches can produce a luminosity of 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s with upgrade possibilities. Such a collider would produce an integrated luminosity of about 10,000 fb{sup -1} (10 ab{sup -1}) in a running year (10{sup 7} sec) at the {gamma}(4S) resonance. Further possibilities include having longitudinally polarized e- at the IR and operating at the J/Psi and Psi beam energies.

  13. A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s(-1).

    PubMed

    Li, Chih-Hao; Benedick, Andrew J; Fendel, Peter; Glenday, Alexander G; Kärtner, Franz X; Phillips, David F; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald L

    2008-04-01

    Searches for extrasolar planets using the periodic Doppler shift of stellar spectral lines have recently achieved a precision of 60 cm s(-1) (ref. 1), which is sufficient to find a 5-Earth-mass planet in a Mercury-like orbit around a Sun-like star. To find a 1-Earth-mass planet in an Earth-like orbit, a precision of approximately 5 cm s(-1) is necessary. The combination of a laser frequency comb with a Fabry-Pérot filtering cavity has been suggested as a promising approach to achieve such Doppler shift resolution via improved spectrograph wavelength calibration, with recent encouraging results. Here we report the fabrication of such a filtered laser comb with up to 40-GHz (approximately 1-A) line spacing, generated from a 1-GHz repetition-rate source, without compromising long-term stability, reproducibility or spectral resolution. This wide-line-spacing comb, or 'astro-comb', is well matched to the resolving power of high-resolution astrophysical spectrographs. The astro-comb should allow a precision as high as 1 cm s(-1) in astronomical radial velocity measurements. PMID:18385734

  14. Widely bandgap tunable amorphous Cd-Ga-O oxide semiconductors exhibiting electron mobilities ?10 cm2 V-1 s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, Hiroshi; Sato, Chiyuki; Kimura, Yota; Suzuki, Issei; Omata, Takahisa; Kamiya, Toshio; Hosono, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    Amorphous oxide semiconductors exhibit large electron mobilities; however, their bandgaps are either too large for solar cells or too small for deep ultraviolet applications depending on the materials system. Herein, we demonstrate that amorphous Cd-Ga-O semiconductors display bandgaps covering the entire 2.5-4.3 eV region while maintaining large electron mobilities ?10 cm2 V-1 s-1. The band alignment diagram obtained by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and the bandgap values reveal that these semiconductors form type-II heterojunctions with p-type Cu2O, which is suitable for solar cells and solar-blind ultraviolet sensors.

  15. Nondispersive hole transport in a polyfluorene copolymer with a mobility of 0.01 cm2 V-1 s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, H. H.; Papadimitratos, Alexios; Malliaras, George G.

    2006-10-01

    The hole mobility in the fluorene copolymer poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(4,4'-(N-(4-sec-butylphenyl)) diphenylamine)] (TFB) was measured using the time-of-flight technique. Transport was found to be nondispersive throughout the temperature range between 220 and 350K, indicating the absence of intrinsic traps in this material. At room temperature, TFB shows a hole mobility of 0.01cm2V-1s-1, with a weak field dependence. The hole mobility is independent of sample thickness in the range between 0.9 and 6.4?m. These results are in agreement with a narrow transport manifold, with a width of 65.90.5meV.

  16. A laser-lock concept to reach cm s-1-precision in Doppler experiments with Fabry-Prot wavelength calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiners, A.; Banyal, R. K.; Ulbrich, R. G.

    2014-09-01

    State-of-the-art Doppler experiments require wavelength calibration with precision at the cm s-1 level. A low-finesse Fabry-Prot interferometer (FPI) can provide a wavelength comb with a very large bandwidth as required for astronomical experiments, but unavoidable spectral drifts are difficult to control. Instead of actively controlling the FPI cavity, we propose to passively stabilize the interferometer and track the time-dependent cavity length drift externally using the 87Rb D2 atomic line. A dual-finesse cavity allows drift tracking during observation. In the low-finesse spectral range, the cavity provides a comb transmission spectrum tailored to the astronomical spectrograph. The drift of the cavity length is monitored in the high-finesse range relative to an external standard: a single narrow transmission peak is locked to an external cavity diode laser and compared to an atomic frequency from a Doppler-free transition. Following standard locking schemes, tracking at sub-mm s-1 precision can be achieved. This is several orders of magnitude better than currently planned high-precision Doppler experiments, and it allows freedom for relaxed designs including the use of a single-finesse interferometer under certain conditions. All components for the proposed setup are readily available, rendering this approach particularly interesting for upcoming Doppler experiments. We also show that the large number of interference modes used in an astronomical FPI allows us to unambiguously identify the interference mode of each FPI transmission peak defining its absolute wavelength solution. The accuracy reached in each resonance with the laser concept is then defined by the cavity length that is determined from the one locked peak and by the group velocity dispersion. The latter can vary by several 100 m s-1 over the relevant frequency range and severely limits the accuracy of individual peak locations, although their interference modes are known. A potential way to determine the absolute peak positions is to externally measure the frequency of each individual peak with a laser frequency comb (LFC). Thus, the concept of laser-locked FPIs may be useful for applying the absolute accuracy of an LFC to astronomical spectrographs without the need for an LFC at the observatory.

  17. Correction: An ambipolar organic field-effect transistor based on an AIE-active single crystal with a high mobility level of 2.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).

    PubMed

    Deng, Jian; Xu, Yuanxiang; Liu, Liqun; Feng, Cunfang; Tang, Jia; Gao, Yu; Wang, Yan; Yang, Bing; Lu, Ping; Yang, Wensheng; Ma, Yuguang

    2016-02-11

    Correction for 'An ambipolar organic field-effect transistor based on an AIE-active single crystal with a high mobility level of 2.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)' by Jian Deng et al., Chem. Commun., 2016, DOI: 10.1039/c5cc09702a. PMID:26799568

  18. An ambipolar organic field-effect transistor based on an AIE-active single crystal with a high mobility level of 2.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).

    PubMed

    Deng, Jian; Xu, Yuanxiang; Liu, Liqun; Feng, Cunfang; Tang, Jia; Gao, Yu; Wang, Yan; Yang, Bing; Lu, Ping; Yang, Wensheng; Ma, Yuguang

    2016-01-28

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) material were fabricated using a calcium-gold asymmetric electrode system. The devices showed very high and balanced mobility, reaching 2.50 and 2.10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively, for electron and hole. Strong green electroluminescence from the single-crystal side edge was observed from all the devices. This work demonstrates that AIE active materials could not only achieve high luminescence, but also be used in light emitting transistors and achieve very high mobility. PMID:26730680

  19. 44 CFR 10.7 - Planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Planning. 10.7 Section 10.7... GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency Implementing Procedures 10.7 Planning. (a) Early planning. The Regional Administrator shall integrate the NEPA process with other planning at the...

  20. 44 CFR 10.7 - Planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Planning. 10.7 Section 10.7... GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency Implementing Procedures 10.7 Planning. (a) Early planning. The Regional Administrator shall integrate the NEPA process with other planning at the...

  1. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  2. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  3. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  4. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  5. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  6. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical stores. 188.10-7 Section 188.10-7 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-7 Chemical stores. This term means those chemicals intended for use in the performance of the vessel's scientific activities and is further...

  7. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical stores. 188.10-7 Section 188.10-7 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-7 Chemical stores. This term means those chemicals intended for use in the performance of the vessel's scientific activities and is further...

  8. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical stores. 188.10-7 Section 188.10-7 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-7 Chemical stores. This term means those chemicals intended for use in the performance of the vessel's scientific activities and is further...

  9. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical stores. 188.10-7 Section 188.10-7 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-7 Chemical stores. This term means those chemicals intended for use in the performance of the vessel's scientific activities and is further...

  10. 46 CFR 188.10-7 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical stores. 188.10-7 Section 188.10-7 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter 188.10-7 Chemical stores. This term means those chemicals intended for use in the performance of the vessel's scientific activities and is further...

  11. 46 CFR 30.10-7 - Certificated-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certificated-TB/ALL. 30.10-7 Section 30.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions 30.10-7 CertificatedTB/ALL. The term certificated when applied to tank vessels refers to a vessel covered by...

  12. 46 CFR 113.10-7 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Connection boxes. 113.10-7 Section 113.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM... incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) requirements....

  13. 46 CFR 113.10-7 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Connection boxes. 113.10-7 Section 113.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM... incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) requirements....

  14. 46 CFR 113.10-7 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Connection boxes. 113.10-7 Section 113.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM... incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) requirements....

  15. 46 CFR 113.10-7 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Connection boxes. 113.10-7 Section 113.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM... incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) requirements....

  16. 46 CFR 113.10-7 - Connection boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Connection boxes. 113.10-7 Section 113.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM... incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) requirements....

  17. Coronal Sources of the Solar F10.7 Radio Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, S. J.; White, S. M.; Henney, C. J.; Arge, C. N.; McAteer, R. T. J.

    2015-07-01

    We present results from the first solar full-disk {{{F}}}10.7 (the radio flux at 10.7 cm, 2.8 GHz) image taken with the S-band receivers on the recently upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in order to assess the relationship between the {{{F}}}10.7 index and solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission. To identify the sources of the observed 2.8 GHz emission, we calculate differential emission measures from EUV images collected by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and use them to predict the bremsstrahlung component of the radio emission. By comparing the bremsstrahlung prediction and radio observation we find that 8.1% 0.5% of the variable component of the {{{F}}}10.7 flux is associated with the gyroresonance emission mechanism. Additionally, we identify optical depth effects on the radio limb which may complicate the use of {{{F}}}10.7 time series as an EUV proxy. Our analysis is consistent with a coronal iron abundance that is four times the photospheric level.

  18. RESEARCH PAPER: Forecast daily indices of solar activity, F10.7, using support vector regression method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cong; Liu, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jing-Song

    2009-06-01

    The 10.7 cm solar radio flux (F10.7), the value of the solar radio emission flux density at a wavelength of 10.7 cm, is a useful index of solar activity as a proxy for solar extreme ultraviolet radiation. It is meaningful and important to predict F10.7 values accurately for both long-term (months-years) and short-term (days) forecasting, which are often used as inputs in space weather models. This study applies a novel neural network technique, support vector regression (SVR), to forecasting daily values of F10.7. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of SVR in short-term F10.7 forecasting. The approach, based on SVR, reduces the dimension of feature space in the training process by using a kernel-based learning algorithm. Thus, the complexity of the calculation becomes lower and a small amount of training data will be sufficient. The time series of F10.7 from 2002 to 2006 are employed as the data sets. The performance of the approach is estimated by calculating the norm mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. It is shown that our approach can perform well by using fewer training data points than the traditional neural network.

  19. The toluene-Ar complex: S0 and S1 van der Waals modes, changes to methyl rotation, and torsion-van der Waals vibration coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascooke, Jason R.; Lawrance, Warren D.

    2013-02-01

    The methyl rotor and van der Waals vibrational levels in the S1 and S0 states of toluene-Ar have been investigated by the technique of two-dimensional laser induced fluorescence (2D-LIF). The S0 van der Waals and methyl rotor levels are reported for the first time, while improved S1 values are presented. The correlations seen in the 2D-LIF images between the S0 and S1 states lead to a reassignment of key features in the S1 ← S0 excitation spectrum. This reassignment reveals that there are significant changes in the methyl rotor levels in the complex compared with those in bare toluene, particularly at low m. The observed rotor energies are explained by the introduction of a three-fold, V3, term in the torsion potential (this term is zero in toluene) and a reduction in the height of the six-fold, V6, barriers in S0 and S1 from their values in bare toluene. The V3 term is larger in magnitude than the V6 term in both S0 and S1. The constants determined are |V3(S1)| = 33.4 ± 1.0 cm-1, |V3(S0)| = 20.0 ± 1.0 cm-1, V6(S1) = -10.7 ± 1.0 cm-1, and V6(S0) = -1.7 ± 1.0 cm-1. The methyl rotor is also found to couple with van der Waals vibration; specifically, the m″ = 2 rotor state couples with the combination level involving one quantum of the long axis bend and m″ = 1. The coupling constant is determined to be 1.9 cm-1, which is small compared with the values typically reported for torsion-vibration coupling involving ring modes.

  20. The Global S$_1$ Ocean Tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The small S$_1$ ocean tide is caused primarily by diurnal atmospheric pressure loading. Its excitation is therefore unlike any other diurnal tide. The global character of $S-1$ is here determined by numerical modeling and by analysis of Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. The two approaches yield reasonably consistent results, and large ( $ greater than $l\\cm) amplitudes in several regions are further confirmed by comparison with coastal tide gauges. Notwithstanding their excitation differences, S$-1$ and other diurnal tides are found to share several common features, such as relatively large amplitudes in the Arabian Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Gulf of Alaska. The most noticeable difference is the lack of an S$-1$ Antarctic Kelvin wave. These similarities and differences can be explained in terms of the coherences between near-diurnal oceanic normal modes and the underlying tidal forcings. While gravitational diurnal tidal forces excite primarily a 28-hour Antarctic-Pacific mode, the S$_1$ air tide excites several other near-diurnal modes, none of which has large amplitudes near Antarctica.

  1. Ubiquitous CM and DM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Sandra L.

    2000-01-01

    Ubiquitous is a real word. I thank a former Total Quality Coach for my first exposure some years ago to its existence. My version of Webster's dictionary defines ubiquitous as "present, or seeming to be present, everywhere at the same time; omnipresent." While I believe that God is omnipresent, I have come to discover that CM and DM are present everywhere. Oh, yes; I define CM as Configuration Management and DM as either Data or Document Management. Ten years ago, I had my first introduction to the CM world. I had an opportunity to do CM for the Space Station effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center. I learned that CM was a discipline that had four areas of focus: identification, control, status accounting, and verification. I was certified as a CMIl graduate and was indoctrinated about clear, concise, and valid. Off I went into a world of entirely new experiences. I was exposed to change requests and change boards first hand. I also learned about implementation of changes, and then of technical and CM requirements.

  2. 21cm Intensity Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tzu-Ching; GBT-HIM Team

    2014-04-01

    The redshifted 21-cm emission from neutral hydrogen has emerged as a powerful probe for large-scale structure; a significant fraction of the observable universe can be mapped in the intensity mapping regime out to high redshifts. At redshifts around unity, the 21-cm emission traces the matter distribution and can be used to measure the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) signature and constrain dark energy properties. I will describe our on-going observing program at the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), aiming to measure the 21cm power spectrum at z=0.8. A 800-MHz multi-beam focal-plane array for the GBT is currently under construction in order to facilitate a large-scale survey for BAO and the redshift-space distortion measurements for cosmological constraints.

  3. 21-cm Intensity Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tzu-Ching; GBT-HIM Team

    2016-01-01

    The redshifted 21-cm emission from neutral hydrogen has emerged as a powerful probe for large-scale structure; a significant fraction of the observable universe can be mapped in the Intensity Mapping regime out to high redshifts. At redshifts around unity, the 21-cm emission traces the matter distribution and can be used to measure the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) signature and constrain dark energy properties. I will describe our HI Intensity Mapping program at the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), aiming at measuring the 21cm power spectrum at z=0.8. A 800-MHz multi-beam focal-plane array for the GBT is currently under construction in order to facilitate a large-scale survey for BAO and the redshift-space distortion measurements for cosmological constraints.

  4. Newly Installed S-1 Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. This is a view of the newly installed S1 Truss as photographed during the mission's first scheduled EVA. The Station's Canadarm2 is in the foreground. Visible are astronauts Piers J. Sellers (lower left) and David A. Wolf (upper right), both STS-112 mission specialists.

  5. 20 CFR 10.7 - What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA? 10.7 Section 10.7 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED General...

  6. 46 CFR 12.10-7 - General provisions respecting an MMC or MMD endorsed as lifeboatman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General provisions respecting an MMC or MMD endorsed as lifeboatman. 12.10-7 Section 12.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE... respecting an MMC or MMD endorsed as lifeboatman. An MMC or MMD endorsed as able seaman is the equivalent...

  7. 46 CFR 12.10-7 - General provisions respecting an MMC or MMD endorsed as lifeboatman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General provisions respecting an MMC or MMD endorsed as lifeboatman. 12.10-7 Section 12.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE... respecting an MMC or MMD endorsed as lifeboatman. An MMC or MMD endorsed as able seaman is the equivalent...

  8. 46 CFR 12.10-7 - General provisions respecting an MMC or MMD endorsed as lifeboatman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General provisions respecting an MMC or MMD endorsed as lifeboatman. 12.10-7 Section 12.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE... respecting an MMC or MMD endorsed as lifeboatman. An MMC or MMD endorsed as able seaman is the equivalent...

  9. 46 CFR 12.10-7 - General provisions respecting an MMC or MMD endorsed as lifeboatman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions respecting an MMC or MMD endorsed as lifeboatman. 12.10-7 Section 12.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE... respecting an MMC or MMD endorsed as lifeboatman. An MMC or MMD endorsed as able seaman is the equivalent...

  10. 20 CFR 10.7 - What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA? 10.7 Section 10.7 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED General...

  11. 41 CFR 301-10.7 - How should I route my travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... traveled route unless your agency authorizes or approves a different route as officially necessary. ... travel? 301-10.7 Section 301-10.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION...

  12. 41 CFR 301-10.7 - How should I route my travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... traveled route unless your agency authorizes or approves a different route as officially necessary. ... travel? 301-10.7 Section 301-10.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION...

  13. 41 CFR 301-10.7 - How should I route my travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... traveled route unless your agency authorizes or approves a different route as officially necessary. ... travel? 301-10.7 Section 301-10.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION...

  14. 41 CFR 301-10.7 - How should I route my travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... traveled route unless your agency authorizes or approves a different route as officially necessary. ... travel? 301-10.7 Section 301-10.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION...

  15. 41 CFR 301-10.7 - How should I route my travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... traveled route unless your agency authorizes or approves a different route as officially necessary. ... travel? 301-10.7 Section 301-10.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION...

  16. Validating the solar EUV proxy, E10.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent

    2001-12-01

    A demonstration of the improvement in thermospheric densities using the daily E10.7 proxy compared to F10.7 is shown. The daily altitude decay for the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) satellite from April 1, 1982 through August 9, 1983, using both proxies and the actual altitude data, are compared. The F10.7 case finished 2 km lower than each of the E10.7 and actual altitude cases which were nearly identical. During active solar conditions, daily F10.7 can overestimate the EUV energy input into the atmosphere by up to 60% and also underestimate it by as much as 50%. Progress is shown towards validating E10.7 as a more accurate proxy compared to F10.7 for use in atmospheric density calculations that are applicable to satellite drag problems. In support of the validation of the E10.7 proxy, an operational prototype hardware/software platform for visualizing of the near-Earth space environment was created. This platform uses a data-driven, data visualization environment. Platform development continues so as to accommodate not only historical data but also nowcast and forecast data streams. Upgrades to the SOLAR2000 Research Grade model are continuing in order to improve the correlation coefficients from multiple linear regressions in several wavelength regions. E10.7 is used in applications that incorporate F10.7, including empirical thermospheric models, ionospheric models, and general representations of solar activity ranging from climate research to engineering applications.

  17. CM-458/U Signal Comparator

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, W. G.; Kestly, J. D.

    1980-06-01

    The development history, the physical and functional characteristics, and the production activity of the CM-458/U Signal Comparator is described. The CM-458/U Signal Comparator is a test device used to verify proper delivery by the aircraft control equipment of the unique signal used in the prearming of modern nuclear weapons. CM-458/U monitors voltage levels, pulse widths and signal sequence to verify correctness.

  18. Solar F10.7 radiation - A short term model for Space Station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, John D.; Tabor, Jill L.

    1991-01-01

    A new method is described for statistically modeling the F10.7 component of solar radiation for 91-day intervals. The resulting model represents this component of the solar flux as a quasi-exponentially correlated, Weibull distributed random variable, and thereby demonstrates excellent agreement with observed F10.7 data. Values of the F10.7 flux are widely used in models of the earth's upper atmosphere because of its high correlation with density fluctuations due to solar heating effects. Because of the direct relation between atmospheric density and drag, a realistic model of the short term fluctuation of the F10.7 flux is important for the design and operation of Space Station Freedom. The method of modeling this flux described in this report should therefore be useful for a variety of Space Station applications.

  19. Serpentine Nanotubes in CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zega, Thomas J.; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Dodony, Istvan; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    The CM chondrites are primitive meteorites that formed during the early solar system. Although they retain much of their original physical character, their matrices and fine-grained rims (FGRs) sustained aqueous alteration early in their histories [1- 3]. Serpentine-group minerals are abundant products of such alteration, and information regarding their structures, compositions, and spatial relationships is important for determining the reactions that produced them and the conditions under which they formed. Our recent work on FGRs and matrices of the CM chondrites has revealed new information on the structures and compositions of serpentine-group minerals [4,5] and has provided insights into the evolution of these primitive meteorites. Here we report on serpentine nanotubes from the Mighei and Murchison CM chondrites [6].

  20. CYP2S1: A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T. . E-mail: sirkku.saarikoski@ktl.fi; Rivera, Steven P.; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation.

  1. Safety assessment for the S-1 Spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R. Jr.; Stencel, J.R.

    1984-02-01

    The S-1 machine is part of the Magnetic Fusion Program. The goal of the Magnetic Fusion Program is to develop and demonstrate the practical application of fusion. S-1 is an experimental device which will provide an essential link in the research effort aiming at the realization of fusion power.

  2. 344 cm x 86 cm low mass vacuum window

    SciTech Connect

    Reimers, R.M.; Porter, J.; Meneghetti, J.; Wilde, S.; Miller, R.

    1983-08-01

    The LBL Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) superconducting magnet contains a 1 m x 3.45 m x 2 m vacuum tank in its gap. A full aperture thin window was needed to minimize background as the products of nuclear collisions move from upstream targets to downstream detectors. Six windows were built and tested in the development process. The final window's unsupported area is 3m/sup 2/ with a 25 cm inward deflection. The design consists of a .11 mm Nylon/aluminum/polypropylene laminate as a gas seal and .55 mm woven aramid fiber for strength. Total mass is 80 milligrams per cm/sup 2/. Development depended heavily on past experience and testing. Safety considerations are discussed.

  3. Magnetic study of CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cournde, C.; Gattacceca, J.; Zanda, B.; Rochette, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study of the paleomagnetism of carbonaceous chondrites can lead to an estimate of the magnetic fields present in the early solar system. CM chondrites contain abundant magnetite formed during aqueous alteration on their parent body, and have not been heated after that, making them interesting targets for paleomagnetism. We performed a detailed and comparative magnetic study (paleomagnetism and rock magnetism) of three CM chondrites: Paris, Cold Bokkeveled and Murchison. These three meteorites cover a wide range of aqueous alteration, with increasing alteration from Paris [1] to Murchison to Cold Bokkeveld [2]. Paris is a unique CM chondrite significantly less aqueously altered than other CM chondrites. Our magnetic data show that in contrast with other CM, Paris meteorite contains abundant FeNi metal (of nebular origin) together with magnetite and pyrrhotite (of asteroidal origin). Paleomagnetic results of Paris show that unfortunately the meteorite has been exposed to a strong artificial magnetic field (magnet), precluding the study of the natural magnetization (of possible nebular origin) carried by FeNi. However, a high-coercivity magnetization carried by pyrrhotite is still preserved in the meteorite. It is homogeneous in direction and intensity at the scale of the meteorite. We interpret this high-coercivity magnetization as a pre-terrestrial chemical remanent magnetization acquired on the parent body in a field of a few T. Our preliminary results on Murchison also evidenced an stable and homogeneous magnetization in the meteorite. Therefore a long-lasting stable magnetizing field seems necessary to account for the paleomagnetism of both meteorites. Because crystallization of pyrrhotite and magnetite occurred several Myr after the formation of the parent body [3] (i.e. after possible existence of strong solar and nebular magnetic field), the magnetizing field was most probably created on the parent body. In view of its intensity, the most plausible origin for the magnetizing field is an internally generated dynamo field. This would imply that the parent body of CM chondrites was partially differentiated with a convecting metallic core. Such process has recently been proposed for the parent body of CV chondrites [4, 5]. [1] Zanda et al., 2010. Meteoritics Planetary Sci., 45, 222-222. [2] Rubin et al., 2007. Geo. et Cosmo. Acta, 71, 2361-2382 [3] Krot et al., 2005. UCRL-BOOK-217207 [4] Carporzen et al., 2011. Proc. National Acad. Sci., 108, 6386-6389. [5] Elkins-Tanton et al., 2011. Earth Planet . Sci. Lett., 305, 1-10.

  4. 43 CFR 10.7 - Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony. 10.7 Section 10.7 Public Lands... REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony From Federal or... of cultural patrimony....

  5. Requirements for cosmological 21-cm masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Mark; Loeb, Abraham

    2008-08-01

    We perform Monte-Carlo calculations of the radiative transfer of Ly? photons emitted by a source embedded in a neutral collapsing gas cloud. This represents a young galaxy or quasar during the early stages of the epoch of reionisation (EoR). After computing the Ly? spectrum as function of radius and time, we find that the Ly? color temperature may be negative in large volumes surrounding the central source. Motivated by this result, we explore the prospects for a population inversion in the hyperfine levels of atomic hydrogen via the Wouthuysen-Field (WF) effect. The reason for this exploration is clear: if 21-cm masers exist during the EoR, they could greatly boost the expected 21-cm flux from this epoch. We find that population inversion is unlikely to occur for several reasons: (1) the required Ly? luminosities of the central source exceed ?1045 erg s-1. The radiation pressure exerted by such a large Ly? flux likely halts the collapse of the cloud; (2) when quantum corrections to the WF-coupling strength are applied, the required Ly? luminosities are (even) larger by orders of magnitude; (3) a relatively low flux of Ly? photons that is produced via other channels (X-ray heating, collisional excitation of hydrogen) prevents the Ly? color temperature from becoming negative.

  6. AMR on the CM-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Marsha J.; Saltzman, Jeff S.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the development of a structured adaptive mesh algorithm (AMR) for the Connection Machine-2 (CM-2). We develop a data layout scheme that preserves locality even for communication between fine and coarse grids. On 8K of a 32K machine we achieve performance slightly less than 1 CPU of the Cray Y-MP. We apply our algorithm to an inviscid compressible flow problem.

  7. 5cm aperture dipole studies

    SciTech Connect

    McInturff, A.D.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Lundy, R.; Mantech, P.; Strait, J.

    1986-09-30

    The results obtained during the evolution of the design, construction, and testing program of the design ''B'' dipole are presented here. Design ''B'' is one of the original three competing designs for the Superconducting Super Collider ''SSC'' arc dipoles. The final design parameters were as follows: air cored (less than a few percent of the magnetic field derived from any iron present), aluminum collared, two layered winding, 5.5T maximum operating field, and a 5 cm cold aperture. There have been fourteen 64 cm long 5 cm aperture model dipoles cold tested (at 4.3K and less) in this program so far. There was a half length full size (6m) mechanical analog (M-10) built and tested to check the cryostat's mechanical design under ramping and quench conditions. Several deviations from the ''Tevatron'' dipole fabrication technique were incorporated, for example the use of aluminum collars instead of stainless steel. The winding technique variations explored were ''dry welding,'' a technique with the cable covered with Kapton insulation only and ''wet winding'' where the Kapton was covered with a light coat of ''B'' stage epoxy. Test data include quench currents, field quality (Fourier multipole co-efficients), coil magnetization, conductor current performance, and coil loading. Quench current, loss per cycle, and harmonics were measured as a function of the magnitude and rate of change of the magnetic field, and helium bath temperature.

  8. Diff ( S 1) and the Teichmller spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Subhashis; Verjovsky, Alberto

    1990-05-01

    Precisely two of the homogeneous spaces that appear as coadjoint orbits of the group of string reparametrizations,widehat{Diff (S^1 })^1 , carry in a natural way the structure of infinite dimensional, holomorphically homogeneous complex analytic Khler manifolds. These are N=Diff( S 1)/Rot( S 1) and M=Diff( S 1)/Mb( S 1). Note that N is a holomorphic disc fiber space over M. Now, M can be naturally considered as embedded in the classical universal Teichmller space T(1), simply by noting that a diffeomorphism of S 1 is a quasisymmetric homeomorphism. T(1) is itself a homomorphically homogeneous complex Banach manifold. We prove in the first part of the paper that the inclusion of M in T(1) is complex analytic. In the latter portion of this paper it is shown that the unique homogeneous Khler metric carried by M = Diff ( S 1/ SL(2, ?) induces precisely the Weil-Petersson metric on the Teichmller space. This is via our identification of M as a holomorphic submanifold of universal Teichmller space. Now recall that every Teichmller space T(G) of finite or infinite dimension is contained canonically and holomorphically within T(1). Our computations allow us also to prove that every T(G), G any infinite Fuchsian group, projects out of M transversely. This last assertion is related to the fractal nature of G-invariant quasicircles, and to Mostow rigidity on the line. Our results thus connect the loop space approach to bosonic string theory with the sum-over-moduli (Polyakov path integral) approach.

  9. 21 cm Tomography with Foregrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaomin; Tegmark, Max; Santos, Mrio G.; Knox, Lloyd

    2006-10-01

    Twenty-one centimeter tomography is emerging as a powerful tool to explore the reionization epoch and cosmological parameters, but it will only be as good as our ability to accurately model and remove astrophysical foreground contamination. Previous treatments of this problem have focused on the angular structure of the signal and foregrounds and what can be achieved with limited spectral resolution (channel widths in the 1 MHz range). In this paper we introduce and evaluate a ``blind'' method to extract the multifrequency 21 cm signal by taking advantage of the smooth frequency structure of the Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds. We find that 21 cm tomography is typically limited by foregrounds on scales of k<<1 h Mpc-1 and is limited by noise on scales of k>>1 h Mpc-1, provided that the experimental channel width can be made substantially smaller than 0.1 MHz. Our results show that this approach is quite promising even for scenarios with rather extreme contamination from point sources and diffuse Galactic emission, which bodes well for upcoming experiments such as LOFAR, MWA, PAST, and SKA.

  10. 15 cm mercury multipole thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhurst, G. R.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    A 15 cm multipole ion thruster was adapted for use with mercury propellant. During the optimization process three separable functions of magnetic fields within the discharge chamber were identified: (1) they define the region where the bulk of ionization takes place, (2) they influence the magnitudes and gradients in plasma properties in this region, and (3) they control impedance between the cathode and main discharge plasmas in hollow cathode thrusters. The mechanisms for these functions are discussed. Data from SERT II and cusped magnetic field thrusters are compared with those measured in the multipole thruster. The performance of this thruster is shown to be similar to that of the other two thrusters. Means of achieving further improvement in the performance of the multipole thruster are suggested.

  11. 43 CFR 10.7 - Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony. 10.7 Section 10.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects,...

  12. 43 CFR 10.7 - Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony. 10.7 Section 10.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects,...

  13. 43 CFR 10.7 - Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony. 10.7 Section 10.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects,...

  14. 43 CFR 10.7 - Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony. 10.7 Section 10.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects,...

  15. Intersystem crossing rates of S1 state keto-amino cytosine at low excess energy.

    PubMed

    Lobsiger, Simon; Etinski, Mihajlo; Blaser, Susan; Frey, Hans-Martin; Marian, Christel; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-12-21

    The amino-keto tautomer of supersonic jet-cooled cytosine undergoes intersystem crossing (ISC) from the v = 0 and low-lying vibronic levels of its S1((1)??(?)) state. We investigate these ISC rates experimentally and theoretically as a function of S1 state vibrational excess energy Eexc. The S1 vibronic levels are pumped with a ?5 ns UV laser, the S1 and triplet state ion signals are separated by prompt or delayed ionization with a second UV laser pulse. After correcting the raw ISC yields for the relative S1 and T1 ionization cross sections, we obtain energy dependent ISC quantum yields QISC (corr)=1%-5%. These are combined with previously measured vibronic state-specific decay rates, giving ISC rates kISC = 0.4-1.5 ? 10(9) s(-1), the corresponding S1?S0 internal conversion (IC) rates are 30-100 times larger. Theoretical ISC rates are computed using SCS-CC2 methods, which predict rapid ISC from the S1; v = 0 state with kISC = 3 ? 10(9) s(-1) to the T1((3)??(?)) triplet state. The surprisingly high rate of this El Sayed-forbidden transition is caused by a substantial admixture of (1)nO?(?) character into the S1((1)??(?)) wave function at its non-planar minimum geometry. The combination of experiment and theory implies that (1) below Eexc = 550 cm(-1) in the S1 state, S1?S0 internal conversion dominates the nonradiative decay with kIC ? 2 ? 10(10) s(-1), (2) the calculated S1?T1 ((1)??(?)?(3)??(?)) ISC rate is in good agreement with experiment, (3) being El-Sayed forbidden, the S1?T1 ISC is moderately fast (kISC = 3 ? 10(9) s(-1)), and not ultrafast, as claimed by other calculations, and (4) at Eexc ? 550 cm(-1) the IC rate increases by ?50 times, probably by accessing the lowest conical intersection (the C5-twist CI) and thereby effectively switching off the ISC decay channels. PMID:26696056

  16. Intersystem crossing rates of S1 state keto-amino cytosine at low excess energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobsiger, Simon; Etinski, Mihajlo; Blaser, Susan; Frey, Hans-Martin; Marian, Christel; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    The amino-keto tautomer of supersonic jet-cooled cytosine undergoes intersystem crossing (ISC) from the v = 0 and low-lying vibronic levels of its S1(1ππ∗) state. We investigate these ISC rates experimentally and theoretically as a function of S1 state vibrational excess energy Eexc. The S1 vibronic levels are pumped with a ˜5 ns UV laser, the S1 and triplet state ion signals are separated by prompt or delayed ionization with a second UV laser pulse. After correcting the raw ISC yields for the relative S1 and T1 ionization cross sections, we obtain energy dependent ISC quantum yields QISC corr = 1 % -5%. These are combined with previously measured vibronic state-specific decay rates, giving ISC rates kISC = 0.4-1.5 ṡ 109 s-1, the corresponding S1⇝S0 internal conversion (IC) rates are 30-100 times larger. Theoretical ISC rates are computed using SCS-CC2 methods, which predict rapid ISC from the S1; v = 0 state with kISC = 3 ṡ 109 s-1 to the T1(3ππ∗) triplet state. The surprisingly high rate of this El Sayed-forbidden transition is caused by a substantial admixture of 1nOπ∗ character into the S1(1ππ∗) wave function at its non-planar minimum geometry. The combination of experiment and theory implies that (1) below Eexc = 550 cm-1 in the S1 state, S1⇝S0 internal conversion dominates the nonradiative decay with kIC ≥ 2 ṡ 1010 s-1, (2) the calculated S1⇝T1 (1ππ∗⇝3ππ∗) ISC rate is in good agreement with experiment, (3) being El-Sayed forbidden, the S1⇝T1 ISC is moderately fast (kISC = 3 ṡ 109 s-1), and not ultrafast, as claimed by other calculations, and (4) at Eexc ˜ 550 cm-1 the IC rate increases by ˜50 times, probably by accessing the lowest conical intersection (the C5-twist CI) and thereby effectively switching off the ISC decay channels.

  17. Label-free fluorometric detection of S1 nuclease activity by using polycytosine oligonucleotide-templated silver nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihui; Ma, Keke; Zhang, Yaodong

    2014-09-28

    S1 nuclease has an important function in DNA transcription, replication, recombination, and repair. A label-free fluorescent method for the detection of S1 nuclease activity has been developed using polycytosine oligonucleotide-templated silver nanoclusters (dC12-Ag NCs). In this assay, dC12 can function as both the template for the stabilization of Ag NCs and the substrate of the S1 nuclease. Fluorescent Ag NCs could be effectively formed using dC12 as the template without S1 nuclease. In the presence of S1 nuclease, dC12 is degraded to mono- or oligonucleotide fragments, thereby resulting in a reduction in fluorescence. S1 nuclease with an activity as low as 510(-8)U?l(-1) (signal/noise=3) can be determined with a linear range of 510(-7) to 110(-3)U?l(-1). The promising application of the proposed method in S1 nuclease inhibitor screening has been demonstrated using pyrophosphate as the model inhibitor. Furthermore, the S1 nuclease concentrations in RPMI 1640 cell medium were validated. The developed method for S1 nuclease is sensitive and facile because its operation does not require any complicated DNA labeling or laborious fluorescent dye synthesis. PMID:25263815

  18. A planetary wave model for Saturn's 10.7-h periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. G. A.; Ray, L. C.; Achilleos, N. A.

    2016-04-01

    A proposed resolution of the unexplained 10.7-h periodicities in Saturn's magnetosphere is a system of atmospheric vortices in the polar regions of the planet. We investigate a description of such vortices in terms of planetary-scale waves. Approximating the polar regions as flat, we use theory developed originally by Haurwitz (Haurwitz, B. [1975]. Geophys. Bioklimatol. 24, 1-18) to find circumpolar Rossby wave solutions for Saturn's upper stratosphere and lower thermosphere. We find vertically propagating twin vortex solutions that drift slowly westwards at <1% of the deep planetary angular velocity and are thus ideal candidates for explaining the observed periodicities. To produce integrated field-aligned currents of the order of 1 MA we require wind velocities of ∼ 70ms-1 . A particular class of vertically propagating solutions are potentially consistent with wave energy being 'trapped' between the deep atmosphere and lower thermosphere, at altitudes suited to the production of the necessary field-aligned current systems.

  19. 77 FR 8877 - ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M) Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M... Standards Staff, announces the following meeting. Name: ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M... attend the ICD- 9-CM C&M meeting on March 5, 2012, must submit their name and organization by February...

  20. Photometry of distant active comet C/2010 S1 (LINEAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubina, O.; Kulyk, I.; Korsun, P.; Romanjuk, Ya.

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of photometric observations of a dynamically new comet C/2010 S1 (LINEAR), conducted on June 18, 2012. The comet demonstrated a considerable level of physical activity at a heliocentric distance of 6.3 AU. The brightness, measured under a phase angle of 8.9 degrees, was equal to 14.55^{m}0.06^{m} and 14.21^{m}0.04^{m} in V- and R-bands, respectively. The brightness distribution over the coma was found to be inversely proportional to the projected onto the sky plane nucleocentric distance, with a slope of approximately -1. Therefore, the calculated Af? parameter, approximately 8400 cm and 8200 cm for V and R filters, respectively, was used to estimate the dust production rate. Assuming a steady outflow of dust particles from the nucleus, the dust production rate was estimated to be between 20 and 60 kg/s, depending on the assumed value of the grain's albedo. The V-R colour index obtained from the near-nucleus region of the coma is in agreement with the solar V-R colour index, and does not indicate significant reddening of the reflected solar radiation in the spectral region of 540-683 nm.

  1. Gas-phase oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ --thermodynamics of neutral and ionized CmO.

    PubMed

    Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G; Santos, Marta; de Matos, Antnio Pires; Maralo, Joaquim

    2008-11-13

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm (+) and Cm (2+); parallel studies were carried out with La (+/2+), Gd (+/2+) and Lu (+/2+). Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M (+)-O] (M = Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO (+) with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO (+)] (M = Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electron-transfer reactions from neutrals to the MO (2+) ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO] = 6.4 +/- 0.2 eV; IE[CmO (+)] = 15.8 +/- 0.4 eV; D[Cm-O] = 710 +/- 45 kJ mol (-1); D[Cm (+)-O] = 670 +/- 40 kJ mol (-1); and D[Cm (2+)-O] = 342 +/- 55 kJ mol (-1). Estimates for the M (2+)-O bond energies for M = Cm, La, Gd, and Lu are all intermediate between D[N 2-O] and D[OC-O] - that is, 167 kJ mol (-1) < D[M (2+)-O] < 532 kJ mol (-1) - such that the four MO (2+) ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic oxygen-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO (2+), LaO (2+), GdO (2+), and LuO (2+) dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO 2 (+) ion appeared during the reaction of Cm (+) with O 2 when the intermediate, CmO (+), was not collisionally cooled - although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO 2 (+) is a stable species. PMID:18921989

  2. Gas-Phase Oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ -- Thermodynamics of neutral and ionized CmO

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G.; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Marcalo, Joaquim

    2008-12-08

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm+ and Cm2+; parallel studies were carried out with La+/2+, Gd+/2+ and Lu+/2+. Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M+-O](M = Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO+ with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO+](M = Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electron-transfer reactions from neutrals to the MO2+ ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO]= 6.4+-0.2 eV; IE[CmO+]= 15.8+-0.4 eV; D[Cm-O]= 710+-45 kJ mol-1; D[Cm+-O]= 670+-40 kJ mol-1; and D[Cm2+-O]= 342+-55 kJ mol-1. Estimates for the M2+-O bond energies for M = Cm, La, Gd and Lu are all intermediate between D[N2-O]and D[OC-O]--i.e., 167 kJ mol-1< D[M2+-O]< 532 kJ mol-1 -- such that the four MO2+ ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic O-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO2+, LaO2+, GdO2+ and LuO2+ dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO2+ ion appeared during the reaction of Cm+ with O2 when the intermediate, CmO+, was not collisionally cooled -- although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO2+ is a stable species.

  3. An Absolute Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Temperature at 10.7 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staggs, S. T.; Jarosik, N. C.; Meyer, S. S.; Wilkinson, D. T.

    1996-12-01

    A balloon-borne experiment has measured the absolute temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) at 10.7 GHz to be TCMBR = 2.730 +/- 0.014 K. The error is the quadratic sum of several systematic errors, with a statistical error of less than 0.1 mK. The instrument is made up of a cooled corrugated horn antenna coupled to a total power radiometer. A cryogenic mechanical waveguide switch alternately connects the radiometer to the horn and to an internal reference load. The small measured temperature difference (<~20 mK) between the sky signal and the reference load in conjunction with the use of a cold front end keeps systematic instrumental corrections small. Atmospheric and window emission are minimized by flying the instrument at 24 km altitude. A large outer ground screen and smaller inner screen shield the instrument from stray radiation from the ground and the balloon. In-flight tests constrain the magnitude of ground radiation contamination, and low-level interference is monitored through observations in several narrow-frequency bands.

  4. PMMA Cementoplasty in Symptomatic Metastatic Lesions of the S1 Vertebral Body

    SciTech Connect

    Dehdashti, Amir R.; Martin, Jean-Baptiste; Jean, Beatrix; Ruefenacht, Daniel A.

    2000-03-15

    We describe a lateral transiliac direct puncture approach to the S1 vertebral body for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cementoplasty of painful metastatic lesions. This approach was performed using a 15-cm-long trocar needle with 3-mm outer diameter, introduced under general anesthesia and fluoroscopic control. A lateral projection was used to center the needle just in front of the spinal canal and subjacent to the superior plate of the S1 vertebral body. Needle progression was controlled using anteroposterior and lateral fluoroscopic projections alternately with a needle course parallel to an axial plane, avoiding conflict with the S1 foramen. After needle tip placement in the center of the S1 vertebral body, diluted PMMA with a setting time of 8 min was delivered. Ipsilateral lesions of the lateral sacral compartment were filled with the same needle by stepwise withdrawal and continuous PMMA injection.

  5. Raman spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll a in the S1 state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Ei-ichi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Koyama, Yasushi

    1991-07-01

    The S 1 Raman spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll a is reported for the first time. A one-color experiment using the 351 nm picosecond pulses (duration 50 ps and repetition 1 kHz) for tetrahydrofuran solution detected a transient species, which showed distinct Raman lines at 1567, 1409 and 1320 cm -1 and weak profiles around 1169, 1092, 1051 and 794 cm -1. The other one-color experiment using the 355 nm nanosecond pulses (duration 12 ns and repetition 10 Hz) detected the T 1 species reported previously showing Raman lines at 1578 and 1330 cm -1. Thus, the newly identified transient species, which was pumped and probed within 50 ps, is assigned to S 1.

  6. Expression of the PreS1 peptide of hepatitis B virus and preparation of its polyclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weixian; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Ding; Li, Yue; Huang, Ailong

    2011-12-01

    PreS1 is a hypothetical candidate domain of L protein for hepatitis B virus (HBV) to adhere to and invade host hepatic cells. This report deals with the expression and purification of recombinant adw2 subtype of the preS1 peptide of hepatitis B virus surface antigen in Escherichia coli. The DNA fragments of the full-length or N/C terminal sequence of preS1 synthesized by PCR were inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pGST-MOLUC, respectively. Reconstitute plasmids (named pGST-preS1, pGST-preS1N, and pGST-preS1C) were confirmed by sequencing analysis and transferred into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Recombinant full-length and N/C terminal of preS1 with GST tag were expressed at high levels in soluble form after induction with IPTG. The recombinant proteins were purified by a single-step affinity chromatography method. The immune reactivity of recombinant preS1 was confirmed by Western blot and virus capture assay. Furthermore, when the purified recombinant protein was used to immunize rabbit, the specific antibody titer can reach 10(-7). Thus, our successful expression system and achievement of purified recombinant preS1 protein and its polyclonal antibody lay the foundation for better understanding of the mechanism of HBV PreS1 protein in virus endocytosis and are helpful in seeking the PreS1-related protein. PMID:22149277

  7. WILL COMET ISON (C/2012 S1) SURVIVE PERIHELION?

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Matthew M.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2013-10-10

    On 2013 November 28 Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) will pass by the Sun with a perihelion distance of 2.7 solar radii. Understanding the possible outcomes for the comet's response to such a close passage by the Sun is important for planning observational campaigns and for inferring ISON's physical properties. We present new numerical simulations and interpret them in context with the historical track record of comet disruptions and of sungrazing comet behavior. Historical data suggest that sizes below ∼200 m are susceptible to destruction by sublimation driven mass loss, while we find that for ISON's perihelion distance, densities lower than 0.1 g cm{sup –3} are required to tidally disrupt a retrograde or non-spinning body. Such low densities are substantially below the range of the best-determined comet nucleus densities, though dynamically new comets such as ISON have few measurements of physical properties. Disruption may occur for prograde rotation at densities up to 0.7 g cm{sup –3}, with the chances of disruption increasing for lower density, faster prograde rotation, and increasing elongation of the nucleus. Given current constraints on ISON's nucleus properties and the typically determined values for these properties among all comets, we find tidal disruption to be unlikely unless other factors (e.g., spin-up via torquing) affect ISON substantially. Whether or not disruption occurs, the largest remnant must be big enough to survive subsequent mass loss due to sublimation in order for ISON to remain a viable comet well after perihelion.

  8. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P{sub 1} receptor by a novel competitive S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of a newly developed S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficacy of S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P{sub 1}) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P{sub 1} and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P{sub 1} antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  9. Conformationally Constrained, Stable, Triplet Ground State (S = 1) Nitroxide Diradicals. Antiferromagnetic Chains of S = 1 Diradicals

    SciTech Connect

    Rajca, Andrzej; Takahashi, Masahiro; Pink, Maren; Spagnol, Gaelle; Rajca, Suchada

    2008-06-30

    Nitroxide diradicals, in which nitroxides are annelated to m-phenylene forming tricyclic benzobisoxazine-like structures, have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, magnetic resonance (EPR and {sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy, as well as magnetic studies in solution and in solid state. For the octamethyl derivative of benzobisoxazine nitroxide diradical, the conformationally constrained nitroxide moieties are coplanar with the m-phenylene, leading to large values of 2J (2J/k > 200 K in solution and 2J/k >> 300 K in the solid state). For the diradical, in which all ortho and para positions of the m-phenylene are sterically shielded, distortion of the nitroxide moieties from coplanarity is moderate, such that the singlet-triplet gaps remain large in both solution (2J/k > 200 K) and the solid state (2J/k {approx} 400-800 K), though an onset of thermal depopulation of the triplet ground state is detectable near room temperature. These diradicals have robust triplet ground states with strong ferromagnetic coupling and good stability at ambient conditions. Magnetic behavior of the nitroxide diradicals at low temperature is best fit to the model of one-dimensional S = 1 Heisenberg chains with intrachain antiferromagnetic coupling. The antiferromagnetic coupling between the S = 1 diradicals may be associated with the methyl nitroxide C-H {hor_ellipsis} O contacts, including nonclassical hydrogen bonds. These unprecedented organic S = 1 antiferromagnetic chains are highly isotropic, compared to those of the extensively studied Ni(II)-based chains.

  10. 8-cm mercury ion thruster system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The technology status of 8-cm diameter electron bombardment ion thrusters is presented. Much of the technology resulting from the 5-cm diameter thruster has been adapted and improved upon to increase the reliability, durability, and efficiency of the 8-cm thruster. Technology discussed includes: dependence of neutralizer tip erosion upon neutralizer flow rate; impregnated and rolled-foil insert cathode performance and life testing; neutralizer position studies; thruster ion beam profile measurements; high voltage pulse ignition; high utilization ion machined accelerator grids; deposition internal and external to the thruster; thruster vectoring systems; thruster cycling life testing and thruster system weights for typical mission applications.

  11. MBE-grown Fe nanowires on a ZnS(1 0 0) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lok, S. K.; Chan, S. K.; Wong, G. K. L.; Sou, I. K.

    2009-03-01

    Two types of self-assembled Fe nanowires (NWs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on ZnS(1 0 0) surface under high growth/annealing temperature. The type-A Fe NWs orient along the ZnS [1 1 0] direction with irregular shape, while the type-B Fe NWs orient along either the ZnS [1 8 0] or the [8 1 0] direction with seemingly straight shape. Detailed high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction studies reveal that both types were single-crystalline with their elongated axis along the <1 0 0> direction family possibly due to the fact that the easy axis of Fe is along this direction. We have proposed a mean-field model to explain the slight misalignment of the type-B Fe NWs. The I- V characteristic of a single type-B Fe NW measured at room temperature displays a straight line nature corresponding to a resistivity of about 2.310 -7 ? m.

  12. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to the extent necessary to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR 2530.204-2(d) (regarding double... prior regulation provisions of § 1.414(s)-1T. (See § 1.414(s)-1T as contained in the CFR edition revised... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(s)-1...

  13. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to the extent necessary to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR 2530.204-2(d) (regarding double... prior regulation provisions of § 1.414(s)-1T. (See § 1.414(s)-1T as contained in the CFR edition revised... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(s)-1...

  14. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to the extent necessary to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR 2530.204-2(d) (regarding double... prior regulation provisions of § 1.414(s)-1T. (See § 1.414(s)-1T as contained in the CFR edition revised... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(s)-1...

  15. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to the extent necessary to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR 2530.204-2(d) (regarding double... prior regulation provisions of § 1.414(s)-1T. (See § 1.414(s)-1T as contained in the CFR edition revised... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(s)-1...

  16. Chilled Mirror Dew Point Hygrometer (CM) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2005-01-01

    The CM systems have been developed for the ARM Program to act as a moisture standard traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are three CM systems that are each fully portable, self-contained, and require only 110 V AC power. The systems include a CM sensor, air sampling and filtration system, a secondary reference (Rotronic HP043 temperature and relative humidity sensor) to detect system malfunctions, a data acquisition system, and data storage for more than one month of 1-minute data. The CM sensor directly measures dew point temperature at 1 m, air temperature at 2 m, and relative humidity at 2 m. These measurements are intended to represent self-standing data streams that can be used independently or in combinations.

  17. Astrophysics with the 60-cm telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zverko, J.

    2014-03-01

    Observational programs and selection from scientific results with the 60-cm telescope achieved at the Skalnaté Pleso Observatory since its putting into operation is reviewed: novae, eclipsing and interacting binaries, symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, chemically peculiar stars, comets. Possible targets among newly detected binaries are proposed for determining orbital parameters using the new spectrograph of the 60-cm telescope at the Stará Lesná Observatory.

  18. Shaping the landscape: Metabolic regulation of S1P gradients

    PubMed Central

    Olivera, Ana; Allende, Maria Laura; Proia, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid that functions as a metabolic intermediate and a cellular signaling molecule. These roles are integrated when compartments with differing extracellular S1P concentrations are formed that serve to regulate functions within the immune and vascular systems, as well as during pathologic conditions. Gradients of S1P concentration are achieved by the organization of cells with specialized expression of S1P metabolic pathways within tissues. S1P concentration gradients underpin the ability of S1P signaling to regulate in vivo physiology. This review will discuss the mechanisms that are necessary for the formation and maintenance of S1P gradients, with the aim of understanding how a simple lipid controls complex physiology. PMID:22735358

  19. Phosphorylation of ?S1-casein is regulated by different genes.

    PubMed

    Bijl, E; van Valenberg, H J F; Huppertz, T; van Hooijdonk, A C M; Bovenhuis, H

    2014-11-01

    Casein phosphorylation is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by kinase enzymes that attach phosphate groups to specific AA in the protein sequence. This modification is one of the key factors responsible for the stabilization of calcium phosphate nanoclusters in casein micelles and for the internal structure of the casein micelles. ?(S1)-Casein (?(s1)-CN) is of special interest because it constitutes up to 40% of the total casein fraction in milk, and it has 2 common phosphorylation states, with 8 (?(S1)-CN-8P) and 9 (?(S1)-CN-9P) phosphorylated serine residues. Factors affecting this variation in the degree of phosphorylation are not currently known. The objective of this research was to determine the genetic background of ?(S1)-CN-8P and ?(S1)-CN-9P. The genetic and phenotypic correlation between ?(S1)-CN-8P and ?(S1)-CN-9P was low (0.18 and 0.19, respectively). This low genetic correlation suggests a different genetic background. These differences were further investigated by means of a genome-wide association study, which showed that both ?(S1)-CN-8P and ?(S1)-CN-9P were affected by a region on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, but only ?(S1)-CN-8P was affected by a region on BTA11 that contains the gene that encodes for ?-lactoglobulin (?-LG), and only ?(S1)-CN-9P was affected by a region on BTA14 that contains the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene. Estimated effects of ?-LG protein genotypes showed that only ?(S1)-CN-8P was associated with the ?-LG A/B polymorphism (g.1772G>A and g.3054C>T); the AA genotype of ?-LG was associated with a lower concentration of ?(S1)-CN-8P (-0.32% wt/wt) than the BB genotype (+0.41% wt/wt). Estimated effects of DGAT1 K232A genotypes showed that only ?(S1)-CN-9P was associated with the DGAT1 gene polymorphism; DGAT1 AA genotype was associated with a higher ?(S1)-CN-9P concentration (+0.53% wt/wt) than the DGAT1 KK genotype (-0.44% wt/wt). The results give insight in phosphorylation of ?(S1)-CN-8P and ?(S1)-CN-9P, which seem to be regulated by a different set of genes. PMID:25200775

  20. Probing lepton asymmetry with 21 cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: oyamayo@post.kek.jp E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the issue of how accurately we can constrain the lepton number asymmetry ξ{sub ν}=μ{sub ν}/T{sub ν} in the Universe by using future observations of 21 cm line fluctuations and cosmic microwave background (CMB). We find that combinations of the 21 cm line and the CMB observations can constrain the lepton asymmetry better than big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Additionally, we also discuss constraints on ξ{sub ν} in the presence of some extra radiation, and show that the 21 cm line observations can substantially improve the constraints obtained by CMB alone, and allow us to distinguish the effects of the lepton asymmetry from the ones of extra radiation.

  1. Vibrational spectrum of p-fluoroanisole in the first excited state (S 1) and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Daoqing; Yu, Dan; Xu, Xiling; Yu, Zijun; Du, Yikui; Gao, Zhen; Zhu, Qihe; Zhang, Cunhao

    2008-06-01

    The vibronic structure of p-fluoroanisole in the first excited state (S 1) has been investigated with mass selected resonance-enhanced two photon ionization spectroscopy. The band origin of S 1 ← S 0 transition of p-fluoroanisole is measured to be 35149 cm -1, which is red-shifted by 1234 cm -1 with respect to that of anisole. Combining with the ab initio calculations, the measured frequencies 397, 487, 559, 840 and 1150 cm -1 in the S 1 state are assigned as the in-plane ring vibrational mode 9 b, 6 a, 6 b, 1 and 9 a, respectively. The optimized molecular geometries and vibrational frequencies of p-fluoroanisole in the ground state (S 0) and cation ground state (D 0) are also achieved from DFT calculations.

  2. Resonating Valence Bond states for low dimensional S=1 antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng-Xin; Zhou, Yi; Ng, Tai-Kai

    2014-03-01

    We study S = 1 spin liquid states in low dimensions. We show that the resonating-valence-bond (RVB) picture of S = 1 / 2 spin liquid state can be generalized to S = 1 case. For S = 1 system, a many-body singlet (with even site number) can be decomposed into superposition of products of two-body singlets. In other words, the product states of two-body singlets, called the singlet pair states (SPSs), are over complete to span the Hilbert space of many-body singlets. Furthermore, we generalized fermionic representation and the corresponding mean field theory and Gutzwiller projected stats to S = 1 models. We applied our theory to study 1D anti-ferromagnetic bilinear-biquadratic model and show that both the ground states (including the phase transition point) and the excited states can be understood excellently well within the framework. Our method can be applied to 2D S = 1 antiferromagnets.

  3. Characterization of 8-cm engineering model thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    Development of 8 cm ion thruster technology which was conducted in support of the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) flight contract (Contract NAS3-21055) is discussed. The work included characterization of thruster performance, stability, and control; a study of the effects of cathode aging; environmental qualification testing; and cyclic lifetesting of especially critical thruster components.

  4. CM protocol results in decreased denials.

    PubMed

    2009-02-01

    Payer denials for inappropriate observation patient status dropped 50% after hospital delegated responsibility for determining patient status to CMs. All admitted patients are reviewed by a CM for admission status. CMs use Medicare guidelines and InterQual criteria for medical necessity determination. PMID:19278091

  5. The Multidimensional Curriculum Model (MdCM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidergor, Hava E.

    2010-01-01

    The multidimensional Curriculum Model (MdCM) helps teachers to better prepare gifted and able students for our changing world, acquiring much needed skills. It is influenced by general learning theory of constructivism, notions of preparing students for 21st century, Teaching the Future Model, and current comprehensive curriculum models for

  6. The Multidimensional Curriculum Model (MdCM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidergor, Hava E.

    2010-01-01

    The multidimensional Curriculum Model (MdCM) helps teachers to better prepare gifted and able students for our changing world, acquiring much needed skills. It is influenced by general learning theory of constructivism, notions of preparing students for 21st century, Teaching the Future Model, and current comprehensive curriculum models for…

  7. Energy levels for Cm-238 (Curium-238)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of Subvolume C `Tables of Excitations of Proton- and Neutron-rich Unstable Nuclei' of Volume 19 `Nuclear States from Charged Particle Reactions' of Landolt-Brnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides energy levels for atomic nuclei of the isotope Cm-238 (curium, atomic number Z = 96, mass number A = 238).

  8. Energy levels for Cm-240 (Curium-240)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of Subvolume C `Tables of Excitations of Proton- and Neutron-rich Unstable Nuclei' of Volume 19 `Nuclear States from Charged Particle Reactions' of Landolt-Brnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides energy levels for atomic nuclei of the isotope Cm-240 (curium, atomic number Z = 96, mass number A = 240).

  9. Energy levels for Cm-241 (Curium-241)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of Subvolume C `Tables of Excitations of Proton- and Neutron-rich Unstable Nuclei' of Volume 19 `Nuclear States from Charged Particle Reactions' of Landolt-Brnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides energy levels for atomic nuclei of the isotope Cm-241 (curium, atomic number Z = 96, mass number A = 241).

  10. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prior regulation provisions of § 1.414(s)-1T. (See § 1.414(s)-1T as contained in the CFR edition revised... to the extent necessary to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR 2530.204-2(d) (regarding double... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 1.414(s)-1 Section...

  11. Measurements of Output Factors For Small Photon Fields Up to 10 cm x 10 cm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacala, Angelina

    Field output factors (OF) for photon beams from a 6 MV medical accelerator were measured using five different detectors in a scanning water phantom. The measurements were taken for square field sizes of integral widths ranging from 1 cm to 10 cm for two reference source-to-surface distances (SSD) and depths in water. For the diode detectors, square field widths as small as 2.5 mm were also studied. The photon beams were collimated by using either the jaws or the multileaf collimators. Measured OFs are found to depend upon the field size, SSD, depth and also upon the type of beam collimation, size and type of detector used. For field sizes larger than 3 cm x 3 cm, the OF measurements agree to within 1% or less. The largest variation in OF occurs for jawsshaped field of size 1 cm x 1cm, where a difference of more than 18% is observed.

  12. Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirocha, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation of global 21-cm signal measurements are detections of Lyman Alpha Emitters at high redshifts and constraints on the midpoint of reionization, both of which are among the primary science objectives of ongoing or near-future experiments.

  13. Infrared methane spectra between 1120 per cm and 1800 per cm - A new atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blatherwick, R. D.; Goldman, A.; Lutz, B. L.; Silvaggio, P. M.; Boese, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    A new atlas of CH4 lines in the 1120-1800-per cm region has been generated, based on laboratory spectra taken with a Nicolet interferometer at 0.06-per cm resolution with 635-cm path length at pressures of 0.98 torr, 4.86 torr, and 19.97 torr. A compilation of line positions and line intensities includes 1339 CH4 lines, several hundred of which have not been previously observed.

  14. Extended Performance 8-cm Mercury Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    A slightly modified 8-cm Hg ion thruster demonstrated significant increase in performance. Thrust was increased by almost a factor of five over that of the baseline thruster. Thruster operation with various three grid ion optics configurations; thruster performance as a function of accelerator grid open area, cathode baffle, and cathode orifice size; and a life test of 614 hours at a beam current of 250 mA (17.5 mN thrust) are discussed. Highest thruster efficiency was obtained with the smallest open area accelerator grid. The benefits in efficiency from the low neutral loss grids were mitigated, however, by the limitation such grids place on attainable ion beam current densities. The thruster components suffered negligible weight losses during a life test, which indicated that operation of the 8-cm thruster at extended levels of thrust and power is possible with no significant loss of lifetime.

  15. The Tianlai 21cm intensity mapping experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuelei

    2015-08-01

    The Tianlai 21cm intensity mapping experiment is aimed at surveying the northern sky 21cm intensity at mid-redshifts, thus map out the neutral hydrogen distribution. The experiment is named "Tianlai" which means "heavenly sound" in classic Chinese, because its ultimate goal is to use the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in the correlation function or power spectrum of large scale structure to constrain the cosmic expansion rate, and determine the nature of dark energy.The pathfinder experiment consists three cylinder reflectors of 15m wide x 40m long, and 16 dishes of 6 meter aperture, for testing the basic principle and key technologies. A radio-quiet site in Hongliuxia, Xinjiang of north-west China is selected, currently the facilities are under construction, and the prototype is expected to start commissioning later this year. The experiment is run by NAOC, with members from France, USA and Canada.

  16. Spectral investigations of CM Draconis - new results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, M. K.; Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pinfield, D. J.

    2012-03-01

    CM Draconis is spectroscopic and eclipsing binary system that consists of two nearly identical M dwarfs. The masses and radii for the components are known with high accuracy. The period of the system is P = 1.268 day. In the course of this work we used 29 medium resolution (R=47,000) echelle spectra of CM Dra which were obtained at several different orbital phases at the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. We calculated synthetic spectra for a region of Na I 8185 , Na I 8197 and Rb I 7818 lines and fitted the spectra for all of the orbital phases. We refined the effective temperature and metallicity of the system components, using similarity function (S function) of the observed and synthetic spectra for different phases.

  17. Late type close binary system CM Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalomeni, Belinda

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we present new observations of the close binary system CM Dra. We analyzed all the available data of the system and estimated the physical parameters of the system stars highly accurately. Using the newly obtained parameters the distance of the system is determined to be 11.6 pc. A possible giant planet orbiting the close binary system has been detected. This orbital period would likely make it one of the longest known orbital period planet.

  18. 15 cm multipole gas ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaacson, G. C.; Kaufman, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    A 15-cm multipole thruster was operated on argon and xenon. The multipole approach used has been shown capable of low discharge losses and flat ion beam profiles with a minimum of redesign. This approach employs low magnetic field strengths and flat or cylindrical sheet-metal parts, hence is suited to rapid optimization and scaling. Only refractory metal cathodes were used in this investigation.

  19. Mapmaking for precision 21 cm cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Joshua S.; Tegmark, Max; Liu, Adrian; Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Morales, Miguel F.; Neben, Abraham R.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Zheng, Haoxuan

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the "Cosmic Dawn" and the Epoch of Reionization with 21 cm tomography, we need to statistically separate the cosmological signal from foregrounds known to be orders of magnitude brighter. Over the last few years, we have learned much about the role our telescopes play in creating a putatively foreground-free region called the "EoR window." In this work, we examine how an interferometer's effects can be taken into account in a way that allows for the rigorous estimation of 21 cm power spectra from interferometric maps while mitigating foreground contamination and thus increasing sensitivity. This requires a precise understanding of the statistical relationship between the maps we make and the underlying true sky. While some of these calculations would be computationally infeasible if performed exactly, we explore several well-controlled approximations that make mapmaking and the calculation of map statistics much faster, especially for compact and highly redundant interferometers designed specifically for 21 cm cosmology. We demonstrate the utility of these methods and the parametrized trade-offs between accuracy and speed using one such telescope, the upcoming Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array, as a case study.

  20. Polyhedral Serpentine Grains in CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zega, Thomas J.; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Dodony, Istvan; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    CM chondrites are primitive rocks that experienced aqueous alteration in the early solar system. Their matrices and fine-grained rims (FGRs) sustained the effects of alteration, and the minerals within them hold clues to the aqueous reactions. Sheet silicates are an important product of alteration, and those of the serpentine group are abundant in the CM2 chondrites. Here we expand on our previous efforts to characterize the structure and chemistry of serpentines in CM chondrites and report results on a polyhedral form that is structurally similar to polygonal serpentine. Polygonal serpentine consists of tetrahedral (T) sheets joined to M(2+)-centered octahedral (O) sheets (where (M2+) is primarily Mg(2+) and Fe(2+)), which give rise to a 1:1 (TO) layered structure with a 0.7-nm layer periodicity. The structure is similar to chrysotile in that it consists of concentric lizardite layers wrapped around the fiber axis. However, unlike the rolled-up chrysotile, the tetrahedral sheets of the lizardite layers are periodically inverted and kinked, producing sectors. The relative angles between sectors result in 15- and 30-sided polygons in terrestrial samples.

  1. Constraining dark matter through 21-cm observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, M.; Ferrara, A.; Mapelli, M.; Ripamonti, E.

    2007-05-01

    Beyond reionization epoch cosmic hydrogen is neutral and can be directly observed through its 21-cm line signal. If dark matter (DM) decays or annihilates, the corresponding energy input affects the hydrogen kinetic temperature and ionized fraction, and contributes to the Lyα background. The changes induced by these processes on the 21-cm signal can then be used to constrain the proposed DM candidates, among which we select the three most popular ones: (i) 25-keV decaying sterile neutrinos, (ii) 10-MeV decaying light dark matter (LDM) and (iii) 10-MeV annihilating LDM. Although we find that the DM effects are considerably smaller than found by previous studies (due to a more physical description of the energy transfer from DM to the gas), we conclude that combined observations of the 21-cm background and of its gradient should be able to put constrains at least on LDM candidates. In fact, LDM decays (annihilations) induce differential brightness temperature variations with respect to the non-decaying/annihilating DM case up to ΔδTb = 8 (22) mK at about 50 (15) MHz. In principle, this signal could be detected both by current single-dish radio telescopes and future facilities as Low Frequency Array; however, this assumes that ionospheric, interference and foreground issues can be properly taken care of.

  2. S-1 in the treatment of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sudo, Kentaro; Nakamura, Kazuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Taketo

    2014-01-01

    S-1 is an oral 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) prodrug, which is designed to improve the antitumor activity of 5-FU by inhibiting dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, the key enzyme of 5-FU catabolism. Recently, two important studies on the clinical use of S-1 for pancreatic cancer have been reported from Japan. In the first study (GEST study), S-1 demonstrated non-inferiority to gemcitabine (GEM) in overall survival (OS) for metastatic or locally advanced pancreatic cancer, but combination chemotherapy with GEM and S-1 did not show superiority to GEM in OS. In the second study (JASPAC-01 study), S-1 showed superiority to adjuvant chemotherapy with GEM in OS in patients with resected pancreatic cancer. In addition to GEM, S-1 is now regarded as the key drug in the management of pancreatic cancer in Japan. To date, many studies have investigated the effectiveness of S-1 in various settings, such as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic or locally advanced pancreatic cancer, second-line chemotherapy after GEM failure, and chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced disease. In this review, we focus on recent clinical trials of S-1-based chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer. PMID:25386059

  3. Overcoming the Challenges of 21cm Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pober, Jonathan

    The highly-redshifted 21cm line of neutral hydrogen is one of the most promising and unique probes of cosmology for the next decade and beyond. The past few years have seen a number of dedicated experiments targeting the 21cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) begin operation, including the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR), the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER). For these experiments to yield cosmological results, they require new calibration and analysis algorithms which will need to achieve unprecedented levels of separation between the 21cm signal and contaminating foreground emission. Although much work has been spent developing these algorithms over the past decade, their success or failure will ultimately depend on their ability to overcome the complications associated with real-world systems and their inherent complications. The work in this dissertation is closely tied to the late-stage commissioning and early observations with PAPER. The first two chapters focus on developing calibration algorithms to overcome unique problems arising in the PAPER system. To test these algorithms, I rely on not only simulations, but on commissioning observations, ultimately tying the success of the algorithm to its performance on actual, celestial data. The first algorithm works to correct gain-drifts in the PAPER system caused by the heating and cooling of various components (the amplifiers and above ground co-axial cables, in particular). It is shown that a simple measurement of the ambient temperature can remove 10% gain fluctuations in the observed brightness of calibrator sources. This result is highly encouraging for the ability of PAPER to remove a potentially dominant systematic in its power spectrum and cataloging measurements without resorting to a complicated system overhaul. The second new algorithm developed in this dissertation solves a major calibration challenge not just for PAPER, but for nearly all of a large class of new wide-field, drift- scanning radio telescopes: primary beam calibration in the presence of a poorly measured sky. Since these telescopes lack the ability to steer their primary beams, while seeing nearly the entire sky at once, a large number of calibrator sources are necessary to probe the entire beam response. However, the catalogs of radio sources at low-frequencies are not reliable enough to achieve the level of primary beam accuraccy needed for 21cm cosmology experiments. I develop, test, and apply a new technique which -- using only the assumption of symmetry around a 180 rotation -- simultaneously solves for the primary beam and the flux density of large number of sources. In this dissertation, I also present the analysis of new observations from PAPER to test theoretical models which predict foreground emission is confined to a "wedge"-like region of cosmological Fourier space, leaving an "EoR window" free from contamination. For the first time in actual observations, these predictions are spectacularly confirmed. In many ways, this result shifts the burden for upcoming PAPER analysis from foreground removal to increased sensitivity. And although increasing sensitivity is no small feat in-and-of-itself, this result is highly encouraging for 21cm studies, as foreground removal was long-viewed as the principal challenge for this field. The final result in this dissertation is the application of the all the lessons learned building PAPER and the MWA to design a new experiment for 21cm studies at z 1 with the goal of measuring baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). The design of the BAO Broadband and Broad-beam (BAOBAB) Array is described, and cosmological forecasts are presented. The bottom line is highly encouraging, suggesting that z 1 21cm observations can detect the neutral hydrogen power spectrum with a very modest (16 - 32 element) array, and that still reasonably sized (128 - 256 elements) arrays can produce significant advances in our knowledge of dark energy.

  4. ICD-10-CM to ICD-10 Based on FY2014 ICD-10-CM codes

    Cancer.gov

    ICD-10-CM to ICD-10 Based on FY2014 ICD-10-CM codes REPORTABLE NEOPLASMS Category and subcategory codes are shaded in grey and marked with an ^ Cells shaded in pink and marked with an *indicate the preferred code when a single code maps to multiple codes

  5. ICD-10 to ICD-10-CM Based on FY2014 ICD-10-CM codes

    Cancer.gov

    ICD-10 to ICD-10-CM Based on FY2014 ICD-10-CM codes REPORTABLE NEOPLASMS Category and subcategory codes are shaded in grey and marked with an ^ Cells shaded in pink and marked with an *indicate the preferred code when a single code maps to multiple codes

  6. Detailed modelling of the 21-cm forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelin, B.

    2016-01-01

    The 21-cm forest is a promising probe of the Epoch of Reionization. The local state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is encoded in the spectrum of a background source (radio-loud quasars or gamma-ray burst afterglow) by absorption at the local 21-cm wavelength, resulting in a continuous and fluctuating absorption level. Small-scale structures (filaments and minihaloes) in the IGM are responsible for the strongest absorption features. The absorption can also be modulated on large scales by inhomogeneous heating and Wouthuysen-Field coupling. We present the results from a simulation that attempts to preserve the cosmological environment while resolving some of the small-scale structures (a few kpc resolution in a 50 h-1 Mpc box). The simulation couples the dynamics and the ionizing radiative transfer and includes X-ray and Lyman lines radiative transfer for a detailed physical modelling. As a result we find that soft X-ray self-shielding, Ly α self-shielding and shock heating all have an impact on the predicted values of the 21-cm optical depth of moderately overdense structures like filaments. A correct treatment of the peculiar velocities is also critical. Modelling these processes seems necessary for accurate predictions and can be done only at high enough resolution. As a result, based on our fiducial model, we estimate that LOFAR should be able to detect a few (strong) absorptions features in a frequency range of a few tens of MHz for a 20 mJy source located at z = 10, while the SKA would extract a large fraction of the absorption information for the same source.

  7. A 30-cm diameter argon ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter argon ion source was evaluated. Ion source beam currents up to 4a were extracted with ion energies ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 KeV. An ion optics scaling relation was developed for predicting ion beam extraction capability as a function of total extraction voltage, gas type, and screen grid open area. Ignition and emission characteristics of several hollow cathode geometries were assessed for purposes of defining discharge chamber and neutralizer cathodes. Also presented are ion beam profile characteristics which exhibit broad beam capability well suited for ion beam sputtering applications.

  8. An engineering model 30 cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; King, H. J.; Schnelker, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    Thruster development at Hughes Research Laboratories and NASA Lewis Research Center has brought the 30-cm mercury bombardment ion thruster to the state of an engineering model. This thruster has been designed to have sufficient internal strength for direct mounting on gimbals, to weigh 7.3 kg, to operate with a corrected overall efficiency of 71%, and to have 10,000 hours lifetime. Subassemblies, such as the ion optical system, isolators, etc., have been upgraded to meet launch qualification standards. This paper presents a summary of the design specifications and performance characteristics which define the interface between the thruster module and the remainder of the propulsion system.

  9. [Family of ribosomal proteins S1 contains unique conservative domain].

    PubMed

    Deriusheva, E I; Machulin, A V; Selivanova, O M; Serdiuk, I N

    2010-01-01

    Different representatives of bacteria have different number of amino acid residues in the ribosomal proteins S1. This number varies from 111 (Spiroplasma kunkelii) to 863 a.a. (Treponema pallidum). Traditionally and for lack of this protein three-dimensional structure, its architecture is represented as repeating S1 domains. Number of these domains depends on the protein's length. Domain's quantity and its boundaries data are contained in the specialized databases, such as SMART, Pfam and PROSITE. However, for the same object these data may be very different. For search of domain's quantity and its boundaries, new approach, based on the analysis of dicted secondary structure (PsiPred), was used. This approach allowed us to reveal structural domains in amino acid sequences of S1 proteins and at that number varied from one to six. Alignment of S1 proteins, containing different domain's number, with the S1 RNAbinding domain of Escherichia coli PNPase elicited a fact that in family of ribosomal proteins SI one domain has maximal homology with S1 domain from PNPase. This conservative domain migrates along polypeptide chain and locates in proteins, containing different domain's number, according to specified pattern. In this domain as well in the S1 domain from PNPase, residues Phe-19, Phe-22, His-34, Asp-64 and Arg-68 are clustered on the surface and formed RNA binding site. PMID:20873233

  10. Robustness of S1 with Hodges-Lehmann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, Nor Aishah; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Yin, Lee Ping

    2015-12-01

    The classical methods for comparing groups can be highly inefficient under the influence of non-normal and heteroscedastic settings. Investigators are looking for alternatives which are more flexible in terms of assumptions. Robust methods are known to be one such alternative. This study looks into S1 statistic, flexible method for comparing groups using median as the location estimator. Works on S1 mostly focussed on the searching of a more favorable alternative of the standard error of sample medians to achieve better control of Type I error. In this study, instead of targetting on the standard error, the investigation on the S1 statistic focusses on the sample median itself. The modified S1 statistic replaced the medians with Hodges-Lehmann and the default scale estimator with the variance of Hodges-Lehmann and MADn to produce two different test statistics for comparing groups. Since the sampling distributions of these modified S1 statistics are unknown, bootstrap method was used for testing the hypotheses. The performance of the proposed statistic was measured in terms of Type I error and compared against the original S1 statistic. The propose procedures, generated conservative Type I error rates and on par with the original S1 statistic for most of the conditions.

  11. Fuel elements of research reactor CM

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, A.V.; Morozov, A.V.; Vatulin, A.V.; Ershov, S.A.

    2013-07-01

    In 1961 the CM research reactor was commissioned at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (Dimitrovgrad, Russia), it was intended to carry on investigations and the production of transuranium nuclides. The reactor is of a tank type. Original fuel assembly contained plate fuels that were spaced with vanes and corrugated bands. Nickel was used as a cladding material, fuel meat was produced from UO{sub 2} + electrolytic nickel composition. Fuel plates have been replaced by self-spacing cross-shaped dispersion fuels clad in stainless steel. In 2005 the reactor was updated. The purpose of this updating was to increase the quantity of irradiation channels in the reactor core and to improve the neutron balance. The updating was implemented at the expense of 20 % reduction in the quantity of fuel elements in the core which released a space for extra channels and decreased the mass of structural materials in the core. The updated reactor is loaded with modified standard fuel elements with 20 % higher uranium masses. At the same time stainless steel in fuel assembly shrouds was substituted by zirconium alloy. Today in progress are investigations and work to promote the second stage of reactor updating that involve developments of cross-shaped fuel elements having low neutron absorption matrix materials. This article gives an historical account of the design and main technical changes that occurred for the CM reactor since its commissioning.

  12. THE METALLICITY OF THE CM DRACONIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Fleming, Scott W.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Deshpande, Rohit; Bender, Chad F.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Feiden, Gregory A.

    2012-11-20

    The CM Draconis system comprises two eclipsing mid-M dwarfs of nearly equal mass in a 1.27 day orbit. This well-studied eclipsing binary has often been used for benchmark tests of stellar models, since its components are among the lowest mass stars with well-measured masses and radii ({approx}< 1% relative precision). However, as with many other low-mass stars, non-magnetic models have been unable to match the observed radii and effective temperatures for CM Dra at the 5%-10% level. To date, the uncertain metallicity of the system has complicated comparison of theoretical isochrones with observations. In this Letter, we use data from the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility to measure the metallicity of the system during primary and secondary eclipses, as well as out of eclipse, based on an empirical metallicity calibration in the H and K near-infrared (NIR) bands. We derive an [Fe/H] = -0.30 {+-} 0.12 that is consistent across all orbital phases. The determination of [Fe/H] for this system constrains a key dimension of parameter space when attempting to reconcile model isochrone predictions and observations.

  13. Combining galaxy and 21-cm surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, J. D.; White, Martin; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Holder, Gil; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Doré, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Acoustic waves travelling through the early Universe imprint a characteristic scale in the clustering of galaxies, QSOs and intergalactic gas. This scale can be used as a standard ruler to map the expansion history of the Universe, a technique known as baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). BAO offer a high-precision, low-systematics means of constraining our cosmological model. The statistical power of BAO measurements can be improved if the `smearing' of the acoustic feature by non-linear structure formation is undone in a process known as reconstruction. In this paper, we use low-order Lagrangian perturbation theory to study the ability of 21-cm experiments to perform reconstruction and how augmenting these surveys with galaxy redshift surveys at relatively low number densities can improve performance. We find that the critical number density which must be achieved in order to benefit 21-cm surveys is set by the linear theory power spectrum near its peak, and corresponds to densities achievable by upcoming surveys of emission line galaxies such as eBOSS and DESI. As part of this work, we analyse reconstruction within the framework of Lagrangian perturbation theory with local Lagrangian bias, redshift-space distortions, {k}-dependent noise and anisotropic filtering schemes.

  14. Gravitational lensing of cosmological 21 cm emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourtsidou, A.; Metcalf, R. Benton

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the feasibility of measuring weak gravitational lensing using 21-cm intensity mapping with special emphasis on the performance of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA). We find that the current design for SKA_Mid should be able to measure the evolution of the lensing power spectrum at z 2-3 using this technique. This will be a probe of the expansion history of the Universe and gravity at a unique range in redshift. The signal to noise is found to be highly dependent on evolution of the neutral hydrogen fraction in the Universe with a higher H I density resulting in stronger signal. With realistic models for this, SKA Phase 1 should be capable of measuring the lensing power spectrum and its evolution. The dependence of signal to noise on the area and diameter of the array is quantified. We further demonstrate the applications of this technique by applying it to two specific coupled dark energy models that would be difficult to observationally distinguish without information from this range of redshift. We also investigate measuring the lensing signal with 21 cm emission from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) using SKA and find that it is unlikely to constrain cosmological parameters because of the small survey size, but could provide a map of the dark matter within a small region of the sky.

  15. 30-cm electron cyclotron plasma generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goede, Hank

    1987-01-01

    Experimental results on the development of a 30-cm-diam electron cyclotron resonance plasma generator are presented. This plasma source utilizes samarium-cobalt magnets and microwave power at a frequency of 4.9 GHz to produce a uniform plasma with densities of up to 3 x 10 to the 11th/cu cm in a continuous fashion. The plasma generator contains no internal structures, and is thus inherently simple in construction and operation and inherently durable. The generator was operated with two different magnetic geometries. One used the rare-earth magnets arranged in an axial line cusp configuration, which directly showed plasma production taking place near the walls of the generator where the electron temperature was highest but with the plasma density peaking in the central low B-field regions. The second configuration had magnets arranged to form azimuthal line cusps with approximately closed electron drift surfaces; this configuration showed an improved electrical efficiency of about 135 eV/ion.

  16. Design study of large area 8 cm x 8 cm wrapthrough cells for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garlick, George F. J.; Lillington, David R.

    1987-01-01

    The design of large area silicon solar cells for the projected NASA space station is discussed. It is based on the NASA specification for the cells which calls for an 8 cm by 8 cm cell of wrapthrough type with gridded back contacts. The beginning of life (BOL) power must be 1.039 watts per cell or larger and maximum end of life (EOL) after 10 years in the prescribed orbit under an equivalent 1MeV electron radiation damage fluence of 5 times 10 to the 13th power e/square cm. On orbit efficiency is to be optimized by a low thermal absorptance goal (thermal alpha) of .63.

  17. XeCl laser system with a 25 cm x 25 cm output aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, N G; Losev, V F; Panchenko, Yu N; Yastremskii, A G

    1999-10-31

    A description is given of a high-power excimer laser system. The first results are reported of the amplification of a beam with a divergence close to the diffraction limit. Beyond the preamplifier, the 5 cm x 6 cm laser beam contains 50% of the radiation energy in the diffraction core. At the output from the system an irradiation brightness of 2 x 10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2} sr{sup -1} was obtained. A numerical model of the amplification of the radiation, taking into account the influence of the amplified spontaneous emission, was devised. It demonstrated a satisfactory agreement between the calculated and experimental data. (lasers)

  18. String order and degenerate entanglement spectrum of S = 1 / 2 and S = 1 Heisenberg bond-alternating chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-Yan; Kong, Long-Juan; Qiang, Ling

    2014-10-01

    Generalized string orders and entanglement spectrum of S = 1/2 and S = 1 Heisenberg bond-alternating chains have been investigated by the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) method. Generalized string order parameters with appropriate θ are capable of distinguishing all the topological phases. Central charges c ≃ 1 and critical exponents β ≃ 1/12 indicate all the topological QPTs belong to the Gaussian universality class. Interestingly, odd- and even-fold degeneracies of the entanglement spectrum are observed. Even-fold (doubly) degenerate entanglement spectra and the typical two-fold degenerate lowest-lying level are found to exist in both the spin-1/2 dimer and the S = 1 Haldane phases. However, odd-fold degenerate entanglement spectra with three-fold degenerate lowest-lying level are observed in both the S = 1 dimer and the S = 2 Haldane phase. The degeneracy of the lowest-lying entanglement spectrum level, which can be understood by entanglement spectra in the dimer limit (J1 = 0), is adopted to estimate the lowest boundary of the bipartite entanglement. The entanglement spectrum and the generalized string orders are valuable for uncovering the underlying features of these symmetry-protect topological (SPT) states. Similar entanglement spectrum shows that the S = 1 (S = 2) Haldane phase is essentially the same as the S = 1/2 (S = 1) dimer phase.

  19. The 30-cm ion thruster power processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, B. G.; Hopper, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A power processor unit for powering and controlling the 30 cm Mercury Electron-Bombardment Ion Thruster was designed, fabricated, and tested. The unit uses a unique and highly efficient transistor bridge inverter power stage in its implementation. The system operated from a 200 to 400 V dc input power bus, provides 12 independently controllable and closely regulated dc power outputs, and has an overall power conditioning capacity of 3.5 kW. Protective circuitry was incorporated as an integral part of the design to assure failure-free operation during transient and steady-state load faults. The implemented unit demonstrated an electrical efficiency between 91.5 and 91.9 at its nominal rated load over the 200 to 400 V dc input bus range.

  20. Will point sources spoil 21-cm tomography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Adrian; Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-04-01

    21-cm tomography is emerging as a promising probe of the cosmological dark ages and the epoch of reionization, as well as a tool for observational cosmology in general. However, serious sources of foreground contamination must be subtracted for experimental efforts to be viable. In this paper, we focus on the removal of unresolved extragalactic point sources with smooth spectra, and evaluate how the residual foreground contamination after cleaning depends on instrumental and algorithmic parameters. A crucial but often ignored complication is that the synthesized beam of an interferometer array shrinks towards higher frequency, causing complicated frequency structure in each sky pixel as `frizz' far from the beam centre contracts across unresolved radio sources. We find that current-generation experiments should none the less be able to clean out this point source contamination adequately, and quantify the instrumental and algorithmic design specifications required to meet this foreground challenge.

  1. NASA 30 Cm Ion Thruster Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Haag, Thomas W.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster is under development at NASA to provide an ion propulsion option for missions of national interest and it is an element of the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness (NSTAR) program established to validate ion propulsion for space flight applications. The thruster has been developed to an engineering model level and it incorporates innovations in design, materials, and fabrication techniques compared to those employed to conventional ion thrusters. The performance of both functional and engineering model thrusters has been assessed including thrust stand measurements, over an input power range of 0.5-2.3 kW. Attributes of the engineering model thruster include an overall mass of 6.4 kg, and an efficiency of 65 percent and thrust of 93 mN at 2.3 kW input power. This paper discusses the design, performance, and lifetime expectations of the functional and engineering model thrusters under development at NASA.

  2. The elusive S2 state, the S1/S2 splitting, and the excimer states of the benzene dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmer, Franziska A.; Trachsel, Maria A.; van der Avoird, Ad; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-06-01

    We observe the weak S0 ? S2 transitions of the T-shaped benzene dimers (Bz)2 and (Bz-d6)2 about 250 cm-1 and 220 cm-1 above their respective S0 ? S1 electronic origins using two-color resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. Spin-component scaled (SCS) second-order approximate coupled-cluster (CC2) calculations predict that for the tipped T-shaped geometry, the S0 ? S2 electronic oscillator strength fel(S2) is 10 times smaller than fel(S1) and the S2 state lies 240 cm-1 above S1, in excellent agreement with experiment. The S0 ? S1 (???) transition is mainly localized on the "stem" benzene, with a minor stem ? cap charge-transfer contribution; the S0 ? S2 transition is mainly localized on the "cap" benzene. The orbitals, electronic oscillator strengths fel(S1) and fel(S2), and transition frequencies depend strongly on the tipping angle ? between the two Bz moieties. The SCS-CC2 calculated S1 and S2 excitation energies at different T-shaped, stacked-parallel and parallel-displaced stationary points of the (Bz)2 ground-state surface allow to construct approximate S1 and S2 potential energy surfaces and reveal their relation to the "excimer" states at the stacked-parallel geometry. The fel(S1) and fel(S2) transition dipole moments at the C2v-symmetric T-shape, parallel-displaced and stacked-parallel geometries are either zero or 10 times smaller than at the tipped T-shaped geometry. This unusual property of the S0 ? S1 and S0 ? S2 transition-dipole moment surfaces of (Bz)2 restricts its observation by electronic spectroscopy to the tipped and tilted T-shaped geometries; the other ground-state geometries are impossible or extremely difficult to observe. The S0 ? S1/S2 spectra of (Bz)2 are compared to those of imidazole ? (Bz)2, which has a rigid triangular structure with a tilted (Bz)2 subunit. The S0 ? S1/ S2 transitions of imidazole-(benzene)2 lie at similar energies as those of (Bz)2, confirming our assignment of the (Bz)2 S0 ? S2 transition.

  3. The elusive S2 state, the S1/S2 splitting, and the excimer states of the benzene dimer.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Franziska A; Trachsel, Maria A; van der Avoird, Ad; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-06-21

    We observe the weak S0 ? S2 transitions of the T-shaped benzene dimers (Bz)2 and (Bz-d6)2 about 250 cm(-1) and 220 cm(-1) above their respective S0 ? S1 electronic origins using two-color resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. Spin-component scaled (SCS) second-order approximate coupled-cluster (CC2) calculations predict that for the tipped T-shaped geometry, the S0 ? S2 electronic oscillator strength fel(S2) is ?10 times smaller than fel(S1) and the S2 state lies ?240 cm(-1) above S1, in excellent agreement with experiment. The S0 ? S1 (??(?)) transition is mainly localized on the "stem" benzene, with a minor stem ? cap charge-transfer contribution; the S0 ? S2 transition is mainly localized on the "cap" benzene. The orbitals, electronic oscillator strengths fel(S1) and fel(S2), and transition frequencies depend strongly on the tipping angle ? between the two Bz moieties. The SCS-CC2 calculated S1 and S2 excitation energies at different T-shaped, stacked-parallel and parallel-displaced stationary points of the (Bz)2 ground-state surface allow to construct approximate S1 and S2 potential energy surfaces and reveal their relation to the "excimer" states at the stacked-parallel geometry. The fel(S1) and fel(S2) transition dipole moments at the C2v-symmetric T-shape, parallel-displaced and stacked-parallel geometries are either zero or ?10 times smaller than at the tipped T-shaped geometry. This unusual property of the S0 ? S1 and S0 ? S2 transition-dipole moment surfaces of (Bz)2 restricts its observation by electronic spectroscopy to the tipped and tilted T-shaped geometries; the other ground-state geometries are impossible or extremely difficult to observe. The S0 ? S1/S2 spectra of (Bz)2 are compared to those of imidazole ? (Bz)2, which has a rigid triangular structure with a tilted (Bz)2 subunit. The S0 ? S1/ S2 transitions of imidazole-(benzene)2 lie at similar energies as those of (Bz)2, confirming our assignment of the (Bz)2 S0 ? S2 transition. PMID:26093558

  4. Evaluation of Argonne 9-cm and 10-cm Annular Centrifugal Contactors for SHINE Solution Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Wardle, Kent E.; Pereira, Candido; Vandegrift, George

    2015-02-01

    Work is in progress to evaluate the SHINE Medical Technologies process for producing Mo-99 for medical use from the fission of dissolved low-enriched uranium (LEU). This report addresses the use of Argonne annular centrifugal contactors for periodic treatment of the process solution. In a letter report from FY 2013, Pereira and Vandegrift compared the throughput and physical footprint for the two contactor options available from CINC Industries: the V-02 and V-05, which have rotor diameters of 5 cm and 12.7 cm, respectively. They suggested that an intermediately sized “Goldilocks” contactor might provide a better balance between throughput and footprint to meet the processing needs for the uranium extraction (UREX) processing of the SHINE solution to remove undesired fission products. Included with the submission of this letter report are the assembly drawings for two Argonne-design contactors that are in this intermediate range—9-cm and 10-cm rotors, respectively. The 9-cm contactor (drawing number CE-D6973A, stamped February 15, 1978) was designed as a single-stage unit and built and tested in the late 1970s along with other size units, both smaller and larger. In subsequent years, a significant effort to developed annular centrifugal contactors was undertaken to support work at Hanford implementing the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process. These contactors had a 10-cm rotor diameter and were fully designed as multistage units with four stages per assembly (drawing number CMT-E1104, stamped March 14, 1990). From a technology readiness perspective, these 10-cm units are much farther ahead in the design progression and, therefore, would require significantly less re-working to make them ready for UREX deployment. Additionally, the overall maximum throughput of ~12 L/min is similar to that of the 9-cm unit (10 L/min), and the former could be efficiently operated over much of the same range of throughput. As a result, only the 10-cm units are considered here, though drawings are provided for the 9-cm unit for reference.

  5. Screening and identification of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain S1/4 with large and efficient insecticidal activities.

    PubMed

    Sellami, Sameh; Zghal, Taheni; Cherif, Maroua; Zalila-Kolsi, Imen; Jaoua, Samir; Jamoussi, Kas

    2013-06-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis was recognized for its entomopathogenic activities related to Cry and Cyt proteins forming the ?-endotoxins and some extracellular activities like the vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIP) and Cry1I. These activities may act specifically against diverse organisms and some of them typically characterize each strain. Here, we screened a set of 212 B. thuringiensis strains to search the higher insecticidal activities. These strains had bipyramidal and cubic crystal morphologies and 30% of them showed PCR amplification of vip3 internal region, from which five isolates (S1/4, S17, S122, S123, and S144) showed plasmid profile variability. These five strains contained the cry1I, cry1Aa and/or cry1Ac, cry1Ab and cry2 genes, and S1/4 harbored in addition the cry1C, vip1, and vip2 genes. They produced from 25 to 46 g ?-endotoxin per 10(7) spores. Their ?-endotoxins displayed distinct lethal concentrations 50% against either Spodoptera littoralis or Ephestia kuehniella larvae with the lowest one for S1/4, which was also active against Tuta absoluta. Fortunately, the analysis of the culture supernatants revealed that S1/4 had the higher toxicity towards these lepidopteron but it did not show any toxicity against the Tribolium castaneum coleopteran larvae; additionally, S1/4 displayed an antibacterial activity. S1/4 is a good candidate for agricultural pest control, as it is more efficient than the reference strain HD1. PMID:22915162

  6. Picosecond transient gratings in CdS1- xSex mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drnfeld, C.; Noll, G.; Schwab, H.; Hvam, J. M.; Weber, Ch.; Renner, R.; Gbel, E. O.; Reznitsky, A.; Lyssenko, V.; Pendjur, S. A.; Talensky, O. N.; Klingshirn, C.

    1990-04-01

    We performed transient grating experiments to study various relaxation processes of localized excitons in CdS1? xSex mixed crystals. At low temperatures we observe a strong nonlinear response, spectrally in the localized states. We measured the phase relaxation time of localized excitons with a correlation technique. At low excitation levels we found long phase relaxation times of 75 ps. In a three beam configuration of a transient grating experiment we investigated the recombination as well as the diffusion of excitons within the localized states. We observed a reduced mobility compared to the mobility of free excitons in the pure compounds and found diffusion coefficients D < 2 cm2/ s.

  7. Engineering model 8-cm thruster subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, B. G.; Hyman, J.; Hopper, D. J.; Williamson, W. S.; Dulgeroff, C. R.; Collett, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    An Engineering Model (EM) 8 cm Ion Thruster Propulsion Subsystem was developed for operation at a thrust level 5 mN (1.1 mlb) at a specific impulse 1 sub sp = 2667 sec with a total system input power P sub in = 165 W. The system dry mass is 15 kg with a mercury-propellant-reservoir capacity of 8.75 kg permitting uninterrupted operation for about 12,500 hr. The subsystem can be started from a dormant condition in a time less than or equal to 15 min. The thruster has a design lifetime of 20,000 hr with 10,000 startup cycles. A gimbal unit is included to provide a thrust vector deflection capability of + or - 10 degrees in any direction from the zero position. The EM subsystem development program included thruster optimization, power-supply circuit optimization and flight packaging, subsystem integration, and subsystem acceptance testing including a cyclic test of the total propulsion package.

  8. High precision variational calculations for the 1s 21S state of H - and the 1s 21s, 1s2s 1s and 1s2s 3s states of helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, G. W. F.

    1988-04-01

    High precision variational eigenvalues are presented for the 1s 21S state of H -, and the 1s 2 1S, 1s2s 1S and 1s2s 3S helium, together with relativistic, mass polarization and relativistic recoil corrections. In addition to the nonrelativistic energy, all corrections of order ? 2, {?}/{M} ( {?}/{M}) 2and{? 2}/{M} are calculated to an accuracy of better than 10 -6 cm -1. Previous results of similar accuracy are available for the 1 sn d1Dand3D states up to n = 8. A comparison with the high precision 1 s2 s3S1-1 sn d3D1 transition frequency measurements of Hlousek et al. indicates that the known quantum electrodynamic (Lamb shift) contribution of - 0.13488 cm -1 to the ionization energy of the 1s2s 3S 1 state is too small in magnitude by 0.00048(6) cm -1. A discrepancy of this size can reasonably be accounted for by as yet uncalculated contributions to the two-electron Lamb shift.

  9. Investigation of spheromak configuration generated by inductive methods in the S-1 device

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, M.; Janos, A.C.; Ellis, R.A. Jr.; Hart, G.W.; Levinton, F.M.; Mayo, R.M.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Mimura, M.; Motley, R.W.; Ono, Y.; Paul, S.; Ueda, Y.

    1988-08-01

    This paper summarizes the characteristics of the spheromak plasmas obtained during the past five-year operation period of S-1 experiments. The S-1 Spheromak device, which began operation in 1983, generates a compact toroid in which the self-generated toroidal field in the plasma is comparable to the poloidal field. The S-1 experiment is unique in that spheromak plasmas are formed by inductive transfer of magnetic flux from a toroidal-shaped ''flux core,'' and plasma stability is maintained by shaping of the externally applied equilibrium field and using loose-fitting passive conductors. The most important objective for the S-1 experiment is to investigate the confinement feature of the spheromak configuration. With a rather extensive diagnostic system for this size device, the transport characteristics of the S-1 spheromak have been measured for plasmas with 10 /approx lt/ T/sub e/ less than or equal to 130 eV and 2 /approx lt/ n/sub e/ /approx lt/ 15 /times/ 10/sup 13/ cm/sup /minus/3/. The scaling of electron temperature T/sub e/ and density n/sub e/ with plasma current density has been obtained in a wide operation regime. The most important finding is that the peak electron pressure scales as n/sub eo/T/sub eo/ /proportional to/ j/sub o//sup 2/ (j/sub o/ = peak toroidal current density) with T/sub eo/ /proportinal to/ j/sub o//sup 2/ and n/sub eo/ approx. = constant. These scaling results, which are similar to those obtained in the reversed-field pinch device, suggest that ..beta.. = constant. Energy and particle confinement times are determined. 44 refs., 35 figs.

  10. Structural biology of the S1P1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Michael A; Peach, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor family has been studied widely since the initial discovery of its first member, endothelium differentiation gene 1. Since this initial discovery, the family has been renamed and the primary member of the family, the S1P1 receptor, has been targeted for a variety of disease indications and successfully drugged for the treatment of patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. Recently, the three-dimensional structure of the S1P1 receptor has been determined by X-ray crystallography and the specifics of the sphingosine 1 phosphate ligand binding pocket mapped. Key structural features for the S1P1 receptor will be reviewed and the potential binding modes of additional pharmacologically active agents against the receptor will be analyzed in an effort to better understand the structural basis of important receptor-ligand interactions. PMID:24728592

  11. A sub-cm micromachined electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinerman, A. D.; Crewe, D. A.; Perng, D. C.; Shoaf, S. E.; Crewe, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new approach for fabricating macroscopic (approximately 10x10x10 mm(exp 3)) structures with micron accuracy has been developed. This approach combines the precision of semiconductor processing and fiber optic technologies. A (100) silicon wafer is anisotropically etched to create four orthogonal v-grooves and an aperture on each 10x12 mm die. Precision 308 micron optical fibers are sandwiched between the die to align the v-grooves. The fiber is then anodically bonded to the die above and below it. This procedure is repeated to create thick structures and a stack of 5 or 6 die will be used to create a miniature scanning electron microscope (MSEM). Two die in the structure will have a segmented electrode to deflect the beam and correct for astigmatism. The entire structure is UHV compatible. The performance of an SEM improves as its length is reduced and a sub-cm 2 keV MSEM with a field emission source should have approximately 1 nm resolution. A low voltage high resolution MSEM would be useful for the examination of biological specimens and semiconductors with a minimum of damage. The first MSEM will be tested with existing 6 micron thermionic sources. In the future a micromachined field emission source will be used. The stacking technology presented in this paper can produce an array of MSEMs 1 to 30 mm in length with a 1 mm or larger period. A key question being addressed by this research is the optimum size for a low voltage MSEM which will be determined by the required spatial resolution, field of view, and working distance.

  12. The S=1 Underscreened Anderson Lattice model for Uranium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Simões, A. S. R.; Iglesias, J. R.; Lacroix, C.; Perkins, N. B.; Coqblin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic properties of uranium and neptunium compounds showing coexistence of the Kondo effect and ferromagnetic order are investigated within the degenerate Anderson Lattice Hamiltonian, describing a 5f2 electronic configuration with S = 1 spins. Through the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, both an exchange Kondo interaction for the S = 1 f-spins and an effective f-band term are obtained, allowing to describe the coexistence of Kondo effect and ferromagnetic ordering and a weak delocalization of the 5f-electrons. We calculate the Kondo and Curie temperatures and we can account for the pressure dependence of the Curie temperature of UTe.

  13. L5 S1 Segmental Kinematics After Facet Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Voronov, Leonard I.; Havey, Robert M.; Rosler, David M.; Sjovold, Simon G.; Rogers, Susan L.; Carandang, Gerard; Ochoa, Jorge A.; Yuan, Hansen; Webb, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Background Facet arthroplasty is a motion restoring procedure. It is normally suggested as an alternative to rigid fixation after destabilizing decompression procedures in the posterior lumbar spine. While previous studies have reported successful results in reproducing normal spine kinematics after facet replacement at L4-5 and L3-4, there are no data on the viability of facet replacement at the lumbosacral joint. The anatomy of posterior elements and the resulting kinematics at L5-S1 are distinctly different from those at superior levels, making the task of facet replacement at the lumbosacral level challenging. This study evaluated the kinematics of facet replacement at L5-S1. Methods Six human cadaveric lumbar spines (L1-S1, 46.7 13.0 years) were tested in the following sequence: (1) intact (L1-S1), (2) complete laminectomy and bilateral facetectomy at L5-S1, and (3) implantation of TFAS-LS (Lumbosacral Total Facet Arthroplasty System, Archus Orthopedics, Redmond, Washington) at L5-S1 using pedicle screws. Specimens were tested in flexion (8Nm), extension (6Nm), lateral bending (LB, 6Nm), and axial rotation (AR, 5Nm). The level of significance was ? = .017 after Bonferroni correction for three comparisons: (1) intact vs. destabilized, (2) destabilized vs. reconstructed, and (3) intact vs. reconstructed. Results Laminectomy-facetectomy at L5-S1 increased the L5-S1 angular range of motion (ROM) in all directions. Flexion-extension (F-E) ROM increased from 15.3 2.9 to 18.7 3.5 degrees (P < .017), LB from 8.2 1.8 to 9.3 1.6 degrees (P < .017), and AR from 3.7 2.0 to 5.9 1.8 degrees (P < .017). The facet arthroplasty system decreased ROM compared to the laminectomy-facetectomy condition in all tested directions (P < .017). The facet arthroplasty system restored the L5-S1 ROM to its intact levels in LB and AR (P > .017). F-E ROM after the facet arthroplasty system implantation was smaller than the intact value (10.1 2.2 vs. 15.3 2.9 degrees, P < .017). The load-displacement curves after the facet arthroplasty system implantation at L5-S1 were sigmoidal, and quality of motion measures were similar to intact, demonstrating graded resistance to angular motion in F-E, LB and AR. Conclusions The facet arthroplasty system was able to restore stability to the lumbosacral segment after complete laminectomy and bilateral facetectomy, while also allowing near-normal kinematics in all planes. While F-E ROM after the facet arthroplasty system implantation was smaller than the intact value, it was within the physiologic norms for L5-S1. These results are consistent with previous studies of facet arthroplasty at L3-L4 and L4-L5 and demonstrate that TFAS technology can be adapted to the lumbosacral joint with functionality comparable to its application in superior lumbar levels. PMID:25802628

  14. ?-ray performance of a 1242 cm 3 LaCl 3:Ce scintillation spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Alan; Bos, A. J. J.; Brandenburg, S.; Dathy, C.; Dorenbos, P.; Kraft, S.; Ostendorf, R. W.; Ouspenski, V.; Quarati, F.

    2007-04-01

    We present the results of ?-ray measurements on a large 4?6? LaCl 3:Ce crystal, characterized using radioactive sources over the range 14-3220 keV. The response of the crystal was found to be largely linear over the upper 90% of its dynamic rangethe deviations at lower energies can be attributed to the shortcomings of the photomultiplier tube (PMT) and is in fact a generic problem when using high-gain PMTs with lanthanum halide scintillators. At 662 keV, a measured energy resolution of 4.1% FWHM was recorded at room temperature. In comparison to earlier generations of LaCl 3 detectors, the internal background spectrum shows significantly less X-ray, ?, ?-ray and ? contamination. The integral background count rate in the energy region 20 keV-3 MeV was determined to be 1.8 cm -3 s -1, of which most (1.5 cm -3 s -1) can be attributed to the ? continuum from 138La and only 0.04 cm -3 s -1 to the ? complex from 227Ac and daughters. Using these data, we have determined the light output of ? particles relative to the equivalent energy electrons (or alternately ?-rays) to be, ?/ ?=0.350.02.

  15. Torsion-vibration coupling in S1 toluene: Implications for IVR, the torsional barrier height, and rotational constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascooke, Jason R.; Virgo, Edwina A.; Lawrance, Warren D.

    2015-07-01

    We have examined the S1?S0 transition of toluene in the region from the 00 0 band to 210 cm-1 above it. The spectrum reveals methyl rotor levels of 00 toluene up to m = 6 and of the lowest frequency vibration, 201, up to m = 4. The rotor levels of both 201 and 00 are perturbed by torsion-vibration coupling. The inclusion of torsion-vibration coupling leads to the S1 torsional barrier, V6, being revised from -26.376 cm-1 to -5.59 cm-1. The torsion-vibration coupling constant is determined to be 21.1 cm-1. This situation is the S1 analogue of that recently reported for S0 toluene [Gascooke et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 024315 (2015)]. Torsion-vibration coupling alters both the rotor band positions and the rotational contours, which particularly affects the rotational constants associated with motion around the a-axis, about which the methyl group rotates. Every vibrational state (indicated generically by X) will be involved in the corresponding X - X201 torsion-vibration coupling; so, this interaction permeates the vib-rotor manifold, providing a mechanism to enhance intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution.

  16. Redox-Controled Mediterranean - S1, Formation, Preservation, and Interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, G. J.; Goudeau, M. L. S.; Hennekam, R.; Filippidi, A.

    2014-12-01

    The repetitive formation of distinctly organic-rich sedimentary units (sapropels) in the Mediterraneran is known to be related to precession-minima, i.e. humid climate conditions. The most-recent sapropel S1 formed basin-wide, synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than ~200m. Increased fresh water (monsoon) input, and associated stratification resulted in the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea to be devoid of oxygen during most of the 4,000 years of S1 formation. This resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1 determined by water depth, as a result of different predominant ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km.The end of this period was marked by a basin-wide sedimentary manganese-oxide peak representing abrupt re-ventilation and remaining oxic conditions thereafter. Other, short-term ventilation events occurred during S1, notably the 8.2 ka event. This basin-wide event marks a brief episode of not only re-oxygenated deep water thus reduced preservation, but also decreased primary productivity thus lower nutrient supply. Ventilation is closely linked to Aegean/Adriatic deepwater formation.Sapropel formation and preservation mechanisms are related to a sensitive interplay between N-African monsoonal and northern climate systems.

  17. Excitation of nutation by the global radiational S1 tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, M.; Salstein, D. A.; Einspigel, D.; Boehm, J.

    2014-12-01

    Cyclic mass redistributions in the atmosphere and oceans related to the global radiational S1 tide elicit seasonal perturbations of Earth's nutation at a level of 0.1 mas (milliarcseconds). The present study provides an up-to-date assessment of these excitation effects on the basis of 10-year surface and isobaric level data from three, previously unavailable global atmospheric reanalysis systems. We retrieve numerical values of in- and out-of-phase nutation corrections for seasonally modulated S1 variations and indicate how model improvements, specifically in terms of the representation of tidal oscillations, lead to different estimates with respect to earlier reanalyses. Motion term signals in nutation display a close agreement across all probed datasets, whereas larger disparities remain among mass term excitation estimates due to their dependency on small-scale diurnal surface pressure oscillations. A simple time-stepping model for barotropic ocean dynamics, based on the shallow water equations and driven by air pressure tide climatologies, represents an appropriate means to determine global S1 estimates of sea level heights and currents that are consistent with the respective forcing fields from each reanalysis. We address the intricacies of constructing such a model and compare our preliminary oceanic angular momentum solutions to those from more established hydrodynamic forward integrations. The combined influence of the S1 tide on Earth's nutation, associated with both atmosphere and ocean dynamics, is found to yield a rough agreement with observations from geodetic VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) measurements.

  18. Emerging role of S-1 in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Krasniqi, Eriseld; Pellicori, Stefania; Formica, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the most important malignancies worldwide in terms of incidence and mortality. The treatment is based on the combination of local surgery and radiation therapy as well as systemic chemotherapy and targeted molecules. Fluoropyrimidines and particularly 5-fluorouracil (FU) represent still the backbone for gastric cancer chemotherapy and new molecular versions of this molecule have been brought to clinical practice in order to improve benefits and reduce adverse effects. S-1 is an oral prodrug of 5-FU, which has demonstrated high effectiveness for gastric cancer treatment and a favorable safety profile. Currently, there are geographic differences in the treatment of gastric cancer and in the use of S-1, which is a mainstay of gastric cancer management in Eastern countries, but is not part of the standard care in the rest of the world. In this review, we gathered data from phase I, II, and III trials of S-1 in gastric cancer, in order to define its real benefit-risk ratio and assess whether geographic differences in S-1 use are justified by unchangeable factors. PMID:26811591

  19. Late-stage optimization of a tercyclic class of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Horan, Joshua C; Kuzmich, Daniel; Liu, Pingrong; DiSalvo, Darren; Lord, John; Mao, Can; Hopkins, Tamara D; Yu, Hui; Harcken, Christian; Betageri, Raj; Hill-Drzewi, Melissa; Patenaude, Lori; Patel, Monica; Fletcher, Kimberly; Terenzzio, Donna; Linehan, Brian; Xia, Heather; Patel, Mita; Studwell, Debbie; Miller, Craig; Hickey, Eugene; Levin, Jeremy I; Smith, Dustin; Kemper, Raymond A; Modis, Louise K; Bannen, Lynne C; Chan, Diva S; Mac, Morrison B; Ng, Stephanie; Wang, Yong; Xu, Wei; Lemieux, Ren M

    2016-01-15

    Poor solubility and cationic amphiphilic drug-likeness were liabilities identified for a lead series of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 agonists originally developed from a high-throughput screening campaign. This work describes the subsequent optimization of these leads by balancing potency, selectivity, solubility and overall molecular charge. Focused SAR studies revealed favorable structural modifications that, when combined, produced compounds with overall balanced profiles. The low brain exposure observed in rat suggests that these compounds would be best suited for the potential treatment of peripheral autoimmune disorders. PMID:26687487

  20. The mast cell-committed progenitor. II. W/Wv mice do not make mast cell-committed progenitors and S1/S1d fibroblasts do not support development of normal mast cell-committed progenitors.

    PubMed

    Jarboe, D L; Huff, T F

    1989-04-01

    We have previously reported that the population of mesenteric lymph node cells from normal BALB/c mice infected 14 days with the rodent nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb-MLN) contains a nongranulated mast cell-committed progenitor (MCCP) which does not require IL-3 for proliferation and differentiation if either a fibroblast monolayer or soluble factors produced by monolayers of 3T3 fibroblasts or embryonic skin are present in the culture. When Nb-MLN were cloned in a methylcellulose culture system using fibroblast conditioned medium as the only source of growth factors, numerous colonies of pure mast cells developed. We wished to determine whether the mast cell deficiency of W/Wv or S1/S1d mice could be explained by the failure of these mice to make either the MCCP or the factor to support proliferation and differentiation of the MCCP. We found that Nb-MLN from W/Wv mice were only able to produce mast cell colonies in response to a source of IL-3 such as conditioned medium from pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen cells (CM), and cultures given fibroblast conditioned medium as the only source of growth factors did not produce mast cell colonies. In contrast, Nb-MLN from mast cell deficient S1/S1d mice developed many mast cell colonies in methylcellulose cultures supplemented with either fibroblast conditioned medium or conditioned medium from PWM-stimulated spleen cells. These data suggest that S1/S1d mice but not W/Wv mice produce the mast cell progenitor that responds to fibroblast conditioned medium. To determine if mast cell deficient mice make the fibroblast derived factors that support development of the MCCP, monolayers were prepared from skin connective tissues of S1/S1d and W/Wv mice and Nb-MLN from normal BALB/c mice were cloned in the presence of conditioned medium from these monolayers. Fibroblast conditioned medium from monolayers prepared from W/Wv but not S1/S1d mice supported development of numerous mast cell colonies. Taken together, these data demonstrate that W/Wv mice are incapable of producing normal MCCP whereas S1/S1d fibroblasts fail to produce the appropriate factor to support the MCCP. In accordance with these data, a candidate for the gene product of each of these mutant alleles is discussed. PMID:2926139

  1. Two-dimensional nonseparable discrete linear canonical transform based on CM-CC-CM-CC decomposition.

    PubMed

    Pei, Soo-Chang; Huang, Shih-Gu

    2016-02-01

    As a generalization of the 2D Fourier transform (2D FT) and 2D fractional Fourier transform, the 2D nonseparable linear canonical transform (2D NsLCT) is useful in optics and signal and image processing. To reduce the digital implementation complexity of the 2D NsLCT, some previous works decomposed the 2D NsLCT into several low-complexity operations, including 2D FT, 2D chirp multiplication (2D CM), and 2D affine transformations. However, 2D affine transformations will introduce interpolation error. In this paper, we propose a new decomposition called CM-CC-CM-CC decomposition, which decomposes the 2D NsLCT into two 2D CMs and two 2D chirp convolutions. No 2D affine transforms are involved. Simulation results show that the proposed methods have higher accuracy, lower computational complexity, and smaller error in the additivity property compared with the previous works. Plus, the proposed methods have a perfect reversibility property, meaning that one can reconstruct the input signal/image losslessly from the output. PMID:26831772

  2. Reliability performance of 25 Gbit s-1 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachinsky, L. Ya; Blokhin, S. A.; Novikov, I. I.; Maleev, N. A.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Bobrov, M. A.; Lott, J. A.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Shchukin, V. A.; Kropp, J.-R.; Bimberg, D.

    2013-06-01

    Multimode 850 nm vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) suitable for high bit rate operation are studied. VCSELs with oxide aperture diameters of 5-7 m show a high -3 dB modulation bandwidth (20 GHz) and D-factor ( 8 GHz mA-1/2). To allow low capacitance a multiple layer oxide-confined aperture design was applied. Eye diagrams are clearly open up to 35 Gbit s-1 at the temperature of 25 C. Using 35 m diameter PIN photodiodes and 6 m oxide aperture diameter VCSELs error-free 25 Gbit s-1 (defined as a bit error ration of ?1 10-12) optical fiber communication links were tested over 100 m of standard OM3 multimode optical fibers at 25 C and 85 C. The received optical power for error-free operation was below -4 dBm at both temperatures. A VCSEL reliability study at 95 C was performed at the high current densities (18 kA cm-2) needed for error-free 25 Gbit s-1 operation at elevated temperatures. After 6000 h a slight increase (less than 5%) of the output optical power at a constant current was observed and most likely due to an ohmic contact burn in effect within the first 2000 h of the study. The results clearly indicate that 25 Gbit s-1 850 nm oxide-confined VCSELs with a complex AlGaO multilayer aperture design and with step-graded Al-compositions have the potential for reliable operation.

  3. Molecular structure of Si_xS_(1-x) glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Boolchand, P.

    2000-03-01

    Bulk Si_xS_1-x glasses in the 0.15S_1/2)4 tetrahedra, S_8-ring and Sn chains. The observed lineshapes change systematically with x, in a manner qualitatively similar to the case of corresponding Selenide glasses( D. Selvanathan, W. J. Bresser, P. Boolchand, B. Goodman Solid State Comm. 111, 619(1999)). Glass transition temperatures established by T-modulated DSC show an increase with x. Results of Raman and MDSC will be correlated, and discussed in relation to the nature of stiffness transitions anticipated in this binary glass system near x ~0.20.

  4. The Global S_1 Tide in Earth's Nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Einšpigel, David; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Diurnal S_1 tidal oscillations in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system induce small perturbations of Earth's prograde annual nutation, but matching geophysical model estimates of this Sun-synchronous rotation signal with the observed effect in geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data has thus far been elusive. The present study assesses the problem from a geophysical model perspective, using four modern-day atmospheric assimilation systems and a consistently forced barotropic ocean model that dissipates its energy excess in the global abyssal ocean through a parameterized tidal conversion scheme. The use of contemporary meteorological data does, however, not guarantee accurate nutation estimates per se; two of the probed datasets produce atmosphere-ocean-driven S_1 terms that deviate by more than 30 \\upmu as (microarcseconds) from the VLBI-observed harmonic of -16.2+i113.4 \\upmu as. Partial deficiencies of these models in the diurnal band are also borne out by a validation of the air pressure tide against barometric in situ estimates as well as comparisons of simulated sea surface elevations with a global network of S_1 tide gauge determinations. Credence is lent to the global S_1 tide derived from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the operational model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). When averaged over a temporal range of 2004 to 2013, their nutation contributions are estimated to be -8.0+i106.0 \\upmu as (MERRA) and -9.4+i121.8 \\upmu as (ECMWF operational), thus being virtually equivalent with the VLBI estimate. This remarkably close agreement will likely aid forthcoming nutation theories in their unambiguous a priori account of Earth's prograde annual celestial motion.

  5. Saturn V First Stage (S-1C) At MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    This small group of unidentified officials is dwarfed by the gigantic size of the Saturn V first stage (S-1C) at the shipping area of the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  6. Search for ammonia in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, S.; Codella, C.; Tozzi, G. P.; Comoretto, G.; Crovisier, J.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Boissier, J.; Brucato, J. R.; Bolli, P.; Massi, F.; Tofani, G.

    2015-12-01

    Comets are uniquely pristine bodies providing unique insights about the formation of our Solar System. In this work, we focus on a dynamically new comet as it enters the inner Solar System for the first time after residing for billion of years in the Oort Cloud. Such comets are particularly important because they are thought to be not differentiated by solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of organic matter close to the surface. Here we report the results of a search for NH3(1,1) emission at 23.7 GHz towards comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) using a new dual-feed K band receiver mounted on the Medicina 32-m antenna. We observed the comet close to its perihelion, from 25 to 29 November 2013, when its heliocentric distance changed from 0.25 AU to 0.03 AU. We derive an upper limit of Q(NH3) of about 2.5×1029 mol s-1 on 26 November, that is consistent with the last peak of water production rate of ∼2×1030 mol s-1 within the last few days before the perihelion.

  7. The global S1 tide and Earth's nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, M.; Böhm, J.; Salstein, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    Diurnal S1 tidal atmospheric oscillations induced by the cyclic heating of air masses through solar radiation elicit a small contribution to Earth's prograde annual nutation at a level of 100 μas (microarcseconds). Previously published estimates of this Sun-synchronous perturbation based on angular momentum series from global geophysical fluid models have however diverged, and within the present conventional nutation theory, the effect has been instead accounted for in an empirical manner based on analyzing residual spectra of observed celestial pole offsets. This study constitutes a first, tentative reassessment of the S1 signal in nutation by resorting to modern-day atmospheric reanalyses as well as available hydrodynamic solutions for diurnal oceanic angular momentum changes that are driven by daily air pressure variations at the water surface. We elucidate the global character of the S1 tide with particular regard to Earth rotation variations and investigate to which extent atmospheric and oceanic excitation terms from various sources can be superimposed. The combined influence of the principal diurnal tide on Earth's nutation, associated with both atmosphere and ocean dynamics, is found to yield a sound agreement with its observational evidence from geodetic VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) measurements.

  8. Polymorphism of the bovine CSN1S1 promoter: linkage mapping, intragenic haplotypes, and effects on milk production traits.

    PubMed

    Prinzenberg, E M; Weimann, C; Brandt, H; Bennewitz, J; Kalm, E; Schwerin, M; Erhardt, G

    2003-08-01

    The bovine CSN1S1 5' flanking region (CSN1S1-5') was screened for polymorphisms in different cattle breeds. Single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) and sequence analyses revealed four alleles (1-4), two of them being new allelic forms (3 and 4). Sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession numbers AF549499-502. In alleles 1 and 4, potential transcription factor binding sites are altered by the mutations. Using SSCP analysis, all four alleles were identified in German Holsteins. Six intragenic haplo-types comprising CSN1S1-5' (alleles 1, 2, 3, 4) and exon 17 (CSN1S1*B and C) genotypes were found. Linkage mapping using half-sib families from the German QTL project positioned CSN1S1 between the markers FBN14 and CSN3, with 5.6 cM distance between CSN1S1 and CSN3. Variance analysis, using family and CSN1S1 promoter genotypes as fixed effects, of breeding values and deregressed proofs for milk production traits (milk, fat, and protein yield and also fat and protein percentage) revealed significant effects on protein percentage when all families and genotypes were considered. Contrast calculations assigned a highly significant effect to genotype 24, which was associated with highest LS-means for protein percentage breeding values. As CSN1S1 is one of the main caseins in milk, this could be an effect of mutations in regulatory elements in the promoter region. An effect on milk yield breeding values was indicated for genotype 12, but is probably caused by a linked locus. PMID:12939094

  9. A new atlas of infrared methane spectra between 1120 per cm and 1800 per cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blatherwick, R. D.; Goldman, A.; Lutz, B. L.; Silvaggio, P. M.; Boese, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    An atlas of 1339 methane absorption lines in the range 1120 to 1800 reciprocal centimeters, including the nu(4) and nu(2) bands, is presented. Laboratory spectra were obtained by a Nicolet Fourier transform Michelson interferometer with a resolution of approximately 0.06 reciprocal cm and a path length of 6.35 m of 0.98, 4.86 and 19.97 torr. Observed spectra are also compared with spectral intensities calculated line-by-line on the basis of tabulated intensities of the observed spectral lines.

  10. Investigation of internal friction in fused quartz, steel, Plexiglass, and Westerly granite from 0.01 to 1.00 Hertz at 10- 8 to 10-7 strain amplitude.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hsi-Ping, Liu; Peselnick, L.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed evaluation on the method of internal friction measurement by the stress-strain hysteresis loop method from 0.01 to 1 Hz at 10-8-10-7 strain amplitude and 23.9oC is presented. Significant systematic errors in relative phase measurement can result from convex end surfaces of the sample and stress sensor and from end surface irregularities such as nicks and asperities. Preparation of concave end surfaces polished to optical smoothness having a radius of curvature >3.6X104 cm reduces the systematic error in relative phase measurements to <(5.5+ or -2.2)X10-4 radians. -from Authors

  11. LCLS-S1 optical transition radiation monitor.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, W. J.; Yang, B.; X.; Erwin, L. L.; Shoaf, S. E.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2008-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a high- resolution optical transition radiation (OTR) imaging monitor for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) injection linac at SLAC. The imaging station,OTR-S1, will be located at the S1 spectrometer with a beam energy of 135 MeV. The system will be used to acquire 2-D transverse beam distributions of the accelerated photocathode-gun-generated electron beam. We anticipate an average beam current of 0.2 to 1 nC and nominal beam spot size of 130 mum (sigmax), 100 mum (sigmay). The imaging system was designed for a field of view x/y: 10 times 7.5 mm. The spatial resolution of {approx}12 microns was verified over the central 5times4 mm region in the visible. A 12-bit digital camera acquires the image and a Mac-based digital frame-capturing system was employed for the initial lab-based performance testing of the device. We report on system development, testing methods, and data analysis.

  12. Complete genome sequence of Rhodospirillum rubrum type strain (S1).

    PubMed

    Munk, A Christine; Copeland, Alex; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Barry, Kerrie; Detter, John C; Hammon, Nancy; Israni, Sanjay; Pitluck, Sam; Brettin, Thomas; Bruce, David; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Gilna, Paul; Schmutz, Jeremy; Larimer, Frank; Land, Miriam; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Richardson, Paul; Rohde, Manfred; Gker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhang, Yaoping; Roberts, Gary P; Reslewic, Susan; Schwartz, David C

    2011-07-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum (Esmarch 1887) Molisch 1907 is the type species of the genus Rhodospirillum, which is the type genus of the family Rhodospirillaceae in the class Alphaproteobacteria. The species is of special interest because it is an anoxygenic phototroph that produces extracellular elemental sulfur (instead of oxygen) while harvesting light. It contains one of the most simple photosynthetic systems currently known, lacking light harvesting complex 2. Strain S1(T) can grow on carbon monoxide as sole energy source. With currently over 1,750 PubMed entries, R. rubrum is one of the most intensively studied microbial species, in particular for physiological and genetic studies. Next to R. centenum strain SW, the genome sequence of strain S1(T) is only the second genome of a member of the genus Rhodospirillum to be published, but the first type strain genome from the genus. The 4,352,825 bp long chromosome and 53,732 bp plasmid with a total of 3,850 protein-coding and 83 RNA genes were sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program DOEM 2002. PMID:21886856

  13. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Shuttle Landing Facility, workers attach cranes to the S1 truss, a segment of the International Space Station, to lift the truss to a payload transporter for its transfer to the Operations and Checkout Building. Manufa ctured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the ISS is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully out fitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated for flight in 2001. The truss arrived at KSC aboard NASA's Super Guppy, with a 25-foot diameter fuselage designed to handle oversized loads. Loading the Guppy is easy because of the unique 'fold-away' nose of the aircraft that opens 110 degrees for cargo loading. A system of rails in the cargo compartment, used with either Guppy pallets or fixtures designed for specific cargo, makes cargo loading simple and efficient. Rollers mounted in the rails al low pallets or fixtures to be moved by an electric winch mounted beneath the cargo floor. Automatic hydraulic lock pins in each rail secure the pallet for flight

  14. Argyres-Douglas theories, S 1 reductions, and topological symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buican, Matthew; Nishinaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper, we proposed closed-form expressions for the superconformal indices of the ({A}1,{A}2n-3) and ({A}1,{D}2n) Argyres-Douglas (AD) superconformal field theories (SCFTs) in the Schur limit. Following up on our results, we turn our attention to the small S 1 regime of these indices. As expected on general grounds, our study reproduces the S 3 partition functions of the resulting dimensionally reduced theories. However, we show that in all cases—with the exception of the reduction of the ({A}1,{D}4) SCFT—certain imaginary partners of real mass terms are turned on in the corresponding mirror theories. We interpret these deformations as R symmetry mixing with the topological symmetries of the direct S 1 reductions. Moreover, we argue that these shifts occur in any of our theories whose four-dimensional { N }=2 superconformal U{(1)}R symmetry does not obey an SU(2) quantization condition. We then use our R symmetry map to find the four-dimensional ancestors of certain three-dimensional operators. Somewhat surprisingly, this picture turns out to imply that the scaling dimensions of many of the chiral operators of the four-dimensional theory are encoded in accidental symmetries of the three-dimensional theory. We also comment on the implications of our work on the space of general { N }=2 SCFTs.

  15. Semiclassical on-the-fly computation of the S0-->S1 absorption spectrum of formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatchen, Jrg; Pollak, Eli

    2009-01-01

    The anharmonic S0?S1 vibronic absorption spectrum of the formaldehyde molecule is computed on the fly using semiclassical dynamics. This first example of an on-the-fly semiclassical computation of a vibronic spectrum was achieved using a unit prefactor modified frozen Gaussian semiclassical propagator for the excited state. A sample of 6000 trajectories sufficed for obtaining a converged spectrum, which is in reasonable agreement with experiment. Similar agreement is not obtained when using a harmonic approximation for the spectrum, demonstrating the need for a full anharmonic computation. This first example provides a resolution of 100 cm-1. Potential ways of improving the methodology and obtaining higher resolution and accuracy are discussed.

  16. The Insoluble Organic Matter of the Paris CM Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Remusat, L.; Bernard, S.; Le Guillou, C.

    2015-07-01

    We study the IOM of the Paris carbonaceous chondrite, considered as one of the least altered chondrites, and compared it to Murchison IOM. Paris CM is likely the best CM sample available to infer the nature of the OM accreted on the CM parent body.

  17. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling regulates receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, Harunori; Kitano, Masayasu; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sato, Chieri; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto; Miyazawa, Keiji; Hla, Timothy; Sano, Hajime

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of S1P in MH7A cells was inhibited by specific Gi/Go inhibitors. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling plays an important role in synovial cell proliferation and inflammatory gene expression by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of S1P/S1P1 signaling in the expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) in RA synoviocytes and CD4{sup +} T cells. We demonstrated MH7A cells, a human RA synovial cell line, and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Surprisingly, S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, S1P enhanced RANKL expression induced by stimulation with TNF-{alpha} in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. These effects of S1P in MH7A cells were inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, a specific Gi/Go inhibitor. These findings suggest that S1P/S1P1 signaling may play an important role in RANKL expression by MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling of RA synoviocytes is closely connected with synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA. Thus, regulation of S1P/S1P1 signaling may become a novel therapeutic target for RA.

  18. Vibrational energy relaxation of naphthalene in the S(1) state in various gases.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Y; Abe, D; Terazima, M

    2004-09-22

    Time-resolved fluorescence spectra of naphthalene in the S(1) state have been measured in various gases below 10(2) kPa. The band shape of the fluorescence changed in an earlier time region after the photoexcitation when an excess energy (3300 cm(-1)) above the 0-0 transition energy was given. The excitation energy dependence of the fluorescence band shape of an isolated naphthalene molecule was measured separately, and the time dependence of the fluorescence band shape in gases was found to be due to the vibrational energy relaxation in the S(1) state. We have succeeded in determining the transient excess vibrational energy by comparing the time-resolved fluorescence band shape with the excitation energy dependence of the fluorescence band shape. The excess vibrational energy decayed almost exponentially. From the slope of the decay rate against the buffer gas pressure, we have determined the collisional decay rate of the excess vibrational energy in various gases. The dependence of the vibrational energy relaxation rate on the buffer gas species was similar to the case of azulene. The comparisons with the results in the low temperature argon and the energy relaxation rate in the S(0) state in nitrogen were also discussed. PMID:15367005

  19. Glassy Chondrule Mesostasis in EET 96029: A CM3 Component of a Minimally Altered CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, P.; Lee, M. R.

    2014-09-01

    The CM2 carbonaceous chondrite EET 96029 contains a chondrule that has only been minimally altered so it has a mesostasis that retains glass. This provides an opportunity to study pristine CM chondrules and the earliest stages of aqueous alteration.

  20. Regulation of human cerebro-microvascular endothelial baso-lateral adhesion and barrier function by S1P through dual involvement of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wiltshire, Rachael; Nelson, Vicky; Kho, Dan Ting; Angel, Catherine E.; O’Carroll, Simon J.; Graham, E. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Herein we show that S1P rapidly and acutely reduces the focal adhesion strength and barrier tightness of brain endothelial cells. xCELLigence biosensor technology was used to measure focal adhesion, which was reduced by S1P acutely and this response was mediated through both S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. S1P increased secretion of several pro-inflammatory mediators from brain endothelial cells. However, the magnitude of this response was small in comparison to that mediated by TNFα or IL-1β. Furthermore, S1P did not significantly increase cell-surface expression of any key cell adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment, included ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Finally, we reveal that S1P acutely and dynamically regulates microvascular endothelial barrier tightness in a manner consistent with regulated rapid opening followed by closing and strengthening of the barrier. We hypothesise that the role of the S1P receptors in this process is not to cause barrier dysfunction, but is related to controlled opening of the endothelial junctions. This was revealed using real-time measurement of barrier integrity using ECIS ZΘ TEER technology and endothelial viability using xCELLigence technology. Finally, we show that these responses do not occur simply though the pharmacology of a single S1P receptor but involves coordinated action of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. PMID:26813587

  1. Effect of anisotropy in the S=1 underscreened Kondo lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher; da Rosa Simões, Acirete S.; Lacroix, Claudine; Iglesias, José Roberto; Coqblin, Bernard

    2014-12-01

    We study the effect of crystal field anisotropy in the underscreened S=1 Kondo lattice model. Starting from the two orbital Anderson lattice model and including a local anisotropy term, we show, through Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, that local anisotropy is equivalent to an anisotropic Kondo interaction (J∥≠J⊥). The competition and coexistence between ferromagnetism and Kondo effect in this effective model is studied within a generalized mean-field approximation. Several regimes are obtained, depending on the parameters, exhibiting or not coexistence of magnetic order and Kondo effect. Particularly, we show that a re-entrant Kondo phase at low temperature can be obtained. We are also able to describe phases where the Kondo temperature is smaller than the Curie temperature (TK

  2. Transitive Lie groups on S^1\\times S^{2m}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatsevich, Vladimir V.

    2007-10-01

    The structure of Lie groups acting transitively on the direct product of a circle and an even-dimensional sphere is described. For products of two spheres of dimension >1 a similar problem has already been solved by other authors. The minimal transitive Lie groups on S^1 and S^{2m} are also indicated. As an application of these results, the structure of the automorphism group of one class of geometric structures, generalized quadrangles (a special case of Tits buildings) is considered. A conjecture put forward by Kramer is proved: the automorphism group of a connected generalized quadrangle of type (1,2m) always contains a transitive subgroup that is the direct product of a compact simple Lie group and a one-dimensional Lie group. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  3. Relaxation phenomena in the high temperature S-1 spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Y.; Ellis, R.A. Jr.; Janos, A.C.; Levinton, F.M.; Mayo, R.M.; Motley, R.W.; Ueda, Y.; Yamada, M.

    1988-06-01

    Operation of the S-1 device in a high current density (j/n/sub e/ greater than or equal to 2 /times/ 10/sup -14/A/center dot/m) regime has created high electron temperature spheromaks (50eV less than or equal to T/sub e/ less than or equal to 130eV). The mechanisms and causes of the periodic relaxation events often observed in these hotter spheromak plasmas were made clear. Also, a relationship between the MHD relaxation cycle and confinement characteristics was revealed for the first time. Resistive loss at the outer edge of the plasma causes a departure from the initial force-free minimum-energy Taylor state to a MHD profile unstable to low-n ideal MHD modes; a relaxation event then returns the configuration to nearly a Taylor state. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Relaxation phenomena in the high-temperature S-1 spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Y.; Ellis R.A. Jr.; Janos, A.C.; Levinton, F.M.; Mayo, R.M.; Motley, R.W.; Ueda, Y.; Yamada, M.

    1988-12-19

    Operation of the S-1 device in a high--current-density (j/n/sub e/greater than or equal to2 x 10/sup -14/ A m) regime has created high--electron-temperature spheromaks (50 ev less than or equal toT/sub e/less than or equal to130 eV). The mechanisms and causes of the periodic relaxation events often observed in these hotter plasmas were made clear. A relationship between the MHD relaxation cycle and confinement was revealed for the first time. Resistive loss at the outer edge causes a departure from the initial force-free minimum-energy Taylor state to an MHD profile unstable to low-n ideal MHD modes; a relaxation event then returns the configuration to a Taylor state.

  5. Confinement and power balance in the S-1 spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Levinton, F.M.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Mayo, R.M.; Janos, A.C.; Ono, Y.; Ueda, Y.; Yamada, M.

    1989-07-01

    The confinement and scaling features of the S-1 spheromak have been investigated using magnetic, spectroscopic, and Thomson scattering data in conjunction with numerical modeling. Results from the multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic shows that the central beta remains constant (/beta//sub to/ /approximately/ 5%) as the plasma current density increases from 0.68--2.1 MA/m/sup 2/. The density is observed to increase slowly over this range, while the central electron temperature increases much more rapidly. Analysis of the global plasma parameters shows a decrease in the volume average beta and energy confinement as the total current is increased. The power balance has been modeled numerically with a 0-D non-equilibrium time-dependent coronal model and is consistent with the experimental observations. 20 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Possible Dust Models for C/2012 S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) provided a great opportunity to study a dynamically new Oort-cloud comet on its initial and only passage through the inner solar system. Contrary to expectations, the comet's activity fluctuated from high through a quiescent phase, and a major outburst days before its perihelion passage, ending in a dramatic race to complete disintegration on perihelion day, 28 November 2013. Amateur observations to professional ground-based, sub-orbital telescopes indicate the various changes of visible factors such as Afrho, a proxy for dust activity, and the measured production rates for water, consistent with the disintegration of the nucleus. Hines et al. (2013; ApJ Lett. 780) detected positive polarization in the inner coma and negative polarization in the outer coma, indicative of a jet, independently confirmed by Li et al. (2013, ApJ Lett., 779). Thermal emission observations of the comet pre-perihelion from NAOJ/Subaru/COMICS, a mid-infrared spectrometer, indicated a body with an equivalent brightness temperature of 265K (Ootsubo et al., 2013, ACM, Helsinki,FI); thermal observations acquired at the NASA/Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) with The Aerospace Corporation spectrometer (BASS, PI. R. Russell), before and after the November 12, 2013 outburst observed by the CIOC_ISON amateur network, indicates a brightness temperature of 330K and the presence, albeit weak, of the 11.3-micron crystalline silicate feature (Sitko et al., 2014, LPI abstract 1537). A Monte Carlo comet dust tail model, applied to extract the dust environment parameters of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from both Earth-based and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) calibrated observations, performed from about 6 AU (inbound), to right after perihelion passage, when just a small portion of the original comet nucleus survived in the form of a cloud of tiny particles, indicates that particles underwent disintegration and fragmentation (Moreno et al., 2014, ApJ Lett., 791). Ongoing work on possible dust models that incorporate both the observed polarization and thermal emission will be discussed.

  7. Visualization on massively parallel computers using CM/AVS

    SciTech Connect

    Krogh, M.F.; Hansen, C.D.

    1993-09-01

    CM/AVS is a visualization environment for the massively parallel CM-5 from Thinking Machines. It provides a backend to the standard commercially available AVS visualization product. At the Advanced Computing Laboratory at Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have been experimenting and utilizing this software within our visualization environment. This paper describes our experiences with CM/AVS. The conclusions reached are applicable to any implimentation of visualization software within a massively parallel computing environment.

  8. Energy Levels of the Nitrate Radical Below 2000 CM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, J. F.; Simmons, C. S.

    2012-06-01

    Highly sophisticated quantum chemistry techniques have been employed to build a three-state diabatic Hamiltonian for the nitrate radical (NO_3). Eigenvalues of this Hamiltonian (which includes effects beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation) are consistent with the known ``vibrational'' levels of NO_3 up to ca. 2100 cm-1 above the zero-point level; with a small empirical adjustment of the diabatic coupling strength, calculated levels are within 20 cm-1 of the measured level positions for those that have been observed experimentally. Of the eleven states with e' symmetry calculated below 2000 cm-1, nine of these have been observed either in the gas phase by Hirota and collaborators as well as Neumark and Johnston, or in frozen argon by Jacox. However, the Hamiltonian produces two levels that have not been seen experimentally: one calculated to lie at 1075 cm-1 (which is the third e' state, above ν_4 and 2ν_4) and another at 1640 cm-1 which is best assigned as one of the two e' sublevels of 4ν_4. A significant result is that the state predicted at 1075 cm-1 is not far enough above the predicted 2ν_4 level (777 cm-1 v. ca. 760 cm-1 from experiment) to be plausibly assigned as 3ν_4 (which is at 1155 cm-1: experimental position: 1173 cm-1), nor is its nodal structure consistent with such an idea. Rather, it is quite unambiguously the ν_3 level. Given the fidelity of the results generated by this model Hamiltonian as compared to experiment, it can safely be concluded that the prominent infrared band seen at 1492 cm-1 (corresponding to a calculated level at 1500 cm-1) is not ν_3, but rather a multiquantum state best viewed as a sublevel of the ν_3 + ν_4 combination.

  9. A novel mGluR5 antagonist, MFZ 10-7, inhibits cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Keck, Thomas M; Zou, Mu-Fa; Bi, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Hong-Ju; Srivastava, Ratika; Gardner, Eliot L; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2014-03-01

    Pre-clinical studies suggest that negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5), including 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP), 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]pyridine (MTEP) and fenobam are highly effective in attenuating drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors. However, both MPEP and MTEP have no translational potential for use in humans because of their off-target effects and short half-lives. Here, we report that 3-fluoro-5-[(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)ethynyl]benzonitrile (MFZ 10-7), a novel mGluR5 NAM, is more potent and selective than MPEP, MTEP and fenobam in both in vitro binding and functional assays. Similar to MTEP, intraperitoneal administration of MFZ 10-7 inhibited intravenous cocaine self-administration, cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior and cocaine-associated cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. Although MFZ 10-7 and MTEP lowered the rate of oral sucrose self-administration, they did not alter total sucrose intake. Further, MFZ 10-7 appeared to be more potent than MTEP in inducing downward shifts in the cocaine dose-response curve, but less effective than MTEP in attenuating sucrose-induced reinstatement of sucrose-seeking behavior. MFZ 10-7 and MTEP had no effect on basal locomotor behavior. These findings not only provide additional evidence supporting an important role for mGluR5 in cocaine reward and addiction, but also introduce a new tool for both in vitro and in vivo investigations with which to further characterize this role. PMID:24001208

  10. Effects of electron irradiation and temperature on 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicoletta, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    One OHM-cm and 10 OHM-cm silicon solar cells were exposed to 1.0 MeV electrons at a fixed flux of 10 to the 11th power e/sq cm/sec and fluences of 10 to the 13th power, 10 to the 14th power and 10 to the 15th power e/sq.cm. 1-V curves of the cells were made at room temperature, - 63 C and + or - 143 C after each irradiation. A value of 139.5 mw/sq cm was used as AMO incident energy rate per unit area. The 10 OHM-cm cells appear more efficient than 1 OHM-cm cells after exposure to a fluence greater than 10 to the 14th power e/sq cm. The 1.0 MeV electron damage coefficients for both 1 OHM-cm and 10 OHM-cm cells are somewhat less than those for previously irradiated cells at room temperature. The values of the damage coefficients increase as the cell temperatures decrease. Efficiencies pertaining to maximum power output are about the same as those of n on p silicon cells evaluated previously.

  11. New H I 21-cm absorbers at low and intermediate redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwaan, M. A.; Liske, J.; Péroux, C.; Murphy, M. T.; Bouché, N.; Curran, S. J.; Biggs, A. D.

    2015-10-01

    We present the results of a survey for intervening H I 21-cm absorbers at intermediate and low redshift (0 < z < 1.2). For our total sample of 24 systems, we obtained high-quality data for 17 systems, the other seven being severely affected by radio frequency interference (RFI). Five of our targets are low-redshift (z < 0.17) optical galaxies with small impact parameters (<20 kpc) towards radio-bright background sources. Two of these were detected in 21-cm absorption, showing narrow, high optical depth absorption profiles, the narrowest having a velocity dispersion of only 1.5 km s- 1, which puts an upper limit on the kinetic temperature of Tk < 270 K. Combining our observations with results from the literature, we measure a weak anticorrelation between impact parameter and integral optical depth in local (z < 0.5) 21-cm absorbers. Of 11 Ca II and Mg II systems searched, two were detected in 21-cm absorption, and six were affected by RFI to a level that precludes a detection. For these two systems at z ˜ 0.6, we measure spin temperatures of Ts = (65 ± 17) K and Ts > 180 K. A subset of our systems was also searched for OH absorption, but no detections were made.

  12. Outgassing and chemical evolution of C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dello Russo, Neil; Vervack, Ronald J.; Kawakita, Hideyo; Cochran, Anita; McKay, Adam J.; Harris, Walter M.; Weaver, Harold A.; Lisse, Carey M.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Biver, Nicolas; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Crovisier, Jacques; Opitom, Cyrielle; Jehin, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Volatile production rates, relative abundances, rotational temperatures, and spatial distributions in the coma were measured in C/2012 S1 (ISON) using long-slit high-dispersion (λ/Δλ ~ 25,000) infrared spectroscopy as part of a worldwide observing campaign. Spectra were obtained on UT 2013 October 26 and 28 with NIRSPEC at the W. M. Keck Observatory, and UT 2013 November 19 and 20 with CSHELL at the NASA IRTF. H2O was detected on all dates, with production rates increasing by about a factor of 40 between October 26 (Rh = 1.12 AU) and November 20 (Rh = 0.43 AU). Short-term variability of H2O was also seen as the production rate increased by nearly a factor of two during observations obtained over a period of about six hours on November 19. C2H6, CH3OH and CH4 abundances were slightly depleted relative to H2O in ISON compared to mean values for comets measured at infrared wavelengths. On the November dates, C2H2, HCN and OCS abundances relative to H2O appear to be close to the range of mean values, whereas H2CO and NH3 were significantly enhanced. We will compare derived chemical abundances in ISON to other comets measured with infrared spectroscopy.

  13. Nature and degree of aqueous alteration in CM and CI carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takir, Driss; Emery, Joshua P.; McSween, Harry Y.; Hibbitts, Charles A.; Clark, Roger N.; Pearson, Neil; Wang, Alian

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the petrologic, geochemical, and spectral parameters that relate to the type and degree of aqueous alteration in nine CM chondrites and one CI (Ivuna) carbonaceous chondrite. Our underlying hypothesis is that the position and shape of the 3 ?m band is diagnostic of phyllosilicate mineralogy. We measured reflectance spectra of the chondrites under dry conditions (elevated temperatures) and vacuum (10-8 to 10-7 torr) to minimize adsorbed water and mimic the space environment, for subsequent comparison with reflectance spectra of asteroids. We have identified three spectral CM groups in addition to Ivuna. "Group 1," the least altered group as determined from various alteration indices, is characterized by 3 ?m band centers at longer wavelengths, and is consistent with cronstedtite (Fe-serpentine). "Group 3," the most altered group, is characterized by 3 ?m band centers at shorter wavelengths and is consistent with antigorite (serpentine). "Group 2" is an intermediate group between group 1 and 3. Ivuna exhibits a unique spectrum that is distinct from the CM meteorites and is consistent with lizardite and chrysotile (serpentine). The petrologic and geochemical parameters, which were determined using electron microprobe analyses and microscopic observations, are found to be consistent with the three spectral groups. These results indicate that the distinct parent body aqueous alteration environments experienced by these carbonaceous chondrites can be distinguished using reflectance spectroscopy. High-quality ground-based telescopic observations of Main Belt asteroids can be expected to reveal not just whether an asteroid is hydrated, but also details of the alteration state.

  14. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists mediate pro-fibrotic responses in normal human lung fibroblasts via S1P2 and S1P3 receptors and Smad-independent signaling.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Katrin; Menyhart, Katalin; Killer, Nina; Renault, Bérengère; Bauer, Yasmina; Studer, Rolf; Steiner, Beat; Bolli, Martin H; Nayler, Oliver; Gatfield, John

    2013-05-24

    Synthetic sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 modulators constitute a new class of drugs for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling, however, is also involved in the development of fibrosis. Using normal human lung fibroblasts, we investigated the induction of fibrotic responses by the S1P receptor (S1PR) agonists S1P, FTY720-P, ponesimod, and SEW2871 and compared them with the responses induced by the known fibrotic mediator TGF-β1. In contrast to TGF-β1, S1PR agonists did not induce expression of the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin. However, TGF-β1, S1P, and FTY720-P caused robust stimulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and increased pro-fibrotic marker gene expression including connective tissue growth factor. Ponesimod showed limited and SEW2871 showed no pro-fibrotic potential in these readouts. Analysis of pro-fibrotic signaling pathways showed that in contrast to TGF-β1, S1PR agonists did not activate Smad2/3 signaling but rather activated PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling to induce ECM synthesis. The strong induction of ECM synthesis by the nonselective agonists S1P and FTY720-P was due to the stimulation of S1P2 and S1P3 receptors, whereas the weaker induction of ECM synthesis at high concentrations of ponesimod was due to a low potency activation of S1P3 receptors. Finally, in normal human lung fibroblast-derived myofibroblasts that were generated by TGF-β1 pretreatment, S1P and FTY720-P were effective stimulators of ECM synthesis, whereas ponesimod was inactive, because of the down-regulation of S1P3R expression in myofibroblasts. These data demonstrate that S1PR agonists are pro-fibrotic via S1P2R and S1P3R stimulation using Smad-independent pathways. PMID:23589284

  15. Thermal neutron-induced fission cross sections of Cm isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, L.; Heyse, J.; Wagemans, J.; Wagemans, C.

    2009-10-01

    A new measurement program was set up at SCK?CEN to determine the thermal neutron-induced fission cross section of a number of Cm isotopes. These transuranium isotopes are produced in nuclear reactors and are candidates for transmutation. This paper presents preliminary results of our 245Cm(n,f) cross-section measurement.

  16. Design and Performance of 40 cm Ion Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    2001-01-01

    A 40 cm ion thruster is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to obtain input power and propellant throughput capabilities of 10 kW and 550 kg. respectively. The technical approach here is a continuation of the "derating" technique used for the NSTAR ion thruster. The 40 cm ion thruster presently utilizes the NSTAR ion optics aperture geometry to take advantage of the large database of lifetime and performance data already available. Dome-shaped grids were chosen for the design of the 40 cm ion optics because this design is naturally suited for large-area ion optics. Ion extraction capabilities and electron backstreaming limits for the 40 cm ion optics were estimated by utilizing NSTAR 30 cm ion optics data. A preliminary service life assessment showed that the propellant throughput goal of 550 kg of xenon may be possible with molybdenum 40 cm ion optics. One 40 cm ion optics' set has been successfully fabricated to date. Additional ion optics' sets are presently being fabricated. Preliminary performance tests were conducted on a laboratory model 40 cm ion thruster.

  17. Photofraction of a 5 cm x 2 cm BGO scintillator. [bismuth germanate crystal for use in cosmic gamma ray detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunphy, P. P.; Forrest, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The photofraction of a 5.1 cm x 2.0 cm bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillator was measured over a gamma-ray energy range of 0.2 to 6.1 MeV. Several methods, used to minimize the effect of room scattering on the measurement, are discussed. These include a gamma-gamma coincidence technique, a beta-gamma coincidence technique, and the use of sources calibrated with a standard 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm sodium iodide scintillator.

  18. Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma sized > 3 and ? 5 cm: Is ablative margin of more than 1 cm justified?

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Shan; Ding, Xue-Mei; Qian, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Cao, Bao-Xin; Gao, Kun; Sun, Wen-Bing

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether an ablative margin (AM) > 1.0 cm might reduce chance of recurrence for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors 3.1 to 5.0 cm in size, compared with an AM of 0.5-1.0 cm. METHODS: From October 2005 to December 2012, 936 consecutive patients with HCC who received radiofrequency ablation were screened. Of these, 281 patients, each with a single primary HCC tumor of 3.1 to 5.0 cm in size on its greatest diameter, were included in the study. Based on the AM width, we categorized patients into the 0.5-1.0 cm group and the > 1.0 cm group. Local tumor progression (LTP)-free survival, intrahepatic distant recurrence (IDR)-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year LTP-free survival rates and IDR-free survival rates were significantly higher in the > 1.0 cm group compared with the 0.5-1.0 cm group (97.5%, 86.3%, 73.6%, 49.5% and 26.4% vs 91.3%, 78.4%, 49.5%, 27.8%, and 12.8%; 95.1%, 90.3%, 77.0%, 61.0% and 48.3% vs 95.2%, 85.9%, 62.6%, 47.2% and 28.5%; P < 0.05). The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year OS rates were 98.6%, 91.5%, 69.2%, 56.0% and 42.2%, respectively, in the 0.5-1.0 cm group and 100%, 98.9%, 90.1%, 68.7% and 57.4%, respectively, in the > 1.0 cm group (P = 0.010). There were no significant differences in complication rates between the two groups. Both univariate and multivariate analyses identified AM as an independent prognostic factor linked to LTP, IDR, and OS. CONCLUSION: For HCC tumors > 3.0 cm and ? 5.0 cm, AM > 1.0 cm could reduce chances of recurrence compared with AM of 0.5-1.0 cm, emphasizing the need for a more defensive strategy using AMs > 1.0 cm for ablating HCC tumors of 3.1 to 5.0 cm. PMID:24259969

  19. Effects of proton irradiation and temperature on 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicoletta, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells were exposed to 1.0 MeV protons at a fixed flux of 10 to the 9th power P/sq cm-sec and fluences of 10 to the 10th power, 10 to the 11th power, 10 to the 12th power and 3 X 10 to the 12th power P/sq cm. I-V curves of the cells were made at room temperature, 65 C and 165 C after each irradiation. A value of 139.5 mw/sq cm was taken as AMO incident energy rate per unit area. Degradation occurred for both uncovered 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm cells. Efficiencies are generally higher than those of comparable U.S. cells tested earlier. Damage (loss in maximum power efficiency) with proton fluence is somewhat higher for 10 ohm-cm cells, measured at the three temperatures, for fluences above 2 X 10 to the 11th power P/sq cm. Cell efficiency, as expected, changes drastically with temperature.

  20. The turbomachine blading design using S2-S1 approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, T. S.; Bencherif, L.; Viney, B.; Duc, J. M. Nguyen

    1991-01-01

    The boundary conditions corresponding to the design problem when the blades being simulated by the bound vorticity distribution are presented. The 3D flow is analyzed by the two steps S2 - S1 approach. In the first step, the number of blades is supposed to be infinite, the vortex distribution is transformed into an axisymmetric one, so that the flow field can be analyzed in a meridional plane. The thickness distribution of the blade producing the flow channel striction is taken into account by the modification of metric tensor in the continuity equation. Using the meridional stream function to define the flow field, the mass conservation is satisfied automatically. The governing equation is deduced from the relation between the azimuthal component of the vorticity and the meridional velocity. The value of the azimuthal component of the vorticity is provided by the hub to shroud equilibrium condition. This step leads to the determination of the axisymmetric stream sheets as well as the approximate camber surface of the blade. In the second step, the finite number of blades is taken into account, the inverse problem corresponding to the blade to blade flow confined in each stream sheet is analyzed. The momentum equation implies that the free vortex of the absolute velocity must be tangential to the stream sheet. The governing equation for the blade to blade flow stream function is deduced from this condition. At the beginning, the upper and the lower surfaces of the blades are created from the camber surface obtained from the first step with the assigned thickness distribution. The bound vorticity distribution and the penetrating flux conservation applied on the presumed blade surface constitute the boundary conditions of the inverse problem. The detection of this flux leads to the rectification of the geometry of the blades.

  1. Ultraviolet Observations Of C/2012 S1 (ISON) By MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crismani, Matteo; Schneider, N.; Stewart, I.; Combi, M.; Fougere, N.

    2013-10-01

    On its journey to Mars, MAVEN has been serendipitously positioned to study the anticipated sungrazing comet C/2012 S1(ISON) and offers important scientific observations. The MAVEN mission is the first to attempt to understand the evolution of the Martian atmosphere by determining the effects of atmospheric loss to space. The IUVS instrument has two large field of regard(55x11 and 24x11 degrees) and observes in the mid and far ultraviolet (115-340 nm). It was designed to be able to map the atmosphere in several neutral and some ionized species. These performance characteristics make IUVS ideal to study ISON, as it can take both two dimensional spatial scans as well as spectral data. Tentative plans indicate the comet can be acquired on Dec 8th, assuming that the comet survives the near sun encounter. If observations prove possible, IUVS will be able to study ISON shortly after perihelion, and from a different vantage point from Earth. Science goals include UV observations of D/H, morphology & time evolution of the hydrogen coma and UV spectroscopy of the inner coma. IUVS can potentially make a major contribution to the international community by measuring D/H, thus contributing to our understanding of the origin of Earths water. IUVS will also make MUV and FUV observations of molecular species in the inner coma, valuable for understanding the chemical evolution of cometary molecular gases. The poster will present provisional observation plans as well as simulated spectra and spatial profiles. We welcome input from the community on these plans, in the spirit of maximizing the scientific return of the international campaign. The work has been supported by the MAVEN project and NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX09AB59G.

  2. Search for ammonia in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, S.; Codella, C.; Tozzi, G.; Comoretto, G.; Crovisier, J.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Boissier, J.; Bolli, P.; Brucato, J.; Massi, F.; Tofani, G.

    2014-07-01

    Comets are pristine bodies of the Solar System and their studies can give precious hints on the formation of the Solar System itself. New comets, coming form the Oort Colud at their first passage close to the Sun, are particularly important, because they are not differentiated by the Solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of organic matter close to the surface. Here we report the results of a search for NH_3(1,1) emission at 23.7 GHz in comet C/2012 S1 ISON using a new dual-feed K-band receiver mounted on the Medicina 32-m antenna. We observed the comet once close to its perihelion, from 2013 Nov. 25 to Nov. 28, when its heliocentric distance changed from 0.25 au to 0.03 au. We integrated about 6 hrs per day, obtaining high-spectral-resolution (1 km/s) spectra with a typical rms noise of 10 mK. Such sensitivity allowed us to derive an upper limit of Q(NH_3) of about 2.5 ×10^{29} mol/s on November 26. This upper limit would correspond to a Q(H_2O) of about 2.5 ×10^{31} mol/s, assuming the typical Q(H_2O)/Q(NH_3) ratio of 100. These findings confirm that no significant Q(H_2O) enhancement happened near the perihelion, consistent with a definitive decrease of molecules production rate.

  3. A polysaccharides MDG-1 augments survival in the ischemic heart by inducing S1P release and S1P1 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Ling-Yi; Ruan, Ke-Feng; Feng, Yi; Li, Xiao-Yan

    2012-04-01

    Ophiopogon japonicus is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have confirmed the anti-ischemic properties of a water-soluble ?-D-fructan (MDG-1) from O. japonicus. The sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling pathway is involved in its cytoprotective effects. Herein, we explore the role of the S1P signaling pathway in the anti-ischemic effect of MDG-1 and assess one possible mechanism by which it induces S1P release and sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P(1)) expression in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and cardiomyocytes. Our evidence demonstrates that MDG-1 promotes sphingosine kinase (SPHK) activity in HMEC-1 cells. An analytical method for measuring the mass of S1P using ESI/MS/MS was developed and we found that MDG-1 increases intracellular S1P levels. Meanwhile, MDG-1 is protective during hypoxia and ischemia through mechanisms that require S1P(1) receptor activation, which was confirmed both in oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and coronary artery ligation models by using transfection of cloned human S1P(1) receptor and RNA interference. These data indicate that the increase of intracellular S1P generation, particularly by activation of the SPHK enzyme, coupled with the autocrine and paracrine stimulation of cell surface S1P receptors, is a potential mechanism in the anti-ischemic and cell protective effect of MDG-1. PMID:22197795

  4. A role of the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-S1P receptor 2 pathway in epithelial defense against cancer (EDAC).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Sayaka; Yako, Yuta; Fujioka, Yoichiro; Kajita, Mihoko; Kameyama, Takeshi; Kon, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Susumu; Ohba, Yusuke; Ohno, Yusuke; Kihara, Akio; Fujita, Yasuyuki

    2016-02-01

    At the initial step of carcinogenesis, transformation occurs in single cells within epithelia, where the newly emerging transformed cells are surrounded by normal epithelial cells. A recent study revealed that normal epithelial cells have an ability to sense and actively eliminate the neighboring transformed cells, a process named epithelial defense against cancer (EDAC). However, the molecular mechanism of this tumor-suppressive activity is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated a role for the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2) pathway in EDAC. First, we show that addition of the S1PR2 inhibitor significantly suppresses apical extrusion of RasV12-transformed cells that are surrounded by normal cells. In addition, knockdown of S1PR2 in normal cells induces the same effect, indicating that S1PR2 in the surrounding normal cells plays a positive role in the apical elimination of the transformed cells. Of importance, not endogenous S1P but exogenous S1P is involved in this process. By using FRET analyses, we demonstrate that S1PR2 mediates Rho activation in normal cells neighboring RasV12-transformed cells, thereby promoting accumulation of filamin, a crucial regulator of EDAC. Collectively these data indicate that S1P is a key extrinsic factor that affects the outcome of cell competition between normal and transformed epithelial cells. PMID:26631556

  5. Icy Galilean Satellites: 70 cm Radar Results from Arecibo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, G. J.; Campbell, D. B.; Ostro, S. J.

    2001-06-01

    The radar scattering properties of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto are unlike those of any other object observed with planetary radars. At wavelengths of 3.5 cm and 13 cm most inner Solar System targets have low reflectivities on the order of 0.1, while the icy Galilean satellites are strongly backscattering with specific radar cross sections that can exceed unity (Campbell et al. 1978, Icarus 34, 254-267, Ostro et al. 1992, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 18227-18244). Their polarization ratios are also high, ˜1.5, indicative of multiple scattering, and the echoes follow a diffuse scattering law at all incident angles with no indication of the quasi-specular reflections characteristic of terrestrial planets and the Moon. We present observations that were made in 1988 and 1990 with the Arecibo radar at a much longer wavelength, 70 cm. The total cross sections measured at this wavelength are much lower than those measured at the shorter wavelengths. At 0.62±0.20 and 0.15±0.09, respectively, Ganymede's and Callisto's total normalized cross sections are a factor of 3 lower than their values at the short wavelengths. However, their 70-cm polarization ratios are greater than unity and consistent with those at the shorter wavelengths. Europa was not reliably detected at 70 cm and hence an upper limit on its total cross section is placed at 0.34, which is almost a factor of 10 lower than at the short wavelengths. Although all the 70-cm echoes are fairly weak and carry relatively large uncertainties, it appears unlikely that single reflections from the vacuum-surface interface are contributing significantly to the reflections, and hence the mechanism responsible for the radar scattering properties at 3.5 cm and 13 cm is still active at 70 cm, but apparently not operating as efficiently.

  6. Eight-cm mercury ion thruster system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The technology status of 8 cm diameter electron bombardment ion thrusters is presented. Much of the technology resulting from the 5 cm diameter thruster has been adapted and improved upon to increase the reliability, durability, and efficiency of the 8 cm thruster. Technology discussed includes: dependence of neutralizer tip erosion upon neutralizer flow rate; impregnated and rolled-foil insert cathode performance and life testing; neutralizer position studies; thruster ion beam profile measurements; high voltage pulse ignition; high utilization ion machined accelerator grids; deposition internal and external to the thruster; thruster vectoring systems; thruster cycling life testing and thruster system weights for typical mission applications.

  7. Alteration and formation of rims on the CM parent body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, Lauren B.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Zolensky, Michael

    1994-01-01

    All types of coarse-grained components in CM chondrites are surrounded by fine-grained dust coatings, but the origin of these rims is not yet clear. Although a strictly nebular origin seems likely for rims in the relatively unaltered type 3 chondrites, the rims in CM chondrites are dominated by secondary alteration phases. It has been argued that either the coarse-grained cores accreted altered rim materials while still in the nebula or that alteration of primary rim phases occurred on the CM parent body. To constrain the origin of alteration phases in rim material, we have analyzed the textures and mineral associations from 10 CM chondritic falls by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Our results indicate that the secondary phases in CM chondritic rims were produced by parent body fluid-rock interactions which redefined some primary rim textures and may have produced, in some cases, both coarse-grained components and the rims that surround them. Textural features demonstrate the interactive exchange of alteration fluids between rims, matrix, and chondrules on the CM parent body. For example, most matrix-rim contacts are gradational, suggesting the synchronous alteration of both components. Several observations suggest the possibility of in situ rim production. For example, tochilinite and phyllosilicates commonly form rims around matrix carbonates, which are generally believed to have precipitated from alteration fluids on the CM parent body. This suggests that the rims surrounding matrix carbonates may also have been produced by alteration processes. Partially replaced chondrule olivines bear a striking resemblance to many rimmed olivines in the matrix which suggests, by analogy, that site-specific precipitation of S-bearing phases may also be responsible for the occurrence of many tochilinite-rich rims around isolated matrix olivines. Non-silicate rims precipitate around olivines of any composition, but the process is most effective for fayalitic olivines. Most of the remaining olivines in CM chondrites are relatively Mg-rich, which suggests that the precipitation of S-bearing rims on olivines may not have been an important process in the aqueous alteration of CM chondrites. We conclude that: (1) precursor rim materials in CM chondrites were subjected to pervasive aqueous alteration on the CM parent body; and (2) textures and mineral associations observed in CM chondrites also suggest the possibility of in situ rim production.

  8. Ion accelerator systems for high power 30 cm thruster operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.

    1982-01-01

    Two and three-grid accelerator systems for high power ion thruster operation were investigated. Two-grid translation tests show that over compensation of the 30 cm thruster SHAG grid set spacing the 30 cm thruster radial plasma density variation and by incorporating grid compensation only sufficient to maintain grid hole axial alignment, it is shown that beam current gains as large as 50% can be realized. Three-grid translation tests performed with a simulated 30 cm thruster discharge chamber show that substantial beamlet steering can be reliably affected by decelerator grid translation only, at net-to-total voltage ratios as low as 0.05.

  9. Smad3 deficiency leads to mandibular condyle degradation via the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P3 signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hiroki; Izawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Eiji

    2015-10-01

    Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that is characterized by permanent cartilage destruction. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? is one of the most abundant cytokines in the bone matrix and is shown to regulate the migration of osteoprogenitor cells. It is hypothesized that TGF-?/Smad3 signaling affects cartilage homeostasis by influencing sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor signaling and chondrocyte migration. We therefore investigated the molecular mechanisms by which crosstalk may occur between TGF-?/Smad3 and S1P/S1P receptor signaling to maintain condylar cartilage and to prevent temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis. Abnormalities in the condylar subchondral bone, including dynamic changes in bone mineral density and microstructure, were observed in Smad3(-/-) mice by microcomputed tomography. Cell-free regions and proteoglycan loss characterized the cartilage degradation present, and increased numbers of apoptotic chondrocytes and matrix metalloproteinase 13(+) chondrocytes were also detected. Furthermore, expression of S1P receptor 3 (S1P3), but not S1P1 or S1P2, was significantly down-regulated in the condylar cartilage of Smad3(-/-) mice. By using RNA interference technology and pharmacologic tools, S1P was found to transactivate Smad3 in an S1P3/TGF-? type II receptor-dependent manner, and S1P3 was found to be required for TGF-?-induced migration of chondrocyte cells and downstream signal transduction via Rac1, RhoA, and Cdc42. Taken together, these results indicate that the Smad3/S1P3 signaling pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis. PMID:26272361

  10. Equatorial evening prereversal vertical drift dependence on solar EUV flux and F10.7 index during quiet and disturbed periods over Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. M.; Abdu, M. A.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Mascarenhas, M.; Nogueira, P. A. B.

    2013-07-01

    A study of the dependence of the equatorial evening F region vertical drift velocity on solar EUV flux and F10.7 index is presented here, based on the vertical drift data obtained from Digisondes operated in So Luis (44.2 W, 2.33 S, dip angle: -2.7) and Fortaleza (38.45 W, 3.9 S, dip angle: -11.5) in Brazil. Previous studies on the vertical drift dependence on solar flux have addressed only the dependence on F10.7 index. The data analyzed here are from the months of October, November, and December of the years from 2001 to 2009, and the analysis was done for magnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. The results show that while the drift velocity peak is strongly dependent on both solar emission fluxes, the degrees of such dependence are higher for the EUV flux than for the F10.7 index in a consistent way as judged from its identical behavior at both So Luis and Fortaleza. The study also reveals different degrees of the vertical drift dependence on solar flux for magnetically quiet and disturbed conditions, the nature of which is investigated using an example of a storm time case study.

  11. Full pharmacological efficacy of a novel S1P1 agonist that does not require S1P-like head-group interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Cabrera, Pedro J.; Jo, Euijung; Sanna, M. Germana; Brown, Steven; Leaf, Nora; Marsolais, David; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Chapman, Jacqueline; Cameron, Michael; Guerrero, Miguel; Roberts, Edward; Rosen, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Strong evidence exists for interactions of zwitterionic phosphate and amine groups in Sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) to conserved R and E residues present at the extracellular face of transmembrane-3 (TM3) of S1P receptors. The contribution of R120 and E121 for high affinity ligand-receptor interactions is essential, as single-point R120A or E121A S1P1 mutants neither bind S1P nor transduce S1P function. Because S1P receptors are therapeutically interesting, identifying potent selective agonists with different binding modes and in vivo efficacy is of pharmacological importance. Here we describe a modestly water-soluble highly-selective S1P1 agonist (CYM-5442) that does not require R120 or E121 residues for activating S1P1-dependent p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation, which defines a new hydrophobic pocket in S1P1. CYM-5442 is a full agonist in vitro for S1P1 internalization, phosphorylation and ubiquitination. Importantly, CYM-5442 was a full agonist for induction and maintenance of S1P1-dependent lymphopenia, decreasing B-lymphocytes by 65% and T-lymphocytes by 85% of vehicle. Induction of CYM-5442 lymphopenia was dose and time-dependent, requiring serum concentrations in the 50 nM range. In vitro measures of S1P1 activation by CYM-5442 were non-competitively inhibited by a specific S1P1 antagonist (W146), competitive for S1P, FTY720-P and SEW2871. In addition, lymphopenia by CYM-5442 was reversed by W146 administration or upon pharmacokinetic agonist clearance. Pharmacokinetics in mice also indicated that CYM-5442 partitions significantly in central nervous tissue. These data show that CYM-5442 activates S1P1-dependent pathways in vitro and to levels of full efficacy in vivo through a hydrophobic pocket, separable from the orthosteric site of S1P binding that is headgroup dependent. PMID:18708635

  12. Dynamin 2dependent endocytosis is required for sustained S1PR1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Shawn M.; Pereira, Joo P.; De Camilli, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1PR1) is critical for lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs. Lymphocytes encounter low S1P concentrations near exit sites before transmigration, yet S1PR1 signaling is rapidly terminated after exposure to S1P. How lymphocytes maintain S1PR1 signaling in a low S1P environment near egress sites is unknown. Here we identify dynamin 2, an essential component of endocytosis, as a novel regulator of T cell egress. Mice with T cellspecific dynamin 2 deficiency had profound lymphopenia and impaired egress from lymphoid organs. Dynamin 2 deficiency caused impaired egress through regulation of S1PR1 signaling, and transgenic S1PR1 overexpression rescued egress in dynamin 2 knockout mice. In low S1P concentrations, dynamin 2 was essential for S1PR1 internalization, which enabled continuous S1PR1 signaling and promoted egress from both thymus and lymph nodes. In contrast, dynamin 2deficient cells were only capable of a pulse of S1PR1 signaling, which was insufficient for egress. Our results suggest a possible mechanism by which T lymphocytes positioned at exit portals sense low S1P concentrations, promoting their egress into circulatory fluids. PMID:24638168

  13. CM Process Improvement and the International Space Station Program (ISSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, Ginny

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Configuration Management (CM) process improvements planned and undertaken for the International Space Station Program (ISSP). It reviews the 2004 findings and recommendations and the progress towards their implementation.

  14. Amino Acids in the Antarctic CM Meteorite LEW 90500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, O.; Bada, J. L.

    2002-03-01

    The amino acid composition of the Antarctic CM meteorite LEW90500 was determined and compared to that of the CMs Murchison and Murray. The compositional similarity suggest that these meteorites probably originated from the same parent body.

  15. The 21-cm Signal from the cosmological epoch of recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Fialkov, A.; Loeb, A. E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-11-01

    The redshifted 21-cm emission by neutral hydrogen offers a unique tool for mapping structure formation in the early universe in three dimensions. Here we provide the first detailed calculation of the 21-cm emission signal during and after the epoch of hydrogen recombination in the redshift range of z ? 5001,100, corresponding to observed wavelengths of 100230 meters. The 21-cm line deviates from thermal equilibrium with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) due to the excess Ly? radiation from hydrogen and helium recombinations. The resulting 21-cm signal reaches a brightness temperature of a milli-Kelvin, orders of magnitude larger than previously estimated. Its detection by a future lunar or space-based observatory could improve dramatically the statistical constraints on the cosmological initial conditions compared to existing two-dimensional maps of the CMB anisotropies.

  16. Management of 1-2 cm renal stones

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Aneesh; Chipde, Saurabh S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The preferred treatment of >1cm stone is shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), while that of stone <2 cm is percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), but treatment of 1-2 cm renal stones is a controversial issue. We searched the literature to present a comprehensive review on this group. Material and Methods: Pubmed search of literature was done using the appropriate key words. We separately discussed the literature in lower polar and non lower polar stone groups. Results: For non lower polar renal stones of 1-2 cm, SWL is preferred approach, while for the lower polar stones; literature favors the use of PCNL. Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is emerging as a promising technique for these calculi. Conclusions: Treatment of renal stone disease depends on stone and patient related, as well as on renal anatomical factors. Treatment should be individualized according to site of stone and available expertise. PMID:24082440

  17. Benchmarking and performance analysis of the CM-2. [SIMD computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, David W.; Adams, George B., II

    1988-01-01

    A suite of benchmarking routines testing communication, basic arithmetic operations, and selected kernel algorithms written in LISP and PARIS was developed for the CM-2. Experiment runs are automated via a software framework that sequences individual tests, allowing for unattended overnight operation. Multiple measurements are made and treated statistically to generate well-characterized results from the noisy values given by cm:time. The results obtained provide a comparison with similar, but less extensive, testing done on a CM-1. Tests were chosen to aid the algorithmist in constructing fast, efficient, and correct code on the CM-2, as well as gain insight into what performance criteria are needed when evaluating parallel processing machines.

  18. The dust environment of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, F.; Pozuelos, F.; Aceituno, F.; Casanova, V.; Duffard, R.; Lpez-Moreno, J. J.; Molina, A.; Ortiz, J. L.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Sota, A.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Astronomical Association Cometas-Obs, Amateur

    2014-07-01

    A Monte Carlo comet dust tail model has been applied to extract the dust environment parameters of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from both Earth-based and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) calibrated observations, performed from about 6 Astronomical Units (au) inbound, to right after perihelion passage, when just a small portion of the original comet nucleus survived in the form of a cloud of tiny particles. The early Af? and image data are consistent with particle ejection from an extended active area occupying a large region between latitudes 35N to 90N (for a prograde rotating nucleus), with the spin axis having a large obliquity (I ? 70). This configuration fits nicely the early images and Af? data until approximately 3.9 au inbound, where the emission should become isotropic in order to fit the data. This isotropic ejection model perfectly mimics the minimum in the Af? data found observationally 60 days before perihelion and the steep rise afterwards owing to the strong outburst of activity detected by many observers during the first hours of November 14, 2013. The comparison of the derived dust loss rates with water production rates implies a dust-to-gas ratio which generally decreases with increasing heliocentric distance, and a particle ejection velocity law that is close to a r_h^{-2} dependence. The analysis of SOHO LASCO C3 images around comet's perihelion reveals that, assuming an original nucleus of R_N = 500 m with ? = 1000 kg m^{-3}, at least half of the mass of the nucleus was vaporized when the comet was at about 17 solar radii inbound. We conclude that at that time the nucleus suffered a cataclysmic fragmentation releasing a huge amount of material of 2.310^{11} kg, for a particle density of 1000 kg m^{-3}, equivalent to a sphere of 380 m in radius. The model results on a later pre-perihelion image at about 5.5 solar radii implies a further reduction in mass of about 300 to that at 17 solar radii, a consequence of vaporization of comet material. However, the total mass contained in the post-perihelion tails analyzed are about the same of that at 5.5 solar radii pre-perihelion, but with much smaller particles in the distribution, implying that the dominating process at perihelion was particle fragmentation. The total mass contained in the last SOHO LASCO C3 post-perihelion image analyzed, at 27.5 solar radii post-perihelion, the surviving ISON material is just 6.710^8 kg or a sphere of 54 m in radius with the density of 1000 kg m^{-3}. The dust contained in the post-perihelion tails is very small in size, with particles having 0.1-50 ? m in radius, distributed following a power law of index -3.5.

  19. New results on the ternary fission of 243Cm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyse, J.; Wagemans, C.; Vermote, S.; Serot, O.; Geltenbort, P.; Soldner, T.; Van Gils, J.

    2005-11-01

    Ternary fission is an important source of He and tritium gas in nuclear reactors and used fuel elements. Therefore a systematic study of the ternary fission yields for 4He and tritons (t) is being performed. In recent years the influence of the excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus on the triton emission probability (t/B) has been investigated for different Cm and Cf isotopes. In this paper we report on new results on the neutron induced fission of 243Cm.

  20. CmWRKY15 Facilitates Alternaria tenuissima Infection of Chrysanthemum

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qingqing; Song, Aiping; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Wang, Yinjie; Li, Xiran; Chen, Fadi

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has an important role in the responses of plants to pathogens due to its ability to induce stomatal closure and interact with salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in the response of plants to a variety of pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that CmWRKY15, a group IIa WRKY family member, was not transcriptionally activated in yeast cells. Subcellular localization experiments in which onion epidermal cells were transiently transfected with CmWRKY15 indicated that CmWRKY15 localized to the nucleus in vivo. The expression of CmWRKY15 could be markedly induced by the presence of Alternaria tenuissima inoculum in chrysanthemum. Furthermore, the disease severity index (DSI) data of CmWRKY15-overexpressing plants indicated that CmWRKY15 overexpression enhanced the susceptibility of chrysanthemum to A. tenuissima infection compared to controls. To illustrate the mechanisms by which CmWRKY15 regulates the response to A. tenuissima inoculation, the expression levels of ABA-responsive and ABA signaling genes, such as ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, RAB18, DREB1A, DREB2A, PYL2, PP2C, RCAR1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, NCED3A, NCED3B, GTG1, AKT1, AKT2, KAT1, KAT2, and KC1were compared between transgenic plants and controls. In summary, our data suggest that CmWRKY15 might facilitate A. tenuissima infection by antagonistically regulating the expression of ABA-responsive genes and genes involved in ABA signaling, either directly or indirectly. PMID:26600125

  1. Probing Radio Source Environments Using 21-cm Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, N.; Salter, C. J.; Saikia, D. J.; Ghosh, T.; Jeyakumar, S.

    2007-10-01

    21-cm absorption measurements towards radio sources can be used to study the properties of neutral atomic gas associated with these sources. Here we present the results of our study to examine the distribution and kinematics of H I properties for compact (i.e. sub-galactic-sized) radio sources, and a new 21-cm absorption detected towards the core of the radio galaxy 3C 452.

  2. S-1 induced secondary acute erythroid leukemia with a chromosome inv(12)(p13;q13).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kensuke; Kitanaka, Akira; Uemura, Makiko; Waki, Fusako; Fukumoto, Tetsuya; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Kubota, Yoshitsugu; Ishida, Toshihiko

    2011-11-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy by S-1 following gastrectomy is considered standard treatment in Japan. Analysis of follow-up data have proved the efficacy of S-1 administration, and that hematological adverse events were relatively rare. Pyrimidine anti-metabolites, including S-1, have shown relatively lower risks for secondary hematological malignancies in comparison to alkylating agents and topoisomerase-II inhibitors. We here report a case of therapy-related leukemia after S-1 administration. A patient who had received S-1as the sole adjuvant chemotherapy was diagnosed with acute erythroid leukemia. To the best of our knowledge, our patient represents the first report of S-1 induced acute leukemia. PMID:22147971

  3. Identification of a novel opioid peptide (Tyr-Val-Pro-Phe-Pro) derived from human alpha S1 casein (alpha S1-casomorphin, and alpha S1-casomorphin amide).

    PubMed Central

    Kampa, M; Loukas, S; Hatzoglou, A; Martin, P; Martin, P M; Castanas, E

    1996-01-01

    A new casomorphin pentapeptide (alpha S1-casomorphin) has been isolated from the sequence of human alpha S1-casein [alpha S1-casein-(158-162)], with the sequence Tyr-Val-Pro-Phe-Pro. This peptide was found to bind with high affinity to all three subtypes of the kappa-opioid receptor (kappa 1-kappa 2). When amidated at the C-terminus, alpha S1-casomorphin amide binds to the delta- and kappa 3-opioid sites. Both alpha S1-casomorphin and its amide inhibit in a dose-dependent and reversible manner the proliferation of T47D human breast cancer cells. This anti-proliferative activity was greater for alpha S1-casomorphin, which was the most potent opioid in inhibiting T47D cell proliferation. In T47D breast cancer cells, other casomorphins have been found to bind to somatostatin receptors in addition to opioid sites. In contrast, alpha S1-casomorphin and its amide do not interact with somatostatin receptors in our system. PMID:8920997

  4. Genetic characterization of three qnrS1-harbouring multidrug-resistance plasmids and qnrS1-containing transposons circulating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Le, Vien; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Campbell, James I.; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Schultsz, Constance; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) refers to a family of closely related genes that confer decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMQR genes are generally associated with integrons and/or plasmids that carry additional antimicrobial resistance genes active against a range of antimicrobials. In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we have previously shown a high frequency of PMQR genes within commensal Enterobacteriaceae. However, there are limited available sequence data detailing the genetic context in which the PMQR genes reside, and a lack of understanding of how these genes spread across the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic background facilitating the spread and maintenance of qnrS1, the dominant PMQR gene circulating in HCMC. We sequenced three qnrS1-carrying plasmids in their entirety to understand the genetic context of these qnrS1-embedded plasmids and also the association of qnrS1-mediated quinolone resistance with other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Annotation of the three qnrS1-containing plasmids revealed a qnrS1-containing transposon with a closely related structure. We screened 112 qnrS1-positive commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and in a hospital in HCMC to detect the common transposon structure. We found the same transposon structure to be present in 71.4 % (45/63) of qnrS1-positive hospital isolates and in 36.7 % (18/49) of qnrS1-positive isolates from the community. The resulting sequence analysis of the qnrS1 environment suggested that qnrS1 genes are widely distributed and are mobilized on elements with a common genetic background. Our data add additional insight into mechanisms that facilitate resistance to multiple antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. PMID:26272054

  5. Genetic characterization of three qnrS1-harbouring multidrug-resistance plasmids and qnrS1-containing transposons circulating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Vien; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Campbell, James I; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Schultsz, Constance; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R; Baker, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) refers to a family of closely related genes that confer decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMQR genes are generally associated with integrons and/or plasmids that carry additional antimicrobial resistance genes active against a range of antimicrobials. In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we have previously shown a high frequency of PMQR genes within commensal Enterobacteriaceae. However, there are limited available sequence data detailing the genetic context in which the PMQR genes reside, and a lack of understanding of how these genes spread across the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic background facilitating the spread and maintenance of qnrS1, the dominant PMQR gene circulating in HCMC. We sequenced three qnrS1-carrying plasmids in their entirety to understand the genetic context of these qnrS1-embedded plasmids and also the association of qnrS1-mediated quinolone resistance with other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Annotation of the three qnrS1-containing plasmids revealed a qnrS1-containing transposon with a closely related structure. We screened 112 qnrS1-positive commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and in a hospital in HCMC to detect the common transposon structure. We found the same transposon structure to be present in 71.4?% (45/63) of qnrS1-positive hospital isolates and in 36.7?% (18/49) of qnrS1-positive isolates from the community. The resulting sequence analysis of the qnrS1 environment suggested that qnrS1 genes are widely distributed and are mobilized on elements with a common genetic background. Our data add additional insight into mechanisms that facilitate resistance to multiple antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. PMID:26272054

  6. Cardiomyocyte S1P1 Receptormediated Extracellular Signalrelated Kinase Signaling and Desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Rong; Hoover, Holly E.; Zhang, Jianqing; Honbo, Norman; Alano, Conrad C.; Karliner, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the ability of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) to desensitize extracellular signalrelated kinase (ERK), a mitogen-activated protein kinase linked to antiapoptotic responses in the heart. In isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes, S1P (10 nM5 ?M) induced ERK phosphorylation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. S1P stimulation of ERK was completely inhibited by an S1P1/3 subtype receptor antagonist (VPC23019), by a Gi protein inhibitor (pertussis toxin) and by a mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase inhibitor (PD98059). A selective S1P3 receptor antagonist (CAY10444) had no effect on S1P-induced ERK activation. The selective S1P1 agonist SEW2871 also induced ERK phosphorylation. Activation of ERK by restimulation with 100 nM S1P was suppressed after 1 hour of preincubation with 100 nM S1P but recovered fully the next day, suggesting receptor recycling. Similar results were obtained in protein kinase C?-null cardiomyocytes. Treatment with the nonselective S1P receptor agonist FTY720 for 1 hour also reduced phospho-ERK expression in response to subsequent S1P stimulation. In contrast to S1P, some desensitization to FTY720 persisted after overnight exposure. Cell death induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation was reduced by pretreatment with exogenous S1P. This enhanced survival was abrogated by pretreatment with PD98059, VPC23019, or pertussis toxin. Thus, exogenous S1P induces rapid and reversible S1P1-mediated ERK phosphorylation. S1P-induced adult mouse cardiomyocyte survival requires ERK activation mediated via an S1P1Gi pathway. PMID:19433984

  7. Radar Imaging of Mercury's North and South Poles at 3.5 cm Wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harcke, L. J.; Zebker, H. A.; Jurgens, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar has been used to image the north and south poles of Mercury during the inferior conjunctions of February 2001 and June 2001. The sub-Earth latitude was -10.7 degrees in February during observations of the southern hemisphere, and +8.4 degrees in June during observations of the northern hemisphere. These excellent viewing angles provided an opportunity to resolve the radar bright material in polar craters at 6 km range resolution. Fine-scale (1.5 km) resolution images of the northern craters have previously been obtained at 13 cm wavelengths during the July 1999 inferior conjunction. However, due to geometric constraints, the Arecibo radar cannot observe the southern polar region of Mercury until 2004. Our new Goldstone 6 km data are a factor of two higher resolution than Arecibo data collected in March 1992 at 15 km range resolution, and will remain the most highly resolved images of the south polar region for the next few years. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Plasma distribution of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) observed using the radio scintillation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iju, Tomoya; Abe, Shinsuke; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Fujiki, Ken'ichi

    2015-05-01

    We report the electron density in a plasma tail of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) derived from interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations during November 1-28, 2013. Comet ISON showed a well-developed plasma tail (longer than 2.98 ×107 km) before its perihelion passage on November 28. We identified a radio source whose line-of-sight approached the ISON's plasma tail in the above period and obtained its IPS data using the Solar Wind Imaging Facility at 327 MHz. We used the Heliospheric Imager onboard the Solar-Terrestrial Relation Observatory to distinguish between the cometary tail and solar eruption origins of their enhanced scintillation. From our examinations, we confirmed three IPS enhancements of a radio source 1148-00 on November 13, 16, and 17, which could be attributed to the disturbance in the cometary tail. Power spectra of 1148-00 had the steeper slope than normal ones during its occultation by the plasma tail. We estimated the electron density in the ISON's plasma tail and found 84 cm-3 around the tail axis at a distance of 3.74 ×107 km from the cometary nucleus and an unexpected variation of the electron density in the vicinity of the tail boundary.

  9. Mercury's North & South Polar Regions: Goldstone Radar Imaging at 3.5-cm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade, M. A.; Harcke, L. J.; Jurgens, R. F.; Zebker, H. A.

    2001-11-01

    The north and south polar regions of Mercury have been imaged using the Goldstone Solar System Radar during the inferior conjunctions of February 2001 and June 2001. The sub-Earth latitude was -10.7 deg. (South) in February during observations of the southern hemisphere, and +8.4 deg.(North) in June during observations of the northern hemisphere. These excellent viewing angles provided an opportunity to resolve the radar bright material in polar craters at 6-km range resolution. Fine-scale (1.5 km) resolution images of the northern craters have previously been obtained at 13-cm wavelength during 1999 and 2000 inferior conjunctions (Harmon et al., 2001). However, due to Mercury's south declination when the subradar point is most southerly, the Arecibo radar cannot observe the southern polar region of Mercury until 2004. Our new Goldstone 6-km resolution data are a factor of two higher resolution than the Arecibo data obtained in March 1992 at 15 km range resolution (Harmon et al., 1994) and will remain the most highly resolved images of the south polar region for the next few years. The long-code method of delay-Doppler mapping (Harmon et al., 1992) was used to prevent aliasing of the radar return, since Mercury is nearly 5 times overspread at 3.5-cm. The north polar craters exhibit brightest reflections from material interior to their southern rims (Harmon et al., 2001; Slade et al., 2000), which are the areas permanently in shadow from the Sun. The south polar scene is dominated by the reflection from Chao Meng-Fu (crater). Similar radar-bright echoes and polarization inversion (SC stronger than OC) has been noted for the Galilean satellites since the mid 1970's (Campbell et al., 1978), and is usually explained using models of coherent backscatter from icy media (Hapke, 1990).

  10. Chondrules in the Murray CM2 meteorite and compositional differences between CM-CO and ordinary chondrite chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Wasson, J. T.

    1986-02-01

    Thirteen of the least aqueously altered chondrules in Murray (CM2) were analyzed for bulk compositions, by means of a broad beam electron microprobe, to explore the compositional differences between the CM-CO, and the ordinary chondrite OC chondrules. The CO chondrules are richer in refractory lithophiles and poorer in Cr, Mn, and volatile lithophiles than the OC chondrules; much lower refractory lithophile abundances in CM chondrules resulted from aqueous alteration. Evidence is found for two important lithophile precursor components of CM-CO chondrite chondrules: (1) pyroxene- and refractory-rich, FeO-poor, and (2) olivine-rich, refractoryand FeO-poor. It is suggested that the pyroxene- and refractory-rich, FeO-poor lithophile precursor component has formed by an incomplete evaporation of presolar silicates that brought these materials into the enstatite stability field.

  11. Supersonic jet fluorescence and gas phase absorption spectra of indan: Puckering potential in S0 and S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Karim H.; Hollas, J. Michael

    1991-05-01

    Single vibronic level (dispersed) fluorescence spectra of indan in a supersonic jet have been obtained and interpreted. The observation of transitions in the puckering vibration ?27 of the five-membered ring with ? v27 even and odd confirm that the equilibrium conformation in S0 is puckered in a Cs configuration. The barrier to planarity of the carbon skeleton is 1979 cm -1. These spectra force a reinterpretation of some bands in the gas phase electronic absorption spectrum in which the 27 01 band is now seen to be prominent. The observation of this and other 27 vv+1 bands, which show splittings due to tunneling through the puckering barrier, indicate a lower barrier of about 1800 cm -1 in S1 but the v' 27 = 0, 1, and 2 levels cannot be fitted very well to a quadratic-quartic potential. A probable reason for this is that the vibrational motion involved in ?27 in S1 is no longer a purely puckering motion.

  12. CM Carbonaceous Chondrite Lithologies and Their Space Exposure Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Gregory, Timothy; Takenouchi, Atsushi; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Trieman, Alan; Berger, Eve; Le, Loan; Fagan, Amy; Velbel, Michael; Imae, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The CMs are the most commonly falling C chondrites, and therefore may be a major component of C-class asteroids, the targets of several current and future space missions. Previous work [1] has concluded that CM chondrites fall into at least four distinct cosmic ray space exposure (CRE) age groups (0.1 million years, 0.2 million years, 0.6 million years and greater than 2.0 million years), an unusually large number, but the meaning of these groupings is unclear. It is possible that these meteorites came from different parent bodies which broke up at different times, or instead came from the same parent body which underwent multiple break-up events, or a combination of these scenarios, or something else entirely. The objective of this study is to investigate the diversity of lithologies which make up CM chondrites, in order to determine whether the different exposure ages correspond to specific, different CM lithologies, which permit us to constrain the history of the CM parent body(ies). We have already reported significant petrographic differences among CM chondrites [2-4]. We report here our new results.

  13. HDL-S1P: cardiovascular functions, disease-associated alterations, and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Levkau, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid contained in High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and has drawn considerable attention in the lipoprotein field as numerous studies have demonstrated its contribution to several functions inherent to HDL. Some of them are partly and some entirely due to the S1P contained in HDL (HDL-S1P). Despite the presence of over 1000 different lipids in HDL, S1P stands out as it possesses its own cell surface receptors through which it exercises key physiological functions. Most of the S1P in human plasma is associated with HDL, and the amount of HDL-S1P influences the quality and quantity of HDL-dependent functions. The main binding partner of S1P in HDL is apolipoprotein M but others may also exist particularly under conditions of acute S1P elevations. HDL not only exercise functions through their S1P content but have also an impact on genuine S1P signaling by influencing S1P bioactivity and receptor presentation. HDL-S1P content is altered in human diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Low HDL-S1P has also been linked to impaired HDL functions associated with these disorders. Although the pathophysiological and molecular reasons for such disease-associated shifts in HDL-S1P are little understood, there have been successful approaches to circumvent their adverse implications by pharmacologically increasing HDL-S1P as means to improve HDL function. This mini-review will cover the current understanding of the contribution of HDL-S1P to physiological HDL function, its alteration in disease and ways for its restoration to correct HDL dysfunction. PMID:26539121

  14. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with common paymaster. 31.3121(s)-1 Section 31.3121(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(s)-1 Concurrent employment by related corporations with... this section. Section 3121(s) and this section apply only to remuneration disbursed in the form...

  15. Magnetic resonance force microscopy with a single spin S>1/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Thomas; Tsifrinovich, Vladimir I.

    2009-11-01

    We studied theoretically detection of a single spin S>1/2 using magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) and taking into account anisotropy. We have shown that the MRFM signal for a spin S>1/2 is the same as for spin S=1/2 and obtained the analytical estimate for the half-width of the signal.

  16. A model for sunspot associated emission at 6 cm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alissandrakis, C. E.; Kundu, M. R.; Lantos, P.

    1980-01-01

    Two-dimensional maps of total intensity and circular polarization of a sunspot region at 6 cm have been calculated using a simple model for the chromosphere-corona transition region and observations of the longitudinal component of the photospheric magnetic field. The calculations are in good agreement with the high resolution observations of the same sunspot region at 6 cm, obtained with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. It is shown that the 6 cm radiation is predominantly due to gyroresonance absorption process at the second and third harmonics of the gyrofrequency (H = 900-600 G). Estimates of the conductive flux and the electron density in the transition region above the sunspot are also given.

  17. Differentiating CDM and baryon isocurvature models with 21 cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: sekiguti@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2011-10-01

    We discuss how one can discriminate models with cold dark matter (CDM) and baryon isocurvature fluctuations. Although current observations such as cosmic microwave background (CMB) can severely constrain the fraction of such isocurvature modes in the total density fluctuations, CMB cannot differentiate CDM and baryon ones by the shapes of their power spectra. However, the evolution of CDM and baryon density fluctuations are different for each model, thus it would be possible to discriminate those isocurvature modes by extracting information on the fluctuations of CDM/baryon itself. We discuss that observations of 21 cm fluctuations can in principle differentiate these modes and demonstrate to what extent we can distinguish them with future 21 cm surveys. We show that, when the isocurvature mode has a large blue-tilted initial spectrum, 21 cm surveys can clearly probe the difference.

  18. VLA observations of Uranus at 1. 3-20 cm

    SciTech Connect

    De Pater, I.; Gulkis, S.

    1988-08-01

    Observations of Uranus, obtained with resolution 0.5-1.2 arcsec at wavelengths 1.3, 2, 6, and 20 cm using the A and B configurations of the VLA in June-July 1982, October 1983, and February 1984, are reported. The disk-averaged brightness temperatures (DABTs) are determined by model fitting, and the results are presented in extensive graphs and contour maps and characterized in detail. Findings discussed include: (1) an overall spectrum which is relatively flat above 6 cm, (2) 1.3-6-cm brightness which is concentrated nearer to the pole than to the subsolar point, and (3) small changes in DABT from 1982 to 1983/1984 (consistent with an explanation based on a pole-equator temperature gradient). 16 references.

  19. Behavior of an inversion-based precipitation retrieval algorithm with high-resolution AMPR measurements including a low-frequency 10.7-GHz channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. A.; Xiang, X.; Mugnai, A.; Hood, R. E.; Spencer, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    A microwave-based, profile-type precipitation retrieval algorithm has been used to analyze high-resolution passsive microwave measurements over an ocean background, obtained by the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) flown on a NASA ER-2 aircraft. The analysis is designed to first determine the improvements that can be gained by adding brightness temperature information from the AMPR low-frequency channel (10.7 GHz) to a multispectral retrieval algorithm nominally run with satellite information at 19, 37, and 85 GHz. The impact of spatial resolution degradation of the high-resolution brightness temperature information on the retrieved rain/cloud liquid water contents and ice water contents is then quantified in order to assess the possible biases inherent to satellite-based retrieval. Careful inspection of the high-resolution aircraft dataset reveals five distinctive brightness temperature features associated with cloud structure and scattering effects that are not generally detectable in current passive microwave satellite measurements. Results suggest that the inclusion of 10.7-GHz information overcomes two basic problems associated with three-channel retrieval. Intercomparisons of retrievals carried out at high-resolution and then averaged to a characteristic satellite scale to the corresponding retrievals in which the brightness temperatures are first convolved down to the satellite scale suggest that with the addition of the 10.7-GHz channel, the rain liquid water contents will not be negatively impacted by special resolution degradation. That is not the case with the ice water contents as they appear ti be quite sensitive to the imposed scale, the implication being that as spatial resolution is reduced, ice water contents will become increasingly underestimated.

  20. The Icy Galilean Satellites: 70 CM Wavelength Radar Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, G. J.; Campbell, D. B.; Ostro, S. J.

    1996-03-01

    The radar properties of the icy Galilean satellites at cm wavelengths are dramatically different from those of most inner solar system objects. For the terrestrial planets, the Moon, and most smaller objects, specific radar cross sections are typically on the order of 0.1 while circular polarization ratios, defined to be the ratio of the echo power received in the same circular sense (SC) as transmitted to that received in the opposite sense (OC), range from ~0.1 to 0.4. At wavelengths of 3.5cm and 13cm, total radar albedos for Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, are ~2.5, ~1.5, and ~0.7 respectively, and circular polarization ratios lie in the range ~1.2-1.5. In addition, reflections from terrestrial planets include specular reflection from near the sub-radar point. No such specular return is seen in the echoes from the icy Galilean satellites; the scattering closely follows a diffuse cos^n theta law at all incident angles, with n ~1.6. These measurements show no significant variation with wavelength from 3.5cm to 13cm. Here we report on the reduction of measurements made at a much longer wavelength, 70cm, in 1988 with the Arecibo telescope. Observations were made on 7 days, one day on Europa and three each on Ganymede and Callisto, with ~1 hour of integration time on each day. Single-day signal-to-noise ratios were very small and all three days were averaged to obtain significant detections of Ganymede and Callisto. Even so, Callisto was not detected in the OC channel. Europa was not detected in either circular polarization on the single day in which it was observed. Good detections of Ganymede were obtained in both channels.

  1. Line Assignments and Position Measurements in Several Weak CO2 Bands Between 4590/cm and 7930/cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, L. P.; Kshirsagar, R. J.; Freedman, R. C.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Wattson, R. B.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A substantial set of CO2 spectra from 4500 to 12000/cm has been obtained at Ames with 1500 m path length using a Bomem DA8 FTS. The signal/noise was improved compared to prior spectra obtained in this laboratory by including a filter wheel limiting the band-pass of each spectrum to several hundred per cm. We have measured positions of lines in several weak bands not previously resolved in laboratory spectra. Using our positions and assignments of lines of the Qbranch of the 31103-00001 vibrational band at 4591/cm, we have redetermined the rotational constants for the 31103f levels. Q-branch lines of this band were previously observed, but misassigned, in Venus spectra by Mandin. The current HITRAN values of the rotational constants for this level are incorrect due to the Q-branch misassignments. Our prior measurements of the 21122-00001 vibrational band at 7901/cm were limited to Q-and R-branch lines; with the improved signal/noise of these new spectra we have now measured lines in the weaker P branch. The 21122 (Gv = 790148/cm) levels are known to be perturbed by the 32211 (G(sub v) = 789757/cm) levels; new DND calculations predict that high-J lines of the forbidden 32211-00001 vibrational band 'borrow' intensity from the corresponding transitions of the 21122-00001 band. We have identified such Q- and R-branch transitions of the 32211-00001 band from 26 < J" < 44, based on our position measurements of lines in the 32211-02201 band at 6562/cm.

  2. Inert gas test of two 12-cm magnetostatic thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    Comparative performance tests were conducted with 12 cm line and ring magnetic cusp thrusters. Shell anode and magnetoelectrostatic containment boundary anode configurations were evaluated with each magnet array. The best performance was achieved with the 12-cm ring cusp-shell anode configuration. Argon operation of this configuration produced 65-81 percent mass utilization efficiency at 170-208 watts/single-charged-equivalent (SCE) ampere beam. Xenon test results showed 75-95 percent utilization at 162-188 watts/SCE ampere beam.

  3. The 21-cm Line as a Probe of Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlanetto, Steven R.

    One of the most exciting probes of the early phases of structure formation and reionization is the "spin-flip" line of neutral hydrogen, with a rest wavelength of 21 cm. This chapter introduces the physics of this transition and the astrophysical parameters upon which it depends, including discussions of the radiation fields that permeate the intergalactic medium that fix the brightness of this transition. We describe the critical points in the evolution of the 21-cm background and focus on the sky-averaged brightness and the power spectrum as representative measurements. Finally, we include a discussion of observations and the challenges they face in the near future.

  4. Evidence for live 247Cm in the early solar system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatsumoto, M.; Shimamura, T.

    1980-01-01

    Variations of the 238U/235U ratio in the Allende meteorite, ranging from -35% to + 19%, are interpreted as evidence of live 247Cm in the early Solar System. The amounts of these and other r-products in the Solar System indicate values of (9,000??3,000) Myr for the age of the Galaxy and ??? 8 Myr for the time between the end of nucleosynthesis and the formation of meteoritic grains. Three possible explanations are presented for the different values of the latter time period which are indicated by the decay products of 247Cm, 26Al, 244Pu and 129I. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  5. Evidence for live Cm-247 in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatsumoto, M.; Shimamura, T.

    1980-01-01

    Variations of the U-238/U-235 ratio in the Allende meteorite, ranging from -35% to +19% are interpreted as evidence of live Cm-247 in the early solar system. The amounts of these and other r-products in the solar system indicate values of (9000 + or - 3000) million years for the age of the Galaxy and approximately 8 million years for the time between the end of nucleosynthesis and the formation of meteoritic grains. Three possible explanations are presented for the different values of the latter time period which are indicated by the decay of products of Cm-247, Al-27, Pu-244, and I-129.

  6. 5200 cycle of an 8-cm diameter Hg ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.; Wintucky, E. G.

    1978-01-01

    An accelerated cycle test was conducted in which an 8-cm Engineering Model Thruster (EMT) prototype successfully completed 5200 on-off cycles and a total of more than 1300 hours of thruster operation at a 4.5 mN thrust level. Cathode tip heater powers required for starting and keeper voltages remained well within acceptable limits. The discharge chamber utilization and electrical efficiency were nearly constant over the duration of the test. It is concluded that on-off cyclic operation by itself does not appreciably degrade starting capability or performance of the 8-cm EMT.

  7. 21 cm radiation: A new probe of fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Rishi; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2010-11-01

    New low frequency radio telescopes currently being built open up the possibility of observing the 21 cm radiation from redshifts 200 > z > 30, also known as the dark ages, see Furlanetto, Oh, & Briggs(2006) for a review. At these high redshifts, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation is absorbed by neutral hydrogen at its 21 cm hyperfine transition. This redshifted 21 cm signal thus carries information about the state of the early Universe and can be used to test fundamental physics. The 21 cm radiation probes a volume of the early Universe on kpc scales in contrast with CMB which probes a surface (of some finite thickness) on Mpc scales. Thus there is many orders of more information available, in principle, from the 21 cm observations of dark ages. We have studied the constraints these observations can put on the variation of fundamental constants (Khatri & Wandelt(2007)). Since the 21 cm signal depends on atomic physics it is very sensitive to the variations in the fine structure constant and can place constraints comparable to or better than the other astrophysical experiments (??/?= < 10-5) as shown in Figure 1. Making such observations will require radio telescopes of collecting area 10 - 106 km2 compared to ~ 1 km2 of current telescopes, for example LOFAR. We should also expect similar sensitivity to the electron to proton mass ratio. One of the challenges in observing this 21 cm cosmological signal is the presence of the synchrotron foregrounds which is many orders of magnitude larger than the cosmological signal but the two can be separated because of their different statistical nature (Zaldarriaga, Furlanetto, & Hernquist(2004)). Terrestrial EM interference from radio/TV etc. and Earth's ionosphere poses problems for telescopes on ground which may be solved by going to the Moon and there are proposals for doing so, one of which is the Dark Ages Lunar Interferometer (DALI). In conclusion 21 cm cosmology promises a large wealth of data and provides the only way to observe the redshift range between recombination and reionization.

  8. Precise measurements of primordial power spectrum with 21 cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: oyamayo@post.kek.jp E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the issue of how precisely we can measure the primordial power spectrum by using future observations of 21 cm fluctuations and cosmic microwave background (CMB). For this purpose, we investigate projected constraints on the quantities characterizing primordial power spectrum: the spectral index n{sub s}, its running ?{sub s} and even its higher order running ?{sub s}. We show that future 21 cm observations in combinations with CMB would accurately measure above mentioned observables of primordial power spectrum. We also discuss its implications to some explicit inflationary models.

  9. Cross section for the subbarrier fission of {sup 244}Cm

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, A. A.; Bergman, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Koptelov, E. A.; Samylin, B. F.; Svirin, M. I.; Trufanov, A. M.; Fursov, B. I.; Shorin, V. S.

    2010-09-15

    The cross section for {sup 244}Cm fission induced by neutrons of energy in the range between 0.07 eV and 20 keV was measured by using the lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS-100) of the Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). The parameters of the resonance areas were determined for the lowest eight s-wave neutron resonances, and the respective fission widths were evaluated. Also, the parameters of the intermediate structure in the cross section for the subbarrier fission of {sup 244}Cm nuclei were evaluated. The results were compared with available data and recommendations based on evaluations.

  10. Gas-Phase Cytosine and Cytosine-N1-Derivatives Have 0.1-1 ns Lifetimes Near the S1 State Minimum.

    PubMed

    Blaser, Susan; Trachsel, Maria A; Lobsiger, Simon; Wiedmer, Timo; Frey, Hans-Martin; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    Ultraviolet radiative damage to DNA is inefficient because of the ultrafast S1 ? S0 internal conversion of its nucleobases. Using picosecond pump-ionization delay measurements, we find that the S1((1)??*) state vibrationless lifetime of gas-phase keto-amino cytosine (Cyt) is ? = 730 ps or ?700 times longer than that measured by femtosecond pump-probe ionization at higher vibrational excess energy, Eexc. N1-Alkylation increases the S1 lifetime up to ? = 1030 ps for N1-ethyl-Cyt but decreases it to 100 ps for N1-isopropyl-Cyt. Increasing the vibrational energy to Eexc = 300-550 cm(-1) decreases the lifetimes to 20-30 ps. The nonradiative dynamics of S1 cytosine is not solely a property of the amino-pyrimidinone chromophore but is strongly influenced by the N1-substituent. Correlated excited-state calculations predict that the gap between the S2((1)nO?*) and S1((1)??*) states decreases along the series of N1-derivatives, thereby influencing the S1 state lifetime. PMID:26863095

  11. A randomized phase II study of S-1 plus oral leucovorin versus S-1 monotherapy in patients with gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, M.; Okusaka, T.; Omuro, Y.; Isayama, H.; Fukutomi, A.; Ikeda, M.; Mizuno, N.; Fukuzawa, K.; Furukawa, M.; Iguchi, H.; Sugimori, K.; Furuse, J.; Shimada, K.; Ioka, T.; Nakamori, S.; Baba, H.; Komatsu, Y.; Takeuchi, M.; Hyodo, I.; Boku, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of adding oral leucovorin (LV) to S-1 when compared with S-1 monotherapy in patients with gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic cancer (PC). Patients and methods Gemcitabine-refractory PC patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive S-1 at 40, 50, or 60 mg according to body surface area plus LV 25 mg, both given orally twice daily for 1 week, repeated every 2 weeks (SL group), or S-1 monotherapy at the same dose as the SL group for 4 weeks, repeated every 6 weeks (S-1 group). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Results Among 142 patients enrolled, 140 were eligible for efficacy assessment (SL: n = 69 and S-1: n = 71). PFS was significantly longer in the SL group than in the S-1 group [median PFS, 3.8 versus 2.7 months; hazard ratio (HR), 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.370.85; P = 0.003]). The disease control rate was significantly higher in the SL group than in the S-1 group (91% versus 72%; P = 0.004). Overall survival (OS) was similar in both groups (median OS, 6.3 versus 6.1 months; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.541.22; P = 0.463). After adjusting for patient background factors in a multivariate analysis, OS tended to be better in the SL group (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.471.07; P = 0.099). Both treatments were well tolerated, although gastrointestinal toxicities were slightly more severe in the SL group. Conclusion The addition of LV to S-1 significantly improved PFS in patients with gemcitabine-refractory advanced PC, and a phase III trial has been initiated in a similar setting. Clinical trials number Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center: JapicCTI-111554. PMID:26681680

  12. Sensitive 21cm Observations of Neutral Hydrogen in the Local Group near M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Spencer A.; Lockman, Felix J.; Pisano, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Very sensitive 21 cm H i measurements have been made at several locations around the Local Group galaxy M31 using the Green Bank Telescope at an angular resolution of 9.?1, with a 5? detection level of NH i = 3.9 1017 cm-2 for a 30 km s-1 line. Most of the H i in a 12 square-degree area almost equidistant between M31 and M33 is contained in nine discrete clouds that have a typical size of a few kpc and a H i mass of 105M?. Their velocities in the Local Group Standard of Rest lie between -100 and +40 km s-1, comparable to the systemic velocities of M31 and M33. The clouds appear to be isolated kinematically and spatially from each other. The total H i mass of all nine clouds is 1.4 106M? for an adopted distance of 800 kpc, with perhaps another 0.2 106M? in smaller clouds or more diffuse emission. The H i mass of each cloud is typically three orders of magnitude less than the dynamical (virial) mass needed to bind the cloud gravitationally. Although they have the size and H i mass of dwarf galaxies, the clouds are unlikely to be part of the satellite system of the Local Group, as they lack stars. To the north of M31, sensitive H i measurements on a coarse grid find emission that may be associated with an extension of the M31 high-velocity cloud (HVC) population to projected distances of 100 kpc. An extension of the M31 HVC population at a similar distance to the southeast, toward M33, is not observed.

  13. Search for Cm-248 in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavielle, B.; Marti, K.; Pellas, P.; Perron, C.

    1992-01-01

    Possible evidence for the presence of Cm-248 in the early solar system was reported from fission gas studies (Rao and Gopalan, 1973) and recently from studies of very high nuclear track densities (not less than 5 x 10 exp 8/sq cm) in the merrillite of the H4 chondrite Forest Vale (F.V.) (Pellas et al., 1987). We report here an analysis of the isotopic abundances of xenon in F.V. phosphates and results of track studies in phosphate/pyroxene contacts. The fission xenon isotopic signature clearly identifies Pu-244 as the extinct progenitor. We calculate an upper limit Cm-248/Pu-244 to be less than 0.0015 at the beginning of Xe retention in F.V. phosphates. This corresponds to an upper limit of the ratio Cm-248/U-235 of not greater than 5 x 10 exp -5 further constraining the evidence for any late addition of freshly synthesized actinide elements just prior to solar system formation. The fission track density observed after annealing the phosphates at 290C (1 hr, which essentially erases spallation recoil tracks) is also in agreement with the Pu-244 abundance inferred from fission Xe. The spallation recoil tracks produced during the 76 Ma cosmic-ray exposure account for the very high track density in merrillites.

  14. Adaptation of California Measure of Mental Motivation-CM3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Hasan Fehmi; Demirtasli, Nükhet Çikrikçi

    2015-01-01

    Education without doubt, plays a vital role for individuals to gain the essential personal traits of the 21st century, also known as "knowledge age". One of the most important skills among these fundamental qualities which the individuals should be equipped with is critical thinking. California Measure of Mental Motivation-CM3 was…

  15. Electronic and magnetic properties of Am and Cm

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, N.

    1985-02-01

    A review of the present status of the analyses of the optical spectra of Am and Cm in various oxidation states is given. From these analyses, the magnetic properties of the ground states of these ions can be determined. These predicted values are compared with the various magnetic measurements available.

  16. Selection between foreground models for global 21-cm experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harker, Geraint J. A.

    2015-04-01

    The precise form of the foregrounds for sky-averaged measurements of the 21-cm line during and before the epoch of reionization is unknown. We suggest that the level of complexity in the foreground models used to fit global 21-cm data should be driven by the data, under a Bayesian model selection methodology. A first test of this approach is carried out by applying nested sampling to simplified models of global 21-cm data to compute the Bayesian evidence for the models. If the foregrounds are assumed to be polynomials of order n in log-log space, we can infer the necessity to use n = 4 rather than n = 3 with <2 h of integration with limited frequency coverage, for reasonable values of the n = 4 coefficient. Using a higher order polynomial does not necessarily prevent a significant detection of the 21-cm signal. Even for n = 8, we can obtain very strong evidence distinguishing a reasonable model for the signal from a null model with 128 h of integration. More subtle features of the signal may, however, be lost if the foregrounds are this complex. This is demonstrated using a simpler model for the signal that only includes absorption. The results highlight some pitfalls in trying to quantify the significance of a detection from errors on the parameters of the signal alone.

  17. Retrofit and acceptance test of 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Six 30 cm mercury thrusters were modified to the J-series design and evaluated using standardized test procedures. The thruster performance meets the design objectives (lifetime objective requires verification), and documentation (drawings, etc.) for the design is completed and upgraded. The retrofit modifications are described and the test data for the modifications are presented and discussed.

  18. S1P lyase in skeletal muscle regeneration and satellite cell activation: Exposing the hidden lyase?

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Julie D.; de la Garza-Rodea, Anabel S.

    2013-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid whose actions are essential for many physiological processes including angiogenesis, lymphocyte trafficking and development. In addition, S1P serves asamuscle trophic factor that enables efficient muscle regeneration. This is due in part to S1P's ability to activate quiescent muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SCs) that are needed for muscle repair. However, the molecular mechanism by which S1P activates SCs has not been well understood. Further, strategies for harnessing S1P signaling to recruit SCs for therapeutic benefit have been lacking. S1P is irreversibly catabolized by S1P lyase (SPL), a highly conserved enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of S1P at carbon bond C23, resulting in formation of hexadecenal and ethanolamine-phosphate. SPL enhances apoptosis through substrate- and product-dependent events, thereby regulating cellular responses to chemotherapy, radiation and ischemia. SPL is undetectable in resting murine skeletal muscle. However, we recently found that SPL is dynamically upregulated in skeletal muscle after injury. SPL upregulation occurred in the context of a tightly orchestrated genetic program that resulted in a transient S1P signal in response to muscle injury. S1P activated quiescent SCs via a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1P2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent pathway, thereby facilitating skeletal muscle regeneration. Mdx mice, which serve as a model for muscular dystrophy (MD), exhibited skeletal muscle SPL upregulation and S1P deficiency. Pharmacological SPL inhibition raised skeletal muscle S1P levels, enhanced SC recruitment and improved mdx skeletal muscle regeneration. These findings reveal how S1P can activate SCs and indicate that SPL suppression may provide a therapeutic strategy for myopathies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in Lysophospholipid Research. PMID:22750505

  19. Jet-cooled fluorescence spectra and carbonyl wagging potential energy functions of tetrahydrofuran-3-one and tetrahydrothiophen-3-one in their S 1(n,??) excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laane, Jaan; Sagear, Paul A.; Lee, S. N.

    1997-06-01

    The jet-cooled fluorescence excitation spectra of states of tetrahydrofuran-3-one and tetrahydrothiophen-3-one have been recorded and analyzed. The carbonyl inversion bands, which arise from double-minimum potential energy functions in the excited states, were fit with functions of the form V = ax4 - bx2 or V = cx2 + dexp(- fx2). The furanone was found to have an inversion barrier in the S 1(n,??) state of 1152 cm -1 (13.8 kJ mol -1) while the thiophenone has a barrier of 659 cm -1 (7.9 kJ mol -1). The two molecules have their potential energy minima for the S 1(n,??) state at carbonyl wagging angles of 26 and 20, respectively. The results here, together with previous data for several other cyclic ketones, demonstrate that the inversion barrier increases with the ring angle strain at the ketone carbon atom.

  20. Discovery of Tetrahydropyrazolopyridine as Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 3 (S1P3)-Sparing S1P1 Agonists Active at Low Oral Doses.

    PubMed

    Demont, Emmanuel H; Bailey, James M; Bit, Rino A; Brown, Jack A; Campbell, Colin A; Deeks, Nigel; Dowell, Simon J; Eldred, Colin; Gaskin, Pam; Gray, James R J; Haynes, Andrea; Hirst, David J; Holmes, Duncan S; Kumar, Umesh; Morse, Mary A; Osborne, Greg J; Renaux, Jessica F; Seal, Gail A L; Smethurst, Chris A; Taylor, Simon; Watson, Robert; Willis, Robert; Witherington, Jason

    2016-02-11

    FTY720 is the first oral small molecule approved for the treatment of people suffering from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. It is a potent agonist of the S1P1 receptor, but its lack of selectivity against the S1P3 receptor has been linked to most of the cardiovascular side effects observed in the clinic. These findings have triggered intensive efforts toward the identification of a second generation of S1P3-sparing S1P1 agonists. We have recently disclosed a series of orally active tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ) compounds matching these criteria. In this paper we describe how we defined and implemented a strategy aiming at the discovery of selective structurally distinct follow-up agonists. This effort culminated with the identification of a series of orally active tetrahydropyrazolopyridines. PMID:26751273

  1. The Paris meteorite, the least altered CM chondrite so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewins, Roger H.; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Zanda, Brigitte; Leroux, Hugues; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Humayun, Munir; Göpel, Christa; Greenwood, Richard C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Pont, Sylvain; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Cournède, Cécile; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Rochette, Pierre; Kuga, Maïa; Marrocchi, Yves; Marty, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The Paris chondrite provides an excellent opportunity to study CM chondrules and refractory inclusions in a more pristine state than currently possible from other CMs, and to investigate the earliest stages of aqueous alteration captured within a single CM bulk composition. It was found in the effects of a former colonial mining engineer and may have been an observed fall. The texture, mineralogy, petrography, magnetic properties and chemical and isotopic compositions are consistent with classification as a CM2 chondrite. There are ∼45 vol.% high-temperature components mainly Type I chondrules (with olivine mostly Fa0-2, mean Fa0.9) with granular textures because of low mesostasis abundances. Type II chondrules contain olivine Fa7 to Fa76. These are dominantly of Type IIA, but there are IIAB and IIB chondrules, II(A)B chondrules with minor highly ferroan olivine, and IIA(C) with augite as the only pyroxene. The refractory inclusions in Paris are amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) and fine-grained spinel-rich Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). The CAI phases formed in the sequence hibonite, perovskite, grossite, spinel, gehlenite, anorthite, diopside/fassaite and forsterite. The most refractory phases are embedded in spinel, which also occurs as massive nodules. Refractory metal nuggets are found in many CAI and refractory platinum group element abundances (PGE) decrease following the observed condensation sequences of their host phases. Mn-Cr isotope measurements of mineral separates from Paris define a regression line with a slope of 53Mn/55Mn = (5.76 ± 0.76) × 106. If we interpret Cr isotopic systematics as dating Paris components, particularly the chondrules, the age is 4566.44 ± 0.66 Myr, which is close to the age of CAI and puts new constraints on the early evolution of the solar system. Eleven individual Paris samples define an O isotope mixing line that passes through CM2 and CO3 falls and indicates that Paris is a very fresh sample, with variation explained by local differences in the extent of alteration. The anhydrous precursor to the CM2s was CO3-like, but the two groups differed in that the CMs accreted a higher proportion of water. Paris has little matrix (∼47%, plus 8% fine grained rims) and is less altered than other CM chondrites. Chondrule silicates (except mesostasis), CAI phases, submicron forsterite and amorphous silicate in the matrix are all well preserved in the freshest domains, and there is abundant metal preserved (metal alteration stage 1 of Palmer and Lauretta (2011)). Metal and sulfide compositions and textures correspond to the least heated or equilibrated CM chondrites, Category A of Kimura et al. (2011). The composition of tochilinite-cronstedtite intergrowths gives a PCP index of ∼2.9. Cronstedtite is more abundant in the more altered zones whereas in normal highly altered CM chondrites, with petrologic subtype 2.6-2.0 based on the S/SiO2 and ∑FeO/SiO2 ratios in PCP or tochilinite-cronstedtite intergrowths (Rubin et al., 2007), cronstedtite is destroyed by alteration. The matrix in fresh zones has CI chondritic volatile element abundances, but interactions between matrix and chondrules occurred during alteration, modifying the volatile element abundances in the altered zones. Paris has higher trapped Ne contents, more primitive organic compounds, and more primitive organic material than other CMs. There are gradational contacts between domains of different degree of alteration, on the scale of ∼1 cm, but also highly altered clasts, suggesting mainly a water-limited style of alteration, with no significant metamorphic reheating.

  2. The 12 micron band of ethane: A spectral catalog from 765 cm(-1) to 900 cm(-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atakan, A. K.; Blass, W. E.; Brault, J. W.; Daunt, S. J.; Halsey, G. W.; Jennings, D. E.; Reuter, D. C.; Susskind, J.

    1983-01-01

    The high resolution laboratory absorption spectrum of the 12 micro band of ethane gas is studied. The data were obtained using the McMath Solar Telescope 1 meter Fourier Transform interferometer at Kitt Peak National Observatory and tunable diode laser spectrometers at the University of Tennessee and NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Over 200 individual vibration rotation transitions were analyzed taking into account many higher order effects including torsional splitting. Line positions were reproduced to better than 0.001/cm. Both ground and upper state molecular constants were determined in the analysis. The experimental details, the analysis procedures and the results are addressed. A list of ethane transitions occurring near (14)CO2 laser lines needed for heterodyne searches for C2H6 in extraterrestrial sources is also included. A spectral catalog of the ethane nu sub g fundamental from 765/cm to 900/cm is provided. A high dispersion (1/cm 12 in.) plot of both the Kitt Peak interferometric data and a simulated spectrum with Doppler limited resolution, a table of over 8500 calculated transitions listed quantum number assignments, frequencies and intensities are provided.

  3. Line Assignments and Position Measurements in Several Weak CO2 Bands between 4590 /cm and 7930/ cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, L. P.; Kshirsagar, R. J.; Freedman, R. C.; Chackerian, C.; Wattson, R. B.

    1998-01-01

    A substantial set of CO2 spectra from 4500 to 12000 /cm has been obtained at Ames with 1500 m path length using a Bomem DA8 FTS. The signal/noise was improved compared to prior spectra obtained in this laboratory by including a filter wheel limiting the band-pass of each spectrum to several hundred/cm. We have measured positions of lines in several weak bands not previously resolved in laboratory spectra. Using our positions and assignments of lines of the Q branch of the 31103-00001 vibrational band at 4591/cm, we have re-determined the rotational constants for the 31103f levels. Q-branch lines of this band were previously observed, but misassigned, in Venus spectra by Mandin. The current HITRAN values of the rotational constants for this level are incorrect due to the Q-branch misassignments. Our prior measurements of the 21122-00001 vibrational band at 7901/cm were limited to Q- and R-branch lines; with the improved signal/noise of these new spectra we have now measured lines in the weaker P branch.

  4. Studying 21cm power spectrum with one-point statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimabukuro, Hayato; Yoshiura, Shintaro; Takahashi, Keitaro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Ichiki, Kiyotomo

    2015-07-01

    The redshifted 21cm line signal from neutral hydrogens is a promising tool to probe the cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization. Ongoing and future low-frequency radio experiments are expected to detect its fluctuations, especially through the power spectrum. In this paper, we give a physical interpretation of the time evolution of the power spectrum of the 21cm brightness temperature fluctuations, which can be decomposed into dark matter density, spin temperature and neutral fraction of hydrogen fluctuations. From the one-point statistics of the fluctuations, such as variance and skewness, we find that the peaks and dips in the time evolution are deeply related to X-ray heating of the intergalactic gas, which controls the spin temperature. We suggest the skewness of the brightness temperature distribution is a key observable to identify the onset of X-ray heating.

  5. Spectrum of FDG uptake in large (>10 cm) esophageal leiomyomas

    PubMed Central

    Dendy, Meaghan; Johnson, Katelyn

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal leiomyomas are rare benign tumors that can be treated successfully with limited surgical resection. It is occasionally important to distinguish leiomyomas from more aggressive submucosal esophageal tumors, most notably gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). GISTs have a worse prognosis, particularly when they are large (>10 cm). Increased uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose on positron emission tomography (PET) scans is common in GISTs, potentially allowing PET scanning to differentiate between GIST and benign esophageal tumors. Three patients presented with large (>10 cm) esophageal masses of ranging PET avidity [maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 1.310.1]. All were treated surgically and histologically confirmed to be esophageal leiomyomas. Unfortunately, the wide range of PET uptake precludes PET scanning from differentiating large leiomyomas from more aggressive lesions. PMID:26793383

  6. Precision measurement of cosmic magnification from 21 cm emitting galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengjie; Pen, Ue-Li; /Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.

    2005-04-01

    We show how precision lensing measurements can be obtained through the lensing magnification effect in high redshift 21cm emission from galaxies. Normally, cosmic magnification measurements have been seriously complicated by galaxy clustering. With precise redshifts obtained from 21cm emission line wavelength, one can correlate galaxies at different source planes, or exclude close pairs to eliminate such contaminations. We provide forecasts for future surveys, specifically the SKA and CLAR. SKA can achieve percent precision on the dark matter power spectrum and the galaxy dark matter cross correlation power spectrum, while CLAR can measure an accurate cross correlation power spectrum. The neutral hydrogen fraction was most likely significantly higher at high redshifts, which improves the number of observed galaxies significantly, such that also CLAR can measure the dark matter lensing power spectrum. SKA can also allow precise measurement of lensing bispectrum.

  7. Neptune's microwave spectrum from 1 MM to 20 CM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, I.; Richmond, M.

    1989-07-01

    Total flux densities and disk-averaged brightness temperatures have been tabulated on the basis of VLA observations of Neptune at 1.3, 2, 6, and 20 cm wavelengths; a recalibration is also conducted of previous observations in order to accurately ascertain the spectral shape of this planet, which is found to have increasing brightness temperature with increasing wavelength, in contrast with that of Uranus. If all the detected emission is atmospheric thermal radiation, ammonia abundance must either be a factor of about 50 lower than the solar N value throughout the Neptune atmosphere, or the planet must emit about 0.3-0.5 mJy synchrotron radiation at 20 cm; the latter possibility is consistent with a planetary magnetic field strength of about 0.5 G at the surface.

  8. Spectrum of FDG uptake in large (>10 cm) esophageal leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Dendy, Meaghan; Johnson, Katelyn; Boffa, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Esophageal leiomyomas are rare benign tumors that can be treated successfully with limited surgical resection. It is occasionally important to distinguish leiomyomas from more aggressive submucosal esophageal tumors, most notably gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). GISTs have a worse prognosis, particularly when they are large (>10 cm). Increased uptake of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose on positron emission tomography (PET) scans is common in GISTs, potentially allowing PET scanning to differentiate between GIST and benign esophageal tumors. Three patients presented with large (>10 cm) esophageal masses of ranging PET avidity [maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 1.3-10.1]. All were treated surgically and histologically confirmed to be esophageal leiomyomas. Unfortunately, the wide range of PET uptake precludes PET scanning from differentiating large leiomyomas from more aggressive lesions. PMID:26793383

  9. Viscoelastic hydrodynamic interactions and anomalous CM diffusion in polymer melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Hendrik; Farago, Jean; Semenov, A. N.

    2014-03-01

    We have recently discovered that anomalous center-of-mass (CM) diffusion occurring on intermediate time scales in polymer melts can be explained by the interplay of viscoelastic and hydrodynamic interactions (VHI). The theory has been solved for unentangled melts in 3D and 2D and excellent agreement between theory and simulation is found. The physical mechanism considers that hydrodynamic interactions are time dependent because of increasing viscosity before the terminal relaxation time; it is generally active in melts of any topology. Surprisingly, the effects are relevant for both, momentum-conserving and Langevin dynamics and this presentation will focus on the differences: The commonly employed Langevin thermostat significantly changes the CM motion on short and intermediate time scales, but approaching the Rouse time, the melt behavior is close to momentum-conserving simulations. On the other hand, if momentum-conserving simulations are run in too small a simulation box, the result looks as if a Langevin thermostat was used.

  10. Instrumental Simulations of the 21cm Epoch of Reionization Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Carina; Parsons, Aaron; Liu, Adrian; Zheng, Haoxuan; HERA Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Epoch of Reionization (EoR) represents an unexplored phase in early cosmic history when the light from the first galaxies and stars ionized the majority of the hydrogen in the universe. A powerful way of probing EoR fluctuations is by mapping the red-shifted 21cm hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen, and current telescope arrays such as the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and their recently funded successor, the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Arrays (HERA) aim to do this. Because the detection of EoR requires the difficult isolation of a signal 105 times fainter than galactic foregrounds, as well as unprecedented levels of sensitivity, it is important to develop realistic end-to-end simulations that accurately capture instrumental effects. Here we present simulation efforts within the HERA collaboration, demonstrating capabilities that will be necessary for a confirmed detection of the cosmological 21cm signal.

  11. Intensity Mapping During Reionization: 21 cm and Cross-correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, James E.; HERA Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The first generation of 21 cm epoch of reionization (EoR) experiments are now reaching the sensitivities necessary for a detection of the power spectrum of plausible reionization models, and with the advent of next-generation capabilities (e.g. the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) and the Square Kilometer Array Phase I Low) will move beyond the power spectrum to imaging of the EoR intergalactic medium. Such datasets provide context to galaxy evolution studies for the earliest galaxies on scales of tens of Mpc, but at present wide, deep galaxy surveys are lacking, and attaining the depth to survey the bulk of galaxies responsible for reionization will be challenging even for JWST. Thus we seek useful cross-correlations with other more direct tracers of the galaxy population. I review near-term prospects for cross-correlation studies with 21 cm and CO and CII emission, as well as future far-infrared misions suchas CALISTO.

  12. 21cm cosmology in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Jonathan R; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-08-01

    Imaging the Universe during the first hundreds of millions of years remains one of the exciting challenges facing modern cosmology. Observations of the redshifted 21cm line of atomic hydrogen offer the potential of opening a new window into this epoch. This will transform our understanding of the formation of the first stars and galaxies and of the thermal history of the Universe. A new generation of radio telescopes is being constructed for this purpose with the first results starting to trickle in. In this review, we detail the physics that governs the 21cm signal and describe what might be learnt from upcoming observations. We also generalize our discussion to intensity mapping of other atomic and molecular lines. PMID:22828208

  13. Lensing of 21-cm fluctuations by primordial gravitational waves.

    PubMed

    Book, Laura; Kamionkowski, Marc; Schmidt, Fabian

    2012-05-25

    Weak-gravitational-lensing distortions to the intensity pattern of 21-cm radiation from the dark ages can be decomposed geometrically into curl and curl-free components. Lensing by primordial gravitational waves induces a curl component, while the contribution from lensing by density fluctuations is strongly suppressed. Angular fluctuations in the 21-cm background extend to very small angular scales, and measurements at different frequencies probe different shells in redshift space. There is thus a huge trove of information with which to reconstruct the curl component of the lensing field, allowing tensor-to-scalar ratios conceivably as small as r~10(-9)-far smaller than those currently accessible-to be probed. PMID:23003237

  14. Performance of the NASA 30 cm Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Haag, Thomas W.; Hovan, Scot A.

    1993-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster is under development at NASA to provide an ion propulsion option for missions of national interest, and is being proposed for use on the USAF/TRW Space Surveillance, Tracking and Autonomous Repositioning (SSTAR) platform to validate ion propulsion. The thruster incorporates innovations in design, materials, and fabrication techniques compared to those employed in conventional ion thrusters. Specific development efforts include thruster design optimizations, component life testing and validation, vibration testing, and performance characterizations. Under this test program, the ion thruster will be brought to engineering model development status. This paper discusses the performance and power throttling test data for the NASA 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster over an input power envelope of 0.7 to 4.9 kW, and corresponding thruster lifetime expectations.

  15. POLYSHIFT Communications Software for the Connection Machine System CM-200

    DOE PAGESBeta

    George, William; Brickner, Ralph G.; Johnsson, S. Lennart

    1994-01-01

    We describe the use and implementation of a polyshift function PSHIFT for circular shifts and end-offs shifts. Polyshift is useful in many scientific codes using regular grids, such as finite difference codes in several dimensions, and multigrid codes, molecular dynamics computations, and in lattice gauge physics computations, such as quantum chromodynamics (QCD) calculations. Our implementation of the PSHIFT function on the Connection Machine systems CM-2 and CM-200 offers a speedup of up to a factor of 3–4 compared with CSHIFT when the local data motion within a node is small. The PSHIFT routine is included in the Connection Machine Scientificmore » Software Library (CMSSL).« less

  16. IDENTIFYING IONIZED REGIONS IN NOISY REDSHIFTED 21 cm DATA SETS

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, Matthew; Lidz, Adam

    2013-04-10

    One of the most promising approaches for studying reionization is to use the redshifted 21 cm line. Early generations of redshifted 21 cm surveys will not, however, have the sensitivity to make detailed maps of the reionization process, and will instead focus on statistical measurements. Here, we show that it may nonetheless be possible to directly identify ionized regions in upcoming data sets by applying suitable filters to the noisy data. The locations of prominent minima in the filtered data correspond well with the positions of ionized regions. In particular, we corrupt semi-numeric simulations of the redshifted 21 cm signal during reionization with thermal noise at the level expected for a 500 antenna tile version of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and mimic the degrading effects of foreground cleaning. Using a matched filter technique, we find that the MWA should be able to directly identify ionized regions despite the large thermal noise. In a plausible fiducial model in which {approx}20% of the volume of the universe is neutral at z {approx} 7, we find that a 500-tile MWA may directly identify as many as {approx}150 ionized regions in a 6 MHz portion of its survey volume and roughly determine the size of each of these regions. This may, in turn, allow interesting multi-wavelength follow-up observations, comparing galaxy properties inside and outside of ionized regions. We discuss how the optimal configuration of radio antenna tiles for detecting ionized regions with a matched filter technique differs from the optimal design for measuring power spectra. These considerations have potentially important implications for the design of future redshifted 21 cm surveys.

  17. Examples of genus two CM curves defined over the rationals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wamelen, Paul

    We present the results of a systematic numerical search for genus two curves defined over the rationals such that their Jacobians are simple and have endomorphism ring equal to the ring of integers of a quartic CM field. Including the well-known example y^2 = x^5 - 1 we find 19 non-isomorphic such curves. We believe that these are the only such curves.

  18. OH 18 cm Transition as a Thermometer for Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisawa, Yuji; Inokuma, Hiroshi; Sakai, Nami; Menten, Karl M.; Maezawa, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    We have observed the four hyperfine components of the 18 cm OH transition toward the translucent cloud eastward of Heiles Cloud 2 (HCL2E), the cold dark cloud L134N, and the photodissociation region of the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud with the Effelsberg 100 m telescope. We have found intensity anomalies among the hyperfine components in all three regions. In particular, an absorption feature of the 1612 MHz satellite line against the cosmic microwave background has been detected toward HCL2E and two positions of the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud. On the basis of statistical equilibrium calculations, we find that the hyperfine anomalies originate from the non-LTE population of the hyperfine levels, and can be used to determine the kinetic temperature of the gas over a wide range of H2 densities (102-107 cm-3). Toward the center of HCL2E, the gas kinetic temperature is determined to be 53 ± 1 K, and it increases toward the cloud peripheries (˜60 K). The ortho-to-para ratio of H2 is determined to be 3.5 ± 0.9 from the averaged spectrum for the eight positions. In L134N, a similar increase of the temperature is also seen toward the periphery. In the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud, the gas kinetic temperature decreases as a function of the distance from the exciting star HD 147889. These results demonstrate a new aspect of the OH 18 cm line that can be used as a good thermometer of molecular cloud envelopes. The OH 18 cm line can be used to trace a new class of warm molecular gas surrounding a molecular cloud, which is not well traced by the emission of CO and its isotopologues.

  19. How accurately can 21cm tomography constrain cosmology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yi; Tegmark, Max; McQuinn, Matthew; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Zahn, Oliver

    2008-07-01

    There is growing interest in using 3-dimensional neutral hydrogen mapping with the redshifted 21 cm line as a cosmological probe. However, its utility depends on many assumptions. To aid experimental planning and design, we quantify how the precision with which cosmological parameters can be measured depends on a broad range of assumptions, focusing on the 21 cm signal from 6cm tomography measured the matter power spectrum directly. A future square kilometer array optimized for 21 cm tomography could improve the sensitivity to spatial curvature and neutrino masses by up to 2 orders of magnitude, to ΔΩk≈0.0002 and Δmν≈0.007eV, and give a 4σ detection of the spectral index running predicted by the simplest inflation models.

  20. The Paris CM chondrite: Secondary minerals and asteroidal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocchi, Yves; Gounelle, Matthieu; Blanchard, Ingrid; Caste, Florent; Kearsley, Anton T.

    2014-07-01

    We report a petrographic and mineralogical survey of Paris, a new CM chondrite considered to be the least-altered CM identified so far (Hewins et al.). Compared to other CMs, Paris exhibits (1) a higher concentration of Fe-Ni metal beads, with nickel contents in the range 4.1-8.1 wt%; (2) the systematic presence of thin lamellae and tiny blebs of pentlandite in pyrrhotite grains; and (3) ubiquitous tochilinite/cronstedtite associations with higher FeO/SiO2 and S/SiO2 ratios. In addition, Paris shows the highest concentration of trapped 36Ar reported so far for a CM chondrite (Hewins et al.). In combination with the findings of previous studies, our data confirm the reliability of (1) the alteration sequence based on the chemical composition of tochilinite/cronstedtite associations to quantify the fluid alteration processes and (2) the use of Cr content variability in type II ferroan chondrule olivine as a proxy of thermal metamorphism. In contrast, the scales based on (1) the Fe3+ content of serpentine in the matrix to estimate the degree of aqueous alteration and (2) the chemical composition of Fe-Ni metal beads for quantifying the intensity of the thermal metamorphism are not supported by the characteristics of Paris. It also appears that the amount of trapped 36Ar is a sensitive indicator of the secondary alteration modifications experienced by chondrites, for both aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. Considering Paris, our data suggest that this chondrite should be classified as type 2.7 as it suffered limited but significant fluid alteration and only mild thermal metamorphism. These results point out that two separated scales should be used to quantify the degree of the respective role of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism in establishing the characteristics of CM chondrites.

  1. Control logic for a 30 cm diameter ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.

    1975-01-01

    The various missions to be performed by the 30-cm diameter mercury bombardment thruster engine are discussed. The operating constraints imposed by the thermal environment, allowable time to reach steady state operation, and the number of start-ups required are examined. The variety of requirements is further analyzed for the impact on the basic control logic for the engine. The control logic is divided into the start-up, run, and shutdown modes of operation. The start-up mode is reported.

  2. Control of a 30 cm diameter mercury bombardment thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terdan, F. F.; Bechtel, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Control logic functions were established for three automatic modes of operation of a 30-cm thruster using a power conditioner console with flight-like characteristics. The three modes provide: (1) automatic startup to reach thermal stability, (2) steady-state closed-loop control, and (3) the reliable recycling of the high voltages following an arc breakdown to reestablish normal operation. Power supply impedance characteristics necessary for stable operation and the effect of the magnetic baffle on the reliable recycling was studied.

  3. Power distribution for an Am/Cm bushing melter

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.; Hardy, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    Decades of nuclear material production at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has resulted in the generation of large quantities of the isotopes Am{sup 243} and Cm{sup 244}. Currently, the Am and Cm isotopes are stored as a nitric acid solution in a tank. The Am and Cm isotopes have great commercial value but must be transferred to ORNL for processing. The nitric acid solution contains other isotopes and is intensely radioactive, which makes storage a problem and precludes shipment in the liquid form. In order to stabilize the material for onsite storage and to permit transport the material from SRS to ORNL, it has been proposed that the Am and Cm be separated from other isotopes in the solution and vitrified. Vitrification will be effected by depositing a liquid feed stream containing the isotopes in solution, together with a stream of glass frit, onto the top of a molten glass pool in a melter. The glass is non-conducting and the melter is a Platinum/Rhodium alloy vessel which is heated by passing an electric current through it. Because most of the power is required to evaporate the liquid feed at the top of the glass pool, power demands differ for the upper and lower parts of the melter. In addition, the melter is batch fed so that the local power requirements vary with time. In order to design a unique split power supply, which ensures adequate local power delivery, an analysis of the melter power distribution was performed with the ABAQUS finite element code. ABAQUS was used to calculate the electric potential and current density distributions in the melter for a variety of current and potential boundary conditions. The results of the calculation were compared with test data and will be used to compute power densities for input to a computational fluid dynamics model for the melter.

  4. Distinct Distribution of Purines in CM and CR Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Smith, Karen E.; Martin, Mildred G.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of organic molecules and delivered pre biotic organic compounds, including purines and pyrimidines, to the early Earth (and other planetary bodies), seeding it with the ingredients likely required for the first genetic material. We have investigated the distribution of nucleobases in six different CM and CR type carbonaceous chondrites, including fivc Antarctic meteorites never before analyzed for nucleobases. We employed a traditional formic acid extraction protocol and a recently developed solid phase extraction method to isolate nucleobases. We analyzed these extracts by high performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV -MS/MS) targeting the five canonical RNAIDNA bases and hypoxanthine and xanthine. We detected parts-per-billion levels of nucleobases in both CM and CR meteorites. The relative abundances of the purines found in Antarctic CM and CR meteorites were clearly distinct from each other suggesting that these compounds are not terrestrial contaminants. One likely source of these purines is formation by HCN oligomerization (with other small molecules) during aqueous alteration inside the meteorite parent body. The detection of the purines adenine (A), guanine (0), hypoxanthine (HX), and xanthine (X) in carbonaceous meteorites indicates that these compounds should have been available on the early Earth prior to the origin of the first genetic material.

  5. The wedge bias in reionization 21-cm power spectrum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Hannes; Majumdar, Suman; Mellema, Garrelt; Lidz, Adam; Iliev, Ilian T.; Dixon, Keri L.

    2016-02-01

    A proposed method for dealing with foreground emission in upcoming 21-cm observations from the epoch of reionization is to limit observations to an uncontaminated window in Fourier space. Foreground emission can be avoided in this way, since it is limited to a wedge-shaped region in k∥, k⊥ space. However, the power spectrum is anisotropic owing to redshift-space distortions from peculiar velocities. Consequently, the 21-cm power spectrum measured in the foreground avoidance window - which samples only a limited range of angles close to the line-of-sight direction - differs from the full redshift-space spherically averaged power spectrum which requires an average over all angles. In this paper, we calculate the magnitude of this `wedge bias' for the first time. We find that the bias amplifies the difference between the real-space and redshift-space power spectra. The bias is strongest at high redshifts, where measurements using foreground avoidance will overestimate the redshift-space power spectrum by around 100 per cent, possibly obscuring the distinctive rise and fall signature that is anticipated for the spherically averaged 21-cm power spectrum. In the later stages of reionization, the bias becomes negative, and smaller in magnitude (≲20 per cent).

  6. BRIGHT SOURCE SUBTRACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR REDSHIFTED 21 cm MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, A.; Bowman, J. D.; Carilli, C. L.

    2010-11-20

    The H I 21 cm transition line is expected to be an important probe into the cosmic dark ages and epoch of reionization. Foreground source removal is one of the principal challenges for the detection of this signal. This paper investigates the extragalactic point source contamination and how accurately bright sources ({approx}>1 Jy) must be removed in order to detect 21 cm emission with upcoming radio telescopes such as the Murchison Widefield Array. We consider the residual contamination in 21 cm maps and power spectra due to position errors in the sky model for bright sources, as well as frequency-independent calibration errors. We find that a source position accuracy of 0.1 arcsec will suffice for detection of the H I power spectrum. For calibration errors, 0.05% accuracy in antenna gain amplitude is required in order to detect the cosmic signal. Both sources of subtraction error produce residuals that are localized to small angular scales, k{sub perpendicular} {approx}> 0.05 Mpc{sup -1}, in the two-dimensional power spectrum.

  7. Low velocity collisions of cm-sized dust-aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beitz, Eike; Blum, Jurgen; Gttler, Carsten

    Low velocity collisions between dust aggregates are very important to understand the mecha-nism leading to planetesimal formation. Especially, the complete chain of processes in the post-fractal growth of proto-planetary dust-aggregates is still unknown. For most binary collisions between dust aggregates, short-duration microgravity experiments are required. Therefore, we built a laboratory vacuum drop tower, allowing us to perform up to 10 collision experiments per day. The setup consists of an evacuated glass tube of 22 cm diameter with a free-fall height of 1.5m, providing us with 0.56 s of microgravity. Using a two-level particle release mechanism, we can perform particle-particle collisions with relative velocities between less than 1 cm/s and several m/s. For a three-dimensional observation of the experiment, we placed two free-falling high-speed cameras outside the vacuum tube, separated by an angle of 90 , which are able to observe the dust aggregates before, during and after their encounter. We will present the results of collisions between cm-sized dust aggregates, consisting of m-sized, monodisperse SiO2 spheres. We measured the coefficient of restitution in bouncing collisions, the mass loss and the total disruption energy for fragmenting collisions. With these measurements, we are able to refine the model of planetesimal formation.

  8. The Transition to ICD-10-CM: Challenges for Pediatric Practice

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Jeffrey; Nam, Hannah; Chae, Sae-Rom; Williams, Lauren; Mathew, Gina; Burton, Michael; Li, Jiarong John; Lussier, Yves A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diagnostic codes are used widely within health care for billing, quality assessment, and to measure clinical outcomes. The US health care system will transition to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM), in October 2015. Little is known about how this transition will affect pediatric practices. The objective of this study was to examine how the transition to ICD-10-CM may result in ambiguity of clinical information and financial disruption for pediatricians. METHODS: Using a statewide data set from Illinois Medicaid specified for pediatricians, 2708 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, diagnosis codes were identified. Diagnosis codes were categorized into 1 of 5 categories: identity, class-to-subclass, subclass-to-class, convoluted, and no translation. The convoluted and high-cost diagnostic codes (n = 636) were analyzed for accuracy and categorized into information loss, overlapping categories, inconsistent, and consistent. Finally, reimbursement by Medicaid was calculated for each category. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of pediatric diagnosis codes are convoluted, which represents 21% of Illinois Medicaid pediatric patient encounters and 16% of reimbursement. The diagnosis codes represented by information loss (3.6%), overlapping categories (3.2%), and inconsistent (1.2%) represent 8% of Medicaid pediatric reimbursement. CONCLUSIONS: The potential for financial disruption and administrative errors from 8% of reimbursement diagnosis codes necessitates special attention to these codes in preparing for the transition to ICD-10-CM for pediatric practices. PMID:24918217

  9. Redshifted 21 cm Emission from Minihalos before Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlanetto, Steven R.; Oh, S. Peng

    2006-12-01

    Before reionization, the intergalactic medium (IGM) may have been sufficiently cold for low-mass ``minihalos'' to condense out of the gas and subsequently affect reionization. Previous work has shown that minihalos generate reasonably large 21 cm fluctuations. Here we consider this signal in its proper cosmological context and show that isolating minihalos from the rest of the IGM is extremely difficult. Using the well-known halo model, we compute the power spectrum of 21 cm fluctuations from minihalos and show that the signal decreases rapidly as feedback increases the Jeans mass. We then show that even a small Ly? background increases the 21 cm fluctuations of the diffuse IGM well beyond those of the minihalos; because the mass fraction in the IGM is much larger, minihalos will lie buried within the IGM signal. The distinctive signatures of nonlinear bias and minihalo structure emerge only at much smaller scales, well beyond the resolution of any upcoming instrument. Using simple but representative reionization histories, we then show that the required Ly? background level is most likely achieved at z>~15, while minihalos are still rare, so that they are almost always degenerate with the diffuse IGM.

  10. Brown Dwarf Detected in the CM DRA Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, E. F.; Bradstreet, D. H.; Ribas, I.; Wolf, M.; McCook, G. P.

    1998-05-01

    We report on the detection of a probable brown dwarf or massive planet in the CM Dra (dM4.5+dM4.5) eclipsing binary system. Possible planetary transit eclipses (with depths of 0.08mag) have been reported previously for CM Dra (see IAUC 6423; IAUC 6425). In addition to searching for more planetary transit events, extensive photometry is being conducted to search for evidence of the "light-time effect" in the arrival times of the eclipses of CM Dra. The light-time effect occurs as the binary system moves around the barycenter of the binary-third body system. From extensive photometry obtained from March 1996 through March 1998, 17 eclipse timings have been obtained. Preliminary results indicate a light-time effect with an amplitude of delta t = 18 +/-2 sec and an orbital period of about P = 70.3 +/- 3.0 days. Adopting the systemic mass of CM Dra (M1+2 = 0.448 Msun) and assuming a circular orbit, the size of the 3rd body's orbit is about 0.27AU. The mass of the third body is about M3 = 64 +/- 4Mjupiter (0.061Msun) if its orbital plane is coplanar (or nearly so) with the eclipsing pair. This mass is near the upper limit for substellar bodies (brown dwarfs/massive planets) and below the lower mass limit of about 0.075Msun for hydrogen burning stars. The phasing of the light-time effect indicates that the object that produces the observed light-time effect is not the object(s) that produced the planetary transit dimming event in 1996. It is likely that CM Dra contains more than one substellar object. The presence of a brown dwarf around an eclipsing binary is critically important because the object's physical properties (such as mass and radii) are determinable. We will discuss the updated analysis of our data including any additional eclipse timings. This research is supported by NSF/RUI Grants AST 93-15365, which we gratefully acknowledge.

  11. Characterization of three types of human alpha s1-casein mRNA transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, L B; Rasmussen, L K; Petersen, T E; Berglund, L

    1995-01-01

    Here we report the molecular cloning and sequencing of three types of human alpha s1-casein transcripts and present evidence indicating that exon skipping is responsible for deleted mRNA transcripts. The largest transcript comprised 981 bp encoding a signal peptide of 15 amino acids followed by the mature alpha s1-casein sequence of 170 amino acids. Human alpha s1-casein has been reported to exist naturally as a multimer in complex with kappa-casein in mature human milk, thereby being unique among alpha s1-caseins [Rasmussen, Due and Petersen (1995) Comp. Biochem. Physiol., in the press]. The present demonstration of three cysteines in the mature protein provides a molecular explanation of the interactions in this complex. Tissue-specific expression of human alpha s1-casein was indicated by Northern-blot analysis. In addition, two cryptic exons were localized in the bovine alpha s1-casein gene. Images Figure 3 PMID:7619062

  12. Assessing soil hydrological variability at the cm- to dm-scale using air permeameter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beerten, K.; Vandersmissen, N.; Rogiers, B.; Mallants, D.

    2012-04-01

    Soils and surficial sediments are crucial elements in the hydrological cycle since they are the medium through which infiltrating precipitation percolates to the aquifer. At the same time, soil horizons and shallow stratigraphy may act as hydraulic barriers that can promote runoff or interflow and hamper deep infiltration. For most catchments little is known about the small-scale horizontal and vertical variability of soil hydrological properties. Such information is however required to calculate detailed soil water flow paths and estimate small scale spatial variability in recharge and run-off. We present the results from field air permeameter measurements to assess the small-scale variability of saturated hydraulic conductivity in heterogeneous 2-D soil profiles. To this end, several outcrops in the unsaturated zone (sandy soils with podzolisation) of an interfluve in the Kleine Nete river catchment (Campine area, Northern Belgium) were investigated using a hand-held permeameter. Measurements were done each 10 cm on ~ 2 x 1 m or ~ 2 x 0.5 m grids. The initial results of the measurements (air permeability Kair; millidarcy) are recalculated to saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks; m/s) using specific transfer functions (Loll et al., 1999; Iversen et al., 2003). Validation of the results is done with independent lab-based constant head Ks measurements. The results show that field based Ks values generally range between 10-3 m/s and 10-7 m/s within one profile, but extremely high values (up to 10-1 m/s) have been measured as well. The lowest values are found in the organic- and silt-rich Bh horizon of podzol soils observed within the profiles (~ 10-6-10-7m/s), while the highest values are observed in overlying dune sands less than 40 cm deep (up to 10-3 m/s with outliers to 10-1 m/s). Comparison of field and laboratory based Ks data reveals there is fair agreement between both methods, apart from several outliers. Scatter plots indicate that almost all points, regardless the transfer function used, are within 10% (logKs) from perfect correlation. However, it is not clear yet which transfer function would best fit to the data: both show a slight systematic offset of ca. 5% (logKs) from the line of perfect agreement. Reasons for the observed discrepancies can be differences in measurement scale (5-10 times smaller for the air permeameter compared to constant head core samples) and possibly effects of the soil's saturation degree. Despite the small but systematic offset, we conclude that field based air permeametry is a relatively cheap, quick and reliable method to map the spatial variability of saturated hydraulic conductivity in heterogeneous soil profiles.

  13. S1PR1-mediated IFNAR1 degradation modulates plasmacytoid dendritic cell interferon-α autoamplification.

    PubMed

    Teijaro, John R; Studer, Sean; Leaf, Nora; Kiosses, William B; Nguyen, Nhan; Matsuki, Kosuke; Negishi, Hideo; Taniguchi, Tadatsugu; Oldstone, Michael B A; Rosen, Hugh

    2016-02-01

    Blunting immunopathology without abolishing host defense is the foundation for safe and effective modulation of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) agonists are effective in treating infectious and multiple autoimmune pathologies; however, mechanisms underlying their clinical efficacy are yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we uncover an unexpected mechanism of convergence between S1PR1 and interferon alpha receptor 1 (IFNAR1) signaling pathways. Activation of S1PR1 signaling by pharmacological tools or endogenous ligand sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) inhibits type 1 IFN responses that exacerbate numerous pathogenic conditions. Mechanistically, S1PR1 selectively suppresses the type I IFN autoamplification loop in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a specialized DC subset, for robust type I IFN release. S1PR1 agonist suppression is pertussis toxin-resistant, but inhibited by an S1PR1 C-terminal-derived transactivating transcriptional activator (Tat)-fusion peptide that blocks receptor internalization. S1PR1 agonist treatment accelerates turnover of IFNAR1, suppresses signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation, and down-modulates total STAT1 levels, thereby inactivating the autoamplification loop. Inhibition of S1P-S1PR1 signaling in vivo using the selective antagonist Ex26 significantly elevates IFN-α production in response to CpG-A. Thus, multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that S1PR1 signaling sets the sensitivity of pDC amplification of IFN responses, thereby blunting pathogenic immune responses. These data illustrate a lipid G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-IFNAR1 regulatory loop that balances effective and detrimental immune responses and elevated endogenous S1PR1 signaling. This mechanism will likely be advantageous in individuals subject to a range of inflammatory conditions. PMID:26787880

  14. Discovery of a novel series of potent S1P1 agonists.

    PubMed

    Crosignani, Stefano; Bombrun, Agnes; Covini, David; Maio, Maurizio; Marin, Delphine; Quattropani, Anna; Swinnen, Dominique; Simpson, Don; Sauer, Wolfgang; Franon, Bernard; Martin, Thierry; Cambet, Yves; Nichols, Anthony; Martinou, Isabelle; Burgat-Charvillon, Fabienne; Rivron, Delphine; Donini, Cristina; Schott, Olivier; Eligert, Valerie; Novo-Perez, Laurence; Vitte, Pierre-Alain; Arrighi, Jean-Franois

    2010-03-01

    The discovery of a novel series of S1P1 agonists is described. Starting from a micromolar HTS positive, iterative optimization gave rise to several single-digit nanomolar S1P1 agonists. The compounds were able to induce internalization of the S1P1 receptor, and a selected compound was shown to be able to induce lymphopenia in mice after oral dosing. PMID:20149651

  15. Macroscopic and spectroscopic investigations on Eu(III) and Cm(III) sorption onto bayerite (β-Al(OH)3) and corundum (α-Al2O3).

    PubMed

    Kupcik, Tomas; Rabung, Thomas; Lützenkirchen, Johannes; Finck, Nicolas; Geckeis, Horst; Fanghänel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of trivalent Cm and Eu with the aluminum hydroxide bayerite (β-Al(OH)3) and the aluminum oxide corundum (α-Al2O3) was investigated by batch sorption experiments and time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The experimental methods for both polymorphs show similar pH dependent sorption behavior at trace metal ion concentrations (∼10(-7) M), i.e. similar Eu sorption edges and nearly identical Cm speciation between pH=3 and 13. In this pH range the Cm aquo ion as well as the Cm(III) surface species surface⋯Cm(OH)x(H2O)(5-x) (x=0, 1, 2) can be distinguished by TRLFS. The similar sorption data point to a (surface) transformation of the thermodynamically unstable Al2O3 surface into bayerite, in agreement with the similar isoelectric points obtained for both minerals (pH(IEP)=8.6-8.8). The pH dependent surface charge is most likely due to the protonation/deprotonation of singly coordinated Al-OH surface groups, prevailing on the edge planes of the rod-like bayerite crystals and the surface of the colloidal Al2O3 particles. These surface groups are also believed to act as ligands for lanthanide/actinide(III) surface complexation. In contrast to the similar sorption behavior at trace metal ion concentrations, discrepancies are observed at higher Eu levels. While similar sorption edges occur up to 7×10(-7) M Eu for corundum, the pH edge on bayerite is gradually shifted to higher pH values in this Eu concentration range. The latter behavior may be related either to the existence of multiple sorption sites with different sorption affinities, or to the influence of an additional amorphous Al-phase, forming in the course of the bayerite synthesis. PMID:26402780

  16. The foreground wedge and 21-cm BAO surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hee-Jong; Hirata, Christopher M.

    2016-03-01

    Redshifted H I 21 cm emission from unresolved low-redshift large-scale structure is a promising window for ground-based baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) observations. A major challenge for this method is separating the cosmic signal from the foregrounds of Galactic and extra-Galactic origins that are stronger by many orders of magnitude than the former. The smooth frequency spectrum expected for the foregrounds would nominally contaminate only very small k∥ modes; however, the chromatic response of the telescope antenna pattern at this wavelength to the foreground introduces non-smooth structure, pervasively contaminating the cosmic signal over the physical scales of our interest. Such contamination defines a wedged volume in Fourier space around the transverse modes that is inaccessible for the cosmic signal. In this paper, we test the effect of this contaminated wedge on the future 21-cm BAO surveys using Fisher information matrix calculation. We include the signal improvement due to the BAO reconstruction technique that has been used for galaxy surveys and test the effect of this wedge on the BAO reconstruction as a function of signal to noises and incorporate the results in the Fisher matrix calculation. We find that the wedge effect expected at z = 1-2 is very detrimental to the angular diameter distances: the errors on angular diameter distances increased by 3-4.4 times, while the errors on H(z) increased by a factor of 1.5-1.6. We conclude that calibration techniques that clean out the foreground `wedge' would be extremely valuable for constraining angular diameter distances from intensity-mapping 21-cm surveys.

  17. Ureteroscopic treatment of larger renal calculi (>2cm)

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Demetrius H.; Healy, Kelly A.; Kleinmann, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the current status of ureteroscopic lithotripsy (UL) for treating renal calculi of >2cm, as advances in flexible ureteroscope design, accessory instrumentation and lithotrites have revolutionised the treatment of urinary calculi. While previously reserved for ureteric and small renal calculi, UL has gained an increasing role in the selective management of larger renal stone burdens. Methods We searched the available databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus, for relevant reports in English, and the article bibliographies to identify additional relevant articles. Keywords included ureteroscopy, lithotripsy, renal calculi, and calculi >2cm. Retrieved articles were reviewed to consider the number of patients, mean stone size, success rates, indications and complications. Results In all, nine studies (417 patients) were eligible for inclusion. After one, two or three procedures the mean (range) success rates were 68.2 (2384)%, 87.1 (7991)% and 94.4 (90.196.7)%, respectively. Overall, the success rate was >90% with a mean of 1.22.3 procedures per patient. The overall complication rate was 10.3%, including six (1.4%) intraoperative and 37 (8.9%) postoperative complications, most of which were minor. The most common indications for UL were a failed previous treatment (46%), comorbidities (18.2%), and technical and anatomical factors (12.3%). Conclusions UL is safe and effective for treating large renal calculi. While several procedures might be required for total stone clearance, UL should be considered a standard approach in the urologists options treating renal calculi of >2cm. PMID:26558040

  18. Multiple precursors of secondary mineralogical assemblages in CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Marrocchi, Yves; Vacher, Lionel. G.; Delon, RéMi; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2016-03-01

    We report a petrographic and mineralogical survey of tochilinite/cronstedtite intergrowths (TCIs) in Paris, a new CM chondrite considered to be the least altered CM identified to date. Our results indicate that type-I TCIs consist of compact tochilinite/cronstedtite rims surrounding Fe-Ni metal beads, thus confirming kamacite as the precursor of type-I TCIs. In contrast, type-II TCIs are characterized by complex compositional zoning composed of three different Fe-bearing secondary minerals: from the outside inwards, tochilinite, cronstedtite, and amakinite. Type-II TCIs present well-developed faces that allow a detailed morphological analysis to be performed in order to identify the precursors. The results demonstrate that type-II TCIs formed by pseudomorphism of the anhydrous silicates, olivine, and pyroxene. Hence, there is no apparent genetic relationship between type-I and type-II TCIs. In addition, the complex chemical zoning observed within type-II TCIs suggests that the alteration conditions evolved dramatically over time. At least three stages of alteration can be proposed, characterized by alteration fluids with varying compositions (1) Fe- and S-rich fluids; (2) S-poor and Fe- and Si-rich fluids; and (3) S- and Si-poor, Fe-rich fluids. The presence of unaltered silicates in close association with euhedral type-II TCIs suggests the existence of microenvironments during the first alteration stages of CM chondrites. In addition, the absence of Mg-bearing secondary minerals in Paris TCIs suggests that the Mg content increases during the course of alteration.

  19. Studies of dished accelerator grids for 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Eighteen geometrically different sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five 30-cm thrusters. The geometric variation of the grids included the grid-to-grid spacing, the screen and accelerator hole diameters and thicknesses, the screen and accelerator open area fractions, ratio of dish depth to dish diameter, compensation, and aperture shape. In general, the data taken over a range of beam currents for each grid set included the minimum total accelerating voltage required to extract a given beam current and the minimum accelerator grid voltage required to prevent electron backstreaming.

  20. Status of 30 cm mercury ion thruster development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.; King, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    Two engineering model 30-cm ion thrusters were assembled, calibrated, and qualification tested. This paper discusses the thruster design, performance, and power system. Test results include documentation of thrust losses due to doubly charged mercury ions and beam divergence by both direct thrust measurements and beam probes. Diagnostic vibration tests have led to improved designs of the thruster backplate structure, feed system, and harness. Thruster durability is being demonstrated over a thrust range of 97 to 113 mN at a specific impulse of about 2900 seconds. As of August 15, 1974, the thruster has successfully operated for over 4000 hours.

  1. Development of an 8-cm engineering model thruster system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, B. G.; Hyman, J., Jr.; Hopper, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Electric propulsion has been shown to offer major advantages over the techniques currently employed for the control of earth satellites. For a user to realize these advantages, however, requires the availability of a proven, operationally flight-ready propulsion system. Currently an Engineering Model of an 8-cm ion thruster propulsion system is under development. The system includes the thruster unit with its associated reservoir, thruster gimbaling subsystem, and power processing unit. This paper describes the EM System with special emphasis on hardware design and system performance.

  2. Performance documentation of the engineering model 30-cm diameter thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Rawlin, V. K.

    1976-01-01

    The results of extensive testing of two 30-cm ion thrusters which are virtually identical to the 900 series Engineering Model Thruster in an ongoing 15,000-hour life test are presented. Performance data for the nominal fullpower (2650 W) operating point; performance sensitivities to discharge voltage, discharge losses, accelerator voltage, and magnetic baffle current; and several power throttling techniques (maximum Isp, maximum thrust/power ratio, and two cases in between are included). Criteria for throttling are specified in terms of the screen power supply envelope, thruster operating limits, and control stability. In addition, reduced requirements for successful high voltage recycles are presented.

  3. Performance of 30-cm ion thrusters with dished accelerator grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five different 30-cm diameter bombardment thrustors to evaluate the effects of grid geometry variations on thrustor discharge chamber performance. The dished grid parameters varied were: grid-to-grid spacing, screen and accelerator grid hole-diameter, screen and accelerator open area fraction, compensation for beam divergence losses, and accelerator grid thickness. Also investigated were the effects on discharge chamber performance of main magnetic field changes, magnetic baffle current cathode pole piece length and cathode position.

  4. Long lifetime hollow cathodes for 30-cm mercury ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Kerslake, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation of hollow cathodes for 30-cm Hg bombardment thrusters was carried out. Both main and neutralizer cathode configurations were tested with both rolled foil inserts coated with low work function material and impregnated porous tungsten inserts. Temperature measurements of an impregnated insert at various positions in the cathode were made. These, along with the cathode thermal profile are presented. A theory for rolled foil and impregnated insert operation and lifetime in hollow cathodes is developed. Several endurance tests, as long as 18000 hours at emission currents of up to 12 amps were attained with no degradation in performance.

  5. Human Being Imaging with cm-Wave UWB Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarovoy, A.; Zhuge, X.; Savelyev, T.; Matuzas, J.; Levitas, B.

    Possibilities of high-resolution human body imaging and concealed weapon detection using centimeter-wave microwave frequencies are investigated. Dependencies of the cross-range resolution of different imaging techniques on operational bandwidth, center frequency, imaging aperture size, and imaging topology have been studied. It has been demonstrated that the cross-range resolution of 2 cm can be achieved using frequencies below 10 GHz. These findings have been verified experimentally by producing high-resolution images of a foil-covered doll and some weapons.

  6. The 8-CM ion thruster characterization. [mercury ion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessel, F. J.; Williamson, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    The performance capabilities of the 8 cm diameter mercury ion thruster were increased by modifying the thruster operating parameters and component hardware. The initial performance levels, representative of the Hughes/NASA Lewis Research Center Ion Auxiliary Propulsion Subsystem (IAPS) thruster, were raised from the baseline values of thrust, T = 5 mN, and specific impulse, I sub sp = 2,900s, to thrust, T = 25 mN and specific impulse, I sub sp = 4,300 s. Performance characteristics including estmates of the erosion rates of various component surfaces are presented.

  7. Performance capabilities of the 8-cm mercury ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary characterization of the performance capabilities of the 8-cm thruster in order to initiate an evaluation of its application to LSS propulsion requirements is presented. With minor thruster modifications, the thrust was increased by about a factor of four while the discharge voltage was reduced from 39 to 22 volts. The thruster was operated over a range of specific impulse of 1950 to 3040 seconds and a maximum total efficiency of about 54 percent was attained. Preliminary analysis of component lifetimes, as determined by temperature and spectroscopic line intensity measurements, indicated acceptable thruster lifetimes are anticipated at the high power level operation.

  8. Studies of dished accelerator grids for 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Geometrically different sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five 30-cm thrusters. The geometric variation of the grids included the grid-to-grid spacing, the screen and accelerator hole diameters and thicknesses, the screen and accelerator open area fractions, ratio of dish depth to the dish diameter, compensation, and aperture shape. In general, the data taken over a range of beam currents for each grid set included the minimum total accelerating voltage required to extract a given beam current and the minimum accelerator grid voltage required to prevent electron backstreaming.

  9. The 100 cm solar telescope primary mirror study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The manufacturing impact of primary mirror configuration on the performance of a 100 cm aperture solar telescope was studied. Three primary mirror configurations were considered: solid, standard lightweight, and mushroom. All of these are of low expansion material. Specifically, the study consisted of evaluating the mirrors with regard to: manufacturing metrology, manufacturing risk factors and ultimate quality assessment. As a result of this evaluation, a performance comparison of the configurations was made, and a recommendation of mirror configuration is the final output. These evaluations, comparisons and recommendations are discussed in detail. Other investigations were completed and are documented in the appendices.

  10. A multiple thruster array for 30-cm thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.; Mantenieks, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    The 3.0-m diameter chamber of the 7.6-m diameter by 21.4-m long vacuum tank at NASA LeRC was modified to permit testing of an array of up to six 30-cm thrusters with a variety of laboratory and thermal vacuum bread-board power systems. A primary objective of the Multiple Thruster Array (MTA) program is to assess the impact of multiple thruster operation on individual thruster and power processor requirements. The areas of thruster startup, steady-state operation, throttling, high voltage recycle, thrust vectoring, and shutdown are of special concern. The results of initial tests are reported.

  11. Endurance testing of a 30-cm Kaufman thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a program to demonstrate lifetime capability of a 30-cm Kaufman ion thruster with a 6000 hour endurance test are described. Included in the program are (1) thruster fabrication, (2) design and construction of a test console containing a transistorized high frequency power processor, and control circuits which provide unattended automatic operation of the thruster, and (3) modification of a vacuum facility to incorporate a frozen mercury collector and permit unattended operation. Four tests ranging in duration from 100 to 1100 hours have been completed. These tests and the resulting thruster modifications are described. The status of the endurance test is also presented.

  12. Recycle Requirements for NASA's 30 cm Xenon Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical breakdowns have been observed during ion thruster operation. These breakdowns, or arcs, can be caused by several conditions. In flight systems, the power processing unit must be designed to handle these faults autonomously. This has a strong impact on power processor requirements and must be understood fully for the power processing unit being designed for the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness program. In this study, fault conditions were investigated using a NASA 30 cm ion thruster and a power console. Power processing unit output specifications were defined based on the breakdown phenomena identified and characterized.

  13. Control of a 30 cm diameter mercury bombardment thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terdan, F. F.; Bechtel, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Increased thruster performance has made closed-loop automatic control more difficult than previously. Specifically, high perveance optics tend to make reliable recycling more difficult. Control logic functions were established for three automatic modes of operation of a 30-cm thruster using a power conditioner console with flight-like characteristics. The three modes provide (1) automatic startup to reach thermal stability, (2) steady-state closed-loop control, and (3) the reliable recycling of the high voltages following an arc breakdown to reestablish normal operation. Power supply impedance characteristics necessary for stable operation and the effect of the magnetic baffle on the reliable recycling was studied.

  14. Performance documentation of the Engineering Model 30 cm diameter Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Rawlin, V. K.

    1976-01-01

    Presented are the results of extensive testing of two 30-cm ion thrusters which are virtually identical to the 900 series Engineering Model Thruster in an ongoing 15,000-hour life test. Included are performance data for the nominal full-power (2650 W) operating point; performance sensitivities to discharge voltage, discharge losses, accelerator voltage, and magnetic baffle current; and several power throttling techniques (maximum Isp, maximum thrust/power ratio, and two cases in between). Criteria for throttling are specified in terms of the screen power supply envelope, thruster operating limits, and control stability. In addition, reduced requirements for successful high voltage recycles are presented.

  15. Affordable chelle spectroscopy with a 60 cm telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribulla, T.; Garai, Z.; Hamblek, L.; Kollr, V.; Komk, R.; Kundra, E.; Nedoro?k, J.; Seker, M.; Va?ko, M

    2015-09-01

    A new fiber-fed spectrograph was installed at the 60 cm telescope of the Star Lesn Observatory. The article presents tests of its performance (spectral resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, radial-velocity stability) and reports observations of selected variable stars and exoplanet host stars. First test observations show that the spectrograph is an ideal tool to observe bright eclipsing and spectroscopic binaries but also symbiotic and nova-like stars. The radial-velocity stability (60-80 ms-1) is sufficient to study spectroscopic binaries and to detect easily the orbital motion of hot-Jupiter extrasolar planets around bright stars.

  16. 30 cm Engineering Model thruster design and qualification tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnelker, D. E.; Collett, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    Development of a 30-cm mercury electron bombardment Engineering Model ion thruster has successfully brought the thruster from the status of a laboratory experimental device to a point approaching flight readiness. This paper describes the development progress of the Engineering Model (EM) thruster in four areas: (1) design features and fabrication approaches, (2) performance verification and thruster to thruster variations, (3) structural integrity, and (4) interface definition. The design of major subassemblies, including the cathode-isolator-vaporizer (CIV), main isolator-vaporizer (MIV), neutralizer isolator-vaporizer (NIV), ion optical system, and discharge chamber/outer housing is discussed along with experimental results.

  17. Performance mapping of a 30 cm engineering model thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Vahrenkamp, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A 30 cm thruster representative of the engineering model design has been tested over a wide range of operating parameters to document performance characteristics such as electrical and propellant efficiencies, double ion and beam divergence thrust loss, component equilibrium temperatures, operational stability, etc. Data obtained show that optimum power throttling, in terms of maximum thruster efficiency, is not highly sensitive to parameter selection. Consequently, considerations of stability, discharge chamber erosion, thrust losses, etc. can be made the determining factors for parameter selection in power throttling operations. Options in parameter selection based on these considerations are discussed.

  18. Expression, purification and improved antigenicity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PstS1 antigen for serodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Won-Hyun; Lee, Won-Kyu; Ryoo, Sung Weon; Yoo, Ki-Yeol; Tae, Gun-Sik

    2014-03-01

    The phosphate-specific transport substrate binding protein-1 (PstS1) is a potential antigen used for the serological diagnosis of tuberculosis. For a highly specific diagnostic result, it is important that the recombinant PstS1 be highly pure and correctly folded. In this study, the PstS1 was expressed as fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase (PstS1-GST) and Escherichia coli trigger factor (PstS1-TF) and their immunodiagnostic potentials were evaluated. The insoluble PstS1-GST was denatured and refolded to the native conformation by a step-gradient dilution, followed by purification with affinity chromatography on immobilized glutathione whereas the soluble PstS1-TF was directly purified by Ni-NTA affinity and size-exclusion chromatographies. The levels of antibody responses to PstS1-TF and PstS1-GST were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the sera of 22 tuberculosis patients with smear-positive and culture-positive tuberculosis as well as 20 healthy individuals; the antigenicities of the samples were evaluated in terms of sensitivity and specificity. To determine the diagnostic accuracy, receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and then the areas under the ROC curves (AUC) were calculated; the AUC values for PstS1-TF and PstS1-GST were 0.971 and 0.877 with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 0.927-1.000 and 0.768-0.986, respectively. The specificity of PstS1-TF was reduced from 89.5% to 84.2%, but in case of PstS1-GST it dropped drastically from 78.9% to 26.3% when the sensitivity was raised from 86.4% up to 95.5%. These results indicate that PstS1-TF is capable of producing more accurate and consistent serodiagnostic results than PstS1-GST, possibly due to its conformation being closer to the native state. PMID:24326191

  19. S1 statistic with Hodges-Lehmann in two groups case for skewed distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lee Ping; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Ahad, Nor Aishah

    2015-12-01

    This study is focused on the modification of S1 statistic, a procedure for testing the equality of groups, by replacing median with Hodges-Lehmann estimator as the location measure in two groups case under skewed distribution. The modification is also extended to the default scale estimator of Hodges-Lehmann, S1(HL) and robust scale estimator, MADn, S1(MADn). The purpose of the modifications is to improve the robustness of the statistic. To test the strengths and weaknesses of S1(HL) and S1(MADn), a simulation study was conducted. Several variables such as the shape of distributions, balanced and unbalanced group sizes, equal and unequal variances and nature of pairings were manipulated to create various conditions for the data. Since the distribution of S1 statistic is unknown, bootstrap method was used for data generation. According to Guo and Luh, a test statistic is considered robust if its empirical error rate does not exceed 0.075 when ? = 0.05. Refer to the results obtained, S1(HL) and S1(MADn) can be considered as robust due to all error rates fall below 0.075 for balanced and unbalanced design in each distribution. t-test and Mann-Whitney are the chosen methods for comparison purpose. For balanced design, t-test and Mann-Whitney shown better results compare to S1(HL) and S1(MADn). However, for unbalanced design especially in negative pairing, S1(MADn) is the most appropriate method to be used across three distributions.

  20. Blocking peptides against HBV: PreS1 protein selected from a phage display library

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Zu, Xiangyang; Jin, Rui; Xiao, Gengfu

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Successfully selected specific PreS1-interacting peptides by using phage displayed library. {yields} Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a consensus PreS1 binding motif. {yields} A highly enriched peptide named P7 had a strong binding ability for PreS1. {yields} P7 could block PreS1 attachment. -- Abstract: The PreS1 protein is present on the outermost part of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface and has been shown to have a pivotal function in viral infectivity and assembly. The development of reagents with high affinity and specificity for PreS1 is of great significance for early diagnosis and treatment of HBV infection. A phage display library of dodecapeptide was screened for interactions with purified PreS1 protein. Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a putative consensus PreS1 binding motif of HX{sub n}HX{sub m}HP/R. Moreover, a peptide named P7 (KHMHWHPPALNT) was highly enriched and occurred with a surprisingly high frequency of 72%. A thermodynamic study revealed that P7 has a higher binding affinity to PreS1 than the other peptides. Furthermore, P7 was able to abrogate the binding of HBV virions to the PreS1 antibody, suggesting that P7 covers key functional sites on the native PreS1 protein. This newly isolated peptide may, therefore, be a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of HBV. The consensus motif could be modified to deliver imaging, diagnostic, and therapeutic agents to tissues affected by HBV.

  1. Presolar grains in the CM2 chondrite Sutter's Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuchao; Lin, Yangting; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Zhang, Jianchao; Hao, Jialong; Zolensky, Michael; Jenniskens, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The Sutter's Mill (SM) carbonaceous chondrite is a regolith breccia, composed predominantly of CM2 clasts with varying degrees of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. An investigation of presolar grains in four Sutter's Mill sections, SM43, SM51, SM2-4, and SM18, was carried out using NanoSIMS ion mapping technique. A total of 37 C-anomalous grains and one O-anomalous grain have been identified, indicating an abundance of 63 ppm for presolar C-anomalous grains and 2 ppm for presolar oxides. Thirty-one silicon carbide (SiC), five carbonaceous grains, and one Al-oxide (Al2O3) were confirmed based on their elemental compositions determined by C-N-Si and O-Si-Mg-Al isotopic measurements. The overall abundance of SiC grains in Sutter's Mill (55 ppm) is consistent with those in other CM chondrites. The absence of presolar silicates in Sutter's Mill suggests that they were destroyed by aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid. Furthermore, SM2-4 shows heterogeneous distributions of presolar SiC grains (12-54 ppm) in different matrix areas, indicating that the fine-grained matrix clasts come from different sources, with various thermal histories, in the solar nebula.

  2. Electric prototype power processor for a 30cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.; Schoenfeld, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical prototype power processor unit was designed, fabricated and tested with a 30 cm mercury ion engine for primary space propulsion. The power processor unit used the thyristor series resonant inverter as the basic power stage for the high power beam and discharge supplies. A transistorized series resonant inverter processed the remaining power for the low power outputs. The power processor included a digital interface unit to process all input commands and internal telemetry signals so that electric propulsion systems could be operated with a central computer system. The electrical prototype unit included design improvement in the power components such as thyristors, transistors, filters and resonant capacitors, and power transformers and inductors in order to reduce component weight, to minimize losses, and to control the component temperature rise. A design analysis for the electrical prototype is also presented on the component weight, losses, part count and reliability estimate. The electrical prototype was tested in a thermal vacuum environment. Integration tests were performed with a 30 cm ion engine and demonstrated operational compatibility. Electromagnetic interference data was also recorded on the design to provide information for spacecraft integration.

  3. Design of FOSC for 360-cm Devasthal Optical Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, A.; Yadav, R. K. S.; Shukla, V.; Mondal, S.; Pant, J.

    2012-09-01

    A Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (FOSC) is designed for the upcoming 360-cm optical telescope at Devasthal. The design is based on other available similar instruments, having a collimator and camera unit. The instrument converts F/9 beam from the telescope to a nearly F/4.3 beam. The collimator and camera optics have 7 and 5 elements respectively with one aspheric component. The low dispersion glasses such as CaF2 and PBM/PBL/FSL are used in order to minimize the chromatic aberrations. These glasses also have very good transmission near blue wavelengths. The imaging is possible both in narrow and broad band filters up to the field of view of ~ 14' x 14' or 19' along the diagonal. The spectroscopy can be performed in the wavelength range 350 - 900 nm with several choices of grisms and slits with resolution in the range of 250 - 2000. The theoretical spot sizes in the imaging mode are expected in the range 0:04" - 0:11". The overall transmission of the camera and collimator optics is expected as ~ 75% at 350 nm and > 95% at wavelengths above 400 nm. The total weight of the instrument as designed is around 350 kg. The instrument is currently planned to be assembled in the Institute laboratory and to be commissioned on the 360-cm telescope in October 2013. The design methodology, techniques, and expected performance of the optics are presented here.

  4. Probing patchy reionization through τ-21 cm correlation statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Meerburg, P. Daniel; Spergel, David N.; Dvorkin, Cora E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu

    2013-12-20

    We consider the cross-correlation between free electrons and neutral hydrogen during the epoch of reionization (EoR). The free electrons are traced by the optical depth to reionization τ, while the neutral hydrogen can be observed through 21 cm photon emission. As expected, this correlation is sensitive to the detailed physics of reionization. Foremost, if reionization occurs through the merger of relatively large halos hosting an ionizing source, the free electrons and neutral hydrogen are anticorrelated for most of the reionization history. A positive contribution to the correlation can occur when the halos that can form an ionizing source are small. A measurement of this sign change in the cross-correlation could help disentangle the bias and the ionization history. We estimate the signal-to-noise ratio of the cross-correlation using the estimator for inhomogeneous reionization τ-hat {sub ℓm} proposed by Dvorkin and Smith. We find that with upcoming radio interferometers and cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments, the cross-correlation is measurable going up to multipoles ℓ ∼ 1000. We also derive parameter constraints and conclude that, despite the foregrounds, the cross-correlation provides a complementary measurement of the EoR parameters to the 21 cm and CMB polarization autocorrelations expected to be observed in the coming decade.

  5. Altimeter error sources at the 10-cm performance level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Error sources affecting the calibration and operational use of a 10 cm altimeter are examined to determine the magnitudes of current errors and the investigations necessary to reduce them to acceptable bounds. Errors considered include those affecting operational data pre-processing, and those affecting altitude bias determination, with error budgets developed for both. The most significant error sources affecting pre-processing are bias calibration, propagation corrections for the ionosphere, and measurement noise. No ionospheric models are currently validated at the required 10-25% accuracy level. The optimum smoothing to reduce the effects of measurement noise is investigated and found to be on the order of one second, based on the TASC model of geoid undulations. The 10 cm calibrations are found to be feasible only through the use of altimeter passes that are very high elevation for a tracking station which tracks very close to the time of altimeter track, such as a high elevation pass across the island of Bermuda. By far the largest error source, based on the current state-of-the-art, is the location of the island tracking station relative to mean sea level in the surrounding ocean areas.

  6. Characterization of an 8-cm Diameter Ion Source System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhongmin; Hawk, C. W.; Hawk, Clark W.; Buttweiler, Mark S.; Williams, John D.; Buchholtz, Brett

    2005-01-01

    Results of tests characterizing an 8-cm diameter ion source are presented. The tests were conducted in three separate vacuum test facilities at the University of Alabama-Huntsville, Colorado State University, and L3 Communications' ETI division. Standard ion optics tests describing electron backstreaming and total-voltage-limited impingement current behavior as a function of beam current were used as guidelines for selecting operating conditions where more detailed ion beam measurements were performed. The ion beam was profiled using an in-vacuum actuating probe system to determine the total ion current density and the ion charge state distribution variation across the face of the ion source. Both current density and ExB probes were utilized. The ion current density data were used to obtain integrated beam current, beam flatness parameters, and general beam profile shapes. The ExB probe data were used to determine the ratio of doubly to singly charged ion current. The ion beam profile tests were performed at over six different operating points that spanned the expected operating range of the DAWN thrusters being developed at L3. The characterization tests described herein reveal that the 8-cm ion source is suitable for use in (a) validating plasma diagnostic equipment, (b) xenon ion sputtering and etching studies of spacecraft materials, (c) plasma physics research, and (d) the study of ion thruster optics at varying conditions.

  7. Power processor for a 20CM ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Schoenfeld, A. D.; Cohen, E.

    1973-01-01

    A power processor breadboard for the JPL 20CM Ion Engine was designed, fabricated, and tested to determine compliance with the electrical specification. The power processor breadboard used the silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) series resonant inverter as the basic power stage to process all the power to the ion engine. The breadboard power processor was integrated with the JPL 20CM ion engine and complete testing was performed. The integration tests were performed without any silicon-controlled rectifier failure. This demonstrated the ruggedness of the series resonant inverter in protecting the switching elements during arcing in the ion engine. A method of fault clearing the ion engine and returning back to normal operation without elaborate sequencing and timing control logic was evolved. In this method, the main vaporizer was turned off and the discharge current limit was reduced when an overload existed on the screen/accelerator supply. After the high voltage returned to normal, both the main vaporizer and the discharge were returned to normal.

  8. CONTRIBUTIONS OF TERMINAL PEPTIDES TO THE ASSOCIATIVE BEHAVIOR OF ALPHA-S1 CASEIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The N- and C-terminal segments of bovine alpha-s1 casein-B (f1-23 and f136-196) were characterized under conditions that promoted or inhibited self-association to determine the relative contributions of each fragment to the interaction of alpha-s1 casein with itself or with other caseins. In earlie...

  9. Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus S-1, an Efficient Isoeugenol-Utilizing Producer for Natural Vanillin

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Hua, Dongliang; Zhang, Zhaobin; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Hongzhi; Tao, Fei; Tai, Cui; Wu, Qiulin; Wu, Geng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus S-1 is an efficient isoeugenol-utilizing producer of natural vanillin. The genome of B. pumilus S-1 contains the epoxide hydrolase and six candidate monooxygenases that make it possible to explore the mechanism involved in conversion of isoenguenol to vanillin in the B. pumilus strain. PMID:22038964

  10. Phosphorylated FTY720 stimulates ERK phosphorylation in astrocytes via S1P receptors.

    PubMed

    Osinde, Maribel; Mullershausen, Florian; Dev, Kumlesh K

    2007-04-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1P1-5) are activated by the endogenous agonist S1P and are expressed in the central nervous system. In astrocytes, activation of S1P receptors leads to phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK), a signaling cascade which plays intimate roles in cell proliferation. Fingolimod (FTY720) is in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and its phosphorylated version (FTY720P) activates S1P receptors. We examined the effects of FTY720P on ERK phosphorylation and determined which S1P receptor subtype(s) mediated this signaling event. FTY720P augmented ERK phosphorylation in cortical cultures prepared from embryonic day 18 rat brains and was blocked by an MEK inhibitor or by pertussis toxin. Co-localisation of phosphorylated ERK occurred in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive astrocytes but not neurons or oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, FTY720P stimulated ERK phosphorylation in highly enriched astrocyte cultures made from postnatal day 2 rat cortices. The effects of FTY720P were mimicked by selective S1P1 receptor agonists and blocked by S1P1 receptor antagonists. Collectively, these results demonstrate that FTY720P mediates ERK phosphorylation in astrocytes via the activation of S1P1 receptors. PMID:17379261

  11. Host endothelial S1PR1 regulation of vascular permeability modulates tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Sarkisyan, Gor; Gay, Laurie J.; Nguyen, Nhan; Felding, Brunhilde H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding vascular growth and maturation in developing tumors has important implications for tumor progression, spread, and ultimately host survival. Modulating the signaling of endothelial G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in blood and lymphatic vessels can enhance or limit tumor progression. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) is a GPCR for circulating lysophospholipid S1P that is highly expressed in blood and lymphatic vessels. Using the S1PR1- enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) mouse model in combination with intravital imaging and pharmacologic modulation of S1PR1 signaling, we show that boundary conditions of high and low S1PR1 signaling retard tumor progression by enhancing or destabilizing neovasculature integrity, respectively. In contrast, midrange S1PR1 signaling, achieved by receptor antagonist titration, promotes abundant growth of small, organized vessels and thereby enhances tumor progression. Furthermore, in vivo S1PR1 antagonism supports lung colonization by circulating tumor cells. Regulation of endothelial S1PR1 dynamically controls vascular integrity and maturation and thus modulates angiogenesis, tumor growth, and hematogenous metastasis. PMID:24740542

  12. VIEW OF THE FROM SIDE OF WHARF S1 FROM WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE FROM SIDE OF WHARF S1 FROM WEST END OF QUARRY LOCK, FACING NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Submarine Base, Berthing Wharf S1, South Waterfront Road along north side of Quarry Loch, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Calcium alone does not fully activate the thin filament for S1 binding to rigor myofibrils.

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, D R; Moss, R L; Greaser, M L

    1996-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contraction is regulated by calcium via troponin and tropomyosin and appears to involve cooperative activation of cross-bridge binding to actin. We studied the regulation of fluorescent myosin subfragment 1 (fS1) binding to rigor myofibrils over a wide range of fS1 and calcium levels using highly sensitive imaging techniques. At low calcium and low fS1, the fluorescence was restricted to the actin-myosin overlap region. At high calcium and very low fS1, the fluorescence was still predominantly in the overlap region. The ratio of nonoverlap to overlap fluorescence intensity showed that increases in the fS1 level resulted in a shift in maximum fluorescence from the overlap to the nonoverlap region at both low and high calcium; this transition occurred at lower fS1 levels in myofibrils with high calcium. At a fixed fS1 level, increases in calcium also resulted in a shift in maximum fluorescence from the overlap region to the nonoverlap region. These results suggest that calcium alone does not fully activate the thin filament for rigor S1 binding and that, even at high calcium, the thin filament is not activated along its entire length. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 11 PMID:8889164

  14. Enhanced Raman scattering from cesium suboxides on silver particles and the structure of S-1 photocathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, C. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An explanation is given for the results of recent enhanced Raman scattering studies of photomultiplier tubes with S-1 photocathode surfaces which indicated the presence of Cs11O3 but not Cs2O. The reason for the discrepancy between the currently accepted model of the S-1 and this recent result is discussed.

  15. Primary structure of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S1 and of its gene rpsA.

    PubMed Central

    Schnier, J; Kimura, M; Foulaki, K; Subramanian, A R; Isono, K; Wittmann-Liebold, B

    1982-01-01

    The primary structure of proteins S1, the largest protein component of the Escherichia coli ribosome, has been elucidated by determining the amino acid sequence of the protein (from E. coli MRE600) and the nucleotide sequence of the S1 gene (rpsA, of a K-12 strain). The two methods gave results in perfect agreement except of two positions where possible strain specific differences were found. Protein S1 (MRE600) is composed of 557 amino acid residues (no modified amino acids were detected) and has Mr 61,159. The DNA sequence for protein S1 (K-12) suggests 556 amino acid residues. A computer survey of the sequence revealed three regions in S1 with a high degree of internal homology. The ribosome binding domain of S1 (NH2 terminus) does not show any preponderance of basic amino acids. The two cysteine and the majority of tryptophan residues of S1 as well as two od the three homologous regions were located in its middle region which contains the nucleic acid binding domain. The pattern of degenerate codon usage in the S1 gene is nonrandom and similar to that reported for other ribosomal protein genes. PMID:7041110

  16. Activation of S1P2 receptor, a possible mechanism of inhibition of adipogenic differentiation by sphingosine 1?phosphate.

    PubMed

    Moon, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Park, Sang-Youel

    2015-02-01

    Sphingosine 1?phosphate (S1P) belongs to a significant group of signaling sphingolipids and exerts most of its activity as a ligand of G?protein?coupled receptors. In our previous study, S1P demonstrated a novel biological activity with the anti?adipogenesis of 3T3?L1 preadipocytes. In the present study, we identified a possible mechanism of S1P?mediated anti?adipogenic effects, particularly in target pathways of the S1P receptors, including S1P1 and S1P2. The mRNA levels of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors were increased by MDI media treatment, whereas S1P treatment highly induced S1P2 but not S1P1 receptor protein in adipocytes. Triglyceride accumulation assay using an agonist and antagonist of S1P receptors revealed that S1P2 receptor was only involved in S1P?mediated anti?adipogenic effects. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of S1P2 signals completely retrieved S1P?mediated downregulation of the transcriptional levels of peroxisome proliferator?activated receptor ?, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? and adiponectin, which are markers of adipogenic differentiation. This study demonstrated that S1P2 receptor signals may regulate the S1P?mediated anti?adipogenic differentiation and also identifies the S1P2 receptor as a possible mechanism of anti?adipogenic differentiation. PMID:25351259

  17. Short communication: Carora cattle show high variability in alpha(s1)-casein.

    PubMed

    Caroli, A; Chessa, S; Chiatti, F; Rignanese, D; Melndez, B; Rizzi, R; Ceriotti, G

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic variability of milk proteins of the Carora, a shorthorned Bos taurus cattle breed in Venezuela and in other Southern American countries that is primarily used for milk production. A total of 184 individual milk samples were collected from Carora cattle in 5 herds in Venezuela. The milk protein genes alpha(s1)-casein (CN) (CSN1S1), beta-CN (CSN2), kappa-CN (CSN3), and beta-lactoglobulin (LGB) were typed at the protein level by isoelectrofocusing. It was necessary to further analyze CSN1S1 at the DNA level by a PCR-based method to distinguish CSN1S1*G from B. Increased variation was found in particular at the CSN1S1 gene, where 4 variants were identified. The predominant variant was CSN1S1*B (frequency = 0.8). The second most common CSN1S1 variant was CSN1S1*G (0.101), followed by CSN1S1*C (0.082). Moreover, a new isoelectrofocusing pattern was identified, which may result from a novel CSN1S1 variant, named CSN1S1*I, migrating at an intermediate position between CSN1S1*B and CSN1S1*C. Six cows carried the variant at the heterozygous condition. For the other loci, predominance of CSN2*A2 (0.764), CSN3*B (0.609), and LGB*B (0.592) was observed. Haplotype frequencies (AF) at the CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN3 complex were also estimated by taking association into account. Only 7 haplotypes showed AF values >0.05, accounting for a cumulative frequency of 0.944. The predominant haplotype was B-A2-B (frequency = 0.418), followed by B-A2-A (0.213). The occurrence of the G variant is at a rather high frequency, which is of interest for selection within the Carora breed because of the negative association of this variant with the synthesis of the specific protein. From a cheese-making point of view, this variant is associated with improved milk-clotting parameters but is negatively associated with cheese ripening. Thus, milk protein typing should be routinely carried out in the breed, with particular emphasis on using a DNA test to detect the CSN1S*G variant. The CSN1S*G allele is likely to have descended from the Brown Swiss, which contributed to the Carora breed and also carries this allele. PMID:18096958

  18. Memo Has a Novel Role in S1P Signaling and Crucial for Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Shunya; Bottos, Alessia; Allegood, Jeremy C.; Masson, Regis; Maurer, Francisca G.; Genoud, Christel; Kaeser, Patrick; Huwiler, Andrea; Murakami, Masato; Spiegel, Sarah; Hynes, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Memo is a conserved protein that was identified as an essential mediator of tumor cell motility induced by receptor tyrosine kinase activation. Here we show that Memo null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are impaired in PDGF-induced migration and this is due to a defect in sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling. S1P is a bioactive phospholipid produced in response to multiple stimuli, which regulates many cellular processes. S1P is secreted to the extracellular milieu where it exerts its function by binding a family of G-protein coupled receptors (S1PRs), causing their activation in an autocrine or paracrine manner. The process, termed cell-autonomous S1PR signaling, plays a role in survival and migration. Indeed, PDGF uses cell-autonomous S1PR signaling to promote cell migration; we show here that this S1P pathway requires Memo. Using vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) with Memo knock-down we show that their survival in conditions of serum-starvation is impaired. Furthermore, Memo loss in HUVECs causes a reduction of junctional VE-cadherin and an increase in sprout formation. Each of these phenotypes is rescued by S1P or S1P agonist addition, showing that Memo also plays an important role in cell-autonomous S1PR signaling in endothelial cells. We also produced conventional and endothelial cell-specific conditional Memo knock-out mouse strains and show that Memo is essential for embryonic development. Starting at E13.5 embryos of both strains display bleeding and other vascular problems, some of the phenotypes that have been described in mouse strains lacking S1PRs. The essential role of Memo in embryonic vascular development may be due in part to alterations in S1P signaling. Taken together our results show that Memo has a novel role in the S1P pathway and that Memo is needed to promote cell-autonomous S1PR activation. PMID:24714781

  19. Volatiles on solar system objects: Carbon dioxide on Iapetus and aqueous alteration in CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Eric Edward

    2009-12-01

    Volatiles are critical in understanding the history of the solar system. We conducted two case studies intended to further this understanding. First, we analyzed the presence of CO2 on Iapetus. Second, we evaluated aqueous alteration in CM chondrites. We studied the distribution, stability and production of CO2 on Saturn's moon Iapetus. We determined that CO2 is concentrated exclusively on Iapetus' dark material with an effective thickness of 31 nm. The total CO2 on Iapetus' surface is 2.3x108 kg. However, CO2 should not be present because it has a limited residence time on the surface of Iapetus. Our thermal calculations and modeling show that CO2 in the form of frost will not remain on Iapetus' surface beyond a few hundred years. Thus, it must be complexed with dark material. However, photodissociation will destroy the observed inventory in 1/2 an Earth year. The lack of thermal and radiolytic stability requires an active source. We conducted experiments showing UV radiation generates CO2 under Iapetus-like conditions. We created a simulated regolith by mixing crushed water ice with isotopically labeled carbon. We then irradiated it with UV light at low temperature and pressure, producing 1.1x1015 parts m-2 s-1. Extrapolating to Iapetus, photolysis could generate 8.4x107 kg y-1, which makes photolytic production a good candidate for the source of the CO2 detected on Iapetus. We also studied the aqueous alteration of metal-bearing assemblages in CM chondrites. We examined Murchison, Cold Bokkeveld, Nogoya, and Murray using microscopy, electron microprobe analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Alteration on CM meteorites occurred within at least three microchemical environments: S-rich water, Si-rich water and water without substantial reactive components. Kamacite alters into tochilinite, cronstedtite, or magnetite. Sulfur associated alteration can form accessory minerals: P-rich sulfides, eskolaite and schreibersite. Additionally, we determined that there were two alteration events for some CM chondrites. The first formed a hydrated matrix prior to accretion, indicated by unaltered kamacite surrounded by a hydrated matrix. The second occurred after parent body formation. This event is indicated by large regions with consistent alteration features, surrounded by other regions of less altered material.

  20. [A case of drug-induced pulmonary injury showing organizing pneumonia pattern due to S-1].

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroaki; Shinano, Hideki; Kuraya, Daisuke; Fujioka, Yasunori

    2012-06-01

    Reported here is the case of a 76-year-old male with gastric cancer. Distal gastrectomy was performed after his admission to our hospital. Histopathologically, the cancer was determined to be in the advanced stage. Combination chemotherapy with CDDP and S-1 was administered for 6 courses, after which S-1 was used alone. Chest X-ray and CT showed multiple dispersed lesions in the lung. Further examination by bronchoscope was performed. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen revealed the lesion to be organizing pneumonia. A drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) for S-1 proved to be positive. Discontinuation of S-1 administration led to natural improvement of the pneumonia. These results suggest that S-1 had induced the organizing pneumonia. PMID:22705691

  1. Preliminary comparison of 3.5-cm and 12.6-cm wavelength continuous wave observations of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J.; Obrien, T. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.; Thompson, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    Radar observations of Mars at Goldstone in 1990 were conducted by transmitting pure sinusoidal signals at 3.5-cm wavelengths and receiving the Doppler-spread echoes from Mars at Earth. Radar transmissions were circularly polarized and the echoes recorded in two senses: depolarized and polarized. Latitudes of the subradar points are between 3.5 deg and 11.1 deg S; longitude coverage is discontinuous. The observed depolarized and polarized echo total cross-sections and their ratios for two wavelengths were compared and discussed.

  2. P-O-rich sulfide phase in CM chondrites: Constraints on its origin on the CM parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ai-Cheng; Itoh, Shoichi; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Hsu, Wei-Biao; Wang, Ru-Cheng; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2015-12-01

    CM chondrites are a group of primitive meteorites that have recorded the alteration history of the early solar system. We report the occurrence, chemistry, and oxygen isotopic compositions of P-O-rich sulfide phase in two CM chondrites (Grove Mountains [GRV] 021536 and Murchison). This P-O-rich sulfide is a polycrystalline aggregate of nanometer-size grains. It occurs as isolated particles or aggregates in both CM chondrites. These grains, in the matrix and in type-I chondrules from Murchison, were partially altered into tochilinite; however, grains enclosed by Ca-carbonate are much less altered. This P-O-rich sulfide in Murchison is closely associated with magnetite, FeNi phosphide, brezinaite (Cr3S4), and eskolaite (Cr2O3). In addition to sulfur as the major component, this sulfide contains ~6.3 wt% O, ~5.4 wt% P, and minor amounts of hydrogen. Analyses of oxygen isotopes by SIMS resulted in an average ?18O value of -22.5 and an average ?17O value of 0.2 9.2 (2?). Limited variations in both chemical compositions and electron-diffraction patterns imply that the P-O-rich sulfide may be a single phase rather than a polyphase mixture. Several features indicate that this P-O-rich sulfide phase formed at low temperature on the parent body, most likely through the alteration of FeNi metal (a) close association with other low-temperature alteration products, (b) the presence of hydrogen, (c) high ?17O values and the presence in altered mesostasis of type-I chondrules and absence in type-II chondrules. The textural relations of the P-O-rich sulfide and other low-temperature minerals reveal at least three episodic-alteration events on the parent body of CM chondrites (1) formation of P-O-rich sulfide during sulfur-rich aqueous alteration of P-rich FeNi metal, (2) formation of Ca-carbonate during local carbonation, and (3) alteration of P-O-rich sulfide and formation of tochilinite during a period of late-stage intensive aqueous alteration.

  3. P-O-rich sulfide phase in CM chondrites: Constraints on its origin on the CM parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ai-Cheng; Itoh, Shoichi; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Hsu, Wei-Biao; Wang, Ru-Cheng; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2016-01-01

    CM chondrites are a group of primitive meteorites that have recorded the alteration history of the early solar system. We report the occurrence, chemistry, and oxygen isotopic compositions of P-O-rich sulfide phase in two CM chondrites (Grove Mountains [GRV] 021536 and Murchison). This P-O-rich sulfide is a polycrystalline aggregate of nanometer-size grains. It occurs as isolated particles or aggregates in both CM chondrites. These grains, in the matrix and in type-I chondrules from Murchison, were partially altered into tochilinite; however, grains enclosed by Ca-carbonate are much less altered. This P-O-rich sulfide in Murchison is closely associated with magnetite, FeNi phosphide, brezinaite (Cr3S4), and eskolaite (Cr2O3). In addition to sulfur as the major component, this sulfide contains ~6.3 wt% O, ~5.4 wt% P, and minor amounts of hydrogen. Analyses of oxygen isotopes by SIMS resulted in an average δ18O value of -22.5 ‰ and an average Δ17O value of 0.2 ± 9.2 ‰ (2σ). Limited variations in both chemical compositions and electron-diffraction patterns imply that the P-O-rich sulfide may be a single phase rather than a polyphase mixture. Several features indicate that this P-O-rich sulfide phase formed at low temperature on the parent body, most likely through the alteration of FeNi metal (a) close association with other low-temperature alteration products, (b) the presence of hydrogen, (c) high Δ17O values and the presence in altered mesostasis of type-I chondrules and absence in type-II chondrules. The textural relations of the P-O-rich sulfide and other low-temperature minerals reveal at least three episodic-alteration events on the parent body of CM chondrites (1) formation of P-O-rich sulfide during sulfur-rich aqueous alteration of P-rich FeNi metal, (2) formation of Ca-carbonate during local carbonation, and (3) alteration of P-O-rich sulfide and formation of tochilinite during a period of late-stage intensive aqueous alteration.

  4. Molecular cloning and expression of Cro s 1: an occupational allergen from saffron pollen (Crocus sativus)

    PubMed Central

    Varasteh, Abdol-Reza; Sankian, Mojtaba; Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi; Moghadam, Malihe; Shakeri, Mohamad Taghi; Brooks, Edward G.; Goldblum, Randall M.; Chapman, Martin D.; Pomés, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background: The cultivation of saffron is expanding through the southeast of Iran, and allergy to saffron pollen occurs in workers involved in processing this plant. We aimed to clone, sequence and express a major allergen involved in saffron pollen allergy, and to compare the recombinant with the natural allergen. Methods: The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Cro s 1, an allergen from saffron pollen, was determined after immunoblotting. The cDNA encoding for this allergen was cloned by PCR utilizing a primer based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. Recombinant Cro s 1 (rCro s 1) was expressed as a soluble protein in Pichia pastoris and purified to homogeneity by gel filtration. Inhibition of IgE binding to rCro s 1 by pollen extract was analyzed by ELISA. Section Title The allergen Cro s 1 was identified from saffron pollen extracts and cloned by PCR. Cro s 1 cDNA defined an acidic polypeptide with homology to pollen proteins from Chenopodium album and Ligastrum vulgaris. The rCro s 1 was expressed in P. pastoris at 28 mg/l. Saffron pollen extract inhibited the binding of patient serum IgE to rCro s 1. Conclusion: We identified and cloned the first Crocus sativus pollen allergen. rCro s 1 cDNA shows a very high homology with Che a 1, the major allergen of lamb's-quarter, Chenopodium album, Caryophyllales, pollen (97%). Cro s 1 is a useful tool for specific diagnosis and structural studies of occupational allergy to saffron.

  5. The role of the S1 domain in exoribonucleolytic activity: Substrate specificity and multimerization

    PubMed Central

    Amblar, Mnica; Barbas, Ana; Gomez-Puertas, Paulino; Arraiano, Ceclia M.

    2007-01-01

    RNase II is a 3?-5? exoribonuclease that processively hydrolyzes single-stranded RNA generating 5? mononucleotides. This enzyme contains a catalytic core that is surrounded by three RNA-binding domains. At its C terminus, there is a typical S1 domain that has been shown to be critical for RNA binding. The S1 domain is also present in the other major 3?-5? exoribonucleases from Escherichia coli: RNase R and polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase). In this report, we examined the involvement of the S1 domain in the different abilities of these three enzymes to overcome RNA secondary structures during degradation. Hybrid proteins were constructed by replacing the S1 domain of RNase II for the S1 from RNase R and PNPase, and their exonucleolytic activity and RNA-binding ability were examined. The results revealed that both the S1 domains of RNase R and PNPase are able to partially reverse the drop of RNA-binding ability and exonucleolytic activity resulting from removal of the S1 domain of RNase II. Moreover, the S1 domains investigated are not equivalent. Furthermore, we demonstrate that S1 is neither responsible for the ability to overcome secondary structures during RNA degradation, nor is it related to the size of the final product generated by each enzyme. In addition, we show that the S1 domain from PNPase is able to induce the trimerization of the RNaseIIPNP hybrid protein, indicating that this domain can have a role in the biogenesis of multimers. PMID:17242308

  6. Estimates of epistatic and pleiotropic effects of casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genetic markers on beef heifer performance traits enhanced by selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. A stable composite population (MARC II) was subjected to marker assisted selection for two years to equalize CSN1S1 and TG genetic marker frequencies to evaluate the epista...

  7. Thermodynamic and circular dichroism studies differentiate inhibitor interactions with the stromelysin S(1)-S(3) and S(')(1)-S(')(3) subsites.

    PubMed

    Sarver, R W; Yuan, P; Marshall, V P; Petzold, G L; Poorman, R A; DeZwaan, J; Stockman, B J

    1999-10-12

    Interactions of stromelysin with a series of inhibitors representative of three chemical templates with distinct binding modes were examined. Unfolding temperatures for inhibitor complexes were 10 degrees C to 15 degrees C greater than for apo stromelysin. Minor changes in ellipticity in the far-UV CD spectra of complexes indicated that ligand-induced conformational changes were localized to the binding site and did not involve gross changes in protein folding. Isothermal titrating calorimetry of thiadiazole-containing inhibitors, which bind in the S(1)-S(3) subsites of stromelysin, indicated that the binding interaction was exothermic and only slightly favorable entropically. Near-UV CD spectra showed large positive ellipticity increases from 250 to 300 nm, consistent with an interaction between the benzene ring of the inhibitor and stromelysin residues Tyr155 and Tyr168. Interactions between stromelysin and amide-hydroxamate ligands, which bind in the S(')(1)-S(')(3) subsites, were found to be both enthalpically and entropically driven. Binding of this class of ligands resulted in modest negative ellipticity changes at 260-285 nm and positive increases at 292 nm. Stromelysin complexed to a lactam-hydroxamate inhibitor with structure extending into both the S(1)-S(3) and S(')(1)-S(')(3) subsites showed increased ellipticity at 245 nm and negative changes at 260-285 and 295 nm. PMID:10525149

  8. Statistical Properties of Interstellar Neutral Hydrogen from 21-CM Absorption Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovisier, J.

    1981-01-01

    The samples of 21-cm absorption spectra from (Crovisier et al., 1978) and from Arecibo (Dickey et al., 1978; Crovisier et al., 1980) are analysed in order to derive the spatial distribution and statistical properties of HI interstellar clouds. Biases caused by velocity blending and spurious features in the Nanay sample are estimated. The distribution of the velocity dispersion inside the clouds peaks around 1 km s-1, but its first moment is 1.7 km s-1. The "apparent spin temperature" of the clouds, as deduced from the comparison of 21-cm emission and absorption, is negatively correlated with optical depth, as already known from former studies; several proposed explanations include observational biases and cloud physics. The comparison of the spin temperatures and the velocity dispersions inside the clouds suggests that turbulent and bulk motions inside the clouds are mildly super- sonic, and may contribute to the heating. The mean number of clouds on a line of sight, with optical depth greater than a given limit, is derived: there is for instance an average of 0.25 cloud with ? > 0.12 on a line of sight reduced to |b| = 90, which corresponds to one such cloud every 700 pc. Spectra at different latitudes were compared assuming a cosecant |b| law, but large-scale local inhomogeneities (especially a deficiency of cold H I at high latitudes) limit the validity of this plane-parallel model. The Arecibo sample contains a relative excess of weak clouds with respect to the sample, which could be due to a more complete Gaussian decomposition of the Arecibo profiles. The distribution of the cloud column densities is found to be proportional to N-1.3HI, and consistent with a mass spectrum proportional to M-1.8. An analysis of the integrated optical depth of the spectra is made, and compared with the analyses of the stellar color excesses. The parameters of the HI interstellar clouds have wide-spread distributions which prevent any description of these objects in terms of a "standard cloud" endowed with average properties.

  9. Astronaut Risk Levels During Crew Module (CM) Land Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.; Littell, Justin

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) is investigating the merits of water and land landings for the crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The merits of these two options are being studied in terms of cost and risk to the astronauts, vehicle, support personnel, and general public. The objective of the present work is to determine the astronaut dynamic response index (DRI), which measures injury risks. Risks are determined for a range of vertical and horizontal landing velocities. A structural model of the crew module (CM) is developed and computational simulations are performed using a transient dynamic simulation analysis code (LS-DYNA) to determine acceleration profiles. Landing acceleration profiles are input in a human factors model that determines astronaut risk levels. Details of the modeling approach, the resulting accelerations, and astronaut risk levels are provided.

  10. Carma 1 CM Line Survey of Orion-Kl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, Douglas; Looney, Leslie; Corby, Joanna F.; Remijan, Anthony

    2015-06-01

    We have conducted the first 1 cm (27-35 GHz) line survey of the Orion-KL region by an array. With a primary beam of 4.5 arcminutes, the survey looks at a region 166,000 AU (0.56 pc) across. The data have a resolution of 6 arcseconds on the sky and 97.6 kHz(1.07-0.84 km/s) in frequency. This region of frequency space is much less crowded than at 3mm or 1mm frequencies and contains the fundamental transitions of several complex molecular species, allowing us to probe the largest extent of the molecular emission. We present the initial results, and comparison to 3mm results, from several species including, dimethyl ether [(CH_3)_2O], ethyl cyanide [C_2H_5CN], acetone [(CH_3)_2CO], SO, and SO_2.

  11. A young region on Enceladus revealed by 2 cm radiometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, P.; Janssen, M.

    2014-04-01

    On 5 November 2011, the Cassini spacecraft had a flyby of Enceladus dedicated to its synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instrument. In the course of that flyby, approximately 80% of Enceladus' surface was also observed serendipitously with the microwave radiometer operating concurrently at 2.2 cm. The radiometry data is analyzed and shown to drop sharply in the leading hemisphere's smooth terrain. This drop is also demonstrated in a series of unresolved distant radiometry measurements spread out over the ten years of the Cassini mission. However, the anomaly is absent from distant unresolved RADAR measurements and not visible in SAR imaging. The anomaly is most likely caused by a young surface (<100MYr in age) which has not yet been processed by micrometeoroid impacts below the electromagnetic skin depth (3 m).

  12. Autumn at Titan's South Pole: The 220 cm-1 Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Achterberg, R. K.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; de Kok, R. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.

    2015-10-01

    Beginning in 2012 an atmospheric cloud known by its far-infrared emission has formed rapidly at Tit an's South Pole [1, 2]. The build-up of this condensate is a result of deepening temperatures and a gathering of gases as Winter approaches. Emission from the cloud in the south has been doubling each year since 2012, in contrast to the north where it has halved every 3.8 years since 2004. The morphology of the cloud in the south is quite different from that in the north. In the north, the cloud has extended over the whole polar region beyond 55 N, whereas in the south the cloud has been confined to within about 10 degrees of the pole. The cloud in the north has had the form of a uniform hood, whereas the southern cloud has been much more complex. A map from December 2014,recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini, showed the 220 cm-1 emission coming from a distinct ring with a maximum at about 80 S. In contrast, emissions from the gases HC3N, C4H2 and C6H6 peaked near the pole and had a ring at 70 S. The 220 cm-1 ring at 80 S coincided with the minimum in the gas emission pattern. The80 S condensate ring encompassed the vortex cloud seen by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS)[3, 4]. Both the 220 cm-1 ring and the gas "bull's-eye" pattern were centered on a point that was shifted from the geographic South Pole by 4 degrees in the direction of the Sun. This corresponds to the overall tilt of Titan's atmosphere discovered from temperature maps early in the Cassini mission by Achterberg et al. [5]. The tilt may be reinforced by the presumably twice-yearly (north and south) spin-up of the atmosphere at the autumnal pole. The bull's-eye pattern of the gas emissions can be explained by the retrieved abundance distributions, which are maximum near the pole and decrease sharply toward lower latitudes, together with temperatures that are minimum at the pole and increase toward lower latitudes. The increasing temperatures overcome the decreasing gas abundances to produce emission in the narrow range around 70 S. This cannot, however, explain the maximum of emission at 80 S from the condensate ring. The coincidence at 80 S of the 220 cm-1 peak with the gas emission minimum may indicate where the condensation is taking place. The central, polar minimum in the cloud emission may be due to faster rain-out and smaller extinction cross-sections. Spectral maps from 2013-15 [6] show that the gas emission pattern has been evolving quickly, with noticeable changes from one flyby to the next (about one month). The bull's-eye structure appears to have been most prominent in early 2014 and by late 2014 the pattern was becoming more uniform. As Titan progresses through late southern Autumn we expect the morphology of the condensate cloud to take on a hood-like distribution similar to that in the north.

  13. Translation Optics for 30 cm Ion Engine Thrust Vector Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Data were obtained from a 30 cm xenon ion thruster in which the accelerator grid was translated in the radial plane. The thruster was operated at three different throttle power levels, and the accelerator grid was incrementally translated in the X, Y, and azimuthal directions. Plume data was obtained downstream from the thruster using a Faraday probe mounted to a positioning system. Successive probe sweeps revealed variations in the plume direction. Thruster perveance, electron backstreaming limit, accelerator current, and plume deflection angle were taken at each power level, and for each accelerator grid position. Results showed that the thruster plume could easily be deflected up to six degrees without a prohibitive increase in accelerator impingement current. Results were similar in both X and Y direction.

  14. An 8-cm electron bombardment thruster for auxiliary propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Banks, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    Thruster size, beam current level, and specific impulse trade-offs are considered for mercury electron bombardment ion thrusters to be used for north-south station keeping of geosynchronous spacecraft. An 8-cm diameter thruster operating at 2750 seconds specific impulse at thrust levels of 4.4 mN (1 m1b) to 8.9 mN (2 m6b) with a design life of 20,000 hours and 10,000 cycles is being developed. The thruster will have a dished two-grid system capable of thrust vectoring of + or - 10 degrees in two orthogonal directions. A preliminary thruster has been fabricated and tested; thruster performance characteristics have been determined at 4.45, 6.68, and 8.90 millinewtons.

  15. Gravitational-wave detection using redshifted 21-cm observations

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, Somnath; Guha Sarkar, Tapomoy

    2009-06-15

    A gravitational-wave traversing the line of sight to a distant source produces a frequency shift which contributes to redshift space distortion. As a consequence, gravitational waves are imprinted as density fluctuations in redshift space. The gravitational-wave contribution to the redshift space power spectrum has a different {mu} dependence as compared to the dominant contribution from peculiar velocities. This, in principle, allows the two signals to be separated. The prospect of a detection is most favorable at the highest observable redshift z. Observations of redshifted 21-cm radiation from neutral hydrogen hold the possibility of probing very high redshifts. We consider the possibility of detecting primordial gravitational waves using the redshift space neutral hydrogen power spectrum. However, we find that the gravitational-wave signal, though present, will not be detectable on superhorizon scales because of cosmic variance and on subhorizon scales where the signal is highly suppressed.

  16. Rb-Sr studies of CI and CM chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Wetherill, G. W.

    1979-01-01

    Rb-Sr whole rock analyses have been performed on 2 CI and 3 CM chondrites. Four of these stones (Ivuna, Orgueil, Cold Bokkeveld and Erakot) were previously studied in this laboratory and were shown to be discordant from a 4.6 Gyr isochron. The fifth, Murchison, was not previously studied. The new data support the discordance of the first four stones, and indicate that Murchison is also discordant. Studies of Sr isotope ratios in unspiked Orgueil show that the discordance is not due to inhomogeneities in the Sr-84/Sr-86 ratio caused by incomplete mixing of nucleosynthesis products. In order to gauge the effects of weathering, two leaching experiments were performed on fresh, interior samples of Murchison; one for a period of 1.5 hr and the other for 117 hr. The results indicate that the relative solubility of nonradiogenic Sr is approximately twice that of Rb and radiogenic Sr is more soluble than the nonradiogenic Sr.

  17. 21 cm Power Spectrum Upper Limits from PAPER-64

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraz Ali, Zaki; Parsons, Aaron; Pober, Jonathan; Team PAPER

    2016-01-01

    We present power spectrum results from the 64 antenna deployment of the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER-64). We find an upper limit of ?2?(22.4 mK)2 over the range 0.15cm power spectrum constraints to date. In addition, we use these results to place lower limits on the spin temperature at a redshift of 8.4. We find that the spin temperature is at least 10K for a neutral fraction between 15% and 80%. This further suggests that there was heating in the early universe through various sources such as x-ray binaries.

  18. Compensated control loops for a 30-cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    The vaporizer dynamic control characteristics of a 30-cm diameter mercury ion thruster were determined by operating the thruster in an open loop steady state mode and then introducing a small sinusoidal signal on the main, cathode, or neutralizer vaporizer current and observing the response of the beam current, discharge voltage, and neutralizer keeper voltage, respectively. This was done over a range of frequencies and operating conditions. From these data, Bode plots for gain and phase were made and mathematical models were obtained. The Bode plots and mathematical models were analyzed for stability and appropriate compensation networks determined. The compensated control loops were incorporated into a power processor and operated with a thruster. The time responses of the compensated loops to changes in set points and recovery from arc conditions are presented.

  19. A dual frequency 10 cm Doppler weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, K. M.; Armstrong, G. M.; Bishop, A. W.; Banis, K. J.

    A summary is given of the design concepts underlying a new 10-cm band dual frequency Doppler weather radar under development at the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. Primary emphasis in the design is placed on the system performance in a clutter environment, and the technique used to extend the radar's unambiguous range and velocity span is an important, but secondary, consideration. The design includes the use of fault tolerance and/or fault location methods at critical locations in the system and automated calibration techniques for quasi-continuous monitoring of system performance. The approach followed for minimizing range and velocity ambiguities used in this radar is a uniform pulse train version of the Doviak et al. (1978) dual sampling (batch) technique.

  20. Control logic for a 30 cm diameter ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.

    1975-01-01

    Tests with a 30 cm thruster having EMT critical components have defined start-up criteria. Of the three phases comprising the start-up mode, the preheat phase is intended to heat critical feed system components to desired temperatures. Of the seven supplies available during the preheat phase, only three were found to be useful for purposes of preheating the thruster. These were the cathode and neutralizer tip heater supplies and the isolator heater supply. If the needed temperatures are attained during preheat, the ignition phase requires only several seconds. The heat phase serves to establish the proper propellant flow rates prior to the transition to the run mode. Using these techniques, a thruster with initial temperatures in the range of -15 to +25 C can be reliably started and provide a 1.0 amp beam within 45 min. High voltage recycle time profiles indicate limitations on several time functions.

  1. The 30 cm J Series Mercury Bombardment Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    The 30 cm J Series Thruster has been base-lined for the Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle. This paper discusses the evolution of the thruster and details its performance, lifetime, and operational characteristics. An operational envelope covering nominal input powers of 2650 to 700 W is defined. Total thruster efficiencies over this envelope range from 0.711 to 0.472 with a corresponding impulse and thrust ranging from 2980 to 1850 sec and 129.1 to 36.4 mN, respectively. Completed life test segments and the ability of the thruster to meet the design goal of 15,000 hr of life as well as the life limitations are discussed. A description and rationale of the present set of thruster operational control algorithms is also presented.

  2. Power processor for a 30cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.

    1974-01-01

    A thermal vacuum power processor for the NASA Lewis 30cm Mercury Ion Engine was designed, fabricated and tested to determine compliance with electrical specifications. The power processor breadboard used the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) series resonant inverter as the basic power stage to process all the power to an ion engine. The power processor includes a digital interface unit to process all input commands and internal telemetry signals so that operation is compatible with a central computer system. The breadboard was tested in a thermal vacuum environment. Integration tests were performed with the ion engine and demonstrate operational compatibility and reliable operation without any component failures. Electromagnetic interference data were also recorded on the design to provide information on the interaction with total spacecraft.

  3. Scintillation as the cause of Intraday Variability at cm Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickett, B. J.

    2003-05-01

    Rapid (intraday) flux density variations observed at cm wavelengths are more readily explained as scintillation in the ionized interstellar medium than by intrinsic models. Whereas the latter yield brightness temperatures many orders of magnitude above those found from VLBI, temperatures found from scintillation models are consistent with the canonical jet models with Doppler factors similar to those found from VLBI. I will review the many lines of evidence in support of scintillation, concentrating on results from the most rapid variables, which are scattered in unusually nearby regions of the interstellar medium. I will also show preliminary results from a recent survey of 700 flat spectrum sources in which more than 12% vary on times shorter than two days, suggesting brightness temperatures no more than about 1012 K.

  4. Very Large Array observations of Uranus at 2. 0 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, G.L.; Muhleman, D.O.; Linfield, R.P.

    1988-07-01

    Radio observations of Uranus obtained at 2.0 cm with the B configuration of the VLA during April 1985 are reported. The calibration and data-reduction procedures are described in detail, and the results are presented in tables, maps, and graphs and compared with IRIS 44-micron observations (Hanel et al., 1986). Features discussed include highest brightness centered on the pole rather than on the subearth point, a decrease in brightness temperature (by up to 9 K) at latitudes between -20 and -50 deg (well correlated with the IRIS data), and disk-center position (corrected for the observed radio asymmetry) in good agreement with that found on the basis of the outer contours of the image. 15 references.

  5. Hollow cathode restartable 15 cm diameter ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of substituting high perveance dished grids for low perveance flat ones on performance variables and plasma properties within a 15 cm modified SERT II thruster are discussed. Results suggest good performance may be achieved as an ion thruster is throttled if the screen grid transparency is decreased with propellant flow rate. Thruster startup tests, which employ a pulsed high voltage tickler electrode between the keeper and the cathode to initiate the discharge, are described. High startup reliability at cathode tip temperatures of about 500 C without excessive component wear over 2000 startup cycles is demonstrated. Testing of a single cusp magnetic field concept of discharge plasma containment is discussed. A theory which explains the observed behavior of the device is presented and proposed thruster modifications and future testing plans are discussed.

  6. The Jovian electron spectrum and synchrotron radiation at 375 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    The synchrotron radiation expected at Earth from the region L=2.9-5 R sub J of Jupiter's magnetosphere is calculated using the Pioneer 10 electron model. The result is approximately 21 flux units (f.u.). This value is to be compared with 6.0 + or - 0.7 f.u., the flux density of synchrotron radiation measured from Jupiter's entire magnetosphere in ground-based radio observations. Most of the radiation at 375 cm is emitted by electrons in the 1 to 10 MeV range. If the electron model used for calculations is cut off below 10 MeV, the calculated flux is reduced to approximately 4 f.u., a level compatible with the radio observations.

  7. Developing an Interferometer to Measure the Global 21cm Monopole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagalski, Rachel; Patra, Nipanjana; Day, Cherie; Parsons, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    When radio interferometers observe over very small fields of view, they cannot measure the monopole mode of the sky. However, when the field of view extends to a large region of the sky, it becomes possible to use an measure the monopole with an interferometer. We are currently developing such an interferometer at UC Berkeley's Radio Astronomy Lab (RAL) with the goal of measuring the early stages of the Epoch of Reionization by probing the sky for the global 21cm signal between 50 and 100 MHz, and we have deployed a preliminary version of this experiment in Colorado. We present the current status of the interferometer, the future development plans, and some measurements taken in July of 2015. These measurements demonstrate performance of the analog signal chain of the interferometer as well as the RFI environment of the deployment site in Colorado.

  8. Performance tests for the NASA Ames Research Center 20 cm x 40 cm oscillating flow wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. J.; Giddings, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of initial tests conducted to assess the performance of the NASA Ames 20 cm x 40 cm oscillating flow wind tunnel. The features of the tunnel are described and two aspects of tunnel operation are discussed. The first is an assessment of the steady mainstream and boundary layer flows and the second deals with oscillating mainstream and boundary layer flows. Experimental results indicate that in steady flow the test section mainstream velocity is uniform in the flow direction and in cross section. The freestream turbulence intensity is about 0.2 percent. With minor exceptions the steady turbulent boundary layer generated on the top wall of the test section exhibits the characteristics of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer generated on a flat plate. The tunnel was designed to generate sinusoidal oscillating mainstream flows. Experiments confirm that the tunnel produces sinusoidal mainstream velocity variations for the range of frequencies (up to 15 Hz). The results of this study demonstrate that the tunnel essentially produces the flows that it was designed to produce.

  9. Primary structure of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S1 and features of its functional domains.

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Foulaki, K; Subramanian, A R; Wittmann-Liebold, B

    1982-03-01

    The complete covalent structure of ribosomal protein S1 of Escherichia coli has been determined and predictions made of its secondary structure. Protein S1 (E. coli MRE 600) is a single-chain, acidic protein with 557 amino acid residues of the composition Asp43, Asn23, Thr25, Ser25, Glu60, Gln14, Pro10, Gly48, Ala48, Val67, Met6, Ile30, Leu45, Tyr6, Phe17, His8, Lys43, Arg30, Trp7, Cys2 and an Mr of 61159. The two -SH groups of S1 are located in the central region of the chain at positions 292 and 349, the latter being the reactive group whose modification results in the reported loss of the nucleic-acid-unfolding ability of S1. The central region also contains the majority of the tryptophan, histidine and methionine residues of S1 and is predicted to have a secondary structure dominated by beta-sheets and turns. A direct proof for the location of the nucleic-acid-binding domain of S1 in the central region has recently been obtained [Subramanian et al. (1981) Eur. J. Biochem. 119, 245-249]. The N-terminal region of S1, which contains the ribosome-binding domain has a relatively high predicted alpha-helix content and no preponderance of basic amino acids. The facile trypsin-sensitive site in S1 is located at Arg-171, approximately at the border between the N-terminal and central regions. The acidic and basic amino acids of S1 (32.8% of all residues) are distributed throughout the chain, often in small clusters of between two and six residues. The amino acid sequence of S1 contains three 24-residue stretches with strong internal homology. Two of the stretches are located in the central, RNA-binding region, suggesting a possible role in the RNA-binding and helix-destabilizing functions of S1. A fragment of Mr 10(4) from the central region of S1 gives an anomalously high apparent Mr by dodecylsulfate gel electrophoresis, indicating a stable structural element therein and accounting for the apparent high Mr of S1 as determined by gel electrophoresis. PMID:7040075

  10. Analysis of Ionospheric Electron Parameters in Relation to the Geomagnetic Index Dst and Solar F10.7 Flux from RO Data of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Tam, S. W.

    2009-12-01

    The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC mission launched in 2006 has provided globally-distributed radio occultation profiles for the ionosphere and atmosphere. Utilizing this advantage, we statistically analyze how the ionospheric electron parameters NmF2, hmF2, and TEC react to the geomagnetic activities and solar activities at different magnetic latitudes and magnetic local time (MLT) based on these data. The responses to geomagnetic index Dst and its changing rate dDst/dt at both quiet and storm time are investigated based on these data of two years from August of 2006 to July of 2008. The results indicate that, in general, the NmF2, hmF2 and TEC decrease as Dst increases at all seasons at the low-latitude dayside regions. During the main phase of a storm, this region can expand to higher latitudes. Only during the sudden commencement phase (SSC) of storm events, NmF2 and TEC generally increase as Dst increases. On the other hand, the investigation results on response to the solar F10.7 flux shows that the extent of variation of these ionospheric parameters may have considerable regional differences.

  11. Estimating 13.8-GHz path-integrated attenuation from 10.7-GHz brightness temperatures for the TRMM combined PR-TMI precipitation algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.A.; Farrar, M.R.; Xiang, X.; Turk, F.J.; Mugnai, A.

    1997-04-01

    This study presents research in support of the design and implementation of a combined radar-radiometer algorithm to be used for precipitation retrieval during the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The combined algorithm approach is expected to overcome various difficulties that arise with a radar-only approach, particularly related to estimates of path-integrated attenuation (PIA)along the TRMM radar beam. A technique is described for estimating PIA at the 13.8-GHz frequency of the TRMM precipitation radar (PR) from 10.7-GHz brightness temperature T{sub B} measurements obtained from the TRMM microwave imager. Through the use of variational or probabilistic techniques, the independent PIA calculations provide a means to adjust for errors that accumulate in estimates of range-dependent rain rates at progressively increasing range positions from radar reflectivity vectors. The accepted radar approach for obtaining PIA from ocean-viewing radar reflectivity measurements is called the surface reference technique, a scheme based on the difference in ocean surface cross sections between cloud-free and raining radar pixels. This technique has encountered problems, which are discussed and analyzed with the aid of coordinated aircraft radar (Airborne Rain Mapping Radar) and radiometer (Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer) measurements obtained during the west Pacific Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment in 1993. 97 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. One-stage surgery through posterior approach-for L5-S1 spondyloptosis

    PubMed Central

    Suslu, Hikmet Turan; Celikoglu, Erhan; Borekc?, Ali; H?cdonmez, Tufan; Suslu, Hsn

    2011-01-01

    Grade 5 spondylolisthesis or spondyloptosis is a rare condition. Generally, the surgical management of spondyloptosis includes multi-staged procedures instead of one-staged procedures. One-stage treatment for spondyloptosis is very rare. A 15-year-old girl with L5-S1 spondyloptosis was admitted with severe low back pain. There was no history of trauma. The patient underwent L5 laminectomy, L5-S1 discectomy, resection of sacral dome, reduction, L3-L4-L5-S1 pedicular screw fixation, and interbody-posterolateral fusion through the posterior approach. The reduction was maintained with bilateral L5-S1 discectomy, resection of the sacral dome, and transpedicular instrumentation from L3 to S1. In this particular case, one-staged approach was adequate for the treatment of L5-S1 spondyloptosis. One-staged surgery using the posterior approach may be adequate for the treatment of L5-S1 spondyloptosis while avoiding the risks inherent in anterior approaches. PMID:23125496

  13. Expression and characterization of myristoylated preS1-conjugated nanocages for targeted cell delivery.

    PubMed

    Murata, Masaharu; Piao, Jing Shu; Narahara, Sayoko; Kawano, Takahito; Hamano, Nobuhito; Kang, Jeong-Hun; Asai, Daisuke; Ugawa, Ryo; Hashizume, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    Lipid modification of proteins plays key roles in cellular signaling pathways. We describe the development of myristoylated preS1-nanocages (myr-preS1-nanocages) that specifically target human hepatocyte-like HepaRG cells in which a specific receptor-binding peptide (preS1) is joined to the surface of naturally occurring ferritin cages. Using a genetic engineering approach, the preS1 peptide was joined to the N-terminal regions of the ferritin cage via flexible linker moieties. Myristoylation of the preS1 peptide was achieved by co-expression with yeast N-myristoyltransferase-1 in the presence of myristic acid in Escherichia coli cells. The myristoylated preS1-nanocages exhibited significantly greater specificity for human hepatocyte-like HepaRG cells than the unmyristoylated preS1-nanocages. These results suggest that the lipid-modified nanocages have great potential for effective targeted delivery to specific cells. PMID:25497224

  14. Molecular insights into replication initiation by Q? replicase using ribosomal protein S1

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Daijiro; Yamashita, Seisuke; Tomita, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S1, consisting of six contiguous OB-folds, is the largest ribosomal protein and is essential for translation initiation in Escherichia coli. S1 is also one of the three essential host-derived subunits of Q? replicase, together with EF-Tu and EF-Ts, for Q? RNA replication in E. coli. We analyzed the crystal structure of Q? replicase, consisting of the virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (?-subunit), EF-Tu, EF-Ts and the N-terminal half of S1, which is capable of initiating Q? RNA replication. Structural and biochemical studies revealed that the two N-terminal OB-folds of S1 anchor S1 onto the ?-subunit, and the third OB-fold is mobile and protrudes beyond the surface of the ?-subunit. The third OB-fold mainly interacts with a specific RNA fragment derived from the internal region of Q? RNA, and its RNA-binding ability is required for replication initiation of Q? RNA. Thus, the third mobile OB-fold of S1, which is spatially anchored near the surface of the ?-subunit, primarily recruits the Q? RNA toward the ?-subunit, leading to the specific and efficient replication initiation of Q? RNA, and S1 functions as a replication initiation factor, beyond its established function in protein synthesis. PMID:25122749

  15. [Combination therapy with S-1 and CDDP for head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masato

    2006-06-01

    The combination with cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-FU is considered the first choice chemotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). S-1, a modulation of tegafur developed in Japan, is an active agent for HNSCC. Some clinical phase I/II studies about the combination with CDDP and S-1 have been reported. The combination showed a good response rate of 67.6% for advanced and recurrent HNSCC in our clinical phase I/II study. The regimens of S-1 combined with carboplatin or nedaplatin have also been reported. Regimens containing S-1 appear to have been effective for HNSCC. Multi-institutional phase II studies with a large sample size are needed in the future. The compliance for patients is better than a 5-FU injection because S-1 is orally administrated. The adverse effect, especially for bone mallow toxicity, is equal or upgraded compared with a 5-FU injection. The efficacy and adverse effects of CDDP plus S-1 should be studied in carefully designed phase II/III trials. S-1 will be one of the key drugs for HNSCC in the future. PMID:16897992

  16. Structural basis for the interaction of protein S1 with the Escherichia coli ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Byrgazov, Konstantin; Grishkovskaya, Irina; Arenz, Stefan; Coudevylle, Nicolas; Temmel, Hannes; Wilson, Daniel N.; Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Moll, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, the multi-domain protein S1 is essential for translation initiation, as it recruits the mRNA and facilitates its localization in the decoding centre. In sharp contrast to its functional importance, S1 is still lacking from the high-resolution structures available for Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus ribosomes and thus the molecular mechanism governing the S1ribosome interaction has still remained elusive. Here, we present the structure of the N-terminal S1 domain D1 when bound to the ribosome at atomic resolution by using a combination of NMR, X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. Together with biochemical assays, the structure reveals that S1 is anchored to the ribosome primarily via a stabilizing ?-stacking interaction within the short but conserved N-terminal segment that is flexibly connected to domain D1. This interaction is further stabilized by salt bridges involving the zinc binding pocket of protein S2. Overall, this work provides one hitherto enigmatic piece in the ?ribosome puzzle?, namely the detailed molecular insight into the topology of the S1ribosome interface. Moreover, our data suggest novel mechanisms that have the potential to modulate protein synthesis in response to environmental cues by changing the affinity of S1 for the ribosome. PMID:25510494

  17. Decorin in human oral cancer: A promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Ishige, Shunsaku; Kasama, Hiroki; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DCN is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. • DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. • DCN predicts the clinical responses to S-1 NAC for patients with oral cancer. - Abstract: We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and is a predictive immunomarker of the response to S-1 NAC and patient prognosis.

  18. Autosomal-Recessive Hearing Impairment Due to Rare Missense Variants within S1PR2.

    PubMed

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Faridi, Rabia; Rehman, Atteeq U; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Ansar, Muhammad; Wang, Xin; Morell, Robert J; Isaacson, Rivka; Belyantseva, Inna A; Dai, Hang; Acharya, Anushree; Qaiser, Tanveer A; Muhammad, Dost; Ali, Rana Amjad; Shams, Sulaiman; Hassan, Muhammad Jawad; Shahzad, Shaheen; Raza, Syed Irfan; Bashir, Zil-E-Huma; Smith, Joshua D; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Ahmad, Wasim; Friedman, Thomas B; Leal, Suzanne M

    2016-02-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) are a well-studied class of transmembrane G protein-coupled sphingolipid receptors that mediate multiple cellular processes. However, S1PRs have not been previously reported to be involved in the genetic etiology of human traits. S1PR2 lies within the autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI) locus DFNB68 on 19p13.2. From exome sequence data we identified two pathogenic S1PR2 variants, c.323G>C (p.Arg108Pro) and c.419A>G (p.Tyr140Cys). Each of these variants co-segregates with congenital profound hearing impairment in consanguineous Pakistani families with maximum LOD scores of 6.4 for family DEM4154 and 3.3 for family PKDF1400. Neither S1PR2 missense variant was reported among ∼120,000 chromosomes in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database, in 76 unrelated Pakistani exomes, or in 720 Pakistani control chromosomes. Both DNA variants affect highly conserved residues of S1PR2 and are predicted to be damaging by multiple bioinformatics tools. Molecular modeling predicts that these variants affect binding of sphingosine-1-phosphate (p.Arg108Pro) and G protein docking (p.Tyr140Cys). In the previously reported S1pr2(-/-) mice, stria vascularis abnormalities, organ of Corti degeneration, and profound hearing loss were observed. Additionally, hair cell defects were seen in both knockout mice and morphant zebrafish. Family PKDF1400 presents with ARNSHI, which is consistent with the lack of gross malformations in S1pr2(-/-) mice, whereas family DEM4154 has lower limb malformations in addition to hearing loss. Our findings suggest the possibility of developing therapies against hair cell damage (e.g., from ototoxic drugs) through targeted stimulation of S1PR2. PMID:26805784

  19. S1P1 deletion in oligodendroglial lineage cells: Effect on differentiation and myelination.

    PubMed

    Dukala, Danuta E; Soliven, Betty

    2016-04-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors are G protein-coupled receptors expressed by many cell types, including cells of oligodendrocyte (OLG) lineage. We had previously shown that targeted deletion of S1P1 in OLG lineage cells did not result in obvious clinical phenotype or altered number of OLGs at 3 months, but there were subtle abnormalities in myelin. In this study, we examined the role of S1P1 in developmental myelination and cell survival, focusing on age 3 weeks. We found that S1P1 deficiency led to delayed differentiation of OLG progenitors (OPCs) into OLGs that is independent of p38 phosphorylation. This was accompanied by decreased levels of myelin basic protein (MBP) but not of myelin-OLG glycoprotein (MOG), and slight decrease in myelin thickness in the corpus callosum of S1P1 conditional knockout (CKO) mice. S1P1 -deficient OLGs exhibited slower process extension, which was associated with attenuated phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) and p21-activated kinases (PAKs), and with upregulation of tropomodulin1. Basal levels of pAkt were not affected, though expectedly, no response to a selective S1P1 agonist SEW2871 was observed. S1P1 -deficient OLGs did not exhibit increased cell death in response to cuprizone, tumor necrosis factor-α, or deprivation of nutrients and growth factors. We conclude that S1P1 signaling regulates OLG development, morphological maturation and early myelination. GLIA 2016;64:570-582. PMID:26662919

  20. S = 1 Excitations in Heat Capacity of the Haldane Compound TMNIN Doped with a Nonmagnetic Impurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawae, Tatsuya; Ito, Masakazu; Mito, Masaki; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

    1999-03-01

    We have studied the field dependence of the heat capacity of a typicalHaldane antiferromagnet (CH3)4NNi(NO)3 (TMNIN) doped with thenonmagnetic impurity Zn2+, as well as of a pure TMNIN. The overallfeatures of the magnetic heat capacity, including the characteristic broadmaximum, are almost reproduced by the theoretical curve with J/k B =-12 K for both systems in zero field. The field dependence in the impuresystems is described well by assuming the Schottky heat capacity with S =1, not S = 1/2 expected from the VBS model. A possible reason why the S= 1 model is suitable is discussed.

  1. The 40 cm Monitoring Telescope of the Universittssternwarte Bochum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramolla, M.; Drass, H.; Lemke, R.; Westhues, C.; Pozo Nuez, F.; Barr Dominguez, A.; Haas, M.; Chini, R.; Murphy, M.

    2013-12-01

    The new 40 cm Bochum Monitoring Telescope (BMT) has started routine operation at the Universittssternwarte Bochum (USB), located near Cerro Armazones in Chile. It has a 41' {} 27' field of view (FoV) and is equipped with B and V broad band filters and three narrow band filters at 670, 680, and 690 nm. This makes the BMT ideally suited to perform photometric reverberation mapping of the H? emission line of active galactic nuclei, where the line is redshifted into the narrow bands, and to monitor bright stars which would be saturated with large telescopes. As a complement to our Robotic Bochum Twin Telescope (RoBoTT) with 2.7 FoV and 14 filters, the BMT is an efficient instrument to accurately study the variability of individual sources, provided that its smaller FoV covers a sufficient number of suitable comparison stars. Here we describe the telescope and its fully robotic operation, and present science verification data demonstrating the performance of the BMT.

  2. Foregrounds in Wide-field Redshifted 21 cm Power Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Bowman, Judd D.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bernardi, G.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, Han-Seek; Kittiwisit, P.; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Line, J.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Neben, A. R.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, Sourabh; Pindor, B.; Pober, J. C.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Sethi, Shiv K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Sullivan, I. S.; Tegmark, M.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2015-05-01

    Detection of 21 cm emission of H i from the epoch of reionization, at redshifts z\\gt 6, is limited primarily by foreground emission. We investigate the signatures of wide-field measurements and an all-sky foreground model using the delay spectrum technique that maps the measurements to foreground object locations through signal delays between antenna pairs. We demonstrate interferometric measurements are inherently sensitive to all scales, including the largest angular scales, owing to the nature of wide-field measurements. These wide-field effects are generic to all observations but antenna shapes impact their amplitudes substantially. A dish-shaped antenna yields the most desirable features from a foreground contamination viewpoint, relative to a dipole or a phased array. Comparing data from recent Murchison Widefield Array observations, we demonstrate that the foreground signatures that have the largest impact on the H i signal arise from power received far away from the primary field of view. We identify diffuse emission near the horizon as a significant contributing factor, even on wide antenna spacings that usually represent structures on small scales. For signals entering through the primary field of view, compact emission dominates the foreground contamination. These two mechanisms imprint a characteristic pitchfork signature on the “foreground wedge” in Fourier delay space. Based on these results, we propose that selective down-weighting of data based on antenna spacing and time can mitigate foreground contamination substantially by a factor of ∼100 with negligible loss of sensitivity.

  3. Sensing and characterization of explosive vapors near 700 cm -1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Alan R.; Reeve, Scott W.

    2007-04-01

    One of the technological challenges associated with trace vapor detection of explosive materials are the relatively low vapor pressures exhibited by most energetic materials under ambient conditions. For example, the vapor pressure for TNT is ~10 ppbv at room temperature, a concentration near the Limit of Detection for many of the technologies currently being deployed. In the case of improvised explosive devices, the clandestine nature of the device further serves to exacerbate the vapor pressure issue. Interestingly, the gold standard in explosives detection remains the trained canine nose. While there is still some debate as to what the dog actually smells, recent studies have indicated the alert response is triggered, not by the vapor presence of a specific explosive compound but, by a characteristic bouquet of odors from chemical impurities used to manufacture and process the explosives. Here we present high resolution infrared data for several of these volatile organic compounds in the 700 cm -1 region required for real time optical sensing of energetic materials.

  4. High-resolution lunar radar map at 70-cm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    New radar observations of the moon in 1981-1984 were made using the 430 MHz (70 cm wavelength) radar at the Arecibo observatory, Puerto Rico. The new observations have produced a high resolution lunar radar map with radar cell-sizes near 2-5 km. This new resolution is a three-fold improvement over the previous mapping done in the late 1960's. Since the Arecibo radar antenna beam is only ten arc-minutes (about one-third of the width of the lunar disk), this new map is a mosaic of some eighteen observations. A radarmetric control between the various pieces of the mosaic was obtained via a 'beam-swing', limb-to-limb calibration. When the limb-to-limb calibration was combined with the mosaic, there were significant radar scattering differences across the maria. Eastern Mare Tranquillitatis and western Oceanus Procellarum have weaker echoes than other maria, while the central portion of Mare Serenitatis and northern Mare Imbrium have stronger echoes. There is a radar scattering difference across the southern terra as areas nearer Mare Orientale have stronger echoes than areas further from Mare Orientale.

  5. Sensitivity for 21 cm bispectrum from Epoch of Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiura, Shintaro; Shimabukuro, Hayato; Takahashi, Keitaro; Momose, Rieko; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Imai, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    The 21-cm line brightness temperature brings rich information about Epoch of Reionizaton (EoR) and high-z universe (Cosmic Dawn and Dark Age). While the power spectrum is a useful tool to investigate the EoR signal statistically, higher order statistics such as bispectrum are also valuable because the EoR signal is expected to be highly non-Gaussian. In this paper, we develop a formalism to calculate the bispectrum contributed from the thermal noise taking array configuration of telescopes into account, by extending a formalism for the power spectrum. We apply our formalism to the ongoing and future telescopes such as expanded Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR), Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) and Square Kilometre Array (SKA). We find that expanded MWA does not have enough sensitivity to detect the bispectrum signal. On the other hand, LOFAR has better sensitivity and will be able to detect the peaks of the bispectrum as a function of redshift at large scales with comoving wavenumber k ? 0.03 Mpc-1. The SKA has enough sensitivity to detect the bispectrum for much smaller scales k ? 0.3 Mpc-1 and redshift z ? 20.

  6. Ion thruster system (8-cm) cyclic endurance test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulgeroff, C. R.; Beattie, J. R.; Poeschel, R. L.; Hyman, J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the qualification test of an Engineering-Model 5-mN-thrust 8-cm-diameter mercury ion thruster which is representative of the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) thrusters. Two of these thrusters are scheduled for future flight test. The cyclic endurance test described herein was a ground-based test performed in a vacuum facility with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled cryo-surface and a frozen mercury target. The Power Electronics Unit, Beam Shield, Gimal, and Propellant Tank that were used with the thruster in the endurance test are also similar to those of the IAPS. The IAPS thruster that will undergo the longest beam-on-time during the actual space test will be subjected to 7,055 hours of beam-on-time and 2,557 cycles during the flight test. The endurance test was successfully concluded when the mercury in the IAPS Propellant Tank was consumed. At that time, 8,471 hours of beam-on-time and 599 cycles had been accumulated. Subsequent post-test-evaluation operations were performed (without breaking vacuum) which extended the test values to 652 cycles and 9,489 hours of beam-on-time. The Power Electronic Unit (PEU) and thruster were in the same vacuum chamber throughout the test. The PEU accumulated 10,268 hr of test time with high voltage applied to the operating thruster or dummy load.

  7. Piezo-Operated Shutter Mechanism Moves 1.5 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Robert; Bamford, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The figure shows parts of a shutter mechanism designed to satisfy a number of requirements specific to its original intended application as a component of an atomic clock to be flown in outer space. The mechanism may also be suitable for use in laboratory and industrial vacuum systems on Earth for which there are similar requirements. The requirements include the following: a) To alternately close, then open, a 1.5-cm-diameter optical aperture twice per second, with a stroke time of no more than 15 ms, during a total operational lifetime of at least a year; b) To attenuate light by a factor of at least 1012 when in the closed position; c) To generate little or no magnetic field; d) To be capable of withstanding bakeout at a temperature of 200 C to minimize outgassing during subsequent operation in an ultrahigh vacuum; and e) To fit within a diameter of 12 in. (=305 mm) a size limit dictated by the size of an associated magnetic shield. The light-attenuation requirement is satisfied by use of overlapping shutter blades. The closure of the aperture involves, among other things, insertion of a single shutter blade between a pair of shutter blades. The requirement to minimize the magnetic field is satisfied by use of piezoelectric actuators. Because piezoelectric actuators cannot withstand bakeout, they must be mounted outside the vacuum chamber, and, hence, motion must be transmitted from the actuators to the shutter levers via a vacuum-chamber-wall diaphragm.

  8. Microbiological study of the Murchison CM2 meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2012-10-01

    In 1864, Louis Pasteur attempted to cultivate living microorganisms from pristine samples of the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorite. His results were negative and never published, but recorded it in his laboratory notebooks. At that time, only aerobic liquid or agar-based organic reach media were used, as his research on anaerobes had just started. In our laboratory the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous meteorite was selected to expand on these studies for microbiological study by cultivation on anaerobic mineral media. Since the surface could have been more easily contaminated, interior fragments of a sample of the Murchison meteorite were extracted and crushed under sterile conditions. The resulting powder was then mixed in anoxic medium and injected into Hungate tubes containing anaerobic media with various growth substrates at different pH and salinity and incubated at different temperatures. The goal of the experiments was to determine if living cells would grow from the material of freshly fractured interior fragments of the stone. If any growth occurred, work could then be carried out to assess the nature of the environmental contamination by observations of the culture growth (rates of speed and biodiversity); live/dead fluorescent staining to determine contamination level and DNA analysis to establish the microbial species present. In this paper we report the results of that study.

  9. Performance and Vibration of 30 cm Pyrolytic Ion Thruster Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas; Soulas, George C.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon has a sputter erosion rate about an order of magnitude less than that of molybdenum, over the voltages typically used in ion thruster applications. To explore its design potential, 30 cm pyrolytic carbon ion thruster optics have been fabricated geometrically similar to the molybdenum ion optics used on NSTAR. They were then installed on an NSTAR Engineering Model thruster, and experimentally evaluated over much of the original operating envelope. Ion beam currents ranged from 0.51 to 1.76 Angstroms, at total voltages up to 1280 V. The perveance, electron back-streaming limit, and screen-grid transparency were plotted for these operating points, and compared with previous data obtained with molybdenum. While thruster performance with pyrolytic carbon was quite similar to that with molybdenum, behavior variations can reasonably be explained by slight geometric differences. Following all performance measurements, the pyrolytic carbon ion optics assembly was subjected to an abbreviated vibration test. The thruster endured 9.2 g(sub rms) of random vibration along the thrust axis, similar to DS 1 acceptance levels. Despite significant grid clashing, there was no observable damage to the ion optics assembly.

  10. CM and DM in an ISO R and D Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Sandra L.

    2000-01-01

    ISO 9000 - a common buzz word in industry is making inroads to government agencies. The National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) achieved ISO 9001 certification at each of its nine (9) Centers and Headquarters in 1998-1999. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) was recommended for certification in September 1999. Since then, each of the Centers has been going through the semi-annual surveillance audits. Growing out of the manufacturing industry, successful application of the international quality standard to a research and development (R&D) environment has had its challenges. This paper will address how GRC applied Configuration Management (CM) and Data (or Document) Management (DM) to meet challenges to achieve ISO certification. One of the first challenges was to fit the ISO 9001-1994 elements to the GRC environment. Some of the elements fit well-Management Responsibility (4.1), Internal Audits (4.17), Document and Data Control (4.5). Other elements were not suited or applied easily to the R&D environment-Servicing (4.19), Statistical Techniques (4.20). Since GRC "builds" only one or two items at a time, these elements were considered not applicable to the environment.

  11. Observation of rubidium 5S1/2 --> 7S1/2 two-photon transitions with a diode laser.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ming-Sheng; Liu, Yi-Wei

    2004-08-01

    The 5S1/2 --> 7S1/2 two-photon transition of atomic rubidium, which is 100 times weaker than the 5S-5D transition, is observed with an extended-cavity diode laser and a vapor cell. Signals with a signal-to-noise ratio of 280 are obtained with a laser power of 10 mW, and the observed linewidth is 3 MHz. The laser wavelength is 760 nm and is locked on the transitions to a stability of 2 x 10(-11). For the first time to our knowledge, the isotope shift of this transition is measured to be 130(4) MHz in atomic frequency. PMID:15352374

  12. [A case of S-1/CDDP-resistant recurrent gastric cancer responsive to capecitabine/CDDP].

    PubMed

    Sunami, Takeshi; Tauchi, Jun; Sakashita, Katsuya; Yukimoto, Kiyotaka; Sawada, Ryugo; Sakamoto, Kazutsugu

    2014-05-01

    We present a case of recurrent gastric cancer in which stable disease status was achieved for four months due to treatment with capecitabine/cisplatin (CDDP)after the failure of multiple anticancer drugs including S-1/CDDP. A 67-year-old man was diagnosed with multiple liver metastases one year after distal gastrectomy+D2 dissection for gastric cancer. S-1/CDDP was given as the first-line treatment, followed by paclitaxel (PTX), irinotecan (CPT-11), and docetaxel (DOC). The tumor in the anterior segment of the liver was resistant to all of these chemotherapies except for PTX, which is why the regimens were changed. However, this tumor shrank and achieved stable disease status for four months after capecitabine/CDDP therapy given as fifth-line treatment. Our case suggests that S-1 and capecitabine do not always exhibit cross-resistance. Therefore, capecitabine may be effective in S-1-pretreated patients, and vice versa. PMID:24917015

  13. [A case of successful treatment of peritoneal dissemination from gastric cancer with S-1/DOC chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazuyuki; Ebisui, Chikara; Nushijima, Yoichiro; Yanagisawa, Tetsu; Okamura, Shu; Fukuchi, Nariaki; Murata, Kohei; Yokouchi, Hideoki; Kinuta, Masakatsu

    2014-11-01

    A 66-year-old man underwent a curative operation for advanced gastric cancer (T4aN0M0, Stage IIB). A gastric cancer recurrence with paraaortic lymph node (PALN) metastasis was diagnosed fifteen months after the operation. Systemic chemotherapy was initiated, using a regimen of S-1/CDDP. After 7 courses, abdominal computed tomography (CT) examination indicated the regression of PALN swelling. However, peritoneal dissemination was detected in the neighborhood of the right kidney. S-1/docetaxel (S-1/DOC) was selected as the second-line chemotherapy. After 3 courses, the peritoneal dissemination could not be detected. Five years since the curative operation, the patient has been doing well, with no signs of recurrence. In summary, we successfully treated a case of peritoneal dissemination from gastric cancer with S-1/DOC chemo- therapy. PMID:25731523

  14. 17 CFR 239.11 - Form S-1, registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... governments or political subdivisions thereof. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form S-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...

  15. Pathway specific modulation of S1P1 receptor signalling in rat and human astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Luke M; Sheridan, Graham K; Pritchard, Adam J; Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Mullershausen, Florian; Dev, Kumlesh K

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor subtype 1 (S1P1R) is modulated by phosphorylated FTY720 (pFTY720), which causes S1P1R internalization preventing lymphocyte migration thus limiting autoimmune response. Studies indicate that internalized S1P1Rs continue to signal, maintaining an inhibition of cAMP, thus raising question whether the effects of pFTY720 are due to transient initial agonism, functional antagonism and/or continued signalling. To further investigate this, the current study first determined if continued S1P1R activation is pathway specific. Experimental Approach Using human and rat astrocyte cultures, the effects of S1P1R activation on cAMP, pERK and Ca2+ signalling was investigated. In addition, to examine the role of S1P1R redistribution on these events, a novel biologic (MNP301) that prevented pFTY720-mediated S1P1R redistribution was engineered. Key Results The data showed that pFTY720 induced long-lasting S1P1R redistribution and continued cAMP signalling in rat astrocytes. In contrast, pFTY720 induced a transient increase of Ca2+ in astrocytes and subsequent antagonism of Ca2+ signalling. Notably, while leaving pFTY720-induced cAMP signalling intact, the novel MNP301 peptide attenuated S1P1R-mediated Ca2+ and pERK signalling in cultured rat astrocytes. Conclusions and Implications These findings suggested that pFTY720 causes continued cAMP signalling that is not dependent on S1P1R redistribution and induces functional antagonism of Ca2+ signalling after transient stimulation. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that pFTY720 causes continued signalling in one pathway (cAMP) versus functional antagonism of another pathway (Ca2+) and which also suggests that redistributed S1P1Rs may have differing signalling properties from those expressed at the surface. PMID:23587004

  16. Ceramide and S1P signaling in embryonic stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bieberich, Erhard

    2013-01-01

    Summary Recent studies show that bioactive lipids are important regulators for stem cell survival and differentiation. The sphingolipid ceramide and its derivative, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), can act synergistically on embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. We show here simple methods to analyze sphingolipids in differentiating ES cells and to use ceramide and S1P analogs for the guided differentiation of mouse ES cells toward neuronal and glial lineage. PMID:22528448

  17. 6S-1 RNA function leads to a delay in sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Amy T; Wassarman, Karen M

    2013-05-01

    We have discovered that 6S-1 RNA (encoded by bsrA) is important for appropriate timing of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis in that cells lacking 6S-1 RNA sporulate earlier than wild-type cells. The time to generate a mature spore once the decision to sporulate has been made is unaffected by 6S-1 RNA, and, therefore, we propose that it is the timing of onset of sporulation that is altered. Interestingly, the presence of cells lacking 6S-1 RNA in coculture leads to all cell types exhibiting an early-sporulation phenotype. We propose that cells lacking 6S-1 RNA modify their environment in a manner that promotes early sporulation. In support of this model, resuspension of wild-type cells in conditioned medium from ΔbsrA cultures also resulted in early sporulation. Use of Escherichia coli growth as a reporter of the nutritional status of conditioned media suggested that B. subtilis cells lacking 6S-1 RNA reduce the nutrient content of their environment earlier than wild-type cells. Several pathways known to impact the timing of sporulation, such as the skf- and sdp-dependent cannibalism pathways, were eliminated as potential targets of 6S-1 RNA-mediated changes, suggesting that 6S-1 RNA activity defines a novel mechanism for altering the timing of onset of sporulation. In addition, 6S-2 RNA does not influence the timing of sporulation, providing further evidence of the independent influences of these two related RNAs on cell physiology. PMID:23457253

  18. 6S-1 RNA Function Leads to a Delay in Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Amy T.

    2013-01-01

    We have discovered that 6S-1 RNA (encoded by bsrA) is important for appropriate timing of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis in that cells lacking 6S-1 RNA sporulate earlier than wild-type cells. The time to generate a mature spore once the decision to sporulate has been made is unaffected by 6S-1 RNA, and, therefore, we propose that it is the timing of onset of sporulation that is altered. Interestingly, the presence of cells lacking 6S-1 RNA in coculture leads to all cell types exhibiting an early-sporulation phenotype. We propose that cells lacking 6S-1 RNA modify their environment in a manner that promotes early sporulation. In support of this model, resuspension of wild-type cells in conditioned medium from ΔbsrA cultures also resulted in early sporulation. Use of Escherichia coli growth as a reporter of the nutritional status of conditioned media suggested that B. subtilis cells lacking 6S-1 RNA reduce the nutrient content of their environment earlier than wild-type cells. Several pathways known to impact the timing of sporulation, such as the skf- and sdp-dependent cannibalism pathways, were eliminated as potential targets of 6S-1 RNA-mediated changes, suggesting that 6S-1 RNA activity defines a novel mechanism for altering the timing of onset of sporulation. In addition, 6S-2 RNA does not influence the timing of sporulation, providing further evidence of the independent influences of these two related RNAs on cell physiology. PMID:23457253

  19. Determination of the intrinsic Q(3)/S(1) line intensity ratio of molecular hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Geballe, T.R.; Russell, R.W.; Nadeau, D.

    1982-08-01

    Observations of the H/sub 2/v = 1..-->..0 S(1) and Q(3) lines in the planetary nebula NGC 7027 yield an intrinsic Q(3)/S(1) line intensity ratio of 0.74 +- 0.08. This value is consistent with the theoretical ratio of the Einstein A coefficients of these transitions calculated by Turner, Kirby-Docken, and Dalgarno. The H I 20--5 line intensity in NGC 7027 is also reported and discussed.

  20. Decorin in human oral cancer: a promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Ishige, Shunsaku; Kasama, Hiroki; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2015-01-30

    We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and is a predictive immunomarker of the response to S-1 NAC and patient prognosis. PMID:25550184

  1. Stereochemistry-activity relationship of orally active tetralin S1P agonist prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Guckian, Kevin M; Lin, Edward Yin-Shiang; Lee, Wen-Cherng; Scott, Daniel; Kumaravel, Gnanasambandam; Macdonald, Timothy L; Lynch, Kevin R; Black, Cheryl; Chollate, Sowmya; Hahm, Kyungmin; Hetu, Gregg; Jin, Ping; Luo, Yi; Rohde, Ellen; Rossomando, Anthony; Scannevin, Robert; Wang, Joy; Yang, Chunhua

    2010-04-01

    Modifying FTY720, an immunosuppressant modulator, led to a new series of well phosphorylated tetralin analogs as potent S1P1 receptor agonists. The stereochemistry effect of tetralin ring was probed, and (-)-(R)-2-amino-2-((S)-6-octyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)propan-1-ol was identified as a good SphK2 substrate and potent S1P1 agonist with good oral bioavailability. PMID:20188554

  2. S1 nuclease as a probe of yeast ribosomal 5 S RNA conformation.

    PubMed

    Nichols, J L; Welder, L

    1979-02-27

    5 S RNA was isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in the presence of 32P-phosphate and digested with nuclease S1, a single-strand specific nuclease. Two different procedures were employed to determine the sites of attack on the RNA. First, 5 S RNA was isolated from nuclease S1 digests, digested to completion with ribonuclease T1, and then 'fingerprinted' by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Quantitation of each of the characteristic RNAase T1-derived oligonucleotides was employed to determine the relative susceptibility of various regions of the molecule to nuclease S1. A second procedure to define nuclease S1-susceptible sites in the molecule employed polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic fractionation of nuclease S1 digests followed by identification of the nucleotide sequences of the released RNA fragments. Both procedures showed that the region of the molecule between residues 9 and 60 was most susceptible to nuclease S1, with preferential cleavage occurring between residues 12-25 and 50-60. These results are discussed in relation to a proposed model for the secondary structure of yeast 5 S RNA. PMID:371685

  3. Influence of salt and pyrophosphate on bovine fast and slow myosin S1 dissociation from actin

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qingwu W.; Swartz, Darl R.

    2009-01-01

    The kinetics of myosin dissociation from actin was investigated and also the impact of salt, MgPPi, and myosin heavy chain isoform on myosin subfragment 1 (S1) dissociation from actin using purified proteins and fluorescence spectroscopy. Both NaCl and MgPPi increased myosin S1 dissociation rate. When salt concentrations increased from 0.1 to 1.0 M, the dissociation rate of S1 from bovine masseter (slow) and cutaneous trunci (fast) muscle increased 38 and 78 fold, respectively. MgPPi had an even greater effect on S1 dissociation from actin. With the addition of MgPPi to the mixture of pyrene actin and S1, the fluorescence increased about 85% within the dead time of themixing approach.. Unlike salt, MgPPi had no apparent difference in its ability to dissociate slow or fast S1 isoforms from actin. The results reveal that salt and MgPPi increase myosin extraction and functionality in meat by weakening the actomyosin interaction and that some of the difference in the functionality of red and white muscle may be related to actomyosin dissociation. PMID:20161643

  4. A 1.3 cm line survey toward Orion KL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y.; Henkel, C.; Thorwirth, S.; Spezzano, S.; Menten, K. M.; Walmsley, C. M.; Wyrowski, F.; Mao, R. Q.; Klein, B.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The nearby Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula is one of the most prolific sources of molecular line emission. It has served as a benchmark for spectral line searches throughout the (sub)millimeter regime. Aims: The main goal is to systematically study the spectral characteristics of Orion KL in the λ ~ 1.3 cm band. Methods: We carried out a spectral line survey with the Effelsberg-100 m telescope toward Orion KL. It covers the frequency range between 17.9 GHz and 26.2 GHz, i.e., the radio "K band". We also examined ALMA maps to address the spatial origin of molecules detected by our 1.3 cm line survey. Results: In Orion KL, we find 261 spectral lines, yielding an average line density of about 32 spectral features per GHz above 3σ (a typical value of 3σ is 15 mJy). The identified lines include 164 radio recombination lines (RRLs) and 97 molecular lines. The RRLs, from hydrogen, helium, and carbon, stem from the ionized material of the Orion Nebula, part of which is covered by our beam. The molecular lines are assigned to 13 different molecular species including rare isotopologues. A total of 23 molecular transitions from species known to exist in Orion KL are detected for the first time in the interstellar medium. Non-metastable (J>K) 15NH3 transitions are detected in Orion KL for the first time. Based on the velocity information of detected lines and the ALMA images, the spatial origins of molecular emission are constrained and discussed. A narrow feature is found in SO2 (81,7 - 72,6), but not in other SO2 transitions, possibly suggesting the presence of a maser line. Column densities and fractional abundances relative to H2 are estimated for 12 molecules with local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) methods. Rotational diagrams of non-metastable 14NH3 transitions with J = K + 1 to J = K + 4 yield different results; metastable (J = K) 15NH3 is found to have a higher excitation temperature than non-metastable 15NH3, also indicating that they may trace different regions. Elemental and isotopic abundance ratios are also estimated: He/H = (8.7 ± 0.7)% derived from the ratios between helium RRLs and hydrogen RRLs; 12C/13C = 63 ± 17 from 12CH3OH/13CH3OH; 14N/15N =100 ± 51 from 14NH3/15NH3; and D/H = (8.3 ± 4.5) × 10-3 from NH2D/NH3. The dispersion of the He/H ratios derived from Hα/Heα pairs to Hδ/Heδ pairs is very small, which is consistent with theoretical predictions that the departure coefficients bn factors for hydrogen and helium are nearly identical. Based on a non-LTE code that neglects excitation by the infrared radiation field and a likelihood analysis, we find that the denser regions have lower kinetic temperature, which favors an external heating of the hot core. Tables 2 and 4 and appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe reduced spectra as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/581/A48

  5. Formation of asteroids from mm-cm sized grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, D.; Johansen, A.; Davies, M. B.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Asteroids and comets are intricately connected to life in the universe. Asteroids are the building blocks of terrestrial planets; water-rich asteroids and comets are likely to be the primary source of water for Earth's oceans and other volatiles (Morbidelli et al. 2000; Hartogh et al. 2011); and they may play role in mass extinctions. Yet, the formation of these objects is poorly understood. There is mounting evidence that the traditional picture of the formation of asteroids must be revised. The size distribution of asteroids is hard to reconcile with a traditional bottomup formation scenario. Instead, asteroids may form top-down, with large 100 - 1000 km sized objects forming first by the gravitational collapse of dense clumps of small particles. Experiments and simulations suggest that dust grains cannot grow to sizes larger than mm-cm in protoplanetary disks (Zsom et al. 2010). Also, primitive meteorites from the asteroid belt contain a large mass fraction in chondrules of sizes from 0.1 mm to a few mm. Hence, it is desirable to find a model for asteroid formation from mm-sized particles. Aims. In this work, we model the dynamics of mm-cm sized grains in dust-enriched inner regions of protoplanetary disks. We model the dust-gas interaction to determine whether dust grains of this size can form dense, self-gravitating clouds that can collapse to form asteroids. Methods. We perform shearing box simulations of the inner disk using the Pencil Code (Brandenburg & Dobler 2002). The simulations start with a Solar-type solids-to-gas ratio of 0.01 and we gradually increase the particle concentration. In a real protoplanetary disk, solid particles are expected to migrate from the outer regions and concentrate in the inner disk. Results. Our simulations show that mm-sized particles can form very dense clumps, driven by a run-away convergence in the radial-drift flow of these particles - this dynamic is known as the streaming instability (Youdin & Goodman 2005; Johansen et al. 2007). We show that the streaming instability can also occur for small grains, strongly coupled to the surouning gas. We further show that the resulting particle clumps can reach the density where gravitational collapse is expected to take place, giving rise to planetesimals and asteroids. This process requires either a very high solids-to-gas ratio, or a reduced background pressure gradient, such as that produced by large-scale pressure bumps in the disk. Interpretation. This result offers a promising avenue to the formation of asteroids and comets. Additional work with this model may provide insight on the initial distribution of the masses and orbits of asteroids and comets. This information is important because these are the initial conditions for the formation of terrestrial planets, and for the delivery of water and other volatiles to rocky planets in the habitable zone.

  6. Evaluation of inpatient clinical documentation readiness for ICD-10-CM.

    PubMed

    DeAlmeida, Dilhari R; Watzlaf, Valerie J; Anania-Firouzan, Patti; Salguero, Otto; Rubinstein, Elaine; Abdelhak, Mervat; Parmanto, Bambang

    2014-01-01

    This research study examined the gaps in documentation that occur when coding in ICD-10-CM. More than 4,000 diagnoses from all chapters were coded from 656 electronic documents obtained from a large integrated healthcare facility at the time the study was conducted (2012). After the documents were coded, areas for documentation improvement were identified for chapters that resulted in deficiencies in documentation, and a quick reference guide was developed. The overall absent documentation percentage was 15.4 percent. The 10 chapters with the highest percentage of absent documentation were chapter 7 (Diseases of Eye and Adnexa), with 67.65 percent (p < .001); chapter 8 (Diseases of Ear and Mastoid Process), with 63.64 percent (p < .001); chapter 13 (Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System and Connective Tissue), with 46.05 percent (p < .001); chapter 14 (Diseases of the Genitourinary System), with 40.29 percent (p < .001); chapter 10 (Diseases of Respiratory System), with 35.52 percent (p < .001); chapter 1 (Infectious and Parasitic Diseases), with 32.88 percent (p < .001); chapter 12 (Diseases of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue), with 32.35 percent (p < .001); chapter 2 (Neoplasms), with 25.45 percent (p < .001); chapter 4 (Endocrine, Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases), with 14.58 percent (p < .001); and chapter 17 (Congenital Malformations, Deformations, and Chromosomal Abnormalities), with 12.50 percent. We addressed the deficient areas in the quick reference guide developed for clinicians and technology vendors. Having complete and accurate documentation would benefit both the clinician and the patient in providing the highest quality of care. PMID:24808815

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Acinetobacter parvus CM11, Acinetobacter radioresistens CM38, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia BR12, Isolated from Murine Proximal Colonic Tissue.

    PubMed

    Saffarian, Azadeh; Mulet, Céline; Naito, Tomoaki; Bouchier, Christiane; Tichit, Magali; Ma, Laurence; Grompone, Gianfranco; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Pédron, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report three genome sequences of bacteria isolated from murine proximal colonic tissue and identified as Acinetobacter parvus CM11, Acinetobacter radioresistens CM38, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia BR12. PMID:26472823

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Acinetobacter parvus CM11, Acinetobacter radioresistens CM38, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia BR12, Isolated from Murine Proximal Colonic Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Saffarian, Azadeh; Mulet, Cline; Naito, Tomoaki; Bouchier, Christiane; Tichit, Magali; Ma, Laurence; Grompone, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report three genome sequences of bacteria isolated from murine proximal colonic tissue and identified as Acinetobacter parvus CM11, Acinetobacter radioresistens CM38, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia BR12. PMID:26472823

  9. What Are Space Exposure Histories Telling Us about CM Carbonaceous Chondrites?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takenouchi, A.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M.; Velbel, M. A.; Ross, K.; Zolensky, P.; Le, L.; Imae, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.

    2013-01-01

    Chondrites are chemically primitive and carbonaceous (C) chondrites are potentially the most primitive among them because they mostly escaped thermal metamor-phism that affected the other chondrite groups and ratios of their major, non-volatile and most of the volatile elements are similar to those of the Sun. Therefore, C chondrites are ex-pected to retain a good record of the origin and early history of the solar system. Carbonaceous chondrites are chemically differentiated from other chondrites by their high Mg/Si ratios and refractory elements, and have experienced various degrees of aqueous alteration. They are subdivided into eight subgroups (CI, CM, CO, CV, CK, CR, CB and CH) based on major element and oxygen isotopic ratios. Their elemental ratios spread over a wide range though those of ordinary and enstatite chondrites are relatively uniform. It is critical to know how many sepa-rate bodies are represented by the C chondrites. In this study, CM chondrites, the most abundant carbona-ceous chondrites, are examined. They are water-rich, chon-drule- and CAI-bearing meteorites and most of them are brec-cias. High-temperature components such as chondrules, iso-lated olivine and CAIs in CMs are frequently altered and some of them are replaced by clay minerals and surrounded by sul-fides whose Fe was derived from mafic silicates. On the basis of degrees of aqueous alteration, CMs have been classified into subtypes from 1 to 2, although Rubin et al. [1] assigned subtype 1 to subtype 2 and subtype 2 to subtype 2.6 using various petrologic properties. The classification is based on petrographic and mineralogic properties. For example, though tochilinite (2[(Fe, Mg, Cu, Ni[])S] 1.57-1.85 [(Mg, Fe, Ni, Al, Ca)(HH)2]) clumps are produced during aqueous alteration, they disappear and sulfide appears with increasing degrees of aqueous alteration. Cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age measurements of CM chondrites reveal an unusual feature. Though CRE ages of other chondrite groups range from several Myr to tens of Myr, CMs exposure ages are not longer than 7 Myr with one-third of the CM having less than 1 Myr CRE age. For those CM chondrites that have CRE ages <1 Myr, there are two discern-able CRE peaks. Because a CRE age reflects how long a me-teorite is present as a separate body in space, the peaks pre-sumably represent collisional events on the parent body (ies) [2]. In this study we defined 4 distinct CRE age groups of CMs and systematically characterized the petrography in each of the 4 CRE age groups to determine whether the groups have significant petrographic differences, with such differences probably reflecting different parent body (asteroid) geological processing, or multiple original bodies.

  10. The Effects of Spinopelvic Parameters and Paraspinal Muscle Degeneration on S1 Screw Loosening

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Bum; Lee, Young-Seok; Nam, Taek-Kyun; Park, Yong-Sook; Kim, Young-Baeg

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk factors for S1 screw loosening after lumbosacral fusion, including spinopelvic parameters and paraspinal muscles. Methods We studied with 156 patients with degenerative lumbar disease who underwent lumbosacral interbody fusion and pedicle screw fixation including the level of L5-S1 between 2005 and 2012. The patients were divided into loosening and non-loosening groups. Screw loosening was defined as a halo sign larger than 1 mm around a screw. We checked cross sectional area of paraspinal muscles, mean signal intensity of the muscles on T2 weight MRI as a degree of fatty degeneration, spinopelvic parameters, bone mineral density, number of fusion level, and the characteristic of S1 screw. Results Twenty seven patients showed S1 screw loosening, which is 24.4% of total. The mean duration for S1 screw loosening was 7.3±4.1 months after surgery. Statistically significant risk factors were increased age, poor BMD, 3 or more fusion levels (p<0.05). Among spinopelvic parameters, a high pelvic incidence (p<0.01), a greater difference between pelvic incidence and lumbar lordotic angle preoperatively (p<0.01) and postoperatively (p<0.05). Smaller cross-sectional area and high T2 signal intensity in both multifidus and erector spinae muscles were also significant muscular risk factors (p<0.05). Small converging angle (p<0.001) and short intraosseous length (p<0.05) of S1 screw were significant screw related risk factors (p<0.05). Conclusion In addition to well known risk factors, spinopelvic parameters and the degeneration of paraspinal muscles also showed significant effects on the S1 screw loosening. PMID:26587190

  11. Effects of S1P on skeletal muscle repair/regeneration during eccentric contraction

    PubMed Central

    Sassoli, Chiara; Formigli, Lucia; Bini, Francesca; Tani, Alessia; Squecco, Roberta; Battistini, Chiara; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra; Francini, Fabio; Meacci, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Skeletal muscle regeneration is severely compromised in the case of extended damage. The current challenge is to find factors capable of limiting muscle degeneration and/or potentiating the inherent regenerative program mediated by a specific type of myoblastic cells, the satellite cells. Recent studies from our groups and others have shown that the bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), promotes myoblast differentiation and exerts a trophic action on denervated skeletal muscle fibres. In the present study, we examined the effects of S1P on eccentric contraction (EC)-injured extensor digitorum longus muscle fibres and resident satellite cells. After EC, skeletal muscle showed evidence of structural and biochemical damage along with significant electrophysiological changes, i.e. reduced plasma membrane resistance and resting membrane potential and altered Na+ and Ca2+ current amplitude and kinetics. Treatment with exogenous S1P attenuated the EC-induced tissue damage, protecting skeletal muscle fibre from apoptosis, preserving satellite cell viability and affecting extracellular matrix remodelling, through the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) expression. S1P also promoted satellite cell renewal and differentiation in the damaged muscle. Notably, EC was associated with the activation of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) and with increased endogenous S1P synthesis, further stressing the relevance of S1P in skeletal muscle protection and repair/regeneration. In line with this, the treatment with a selective SphK1 inhibitor during EC, caused an exacerbation of the muscle damage and attenuated MMP-9 expression. Together, these findings are in favour for a role of S1P in skeletal muscle healing and offer new clues for the identification of novel therapeutic approaches to counteract skeletal muscle damage and disease. PMID:21199328

  12. ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM mapping of the AAST Emergency General Surgery disease severity grading systems: Conceptual approach, limitations, and recommendations for the future.

    PubMed

    Utter, Garth H; Miller, Preston R; Mowery, Nathan T; Tominaga, Gail T; Gunter, Oliver; Osler, Turner M; Ciesla, David J; Agarwal, Suresh K; Inaba, Kenji; Aboutanos, Michel B; Brown, Carlos V R; Ross, Steven E; Crandall, Marie L; Shafi, Shahid

    2015-05-01

    The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) recently established a grading system for uniform reporting of anatomic severity of several emergency general surgery (EGS) diseases. There are five grades of severity for each disease, ranging from I (lowest severity) to V (highest severity). However, the grading process requires manual chart review. We sought to evaluate whether International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revisions, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM, ICD-10-CM) codes might allow estimation of AAST grades for EGS diseases. The Patient Assessment and Outcomes Committee of the AAST reviewed all available ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes relevant to 16 EGS diseases with available AAST grades. We then matched grades for each EGS disease with one or more ICD codes. We used the Official Coding Guidelines for ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM and the American Hospital Association's "Coding Clinic for ICD-9-CM" for coding guidance. The ICD codes did not allow for matching all five AAST grades of severity for each of the 16 diseases. With ICD-9-CM, six diseases mapped into four categories of severity (instead of five), another six diseases into three categories of severity, and four diseases into only two categories of severity. With ICD-10-CM, five diseases mapped into four categories of severity, seven diseases into three categories, and four diseases into two categories. Two diseases mapped into discontinuous categories of grades (two in ICD-9-CM and one in ICD-10-CM). Although resolution is limited, ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes might have some utility in roughly approximating the severity of the AAST grades in the absence of more precise information. These ICD mappings should be validated and refined before widespread use to characterize EGS disease severity. In the long-term, it may be desirable to develop alternatives to ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM codes for routine collection of disease severity characteristics. PMID:25909431

  13. Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD2PO4 crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J J; Jarboe, J; Feit, M; Hackel, R

    2007-10-31

    We present S/1 and R/1 test results on unconditioned and 355 nm (3{omega}), 500 ps laser conditioned DKDP. We find up to {approx}2.5X improvement in fluence in the S/1 performance after 3{omega}, 500 ps conditioning to 5 J/cm{sup 2}. For the first time, we observe a shift to higher fluences in the R/1 results for DKDP at 3{omega}, 7 ns due to 500 ps laser conditioning. The S/1 results are compared to {rho}({phi}) results previously measured on the same DKDP crystal [1]. A consistent behavior in fluence was found between the S/1 and {rho}({phi}) results for unconditioned and 500 ps conditioned DKDP. We were successful at using Poisson statistics to derive a connection between the S/1 and {rho}({phi}) results that could be tested with our data sets by trying to predict the shape of the {rho}({phi}) curve. The value for the power dependence on fluence of {rho}({phi}) derived from the S/1 data was {approx}11 {+-} 50%. The results presented and discussed here imply a strong correlation between the damage probability (S/1) test and {rho}({phi}). We find a consistent description of the two test types in terms of a power law {rho}({phi}) and that this basic shape held for all cases, i.e. the shape was invariant between unconditioned and conditioned results.

  14. S1 is associated with chronic low back pain: a functional and structural MRI study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental characteristic of neural circuits is the capacity for plasticity in response to experience. Neural plasticity is associated with the development of chronic pain disorders. In this study, we investigated 1) brain resting state functional connectivity (FC) differences between patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) and matched healthy controls (HC); 2) FC differences within the cLBP patients as they experienced different levels of endogenous low back pain evoked by exercise maneuvers, and 3) morphometric differences between cLBP patients and matched HC. We found the dynamic character of FC in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in cLBP patients, i.e., S1 FC decreased when the patients experienced low intensity LBP as compared with matched healthy controls, and FC at S1 increased when cLBP patients experienced high intensity LBP as compared with the low intensity condition. In addition, we also found increased cortical thickness in the bilateral S1 somatotopically associated with the lower back in cLBP patients as compared to healthy controls. Our results provide evidence of structural plasticity co-localized with areas exhibiting FC changes in S1 in cLBP patients. PMID:23965184

  15. HDL induces NO-dependent vasorelaxation via the lysophospholipid receptor S1P3

    PubMed Central

    Nofer, Jerzy-Roch; van der Giet, Markus; Tlle, Markus; Wolinska, Iza; von Wnuck Lipinski, Karin; Baba, Hideo A.; Tietge, Uwe J.; Gdecke, Axel; Ishii, Isao; Kleuser, Burkhard; Schfers, Michael; Fobker, Manfred; Zidek, Walter; Assmann, Gerd; Chun, Jerold; Levkau, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    HDL is a major atheroprotective factor, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are still obscure. HDL binding to scavenger receptor-BI has been shown to activate eNOS, although the responsible HDL entities and signaling pathways have remained enigmatic. Here we show that HDL stimulates NO release in human endothelial cells and induces vasodilation in isolated aortae via intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and Akt-mediated eNOS phosphorylation. The vasoactive effects of HDL could be mimicked by three lysophospholipids present in HDL: sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and lysosulfatide (LSF). All three elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration and activated Akt and eNOS, which resulted in NO release and vasodilation. Deficiency of the lysophospholipid receptor S1P3 (also known as LPB3 and EDG3) abolished the vasodilatory effects of SPC, S1P, and LSF and reduced the effect of HDL by approximately 60%. In endothelial cells from S1P3-deficient mice, Akt phosphorylation and Ca2+ increase in response to HDL and lysophospholipids were severely reduced. In vivo, intra-arterial administration of HDL or lysophospholipids lowered mean arterial blood pressure in rats. In conclusion, we identify HDL as a carrier of bioactive lysophospholipids that regulate vascular tone via S1P3-mediated NO release. This mechanism may contribute to the vasoactive effect of HDL and represent a novel aspect of its antiatherogenic function. PMID:14966566

  16. HDL induces NO-dependent vasorelaxation via the lysophospholipid receptor S1P3.

    PubMed

    Nofer, Jerzy-Roch; van der Giet, Markus; Tlle, Markus; Wolinska, Iza; von Wnuck Lipinski, Karin; Baba, Hideo A; Tietge, Uwe J; Gdecke, Axel; Ishii, Isao; Kleuser, Burkhard; Schfers, Michael; Fobker, Manfred; Zidek, Walter; Assmann, Gerd; Chun, Jerold; Levkau, Bodo

    2004-02-01

    HDL is a major atheroprotective factor, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are still obscure. HDL binding to scavenger receptor-BI has been shown to activate eNOS, although the responsible HDL entities and signaling pathways have remained enigmatic. Here we show that HDL stimulates NO release in human endothelial cells and induces vasodilation in isolated aortae via intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and Akt-mediated eNOS phosphorylation. The vasoactive effects of HDL could be mimicked by three lysophospholipids present in HDL: sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and lysosulfatide (LSF). All three elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration and activated Akt and eNOS, which resulted in NO release and vasodilation. Deficiency of the lysophospholipid receptor S1P3 (also known as LPB3 and EDG3) abolished the vasodilatory effects of SPC, S1P, and LSF and reduced the effect of HDL by approximately 60%. In endothelial cells from S1P3-deficient mice, Akt phosphorylation and Ca2+ increase in response to HDL and lysophospholipids were severely reduced. In vivo, intra-arterial administration of HDL or lysophospholipids lowered mean arterial blood pressure in rats. In conclusion, we identify HDL as a carrier of bioactive lysophospholipids that regulate vascular tone via S1P3-mediated NO release. This mechanism may contribute to the vasoactive effect of HDL and represent a novel aspect of its antiatherogenic function. PMID:14966566

  17. [A case of paclitaxel-resistant recurrent gastric cancer responsive to S-1 plus docetaxel].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Iwase, Kazuhiro; Aono, Toyokazu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Nomura, Masaya; Tamagawa, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Chu; Deguchi, Takashi; Kawada, Junji; Higashi, Shigeyoshi; Deguchi, Koichi; Noguchi, Yuki; Okumura, Yuichiro; Nomura, Masatoshi; Fushimi, Hiroaki; Takagi, Mari; Fukui, Akiko; Fujitani, Kazumasa; Endo, Shunji; Tanaka, Yasuhiro

    2013-11-01

    We report the case of a patient with paclitaxel (PTX) -resistant recurrent gastric cancer who was effectively treated with S-1 plus docetaxel( DOC). A 62-year-old woman underwent total gastrectomy for Stage IV advanced gastric cancer (type 4, por 2>sig, pT4a (SE), pN3a, pP1, CY1) in 2009. Although S-1 was administered as first-line chemotherapy, recurrent peritoneal metastasis was diagnosed 22 months after surgery. S-1 plus irinotecan (CPT-11) was administered as second-line chemotherapy, and this was followed by weekly PTX (80 mg/m2) as third-line chemotherapy. However, computed tomography (CT) showed increased ascites and peritoneal wall thickening in the pelvis. As the tumor proved resistant to PTX, making the treatment ineffective, S-1( 80 mg/m2, day 1-14, q3w) plus DOC( 40 mg/m2, day 1, q3w) was initiated. Two months later, the ascites and peritoneal wall thickening in the pelvis disappeared. Twelve months after initiation of S-1 plus DOC chemotherapy, no sign of recurrence has been noted. PMID:24394078

  18. S1 is associated with chronic low back pain: a functional and structural MRI study.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jian; Spaeth, Rosa B; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Cheetham, Alexandra; Cook, Amanda H; Jensen, Karin; Tan, Ying; Liu, Hesheng; Wang, Danhong; Loggia, Marco L; Napadow, Vitaly; Smoller, Jordan W; Wasan, Ajay D; Gollub, Randy L

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental characteristic of neural circuits is the capacity for plasticity in response to experience. Neural plasticity is associated with the development of chronic pain disorders. In this study, we investigated 1) brain resting state functional connectivity (FC) differences between patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) and matched healthy controls (HC); 2) FC differences within the cLBP patients as they experienced different levels of endogenous low back pain evoked by exercise maneuvers, and 3) morphometric differences between cLBP patients and matched HC. We found the dynamic character of FC in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in cLBP patients, i.e., S1 FC decreased when the patients experienced low intensity LBP as compared with matched healthy controls, and FC at S1 increased when cLBP patients experienced high intensity LBP as compared with the low intensity condition. In addition, we also found increased cortical thickness in the bilateral S1 somatotopically associated with the lower back in cLBP patients as compared to healthy controls. Our results provide evidence of structural plasticity co-localized with areas exhibiting FC changes in S1 in cLBP patients. PMID:23965184

  19. Corneal Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency Associated with the Anticancer Drug S-1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyeong Hwan; Kim, Wan Soo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose An oral antineoplastic drug, S-1, is known to be more effective with less toxicity and fewer gastrointestinal side effects than the conventional intravenous 5-fluorouracil. We report a case of limbal stem cell deficiency that occurred in a patient receiving chemotherapy using S-1 alone for gastric cancer. Case Report A 65-year-old woman with symptoms of grittiness and epiphora in both eyes for several months was referred to the ophthalmology clinic. She had been receiving S-1 orally after total gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer. Slit lamp examination revealed an irregular hazy corneal epithelium in both eyes that extended to the center of the cornea overlying the pupil and showed late staining with fluorescein dye. Palisades of Vogt at the superior limbus were absent in both eyes. Best-corrected distance vision was 20/50 in both eyes with all other structures of the anterior and posterior segment unremarkable including a patent lacrimal drainage system. There was no change in the corneal lesions of either eye despite 3 months of topical therapy. The lesions did resolve in 4 months after discontinuation of S-1 therapy owing to acute renal failure. Conclusions Early detection of this adverse reaction before significant visual loss through regular follow-up appears to be important in patients receiving S-1 therapy. PMID:25756340

  20. Renormalized Traces and Cocycles on the Algebra of S 1-Pseudo-differential Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnot, Jean-Pierre

    2006-02-01

    Using renormalized (or weighted) traces of classical pseudo-differential operators and calculus on formal symbols. We exhibit three cocycles on the Lie algebra of classical pseudo-differential operators Cl(S^1,mathbb{C}^n) acting on L^2(S^1,mathbb{C}^n). We first show that the Schwinger functional c_S^D associated to the Dirac operator is a cocycle on Cl(S^1,mathbb{C}^n), and not only on a restricted algebra Cl(S^1,mathbb{C}^n)^D_res. Then, we investigate two bilinear functionals c+^D and c_{++}^D, which satisfies {1 over 2}c_S^D = c_+^D - c_{++}^D. We show that c+^D and c_{++}^D are two cocycles in Cl(S^1,mathbb{C}^n), and {1 over 2}c_S^D and c_+^D have the same nonvanishing cohomology class. We finaly calculate c+^D on classical pseudo-differential operators of order 1 and on differential operators of order 1, in terms of partial symbols. By this last computation, we recover the Virasoro cocyle and the Khler form of the loop group.

  1. Experimental shock metamorphism of the Murchison CM carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomeoka, Kazushige; Yamahana, Yasuhiro; Sekine, Toshimori

    1999-11-01

    A series of shock-recovery experiments were carried out on the Murchison CM carbonaceous chondrite by using a single-stage propellant gun. The Murchison samples were shocked in nine experiments at peak pressures from 4 to 49 GPa. The recovered samples were studied in detail by using an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope and an electron-probe microanalyzer. Chondrules are flattened in the plane of the shock front at 4 to 30 GPa. The mean aspect ratio of chondrules increases from 1.17 to 1.57 roughly in proportion to the intensity of shock pressure up to 25 GPa. At 25 to 30 GPa, the mean aspect ratio does not increase further, and chondrules show increasingly more random orientations and degrade their preferred orientations, and at 35 GPa, they are extensively disrupted. Most coarse grains of olivine and pyroxene are irregularly fractured, fracture density increases with increasing shock pressure and at 30 GPa almost all are thoroughly fractured with subgrains of <1 to 5 ?m in size. At 20 GPa, subparallel fractures begin to form in the matrix in directions roughly perpendicular to the compression axis and their densities increase with pressure, especially dramatically at 25 to 30 GPa; thus, the sample is increasingly comminuted and becomes fragile. Local shock melting occurs as melt veins and pockets at 20 to 30 GPa. Fracture-filling veins of fine grains of matrix are also produced at 25 to 30 GPa. The melts and the fine grains seem to result mainly from frictional heating due to displacement along fractures. At 35 GPa, melting occurs pervasively throughout the matrix. The melts are mainly produced from the matrix; however, they are consistently more enriched in Fe, S, and Ca, which indicates that these elements are selectively incorporated into the melts. The melts contain tiny spherules of Fe-Ni metal, Fe sulfide, and numerous vesicles. At 49 GPa, the matrix is totally melted and coarse grains of olivine are partially melted. The melts contain much larger vesicles (50-300 ?m in diameter) than those in the samples shocked at lower pressures, which indicates that much more intense devolatilization and gas expansion took place. For the purpose of comparing shock thermal effects between the experimentally shocked samples and naturally shocked targets (surface materials in the Murchison parent body), we calculated internal energy increase for compression by multiple shock wave reflections (experimental case) and for compression by a single shock wave (natural case). The results suggest that postshock thermal effects observed at each experiment may be attained by impact on the natural targets at a considerably lower shock pressure than the peak shock pressure. From the results of our experiments and calculations, we conclude that if the Murchison parent body were shocked on the surface at pressures higher than 25 GPa, shocked material would probably undergo drastic increase in the degree of comminution and simultaneous generation of strong expansive forces on pressure release. Thus the results support the hypothesis of Scott et al. (1992) that volatile-rich carbonaceous chondrites shocked above 20 to 30 GPa escaped from the parent body and formed particles that are too small to survive as meteorites.

  2. Sphingosine-1-phosphate promotes lymphangiogenesis by stimulating S1P1/Gi/PLC/Ca2+ signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Chang Min; Hong, Bok Sil; Moon, Hyung Geun; Lim, Seyoung; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Chae, Chi-Bom

    2008-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays pivotal roles in mediating tissue fluid homeostasis and immunity, and excessive lymphatic vessel formation is implicated in many pathological conditions, which include inflammation and tumor metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate lymphatic vessel formation remain poorly characterized. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent bioactive lipid that is implicated in a variety of biologic processes such as inflammatory responses and angiogenesis. Here, we first report that S1P acts as a lymphangiogenic mediator. S1P induced migration, capillary-like tube formation, and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, but not proliferation, in human lymphatic endothelial cells (HLECs) in vitro. Moreover, a Matrigel plug assay demonstrated that S1P promoted the outgrowth of new lymphatic vessels in vivo. HLECs expressed S1P1 and S1P3, and both RNA interference–mediated down-regulation of S1P1 and an S1P1 antagonist significantly blocked S1P-mediated lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, pertussis toxin, U73122, and BAPTA-AM efficiently blocked S1P-induced in vitro lymphangiogenesis and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization of HLECs, indicating that S1P promotes lymphangiogenesis by stimulating S1P1/Gi/phospholipase C/Ca2+ signaling pathways. Our results suggest that S1P is the first lymphangiogenic bioactive lipid to be identified, and that S1P and its receptors might serve as new therapeutic targets against inflammatory diseases and lymphatic metastasis in tumors. PMID:18541717

  3. Visualizing S1P-directed cellular egress by intravital imaging

    PubMed Central

    Giannouli, Christina C.; Chandris, Panagiotis; Proia, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that provides cellular signals through plasma membrane G protein-coupled receptors. The S1P receptor signaling system has a fundamental and widespread function in licensing the exit and release of hematopoietically derived cells from various tissues into the circulation. Although the outlines of the mechanism have been established through genetic and pharmacologic perturbations, the temporal and spatial dynamics of the cellular events involved have been unclear. Recently, two-photon intravital imaging has been applied to living tissues to visualize the cellular movements and interactions that occur during egress processes. Here we discuss how some of these recent findings provide a clearer picture regarding S1P receptor signaling in modulating cell egress into the circulation. PMID:24090699

  4. Effect of ?-electron conjugation length on the solvent-dependent S1 lifetime of peridinin

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Kajikawa, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Shinji; Katsumura, Shigeo; Frank, Harry A.

    2008-01-01

    Peridinin exhibits an anomalous solvent dependence of its S1 excited state lifetime attributed to the presence of an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state. The nature of this state has yet to be elucidated. Ultrafast time-resolved optical spectroscopy has been performed on a synthetic analog, C35-peridinin, having one less conjugated double bond than peridinin. The data reveal the lifetime decreases from 1.5 ns in n-hexane to 9.2 ps in methanol, an order of magnitude larger than peridinin. This is the strongest solvent dependence on the lifetime of an S1 state of a carotenoid yet reported. The data support the view that the S1 and ICT states are strongly coupled. PMID:19777053

  5. Miniopen Oblique Lateral L5-S1 Interbody Fusion: A Report of 2 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Keijiro; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hiroto; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) has been widely used for minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), but an approach to L5-S1 is difficult because of the iliac crest. In the current study, we present 2 cases using minimally invasive oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) of L5-S1. The patients showed foraminal stenosis between L5 and S1 and severe low back and leg pain. The patients were placed in a lateral decubitus position and underwent OLIF surgery (using a cage and bone graft from the iliac crest) without posterior decompression. Posterior screws were used in the patients. Pain scores significantly improved after surgery. There was no spinal nerve, major vessel, peritoneal, or urinary injury. OLIF surgery was minimally invasive and produced good surgical results without complications. PMID:25400963

  6. Characterization and genetic analysis of bovine alpha S1-casein I variant.

    PubMed

    Lhken, G; Caroli, A; Ibeagha-Awemu, E M; Erhardt, G

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the molecular genetic origin underlying the I variant of alpha(s1)-casein and to develop a DNA-based test for this polymorphism as a tool for genetic analyses independent of milk sample testing. All coding exons and flanking regions of the alpha(s1)-casein gene were sequenced in DNA samples from cattle of known alpha(s1)-casein genotypes (BI, CI, II, CC), determined by isoelectric focusing of milk samples. A nucleotide substitution (A>T) in exon 11 (g.19836A>T) leads to the exchange of Glu with Asp at amino acid position 84 of the mature protein (p.Glu84Asp) and perfectly co-segregated with the presence of the alpha(s1)-casein I variant in the milk of the analysed animals. Genotyping of a total of 680 DNA samples from 31 Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle breeds and from Bos grunniens, Bison bison and Bison bonasus by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed the occurrence of Asp at position 84 at low frequencies in Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds and established its origin from the alpha(s1)-casein C variant (p.Glu192Gly). Ten different intragenic haplotypes in the gene region from intron 8 to intron 12 were observed by sequencing, of which two occurred in Bison bison and one in Bison bonasus only. Using available casein gene complex information, an association of Asp at position 84 to beta-casein A(2) and kappa-casein B was shown in the Bos indicus breed Banyo Gudali. Taken together, we can postulate that the alpha(s1)-casein variant I is caused by a non-synonymous nucleotide substitution in exon 11 of the gene and that it originated within Bos indicus and spread to Bos taurus subsequently. PMID:19392822

  7. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of novel oral fluorouracil antitumor drug S-1 in Chinese cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhi-xiang; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Ji; Zhu, Min-gao; Wang, Hui; Pu, Wang-yang; Bian, Hua-hui; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Aim: S-1 is an oral anticancer fluoropyrimidine formulation consisting of tegafur, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine and potassium oxonate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of a newly developed generic formulation of S-1 in Chinese cancer patients in comparison with the branded reference formulation of S-1. Methods: A single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, two-way self-crossover study was conducted in 30 Chinese cancer patients. The subjects alternatively received the two formulations (40 mg/m2, po) with a 7-d interval. Plasma concentrations of FT, CDHP, Oxo, and 5-Fu were determined using LC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, AUC0t, and AUC0? were determined using non-compartmental models with DAS2.0 software. Bioequivalence of the two formulations were to be evaluated according to 90% CIs for the log-transformed ratios of AUC and Cmax of S-1. Adverse events were evaluated through monitoring the symptom, physical and laboratory examinations, ECGs and subject interviews. Results: The mean values of Cmax, AUC0t, and AUC0? of FT, 5-Fu, CDHP, and Oxo for the two formulations had no significant differences. The 90% CIs for natural log-transformed ratios of Cmax, AUC0t, and AUC0? were within the predetermined bioequivalence acceptance limits. A total of 11 mild adverse events, including fatigue, nausea and vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea and myelosuppression, were observed, and no serious and special adverse events were found. Conclusion: The newly developed generic formulation and reference formulation of S-1 have similar pharmacokinetics with one dose (40 mg/m2) in Chinese cancer patients. Both the formulations of S-1 are well tolerated. PMID:23396375

  8. Structural interactions between lipids, water and S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains

    PubMed Central

    Krepkiy, Dmitriy; Gawrisch, Klaus; Swartz, Kenton J.

    2012-01-01

    Membrane proteins serve crucial signaling and transport functions, yet relatively little is known about their structures in membrane environments or how lipids interact with these proteins. For voltage-activated ion channels, X-ray structures suggest that the mobile voltage-sensing S4 helix would be exposed to the membrane, and functional studies reveal that lipid modification can profoundly alter channel activity. Here we use solid-state NMR to investigate structural interactions of lipids and water with S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains, and to explore whether lipids influence the structure of the protein. Our results demonstrate that S1-S4 domains exhibit extensive interactions with lipids, and that these domains are heavily hydrated when embedded in a membrane. We also find evidence for preferential interactions of anionic lipids with S1-S4 domains, and that these interactions have lifetimes on the timescale of 10?3s. Arg residues within S1-S4 domains are well-hydrated and are positioned in close proximity to lipids, exhibiting local interactions with both lipid head groups and acyl chains. Comparative studies with a positively charged lipid lacking a phosphodiester group reveal that this lipid modification has only modest effects on the structure and hydration of S1-S4 domains. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Arg residues in S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains reside in close proximity to the hydrophobic interior of the membrane, yet are well-hydrated, a requirement for carrying charge and driving protein motions in response to changes in membrane voltage. PMID:22858867

  9. Eastern Mediterranean Sea circulation inferred from the conditions of S1 sapropel deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, K.; Vidal, L.; Cornuault, M.; Garcia, M.; Pothin, A.; Sonzogni, C.; Bard, E.; Menot, G.; Revel, M.

    2014-12-01

    Holocene Eastern Mediterranean Sea sediments contain an organic-rich sapropel S1 layer that was formed in oxygen-depleted waters. The spatial distribution of this layer revealed that during S1 deposition deep waters were permanently anoxic below 1800 m in water depth. To provide further insight into past Eastern Mediterranean Sea circulation, a multi-proxy approach was applied to a core retrieved close to the 1800 m boundary (at 1780 m). We measured the bulk sediment elemental composition, the stable isotopic composition of the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber, and the abundance of benthic foraminifera since the last deglaciation. The result indicates that authigenic U and Mo accumulation began around 13-12 cal ka BP, in concert with surface water freshening estimated from the G. ruber δ18O record. The onset of bottom/pore water oxygen depletion occurred prior to S1 deposition inferred from barium enrichment. In the middle of the S1 deposition period, between 9 and 8 cal ka BP, reduced authigenic V, Fe and As contents and Br / Cl ratio indicated short-term bottom water re-oxygenation. A sharp Mn peak and maximal abundance for benthic foraminifera marked a total recovery for circulation at approximately 7 cal ka BP. Based on our results and existing data, we suggest that S1 formation withinthe upper 1780 m of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea was preconditioned by reduced ventilation, resulting from excess fresh water inputs due to insolation changes under deglacial conditions, that initiated between 15 and 12 ka. Short-term re-oxygenation in the Levantine Basin is estimated to have affected bottom water below and above the anoxic boundary. We tentatively propose that complete ventilation recovery at the S1 termination was attained earlier within the upper 1780 m than at deeper water depths. Our results provided new constraints for eastern Mediterranean Sea thermohaline circulation.

  10. Identification of ?S=1 Transitions in 13C by Measurement of Pion Inelastic Excitation Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seestrom-Morris, S. J.; Dehnhard, D.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Morris, C. L.

    1981-06-01

    Differential cross sections for 13C (?,?') were measured between 100 and 300 MeV for momentum transfers of 1.1? fm-1 and 1.4? fm-1. In this energy range the different energy dependences of the spin-dependent and spin-independent parts of the pion-nucleon interaction provide a very sensitive method of discriminating between transitions that proceed with a spin transfer (?S=1) or without a spin transfer (?S=0). Five transitions in 13C were found to be dominated by the ?S=1 transition density amplitude.

  11. Instantons and magnetic monopoles on R3xS1 with arbitrary simple gauge groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kimyeong

    1998-05-01

    We investigate Yang-Mills theories with arbitrary gauge group on R3xS1, whose symmetry is spontaneously broken by the Wilson loop. We show that instantons are made of fundamental magnetic monopoles, each of which has a corresponding root in the extended Dynkin diagram. The number of constituent magnetic monopoles for a single instanton is the dual Coxeter number of the gauge group, which also accounts for the number of instanton zero modes. In addition, we show that there exists a novel type of the S1 coordinate dependent magnetic monopole solutions in G2,F4,E8.

  12. Impact-Induced Chondrule Deformation and Aqueous Alteration of CM2 Murchison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, R. D.; Zolensky, M.; Ketcham, R. A.; Behr, W. M.; Martinez, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Deformed chondrules in CM2 Murchison have been found to define a prominent foliation [1,2] and lineation [3] in 3D using X-ray computed tomography (XCT). It has been hypothesized that chondrules in foliated chondrites deform by "squeezing" into surrounding pore space [4,5], a process that also likely removes primary porosity [6]. However, shock stage classification based on olivine extinction in Murchison is consistently low (S1-S2) [4-5,7] implying that significant intracrystalline plastic deformation of olivine has not occurred. One objective of our study is therefore to determine the microstructural mechanisms and phases that are accommodating the impact stress and resulting in relative displacements within the chondrules. Another question regarding impact deformation in Murchison is whether it facilitated aqueous alteration as has been proposed for the CMs which generally show a positive correlation between degree of alteration and petrofabric strength [7,2]. As pointed out by [2], CM Murchison represents a unique counterpoint to this correlation: it has a strong petrofabric but a relatively low degree of aqueous alteration. However, Murchison may not represent an inconsistency to the proposed causal relationship between impact and alteration, if it can be established that the incipient aqueous alteration post-dated chondrule deformation. Methods: Two thin sections from Murchison sample USNM 5487 were cut approximately perpendicular to the foliation and parallel to lineation determined by XCT [1,3] and one section was additionally polished for EBSD. Using a combination of optical petrography, SEM, EDS, and EBSD several chondrules were characterized in detail to: determine phases, find microstructures indicative of strain, document the geometric relationships between grain-scale microstructures and the foliation and lineation direction, and look for textural relationships of alteration minerals (tochilinite and Mg-Fe serpentine) that indicate timing of their formation relative to deformation event(s). Preliminary Results: Deformed chondrules are dominated by forsterite and clinoenstatite with lesser amounts of Fe-Mg serpentine, sulfides, and low calcium pyroxene. Olivine grains are commonly fractured but generally show sharp optical extinction. The pyroxene, in contrast, is not only fractured but also often displays undulose extinction. In addition, the clinoenstatite is frequently twinned but it is unclear whether the twins are the result of mechanical deformation or inversion from protoenstatite [8]. EBSD work is currently ongoing to determine if areas of higher crystallographic strain can be imaged and mapped, and to determine the pyroxene twin orientations. In regards to alteration, we have found evidence for post-deformation formation of tochilinite and Mg-Fe serpentine indicating that aqueous alteration has indeed post-dated the deformation of the chondrules.

  13. RAPD and ISSR based evaluation of genetic stability of micropropagated plantlets of Morus alba L. variety S-1.

    PubMed

    Saha, Soumen; Adhikari, Sinchan; Dey, Tulsi; Ghosh, Parthadeb

    2016-02-01

    Plant regeneration through rapid in vitro clonal propagation of nodal explants of Morus alba L. variety S-1 was established along with genetic stability analysis of regenerates. Axillary shoot bud proliferation was achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium in various culture regimes. Highest number of shoots (5.62 ± 0.01), with average length 4.19 ± 0.01 cm, was initially achieved with medium containing 0.5 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) and 3% sucrose. Repeated subculturing of newly formed nodal parts after each harvest up to sixth passage, yielded highest number of shoots (about 32.27) per explants was obtained after fourth passage. Rooting of shoots occurred on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/1 Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). About 90% (89.16) of the plantlets transferred to the mixture of sand:soil:organic manure (2:2:1) in small plastic pots acclimatized successfully. Genetic stability of the discussed protocol was confirmed by two DNA-based fingerprinting techniques i.e. RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat). This protocol can be used for commercial propagation and for future genetic improvement studies. PMID:26693403

  14. RAPD and ISSR based evaluation of genetic stability of micropropagated plantlets of Morus alba L. variety S-1

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Soumen; Adhikari, Sinchan; Dey, Tulsi; Ghosh, Parthadeb

    2015-01-01

    Plant regeneration through rapid in vitro clonal propagation of nodal explants of Morus alba L. variety S-1 was established along with genetic stability analysis of regenerates. Axillary shoot bud proliferation was achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium in various culture regimes. Highest number of shoots (5.62 ± 0.01), with average length 4.19 ± 0.01 cm, was initially achieved with medium containing 0.5 mg/l N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 3% sucrose. Repeated subculturing of newly formed nodal parts after each harvest up to sixth passage, yielded highest number of shoots (about 32.27) per explants was obtained after fourth passage. Rooting of shoots occurred on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/1 Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). About 90% (89.16) of the plantlets transferred to the mixture of sand:soil:organic manure (2:2:1) in small plastic pots acclimatized successfully. Genetic stability of the discussed protocol was confirmed by two DNA-based fingerprinting techniques i.e. RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat). This protocol can be used for commercial propagation and for future genetic improvement studies. PMID:26693403

  15. Effect of Self-Regulated Learning and Motivation to Achieve against Teacher Professional Capability for Student S1 PGSD of Science Field Compared with Regular Student S1 PGSD at UPBJJ Serang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prayekti

    2015-01-01

    This study is to know effect of self-regulated learning and motivation to achieve against teacher professional capability for student S1 PGSD of science field compared with regular student S1 PGSD. The student uses grades of Classroom Action Research (CAR) and Stabilization of Professional Capability (SPC) on curriculum of S1 PGSD to see…

  16. Cloning of chrysanthemum high-affinity nitrate transporter family (CmNRT2) and characterization of CmNRT2.1.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chunsun; Song, Aiping; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Haibin; Li, Ting; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Chen, Sumei

    2016-01-01

    The family of NITRATE TRANSPORTER 2 (NRT2) proteins belongs to the high affinity transport system (HATS) proteins which acts at low nitrate concentrations. The relevant gene content of the chrysanthemum genome was explored here by isolating the full length sequences of six distinct CmNRT2 genes. One of these (CmNRT2.1) was investigated at the functional level. Its transcription level was inducible by low concentrations of both nitrate and ammonium. A yeast two hybrid assay showed that CmNRT2.1 interacts with CmNAR2, while a BiFC assay demonstrated that the interaction occurs at the plasma membrane. Arabidopsis thaliana plants heterologously expressing CmNRT2.1 displayed an enhanced rate of labeled nitrogen uptake, suggesting that CmNRT2.1 represents a high affinity root nitrate transporter. PMID:27004464

  17. Cloning of chrysanthemum high-affinity nitrate transporter family (CmNRT2) and characterization of CmNRT2.1

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Chunsun; Song, Aiping; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Haibin; Li, Ting; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Chen, Sumei

    2016-01-01

    The family of NITRATE TRANSPORTER 2 (NRT2) proteins belongs to the high affinity transport system (HATS) proteins which acts at low nitrate concentrations. The relevant gene content of the chrysanthemum genome was explored here by isolating the full length sequences of six distinct CmNRT2 genes. One of these (CmNRT2.1) was investigated at the functional level. Its transcription level was inducible by low concentrations of both nitrate and ammonium. A yeast two hybrid assay showed that CmNRT2.1 interacts with CmNAR2, while a BiFC assay demonstrated that the interaction occurs at the plasma membrane. Arabidopsis thaliana plants heterologously expressing CmNRT2.1 displayed an enhanced rate of labeled nitrogen uptake, suggesting that CmNRT2.1 represents a high affinity root nitrate transporter. PMID:27004464

  18. Neutral and Plasma Distributions in the Coma of Comet C/2012 S1 ISON: Narrowband Imaging and Integral-Field Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C.; Johnson, R. E.; Leblanc, F.; Baumgardner, J.; Mendillo, M.

    2015-10-01

    We present concurrent spectra and filtered imaging of the coma of C/2012 S1 ISON at .44 to 0.47 AU from the sun. C2, NH2, Na, and H2O+ distributions were elongated several thousand km along an axis perpendicular to the comet's motion and the sunward vector. The peak brightness of each species was collocated within 5,000 km of the dusty continuum concentration. ISON's water ion tail appeared distinctly broader than the neutral Na tail and we find no evidence for an extended source of Na by dissociative recombination of a molecular ion. Rather, an extended source of as much as 50% of Na may be attributed to dust, evidenced via Monte Carlo simulations of a distant sodium tail extending beyond 106 km. An increase of nearly a factor of four in the Na source rate was found within a 24 hour interval during an outburst, and the relative Na/O abundance is estimated at ~5 x 10-7, well below the ratio known in active comets of comparable geometry.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of the yeast Malassezia sympodialis allergen Mala s 1

    SciTech Connect

    Vilhelmsson, Monica; Hallberg, B. Martin; Rasool, Omid; Zargari, Arezou; Scheynius, Annika; Achour, Adnane

    2006-02-01

    Crystals of the M. sympodialis allergen Mala s 1 have been obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set has been collected from native crystals to 1.35 resolution. The opportunistic yeast Malassezia sympodialis can act as an allergen and elicit specific IgE- and T-cell reactivity in patients with atopic eczema. The first identified major allergen from M. sympodialis, Mala s 1, is present on the cell surface of the yeast. Recombinant Mala s 1 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and refolded in a soluble form. Crystals of Mala s 1 were obtained in 25% PEG 8K, 0.2 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.4, b = 163.7, c = 50.6 , and diffract to 1.35 resolution.

  20. Conference on Learning Disabilities: A Review of Indiana's Rule S-1. LD Series #5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Patricia H., Ed.; Middleton, Thomas O., Ed.

    The document is a collection of papers presented at a conference on the delivery of services to learning disabled children in Indiana that focused on Indiana's Rule S-1, which implements the mandatory special education act through multidisciplinary identification, assessment, and placement of handicapped children. Titles and authors include "The

  1. High-Dispersion Spectroscopic Observations of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with the Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Nagashima, Masayoshi; Hitomi, Kobayashi; Decock, Alice; Jehin, Emmanuel; Boice, Daniel C.

    2014-11-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was one of the Oort cloud comets and dynamically new. This comet was broken at its perihelion passage on UT 2013 November 28.1 (at Rh ~ 17 solar radius). We observed the comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) on UT 2013 November 15 with the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) mounted on the Subaru Telescope atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Its heliocentric and geocentric distances were 0.601 and 0.898 AU, respectively. We selected the slit size of 0.5 x 9.0 on the sky to achieve the spectral resolution of R = 72,000 from 550 to 830 nm. The total exposure time of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was 1200 seconds. We detected many emission lines caused from radicals (e.g., CN, C2, NH2), ions (H2O+), atoms ([OI] and Na I) and also many unidentified lines in the spectra. We report the (1) the ortho-to-para abundance ratios (OPRs) of water and ammonia estimated from the high-dispersion spectra of H2O+ and NH2, (2) the green-to-red line ratio of forbidden oxygen emissions, (3) the isotopic ratios of C2 (the carbon isotopic ratio from Swan band) and CN (the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios from red band), (4) the sodium-to-continuum ratio of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON).

  2. Sequence analysis of the S1PR1 gene in river buffalo.

    PubMed

    Stafuzza, N B; Naressi, B C M; Borges, M M; Amaral-Trusty, M E J

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in methodologies for genomic analyses have enabled a significant advance in understanding of the river buffalo genome. The S1PR1 gene has been mapped to buffalo chromosome 6 and bovine chromosome 3; this gene is of interest as it is a candidate for marbling in meat, an important economic trait. Here, we performed next generation sequencing in a buffalo BAC DNA clone and obtained a 54.5-kb sequence encompassing the entire buffalo S1PR1 gene as well as the 27 kb upstream region and the 22 kb downstream region. The gene had a total length of 4716 bp, including three exons and two introns; exons 1 and 2 were classified as non-protein-coding. In comparison with homologues from other species, the structural organization of buffalo S1PR1 was closest to that of the goat and in both species exon 2 of the gene was non-protein-coding. One hundred and nine repetitive elements were found within the buffalo gene and its boundary regions, with 50 SINE repeats being the most abundant. Alignment of S1PR1 sequences from the Murrah and Mediterranean breeds revealed two nucleotide substitutions (g.1176C>G and g.2740T>C), which represent potential SNPs that could be used in further studies of buffalo genetic structure. PMID:26909928

  3. Student Participation in Decision-Making. The Individualized System. H.S.1 Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, William E.; Farrell, Joseph P.

    With Circular H.S.1 1972/73, the Ministry of Education directed Ontario's secondary schools to provide an increased range of course offerings and to allow students as much freedom as possible to choose their own courses. To identify the effects of the individualized "credit system" established by this controversial circular, a number of studies

  4. Courses and Patterns of Student Choice. The Individualized System. H.S.1 Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth A.; And Others

    With Circular H.S.1 1972/73, the Ministry of Education directed Ontario's secondary schools to provide an increased range of course offerings and to allow students as much freedom as possible to choose their own courses. To identify the effects of the individualized "credit system" established by this controversial circular, a number of studies

  5. Sacrum fracture following L5-S1 stand-alone interbody fusion for isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2015-11-01

    We report a 72-year-old man with a rare sacral fracture following stand-alone L5-S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusion for isthmic spondylolisthesis. The man underwent a minimally invasive management strategy using posterior percutaneous pedicle fixation and partial reduction of the deformity. We also discuss the current literature on fusion procedures for isthmic spondylolisthesis. PMID:26100158

  6. Pyruvate Kinase M2 Activates mTORC1 by Phosphorylating AKT1S1

    PubMed Central

    He, Chang-Liang; Bian, Yang-Yang; Xue, Yu; Liu, Ze-Xian; Zhou, Kai-Qiang; Yao, Cui-Fang; Lin, Yan; Zou, Han-Fa; Luo, Fang-Xiu; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Jian-Yuan; Ye, Ming-Liang; Zhao, Shi-Min; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In cancer cells, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) that requires hormonal and nutrient signals for its activation, is constitutively activated. We found that overexpression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) activates mTORC1 signaling through phosphorylating mTORC1 inhibitor AKT1 substrate 1 (AKT1S1). An unbiased quantitative phosphoproteomic survey identified 974 PKM2 substrates, including serine202 and serine203 (S202/203) of AKT1S1, in the proteome of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Phosphorylation of S202/203 of AKT1S1 by PKM2 released AKT1S1 from raptor and facilitated its binding to 14-3-3, resulted in hormonal- and nutrient-signals independent activation of mTORC1 signaling and led accelerated oncogenic growth and autophagy inhibition in cancer cells. Decreasing S202/203 phosphorylation by TEPP-46 treatment reversed these effects. In RCCs and breast cancers, PKM2 overexpression was correlated with elevated S202/203 phosphorylation, activated mTORC1 and inhibited autophagy. Our results provided the first phosphorylome of PKM2 and revealed a constitutive mTORC1 activating mechanism in cancer cells. PMID:26876154

  7. Anomalie dmergence radiculaire par racine conjointe S1: propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Kessely, Yannick Canton; Sakho, Maguette Gaye; Fondo, Alidji; Daisy, Akerey Diop; Thiam, Aley; Sakho, Youssoupha

    2015-01-01

    De dcouverte per-opratoire pour hernie discale, les anomalies dmergence radiculaires constituent une entit rare. La prsentation clinique est gnralement identique celle d'une radiculopathie. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient g de 35 ans prsentant une sciatique droite S1 hyperalgique rebelle aux multiples mdications. L'IRM du rachis lombo-sacr avait mis en vidence une discopathie protrusive de petit volume en L5 S1 droite et un aspect de grosse racine ou de kyste de Tarlov au niveau de lmergence droite de S1. Une fenestration inter lamaire L5-S1 droite avec une ablation du ligament jaune a montr une mergence radiculaire double au niveau de l'espace retro-discal. Un geste de foraminostomie a t ralis sans discectomie. Lvolution a trs favorable avec une rtrocession ds le lendemain. L'analyse pr-opratoire fine et rigoureuse de l'imagerie est indispensable. Une bonne libration amliore ltat clinique du patient. Y penser en cas de sciatique hyperalgique sans Lasgue. PMID:26113909

  8. [A case of gastric cancer with rhabdoid features showing better prognosis through S-1/CDDP chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Mori, Yoshiko; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Ishihara, Shinichi; Mizobuchi, Kouichi; Kishi, Miki; Kurosaki, Takeshi; Miyake, Soichiro; Watanabe, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Keigo; Kokudo, Yasutaka; Muraoka, Atsushi; Tatemoto, Akihiko; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Tsumura, Makoto

    2012-05-01

    Although gastric cancers(GCs)with rhabdoid features are rare, they are known to show a poorer prognosis compared with conventional GCs. Indeed, more than half of reported GCs with rhabdoid features died within 6 months after receiving any kind of initial treatment. Obviously, no effective chemotherapy has been reported. In this study, we present a case of GC with rhabdoid features which showed a better response to a chemotherapy, S-1/CDDP, and lived for over 12 months after the initial chemotherapy. A 75-year-old man was seen in our hospital for epigastralgia. Detailed examinations revealed that he had GC at Stage IV. Consequently, he underwent S-1/CDDP treatment. This treatment produced a good response for 6 months, minimizing the size of the primary tumor and eradicating distant metastases. Re-growth of the primary tumor without uprising distant metastasis was confirmed 8 months after the initialS -1/CDDP treatment, and the patient went through a gastrectomy for curative care. After surgery, a precise pathological examination revealed that the primary tumor possessed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma that contained tumor cells with typical rhabdoid features. In the end, the patient died of liver metastasis 13 months after the initial S-1/CDDP chemotherapy. PMID:22584342

  9. Cloning, Prokaryotic Expression and Purification of CpfS1 Gene from Arabidopsis Thaliana.

    PubMed

    He, Q; Fu, A Y; Zhang, G C; Li, T J; Zhang, J H

    2015-01-01

    CpfS1 Gene cloned from arabidopsis thaliana was expressed in Escherichia coli DH5?. A cDNA fragment about 320 bp was amplified from the total RNA of arabidopsis thaliana seeds by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) with a pair of specific primers based on the sequences of the AtCpfS1 gene. The recombinant prokaryotic expression vector pET30a-AtCpfS1 was constructed by inserting the cDNA fragment encoding the mature peptide into the prokaryotic expression vector pET30a, and then transformed into E. coli DH5?. Sequence analysis showed that the fragment length was 346 bp containing a full coding region of 332 bp encoding 76 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 21.5 kD. The SDS-PAGE electrophoresis analysis showed that the best expression was induced by 21oC and 3.610-3 mol/L IPTG, under which a relative molecular weight of 82.5 kD recombinant protein was produced. The nickel chelating resin was used to purify the protein in size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and the results indicated that AtCpfS1 protein was present in the form of tetramer. PMID:26718440

  10. Pyruvate Kinase M2 Activates mTORC1 by Phosphorylating AKT1S1.

    PubMed

    He, Chang-Liang; Bian, Yang-Yang; Xue, Yu; Liu, Ze-Xian; Zhou, Kai-Qiang; Yao, Cui-Fang; Lin, Yan; Zou, Han-Fa; Luo, Fang-Xiu; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Jian-Yuan; Ye, Ming-Liang; Zhao, Shi-Min; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In cancer cells, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) that requires hormonal and nutrient signals for its activation, is constitutively activated. We found that overexpression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) activates mTORC1 signaling through phosphorylating mTORC1 inhibitor AKT1 substrate 1 (AKT1S1). An unbiased quantitative phosphoproteomic survey identified 974 PKM2 substrates, including serine202 and serine203 (S202/203) of AKT1S1, in the proteome of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Phosphorylation of S202/203 of AKT1S1 by PKM2 released AKT1S1 from raptor and facilitated its binding to 14-3-3, resulted in hormonal- and nutrient-signals independent activation of mTORC1 signaling and led accelerated oncogenic growth and autophagy inhibition in cancer cells. Decreasing S202/203 phosphorylation by TEPP-46 treatment reversed these effects. In RCCs and breast cancers, PKM2 overexpression was correlated with elevated S202/203 phosphorylation, activated mTORC1 and inhibited autophagy. Our results provided the first phosphorylome of PKM2 and revealed a constitutive mTORC1 activating mechanism in cancer cells. PMID:26876154

  11. Prediction and identification of novel IBV S1 protein derived CTL epitopes in chicken.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lei; Liao, Ying; Fan, Jin; Zhang, Yuqiang; Mao, Xiang; Sun, Yingjie; Song, Cuiping; Qiu, Xusheng; Meng, Chunchun; Ding, Chan

    2016-01-12

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a major pathogen common in the poultry industry. Broad cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against IBV is one of the crucial factors that help to control viral replication. Spike glycoproteins on the surface of the IBV virion harbor major T cell epitopes. In this study, based on the peptide-binding motifs of chicken MHC I molecules for the BF2*4, BF2*12, BF2*15, and BF2*19 haplotypes, potential CTL epitopes were predicted using S1 proteins from different IBV strains. Twenty-one peptides were predicted to be potential CTL epitopes; they were manually synthesized and the CTL responses to them tested in vitro. Spleen lymphocytes were collected from specific-pathogen free (SPF) chicken that had been immunized with the S1 protein expression plasmid, pV-S1, and were stimulated by the synthesized peptides. IFN-γ secretion and CD8(+) T cell proliferation in chickens were tested by ELISpot array and flow cytometry, respectively. Four epitopes (P8SRIQTATDP, P9SRNATGSQP, P18GAYAVVNV, and P19SRIQTATQP) were identified to stimulate CD8(+) T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion, indicating their efficacy as CTL epitopes in chicken. Poly-CTL-epitope DNA vaccine (pV-S1T) was constructed by inserting nucleotide sequences encoding the P8, P9, P18, and P19 CTL epitopes into the pVAX1 vector. Chickens were vaccinated with either pV-S1, pV-S1T, or pVAX1 and the protection efficacy was analyzed, revealing that ninety percent of chickens immunized with pV-S1T were protected after challenge with 10(6) ELD50 of IBV, demonstrating that these novel CTL epitopes were effective against IBV challenge. This study provides a new method to screen virus CTL epitopes in chicken and to develop poly-CTL-epitope DNA vaccines. PMID:26620841

  12. Pan-STARRS 1 observations of the unusual active Centaur P/2011 S1(Gibbs)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H. W.; Ip, W. H.; Chen, W. P.; Chen, Y. T.; Lacerda, P.; Holman, M.; Protopapas, P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.

    2014-05-01

    P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is an outer solar system comet or active Centaur with a similar orbit to that of the famous 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has been observed by the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) sky survey from 2010 to 2012. The resulting data allow us to perform multi-color studies of the nucleus and coma of the comet. Analysis of PS1 images reveals that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has a small nucleus <4 km radius, with colors g {sub P1} – r {sub P1} = 0.5 ± 0.02, r {sub P1} – i {sub P1} = 0.12 ± 0.02, and i {sub P1} – z {sub P1} = 0.46 ± 0.03. The comet remained active from 2010 to 2012, with a model-dependent mass-loss rate of ∼100 kg s{sup –1}. The mass-loss rate per unit surface area of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is as high as that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, making it one of the most active Centaurs. The mass-loss rate also varies with time from ∼40 kg s{sup –1} to 150 kg s{sup –1}. Due to its rather circular orbit, we propose that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1-like outbursts that control the outgassing rate. The results indicate that it may have a similar surface composition to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. Our numerical simulations show that the future orbital evolution of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is more similar to that of the main population of Centaurs than to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The results also demonstrate that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is dynamically unstable and can only remain near its current orbit for roughly a thousand years.

  13. Sequences of the S1 genes of the three serotypes of reovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Cashdollar, L W; Chmelo, R A; Wiener, J R; Joklik, W K

    1985-01-01

    The S1 genes of the three serotypes of reovirus have been cloned and sequenced. The S1 genes encode protein sigma 1, the protein against which serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies are directed; it is also the reovirus hemagglutinin and cell-attachment protein and is a major determinant of host range/tissue specificity and of the nature of the interaction of reovirus with cells of the immune system. The S1 genes of serotypes 1, 2, and 3 are 1458, 1442, and 1416 nucleotides long, respectively. They possess untranslated regions 13, 13, and 12 nucleotides long at their 5' termini and 188, 229, and 36 nucleotides long at their 3' termini. They possess two open reading frames. The first starts with a "weak" initiation codon and extends for 418, 399, and 455 codons, respectively; this is the size expected for the sigma 1 proteins. The other reading frame starts at a "strong" initiation codon about 70 residues downstream from the 5' terminus but extends for only about 120 codons, being terminated by 3 in-phase termination codons in all three genes. The proteins encoded by these short open reading frames are quite basic. The serotype 1 and 2 S1 genes are much more closely related to each other (28% homology) than to the serotype 3 S1 gene (5% and 9% homology, respectively). These figures are based on direct homology calculations, adjusted for 25% random coincidence. Serologic evidence and hydrophobicity profiles agree that the sigma 1 proteins of serotypes 1 and 2 are much more closely related to each other (about 40% homology) than to that of serotype 3 (only about 20% homology). The fact that the serotype 1 and 2 S1 genes are much more closely related to each other than to the serotype 3 S1 gene is remarkable since for all other nine reovirus genes the serotype 1 and 3 genes are much more closely related to each other than to the serotype 2 gene. Mechanisms that may effect this remarkable evolutionary pattern are discussed. PMID:3855545

  14. Surface ion transfer growth of ternary CdS(1-x)Se(x) quantum dots and their electron transport modulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenhua; Peng, Wenqin; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Jing; Yanagida, Masatoshi; Han, Liyuan

    2012-12-21

    We report a surface ion transfer method to synthesise ternary alloy CdS(1-x)Se(x) (0 ≤x≤ 1) quantum dots (QDs) in situ on TiO(2) nanoparticles. By tuning the content of selenium in such quantum dots, the optical absorption spectra can be controllably widened to cover the most of the visible light range. The electron transport of such QDs can be modulated by changing the interfacial electronic energy between CdS(1-x)Se(x) QDs and TiO(2) nanoparticles. The QDs with optimized selenium content (x = 0.72) give a balance between a broad optical absorption and a suitable energy band alignment. The homogenous alloy CdS(1-x)Se(x) QDs achieve a maximum light-harvesting efficiency over 90%, and generate a photocurrent density larger than 10 mA cm(-2), which is 2.6- and 1.4-times that of binary CdS and CdSe QDs sensitized photovoltaic devices. PMID:23123801

  15. Pulmonary endothelial cell barrier enhancement by FTY720 does not require the S1P1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Dudek, S M; Camp, S M; Chiang, E T; Singleton, P A; Usatyuk, P V; Zhao, Y; Natarajan, V; Garcia, J G N

    2007-08-01

    Novel therapeutic strategies are needed to reverse the loss of endothelial cell (EC) barrier integrity that occurs during inflammatory disease states such as acute lung injury. We previously demonstrated potent EC barrier augmentation in vivo and in vitro by the platelet-derived phospholipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) via ligation of the S1P1 receptor. The S1P analogue, FTY720, similarly exerts barrier-protective vascular effects via presumed S1P1 receptor ligation. We examined the role of the S1P1 receptor in sphingolipid-mediated human lung EC barrier enhancement. Both S1P and FTY-induced sustained, dose-dependent barrier enhancement, reflected by increases in transendothelial electrical resistance (TER), which was abolished by pertussis toxin indicating Gi-coupled receptor activation. FTY-mediated increases in TER exhibited significantly delayed onset and intensity relative to the S1P response. Reduction of S1P1R expression (via siRNA) attenuated S1P-induced TER elevations whereas the TER response to FTY was unaffected. Both S1P and FTY rapidly (within 5 min) induced S1P1R accumulation in membrane lipid rafts, but only S1P stimulated S1P1R phosphorylation on threonine residues. Inhibition of PI3 kinase activity attenuated S1P-mediated TER increases but failed to alter FTY-induced TER elevation. Finally, S1P, but not FTY, induced significant myosin light chain phosphorylation and dramatic actin cytoskeletal rearrangement whereas reduced expression of the cytoskeletal effectors, Rac1 and cortactin (via siRNA), attenuated S1P-, but not FTY-induced TER elevations. These results mechanistically characterize pulmonary vascular barrier regulation by FTY720, suggesting a novel barrier-enhancing pathway for modulating vascular permeability. PMID:17475445

  16. Characterization of a periplasmic S1-like nuclease coded by the Mesorhizobium loti symbiosis island

    SciTech Connect

    Pimkin, Maxim; Miller, C. Glenn; Blakesley, Lauryn; Oleykowski, Catherine A.; Kodali, Nagendra S.; Yeung, Anthony T. . E-mail: AT_Yeung@fccc.edu

    2006-04-28

    DNA sequences encoding hypothetical proteins homologous to S1 nuclease from Aspergillus oryzae are found in many organisms including fungi, plants, pathogenic bacteria, and eukaryotic parasites. One of these is the M1 nuclease of Mesorhizobium loti which we demonstrate herein to be an enzymatically active, soluble, and stable S1 homolog that lacks the extensive mannosyl-glycosylation found in eukaryotic S1 nuclease homologs. We have expressed the cloned M1 protein in M. loti and purified recombinant native M1 to near homogeneity and have also isolated a homogeneous M1 carboxy-terminal hexahistidine tag fusion protein. Mass spectrometry and N-terminal Edman degradation sequencing confirmed the protein identity. The enzymatic properties of the purified M1 nuclease are similar to those of S1. At acidic pH M1 is 25 times more active on single-stranded DNA than on double-stranded DNA and 3 times more active on single-stranded DNA than on single-stranded RNA. At neutral pH the RNase activity of M1 exceeds the DNase activity. M1 nicks supercoiled RF-I plasmid DNA and rapidly cuts the phosphodiester bond across from the nick in the resultant relaxed RF-II plasmid DNA. Therefore, M1 represents an active bacterial S1 homolog in spite of great sequence divergence. The biochemical characterization of M1 nuclease supports our sequence alignment that reveals the minimal 21 amino acid residues that are necessarily conserved for the structure and functions of this enzyme family. The ability of M1 to degrade RNA at neutral pH implies previously unappreciated roles of these nucleases in biological systems.

  17. 2MTF III. H I 21 cm observations of 1194 spiral galaxies with the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.; Crook, Aidan; Hong, Tao; Jarrett, T. H.; Koribalski, Brbel S.; Macri, Lucas; Springob, Christopher M.; Staveley-Smith, Lister

    2014-09-01

    We present H I 21 cm observations of 1194 galaxies out to a redshift of 10 000 km s-1 selected as inclined spirals (i ? 60) from the 2MASS redshift survey. These observations were carried out at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This observing programme is part of the 2MASS Tully-Fisher (2MTF) survey. This project will combine H I widths from these GBT observations with those from further dedicated observing at the Parkes Telescope, from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array survey at Arecibo, and S/N > 10 and spectral resolution vres < 10 km s-1 published widths from a variety of telescopes. We will use these H I widths along with 2MASS photometry to estimate Tully-Fisher distances to nearby spirals and investigate the peculiar velocity field of the local Universe. In this paper, we report on detections of neutral hydrogen in emission in 727 galaxies, and measure good signal to noise and symmetric H I global profiles suitable for use in the Tully-Fisher relation in 484.

  18. 40 CFR Table S-1 to Subpart S of... - Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. S, Table S-1 Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98Basic Parameters for the...

  19. 40 CFR Table S-1 to Subpart S of... - Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. S, Table S-1 Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98Basic Parameters for the...

  20. 40 CFR Table S-1 to Subpart S of... - Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. S, Table S-1 Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98Basic Parameters for the...

  1. 40 CFR Table S-1 to Subpart S of... - Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. S, Table S-1 Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98Basic Parameters for the...

  2. Tissue-specific and Nutrient Regulation of the Branched-chain α-Keto Acid Dehydrogenase Phosphatase, Protein Phosphatase 2Cm (PP2Cm)*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Meiyi; Lu, Gang; Gao, Chen; Wang, Yibin; Sun, Haipeng

    2012-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) homeostasis is maintained through highly regulated catabolic activities where the rate-limiting step is catalyzed by branched-chain α-keto dehydrogenase (BCKD). Our previous study has identified a mitochondria-targeted protein phosphatase, PP2Cm, as the BCKD phosphatase and thus serves as a key regulator for BCAA catabolism. In this report, we performed comprehensive molecular and biochemical studies of PP2Cm regulation using both in vivo and in vitro systems. We show that PP2Cm expression is highly enriched in brain, heart, liver, kidney, and diaphragm, but low in skeletal muscle. The PP2Cm expression is regulated at the transcriptional level in response to nutrient status. Furthermore, we have established that PP2Cm interacts with the BCKD E2 subunit and competes with the BCKD kinase in a substrate-dependent and mutually exclusive manner. These data suggest that BCAA homeostasis is at least in part contributed by nutrient-dependent PP2Cm expression and interaction with the BCKD complex. Finally, a number of human PP2Cm single nucleotide polymorphic changes as identified in the public data base can produce either inactive or constitutive active mutant phosphatases, suggesting that putative PP2Cm mutations may contribute to BCAA catabolic defects in human. PMID:22589535

  3. Tables of spectral transmission of the atmosphere in the 2660-2750 cm(-1) and 810-980 cm(-1) ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Thermal sounding data from satellites are presented together with a description of transmission function calculations. Tables contain experimental values for transmission of the entire thickness of the atmosphere for two regions of the spectrum: at 2660 to 2750 cm/1 and at 810 to 980 cm/1. The spectrum was recorded on an infrared spectrophotometer.

  4. Eastern Mediterranean Sea circulation inferred from the conditions of S1 sapropel deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, K.; Vidal, L.; Cornuault, M.; Garcia, M.; Pothin, A.; Sonzogni, C.; Bard, E.; Menot, G.; Revel, M.

    2015-06-01

    Holocene eastern Mediterranean Sea sediments contain an organic-rich sapropel S1 layer that was formed in oxygen-depleted waters. The spatial distribution of this layer revealed that during S1 deposition, deep waters were anoxic below a depth of 1800 m. However, whether this boundary permanently existed from the early to the mid-Holocene has not been examined yet. To answer this question, a multi-proxy approach was applied to a core retrieved close to the 1800 m boundary (at 1780 m). We measured the bulk sediment elemental composition, the stable isotopic composition of the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber and the abundance of benthic foraminifera since the last deglaciation. The result indicates that authigenic U and Mo accumulation began around 13-12 cal ka BP, in concert with surface water freshening estimated from the G. ruber δ18O record. The onset of bottom and pore water oxygen depletion occurred prior to S1 deposition inferred from barium enrichment. In the middle of the S1 deposition period, reduced authigenic V, Fe and As contents and the Br/Cl ratio indicated short-term bottom-water re-oxygenation. A sharp Mn peak and maximal abundance for benthic foraminifera marked a total recovery for circulation at approximately 7 cal ka BP. Based on our results and existing data, we suggest that S1 formation within the upper 1780 m of the eastern Mediterranean Sea was preconditioned by reduced ventilation, resulting from excess freshwater inputs due to insolation changes under deglacial conditions that initiated between 15 and 12 cal ka BP within the upper 1780 m. Short-term re-oxygenation in the Levantine Basin is estimated to have affected bottom water at least as deep as 1780 m in response to cooling and/or the reduction of freshwater inputs. We tentatively propose that complete ventilation recovery at the S1 termination was depth-dependent, with earlier oxygenation within the upper 1780 m. Our results provide new constraints on vertical water column structure in the eastern Mediterranean Sea since the last deglaciation.

  5. Exercise Capacity and Response to Training Quantitative Trait Loci in a NZW X 129S1 Intercross and Combined Cross Analysis of Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Massett, Michael P.; Avila, Joshua J.; Kim, Seung Kyum

    2015-01-01

    Genetic factors determining exercise capacity and the magnitude of the response to exercise training are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with exercise training in mice. Based on marked differences in training responses in inbred NZW (-0.65 ± 1.73 min) and 129S1 (6.18 ± 3.81 min) mice, a reciprocal intercross breeding scheme was used to generate 285 F2 mice. All F2 mice completed an exercise performance test before and after a 4-week treadmill running program, resulting in an increase in exercise capacity of 1.54 ± 3.69 min (range = -10 to +12 min). Genome-wide linkage scans were performed for pre-training, post-training, and change in run time. For pre-training exercise time, suggestive QTL were identified on Chromosomes 5 (57.4 cM, 2.5 LOD) and 6 (47.8 cM, 2.9 LOD). A significant QTL for post-training exercise capacity was identified on Chromosome 5 (43.4 cM, 4.1 LOD) and a suggestive QTL on Chromosomes 1 (55.7 cM, 2.3 LOD) and 8 (66.1 cM, 2.2 LOD). A suggestive QTL for the change in run time was identified on Chromosome 6 (37.8 cM, 2.7 LOD). To identify shared QTL, this data set was combined with data from a previous F2 cross between B6 and FVB strains. In the combined cross analysis, significant novel QTL for pre-training exercise time and change in exercise time were identified on Chromosome 12 (54.0 cM, 3.6 LOD) and Chromosome 6 (28.0 cM, 3.7 LOD), respectively. Collectively, these data suggest that combined cross analysis can be used to identify novel QTL and narrow the confidence interval of QTL for exercise capacity and responses to training. Furthermore, these data support the use of larger and more diverse mapping populations to identify the genetic basis for exercise capacity and responses to training. PMID:26710100

  6. Detection of Non-B-DNA Secondary Structures by S1 Nuclease Digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Olmo, Marcel. Li; Aranda, Agustin; Perez-Ortin, Jose E.; Tordera, Vicente

    1998-06-01

    In nature, almost all DNA strands are supercoiled in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Here, we present two cheap and simple laboratory experiments to analyze the different topological states of DNA and, simultaneously, to detect denatured regions and cruciforms in vitro, using the single-strand specific S1 nuclease. A natural (A+T)-rich region of the 3' region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae FBP1 gene and a DNA (A+T)-rich region in pUC plasmids around the terminator of the ampicillin resistance gene (both capable of undergoing supercoiling-dependent denaturation and therefore sensitive to S1 nuclease) have been used in the experiments. Experimental costs are low, and the small amounts of chemicals and the laboratory equipment used are available in every laboratory.

  7. L4-L5-S1 human dermatomes: a clinical, electromyographical, imaging and surgical findings.

    PubMed

    Faleiros, Antonio Tadeu de Souza; Resende, Luiz Antonio de Lima; Zanini, Marco Antonio; Castro, Heloisa Amlia de Lima; Gabarra, Roberto Colichio

    2009-06-01

    There is substantial controversy in literature about human dermatomes. We studied L4, L5, and S1 inferior limb dermatomes by comparing clinical signs and symptoms with conduction studies, electromyographical data, neurosurgical findings, and imaging data from computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After analyzing 60 patients, we concluded that L4 is probably located in the medial aspect of the leg, L5 in the lateral aspect of the leg and foot dorsus, and S1 in the posterior aspect of the backside, tight, leg and plantar foot skin. This is the first time that these human dermatomes have been evaluated by combined analysis of clinical, electromyographical, neurosurgical, and imaging data. PMID:19547820

  8. Biochemical studies on the effect of S-1,3-butanediol of diabetes induced rats.

    PubMed

    Meenakshi, C; Kumari, K L; Devi, C S

    1995-04-01

    The biochemical effect of S-1,3-butanediol on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats was studied. Rats were made diabetic by the intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg body weight streptozotocin in sodium citrate buffer. A dosage of 25 mmol/kg body weight of S-1,3-butanediol was injected intraperitoneally for treatment. The streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed a marked increase in blood glucose level, and significant increase in the level of cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. The glycogen levels in liver and kidney were greatly decreased in diabetic rats. Treatment with butanediol normalised the glucose and glycogen level but had no significant effect on protein and lipid levels. PMID:7649603

  9. Mapping of Epitopes Occurring in Bovine ?(s1)-Casein Variants by Peptide Microarray Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lisson, Maria; Erhardt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E epitope mapping of milk proteins reveals important information about their immunologic properties. Genetic variants of ?S1-casein, one of the major allergens in bovine milk, are until now not considered when discussing the allergenic potential. Here we describe the complete procedure to assess the allergenicity of ?S1-casein variants B and C, which are frequent in most breeds, starting from milk with identification and purification of casein variants by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and anion-exchange chromatography, followed by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the casein variants, identification of the resulting peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), in silico analysis of the variant-specific peptides as allergenic epitopes, and determination of their IgE-binding properties by microarray immunoassay with cow's milk allergic human sera. PMID:26490483

  10. Unusual quantum interference in the S1 state of DABCO and observation of intramolecular vibrational redistribution.

    PubMed

    Poisson, Lionel; Maksimenska, Raman; Soep, Benot; Mestdagh, Jean-Michel; Parker, David H; Nsangou, Mama; Hochlaf, Majdi

    2010-03-11

    In this paper we report an experimental study of the time-resolved response of the molecule 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) to 266.3 nm electronic excitation of the S(1) state with a femtosecond laser. Rotational decoherence and vibrational oscillation within the S(1) state are observed. We performed state-of-the-art ab initio calculations on the ground and low electronic states of the neutral molecule and the cation, which assist in the assignment of the observed photoelectron signals. Using our theoretical and spectroscopic data, the experimental findings are interpreted in terms of an unusual quantum interference between two different vibrational modes, with only the nu = 1 level of each mode being populated. PMID:20000592

  11. Superconformal index on R P2S1 and mirror symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Akinori; Mori, Hironori; Morita, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    We study N =2 supersymmetric gauge theories on RP 2S1 and compute the superconformal index by using the localization technique. We consider not only the round real projective plane RP 2 but also the squashed real projective plane RPb 2 which turns back to RP 2 by taking a squashing parameter b as 1. In addition, we find that the result is independent of the squashing parameter b . We apply our new superconformal index to check the simplest case of 3D mirror symmetry, i.e., the equivalence between the N =2 supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics (SQED) and the X Y Z model on RP 2S1. We prove it by using a mathematical formula called the q -binomial theorem. We also comment on the N =4 version of mirror symmetry, mirror symmetry via generalized indices, and possibilities of generalizations from mathematical viewpoints.

  12. Abelian 3d mirror symmetry on {R}{{P}}^2 {{S}}^1 with N f = 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Akinori; Mori, Hironori; Morita, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    We consider a new 3d superconformal index defined as the path integral over {R}{{P}}^2 {{S}}^1 , and get the generic formula for this index with arbitrary number of U(1) gauge symmetries via the localization technique. We find two consistent parity conditions for the vector multiplet, and name them P and CP . We find an interesting phenomenon that two matter multiplets coupled to the CP -type vector multiplet merge together. By using this effect, we investigate the simplest version of 3d mirror symmetry on {R}{{P}}^2 {{S}}^1 and observe four types of coincidence between the SQED and the XYZ model. We find that merging two matters plays an important role for the agreement.

  13. [A case of gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination successfully treated by S-1/paclitaxel combination chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Shoji, Teruaki

    2011-02-01

    A 62-year-old woman visited our hospital with diarrhea, bloating, vomiting, and black stool. Borrmann-type 3 gastric cancer with hemorrhaging was revealed by stomach endoscopy. The biopsy showed a poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Moreover, peritoneal dissemination was found by computed tomography and we combined S-1 80 mg/m(4 weeks administration and week rest)with paclitaxel(PTX)50 mg/ m (day 1, 8, 15, 3 weeks rest). After 2 courses, endoscopy showed tumor shrinkage. Therefore, we conducted total gastrectomy with resection of gall bladder and spleen. The final findings were Stage II .We conducted S-1/PTX combination chemotherapy(4 courses)followed by monotherapy as adjuvant chemotherapy. Recently, the woman had been living without relapse four years after operation. PMID:21368499

  14. IPA-CuCl3: a S=1/2 Ladder with Ferromagnetic Rungs

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Takatsugu; Zheludev, Andrey I; Manaka, H.; Chung, J.-H.

    2006-01-01

    The spin gap material IPA-CuCl{sub 3} has been extensively studied as a ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic bond-alternating S = 1/2 chain. This description of the system was derived from structural considerations and bulk measurements. New inelastic neutron scattering experiments reveal a totally different picture: IPA-CuCl{sub 3} consists of weakly coupled spin ladders with antiferromagnetic legs and ferromagnetic rungs. The ladders run perpendicular to the originally supposed bond-alternating chain direction. The ferromagnetic rungs make this system equivalent to a Haldane S = 1 antiferromagnet. With a gap energy of 1.17(1) meV, a zone-boundary energy of 4.1(1) meV, and almost no magnetic anisotropy, IPA-CuCl{sub 3} may be the best Haldane-gap material yet, in terms of suitability for neutron scattering studies in high magnetic fields.

  15. Ising Model Spin S = 1 ON Directed BARABSI-ALBERT Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, F. W. S.

    On directed Barabsi-Albert networks with two and seven neighbours selected by each added site, the Ising model with spin S = 1/2 was seen not to show a spontaneous magnetisation. Instead, the decay time for flipping of the magnetisation followed an Arrhenius law for Metropolis and Glauber algorithms, but for Wolff cluster flipping the magnetisation decayed exponentially with time. On these networks the Ising model spin S = 1 is now studied through Monte Carlo simulations. However, in this model, the order-disorder phase transition is well defined in this system. We have obtained a first-order phase transition for values of connectivity m = 2 and m = 7 of the directed Barabsi-Albert network.

  16. Mediterranean Sapropel Formation and Redox-Controled Preservation: the s1 Formation and its Interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, G. J.; Goudeau, M. S.; Hennekam, R.; Filippidi, A.

    2013-12-01

    Deposition of organic-rich units (sapropels) in Mediterraneran sediments is precession-related and associated with humid climate conditions. The last humid period from 11 - 5 ka 14C ago, occurred simultaneous with a sustained circum-Mediterranean wet period. The most recent sapropel (S1) formed synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ka BP at all water depths greater than a few hundred metres. As a consequence of increased fresh water (monsoon) input, surface waters had a reduced salinity and concomitantly the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea was devoid of oxygen during 4,000 years of S1. This has resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1 determined by water depth, as a result of different ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km. The end of this period is marked by a basin-wide high sedimentary manganese-oxide peak that represents an abrupt re-ventilation at 5.7 ka BP and remaining oxic conditions thereafter. Other short-term ventilation events appear to have occurred during sapropel S1, notably the 8.2 cal ka BP event. This potentially basin-wide event is particularly noticeable at relatively shallow near-coastal sites of high sedimentation rates. It marks a brief episode of not only re-oxygenated deep water thus reduced preservation, but also decreased primary productivity thus nutrient supply. This 8.2 cal ka BP interruption event is thought to be related to enhanced deep water formation in the Aegean due to a short period of sustained cold air fluxes from Polar regions. Sapropel formation mechanisms, therefore, seem related to a sensitive interplay between N-African monsoonal and northern climate systems.

  17. Crystal field dilution in S-1 Blume Capel model: Hysteresis behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akıncı, Ümit

    2016-03-01

    Hysteresis characteristics of the crystal field diluted S-1 Ising (Blume-Capel) model have been studied within the effective field approximation. Paramagnetic and double hysteresis behaviors for the paramagnetic phase have been obtained. It has also been shown that, for the ferromagnetic phase of the system, single and triple hysteresis behaviors may occur. Regions that show these different hysteresis behaviors are explicitly obtained in the space of Hamiltonian parameters. Besides, physical mechanisms that give rise to these behaviors have been given.

  18. Comment on Adjacent spin operator dynamical structure factor of the S = 1/2 Heisenberg chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gier, Jan

    2012-10-01

    We consider the paper Adjacent spin operator dynamical structure factor of the S = 1/2 Heisenberg chain, by Klauser, Mossel and Caux (2012 J. Stat. Mech. P03012) to be a new and important step in the numerical analysis of the correlation functions of quantum spin chains. The correlation functions considered in this paper were not previously computed, their analytical study is extremely complicated and the numerical results can be used for comparison with experiments.

  19. Regarding the Charmed-Strange Member of the 23S1 Meson State

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xue-Chao; Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    By employing the mass relations derived from the mass matrix and Regge trajectory, we investigate the masses of charmed and charmed-strange members of the 23S1 meson. The masses are compared with the values predicted by other theoretical approaches and experimental data. The results may be useful for the discovery of the unobserved meson and the determination of the quantum number of the newly discovered states. PMID:24250272

  20. S1 gene sequence analysis of a nephropathogenic strain of avian infectious bronchitis virus in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S; El-Kady, Magdy F; Ladman, Brian S; Gelb, Jack

    2006-01-01

    Background Infectious bronchitis is highly contagious and constitutes one of the most common and difficult poultry diseases to control. IBV is endemic in probably all countries that raise chickens. It exists as dozens of serotypes/genotypes. Only a few amino acid differences in the S1 protein of vaccine and challenge strains of IBV may result in poor protection. Tropism of IBV includes the respiratory tract tissues, proventriculus and caecal tonsils of the alimentary tract, the oviduct and the kidney. Results Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain closely related to Massachusetts (Mass) serotype was isolated from broiler chickens suffering from severe renal and respiratory distresses. The isolate was serologically identified by Dot-ELISA and further characterized by RT-PCR then genotyped using S1 gene sequence analysis. Alignment of the S1 sequence of the isolate with 16 IBV strains revealed high homology to isolates related to Mass serotype. Inoculation with the strain reproduced the disease in experimental 1-day-old chickens and resulted in 20% mortality, severe renal and moderate respiratory distresses. Marked histopathological changes in both kidney and trachea were observed in experimentally infected chickens. A protection study using the H120 live attenuated vaccine showed low protection rate in spite of high S1 sequence homology (97%). Protection based criteria were: virus re-isolation attempts from trachea, tracheal and renal histopathology as well as IBV antigens detection by immunofluorescent antibody technique in kidney sections. Conclusion Periodical evaluation of cross-protective capabilities of IBV vaccine(s) versus recently recovered field isolates should be performed to ensure optimum control of IBV. PMID:16987422

  1. Application of the S=1 underscreened Anderson lattice model to Kondo uranium and neptunium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher; da Rosa Simões, Acirete S.; Iglesias, J. R.; Lacroix, C.; Perkins, N. B.; Coqblin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic properties of uranium and neptunium compounds showing the coexistence of the Kondo screening effect and ferromagnetic order are investigated within the Anderson lattice Hamiltonian with a two-fold degenerate f level in each site, corresponding to 5f2 electronic configuration with S=1 spins. A derivation of the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation is presented and the resulting Hamiltonian has an effective f-band term, in addition to the regular exchange Kondo interaction between the S=1 f spins and the s=1/2 spins of the conduction electrons. The resulting effective Kondo lattice model can describe both the Kondo regime and a weak delocalization of the 5f electrons. Within this model we compute the Kondo and Curie temperatures as a function of model parameters, namely the Kondo exchange interaction constant JK, the magnetic intersite exchange interaction JH, and the effective f bandwidth. We deduce, therefore, a phase diagram of the model which yields the coexistence of the Kondo effect and ferromagnetic ordering and also accounts for the pressure dependence of the Curie temperature of uranium compounds such as UTe.

  2. Synchronous Basin-Wide Formation and Redox-Controled Preservation of Mediterranean s1 Sapropel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, G. J.; Slomp, C. P.; Corselli, C.; Erba, E.; Thomson, J.; Reitz, A.

    2012-12-01

    Deposition of distinct organic-rich units (sapropels) in eastern Mediterraneran sediments is precession-related and associated with humid climate conditions. The last of such 'humid periods' occurred from 11 - 5 kyr 14C ago, simultaneous with a sustained circum-Mediterranean wet period. The end of this period coincides with a high manganeseoxide peak in all 30 studied cores and concurs with an abrupt re-ventilation event at 5.7 kyr. We demonstrate that the most recent sapropel (S1) formed synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than a few hundred metres. As a consequence of increased fresh water (monsoon) input, surface waters had a reduced salinity and concomitantly the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea was devoid of oxygen during 4,000 years of S1 formation (De Lange ea., 2008). This has resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1 determined by water depth, as a result of different ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km. Climate-induced stratification of the ocean may thus contribute to enhanced preservation of organic matter, ie formation of sapropels (and potentially black shales)

  3. [Two advanced gastric cancer cases with peritoneal metastases successfully treated by s-1/paclitaxel combination therapy].

    PubMed

    Ina, Kenji; Furuta, Ryuichi; Kataoka, Takae; Nishio, Tomoko; Nagao, Seiji; Kayukawa, Satoshi; Masaki, Ayako; Ando, Takafumi; Goto, Hidemi

    2009-06-01

    Two unresectable advanced gastric cancer cases with peritoneal metastases were successfully treated by the combination therapy of S-1 and paclitaxel. S-1 (1.25m(2): 80 mg/day, 1.25m(2)-1.50m(2)<:120 mg/day) was administered orally for 14 consecutive days followed by 14 days rest and a 2-hour infusion of paclitaxel (50 mg/m(2)) was administered on day 1 and 15 of each course. Treatment was repeated every 4 weeks unless disease progression or severe adverse effects were observed. Case 1: 65-year-old male (performance status: PS 3) with type 1 gastric cancer with malignant ascites. Case 2: 66-year-old male (PS3) with peritoneal metastases whose primary gastric lesion was surgically resected. Partial response was obtained in the former and complete response in the latter. Combination therapy of S-1 and paclitaxel can be highly recommended for patients with inoperable gastric cancer with poor PS. PMID:19542719

  4. Analysis of casein alpha S1 & S2 proteins from different mammalian species

    PubMed Central

    Masoodi, Tariq Ahmad; Shafi, Gowhar

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, the quality of any food used for human consumption is, to a considerable extent, considered by its possible contribution to the maintenance or improvement of the consumer's health. In developed countries there is increasing interest in goat milk and its derivates, the quality of which is considered of special importance in the light of current tendencies favouring healthy eating. In particular, goat's milk is a hypoallergenic alternative to cow's milk in the human diet. In the present work, we studied the casein alpha S1 and S2 proteins of cow, goat and sheep for comparative analysis. We found that the amino acid sequence of these proteins is almost same in goat and sheep but there are several changes at different base pairs when these two sequences are compared with cow. Prediction of secondary structures (GOR) was performed for alpha s1 and s2 proteins to gain functional insights. Our in silico study revealed considerable identity in chemical properties between goat and sheep but a considerable dissimilarity in cow with goat and sheep casein proteins. Moreover, the effect amino acid change on secondary structures in the three species is discussed. There was no significant difference found between goat and sheep alpha S1 and S2 proteins, so naturally both will be having same properties. The study concludes that sheep milk is another convenient alternative for the cow milk allergic children. PMID:20975894

  5. Identification of New {CIS} Vibrational Levels in the S1 State of C2H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraban, J. H.; Changala, P. B.; Shaver, R. G.; Field, R. W.; Stanton, J. F.; Merer, A. J.

    2012-06-01

    Although the S_1 (tilde{A} ^1A_u) state of the trans conformer of acetylene has been known for many years, the corresponding S_1 (tilde{A} ^1A_2) state of the cis conformer was only discovered recently. Transitions to it from the ground state are electronically forbidden, but its vibrational levels acquire intensity by tunneling through the isomerization barrier and interacting with levels of the trans conformer. We have recently identified two new vibrational levels (32 and 41 61) of the {cis} conformer of S1 C2H2, bringing the total number of levels observed to six out of an expected ten up to the energies studied in this work. The appearance of these levels in IR-UV double resonance LIF spectra will be discussed, along with their vibrational assignments. Experimentally determined vibrational parameters and {ab initio} anharmonic force fields for both the {trans} and {cis} conformers will be presented as part of the evidence supporting these assignments. These results shed new light on the vibrational level structure of both conformers in this isomerizing system. A. J. Merer, A. H. Steeves, J. H. Baraban, H. A. Bechtel, and R. W. Field. J. Chem. Phys., 134(24):244310, 2011.

  6. BOLD fMRI signal characteristics of S1- and S2-SSFP at 7 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Goa, Pl E.; Koopmans, Peter J.; Poser, Benedikt A.; Barth, Markus; Norris, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Object: To compare the BOLD fMRI signal characteristics at in the cortex and on the pial surface for a non-balanced steady-state free precession sequence (nb-SSFP) at 7 T. Materials and Methods: A multi-echo nb-SSFP sequence was used for high resolution fMRI at 7 T. Two S1 (S+) echoes at different echo times were acquired together with an S2 (S?) echo. The primary visual cortex (V1) was examined using a reversing checkerboard paradigm at an isotropic resolution of 0.75 mm, with 35 volumes acquired and a total scan time of 27 min. Results: Significant activation was observed in all subjects for all three acquired echoes. For the S1 signal at the longer TE, the activation induced signal change was about 4% in the cortex and 10% at the cortical surface, while for S2 the corresponding values were 3 and 5%. Conclusion: For both S1 and S2 data, the BOLD signal peaks at the pial surface. The large pial surface signal change in S2 may be caused by dynamic averaging around post-capillary vessels embedded within CSF. This is made possible by the long diffusion times of the pathways contributing to the S2 signal and the relatively high diffusion coefficient of CSF. The results indicate that S2-SSFP might not be a suited alternative to spin-echo for high-resolution fMRI at 7 T. PMID:24659952

  7. Observations of sodium in the coma of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) during outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Carl A.; Johnson, Robert E.; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Mendillo, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Prior to disintegration near its 2.7 R⊙ perihelion, the dynamically new Comet C/2012 S1(ISON) briefly exhibited resonantly scattered sodium emission at the 5890 Å and 5896 Å D lines. In this work, we report a rapid increase in sodium production of >3× between observations made only one day apart and the first observations of cometary sodium during an outburst. Mean Na production is estimated at 1.6 ± 0.3 × 1023 atoms s-1 on UT 19.5 Nov 2013 and 5.8 ± 1 × 1023 atoms s-1 on UT 20.5. At a heliocentric distance of 0.44 AU, the anti-sunward Na tail was detected >106 km from the nucleus. Surprisingly, these production rates are well below those of any previously determined when Na is seen from a comet. Accurately reproducing the emission in the Na tail on UT 20.5 Nov 2013 requires a source near the nucleus that varies with time due to the outburst. Data prior to outburst one day earlier can be reproduced if nearly half of total sodium production is attributed to an extended source such as dust grains. This suggests sources of sodium vapor in cometary coma are sensitive to the dust to gas ratio.

  8. Shock Compression of Seeds in Impacts at 1 -- 5 km s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchell, Mark; Levoci, Giuseppe; Tepfer, David

    2009-06-01

    Panspermia (``seeds everywhere'') is an old idea, suggesting that life can naturally migrate through space. The survival of microbial life under the shock compression involved with transfer of a body through space between planets has been much studied; e.g. Burchell et al., Origin of Life and Evol. of the Biosphere, 33, 53 -- 74, 2003 showed that micro-organisms could survive in high speed ejecta from a hypervelocity impact (the favoured launch mechanism to spray life into space from its home planet) and Burchell et al., Icarus 154, 545-547 2001; MNRAS 352, 1273 -- 1278, 2004 showed that micro-organisms carried on projectiles in hypervelocity impacts can successfully transfer to a target (with survival rates that fall with a power law for GPa shock pressures). Here we address survival of more complex biological materials under shock compression, namely seeds. We report on experiments firing seeds at speeds of 1 -- 5 km s-1 into water targets (˜0.5 to 5 GPa for short durations). The method is described in a preliminary report (Jerling et al., Int. J. Astrobiology 7, 217 -- 222, 2008). In new data presented here we are finding intact capture of seeds at 1 km s-1, but above this speed increasing fragmentation occurs. Tests are underway to try to germinate the seeds captured at 1 km s-1 and the results will be described.

  9. Sphingosine 1-phosphate modulates antigen capture by murine Langerhans cells via the S1P2 receptor subtype.

    PubMed

    Japtok, Lukasz; Schaper, Katrin; Bäumer, Wolfgang; Radeke, Heinfried H; Jeong, Se Kyoo; Kleuser, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the development of cutaneous contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and atopic dermatitis as they capture and process antigen and present it to T lymphocytes in the lymphoid organs. Recently, it has been indicated that a topical application of the sphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) prevents the inflammatory response in CHS, but the molecular mechanism is not fully elucidated. Here we indicate that treatment of mice with S1P is connected with an impaired antigen uptake by Langerhans cells (LCs), the initial step of CHS. Most of the known actions of S1P are mediated by a family of five specific G protein-coupled receptors. Our results indicate that S1P inhibits macropinocytosis of the murine LC line XS52 via S1P(2) receptor stimulation followed by a reduced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity. As down-regulation of S1P(2) not only diminished S1P-mediated action but also enhanced the basal activity of LCs on antigen capture, an autocrine action of S1P has been assumed. Actually, S1P is continuously produced by LCs and secreted via the ATP binding cassette transporter ABCC1 to the extracellular environment. Consequently, inhibition of ABCC1, which decreased extracellular S1P levels, markedly increased the antigen uptake by LCs. Moreover, stimulation of sphingosine kinase activity, the crucial enzyme for S1P formation, is connected not only with enhanced S1P levels but also with diminished antigen capture. These results indicate that S1P is essential in LC homeostasis and influences skin immunity. This is of importance as previous reports suggested an alteration of S1P levels in atopic skin lesions. PMID:23145172

  10. Nimbus 4 IRIS spectra in the 750-1250/cm atmospheric window region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunde, V. G.; Conrath, B. J.; Hanel, R. A.; Prabhakara, C.

    1973-01-01

    Several Nimbus 4 IRIS spectra are presented for the 700-1300/cm region as examples of free atmosphere spectra to illustrate problems encountered in interpreting window measurements. Several atmospheric windows near 936 and 960/cm appear significantly more transparent than the 899/cm window presently used in operational remote sensing systems.

  11. 3-cm Fine Structure Masers: A Unique Signature of Supermassive Black Hole Formation via Direct Collapse in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Mark; Sethi, Shiv; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-03-01

    The direct collapse black hole (DCBH) scenario describes the isothermal collapse of a pristine gas cloud directly into a massive, {M}{BH} = 104–106{M}ȯ black hole. In this paper we show that large H i column densities of primordial gas at T∼ {10}4 K with low molecular abundance—which represent key aspects of the DCBH scenario—provide optimal conditions for the pumping of the 2p-level of atomic hydrogen by trapped Lyα photons. This Lyα pumping mechanism gives rise to an inverted level population of the 2{s}1/2-2{p}3/2 transition, and therefore also gives rise to stimulated fine structure emission at λ =3.04 {cm} (rest-frame). We show that simplified models of the DCBH scenario amplify the CMB by up to a factor of ∼ {10}5, above which the maser saturates. Hyperfine splitting of the 3 cm transition gives rise to a characteristic broad (FWHM ∼ tens of MHz in the observers frame) asymmetric line profile. This signal subtends an angular scale of ∼1–10 mas, which translates to a flux of ∼0.3–3 μJy, which is detectable with ultra-deep surveys being planned with SKA1-MID. While challenging, as the signal is visible for a fraction of the collapse time of the cloud, the matching required physical conditions imply that a detection of the redshifted 3-cm emission line could provide direct evidence for the DCBH scenario.

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of Mn(III) and Cu(II) tetranuclear azido polyoxometalate complexes: multifrequency high-field EPR spectroscopy of Cu4 clusters with S = 1 and S = 2 ground states.

    PubMed

    Mialane, Pierre; Duboc, Carole; Marrot, Jrme; Rivire, Eric; Dolbecq, Anne; Scheresse, Francis

    2006-02-20

    Two new azido-bridged polyoxometalate compounds were synthesized in acetonitrile/methanol media and their molecular structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The [[(gamma-SiW10O36)Mn2(OH)2(N3)(0.5)(H2O)(0.5)]2(mu-1,3-N3)](10-) (1 a) tetranuclear Mn(III) complex, in which an end-to-end N3- ligand acts as a linker between two [(gamma-SiW10O36)Mn2(OH)2]4- units, represents the first manganese-azido polyoxometalate. The magnetic properties have been studied considering the spin Hamiltonian H = -J1(S1S2+S1*S2*)-J2(S1S1*), showing that antiferromagnetic interactions between the paramagnetic centers (g = 1.98) occur both through the di-(mu-OH) bridge (J1 = -25.5 cm(-1)) and the mu-1,3-azido bridge (J2 = -19.6 cm(-1)). The [(gamma-SiW10O36)2Cu4(mu-1,1,1-N3)2(mu-1,1-N3)2]12- (2 a) tetranuclear Cu(II) complex consists of two [gamma-SiW10O36Cu2(N3)2]6- subunits connected through the two mu-1,1,1-azido ligands, the four paramagnetic centers forming a lozenge. The magnetic susceptibility data have been fitted. This reveals ferromagnetic interactions between the four Cu(II) centers, leading to an S=2 ground state (H = -J1(S1S2+S1*S2*)-J2(S2S2*), J1 = +294.5 cm(-1), J2 = +1.6 cm(-1), g = 2.085). The ferromagnetic coupling between the Cu(II) centers in each subunit is the strongest ever observed either in a polyoxometalate compound or in a diazido-bridged Cu(II) complex. Considering complex 2 a and the previously reported basal-basal di-(mu-1,1-N3)-bridged Cu(II) complexes in which the metallic centers are not connected by other magnetically coupling ligands, the linear correlation J1 = 2639.5-24.95*theta(av) between the theta(av) bridging angle and the J1 coupling parameter has been proposed. The electronic structure of complex 2 a has also been investigated by using multifrequency high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (HF-EPR) spectroscopy between 95 and 285 GHz. The spin Hamiltonian parameters of the S = 2 ground state (D = -0.135(2) cm(-1), E = -0.003(2) cm(-1), g(x) = 2.290(5), g(y) = 2.135(10), g(z) = 2.158(5)) as well as of the first excited spin state S = 1 (D = -0.960(4) cm(-1), E = -0.080(5) cm(-1), g(x) = 2.042(5), g(y) = 2.335(5), g(z) = 2.095(5)) have been determined, since the energy gap between these two spin states is very small (1.6 cm(-1)). PMID:16475214

  13. Herschel HIFI observations of the Sgr A +50 km s-1 Cloud. Deep searches for O2 in emission and foreground absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandqvist, Aa.; Larsson, B.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Encrenaz, P.; Gerin, M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Lis, D. C.; Liseau, R.; Pagani, L.; Roueff, E.; Viti, S.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The Herschel Oxygen Project (HOP) is an open time key program, awarded 140 h of observing time to search for molecular oxygen (O2) in a number of interstellar sources. To date O2 has definitely been detected in only two sources, namely ρ Oph A and Orion, reflecting the extremely low abundance of O2 in the interstellar medium. Aims: One of the sources in the HOP program is the +50 km s-1 Cloud in the Sgr A Complex in the centre of the Milky Way. Its environment is unique in the Galaxy and this property is investigated to see if it is conducive to the presence of O2. Methods: The Herschel Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) is used to search for the 487 and 774 GHz emission lines of O2. Results: No O2 emission is detected towards the Sgr A +50 km s-1 Cloud, but a number of strong emission lines of methanol (CH3OH) and absorption lines of chloronium (H2Cl+) are observed. Conclusions: A 3σ upper limit for the fractional abundance ratio of [O2]/[H2] in the Sgr A +50 km s-1 Cloud is found to be X(O2) ≤ 5 × 10-8. However, since we can find no other realistic molecular candidate than O2 itself, we very tentatively suggest that two weak absorption lines at 487.261 and 487.302 GHz may be caused by the 487 GHz line of O2 in two foreground spiral arm clouds. By considering that the absorption may only be apparent, the estimated upper limit to the O2 abundance of ≤ (10-20) × 10-6 in these foreground clouds is very high, as opposed to the upper limit in the Sgr A +50 km s-1 Cloud itself, but similar to what has been reached in recent chemical shock models for Orion. This abundance limit was determined also using Odin non-detection limits, and assumes that O2 fills the beam. If the absorption is due to a differential Herschel OFF-ON emission, the O2 fractional abundance may be of the order of ≈ (5-10) × 10-6. With the assumption of pure absorption by foreground clouds, the unreasonably high abundance of (1.4-2.8) × 10-4 was obtained. The rotation temperatures for CH3OH-A and CH3OH-E lines in the +50 km s-1 Cloud are found to be ≈ 64 and 79 K, respectively, and the fractional abundance of CH3OH is approximately 5 × 10-7. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  14. Paramagnetically induced nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation in solutions containing S >= 1 ions: A molecular-frame theoretical and physical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Robert; Abernathy, Shawn M.; Lohr, Lawrence L.

    1997-11-01

    The enhancement of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation rates produced by paramagnetic solutes is physically rather different for electron spin S=1/2 paramagnetic species than for S?1 species due to the presence of zero-field splitting interactions in the electron spin Hamiltonians of the latter. When the zfs energy is larger than the electronic Zeeman energy, the electron spin precessional motion is spatially quantized with respect to the molecule-fixed principal axis system (PAS) of the zfs tensor rather than along the external laboratory magnetic field. An analytical theory of the orthorhombic zfs limit has been derived in which the motion of the electron spin variables is described in the zfs-PAS and that of the nuclear spin variables in the laboratory coordinate frame. The resulting theoretical expressions are simple in form and suggest a physically transparent interpretation of the experiment. The NMR relaxation enhancement R1p results from additive contributions, R1x, R1y, and R1z, arising from the molecular-frame Cartesian components of the time-dependent electron spin magnetic moment operator ?r(t). Each Cartesian component R1r depends on the dipolar power density at the nuclear Larmor frequency that is produced by the corresponding Cartesian component of ?r(t). The theory displays the dependence of the relaxation enhancement on the variables of molecular structure in a very simple and physically transparent form: R1r?r-6[1+P2(cos?r)], where r is the interspin distance and cos ?r is the direction cosine of the interspin vector with the rth principal axis of the zfs tensor. New experimental data are presented for the model S=1 complex [trans-Ni(II)(acac)2(H2O)2] (acac=acetylacetonato) in dioxane solvent. The magnetic field dependence of the proton T1 of the axial water ligands has been measured over the range 0.15-1.5 T, the lower end of which corresponds to the zfs limit. The experimental data have been analyzed using the new analytical theory for the zfs-limit regime in conjunction with spin dynamics simulations in the intermediate regime. Dipolar density power plots are presented as graphical devices which clearly exhibit the physical information in the experiment, and which permit a rapid differentiation of the sensitive and insensitive parameters of theory. The data analysis depends strongly on the zfs parameter |E| and on the electron spin relaxation time ?S,z along the zfs-PAS z-axis, but only very weakly on the other parameters of theory. A fit of the data to theory provided the values |E|=1.80.1 cm-1 and ?S,z=8.00.3 ps.

  15. Observations of the 18-cm lines of the OH radical in comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovisier, J.; Colom, P.; Biver, N.; Bockele-Morvan, D.

    2015-10-01

    Since 1973, the 18-cm lines of the OH radical have been systematically observed in selected comets with the 30040 m radio telescope at Nanay. Up to now, 133 comets have been observed (counting different returns of short-period comets as different comets), totalling about 6000 individual observations (typically one hour per day for each observation).These observations trace the water production rates (through its photodissociation product OH) and the coma expansion velocity. They are precious for statistical investigations of the evolution of the activity of the comets. These observations are also made as a participation to multi-wavelength observing campaigns of dedicated comets and as a support to cometary space missions. The observations are organized in a database which is progressively made publicly available: http://www.lesia.obspm.fr/planeto/ cometes/basecom/ [1]The most recent observations are listed in Table 1. Here are some recent highlights: 103P/Hartley 2 was observed in support to its fly-by by the EPOXI mission and to observations with Herschel. [2] The outbursts of the sungrazing comet C/2012 S1 (ISON), preceding its demise as it approached the Sun at 0.012 AU on 28 November 2013, were observed. [3] Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) was detected just before it passed at only 0.001 AU from Mars on 19 October 2014, due to enhanced background radiation as the comet was close to the Galactic plane. [4] The Nanay radio telescope actively participated to the multi-wavelength observing campaigns of the bright comets C/2011 L4 (PANSTARRS), C/2012 F6 (Lemmon), C/2012 X1 (LINEAR), C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) and C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) (Fig. 1), especially in coordination with radio observations with IRAM and ALMA. It should be noted that the Rosetta target 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, which was marginally detected at its 1982 passage due to a relatively close approach to Earth (# = 0.39 AU) [1], is unfavourably placed at its present return for observations at Nanay.

  16. Bitopic Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 3 (S1P3) Antagonist Rescue from Complete Heart Block: Pharmacological and Genetic Evidence for Direct S1P3 Regulation of Mouse Cardiac Conduction.

    PubMed

    Sanna, M Germana; Vincent, Kevin P; Repetto, Emanuela; Nguyen, Nhan; Brown, Steven J; Abgaryan, Lusine; Riley, Sean W; Leaf, Nora B; Cahalan, Stuart M; Kiosses, William B; Kohno, Yasushi; Brown, Joan Heller; McCulloch, Andrew D; Rosen, Hugh; Gonzalez-Cabrera, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    The molecular pharmacology of the G protein-coupled receptors for sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) provides important insight into established and new therapeutic targets. A new, potent bitopic S1P3 antagonist, SPM-354, with in vivo activity, has been used, together with S1P3-knockin and S1P3-knockout mice to define the spatial and functional properties of S1P3 in regulating cardiac conduction. We show that S1P3 is a key direct regulator of cardiac rhythm both in vivo and in isolated perfused hearts. 2-Amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]propane-1,3-diol in vivo and S1P in isolated hearts induced a spectrum of cardiac effects, ranging from sinus bradycardia to complete heart block, as measured by a surface electrocardiogram in anesthetized mice and in volume-conducted Langendorff preparations. The agonist effects on complete heart block are absent in S1P3-knockout mice and are reversed in wild-type mice with SPM-354, as characterized and described here. Homologous knockin of S1P3-mCherry is fully functional pharmacologically and is strongly expressed by immunohistochemistry confocal microscopy in Hyperpolarization Activated Cyclic Nucleotide Gated Potassium Channel 4 (HCN4)-positive atrioventricular node and His-Purkinje fibers, with relative less expression in the HCN4-positive sinoatrial node. In Langendorff studies, at constant pressure, SPM-354 restored sinus rhythm in S1P-induced complete heart block and fully reversed S1P-mediated bradycardia. S1P3 distribution and function in the mouse ventricular cardiac conduction system suggest a direct mechanism for heart block risk that should be further studied in humans. A richer understanding of receptor and ligand usage in the pacemaker cells of the cardiac system is likely to be useful in understanding ventricular conduction in health, disease, and pharmacology. PMID:26494861

  17. CHARACTERIZING THE DUST COMA OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON) AT 4.15 AU FROM THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jian-Yang; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Farnham, Tony L.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Knight, Matthew M.; Weaver, Harold A.; Mutchler, Max J.; Lamy, Philippe; Toth, Imre E-mail: msk@astro.umd.edu E-mail: ma@astro.umd.edu E-mail: knight@lowell.edu E-mail: mutchler@stsci.edu E-mail: tothi@konkoly.hu

    2013-12-10

    We report results from broadband visible images of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 on 2013 April 10. C/ISON's coma brightness follows a 1/ρ (where ρ is the projected distance from the nucleus) profile out to 5000 km, consistent with a constant speed dust outflow model. The turnaround distance in the sunward direction suggests that the dust coma is composed of sub-micron-sized particles emitted at speeds of tens of m s{sup –1}. A(θ)fρ, which is commonly used to characterize the dust production rate, was 1340 and 1240 cm in the F606W and F438W filters, respectively, in apertures <1.''6 in radius. The dust colors are slightly redder than solar, with a slope of 5.0% ± 0.2% per 100 nm, increasing to >10% per 100 nm 10,000 km down the tail. The colors are similar to those of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and other long-period comets, but somewhat bluer than typical values for short-period comets. The spatial color variations are also reminiscent of C/Hale-Bopp. A sunward jet is visible in enhanced images, curving to the north and then tailward in the outer coma. The 1.''6 long jet is centered at a position angle of 291°, with an opening angle of ∼45°. The jet morphology remains unchanged over 19 hr of our observations, suggesting that it is near the rotational pole of the nucleus, and implying that the pole points to within 30° of (R.A., decl.) = (330°, 0°). This pole orientation indicates a high obliquity of 50°-80°.

  18. Heavy actinide production from the interactions of sup 40 Ar with sup 248 Cm and a comparison with the sup 44 Ca- sup 248 Cm system

    SciTech Connect

    Leyba, J.D.; Henderson, R.A.; Hall, H.L.; Gannett, C.M.; Chadwick, R.B.; Czerwinski, K.R.; Kadkhodayan, B.A.; Kreek, S.A.; Haynes, G.R.; Gregorich, K.E.; Lee, D.M.; Nurmia, M.J.; Hoffman, D.C. Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720)

    1990-05-01

    Excitation functions have been measured for isotopes of Bk, Cf, Es, and Fm produced from the interactions of 207- to 286-MeV {sup 40}Ar ions with {sup 248}Cm. The measured isotopic distributions were found to be essentially symmetric with full widths at half maximum between 2.0 and 3.5 mass units. These results are comparable to those obtained in previous studies using {sup 40,44,48}Ca with {sup 248}Cm. The maxima of the isotopic distributions from the {sup 40}Ar-{sup 248}Cm system show shifts, to both heavier and lighter mass numbers, of 0 to 2 mass units relative to the corresponding maxima of the isotopic distributions from the {sup 40,44,48}Ca-{sup 248}Cm systems.

  19. Three-dimensional simulation analysis of a 3 cm wavelength free-electron laser afterburner

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C. . High Energy Electronics Research Inst. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA . Center for Beam Physics)

    1994-10-01

    The author has simulated a 3 cm wavelength free-electron laser afterburner (FEL Afterburner) using two sets of parameters: one is for a 3-cm period wiggler and the other is for a 5.4 cm period wiggler. For the 3 cm period wiggler, the input beam energy is 112.5 keV, and for the 5.4 cm period wiggler the beam energy is increased to 290 keV to make the FEL Afterburner operate at the same frequency. It is found, from the simulations, that the FEL Afterburner with a longer period wiggler has a higher power conversion efficiency: larger than 16% $ for the 5.4 cm wiggler while only about 9% for the 3 cm wiggler. It is also shown that to enhance the interaction efficiency in the slow wave cavity, the slow wave number should be a little larger than the sum of the fast wave number and the wiggler wave number.

  20. RegCM4-HadGEM2-ES simulated cyclone climatology (1979-2005) over the Southwestern South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfírio da Rocha, Rosmeri; Simões Reboita, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Cyclones over the Southwestern South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) are a subject of great interest once they modify the weather and control the climate near east coast of South America (SA). In this study we compare the cyclones climatology in the period 1979-2005 simulated by Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) with that from ERA-Interim reanalysis (ECMWF). RegCM4 was nested in HadGEM2-ES output and the simulation used the SA domain of CORDEX project, with a horizontal grid of 50 km and 18 sigma-pressure levels in the vertical. The RegCM4 simulation used the land surface Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) and the mixed convection Emanuel-Grell scheme configurations. This simulation is part of the CREMA (CORDEX REgCM4 hyper-MAtrix) experiment. The cyclones were identified using an automated tracking scheme based on minima (cyclonic in Southern Hemisphere) of relative vorticity from the wind at 925 hPa. The threshold of -1.5 x 10-5s-1 was used in the algorithm. All cyclones in RegCM4 and ERA-Interim with relative vorticity lower than this threshold and with lifetime higher or equal 24 hours were included in the climatology. ERA-Interim shows three main cyclogenetic regions near east coast of SA. In general, RegCM4 simulated these same regions but with an underestimation of the number of cyclones. In each of these regions, there is a different season of higher cyclones frequency. Over extreme south of southern Brazil and Uruguay the higher frequency of cyclones occurs in winter, while southeastern Brazil and southeastern Argentina cyclones are most frequent during summer. RegCM4 is able to simulate this observed seasonality.