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Sample records for 10-n-nonyl acridine orange

  1. Acridine orange as a biosensitive photovoltaic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Faranak; Bauld, Reg; Fanchini, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    Acridine orange (AO), a biosensitive molecule that is customarily used for labeling nucleic acids including DNA and RNA, is here investigated as a cost effective, water soluble, and photoactive material for the fabrication of potentially biosensitive organic photovoltaics. The electronic energy levels of AO are determined using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The effect of anticrystallization agents, as well as low-temperature annealing, on the work function of AO is investigated: amorphous AO films are shown to possess a significantly higher work function than microcrystalline AO films and the work function also increases by annealing. Photo-induced processes in AO films are investigated by considering the changes of the KPFM signal under illumination. We demonstrate that acridine orange is able to photogenerate electron-hole pairs at rates comparable to the most commonly used solar-grade photovoltaic materials, including polythiophenes. In addition, the effect of the morphology of different types of AO thin films spun from different solvents is studied in bilayer photovoltaic devices fabricated from stacks of AO and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester thin films.

  2. Clinical results with acridine orange using a novel confocal laparoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanbakuchi, Anthony A.; Rouse, Andrew R.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2009-02-01

    We previously reported on the development of a multi-spectral confocal laparoscope for clinical imaging. In this paper we present current results using the system to image ovaries with a new laparoscope design using the contrast agent acridine orange. This new laparoscope integrates computer controlled systems for focus, depth scans, and localized contrast agent delivery. Precise axial position control is accomplished with tiny stepper motors integrated inside the laparoscope handle. Ergonomic handle controls allow for data acquisition, deliver of contrast agents, and adjustment of imaging depth during procedures by the surgeon. We have approval to use acridine orange in our clinical trials to image ovaries in vivo during oophorectomies. We present in vivo results using both acridine orange and fluorescein as the topically administered contrast agent.

  3. A quantitative model for using acridine orange as a transmembrane pH gradient probe.

    PubMed

    Clerc, S; Barenholz, Y

    1998-05-15

    Monitoring the acidification of the internal space of membrane vesicles by proton pumps can be achieved easily with optical probes. Transmembrane pH gradients cause a blue-shift in the absorbance spectrum and the quenching of the fluorescence of the cationic dye acridine orange. It has been postulated that these changes are caused by accumulation and aggregation of the dye inside the vesicles. We tested this hypothesis using liposomes with transmembrane concentration gradients of ammonium sulfate as model system. Fluorescence intensity of acridine orange solutions incubated with liposomes was affected by magnitude of the gradient, volume trapped by vesicles, and temperature. These experimental data were compared to a theoretical model describing the accumulation of acridine orange monomers in the vesicles according to the inside-to-outside ratio of proton concentrations, and the intravesicular formation of sandwich-like piles of acridine orange cations. This theoretical model predicted quantitatively the relationship between the transmembrane pH gradients and spectral changes of acridine orange. Therefore, adequate characterization of aggregation of dye in the lumen of biological vesicles provides the theoretical basis for using acridine orange as an optical probe to quantify transmembrane pH gradients. PMID:9606150

  4. Removal of acridine orange from water by graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiallos, D. Coello; Gómez, C. Vacacela; Usca, G. Tubón; Pérez, D. Cid; Tavolaro, P.; Martino, G.; Caputi, L. S.; Tavolaro, A.

    2015-02-01

    Dyes are usually used in textile manufacturing and are one of the major contaminations in water. Thus, from an environmental point of view, the removal of dyes is of great concern, and recent applications using carbon-based materials showed high adsorption ability. In this work we use graphene oxide (GO) produced by improved Hummer's method, for adsorption of acridine orange dye (AO) in water. GO is a material containing functional groups such as carboxyl, epoxy, ketone, and hydroxyl, that can adsorb cationic dyes. Factors such as initial concentration of dye, the amount of GO, temperature and contact time were evaluated. Results show that the adsorption equilibrium, with the removal of 40% of the dye, is reached in approximately 1 hour, and that the adsorption capacity increases at higher initial concentrations. The highest value of AO adsorbed was 229.8 mg/g equivalent to 92% removal percentage by using AO initial concentration 0.10 mg/mL. FT-IR analysis of GO with adsorbed AO shows changes in the stretching vibrational bands, which corroborate the AO/GO interaction due to the functional groups present in GO. Furthermore, AO adsorbed on GO does not desorb back into water. Our results show that GO is an effective adsorbent and could be used to treat effluents contaminated with dyes.

  5. Morphology Dependent Photocatalytic Activity of α-MoO3 Nanostructures Towards Mutagenic Acridine Orange Dye.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The morphological evolutions of orthorhombic molybdenum oxide nanostructures with high crystalline nature have been successfully synthesized by combining low-temperature sol-gel and annealing processes. Strong influence of gelation temperature is a factor facilitated to control the material morphology. Morphological transformations like nanospheres, nanoplatelets, mixtures of hexagonal platelets, and one-dimensional nanobars were obtained. The possible morphological formation mechanism has been proposed as a self-assemble process of nucleation and a mechanism for particle growth by Ostwald ripening. The as-prepared nanostructures were recognized as photocatalysts for the degradation of Acridine Orange under Ultra Violet light. The obtained mixed morphology (hexagonal nanoplatelets and nanobars) showed a high photocatalytic property to degrade mutagenic Acridine Orange dye. Moreover, they could be easily recycled without changing the photocatalytic activity due to their 1-Dimensional and 2-Dimensional nanostructure property. PMID:26369043

  6. Altered Sporulation and Respiratory Patterns in Mutants of Bacillus subtilis Induced by Acridine Orange

    PubMed Central

    Bott, K. F.; Davidoff-Abelson, R.

    1966-01-01

    Bott, K. F. (The University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.), and R. Davidoff-Abelson. Altered sporulation and respiratory patterns in mutants of Bacillus subtilis induced by acridine orange. J. Bacteriol. 92:229–240. 1966.—The addition of acridine orange to vegetative cultures of Bacillus subtilis induces the formation of sporulation mutants at a frequency of 20% or greater. These mutants are grouped into seven categories which reflect their different morphological properties. They are altered in their vegetative metabolism, as indicated by abnormal growth on synthetic media. Sporulation of these mutants is impaired at several levels, all of which are stable upon repeated subculturing. The initial stages of sporulation which require no increased metabolic activity (proteolytic enzyme activity and antibiotic production) are functional in all strains, but glucose dehydrogenase activity, an enzyme associated with early synthetic functions in spore synthesis, is significantly reduced. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase is slightly depressed. It is suggested that acridine orange interacts with a cellular constituent controlling respiration and consequently prevents an increased metabolic activity that may be associated with normal spore synthesis. Images PMID:4957434

  7. Fluorescence enhancement of acridine orange in a water solution by Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hairong; Xu, Liangmin; Zhang, Zhenglong; Dong, Jun; Chen, Shutang; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2010-10-01

    The surface enhanced fluorescence effect of acridine orange fluorophore in the proximity of Au nanoparticles has been investigated experimentally in the system of aqueous solution. Significant enhancement of the fluorescence intensity was observed when the system was excited with 532 nm or 442 nm CW lasers. The influence of the distances between neighboring Au particles as well as that between the fluorophore molecules and the Au surface were explored experimentally. The results demonstrated that a compact distribution of metallic particles was able to produce stronger fluorescence enhancement. Proper separation between the fluorophore molecules and the metal surface was favorable for a better enhancement.

  8. Comparative study of subculture, Gram staining and acridine orange staining for early detection of positive blood cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Mascart, G; Bertrand, F; Mascart, P

    1983-01-01

    In view of the importance of a rapid aetiological diagnosis in septicaemia, we compared the results of subculture, Gram staining and acridine orange staining in the detection of positive blood cultures. The study was based on 1013 blood cultures of which 138 were positive by culture. The three techniques were applied 12 h after the specimen was taken in 210 instances, at 24 h in 540 instances and after 48 h in 525. We were able to demonstrate the value of direct examination. Staining with acridine orange yields more positive results than Gram staining and is also simpler. PMID:6188764

  9. Binding of fluorescent acridine dyes acridine orange and 9-aminoacridine to hemoglobin: Elucidation of their molecular recognition by spectroscopy, calorimetry and molecular modeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sabyasachi; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2016-06-01

    The molecular interaction between hemoglobin (HHb), the major human heme protein, and the acridine dyes acridine orange (AO) and 9-aminoacridine (9AA) was studied by various spectroscopic, calorimetric and molecular modeling techniques. The dyes formed stable ground state complex with HHb as revealed from spectroscopic data. Temperature dependent fluorescence data showed the strength of the dye-protein complexation to be inversely proportional to temperature and the fluorescence quenching was static in nature. The binding-induced conformational change in the protein was investigated using circular dichroism, synchronous fluorescence, 3D fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy results. Circular dichroism data also quantified the α-helicity change in hemoglobin due to the binding of acridine dyes. Calorimetric studies revealed the binding to be endothermic in nature for both AO and 9AA, though the latter had higher affinity, and this was also observed from spectroscopic data. The binding of both dyes was entropy driven. pH dependent fluorescence studies revealed the existence of electrostatic interaction between the protein and dye molecules. Molecular modeling studies specified the binding site and the non-covalent interactions involved in the association. Overall, the results revealed that a small change in the acridine chromophore leads to remarkable alteration in the structural and thermodynamic aspects of binding to HHb. PMID:27077554

  10. Determination of sex by exfoliative cytology using acridine orange confocal microscopy: A short study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, D Shyam Prasad; Sherlin, Herald J; Ramani, Pratibha; Prakash, P Ajay

    2012-01-01

    Context: Establishing individuality is an imperative aspect in any investigation procedure. Sometimes, in identifying an individual, it becomes necessary to determine the sex of that particular individual. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using a confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. In the present study, we have determined the sex of the individual from buccal mucosal scrapings. The exfoliative cells were observed for Barr bodies under a confocal microscope, and the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells was determined. Aims: The main objective of this study is to assess confocal microscopy for the determination of sex by observing Barr bodies in the exfoliative cells of both men and women. Settings and Design: Samples of buccal mucosa smears were made followed by acridine orange staining. The stained slides were observed under a confocal microscope and the data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for mean and standard deviation. Materials and Methods: Samples of buccal mucosa smears from 20 men and 20 women were obtained by scraping with flat wooden sticks (exfoliative cytology). The smears were fixed in 100% alcohol for 15 min, followed by acridine orange (AO) staining as described by Von Bertalanffy et al. Smears stained with AO were examined under a confocal microscope and the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells was determined. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for mean and standard deviation. Results: Two non-overlapping ranges for the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells have been obtained for men and women. It was observed that in the male samples, the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells ranged from 0-3%. In the female samples, the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells ranged from 18-72%, and all the females showed the presence of Barr bodies. Conclusion: The study showed that the presence of Barr body in buccal

  11. Acridine Orange Indicates Early Oxidation of Wood Cell Walls by Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Houtman, Carl J.; Kitin, Peter; Houtman, Jon C. D.; Hammel, Kenneth E.; Hunt, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of wood blocks by brown and white rot fungi rapidly resulted in detectable wood oxidation, as shown by a reduced phloroglucinol response, a loss of autofluorescence, and acridine orange (AO) staining. This last approach is shown to provide a novel method for identifying wood oxidation. When lignin was mildly oxidized, the association between AO and lignin was reduced such that stained wood sections emitted less green light during fluorescence microscopy. This change was detectable after less than a week, an interval that past work has shown to be too short for significant delignification of wood. Although fungal hyphae were observed in only a few wood lumina, oxidation was widespread, appearing relatively uniform over regions several hundred micrometers from the hyphae. This observation suggests that both classes of fungi release low molecular weight mild oxidants during the first few days of colonization. PMID:27454126

  12. Dissipation of pH gradients in tonoplast vesicles and liposomes by mixtures of acridine orange and anions. [Avena sativa L. ; Beta vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, A.J.; Leigh, R.A. )

    1988-04-01

    Acridine orange altered the response to anions of both ATP and inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent pH gradient formation in tonoplast vesicles isolated from oat (Avena sativa L.) roots and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue. When used as a fluorescent pH probe in the presence of I{sup {minus}}, ClO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, or SCN{sup {minus}}, acridine orange reported lower pH gradients than either quinacrine or ({sup 14}C)methylamine. Acridine orange, but not quinacrine, reduced ({sup 14}C)methylamine accumulation when NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} was present indicating that the effect was due to a real decrease in the size of the pH gradient, not a misreporting of the gradient by acridine orange. Other experiments indicated that acridine orange and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} increased the rate of pH gradient collapse both in tonoplast vesicles and in liposomes of phosphatidylcholine and that the effect in tonoplast vesicles was greater at 24{degree}C than at 12{degree}C. It is suggested that acridine orange and certain anions increase the permeability of membranes to H{sup +}, possibly because protonated acridine orange and the anions form a lipophilic ion pair within the vesicle which diffuses across the membrane thus discharging the pH gradient.

  13. Acridine orange staining reaction as an index of physiological activity in Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; Singh, A.; Byun, S.; Callis, P. R.; Williams, S.

    1991-01-01

    The assumption that the acridine orange (AO) color reaction may be used as an index of physiological activity was investigated in laboratory grown Escherichia coli. Spectrofluorometric observations of purified nucleic acids, ribosomes and the microscopic color of bacteriophage-infected cells stained with AO confirmed the theory that single-stranded nucleic acids emit orange to red fluorescence while those that are double-stranded fluoresce green in vivo. Bacteria growing actively in a rich medium could be distinguished from cells in stationary phase by the AO reaction. Cells from log phase appeared red, whereas those in stationary phase were green. However, this differentiation was not seen when the bacteria were grown in a minimal medium or when a variation of the staining method was used. Also, shifting bacteria in stationary phase to starvation conditions rapidly changed their AO staining reaction. Boiling and exposure to lethal concentrations of azide and formalin resulted in stationary-phase cells that appeared red after staining but bacteria killed with chlorine remained green. These findings indicate that the AO staining reaction may be suggestive of physiological activity under defined conditions. However, variables in staining and fixation procedures as well as uncertainties associated with mixed bacterial populations in environmental samples may produce results that are not consistent with the classical interpretation of this reaction. The importance of validating the putative physiological implications of this staining reaction is stressed.

  14. Photochemistry on surfaces: Fluorescence emission of monomers and dimers and triplet state absorption of acridine orange adsorbed on microcrystalline cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, F.; Worrall, D. R.; Ferreira, L. F. Vieira

    1992-02-01

    Prompt fluorescence as well as delayed fluorescence emission of acridine orange was detected at room temperature from samples where this dye is adsorbed on microcrystalline cellulose. Ground state absorption studies provided evidence for dimer formation of the dye when adsorbed on cellulose, and the equilibrium constant for dimerisation was determined as 1.6±0.1 × 10 6mol -1g. At low loadings of acridine orange on cellulose (<1 μmol g -1) the fluorescence emission is mainly due to the monomer and is similar to that observed in ethanolic solutions where little aggregation occurs, and peaks at 530 nm. A linear dependence of the fluorescence intensity on the amount of light absorbed by the dye was established for these "diluted" samples. However, at higher loadings (>20 μmol g -1), the fluorescence intensity decreases, and the emission is broad with its maximum at 620 nm, and is mainly due to the dimer. By assuming that the excited monomer and dimer of acridine orange are the only emitting species, it was possible to determine the fluorescence quantum yields for these two species when adsorbed on microcrystalline cellulose as 0.95±0.05 and 0.40±0.10, respectively. Pulsed emission studies at room temperature in the millisecond time-range also revealed monomer and dimer emissions on this longer time-scale. These are shown to be due to thermally activated delayed fluorescence arising from the triplet states of monomer and dimer acridine orange as confirmed by diffuse reflectance transient absorption studies.

  15. Structural relaxation of acridine orange dimer in bulk water and inside a single live lung cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Nandi, Somen; Halder, Ritaban; Jana, Biman; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2016-02-01

    Structural relaxation of the acridine orange (AO) dimer in bulk water and inside a single live lung cell is studied using time resolved confocal microscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The emission maxima ( λem max ˜ 630 nm) of AO in a lung cancer cell (A549) and a non-cancer lung fibroblast cell (WI38) suggest that AO exists as a dimer inside the cell. Time-dependent red shift in emission maximum indicates dynamic relaxation of the AO dimer (in the excited state) with a time constant of 500-600 ps, both in bulk water and inside the cell. We have calculated the equilibrium relaxation dynamics of the AO dimer in the ground state using MD simulations and found a slow component of time scale ˜350 ps. The intra- and inter-molecular components of the total relaxation dynamics of the AO dimer reveal the presence of a slow component of the order of a few hundred picoseconds. Upon restricting intra-molecular dye dynamics by harmonic constraint between AO monomers, the slow component vanishes. Combining the experimental observations and MD simulation results, we ascribe the slow component of the dynamic relaxation of the AO dimer to the structural relaxation, namely, fluctuations in the distance between the two monomers and associated fluctuation in the number of water molecules.

  16. Enhanced fluorescence quenching in an acridine orange - alizarin red system through matrine and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaoling; Wang, Xiaojun; Gong, Qi; Wang, Lisheng; Zhou, Shiwu

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that alizarin red (AR) only slightly quenched fluorescence for acridine orange (AO) in an AR/AO mixed solution at pH = 5-6. The reduced fluorescent signal was closely and linearly associated with the level of MT added to the system, which is the basis for a new quantitative MT assay method using the fluorescence quenching reaction in the AO-AR system. The results show that under optimal conditions, this method had a 14.9-43.5 mg L-1 linear detection range with a 1.38 mg L-1 detection limit and 1.24% precision. In addition, this method was used to determine the MT levels in the commercially available MT-containing pesticides and suppositories, which showed a 96.6-103% recovery. Therefore, this method has multiple advantages, including simple and fast operation, high accuracy and low cost. Moreover, herein, we investigated the underlying mechanism in-depth using an ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopic technique.

  17. Acridine Orange Conjugated Polymersomes for Simultaneous Nuclear Delivery of Gemcitabine and Doxorubicin to Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Anajafi, Tayebeh; Scott, Michael D; You, Seungyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Choi, Yongki; Qian, Steven Y; Mallik, Sanku

    2016-03-16

    Considering the systemic toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents, there is an urgent need to develop new targeted drug delivery systems. Herein, we have developed a new nuclear targeted, redox sensitive, drug delivery vehicle to simultaneously deliver the anticancer drugs gemcitabine and doxorubicin to the nuclei of pancreatic cancer cells. We prepared polymeric bilayer vesicles (polymersomes), and actively encapsulated the drug combination by the pH gradient method. A redox-sensitive polymer (PEG-S-S-PLA) was incorporated to sensitize the formulation to reducing agent concentration. Acridine orange (AO) was conjugated to the surface of the polymersomes imparting nuclear localizing property. The polymersomes' toxicity and efficacy were compared with those of a free drug combination using monolayer and three-dimensional spheroid cultures of pancreatic cancer cells. We observed that the redox sensitive, nuclear-targeted polymersomes released more than 60% of their encapsulated contents in response to 50 mM glutathione. The nanoparticles are nontoxic; however, the drug encapsulated vesicles have significant toxicity. The prepared formulation can increase the drug's therapeutic index by delivering the drugs directly to the cells' nuclei, one of the key organelles in the cells. This study is likely to initiate research in targeted nuclear delivery using other drug formulations in other types of cancers. PMID:26848507

  18. Acridine Orange is an Effective Anti-Cancer Drug that Affects Mitochondrial Function in Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Fotia, Caterina; Avnet, Sofia; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Roncuzzi, Laura; Baldini, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Acridine orange (AO) is an antimalarial drug that accumulates into acidic cellular compartments. Lysosomes are quite acidic in cancer cells, and on this basis we have demonstrated that photoactivated AO is selectively toxic in sarcomas. However, photodynamic therapy is only locally effective, and cannot be used to eradicate systemic residual disease. In this study, we have evaluated the activity of non-photoactivated AO on sensitive and chemoresistant osteosarcoma (OS) cells to be considered for the systemic delivery. Since lysosomes are even more acidic in chemoresistant cells (MDR), we found that AO accumulation was significantly higher in the lysosomes of MDR in respect to parental cells, and in both cell types, therapeutic doses of AO significantly inhibited cell growth. However, the level of growth inhibition was inversely related to the level of lysosomal uptake of AO, suggesting that the main target of this agent is indeed extralysosomal. A significant reduction of intracellular ATP content and of the expression of mitochondrial complex III suggests a mitochondrial targeting. Notably, MDR cells showed a lower mitochondrial activity. Finally, the combined treatment of AO with the anticancer agent doxorubicin (DXR) significantly increased chemotoxicity by promoting DXR mitochondrial targeting, as revealed by the further reduction in ATP intracellular content. In conclusion, AO is able to effectively target both sensitive and resistant OS cells through mitotoxicity. PMID:26381269

  19. Resonance light scattering method for the determination of anionic surfactant with acridine orange.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xilin; Wang, Yongsheng; Chen, Zhangming; Li, Qiangxiang; Liu, Zhihuo; Li, Guirong; Lü, Changyin; Xue, Jinhua; Li, Yanzhi

    2008-11-15

    The resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS), second-order scattering (SOS) and frequency-double scattering (FDS) spectra of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) (anionic surfactant (AS)) with acridine orange (AO) system were studied. Experimental results showed that when lambda(em) = lambda(ex) = 537 nm, the RRS peak of AO was greatly enhanced with the increase of SDBS concentration at a pH range of 1.8-4.0. The linear range of the calibration curve for SDBS was 0.028-8.71 mg L(-1) with a detection limit of 8.36 microg L(-1) when the AO concentration was 2.5 x 10(-5)mol L(-1). The method has been applied to the determination of trace amount of AS in environmental water samples with satisfactory results. In addition, when lambda(em) = 321 nm and lambda(ex) = 642 nm, the intensity of FDS was proportional to the SDBS concentration ranging from 0.014 to 8.71 mg L(-1) and the correlation coefficient was 0.993 with a detection limit of 4.31 microg L(-1); when lambda(em) = 642 nm and lambda(ex) = 321 nm, the intensity of SOS was proportional to the SDBS concentration ranging from 0.050 to 8.71 mg L(-1), and the correlation coefficient was 0.993 with a detection limit of 14.9 microg L(-1). PMID:18280203

  20. Unraveling multiple binding modes of acridine orange to DNA using a multispectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Mhejabeen; Krishnamurthy, Bhavana; Pal, Haridas

    2016-09-21

    The interaction of acridine orange (AOH(+)) with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) under different dye-DNA conditions has been investigated in detail using multispectroscopic techniques, unraveling a number of hitherto unexplored intricacies of dye-DNA binding. The observed results intriguingly show contrasting binding features when low (2.4 μM) and significantly high (23 μM) dye concentrations are used. It is conclusively inferred from absorption, steady-state fluorescence, circular dichroism, fluorescence decay and anisotropy decay studies that at low [DNA] to [dye] ratio, especially with higher dye concentration, dimeric AOH(+) predominantly binds externally to DNA surfaces through electrostatic interactions. At sufficiently high [DNA] to [dye] ratios, however, the interaction intriguingly changes to monomeric AOH(+) bound to DNA, predominantly in the intercalative mode between DNA base pairs, with partly an electrostatic binding on DNA surfaces. With very low initial dye concentration, monomeric (AOH(+)) mostly binds to DNA through intercalative and electrostatic modes for most DNA to dye ratios. The present study demonstrates a systematic correlation of the striking changes in the photophysical properties of the dye upon multimode binding with DNA. The observed results are of great significance in understanding the fundamental insights of dye/drug binding to DNA hosts, of use in the design of effective therapeutic agents. PMID:27545984

  1. Validation of a flow cytometric acridine orange micronuclei methodology in rats.

    PubMed

    Criswell, K A; Krishna, G; Zielinski, D; Urda, G A; Juneau, P; Bulera, S; Bleavins, M R

    2003-07-25

    Our laboratory has previously reported a flow cytometric acridine orange method for detection of micronucleus (MN) in the rat using cyclophosphamide as a test compound. To replace the manual method of scoring and satisfy Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) requirements, an extensive validation of the flow method was required. Therefore, manual scoring and flow cytometric determination of MN were compared using vincristine, chlorambucil, methotrexate, and doxorubicin compounds known to induce MN formation with various mechanisms of action. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (1,2-DH), a compound with negative or equivocal MN findings also was evaluated. The flow method consistently demonstrated dose- and time-dependent responses for MN production at all concentrations of vincristine, methotrexate, clorambucil, and doxorubicin. In contrast, manual scoring of slides failed to detect an increase in MN at the lowest doses of doxorubicin (1mg/kg) at 24 or 48 h, and methotrexate at 48 h, or any dose of methotrexate (50, 100, or 250 mg/kg) at 24h. Additionally, a dose-response for methotrexate at 48 h, and chlorambucil at 24 h were missed using manual scoring. For 1,2-DH, the flow method showed a low level (< 1.4-fold) increase in MN at all doses and times. In contrast, the manual method showed five-seven-fold increases at 24 h, but a < two-fold increase at 48 h in the highest dose only. These data may suggest that the flow method has a greater sensitivity and possibly accuracy than manual scoring. Significant decreases in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) were seen using both methods at approximately the same dose for all compounds. However, absolute flow cytometric PCE values were consistently higher than manual. Additional cytotoxicity parameters obtained by the flow method allowed a more complete assessment of cytotoxicity than PCE alone. Furthermore, data reported here combined with improved throughput, shortened data turnaround and reporting times, and possibly better precision due to

  2. Acridine Orange and Flow Cytometry: Which Is Better to Measure the Effect of Varicocele on Sperm DNA Integrity?

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Essam-Elden M.; Mosad, Eman; Zahran, Asmaa M.; Hameed, Diaa A.; Taha, Emad A.; Mohamed, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of varicocelectomy on semen parameters and levels of sperm DNA damage in infertile men. A total of 75 infertile men with varicocele and 40 fertile men (controls) were included in this study. Semen analysis and sperm DNA damage expressed as the DNA fragmentation index using acridine orange staining and chromatin condensation test by flow cytometry were assessed before and 6 months after varicocelectomy. The patients were also followed up for 1 year for pregnancy outcome. Semen parameters were significantly lower in varicocele patients compared to controls (P < 0.05). Mean percentages of sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm DNA chromatin condensation in patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.05). After varicocelectomy, sperm DNA fragmentation improved significantly, whereas sperm chromatin condensation was not significantly changed. In 15 out of 75 varicocele patients, clinical pregnancy was diagnosed; those with positive pregnancy outcome had significant improvement in sperm count, progressive sperm motility, and sperm DNA fragmentation, but there was no significant difference in sperm DNA condensation compared to negative pregnancy outcome patients. We concluded from this study that acridine orange stain is more reliable method than flow cytometry in the evaluation of sperm DNA integrity after varicocelectomy. PMID:26681938

  3. Intraoperative acridine orange photodynamic therapy and cribriform electron-beam irradiation for canine intranasal tumors: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Maruo, Takuya; Nagata, Koichi; Fukuyama, Yasuhiro; Nemoto, Yuki; Kawarai, Shinpei; Fujita, Yukihiro; Nakayama, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Untreated canine intranasal tumors carry a poor prognosis. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of marginal tumor resection in combination with intraoperative acridine orange (AO) photodynamic therapy (PDT) and 1 fraction of 5 Gy megavoltage irradiation for canine intranasal malignant tumors. When cribriform plate invasion or turbinate destruction around the cribriform plate was present, an additional fraction of 20 Gy was delivered with an electron beam during surgery. The study included 6 dogs, 2 of which were classified as stage I, 1 as stage II, and 3 as stage IV. The median local disease-free survival time and overall survival after the treatment were 8.5 and 13 months, respectively. Recurrence was noted in 2 of the 6 dogs after 4 and 7 months. Adverse events were mild (subcutaneous emphysema in 1 case, and rhinitis in 3 cases). Combination AO therapy may increase the tumor control time of dogs with marginally resectable intranasal malignant tumors. PMID:26663917

  4. Sensitive and selective turn-on fluorescence method for cetyltrimethylammonium bromide determination based on acridine orange-polystyrene sulfonate complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Hao, Xia; Kang, Bei Hua; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2016-06-01

    This work proposed a rapid and novel fluorescence-sensing system using a complex of acridine orange (AO) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) to sensitively recognize and monitor cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in an aqueous medium. AO can interact with PSS and a complex is formed via electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic interaction. The fluorescence of AO is greatly quenched after the introduction of PSS. Upon its subsequent addition, CTAB can interact and form a complex with PSS because the electrostatic attraction between CTAB and PSS is much stronger than that between AO and PSS, which results in significant fluorescence recovery. Interestingly, the proposed method can be applied for the discrimination and detection of surfactants with different hydrocarbon chain lengths due to their different binding affinity toward PSS. The detection limit for CTAB is as low as 0.2 µg/mL and the linear range is from 0.5 to 3.5 µg/mL. Moreover, we applied the sensor to the successful detection of CTAB in water samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26646302

  5. [Determination of vitamin B12 concentration by fluorescence quenching with acridine orange-rhodamine 6G energy transfer system].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bao-sheng; Gao, Jing; Yang, Geng-liang

    2005-07-01

    An energy transfer technique between acridine orange (AO) and rhodamine 6G (R6G) was studied, and the optimum experimental conditions of energy transfer were defined. It was found that the effective energy transfer could occur between AO and R6G in the dodecylbenzene sodium sulfonate solution with Na2 HPO4-citric acid buffer solution at pH 5.0. The fluorescence intensity of AO-R6G system was diminished by vitamin B12 in an alkalescence medium. Based on the AO-R6G energy transfer system anovel fluorescence quenching method for the determination of vitamin B12 has been developed. Under optimal conditious, the linear range of calibration curves for the determination of vitamin B12 was 0-3.0 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1). The detection limits were 4.8 x 10(-7) mol x L(-1) for Vitamin B12. Among six times of determination, the relative standard deviation was 0.51%-0.64%, and the recovery was 98.40% -103.62%. The method features good recurrence, rapidity of reaction, good stability, and few interfering substances. It can be satisfactorily used in the determination of the injection content of vitamin B12. PMID:16241060

  6. Spermatozoa bound to solid state hyaluronic acid show chromatin structure with high DNA chain integrity: an acridine orange fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Yagci, Artay; Murk, William; Stronk, Jill; Huszar, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    During human spermiogenesis, the elongated spermatids undergo a plasma membrane remodeling step that facilitates formation of the zona pellucida and hyaluronic acid (HA) binding sites. Various biochemical sperm markers indicated that human sperm bound to HA exhibit attributes similar to that of zona pellucida-bound sperm, including minimal DNA fragmentation, normal shape, and low frequency of chromosomal aneuploidies. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that HA-bound sperm would be enhanced in sperm of high DNA chain integrity and green acridine orange fluorescence (AOF) compared with the original sperm in semen. Sperm DNA integrity in semen and in their respective HA-bound sperm fractions was studied in 50 men tested for fertility. In the semen samples, the proportions of sperm with green AOF (high DNA integrity) and red AOF (DNA breaks) were 54.9% ± 2.0% and 45.0% ± 1.9%, whereas in the HA-bound sperm fraction, the respective proportions were 99% and 1.0%, respectively. The data indeed demonstrated that HA shows a high degree of selectivity for sperm with high DNA integrity. These findings are important from the points of view of human sperm DNA integrity, sperm function, and the potential efficacy of HA-mediated sperm selection for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:20133967

  7. "Turn off-on" phosphorescent biosensors for detection of DNA based on quantum dots/acridine orange.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yanming; Li, Yuting; Zhang, Zhifeng; Yan, Guiqin; Bi, Yi

    2015-04-15

    A "turn off-on" switch mode was established by using the interaction between acridine orange (AO) and DNA as an input signal and using the room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) reversible change of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as an output signal in biological fluids. AO was absorbed into the surface of Mn-doped ZnS QDs via electrostatic attraction and, thus, formed a ground-state complex through photoinduced electron transfer (PIET). This complex quenched the phosphorescence of Mn-doped ZnS QDs and then rendered the system into the "turn-off" mode. Along with the addition of DNA and embedded binding with DNA, AO was competitively induced to fall off from the surface of Mn-doped ZnS QDs and embed into the double helix structure of DNA. As a result, the RTP of Mn-doped ZnS QDs was recovered and the system consequently was rendered into "turn-on" mode. In this case, a new biosensor for DNA detection was built and has a detection limit of 0.033mgL(-1) and a detection range from 0.033 to 20mgL(-1). What is more, this kind of biosensor does not require complex pretreatments and is free from the interference from autofluorescence and scattering light. Thus, this biosensor can be used to detect DNA in biological fluids. PMID:25637306

  8. Photo-induced biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Erigeron bonariensis and its catalytic activity against Acridine Orange.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Devendra K; Mohan, Sweta; Hasan, Syed Hadi

    2016-02-01

    The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has reduced the pollution load in the environment to a greater extent by avoiding the use of hazardous chemicals. In the present work we have developed an ecofriendly and zero cost approach for the green synthesis of more stable and spherical AgNPs using aqueous extract of Erigeron bonariensis (AEE) which act as both reducing and stabilizing agent. The reaction of AEE and AgNO3 was carried out in direct sunlight for the instant biosynthesis of AgNPs within minutes. The biosynthesis was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy which exhibited a sharp SPR band at 442 nm and 435 nm after 5 and 35 min of sunlight exposure. The optimum conditions for biosynthesis of AgNPs were found to be 2.5mM AgNO3 concentration, 1.5% (v/v) of AEE inoculum dose and 35 min of sunlight exposure. Presence of spherical AgNPs with average size 13 nm was confirmed by SEM and TEM analysis. The XRD and SAED analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of the AgNPs where the Bragg's diffraction pattern at (111), (200), (220) and (311) corresponded to face centered cubic crystal lattice of metallic silver. The average roughness of the synthesized AgNPs was 3.21 nm which was confirmed by AFM analysis. FTIR analysis was recorded between 4000 and 400 cm(-1) which confirmed the involvement of various functional groups in the synthesis of AgNPs. The AgNPs thus obtained showed catalytic activity towards degradation of Acridine Orange (AO) without involvement of any hazardous reducing agent. The concentration dependent catalytic activity of the synthesized AgNPs was also monitored using 1, 2 and 3 mL of silver colloids and was found that the degradation of AO followed pseudo first-order kinetics. PMID:26734999

  9. Real-time imaging of exocytotic mucin release and swelling in Calu-3 cells using acridine orange.

    PubMed

    Shumilov, Dmytro; Popov, Alexander; Fudala, Rafal; Akopova, Irina; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Borejdo, Julian; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Grygorczyk, Ryszard

    2014-03-15

    Mucus secretion is the first-line of defence against the barrage of irritants inhaled into human lungs, but abnormally thick and viscous mucus results in many respiratory diseases. Understanding the processes underlying mucus pathology is hampered, in part, by lack of appropriate experimental tools for labeling and studying mucin granule secretion from live cells with high sensitivity and temporal resolution. In this report we present original spectroscopic properties of acridine orange (AO) which could be utilized to study granule release and mucin swelling with various advanced fluorescence imaging approaches. Low concentration (<200 μM) AO solutions presented absorption maximum at 494 nm, emission maximum at 525 nm and only ∼1.76 ns fluorescence lifetime. By contrast at high concentrations (4-30 mM) favoring formation of AO aggregates, a very different absorption with maximum at ∼440 nm, dramatically red-shifted emission with maximum at 630 nm, and over 10-fold increased fluorescence lifetime (∼20 ns) was observed. To verify potential utility of AO for real-time imaging we have performed confocal, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of AO-stained Calu-3 cells. We found similar red-shifted fluorescence spectra and long fluorescence lifetime in intracellular granules as compared to that in the cytoplasm consistent with granular AO accumulation. Mechanical stimulation of Calu-3 cells resulted in multiple exocytotic secretory events of AO-stained granules followed by post-exocytotic swelling of their fluorescently-labeled content that was seen in single-line TIRF images as rapidly-expanding bright-fluorescence patches. The rate of their size expansion followed first-order kinetics with diffusivity of 3.98±0.07×10(-7)c m(2)/s, as expected for mucus gel swelling. This was followed by fluorescence decrease due to diffusional loss of AO that was ∼10-fold slower in the secreted mucus compared to bulk aqueous

  10. Real-time imaging of exocytotic mucin release and swelling in Calu-3 cells using acridine orange

    PubMed Central

    Shumilov, Dmytro; Popov, Alexander; Fudala, Rafal; Akopova, Irina; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Borejdo, Julian; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Grygorczyk, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    Mucus secretion is the first-line of defence against the barrage of irritants inhaled into human lungs, but abnormally thick and viscous mucus results in many respiratory diseases. Understanding the processes underlying mucus pathology is hampered, in part, by lack of appropriate experimental tools for labeling and studying mucin granule secretion from live cells with high sensitivity and temporal resolution. In this report we present original spectroscopic properties of acridine orange (AO) which could be utilized to study granule release and mucin swelling with various advanced fluorescence imaging approaches. Low concentration (<200 μM) AO solutions presented absorption maximum at 494 nm, emission maximum at 525 nm and only ~1.76 ns fluorescence lifetime. By contrast at high concentrations (4–30 mM) favoring formation of AO aggregates, a very different absorption with maximum at ~440 nm, dramatically red-shifted emission with maximum at 630 nm, and over 10-fold increased fluorescence lifetime (~20 ns) was observed. To verify potential utility of AO for real-time imaging we have performed confocal, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of AO-stained Calu-3 cells. We found similar red-shifted fluorescence spectra and long fluorescence lifetime in intracellular granules as compared to that in the cytoplasm consistent with granular AO accumulation. Mechanical stimulation of Calu-3 cells resulted in multiple exocytotic secretory events of AO-stained granules followed by post-exocytotic swelling of their fluorescently-labeled content that was seen in single-line TIRF images as rapidly-expanding bright-fluorescence patches. The rate of their size expansion followed first-order kinetics with diffusivity of 3.98 ± 0.07 × 10−7 cm2/s, as expected for mucus gel swelling. This was followed by fluorescence decrease due to diffusional loss of AO that was ~10-fold slower in the secreted mucus compared to bulk aqueous

  11. Synthesis of modified maghemite nanoparticles and its application for removal of Acridine Orange from aqueous solutions by using Box-Behnken design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheban Shahri, Fatemeh; Niazi, Ali

    2015-12-01

    In this study, sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated maghemite nanoparticles (SDS-coated γ-Fe2O3 NPs), was used for removal of cationic dye Acridine Orange from water samples. The γ-Fe2O3 NPs were synthesized by co-precipitation method and were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to examine their size and magnetic moment. The adsorption experiments were performed using the batch system. The prepared magnetic adsorbent was well dispersed in water and easily separated magnetically from the medium after loaded with adsorbate. Four most important operating variables including initial pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbent, concentration of dye and contact time was studied and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), involving Box-Behnken design matrix. Twenty-seven experiments were performed to investigate the effect of these parameters on removal of the dye. The results showed that initial pH of the solution was the most effective parameter in comparison with others. Also, experimental parameters were optimized and chose the best conditions by determination of effective factors. The optimized conditions for dye removal were at initial pH 5.1 0.8 g L-1 of adsorbent, 30.0 mg L-1 dye and 43 min adsorption time. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum predicted adsorption capacities for Acridine Orange was 285.82 mg g-1.

  12. Profile of Kidney Histopathology in Cases of Burns - Particular Emphasis on Acridine Orange Fluorescence Study and to Explore its Forensic Utility

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Nandini J.; Gupta, B.D.; Patel, Pratik N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The major cause of death in the burn patients includes multiple organ failure and infection but, sometimes the exact cause of death in many fatally burned patients is difficult to detect. Many times in medico-legal post-mortem examinations in cases of burns, histopathological examination of organs is requested. Aim The aim was to study various histopathological changes in kidneys in the post-mortem cases of burns, by using routine Haematoxylin and Eosin stain (H&E stain), special Periodic and Schiff’s Stain (PAS) stain, to study the role of acridine orange fluorescence study, to explore the forensic utility of this microscopic study and to find out the relationship between duration of survival and histopathological changes observed. Materials and Methods An experimental longitudinal prospective study from October 2010 to September 2012. Total 32 cases of death due to burns were autopsied at mortuary, the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology in our hospital. Bilateral kidneys were removed and preserved in 10% formalin solution. These were forwarded to Department of Pathology for histopathological examination. Routine microscopic examination by H&E stain as well as PAS stain and fluorescence study by acridine orange stain were done in all cases. Results It was observed that in 21 (65.63%) cases gross findings in kidneys were normal, in 06 (18.75%) were grossly pale and in 05 (15.62%) heavy & congested. Sections taken from kidneys and studied by H&E stain showed overlapping histopathological changes in all cases. In 26 (81.25%) cases, changes of Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN) while in remaining 06 (18.75%), changes of cloudy swelling were observed. The sections stained by acridine orange and observed under fluorescent microscope were lightly positive in 15 (46.88%), brightly positive in 08 (25.00%) whereas, negative in 09 (28.12%). Conclusion Microscopy by various methods helps in getting specific lesions in kidney due to burns. However, it does

  13. Effects of alkyl chain length on the adsorption of an N-alkylated acridine orange cation by colloidally dispersed zirconium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Masahiro; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Iwamoto, Toschitake )

    1990-03-22

    The adsorption of N-alkylated acridine orange derivatives (AO-C{sub n}; n = the number of carbon atoms in an alkyl group) by colloidally dispersed zirconium phosphate (ZrP) was studied by spectrophotometry and electric dichroism. An AO-C{sub n} cation was bound to ZrP by releasing a proton in the phosphate group of ZrP. The electronic spectrum of bound AO-C{sub n} showed that the dye cations formed an aggregate on the polymer. The reduced linear dichroism of a bound dye molecule, {rho}, was determined as a function of n: {rho} = 1.3-1.0 for n = 0-2, while {rho} = {minus}0.3 to {minus}0.4 for n = 3-9.

  14. Determination of ACC-induced cell-programmed death in roots of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining.

    PubMed

    Byczkowska, Anna; Kunikowska, Anita; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    Fluorescence staining with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) showed that nuclei of cortex root cells of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-treated Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings differed in color. Measurement of resultant fluorescence intensity (RFI) showed that it increased when the color of nuclear chromatin was changed from green to red, indicating that EB moved to the nuclei via the cell membrane which lost its integrity and stained nuclei red. AO/EB staining showed that changes in color of the nuclear chromatin were accompanied by DNA condensation, nuclei fragmentation, and chromatin degradation which were also shown after 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining. These results indicate that ACC induced programmed cell death. The increasing values of RFI together with the corresponding morphological changes of nuclear chromatin were the basis to prepare the standard curve; cells with green unchanged nuclear chromatin were alive while those with dark orange and bright red nuclei were dead. The cells with nuclei with green-yellow, yellow-orange, and bright orange chromatin with or without their condensation and fragmentation chromatin were dying. The prepared curve has became the basis to draw up the digital method for detection and determination of the number of living, dying, and dead cells in an in planta system and revealed that ACC induced death in about 20% of root cortex cells. This process was accompanied by increase in ion leakage, shortening of cells and whole roots, as well as by increase in weight and width of the apical part of roots and appearance of few aerenchymatic spaces while not by internucleosomal DNA degradation. PMID:22350735

  15. Microfluorometric comparisons of heat-induced nuclear acridine orange metachromasia between normal cells and neoplastic cells from primary tumors of diverse origin.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M R

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear fluorescence metachromasia of heated fixed cells subsequently stained with acridine orange was compared in smears and isolated nuclei of various types of primary tumors and normal cells from the tissues that gave rise to the tumors. The ratios of fluorescence emission at 590 and 530 nm reflect the thermal stability of chromatin in situ. The results show that the mean thermal stability of the chromatin in neoplastic cells was lower than the stability of their normal counterparts in all cases. This was found in both spontaneous and chemically induced tumors as divergent in type as a dog vaginal tumor and murine lymphocytic leukemia. These data, together with our previous observations in other neoplastic systems, indicate that reduced chromatin thermal stability may be a general characteristic of cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation and is not confined to rapidly growing tumors. The present investigation identifies the sources of variability encountered in measuring fluorescence metachromasia in slide preparations, and methods of minimizing this variability for potential cytodiagnostic application are discussed. PMID:45893

  16. Detection of catheter-related bloodstream infections by the Gram stain-acridine orange leukocyte cytospin test in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Abdelkefi, A; Achour, W; Torjman, L; Ben Othman, T; Ladeb, S; Lakhal, A; Allouche, H; Ben Hassen, A; Ben Abdeladhim, A

    2006-03-01

    In patients with central venous catheters (CVCs), catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBI) are a prominent cause of morbidity, excess hospital costs, and in some cases mortality. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the validity of the Gram stain-acridine orange leukocyte cytospin (AOLC) test for the diagnosis of CRBI in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients with nontunnelled CVCs, using the differential-time-to-positivity (DTP)/clinical criteria as the criterion standard to define CRBIs. CVCs were externalized, nontunnelled, polyurethane double lumen catheters (Arrows, Readings, USA). All CVCs were placed in the subclavian vein by the infraclavicular approach, in the operating room. Catheters were inserted percutaneously, using the Seldinger technique. Study catheters were not exchanged over guidewires. Between May 2002 and December 2004, a total of 245 consecutive patients were included. Twenty-six of the 245 patients (10.6%) had CRBI as determined by the DTP method. The Gram stain-AOLC was positive in only two patients (7.6%) with a CRBI. Our results suggest that the Gram stain-AOLC test is not useful for the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection in HSCT recipients.2006. PMID:16462754

  17. Layer-by-layer films and colloidal dispersions of graphene oxide nanosheets for efficient control of the fluorescence and aggregation properties of the cationic dye acridine orange.

    PubMed

    Hansda, Chaitali; Chakraborty, Utsav; Hussain, Syed Arshad; Bhattacharjee, Debajyoti; Paul, Pabitra Kumar

    2016-03-15

    Chemically derived graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have received great deal of interest for technological application such as optoelectronic and biosensors. Aqueous dispersions of GO become an efficient template to induce the association of cationic dye namely Acridine Orange (AO). Interactions of AO with colloidal GO was governed by both electrostatic and π-π stacking cooperative interactions. The type of dye aggregations was found to depend on the concentration of GO in the mixed ensemble. Spectroscopic calculations revealed the formation of both H and J-type dimers, but H-type aggregations were predominant. Preparation of layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic self-assembled films of AO and GO onto poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) coated quartz substrate is also reported in this article. UV-Vis absorption, steady state and time resolve fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic techniques have been employed to explore the detail photophysical properties of pure AO, AO/GO mixed solution and AO/GO LbL films. Scanning electron microscopy was also used for visual evidence of the synthesized nanodimensional GO sheets. The fluorescence quenching of AO in the presence of GO in aqueous solution was due to the interfacial photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from photoexcited AO to GO i.e. GO acts as an efficient quenching agent for the fluorescence emission of AO. The quenching is found to be static in nature. Raman spectroscopic results also confirmed the interaction of AO with GO and the electron transfer. The formation of AO/GO complex via very fast excited state electron transfer mechanism may be proposed as to prepare GO-based fluorescence sensor for biomolecular detection without direct labeling the biomolecules by fluorescent probe. PMID:26722674

  18. Layer-by-layer films and colloidal dispersions of graphene oxide nanosheets for efficient control of the fluorescence and aggregation properties of the cationic dye acridine orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansda, Chaitali; Chakraborty, Utsav; Hussain, Syed Arshad; Bhattacharjee, Debajyoti; Paul, Pabitra Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Chemically derived graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have received great deal of interest for technological application such as optoelectronic and biosensors. Aqueous dispersions of GO become an efficient template to induce the association of cationic dye namely Acridine Orange (AO). Interactions of AO with colloidal GO was governed by both electrostatic and π-π stacking cooperative interactions. The type of dye aggregations was found to depend on the concentration of GO in the mixed ensemble. Spectroscopic calculations revealed the formation of both H and J-type dimers, but H-type aggregations were predominant. Preparation of layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic self-assembled films of AO and GO onto poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) coated quartz substrate is also reported in this article. UV-Vis absorption, steady state and time resolve fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic techniques have been employed to explore the detail photophysical properties of pure AO, AO/GO mixed solution and AO/GO LbL films. Scanning electron microscopy was also used for visual evidence of the synthesized nanodimensional GO sheets. The fluorescence quenching of AO in the presence of GO in aqueous solution was due to the interfacial photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from photoexcited AO to GO i.e. GO acts as an efficient quenching agent for the fluorescence emission of AO. The quenching is found to be static in nature. Raman spectroscopic results also confirmed the interaction of AO with GO and the electron transfer. The formation of AO/GO complex via very fast excited state electron transfer mechanism may be proposed as to prepare GO-based fluorescence sensor for biomolecular detection without direct labeling the biomolecules by fluorescent probe.

  19. Acridine: a versatile heterocyclic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Kaur, Mandeep; Kumari, Meena

    2012-01-01

    Acridine is a heterocyclic nucleus. It plays an important role in various medicines. A number of therapeutic agents are based on acridine nucleus such as quinacrine (antimalarial), acriflavine and proflavine (antiseptics), ethacridine (abortifacient), amsacrine and nitracine (anticancer), and tacrine. Acridine is obtained from high boiling fraction of coal tar. It is also obtained in nature from plant and marine sources. Acridine undergoes a number of reactions such as nucleophilic addition, electrophilic substitution, oxidation, reduction, reductive alkylation and photoalkylation. The present review article summarizes the synthesis, reaction, literature review and pharmaceutical importance of acridine. PMID:22574501

  20. Antibacterial efficacy of acridine derivatives conjugated with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Piyali; Chakraborty, Prabal Kumar; Saha, Partha; Ray, Pulak; Basu, Samita

    2014-10-01

    Adsorption of acridine derivatives viz. 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride hydrate (9AA-HCl), acridine yellow (AY), acridine orange (AO), and proflavine (Pro) on citrate stabilized gold nanoparticle surface were studied using different analytical techniques like UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The amine moiety of acridine derivative binds strongly to the gold nanoparticles as confirmed by spectroscopic studies. The plasmon band observed for the wine red colloidal gold at 525 nm in the UV-vis spectrum is characteristic of gold nanoparticles. However, with the addition of acridine derivatives the intensity of the absorption band at 525 nm decreases and a new peak emerges at red-end region - a signature of formation of gold-drug complex. The TEM images show the average size of citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles as 15-20 nm, which becomes larger in the presence of various drugs due to aggregation. From the thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) we have measured the number of drug molecules attached per gold nanoparticle (AuNP). These gold nanoparticles are very important as drug delivery vehicles and for clinical applications it is necessary to understand their activity in vivo. The antibacterial efficacy of drugs coated gold nanoparticles were studied against various strains of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Among the four drugs, 9AA-HCl and AO showed antibacterial activity and for both of them the AuNP conjugated drug showed better antibacterial efficacy than the bare drug. Because of the high penetrating power and large surface area of Au(0), a single gold nanoparticle can adsorb multiple drug molecules, hence this total entity acts as a single group against the bacteria. PMID:25087507

  1. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during the Vietnam War. ...

  2. Photocatalytic water splitting with acridine dyes: Guidelines from computational chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Karsili, Tolga N. V.; Sobolewski, Andrzej L.; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The photocatalytic splitting of water into Hrad and OHrad radicals in hydrogen-bonded chromophore-water complexes has been explored with computational methods for the chromophores acridine orange (AO) and benzacridine (BA). These dyes are strong absorbers within the range of the solar spectrum. It is shown that low-lying charge-transfer excited states exist in the hydrogen-bonded AOsbnd H2O and BAsbnd H2O complexes which drive the transfer of a proton from water to the chromophore, which results in AOHradsbnd OHrad or BAHradsbnd OHrad biradicals. The AOHrad and BAHrad radicals possess bright ππ∗ excited states with vertical excitation energies near 3.0 eV which are predissociated by a low-lying repulsive πσ∗ state. The conical intersections of the πσ∗ state with the ππ∗ excited states and the ground state provide a mechanism for the photodetachment of the H-atom by a second photon. Our results indicate that AO and BA are promising chromophores for water splitting with visible light.

  3. Bitter Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... 10):1359–1361. Bitter orange. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on May 5, 2009. Bitter orange ( Citrus aurantium ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on May ...

  4. Differential life-stage susceptibility of Acheta domesticus to acridine

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, B.T.

    1980-02-01

    The toxicity of acridine to Acheta domesticus (L.) was determined to evaluate the potential for this pollutant from synthetic fuels production to affect insect populations. Acridine was highly toxic to cricket eggs but not toxic to nymphs or adults. An LD/sub 50/ for eggs = 7.4 ..mu..g/g was calculated from the LC/sub 50/ = 15.1 +- 0.61 ppM. The 24-h LD/sub 10/ of acridine to nymphal crickets was >332 ..mu..g/g. Male and female crickets consumed up to 1.0% of their weight in acridine over an 18-day period with no significant effect on mortality, weight gain, digestibility of food, or fecundity. Percent hatch of eggs from treated crickets (81.0 +- 6.7) was not significantly different from controls (77.2 +- 5.1).

  5. Differential life-stage susceptibility of Acheta domesticus to acridine

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, B.T.

    1980-02-01

    The toxicity of acridine to Acheta domesticus (L.) was determined to evaluate the potential for this pollutant from synthetic fuels production to affect insect populations. Acridine was highly toxic to cricket eggs but not toxic to nymphs or adults. An LD/sub 50/ for eggs = 7.4 ..mu..g/g was calculated from the LC/sub 50/ = 15.1 +- 0.61 ppM. The 24-h LD/sub 10/ of acridine to nymphal crickets was > 332 ..mu..g/g. Male and female crickets consumed up to 1.0% of their weight in acridine over an 18-day period with no significant effect on mortality, weight gain, digestibility of food, or fecundity. Percent hatch of eggs from treated crickets (81.0 +- 6.7) was not significantly different from controls (77.2 +- 5.1).

  6. Herringbone structures of 2,7-dihalogenated acridine tailored by halogen-halogen interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Masaki; Ikuma, Seira; Nabeshima, Tatsuya

    2015-08-01

    The crystal structures of the 2,7-dibromo- and 2,7-diiodoacridines (2 and 3) were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Molecules of the brominated 2 were assembled through different types of halogen-halogen interactions (Type-I and Type-II). Conversely, molecules of the iodinated 3 were assembled only through Type-II interactions. Although both compounds were packed in a herringbone way, the intermolecular π-π stacking was observed only in the brominated 2. In the solution and solid-state absorption spectra, a bathochromic shift in the absorption was observed, as the mass of the halogen atoms increased. Theoretical calculation indicated a substituent effect of the halogen on the π-orbital of the acridine moiety. In the solid state, the iodinated 3 exhibited a significant absorption in the orange-to-red wavelength region.

  7. Anionic Lipids Enriched at the ExPortal of Streptococcus pyogenes▿

    PubMed Central

    Rosch, Jason W.; Hsu, Fong Fu; Caparon, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    The ExPortal of Streptococcus pyogenes is a membrane microdomain dedicated to the secretion and folding of proteins. We investigated the lipid composition of the ExPortal by examining the distribution of anionic membrane phospholipids. Staining with 10-N-nonyl-acridine orange revealed a single microdomain enriched with an anionic phospholipid whose staining characteristics and behavior in a cardiolipin-deficient mutant were characteristic of phosphatidylglycerol. Furthermore, the location of the microdomain corresponded to the site of active protein secretion at the ExPortal. These results indicate that the ExPortal is an asymmetric lipid microdomain, whose enriched content of anionic phospholipids may play an important role in ExPortal organization and protein trafficking. PMID:17142392

  8. Specter orange.

    PubMed

    Scott-Clark, Cathy; Levy, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    Nearly 30 years after the Vietnam War, a chemical weapon used by U.S. troops is still exacting a hideous toll on each new generation in Vietnam. The dioxin (TCCD) that contaminated the herbicide Agent Orange is one of the most toxic molecules known to science. The contaminant persists in the soil. The United States has done nothing to combat the medical and environmental catastrophe that is overwhelming the country. PMID:15346687

  9. Photocatalytic Water Splitting with the Acridine Chromophore: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Karsili, Tolga N V; Sobolewski, Andrzej L; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2015-08-20

    The hydrogen-bonded acridine-water complex is considered as a model system for the exploration of photochemical reactions which can lead to the splitting of water into H(•) and OH(•) radicals. The vertical excitation energies of the lowest singlet and triplet excited states of the complex were calculated with the CASSCF/CASPT2 and ADC(2) ab initio electronic-structure methods. In addition to the well-known excited states of the acridine chromophore, excited states of charge-transfer character were identified, in which an electron is transferred from the p orbital of the H2O molecule to the π* orbital of acridine. The low-energy barriers which separate these reactive charge-transfer states from the spectroscopic states of the acridine-water complex have been characterized by the calculation of two-dimensional relaxed potential-energy surfaces as functions of the H atom-transfer coordinate and the donor (O)-acceptor (N) distance. When populated, these charge-transfer states drive the transfer of a proton from the water molecule to acridine, which results in the acridinyl-hydroxyl biradical. The same computational methods were employed to explore the photochemistry of the (N-hydrogenated) acridinyl radical. The latter possesses low-lying (about 3.0 eV) ππ* excited states with appreciable oscillator strengths in addition to a low-lying dark ππ* excited state. The bound potential-energy functions of the ππ* excited states are predissociated by the potential-energy function of an excited state of πσ* character which is repulsive with respect to the NH stretching coordinate. The dissociation threshold of the πσ* state is about 2.7 eV and thus below the excitation energies of the bright ππ* states. The conical intersections of the πσ* state with the ππ* excited states and with the electronic ground state provide a mechanism for the direct and fast photodetachment of the H atom from the acridinyl radical. These computational results indicate that the H2

  10. Pharmacodynamic behavior of (/sup 14/C)acridine in the cricket Acheta domesticus (L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, B.T.; Maggart, E.F. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    Cuticular and gastrointestinal penetration, in vivo metabolism, and excretion of (/sup 14/C)acridine were investigated in the nymphal cricket Acheta domesticus (L.) to find a pharmacodynamic basis for this insect's differential susceptibility to acridine at different life stages. Topically applied (/sup 14/C)acridine readily penetrated the cuticular exoskeleton of nymphs (half-time of penetration, 48 min). Radiolabeled compounds appeared in the hemolymph within 0.5 h after ingestion of (/sup 14/C)acridine and continued to move across the gut wall for 7.5 h. The biological half-time was 18 h and the rate constant for elimination was 0.039 h/sup -1/ after ingestion. Within 5 d after dosing, 97% of the dose was excreted. Several metabolites were present in the feces of nymphs fed (/sup 14/C)acridine, and less than 13% of the extractable radioactivity was parent compound. The cuticule and the gastrointestinal tract proved to be ineffective barriers to acridine entry in A. domesticus. However, the ability to readily metabolize and excrete acridine probably contributes to the higher acridine tolerance observed in the nymphs and adults than in the eggs, which are susceptible to toxic effects. Acridine is found in many coal and synthetic fuel by-products.

  11. Optically enhanced nuclear cross polarization in acridine-doped fluorene

    SciTech Connect

    Oshiro, C.M.

    1982-06-01

    The objective of this work has been to create large polarizations of the dilute /sup 13/C nuclei in the solid state. The idea was to create /sup 1/H polarizations larger than Boltzmann and to use the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy cross polarization technique to then transfer this large polarization to the /sup 13/C spin system. Optical Nuclear Polarization (ONP) of acridine-doped fluorene single crystals was studied. In addition, ONP of powdered samples of the acridine-doped fluorene was studied. In general, many compounds do not crystallize easily or do not form large crystals suitable for NMR experiments. Powdered, amorphous and randomly dispersed samples are generally far more readily available than single crystals. One objective of this work has been to (first) create large /sup 1/H polarizations. Although large optical proton polarizations in single crystals have been reported previously, optically generated polarizations in powdered samples have not been reported. For these reasons, ONP studies of powdered samples of the acridine-doped fluorene were also undertaken. Using ONP in combination with the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy experiment, large /sup 13/C polarizations have been created in fluorene single crystals. These large /sup 13/C polarizations have permitted the determination of the seven incongruent chemical shielding tensors of the fluorene molecule. Part 2 of this thesis describes the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy experiment. Part 3 describes the ONP experiment. Part 4 is a description of the experimental set-up. Part 5 describes the data analysis for the determination of the chemical shielding tensors. Part 6 presents the results of the ONP experiments performed in this work and the chemical shielding tensors determined.

  12. Interactions of Sulfur-Containing Acridine Ligands with DNA by ESI-MS

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Suncerae; Guziec, Frank S.; Guziec, Lynn; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The alkylating proficiency of sulfur-containing mustards may be increased by using an acridine moiety to guide the sulfur mustard to its cellular target. In this study, the interactions of a new series of sulfur-containing acridine ligands, some that also function as alklyating mustards, with DNA were evaluated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Relative binding affinities were estimated from the ESI-MS data based on the fraction of bound DNA for DNA/acridine mixtures. The extent of binding observed for the series of sulfur-containing acridines was similar, presumably because the intercalating acridine moiety was identical. Upon infrared multiphoton dissociation of the resulting oligonucleotide/sulfur-containing acridine complexes, ejection of the ligand was the dominant pathway for most of the complexes. However, for AS4, an acridine sulfide mustard, and AN1, an acridine nitrogen mustard, strand separation with the ligand remaining on one of the single strands was observed. At higher irradiation times, a variety of sequence ions were observed, some retaining the AS4/AN1 ligand, which was indicative of covalent binding. PMID:19768213

  13. Imidazolium tagged acridines: Synthesis, characterization and applications in DNA binding and anti-microbial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Gembali; Vishwanath, S.; Prasad, Archana; Patel, Basant K.; Prabusankar, Ganesan

    2016-03-01

    New water soluble 4,5-bis imidazolium tagged acridines have been synthesized and structurally characterized by multinuclear NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The DNA binding and anti-microbial activities of these acridine derivatives were investigated by fluorescence and far-UV circular dichroism studies.

  14. Effect of structure on antibiotic action of new 9-(ethylthio)acridines.

    PubMed

    Nesmĕrák, K; Pospisek, M; Zikánová, B; Nĕmec, I; Barbe, J; Gabriel, J

    2002-01-01

    Six new 9-(ethylthio)acridine derivatives were examined for antibacterial and antifungal activities with 10 bacterial and 8 yeast strains. The only active compounds were 2- and 3-amino derivatives. The observed MICs (mg/L) for 2-amino-9-(ethylthio)acridine (possessing the highest biological activity) were 12 (P. mirabilis), 30 (B. subtillis), 60 (C. freundii), 90 (E. coli), 128 (E. vulneris) and 500 (S. marcescens and S. aureus). Both amino derivatives have also lowest half-wave potential (E1/2) and field Swain-Lupton constants (describing oxidoreduction behavior) what supports the importance of acridine ion formation in the mechanism of antimicrobial action. PMID:12058388

  15. Synthesis of Acridines by the [4 + 2] Annulation of Arynes and 2-Aminoaryl Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Rogness, Donald C.; Larock, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    The reaction of 2-aminoaryl ketones and arynes generated by the treatment of various o-(trimethylsilyl)aryl triflates with CsF results in [4 + 2] annulation to afford substituted acridines in good yields. PMID:20222700

  16. Nonlinear optical effects on the surface of acridine yellow-doped lead-tin fluorophosphate glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, K. X.; Bryant, William; Venkateswarlu, Putcha

    1991-01-01

    The second- and third-order nonlinear optical properties of acridine yellow-doped lead-tin fluorophosphate (LTF) glass have been directly studied by measurement of surface enhanced second harmonic generation and third harmonic generation. The three photon excitation fluorescence is also observed. Based on these results, the large nonlinearities of the acridine LTF system which is a new nonlinear optical material are experimentally demonstrated.

  17. A bacterial mutagenicity study of rivanol, an acridine derivative used as an abortifacient.

    PubMed Central

    Wugmeister, M.; Summers, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    We have used the forward mutation to resistance to 6 azauracil to test the mutagenicity of rivanol (6,9 diamino 2-ethoxy acridine) on Escherichia coli. Rivanol has been used to induce therapeutic abortions in midpregnancy and is considered safe and effective for this purpose. The findings reported here that rivanol, like other acridines, is a mutagen, at least in procaryotes, suggests that such use of rivanol be reconsidered in light of its possible genetic toxicity. PMID:6410594

  18. Study of the Adsorption of Acridine and Phenazine on Aluminum Oxide Using Tunneling Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompson, Rosalie J. Graves

    The tunneling spectra of acridine, acridine-d(,9) and phenazine have been investigated in this study. Detailed analyses of the spectra using infrared and Raman results for acridine, phenazine, phenazine-d(,8), anthracene, anthracene -d(,10) and tunneling data for anthracene are presented. The spectra indicate that these molecules do not break up on the oxide surfaces of the tunnel junctions. The spectra of phenazine indicate that phenazine orients with the plane of the molecule parallel to the oxide surface and that an Al-N bond forms between one (or both) of phenazine's nitrogen atoms and an aluminum atom (or atoms) on the surface. In the phenazine study, for the first time, vibrational modes which are inactive in the Raman and infrared but possibly active in a tunneling spectrum (as theoretically predicted, but not found previously in a tunneling spectrum) have been seen. Acridine is probably oriented almost parallel to the oxide surface; however, some degree of "tilt" away from parallel may be indicated by the spectra. This possibility is considered in relation to acridine's corrosion inhibiting properties. Molecules for future work are considered including: 2-, 3- and 4-amino-pyridine; pyridine; aniline; piperidine; ethylene.

  19. Allergenicity of orange juice and orange seeds: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S L; Ye, S T; Yu, Y

    1989-06-01

    Oranges are considered to be common allergenic fruits in China. They may induce severe food allergy in sensitive individuals. Allergic histories were analyzed in 26 orange-sensitive patients. Intradermal tests with extracts of orange juice and seeds were performed in 16 out of the 26 patients. P-K test was performed in one patient. The allergic history analysis suggested that clinical symptoms of some orange-allergic subjects were different from other fruit allergies but similar to nut and other oil plant seed allergies. The skin test and P-K test showed that the major allergenic components of orange reside in orange seeds instead of orange juice. Systemic reactions developed in 5 patients after intradermal tests with 1:20-200 (w/v) orange seed extracts. We considered that orange seed contains high potent allergens which may induce orange sensitivity due to careless chewing of orange seeds. PMID:2751771

  20. Modification of surface properties of electrospun polyamide nanofibers by means of a perfluorinated acridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Andrea; Iardino, Giacomo; Bertarelli, Chiara; Miozzo, Luciano; Papagni, Antonio; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2007-08-01

    Polyamide 6 (PA6) nanofibers were prepared from formic acid solutions by using electrospinning technique. The fibers were smooth, defects free and with diameters smaller than 200 nm. Small amounts of a perfluorinated acridine were added as dopant to the feed solution to modify the wettability of the fibers. The effect of doping on the contact angle values is well apparent. The contact angle values go from 50° of pure PA6 to 120° when 6% of acridine is added. A comparison between fibers and films of pure and doped polyamide 6 was carried out in order to determine the effect of morphology on wettability. Thermal annealing near the Tg of the polymer promoted the segregation of the molecules to the surface, reaching contact angles of 131° with smaller amounts (4%) of acridine. The surface segregation was also promoted by time aging.

  1. Synthesis and g-quadruplex-binding properties of defined acridine oligomers.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rubén; Aviñó, Anna; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Gargallo, Raimundo; Eritja, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of oligomers containing two or three acridine units linked through 2-aminoethylglycine using solid-phase methodology is described. Subsequent studies on cell viability showed that these compounds are not cytotoxic. Binding to several DNA structures was studied by competitive dialysis, which showed a clear affinity for DNA sequences that form G-quadruplexes and parallel triplexes. The fluorescence spectra of acridine oligomers were affected strongly upon binding to DNA. These spectral changes were used to calculate the binding constants (K). Log K were found to be in the order of 4-6. PMID:20725626

  2. Facile synthesis of unsymmetrical acridines and phenazines by a Rh(III)-catalyzed amination/cyclization/aromatization cascade.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yajing; Hummel, Joshua R; Bergman, Robert G; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2013-08-28

    We report formal [3 + 3] annulations of aromatic azides with aromatic imines and azobenzenes to give acridines and phenazines, respectively. These transformations proceed through a cascade process of Rh(III)-catalyzed amination followed by intramolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution and aromatization. Acridines can be directly prepared from aromatic aldehydes by in situ imine formation using catalytic benzylamine. PMID:23957711

  3. Facile Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Acridines and Phenazines by a Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed Amination, Cyclization and Aromatization Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Yajing; Hummel, Joshua R.; Bergman, Robert G.; Ellman, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    New formal [3 + 3] annulations have been developed to obtain acridines and phenazines from aromatic azides and aromatic imines and azobenzenes, respectively. These transformations proceed through a cascade process of Rh(III)-catalyzed amination followed by intramolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution and aromatization. Acridines can be directly prepared from aromatic aldehydes by in situ imine formation using catalytic benzylamine. PMID:23957711

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 4,5-bis(dialkylaminoalkyl)-substituted acridines as potent telomeric G-quadruplex ligands.

    PubMed

    Laronze-Cochard, Marie; Kim, Young-Min; Brassart, Bertrand; Riou, Jean-François; Laronze, Jean-Yves; Sapi, Janos

    2009-10-01

    Several 4,5-bis(dialkylaminoalkyl)-substituted acridines have been prepared starting from acridine and their telomeric G-quadruplex stabilizing properties were evaluated using FRET melting and TRAP (Telomerase Repeat Amplification Protocol Assay) experiments. PMID:19467742

  5. FLOW CYTOMETRY OF ACRIDINE ORANGE STAINED SPERM IS A RAPID AND PRACTICAL METHOD FOR MONITORING OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO GENOTOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public awareness is growing concerning the reproductive consequences of the numerous environmental and occupational chemicals. Exposure of germ cells within the seminiferous tubules of the mammalian testis to chemical toxins often causes severe perturbation of cell growth, divisi...

  6. Potent antitumor 9-anilinoacridines and acridines bearing an alkylating N-mustard residue on the acridine chromophore: synthesis and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Su, Tsann-Long; Lin, Yi-Wen; Chou, Ting-Chao; Zhang, Xiuguo; Bacherikov, Valeriy A; Chen, Ching-Huang; Liu, Leroy F; Tsai, Tsong-Jen

    2006-06-15

    A series of 9-anilinoacridine and acridine derivatives bearing an alkylating N-mustard residue at C4 of the acridine chromophore were synthesized. The N-mustard pharmacophore was linked to the C4 of the acridine ring with an O-ethyl (O-C(2)), O-propyl (O-C(3)), or O-butyl (O-C(4)) spacer. It revealed that all newly synthesized compounds were very potent cytotoxic agents against human leukemia and various solid tumors in vitro. These agents did not exhibit cross-resistance against vinblastine-resistant (CCRF-CEM/VBL) or taxol-resistant (CCRF-CEM/taxol) cells. It also showed that these agents were DNA cross-linking agents rather than topoisomerase II inhibitors. Of these agents, compounds 27a and 27c were shown to have potent antitumor activity in nude mice bearing the human breast carcinoma MX-1 xenograft. The therapeutic efficacies of these two agents are comparable to that of taxol. PMID:16759114

  7. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; Lafayette, Elizabeth Almeida; da Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra Gomes; Amorim, Cézar Augusto da Cruz; de Oliveira, Tiago Bento; Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a-h) were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 10(4) to 1.0 × 10(6) M(-1) and quenching constants from -0.2 × 10(4) to 2.18 × 10(4) M(-1) indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N- (4-chlorophenyl) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f), while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a). There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties. PMID:26068233

  8. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of new acridine based fluorophore adsorbed on silver electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyeva, Elena V.; Myund, Liubov A.; Denisova, Anna S.

    2015-10-01

    4,5-Bis(N,N-di(2-hydroxyethyl)iminomethyl)acridine (BHIA) is a new acridine based fluoroionophore and a highly-selective sensor for cadmium ion. The direct interaction of the aromatic nitrogen atom with a surface is impossible since there are bulky substituents in the 4,5-positions of the acridine fragment. Nevertheless BHIA molecule shows a reliable SERS spectrum while adsorbed on a silver electrode. The analysis of SERS spectra pH dependence reveals that BHIA species adsorbed on a surface can exist in both non-protonated and protonated forms. The adsorption of BHIA from alkaline solution is accompanied by carbonaceous species formation at the surface. The intensity of such "carbon bands" turned out to be related with the supporting electrolyte (KCl) concentration. Upon lowering the electrode potential the SERS spectra of BHIA do not undergo changes but the intensity of bands decreases. This indicates that the adsorption mechanism on the silver surface is realized via aromatic system of acridine fragment. In case of such an adsorption mechanism the chelate fragment of the BHIA molecule is capable of interaction with the solution components. Addition of Cd2+ ions to a system containing BHIA adsorbed on a silver electrode in equilibrium with the solution leads to the formation of BHIA/Cd2+ complex which desorption causes the loss of SERS signal.

  9. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; Lafayette, Elizabeth Almeida; Gomes da Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra; Amorim, Cézar Augusto da Cruz; de Oliveira, Tiago Bento; Gois Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a–h) were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 104 to 1.0 × 106 M−1 and quenching constants from −0.2 × 104 to 2.18 × 104 M−1 indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-(4-chlorophenyl) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f), while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a). There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties. PMID:26068233

  10. Synthesis, spectral characterization and larvicidal activity of acridin-1(2H)-one analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashini, R.; Bharathi, A.; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rajakumar, G.; Abdul Rahuman, A.; Gullanki, Pavan Kumar

    Acridin-1(2H)-one analogue of 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-2-[(pyridine-2yl) methylene] acridin-1(2H)-one, 5 was prepared by using 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenylacridin-1(2H)-one, 3 and picolinaldehyde, 4 in the presence of KOH at room temperature. These compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral analyses. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of larvicidal and repellent activity of synthesized 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues such as compounds 3 and 5 against the early fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The compound exhibited high larvicidal effects at 50 mg/L against both the mosquitoes with LC50 values of 25.02 mg/L (r2 = 0.998) and 26.40 mg/L (r2 = 0.988) against C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus, respectively. The 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues that are reported for the first time to our best of knowledge can be better explored for the control of mosquito population. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of Japanese encephalitis vectors, C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus.

  11. Structural considerations on acridine/acridinium derivatives: Synthesis, crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and computational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wera, Michał; Storoniak, Piotr; Serdiuk, Illia E.; Zadykowicz, Beata

    2016-02-01

    This article describes a detailed study of the molecular packing and intermolecular interactions in crystals of four derivatives of acridine, i.e. 9-methyl-, 9-ethyl, 9-bromomethyl- and 9-piperidineacridine (1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively) and three 10-methylacridinium salts containing the trifluoromethanesulphonate anion and 9-vinyl-, 9-bromomethyl, and 9-phenyl-10-methylacridinium cations (5, 6 and 7, respectively). The crystal structures of all of the compounds are stabilized by long-range electrostatic interactions, as well as by a network of short-range C-HṡṡṡO (in hydrates and salts 3 and 5-7, respectively), C-Hṡṡṡπ, π-π, C-Fṡṡṡπ and S-Oṡṡṡπ (in salts 5-7) interactions. Hirshfeld surface analysis shows that various intermolecular contacts play an important role in the crystal packing, graphically exhibiting the differences in spatial arrangements of the acridine/acridinium derivatives under scrutiny here. Additionally, computational methods have been used to compare the intermolecular interactions in the crystal structures of the investigated compounds. Computations have confirmed the great contribution of dispersive interactions for crystal lattice stability in the case of 9-substituted acridine and electrostatic interactions for the crystal lattice stability in the case of 9-substituted 10-methylacridinium trifluoromethanesulphonates. The value of crystal lattice energy and the electrostatic contribution in the crystal lattice energy of monohydrated acridine derivatives have confirmed that these compounds have behave as acridinium derivatives.

  12. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of new acridine based fluorophore adsorbed on silver electrode.

    PubMed

    Solovyeva, Elena V; Myund, Liubov A; Denisova, Anna S

    2015-10-01

    4,5-Bis(N,N-di(2-hydroxyethyl)iminomethyl)acridine (BHIA) is a new acridine based fluoroionophore and a highly-selective sensor for cadmium ion. The direct interaction of the aromatic nitrogen atom with a surface is impossible since there are bulky substituents in the 4,5-positions of the acridine fragment. Nevertheless BHIA molecule shows a reliable SERS spectrum while adsorbed on a silver electrode. The analysis of SERS spectra pH dependence reveals that BHIA species adsorbed on a surface can exist in both non-protonated and protonated forms. The adsorption of BHIA from alkaline solution is accompanied by carbonaceous species formation at the surface. The intensity of such "carbon bands" turned out to be related with the supporting electrolyte (KCl) concentration. Upon lowering the electrode potential the SERS spectra of BHIA do not undergo changes but the intensity of bands decreases. This indicates that the adsorption mechanism on the silver surface is realized via aromatic system of acridine fragment. In case of such an adsorption mechanism the chelate fragment of the BHIA molecule is capable of interaction with the solution components. Addition of Cd(2+) ions to a system containing BHIA adsorbed on a silver electrode in equilibrium with the solution leads to the formation of BHIA/Cd(2+) complex which desorption causes the loss of SERS signal. PMID:25956332

  13. Synthesis, cytotoxicity and structure-activity relationships between ester and amide functionalities in novel acridine-based platinum(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, Florence; Moretto, Johnny; Pertuit, David; Szollosi, Anna; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth; Blache, Yves; Chauffert, Bruno; Desbois, Nicolas

    2012-05-01

    In order to improve the pharmacological profile of the anticancer drug cisplatin, several new acridine-based tethered (ethane-1,2-diamine)platinum(II) complexes connected by a polymethylene chain were synthetized. Activity-structure relationship between amide or ester functionalities was explored by changing acridine-9-carboxamide into acridine-9-carboxylate chromophore. The in vitro cytotoxicity of these new complexes was assessed in human colic HCT 116, SW480 and HT-29 cancer cell lines. Series of complexes bearing the acridine-9-carboxylate chromophore displayed higher cytotoxic effect than acridine-9-carboxamide complexes, with gradual effect according to the size of the polymethylene linker. PMID:22459174

  14. Mouse testis cell sorting according to DNA and mitochondrial changes during spermatogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, J.M.; Ratinaud, M.H.; Cordelli, E.; Spano, M.; Julien, R.

    1995-04-01

    Flow cytometry can measure variations in DNA content and chromatin structure as well as dramatic changes in the mitochondria of germ cells during maturation from spermatogonia to elongated spermatids. Using 10-N nonyl acridine orange (NAO), an inner mitochondrial membrane dye, it is easy to follow mitochondria rearrangements. Mouse testis cells stained with the DNA fluorescent probe propidium iodide (PI) and analyzed by flow cytometry can be discriminated on the basis of their ploidy levels into five main regions corresponding to elongated spermatids, round spermatids, diploid, S-phase, and tetraploid cells. The simultaneous use of PI and NAO demonstrated the presence of cells having low and high mitochondrial content in the haploid, diploid, and tetraploid compartments. Eleven sorting windows were selected from the bivariate analysis (PI/NAO) and the corresponding cells were identified by microscopic observation. Cells were also discriminated by two parameter analysis of DNA content vs. cell diameter. The definition of seven different regions allowed us to determine NAO or rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) uptakes in each compartment. We observed that the ratio (Rh 123/NAO) dramatically changed according to the progression of cell differentiation which occurs during spermatogenesis. 45 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Comparative toxicity of copper and acridine to fish, Daphnia and algae

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; McCarthy, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison was made of the sensitivity of fish, Daphnia and algae to the toxic effects of copper and acridine. A series of toxicity tests was conducted with these organisms, and the following biological endpoints determined: LC50s for fish, LC50s and effects on reproduction of Daphnia and 50% inhibition of the growth rate of algae. The 96-h LCO50s for bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and Daphnia magna exposed to copper were 2.2 and 0.13 mg/L, respectively. A chronic exposure to 0.03 mg/L of copper for 14 d significantly decreased reproduction in Daphnia. Exposure to 0.4 and 0.2 mg/L copper inhibited the growth rate of Selenastrum capricornutum and Chlorella vulgaris, respectively, by 50%. The 96-h LC50s for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and D. magna exposed to acridine were 2.3 and 3.1 mg/L, respectively. A chronic exposure to 1.25 mg/L acridine for 14 d significantly inhibited reproduction in Daphnia, and an exposure to 0.9 mg/L inhibited the growth rate of S. capricornutum by 50%. Based on the biological endpoints determined in these tests, Daphnia were more sensitive to copper than were fish or algae. In contrast, the most sensitive biological endpoint in tests with acridine was the inhibition of algal growth. Comparison of these test results indicates that short-term toxicity tests used for screening toxicants for possible environmental effects should include both plant and animal species. 16 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  16. Dioxin, agent orange

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: dioxin, a prevalent problem; nobody wanted dioxin; agent organe and Vietnam; what we know about and may learn about agent orange and Veterans' health; agent organe and birth defects; dioxin in Missouri; 2, 4, 5-T: the U.S.' disappearing herbicide; Seveso: high-level environmental exposure; the nitro explosion; industrial exposures to dioxin; company behavior in the face of dioxin exposures; dioxin and specific cancers; animal tests of dioxin toxicity; dioxin decions; the present and the future.

  17. Supra-molecular inter-actions in a 1:1 co-crystal of acridine and 3-chloro-thio-phene-2-carb-oxy-lic acid.

    PubMed

    Prajina, Olakkandiyil; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan; Perdih, Franc

    2016-05-01

    In the title co-crystal, C5H3ClO2S·C13H9N, the components inter-act with each other via an O-H⋯N hydrogen bond. Acridine-acridine stacking, thio-phene-thio-phene stacking and acridine-thio-phene C-H⋯π inter-actions also occur in the crystal. PMID:27308013

  18. Bis-Acridines as Lead Antiparasitic Agents: Structure-Activity Analysis of a Discrete Compound Library In Vitro▿

    PubMed Central

    Caffrey, Conor R.; Steverding, Dietmar; Swenerton, Ryan K.; Kelly, Ben; Walshe, Deirdre; Debnath, Anjan; Zhou, Yuan-Min; Doyle, Patricia S.; Fafarman, Aaron T.; Zorn, Julie A.; Land, Kirkwood M.; Beauchene, Jessica; Schreiber, Kimberly; Moll, Heidrun; Ponte-Sucre, Alicia; Schirmeister, Tanja; Saravanamuthu, Ahilan; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Cohen, Fred E.; McKerrow, James H.; Weisman, Jennifer L.; May, Barnaby C. H.

    2007-01-01

    Parasitic diseases are of enormous public health significance in developing countries—a situation compounded by the toxicity of and resistance to many current chemotherapeutics. We investigated a focused library of 18 structurally diverse bis-acridine compounds for in vitro bioactivity against seven protozoan and one helminth parasite species and compared the bioactivities and the cytotoxicities of these compounds toward various mammalian cell lines. Structure-activity relationships demonstrated the influence of both the bis-acridine linker structure and the terminal acridine heterocycle on potency and cytotoxicity. The bioactivity of polyamine-linked acridines required a minimum linker length of approximately 10 Å. Increasing linker length resulted in bioactivity against most parasites but also cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. N alkylation, but less so N acylation, of the polyamine linker ameliorated cytotoxicity while retaining bioactivity with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values similar to or better than those measured for standard drugs. Substitution of the polyamine for either an alkyl or a polyether linker maintained bioactivity and further alleviated cytotoxicity. Polyamine-linked compounds in which the terminal acridine heterocycle had been replaced with an aza-acridine also maintained acceptable therapeutic indices. The most potent compounds recorded low- to mid-nanomolar EC50 values against Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma brucei; otherwise, low-micromolar potencies were measured. Importantly, the bioactivity of the library was independent of P. falciparum resistance to chloroquine. Compound bioactivity was a function of neither the potential to bis-intercalate DNA nor the inhibition of trypanothione reductase, an important drug target in trypanosomatid parasites. Our approach illustrates the usefulness of screening focused compound libraries against multiple parasite targets. Some of the bis-acridines identified here may represent

  19. Redesigning the DNA-Targeted Chromophore in Platinum–Acridine Anticancer Agents: A Structure–Activity Relationship Study

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Amanda J.; Liu, Fang; Bartenstein, Thomas F.; Haines, Laura G.; Levine, Keith E.; Kucera, Gregory L.; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Platinum–acridine hybrid agents show low-nanomolar potency in chemoresistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but high systemic toxicity in vivo. To reduce the promiscuous genotoxicity of these agents and improve their pharmacological properties, a modular build–click–screen approach was used to evaluate a small library of twenty hybrid agents containing truncated and extended chromophores of varying basicities. Selected derivatives were resynthesized and tested in five NSCLC cell lines representing large cell, squamous cell, and adenocarcinomas. 7-Aminobenz[c]acridine was identified as a promising scaffold in a hybrid agent (P1–B1) that maintained submicromolar activity in several of the DNA-repair proficient and p53-mutant cancer models, while showing improved tolerability in mice by 32-fold compared to the parent platinum–acridine (P1–A1). The distribution and DNA/RNA adduct levels produced by the acridine- and benz[c]acridine-based analogues in NCI-H460 cells (confocal microscopy, ICP-MS), and their ability to bind G-quadruplex forming DNA sequences (CD spectroscopy, HR-ESMS) were studied. P1–B1 emerges as a less genotoxic, more tolerable, and potentially more target-selective hybrid agent than P1–A1. PMID:25302716

  20. Acridine-based complex as amino acid anion fluorescent sensor in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yanpeng; Xu, Kuoxi; Li, Qian; Wang, Chaoyu; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Peng

    2016-03-01

    Novel acridine-based fluorescence sensors containing alaninol ligands, L1 and D1, were designed and synthesized. The structure of the compound was characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS spectra. L1 and D1 possess efficient Cu2 + cation ON-OFF selective signaling behavior based on ligand-to-metal binding mechanism at physiological pH condition. Additionally, the L1-Cu(II) and D1-Cu(II) complexes could further serve as reversible OFF-ON signaling sensing ensemble to allow ratiometric response to amino acid anion in aqueous solution.

  1. Genotoxicity of maleic hydrazide, acridine and DEHP in Allium cepa root cells performed by two different laboratories.

    PubMed

    Rank, J; Lopez, L C; Nielsen, M H; Moretton, J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the results of the Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay between two laboratories under the same test protocol and at the same time, use chemicals and onions obtained in their own homeland. For this study three chemicals were selected: di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), maleic hydrazide, and acridine. Both laboratories found genotoxicity with a positive dose-response relationship for maleic hydrazide and acridine. However, for DEHP the results were quite different--one of the laboratories found this compound not genotoxic but the other found a positive response. Although the comparative study was inconclusive for DEHP, it was successful for the maleic hydrazide, acridine and also for the positive control (methyl methanesulfonate). Further studies need to be performed in the case of DEPH. PMID:12184484

  2. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to...

  3. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to...

  4. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to...

  5. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to...

  6. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to...

  7. Growing Oranges. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily lives of three orange growers in Florida and one in California. Two of the Florida orange growers also have other jobs, one as manager of a citrus cooperative and the other as a citrus insurance salesman. The operations of orange groves, the care and picking of oranges,…

  8. Pyrrolidine-Acridine hybrid in Artemisinin-based combination: a pharmacodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Swaroop Kumar; Biswas, Subhasish; Gunjan, Sarika; Chauhan, Bhavana Singh; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Srivastava, Kumkum; Singh, Sarika; Batra, Sanjay; Tripathi, Renu

    2016-09-01

    Aiming to develop new artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for malaria, antimalarial effect of a new series of pyrrolidine-acridine hybrid in combination with artemisinin derivatives was investigated. Synthesis, antimalarial and cytotoxic evaluation of a series of hybrid of 2-(3-(substitutedbenzyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)alkanamines and acridine were performed and mode of action of the lead compound was investigated. In vivo pharmacodynamic properties (parasite clearance time, parasite reduction ratio, dose and regimen determination) against multidrug resistant (MDR) rodent malaria parasite and toxicological parameters (median lethal dose, liver function test, kidney function test) were also investigated. 6-Chloro-N-(4-(3-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)butyl)-2-methoxyacridin-9-amine (15c) has shown a dose dependent haem bio-mineralization inhibition and was found to be the most effective and safe compound against MDR malaria parasite in Swiss mice model. It displayed best antimalarial potential with artemether (AM) in vitro as well as in vivo. The combination also showed favourable pharmacodynamic properties and therapeutic response in mice with established MDR malaria infection and all mice were cured at the determined doses. The combination did not show toxicity at the doses administered to the Swiss mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that compound 15c is a potential partner with AM for the ACT and could be explored for further development. PMID:27230403

  9. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... for survivors' benefits . Research on AL amyloidosis and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (formally known as ... to the compounds of interest found in the herbicide Agent Orange and AL amyloidosis." VA made a ...

  10. Potassium permanganate-acridine yellow chemiluminescence system for the determination of fluvoxamine, isoniazid and ceftriaxone.

    PubMed

    Abolhasani, Jafar; Hassanzadeh, Javad

    2014-12-01

    Based on the oxidation of acridine yellow by permanganate in basic medium, a new chemiluminescence system was developed for the sensitive determination of some important drugs. The remarkable inhibiting effect of fluvoxamine, ceftriaxone and isoniazid on this reaction was applied to their detection. A possible mechanism was proposed for this system based on chemiluminescence emission wavelengths and experimental observations. Under optimum conditions, calibration graphs were obtained for 1 × 10(-9) to 1 × 10(-6) mol/L of fluvoxamine; 2 × 10(-8) to 8 × 10(-6) mol/L of ceftriaxone and 5 × 10(-8) to 4 × 10(-5) mol/L of isoniazid. This proposed method was satisfactorily used in the determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical samples and human urine and serum. PMID:24753178

  11. Extension of the range of DNA sequences available for triple helix formation: stabilization of mismatched triplexes by acridine-containing oligonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Kukreti, S; Sun, J S; Garestier, T; Hélène, C

    1997-01-01

    Triple helix formation usually requires an oligopyrimidine*oligopurine sequence in the target DNA. A triple helix is destabilized when the oligopyrimidine*oligopurine target contains one (or two) purine*pyrimidine base pair inversion(s). Such an imperfect target sequence can be recognized by a third strand oligonucleotide containing an internally incorporated acridine intercalator facing the inverted purine*pyrimidine base pair(s). The loss of triplex stability due to the mismatch is partially overcome. The stability of triplexes formed at perfect and imperfect target sequences was investigated by UV thermal denaturation experiments. The stabilization provided by an internally incorporated acridine third strand oligonucleotide depends on the sequences flanking the inverted base pair. For triplexes containing a single mismatch the highest stabilization is observed for an acridine or a propanediol tethered to an acridine on its 3'-side facing an inverted A*T base pair and for a cytosine with an acridine incorporated to its 3'-side or a guanine with an acridine at its 5'-side facing an inverted G*C base pair. Fluorescence studies provided evidence that the acridine was intercalated into the triplex. The target sequences containing a double base pair inversion which form very unstable triplexes can still be recognized by oligonucleotides provided they contain an appropriately incorporated acridine facing the double mismatch sites. Selectivity for an A*T base pair inversion was observed with an oligonucleotide containing an acridine incorporated at the mismatched site when this site is flanked by two T*A*T base triplets. These results show that the range of DNA base sequences available for triplex formation can be extended by using oligonucleotide intercalator conjugates. PMID:9336456

  12. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  13. 15. September, 1968 GARDEN BETWEEN NATHANIEL WOODBURY HOUSE, 22 ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. September, 1968 GARDEN BETWEEN NATHANIEL WOODBURY HOUSE, 22 ORANGE STREET AND SETH FOLGER HOUSE, 26 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  14. 11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (MASS-912), 14 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  15. Ethanol from orange processing waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greater than 90 percent of the oranges produced in Florida are processed for juice production and produce approximately 3.5 billion pounds of waste annually consisting of peel, segment membranes and seeds. The bulk of this waste material is dried and sold as a cattlefeed by-product, often at a prod...

  16. Diverse tandem cyclization reactions of o-cyanoanilines and diaryliodonium salts with copper catalyst for the construction of quinazolinimine and acridine scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xinlong; Chen, Chao; Su, Xiang; Li, Ming; Wen, Lirong

    2014-12-01

    Two cyclization modes are realized to produce different nitrogen-containing heterocycles, i.e., quinazolin-4(3H)-imines and acridines by assembling o-cyanoanilines and diaryliodonium salts via tandem reaction pathways. PMID:25420123

  17. A simple and sensitive fluorescence method for the determination of trace ozone in air using acridine red as a probe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingye; Lin, Chenyin; Zhang, Xinghui; Wen, Guiqing; Liang, Aihui

    2014-12-01

    The ozone in an air sample was trapped by H3 BO3 -LK solution to produce iodine (I2) that interacted with excess I(-) to form I3(-). In pH 4.0 acetate buffer solutions, the I3(-) reacted with acridine red to form acridine red-I3 ion association particles that resulted in the fluorescence peak decreased at 553 nm. The decreased value ΔF553 nm is linear to the O3 concentration in the range 0.08-53.3 × 10(-6) mol/L, with a detection limit of 4 × 10(-8) mol/L. This fluorescence method was used to determine ozone in air samples, and the results were in agreement with that of indigo carmine spectrophotometry. PMID:24733669

  18. Unexpected cyclization of tritylamines promoted by copper salt through C-H and C-N bond cleavages to produce acridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Ryosuke; Hirano, Koji; Satoh, Tetsuya; Miura, Masahiro

    2014-09-26

    Herein, we demonstrate that tritylamines undergo an unprecedented copper-mediated cyclization involving the cleavages of two C-H bonds and one C-N bond to give 9-arylacridine derivatives. This kind of acridines is of interest due to their biological properties and their unique optical and electro- and photochemical properties. Some of obtained acridine derivatives exhibit intense fluorescence in the solid state. PMID:25196267

  19. Evaluation of new iodinated acridine derivatives for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma using 125I, an Auger electron emitter.

    PubMed

    Gardette, Maryline; Papon, Janine; Bonnet, Mathilde; Desbois, Nicolas; Labarre, Pierre; Wu, Ting-Dee; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Moins, Nicole

    2011-12-01

    The increasing incidence of melanoma and the lack of effective therapy on the disseminated form have led to an urgent need for new specific therapies. Several iodobenzamides or analogs are known to possess specific affinity for melanoma tissue. New heteroaromatic derivatives have been designed with a cytotoxic moiety and termed DNA intercalating agents. These compounds could be applied in targeted radionuclide therapy using (125)I, which emits Auger electrons and gives high-energy, localized irradiation. Two iodinated acridine derivatives have been reported to present an in vivo kinetic profile conducive to application in targeted radionuclide therapy. The aim of the present study was to perform a preclinical evaluation of these compounds. The DNA intercalating property was confirmed for both compounds. After radiolabeling with (125)I, the two compounds induced in vitro a significant radiotoxicity to B16F0 melanoma cells. Nevertheless, the acridine compound appeared more radiotoxic than the acridone compound. While cellular uptake was similar for both compounds, SIMS analysis and in vitro protocol showed a stronger affinity for melanin with acridone derivative, which was able to induce a predominant scavenging process in the melanosome and restrict access to the nucleus. In conclusion, the acridine derivative with a higher nuclear localization appeared a better candidate for application in targeted radionuclide therapy using (125)I. PMID:20567996

  20. FT-MW and Millimeter Wave Spectroscopy of PANHs: Phenanthridine, Acridine, and 1,10-Phenanthroline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNaughton, Don; Godfrey, Peter D.; Brown, Ronald D.; Thorwirth, Sven; Grabow, Jens-Uwe

    2008-05-01

    The pure rotational spectra of phenanthridine, acridine, and 1,10-phenanthroline, small polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycle molecules (PANHs), have been measured and assigned from 2 to 85 GHz. An initial spectral assignment, guided by ab initio molecular orbital predictions, employed broadband Stark modulated millimeter wave absorption spectroscopy of a supersonic rotationally cold molecular beam, yielding a preliminary set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants. Subsequent spectral analysis employed Fourier transform microwave (FT-MW) spectroscopy of a supersonic rotationally cold molecular beam. The extremely high spectral resolution of the FT-MW instrument yielded improved rotational constants and centrifugal distortion constants, together with nitrogen quadrupole coupling constants, for all three species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP level of theory employing the cc-pVTZ and 6-311+G** basis sets are shown to closely predict rotational constants and to be useful in predicting quadrupole coupling constants and dipole moments for such PANH species. The data presented here will be useful for deep radio astronomical searches for PANHs employing large radio telescopes.

  1. Copper-activated DNA photocleavage by a pyridine-linked bis-acridine intercalator.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, María-José; Wilson, Beth; Palacios, Marta; Rodrigo, María-Melia; Grant, Kathryn B; Lorente, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    We report the synthesis of new photonuclease 4 consisting of two acridine rings joined by a pyridine-based copper binding linker. We have shown that photocleavage of plasmid DNA is markedly enhanced when this ligand is irradiated in the presence of copper(II) (419 nm, 22 degrees C, pH 7.0). Viscometric data indicate that 4 binds to DNA by monofunctional intercalation, and equilibrium dialysis provides an estimated binding constant of 1.13 x 105 M-1 for its association with calf thymus DNA. In competition dialysis experiments, 4 exhibits preferential binding to GC-rich DNA sequences. When Cu(II) is added at a ligand to metal ratio of 1:1, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry demonstrates that compound 4 undergoes complex formation, while thermal melting studies show a 10 degrees C increase in the Tm of calf thymus DNA. Groove binding and intercalation are suggested by viscometric data. Finally, colorimetric and scavenger experiments indicate that the generation of Cu(I), H2O2, and superoxide contributes to the production of DNA frank strand breaks by the Cu(II) complex of 4. Whereas the strand breaks are distributed in a relatively uniform fashion over the four DNA bases, subsequent piperidine treatment of the photolysis reactions shows that alkaline labile lesions occur predominantly at guanine. PMID:17226964

  2. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  3. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  4. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  5. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  6. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  7. Volatile Profile Comparison of USDA Sweet-Orange-Like Hybrids and Standard Sweet Oranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatiles of six hybrids (‘Ambersweet’ orange crossed with one of three different orange hybrids) were analyzed using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to compare the volatile profiles with ‘Hamlin’, the most widely grown early sweet orange in Florida, and ‘Ambersweet’. All hybrids are ...

  8. Minocycline fails to protect cerebellar granular cell cultures against malonate-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gomez, F J; Gomez-Lazaro, M; Pastor, D; Calvo, S; Aguirre, N; Galindo, M F; Jordán, J

    2005-11-01

    Experimental and clinical studies support the view that the semisynthetic tetracycline minocycline exhibits neuroprotective roles in several models of neurodegenerative diseases, including ischemia, Huntington, Parkinson diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, recent evidence indicates that minocycline does not always present beneficial actions. For instance, in an in vivo model of Huntington's disease, it fails to afford protection after malonate intrastriatal injection. Moreover, it reverses the neuroprotective effect of creatine in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. This apparent contradiction prompted us to analyze the effect of this antibiotic on malonate-induced cell death. We show that, in rat cerebellar granular cells, the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor malonate induces cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. By using DFCA, monochlorobimane and 10-N-nonyl-Acridin Orange to measure, respectively, H2O2-derived oxidant species and reduced forms of GSH and cardiolipin, we observed that malonate induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production to an extent that surpasses the antioxidant defense capacity of the cells, resulting in GSH depletion and cardiolipin oxidation. The pre-treatment for 4 h with minocycline (10-100 microM) did not present cytoprotective actions. Moreover, minocycline failed to block ROS production and to abrogate malonate-induced oxidation of GSH and cardiolipin. Additional experiments revealed that minocycline was also unsuccessful to prevent the mitochondrial swelling induced by malonate. Furthermore, malonate did not induce the expression of the iNOS, caspase-3, -8, and -9 genes which have been shown to be up-regulated in several models where minocycline resulted cytoprotective. In addition, malonate-induced down-regulation of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 was not prevented by minocycline, controversially the mechanism previously proposed to explain minocycline protective action. These results suggest that the

  9. Localization of Anionic Phospholipids in Escherichia coli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Piercen M.; Crooks, John A.; Leidl, Mathias; Yoon, Earl J.; Saghatelian, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is an anionic phospholipid with a characteristically large curvature and is of growing interest for two primary reasons: (i) it binds to and regulates many peripheral membrane proteins in bacteria and mitochondria, and (ii) it is distributed asymmetrically in rod-shaped cells and is concentrated at the poles and division septum. Despite the growing number of studies of CL, its function in bacteria remains unknown. 10-N-Nonyl acridine orange (NAO) is widely used to image CL in bacteria and mitochondria, as its interaction with CL is reported to produce a characteristic red-shifted fluorescence emission. Using a suite of biophysical techniques, we quantitatively studied the interaction of NAO with anionic phospholipids under physiologically relevant conditions. We found that NAO is promiscuous in its binding and has photophysical properties that are largely insensitive to the structure of diverse anionic phospholipids to which it binds. Being unable to rely solely on NAO to characterize the localization of CL in Escherichia coli cells, we instead used quantitative fluorescence microscopy, mass spectrometry, and mutants deficient in specific classes of anionic phospholipids. We found CL and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) concentrated in the polar regions of E. coli cell membranes; depletion of CL by genetic approaches increased the concentration of PG at the poles. Previous studies suggested that some CL-binding proteins also have a high affinity for PG and display a pattern of cellular localization that is not influenced by depletion of CL. Framed within the context of these previous experiments, our results suggest that PG may play an essential role in bacterial physiology by maintaining the anionic character of polar membranes. PMID:25002539

  10. p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} deficiency induces mitochondrial dysfunction in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ae Jeong; Jee, Hye Jin; Song, Naree; Kim, Minjee; Jeong, Seon-Young; Yun, Jeanho

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells exhibited an increase in mitochondrial mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression levels of PGC-1{alpha} and AMPK were upregulated in p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proliferation of p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells in galactose medium was significantly impaired. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21 may play a role in maintaining proper mitochondrial mass and respiratory function. -- Abstract: p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression. However, the role of p21 in mitochondrial function remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the effect of p21 deficiency on mitochondrial function in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. We found that there was a significant increase in the mitochondrial mass of p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells, as measured by 10-N-nonyl-acridine orange staining, as well as an increase in the mitochondrial DNA content. In contrast, p53{sup -/-} cells had a mitochondrial mass comparable to that of wild-type HCT116 cells. In addition, the expression levels of the mitochondrial biogenesis regulators PGC-1{alpha} and TFAM and AMPK activity were also elevated in p21{sup -/-} cells, indicating that p21 deficiency induces the rate of mitochondrial biogenesis through the AMPK-PGC-1{alpha} axis. However, the increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in p21{sup -/-} cells did not accompany an increase in the cellular steady-state level of ATP. Furthermore, p21{sup -/-} cells exhibited significant proliferation impairment in galactose medium, suggesting that p21 deficiency induces a defect in the mitochondrial respiratory chain in HCT116 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss of p21 results in an aberrant increase in the mitochondrial mass and in mitochondrial dysfunction in HCT116 cells, indicating that p21 is required to maintain proper mitochondrial mass and respiratory function.

  11. 2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  12. 24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM HALF-WAY POINT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  13. 8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE STREET (MASS-1063) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  14. 6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  15. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. LOOKING 278°W - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM GARDNER HOUSES - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  17. 16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  18. 10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH FOM IN FRONT OF THE LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  19. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  20. Detection of oranges from a color image of an orange tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Arthur R.; Gallagher, A.; Eriksson, J.

    1999-10-01

    The progress of robotic and machine vision technology has increased the demand for sophisticated methods for performing automatic harvesting of fruit. The harvesting of fruit, until recently, has been performed manually and is quite labor intensive. An automatic robot harvesting system that uses machine vision to locate and extract the fruit would free the agricultural industry from the ups and downs of the labor market. The environment in which robotic fruit harvesters must work presents many challenges due to the inherent variability from one location to the next. This paper takes a step towards this goal by outlining a machine vision algorithm that detects and accurately locates oranges from a color image of an orange tree. Previous work in this area has focused on differentiating the orange regions from the rest of the picture and not locating the actual oranges themselves. Failure to locate the oranges, however, leads to a reduced number of successful pick attempts. This paper presents a new approach for orange region segmentation in which the circumference of the individual oranges as well as partially occluded oranges are located. Accurately defining the circumference of each orange allows a robotic harvester to cut the stem of the orange by either scanning the top of the orange with a laser or by directing a robotic arm towards the stem to automatically cut it. A modified version of the K- means algorithm is used to initially segment the oranges from the canopy of the orange tree. Morphological processing is then used to locate occluded oranges and an iterative circle finding algorithm is used to define the circumference of the segmented oranges.

  1. A Facile Synthesis of N-H- and N-Substituted Acridine-1,8-diones under Sonic Condition

    PubMed Central

    Sudha, S.; Pasha, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of an assembly of structurally important N-H- and N-substituted acridine-1,8-diones by CAN (ceric ammonium nitrate) catalysed one-pot four-component reaction of electron-deficient and electron-rich aromatic aldehydes and aromatic amines or ammonium acetate and dimedone or cyclohexyl-1,3-diones at 26°C under sonic condition is reported. The method is clean and energy efficient as it uses a greener method and an eco-friendly catalyst. PMID:24501587

  2. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow....

  3. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  4. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow....

  5. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow....

  6. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow....

  7. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow....

  8. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of 9-benzylamino-6-chloro-2-methoxy-acridine derivatives as potent DNA-binding ligands and topoisomerase II inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Ti; Wang, Ning; Gao, Chunmei; Tan, Chunyan; Liu, Hongxia; Jiang, Yuyang

    2016-06-30

    A series of 9-benzylamino acridine derivatives were synthesized as an extension of our discovery of acridine antitumor agents. Most of these acridine compounds displayed good antiproliferative activity with IC50 values in low micromole range and structure-activity relationships were studied. Topo I- and II- mediated relaxation studies suggested that all of our compounds displayed strong Topo II inhibitory activity at 100 μM, while only four exhibited moderate Topo I inhibitory activity. The typical compound 8p could penetrate A549 cancer cells efficiently. Compound 8p could intercalate within the double-stranded DNA structure and induce DNA damage. Moreover, compound 8p could induce A549 cells apoptosis through caspase-dependent intrinsic pathway and arrest A549 cells at the G2/M phase. PMID:27060757

  9. Synthesis, Aqueous Reactivity, and Biological Evaluation of Carboxylic Acid Ester-Functionalized Platinum–Acridine Hybrid Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Leigh A.; Suryadi, Jimmy; West, Tiffany K.; Kucera, Gregory L.; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of platinum–acridine hybrid agents containing carboxylic acid ester groups is described. The most active derivatives and the unmodified parent compounds showed up to 6-fold higher activity in ovarian cancer (OVCAR-3) and breast cancer (MCF-7, MDA-MB-23) cell lines than cisplatin. Inhibition of cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations was observed in pancreatic (PANC-1) and non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC, NCI-H460) of 80- and 150-fold, respectively. Introduction of the ester groups did not affect the cytotoxic properties of the hybrids, which form the same monofunctional–intercalative DNA adducts as the parent compounds, as demonstrated in a plasmid unwinding assay. In-line high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESMS) shows that the ester moieties undergo platinum-mediated hydrolysis in a chloride concentration-dependent manner to form carboxylate chelates. Potential applications of the chloride-sensitive ester hydrolysis as a self-immolative release mechanism for tumor-selective delivery of platinum–acridines are discussed. PMID:22871158

  10. Novel acridine-based agents with topoisomerase II inhibitor activity suppress mesothelioma cell proliferation and induce apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Raza, Ahmad; Jacobson, Blake A; Benoit, Adam; Patel, Manish R; Jay-Dixon, Joe; Hiasa, Hiroshi; Ferguson, David M; Kratzke, Robert Arthur

    2012-08-01

    Human topoisomerase II (hTopoII) inhibitors are important chemotherapeutic agents in many different settings including treatment of malignant mesothelioma. Topoisomerase poisons, such as etoposide and doxorubicin, function by trapping the DNA-enzyme covalent complex producing DNA strand breaks which can ultimately lead to cancer cell death, as well as development of secondary malignancies. While these compounds have been used successfully in treating a wide variety of cancers, their use against mesothelioma has been limited. This study evaluates the anti-proliferative activity of series of acridine-based catalytic inhibitors of hTopoII using four mesothelioma cell lines (H513, H2372, H2461, and H2596). The results indicate these compounds inhibit malignant cell proliferation with EC(50) values ranging from 6.9 to 32 μM. Experiments are also performed that show that combination therapies may be used to increase potency. Based on the results of PARP cleavage and Guava Nexin assay, it is concluded that the primary mode of cell death is by apoptosis. The results are consistent with prior work involving pancreatic cancer and hTopoII catalytic inhibitors and suggest substituted acridines may hold promise in treating malignant mesothelioma. PMID:21789510

  11. Tuning the DNA Conformational Perturbations Induced by Cytotoxic Platinum-Acridine Bisintercalators: Effect of Metal cis/trans Isomerism and DNA Threading Groups

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Jayati Roy; Guddneppanavar, Rajsekhar; Saluta, Gilda; Kucera, Gregory L.; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Four highly charged, water soluble platinum-acridine bisintercalating agents have been synthesized. Depending on the cis/trans isomerism of the metal and the nature of the acridine side chains, bisintercalation induces/stabilizes the classical Watson-Crick B-form or a non-B-form. Circular dichroism spectra and chemical footprinting experiments suggest that compound 4, the most active derivative in HL-60 cells, produces a structurally severely perturbed DNA with features of a Hoogsteen base-paired biopolymer. PMID:18457380

  12. Mini-orange spectrometer at CIAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yun; Wu, Xiao-Guang; Li, Guang-Sheng; Li, Cong-Bo; He, Chuang-Ye; Chen, Qi-Ming; Zhong, Jian; Zhou, Wen-Kui; Deng, Li-Tao; Zhu, Bao-Ji

    2016-08-01

    A mini-orange spectrometer used for in-beam measurements of internal conversion electrons, consisting of a Si(Li) detector and different sets of SmO5 permanent magnets for filtering and transporting the conversion electrons to the Si(Li) detector, has been developed at the China Institute of Atomic Energy. The working principles and configuration of the mini-orange spectrometer are described. The performance of the setup is illustrated by measured singles conversion electron spectra using the mini-orange spectrometer. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11305269, 11375267, 11475072, 11405274, 11205068, 11175259)

  13. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  14. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  15. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  16. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  17. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  18. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  19. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  20. 12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH FROM GARDEN (FORMER SITE OF COL. BRAYTON HOUSE) OF #16 TO #18, #20 AND #22 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  1. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  2. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  3. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  4. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  5. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  6. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  7. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  8. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  9. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivors' benefits . Research on porphyria cutanea tarda and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (HMD) (formally known ... on " Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam " that there was sufficient evidence ...

  10. Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivors' benefits . Research on soft tissue sarcoma and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (formally known as ... report " Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam " and other updates that there ...

  11. Does Agent Orange cause birth defects?

    PubMed

    Friedman, J M

    1984-04-01

    Large quantities of the defoliant, Agent Orange, were sprayed in Vietnam during the war. Agent Orange was composed of two herbicides: 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, the latter contaminated by small amounts of a highly toxic dioxin (TCDD). The constituents of Agent Orange are capable of producing gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations, at least in some experimental circumstances. TCDD and 2,4,5-T are teratogenic in mice and perhaps in other mammals, but the teratogenicity of these chemicals has not been convincingly demonstrated in humans. There is currently no scientific evidence which indicates that men who were previously exposed to Agent Orange are at increased risk of having children with birth defects, but available data are inadequate to assess this possibility critically. PMID:6377557

  12. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  13. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  14. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  15. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  16. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  17. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  18. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  19. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  20. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  1. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  2. Happy orang-utans live longer lives

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Alexander; Adams, Mark J.; King, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman primate ageing resembles its human counterpart. Moreover, ratings of subjective well-being traits in chimpanzees, orang-utans and rhesus macaques are similar to those of humans: they are intercorrelated, heritable, and phenotypically and genetically related to personality. We examined whether, as in humans, orang-utan subjective well-being was related to longer life. The sample included 184 zoo-housed orang-utans followed up for approximately 7 years. Age, sex, species and number of transfers were available for all subjects and 172 subjects were rated on at least one item of a subjective well-being scale. Of the 31 orang-utans that died, 25 died a mean of 3.4 years after being rated. Even in a model that included, and therefore, statistically adjusted for, sex, age, species and transfers, orang-utans rated as being “happier” lived longer. The risk differential between orang-utans that were one standard deviation above and one standard deviation below baseline in subjective well-being was comparable with approximately 11 years in age. This finding suggests that impressions of the subjective well-being of captive great apes are valid indicators of their welfare and longevity. PMID:21715398

  3. Happy orang-utans live longer lives.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alexander; Adams, Mark J; King, James E

    2011-12-23

    Nonhuman primate ageing resembles its human counterpart. Moreover, ratings of subjective well-being traits in chimpanzees, orang-utans and rhesus macaques are similar to those of humans: they are intercorrelated, heritable, and phenotypically and genetically related to personality. We examined whether, as in humans, orang-utan subjective well-being was related to longer life. The sample included 184 zoo-housed orang-utans followed up for approximately 7 years. Age, sex, species and number of transfers were available for all subjects and 172 subjects were rated on at least one item of a subjective well-being scale. Of the 31 orang-utans that died, 25 died a mean of 3.4 years after being rated. Even in a model that included, and therefore, statistically adjusted for, sex, age, species and transfers, orang-utans rated as being "happier" lived longer. The risk differential between orang-utans that were one standard deviation above and one standard deviation below baseline in subjective well-being was comparable with approximately 11 years in age. This finding suggests that impressions of the subjective well-being of captive great apes are valid indicators of their welfare and longevity. PMID:21715398

  4. Antimatter, clockwork orange, laser divestment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, John F.

    2005-06-01

    In 1972 Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi sponsored a program to holographically record the images of Venetian sculptural treasures for archival purposes. At Laboratorio San Gregorio, where the initial holography took place, G. Musumeci and K. Hempel suggested an experiment to determine whether the concentrated beam from the ruby holographic laser could ablate black-patina crusts from decaying marble. Initial success of a laser-divestment test on a Palazzo Ducale capital launched a search for funding to enable a full-scale laser-conservation demonstration. Later, at a Caltech reunion one of the author's physics professors (Carl Anderson, the discoverer of mu mesons and the positron), noting the prominence of the Venice Film Festival suggested our approaching the motion picture industry. Many years earlier Anderson's Caltech classmate, Frank Capra, had supported the research that led to the discovery of cosmic-ray-generated antimatter on Pikes Peak. (After Caltech, Capra had become a director at Columbia Studios.) Anderson's chance comment led to an introduction to producer Jack Warner at a festival screening of his "A Clockwork Orange" in Asolo. He and his friends contributed US$5000 toward the laser conservation of a marble relief of "The Last Supper" in the Porta della Carta of Venice. This work was conducted in 1980 under the direction of Arch. G. Calcagno. In 1981 it was found that the granite veneer or the newly completed Warner Center Tower had been stained during transit from the quarry. The Venice laser successfully restored the veneer, thereby returning the Warner Brothers' favor.

  5. A simple-structured acridine derivative as a fluorescent enhancement chemosensor for the detection of Pd2+ in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanmei; Huang, Qi; Zhang, Qingyou; Min, Yinghao; Wang, Enze

    2015-02-01

    4,5-Bis(hydroxymethyl) acridine (sensor 1) has been discovered and synthesized as a simple-structured Pd2+ fluorescent probe. Sensor 1 showed highly selective recognition toward Pd2+ over other examined metal ions in aqueous solution. Under the optimized condition, fluorescence intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of Pd2+ in the 0-1 μM concentration range with detection limits of 0.021 μM. The EDTA-adding and stoichiometry experiments indicated that sensor 1 was a reversible chemosensor for Pd2+ with a 2:1 ligand/metal complex at neutral pH. Moreover, the sensor 1 was also successfully applied to determination of Pd2+ in water samples and palladium-containing catalyst, which made it attractive for sensing applications.

  6. In Silico Molecular Docking and In Vitro Antidiabetic Studies of Dihydropyrimido[4,5-a]acridin-2-amines

    PubMed Central

    Bharathi, A.; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Vasavi, C. S.; Munusami, Punnagai; Gayathri, G. A.; Gayathri, M.

    2014-01-01

    An in vitro antidiabetic activity on α-amylase and α–glucosidase activity of novel 10-chloro-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-12-phenyl-5,6-dihydropyrimido[4,5-a]acridin-2-amines (3a–3f) were evaluated. Structures of the synthesized molecules were studied by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, EI-MS, and single crystal X-ray structural analysis data. An in silico molecular docking was performed on synthesized molecules (3a–3f). Overall studies indicate that compound 3e is a promising compound leading to the development of selective inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. PMID:24991576

  7. Synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of 9-anilinoacridines bearing N-mustard residue on both anilino and acridine rings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Huang; Lin, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Xiuguo; Chou, Ting-Chao; Tsai, Tsong-Jen; Kapuriya, Naval; Kakadiya, Rajesh; Su, Tsann-Long

    2009-07-01

    A series of 9-anilinoacridines having an alkylating N-mustard pharmacophore on both anilino (C-3' or C-4') and acridine (C-4) rings with O-ethyl (O-C(2)) or O-butyl (O-C(4)) spacer were synthesized to evaluate their cytotoxicity against human lymphoblastic leukemia (CCRF-CEM) cell growth in vitro. It was revealed that these conjugates exhibited significant in vitro cytotoxicity. Among these agents, compound 13 was the most cytotoxic with IC(50) value of 1.3 nM and is as potent as taxol (IC(50)=1.1 nM). The structure-activity relationship study showed that the length of the spacer and the position of the substituent do affect their cytotoxicity. PMID:18752869

  8. New benzimidazole acridine derivative induces human colon cancer cell apoptosis in vitro via the ROS-JNK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kang; Chu, Bi-zhu; Liu, Feng; Li, Bin; Gao, Chun-mei; Li, Lu-lu; Sun, Qin-sheng; Shen, Zhi-fa; Jiang, Yu-yang

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the mechanisms underlying anticancer action of the benzimidazole acridine derivative N-{(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methyl}-2-butylacridin-9-amine(8m) against human colon cancer cells in vitro. Methods: Human colon cancer cell lines SW480 and HCT116 were incubated in the presence of 8m, and then the cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured. The expression of apoptotic/signaling genes and proteins was detected using RT-PCR and Western blotting. ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane depolarization were visualized with fluorescence microscopy. Results: 8m dose-dependently suppressed the proliferation of SW480 and HCT116 cells with IC50 values of 6.77 and 3.33 μmol/L, respectively. 8m induced apoptosis of HCT116 cells, accompanied by down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of death receptor-5 (DR5), truncation of Bid, cleavage of PARP, and activation of caspases (including caspase-8 and caspase-9 as well as the downstream caspases-3 and caspase-7). Moreover, 8m selectively activated JNK and p38 without affecting ERK in HCT116 cells. Knockout of JNK1, but not p38, attenuated 8m-induced apoptosis. In addition, 8m induced ROS production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization in HCT116 cells. Pretreatment with the antioxidants N-acetyl cysteine or glutathione attenuated 8m-induced apoptosis and JNK activation in HCT116 cells. Conclusion: The new benzimidazole acridine derivative, 8m exerts anticancer activity against human colon cancer cells in vitro by inducing both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways via the ROS-JNK1 pathway. PMID:26235743

  9. A photoswitchable orange-to-far-red fluorescent protein, PSmOrange

    PubMed Central

    Subach, Oksana M.; Patterson, George H.; Ting, Li-Min; Wang, Yarong; Condeelis, John S.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2011-01-01

    We report a monomeric PSmOrange protein that is initially orange (excitation and emission at 548 and 565 nm) but becomes far-red (excitation and emission at 636 and 662 nm) after irradiation with blue-green light. Compared to its parental orange proteins, PSmOrange has greater brightness, faster maturation, higher photoconversion contrast, and better photostability. The red-shifted spectra of both forms of PSmOrange enable its simultaneous use with cyan-to-green photoswitchable proteins to study four intracellular populations. Photoconverted PSmOrange has, to date, the most far-red excitation peak, provides diffraction-limited and super-resolution imaging in far-red range, is optimally excited with common red lasers, and can be photoconverted subcutaneously in a mouse. PSmOrange photoswitching occurs via a two-step photo-oxidation process, which causes cleavage of the polypeptide backbone. The far-red fluorescence of photoconverted PSmOrange results from a novel chromophore containing N-acylimine with a coplanar carbon-oxygen double bond. PMID:21804536

  10. Orange juice quality with an emphasis on flavor components.

    PubMed

    Kealey, K S; Kinsella, J E

    1978-01-01

    This review studies the chemistry of the flavor of citrus juices with emphasis on the components of the flavor of orange juice and their origin in the different parts of the orange fruit. Citrus processing and the nature of the various products as they affect flavor are discussed. The composition of peel oil, aroma oil, orange juice, orange essence, and orange essence oil is presented. The relationship between flavor and color are discussed and the role of lipid components as they affect flavor stability and off-flavors are described. Spoilage resulting from microbes is briefly treated. The nutritional value of orange juice is cited. PMID:378545

  11. Fresh squeezed orange juice odor: a review.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Rouseff, Russell L

    2008-08-01

    Fresh orange juice is a highly desirable but unstable product. This review examines analytical findings, odor activity, and variations due to cultivar, sampling methods, manner of juicing, plus possible enzymatic and microbial artifacts. Initial attempts to characterize orange juice odor were based on volatile quantitation and overemphasized the importance of high concentration volatiles. Although over 300 volatiles have been reported from GC-MS analytical studies, this review presents 36 consensus aroma active components from GC-olfactometry studies consisting of 14 aldehydes, 7 esters, 5 terpenes, 6 alcohols, and 4 ketones. Most are trace (microg/L) components. (+)-Limonene is an essential component in orange juice odor although its exact function is still uncertain. Total amounts of volatiles in mechanically squeezed juices are three to 10 times greater than hand-squeezed juices because of elevated peel oil levels. Elevated peel oil changes the relative proportion of several key odorants. Odor active components from solvent extraction studies differ from those collected using headspace techniques as they include volatiles with low vapor pressure such as vanillin. Some reported odorants such as 2,3-butanedione are microbial contamination artifacts. Orange juice odor models confirm that fresh orange aroma is complex as the most successful models contain 23 odorants. PMID:18663618

  12. Hepatocellular carcinoma in the Malaysian Orang Asli.

    PubMed

    Sumithran, E; Prathap, K

    1976-05-01

    Necropsies were performed on 285 consecutively unclaimed Orang Asli bodies from Gombak Orang Asli Hospital during an eight-year period from May 1967 to April 1975. Of the 25 malignant neoplasms, hepatocellular carcinoma was by far the commonest (36%). The nine patients with this neoplasm had coexistant macronodular cirrhosis. There were 20 cases of cirrhosis; 45% of these had coexistant hepatocellular carcinoma. The 53,000 Orang Aslis living in West Malaysia comprise three tribes, the Negrito, Senoi, and Melayu Asli (Proto Malays). The Sinoi appear to have a high predilection for liver cancer, all our nine cases occurring in this group. These aboriginal people live in the jungles where they practice shifting cultivation and maintain their own dietary and social customs. Detailed studies of their dietary habits may provide a clue to the etiology of liver cancer in these people. PMID:177187

  13. 75 FR 30012 - Friant Power Authority Orange Cove Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Friant Power Authority Orange Cove Irrigation District; Notice of..., 2010. d. Applicant: Friant Power Authority and Orange Cove Irrigation District. e. Name of Project.... Fergus Morrissey, Orange Cove Irrigation District, 1130 Park Boulevard, Orange Cove, CA 93646;...

  14. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    PubMed

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products. PMID:26593549

  15. Orange oil and its application to spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, S.

    1982-12-01

    Orange oil can be extracted from the peel of citrus. In Japan the production of orange oil is about 2000 tons per year. No orange oil has been however used for any specific purpose. The main ingredient of orange oil consists of d-limonen. About 0.6-1.0% oil can be extracted from the peel of ''Unshu orange'', which is a kind of typical Japanese tangerine. Orange oil has 106-140 research octane number which is good for running the CFR engine. The flash point of orange oil measured by Pensky-Martens method was at 56/sup 0/C. For the use of orange oil only as fuel without blending, there was found to be some difficulty in engine startability under cold conditions.

  16. Agent Orange Linked to Bladder Cancer, Thyroid Problems, Panel Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... 157716.html Agent Orange Linked to Bladder Cancer, Thyroid Problems, Panel Says Herbicide was used during Vietnam ... the herbicide Agent Orange and bladder cancer and thyroid problems among U.S. military personnel exposed to the ...

  17. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  18. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  19. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  20. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  1. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  2. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. NOTE IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE FEATURES AT RIGHT. LOOKING 248°WSW - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  4. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  5. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  6. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  7. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  8. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be spread to humans directly and indirectly. Diet can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutr...

  9. Orange rust: A new surgarcane disease in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange rust of sugarcane was observed approximately 5 miles east of Belle Glade, Florida on CP 80-1743 (a complex hybrid of Sacharum L. species) during the lsat week of June 2007. Orange rust pustules are cinnamon-orange in color, oval and smaller than the darker brown elongate rust pustules of the ...

  10. Limonoid content of sour orange varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern Citrus cultivars are thought to have arisen from three parents- the (pummelo), the mandarin, and citron. Taxological and genetic data support that sweet and sour oranges share a common parentage. However, as their name suggests the organoleptic properties of the fruit from these two familie...

  11. Nuclear structure analysis using the Orange Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Regis, J.-M.; Pascovici, Gh.; Christen, S.; Meersschout, T.; Bernards, C.; Fransen, Ch.; Dewald, A.; Braun, N.; Heinze, S.; Thiel, S.; Jolie, J.; Materna, Th.

    2009-01-28

    Recently, an Orange spectrometer, a focusing iron-free magnetic spectrometer, has been installed at a beam line of the 10 MV Tandem accelerator of the IKP of the University of Cologne. The high efficiency of 15% of 4{pi} for the detection of conversion electrons and the energy resolution of 1% makes the Orange spectrometer a powerful instrument. From the conversion electron spectrum, transition multipolarities can be determined using the so called K to L ratio. In combination with an array of germanium and lanthanum bromide detectors, e{sup -}-{gamma}-coincidences can be performed to investigate the level scheme. Moreover, the very fast lanthanum bromide scintillator with an energy resolution of 3% allows e{sup -}-{gamma} lifetime measurements down to 0.3 ns. A second Orange spectrometer can be added to build the Double Orange Spectrometer for e{sup -}-e{sup -}-coincidences. It is indispensable for lifetime measurements of low intensity or nearby lying transitions as often occur in odd-A and odd-odd nuclei. The capabilities are illustrated with several examples.

  12. Multiple medical problems following agent orange exposure.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, J L; Islam, A; Akhter, S; Dembinski, W; Kulaylat, M; Ambrus, C M

    2004-01-01

    A patient exposed to agent orange and a gunshot wound during the Vietnam War has developed multiple medical problems including nocardiosis, onychomycosis (Trichophyton rubrum), multiple thromboembolic episodes, hemochromatosis, diabetes mellitus type 2, diabetic neuropathy, activated protein C resistance (without Leyden V 1st mutation), degree A-V block, lung cancer (metastatic adenocarcinoma), carpal tunnel syndrome and arthritis. PMID:18084883

  13. Educational and Demographic Profile: Orange County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Orange County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  14. Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

  15. Orange County Outdoor School: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Divided into six sections, the guide provides helpful information for the teacher to prepare students to attend the Orange County Outdoor School. Pre-camp responsibilities section provides pre-camp preparation checklists for the principal, teacher, parents, school nurse, and outdoor specialist; a checklist for morning departure; discipline policy…

  16. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  17. 6-Hydroxypelargonidin glycosides in the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Saito, Norio; Murata, Naho; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2003-04-01

    Two 6-hydroxypelargonidin glycosides were isolated from the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria cultivars, and determined to be 6-hydroxypelargonidin 3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside) and 3-O-[6-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside], respectively, by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, five known anthocyanidin glycosides, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside were identified in the flowers. PMID:12648544

  18. Acridine Derivatives as Inhibitors of the IRE1α-XBP1 Pathway Are Cytotoxic to Human Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dadi; Tam, Arvin B; Alagappan, Muthuraman; Hay, Michael P; Gupta, Aparna; Kozak, Margaret M; Solow-Cordero, David E; Lum, Pek Y; Denko, Nicholas C; Giaccia, Amato J; Le, Quynh-Thu; Niwa, Maho; Koong, Albert C

    2016-09-01

    Using a luciferase reporter-based high-throughput chemical library screen and topological data analysis, we identified N-acridine-9-yl-N',N'-dimethylpropane-1,3-diamine (DAPA) as an inhibitor of the inositol requiring kinase 1α (IRE1α)-X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) pathway of the unfolded protein response. We designed a collection of analogues based on the structure of DAPA to explore structure-activity relationships and identified N(9)-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)-N(3),N(3),N(6),N(6)-tetramethylacridine-3,6,9-triamine (3,6-DMAD), with 3,6-dimethylamino substitution on the chromophore, as a potent inhibitor. 3,6-DMAD inhibited both IRE1α oligomerization and in vitro endoribonuclease (RNase) activity, whereas the other analogues only blocked IRE1α oligomerization. Consistent with the inhibition of IRE1α-mediated XBP1 splicing, which is critical for multiple myeloma cell survival, these analogues were cytotoxic to multiple myeloma cell lines. Furthermore, 3,6-DMAD inhibited XBP1 splicing in vivo and the growth of multiple myeloma tumor xenografts. Our study not only confirmed the utilization of topological data analysis in drug discovery but also identified a class of compounds with a unique mechanism of action as potent IRE1α-XBP1 inhibitors in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(9); 2055-65. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27307600

  19. Design and synthesis of novel anti-Alzheimer's agents: Acridine-chromenone and quinoline-chromenone hybrids.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Zahra; Saeedi, Mina; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Sabourian, Reyhaneh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Tehrani, Maliheh Barazandeh; Moghadam, Farshad Homayouni; Edraki, Najmeh; Karimpor-Razkenari, Elahe; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh

    2016-08-01

    A novel series of acridine-chromenone and quinoline-chromenone hybrids were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as anti-Alzheimer's agents. All synthesized compounds were evaluated as cholinesterases (ChEs) inhibitors and among them, 7-(4-(6-chloro-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[b]quinolin-9-ylamino)phenoxy)-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one (8e) exhibited the most potent anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity (IC50=16.17μM) comparing with rivastigmine (IC50=11.07μM) as the reference drug. Also, compound 8e was assessed for its β-secretase (BACE1) inhibitory and neuroprotective activities which demonstrated satisfactory results. It should be noted that both kinetic study on the inhibition of AChE and molecular modeling revealed that compound 8e interacted simultaneously with both the catalytic active site (CAS) and peripheral anionic site (PAS) of AChE. PMID:27289559

  20. Silver(I) complexes in coordination supramolecular system with bulky acridine-based ligands: syntheses, crystal structures, and theoretical investigations on C-H...Ag close interaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Sen; Chen, Pei-Quan; Yang, En-Cui; Tian, Jin-Lei; Bu, Xian-He; Li, Zheng-Ming; Sun, Hong-Wei; Lin, Zhenyang

    2006-07-24

    In our efforts to investigate the coordination architectures of transition metals and organic ligands with tailored structures, we have prepared two structurally related rigid bulky acridine-based ligands, 9-[3-(2-pyridyl)pyrazol-1-yl]- acridine (L(1)) and 9-(1-imidazolyl)acridine (L2), and synthesized and characterized four of their Ag(I) complexes, {[AgL1](ClO4)}2 (1), {[AgL1](NO3)}2 (2), [AgL2(2)](ClO4) (3), and {[(Ag3L2(3))(NO3)](NO3)2(H2O)}(infinity) (4). The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the structures of 1 and 2 are similar to each other, with the two intramolecular Ag(I) centers of each complex being encircled by two L1 ligands; this forms a unique boxlike cyclic dimer, which is further linked to form one-dimensional (1D) chains of 1 and a two-dimensional (2D) network of 2 by intermolecular face-to-face pi...pi stacking and/or weak C-H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions, respectively. 3 has a mononuclear structure, which is further assembled into a 2D network via intermolecular Ag...O and pi...pi stacking weak interactions. 4 possesses two different 1D motifs that are further interlinked through interlayer face-to-face pi...pi stacking and Ag...O weak interactions, resulting in a 2D network. It is worth noting that one of the interesting structural features of 1, 2, and 4 is the presence of obvious C-H...M hydrogen-bonding interactions between the Ag centers and some acridine ring H atoms identified by X-ray diffraction on the basis of the van der Waals radii. Furthermore, as a representative example, full geometry optimization on the basis of the experimental structure, the natural bond orbital (NBO), and topological analysis of 1 were carried out by DFT and AIM (Atoms in Molecules) calculations. The total C-H...Ag interaction energy in 1 is estimated to be about 14 kJ/mol. Therefore, this work offers three new rare examples (1, 2, and 4) that exhibit C-H...Ag weak interactions, in which the N donors of the acridine rings coordinate

  1. Flora of the Orange Cliffs of Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, L.M.; Neely, E.E.; Tuhy, J.S.

    1987-04-30

    The Orange Cliffs area, an area rich in oil sands deposits and defined here as part of the Colorado Plateau floristic province, harbors approximately 209 species in 123 genera and 49 families. Because of the potential of exploitation of the oil sands deposits in the area, a species checklist was made and a discussion of physical and floristic aspects of the region is given here. The flora is compared statistically to the San Rafael Swell flora, which is also a subset of the Colorado Plateau. They define six vegetation types and three edaphic communities; these are described and mapped. Of eleven endemic plant species in the Orange Cliffs, three are local and rare. Sites for Astragalus nidularius, A. moencoppensis, and Xylorhiza glabriuscula var. linearifolia are discussed and mapped. 24 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Organically modified silica nanoparticles doped with new acridine-1,2-dioxetane analogues as thermochemiluminescence reagentless labels for ultrasensitive immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Di Fusco, Massimo; Quintavalla, Arianna; Lombardo, Marco; Guardigli, Massimo; Mirasoli, Mara; Trombini, Claudio; Roda, Aldo

    2015-02-01

    Doped organically modified silica nanoparticles (ORMOSIL NPs) with luminescent molecules represent a potent approach to signal amplification in biomolecule labeling. Herein, we report the synthesis of new ORMOSIL NPs incorporating thermochemiluminescent (TCL) 1,2-dioxetane derivatives to prepare TCL labels for ultrasensitive immunoassay, displaying a detectability comparable to those offered by other conventional luminescence-based systems. Amino-functionalized ORMOSIL NPs were synthesized for inclusion of acridine-containing 1,2-dioxetane derivatives with a fluorescence energy acceptor. The doped ORMOSIL NPs were further functionalized with biotin for binding to streptavidin-labeled species to be used as universal detection reagents for immunoassays. A quantitative non-competitive immunoassay for streptavidin has been developed by immobilizing anti-streptavidin antibody to capture streptavidin, then the antibody-bound streptavidin was detected by the biotinylated TCL ORMOSIL NPs. The analytical performance was similar to that obtained by chemiluminescent (CL) detection using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as label, being the limits of detection 2.5-3.8 and 0.8 ng mL(-1) for TCL and CL detection, respectively. In addition, since the TCL emission is simply initiated by thermolysis of the label, chemical reagents were not required, thus allowing reagentless detection with a simplification of the analytical protocols. A compact mini dark box device based on the use of a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) and a miniaturized heater has been developed and used to quantify the light emission after heat decomposition of the label at a temperature of 90-120 °C. These characteristics make TCL-doped ORMOSIL NPs ideal universal nanoprobes for ultrasensitive bioassays such as immuno- and DNA-based assay. PMID:25542582

  3. Triple helix formation with purine-rich phosphorothioate-containing oligonucleotides covalently linked to an acridine derivative.

    PubMed Central

    Lacoste, J; François, J C; Hélène, C

    1997-01-01

    Purine-rich (GA)- and (GT)-containing oligophosphorothioates were investigated for their triplex-forming potential on a 23 bp DNA duplex target. In our system, GA-containing oligophosphorothioates (23mer GA-PS) were capable of triplex formation with binding affinities lower than (GA)-containing oligophosphodiesters (23mer GA-PO). The orientation of the third strand 23mers GA-PS and GA-PO was antiparallel to the purine strand of the duplex DNA target. In contrast, (GT)-containing oligophosphorothioates (23mer GT-PS) did not support triplex formation in either orientation, whereas the 23mer GT-PO oligophosphodiester demonstrated triplex formation in the antiparallel orientation. GA-PS oligonucleotides, in contrast to GT-PS oligonucleotides, were capable of self-association, but these self-associated structures exhibited lower stabilities than those formed with GA-PO oligonucleotides, suggesting that homoduplex formation (previously described for the 23mer GA-PO sequence by Noonberg et al.) could not fully account for the decrease in triplex stability when phosphorothioate linkages were used. The 23mer GA-PS oligonucleotide was covalently linked via its 5'-end to an acridine derivative (23mer Acr-GA-PS). In the presence of potassium cations, this conjugate demonstrated triplex formation with higher binding affinity than the unmodified 23mer GA-PS oligonucleotide and even than the 23mer GA-PO oligonucleotide. A (GA)-containing oligophosphodiester with two phosphorothioate linkages at both the 5'- and 3'-ends exhibited similar binding affinity to duplex DNA compared with the unmodified GA-PO oligophosphodiester. This capped oligonucleotide was more resistant to nucleases than the GA-PO oligomer and thus represents a good alternative for ex vivo applications of (GA)-containing, triplex-forming oligonucleotides, allowing a higher binding affinity for its duplex target without rapid cellular degradation. PMID:9115367

  4. Klebsiella pneumoniae in orange juice concentrate.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, F A; Hazen, T C; López-Torres, A J; Rechani, P

    1985-01-01

    Fecal coliform-positive, capsule-forming Klebsiella pneumoniae cells were observed in high densities (10(4) to 10(8) CFU/100 ml) in two commercial batches of frozen orange juice concentrate at a cannery in Puerto Rico. Contamination of both lots was gross and included off colors and odors. Isolates of K. pneumoniae from these concentrates revealed growth at 4, 25, and 34 degrees C with generation times from 0.39 to 1.84 h. PMID:3893321

  5. Molecular and solid-state structure of methyl [2-(acridin-9-ylimino)-3-( tert-butylamino)-4-oxothiazolidin-5-ylidene]acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaščiková, Jana; Danihel, Ivan; Böhm, Stanislav; Imrich, Ján; Kristian, Pavol; Potočňák, Ivan; Čejka, Jan; Klika, Karel D.

    2008-03-01

    The molecular and solid-state structures of methyl [2-(acridin-9-ylimino)-3-( tert-butylamino)-4-oxothiazolidin-5-ylidene]acetate ( 4) were determined by X-ray diffraction, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, CI mass spectroscopy and B3LYP calculations using the basis sets 6-31G(d, p), 6-311+G(d, p) and 6-311++G(2d, 2p). In particular, calculations of long-range heteronuclear coupling constants were found to be extraordinarily indicative for the E/ Z configuration of a distal segment. Compound 4 (C 23H 22N 4O 3S, Mr = 434.52) crystallized in the P1¯ space group wherein: a = 11.973(4), b = 12.398(3), c = 15.289(4) Å and α = 85.80(2)°, β = 73.70(3)°, γ = 87.93(2)°, V = 2172.2(11) Å 3, Z = 4 and calculated density = 1.329 g cm -3. The formation of dimers, chains and the crystal packing between the molecules by means of intermolecular hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions between neighboring acridine moieties are discussed. NMR spectral analysis and quantum chemical calculations were found to be in good agreement with the results of the X-ray study. The observation of 4 indicates the dominate role that the N-2 nitrogen of the isothiosemicarbazide intermediate plays in its formation via the reaction of 4-(acridin-9-yl)-1-( tert-butyl)thiosemicarbazide with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD). This dominance is a result of the steric influences of the substituents on the competing nitrogen atoms.

  6. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1998-09-08

    A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

  7. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Ping; Gosnell, Timothy R.

    1998-01-01

    A laser for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr.sup.3+ ions and Yb.sup.3+ ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output.

  8. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of oligonucleotides built with either alpha-L or beta-L nucleotides units and covalently linked to an acridine derivative.

    PubMed Central

    Asseline, U; Hau, J F; Czernecki, S; Le Diguarher, T; Perlat, M C; Valery, J M; Thuong, N T

    1991-01-01

    Modified deoxynucleosides 2'-deoxy-beta-L-uridine, beta-L-thymidine, alpha-L-thymidine, 2'-deoxy-beta-L-adenosine and 2'-deoxy-alpha-L-adenosine were synthesized and assembled as homooligomers, respectively: octa-beta-L-deoxyuridylates, octa beta-L and alpha-L-thymidylates and tetra beta-L and alpha-L-deoxyadenylates. These unnatural oligomers were then substituted with an acridine derivative. The binding studies of these modified oligonucleotides with D-ribo- and D-deoxyribopolynucleotides were carried out by absorption spectroscopy. While beta-L-d(Up)8m5Acr, beta-L-(Tp)8m5Acr, alpha-L-(Tp)8m5Acr did not interact with poly(rA) and poly(dA), beta-L-d(Ap)4m5Acr and alpha-L-d(Ap)4m5Acr did form double and triple helices with poly(rU) and poly(dT), respectively. Their stability towards nuclease digestion was studied through comparison with that of octa-beta-D-thymidylate and tetra beta-D-deoxyadenylate covalently linked to an acridine derivative. One endonuclease (nuclease P1 from Penicillium citrinum) and two exonucleases (a 3'-exonuclease from Crotalus durissus venom and a 5'-exonuclease extracted from calf thymus) were employed. beta-L- and alpha-L-oligomers demonstrate a high resistance toward nuclease digestion. PMID:1651474

  9. Microwave assisted synthesis of novel acridine-acetazolamide conjugates and investigation of their inhibition effects on human carbonic anhydrase isoforms hCA I, II, IV and VII.

    PubMed

    Ulus, Ramazan; Aday, Burak; Tanç, Muhammet; Supuran, Claudiu T; Kaya, Muharrem

    2016-08-15

    4-Amino-N-(5-sulfamoyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)benzamide was condensed with cyclic-1,3-diketones (dimedone and cyclohexane-1,3-dione) and aromatic aldehydes under microwave irradiation, leading to a series of acridine-acetazolamide conjugates. The new compounds were investigated as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), and more precisely cytosolic isoforms hCA I, II, VII and membrane-bound one hCA IV. All investigated isoforms were inhibited in low micromolar and nanomolar range by the new compounds. hCA IV and VII were inhibited with KIs in the range of 29.7-708.8nM (hCA IV), and of 1.3-90.7nM (hCA VII). For hCA I and II the KIs were in the range of 6.7-335.2nM (hCA I) and of 0.5-55.4nM (hCA II). The structure-activity relationships (SAR) for the inhibition of these isoforms with the acridine-acetazolamide conjugates reported here were delineated. PMID:27298005

  10. Pd-Catalyzed Intramolecular Heck Reaction, C(sp(2))-H Activation, 1,4-Pd Migration, and Aminopalladation: Chemoselective Synthesis of Dihydroindeno[1,2,3-kl]acridines and 3-Arylindoles.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zheng-Yang; Liu, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Shun-Yi; Ji, Shun-Jun

    2016-05-20

    Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular Heck reaction and aminopalladation of N-(2-(1-phenylvinyl)phenyl)aniline for the efficient synthesis of dihydroindeno[1,2,3-kl]acridines and 3-arylindoles via tuning of the phosphine ligands and solvents under two optimized conditions are reported. The reaction follows a 1,4-Pd migration, aminopalladation, C(sp(2))-H activation, as well as five- and six-membered-ring fusion to form different products. The dihydroindeno[1,2,3-kl]acridine derivatives showed higher triplet energy (ET) levels than common blue phosphorescent dopant and may serve as good host candidates for blue triplet emitters. PMID:27137482

  11. Development of orange rust of sugarcane in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange rust of sugarcane was observed for the first time in the Americas in 2007 in Florida. Urediniospores of Puccinia kuehnii, the causal agent of orange rust, were collected in aerial traps located in Louisiana in 2010; however, the first observation of disease symptoms in the state was not made ...

  12. 75 FR 55968 - Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... (NPRM) entitled Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (75 FR 41119... published in 75 FR 41119. Regulatory Analyses We developed this rule after considering numerous statutes and... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange,...

  13. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  14. 75 FR 41119 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... River, Orange, Texas. This Special Local Regulation is intended to restrict vessels from portions of...

  15. 76 FR 30890 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... River, Orange, Texas on September 24-25, 2011. This Special Local Regulation is intended to...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  17. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  18. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  19. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  20. Physiological Responses of Sugarcane to Orange Rust Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, is a relatively new disease in the United States that substantially reduces yields in susceptible sugarcane cultivars in Florida. The objective of this study was to determine physiological responses of sugarcane to orange rust infection by quantifyi...

  1. Ultrastructural changes in sweet orange with symptoms of huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. To better understand the ultrastructural changes of sweet orange seedlings in response to infection, anatomical analyses of HLB-infected sweet orange were carried out by light and electron microscopy. A...

  2. 76 FR 52563 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ...) entitled Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (76 FR 103). We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... temporary Special Local Regulation on the Sabine River within the Port Arthur, TX Captain of the Port...

  3. Volatile and nonvolatile flavor chemical evaluation of USDA orange-mandarin hybrids for comparison to sweet orange and mandarin fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three citrus hybrids, containing 50-75% sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) genome in their pedigrees and similar to sweet orange in fruit size, color and taste, were tested for their potential to be classified as new “sweet orange” cultivars. 'Hamlin', ‘Midsweet’, and three other early to mid-season swe...

  4. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of industrial orange waste.

    PubMed

    Kaparaju, P L N; Rintala, J A

    2006-06-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of industrial orange waste (pulp and peel) with subsequent aerobic post-treatment of the digestate was evaluated. Methane production potential was first determined in batch assays and the effects of operational parameters such as hydraulic retention times (HRT) and organic loading rates (OLR) on process performance were studied through semi-continuous digestion. In batch assays, methane production potential of about 0.49 m(3) kg(-1) volatile solids (VS)(added waste) was achieved. In semi-continuous digestion, loading at 2.8 kgVS m(-3) d(-1) (2.9 kg total solids (TS) m(-3) d(-1)) and HRT of 26 d produced specific methane yields of 0.6 m(3) kg(-1) VS (added waste) (0.63 m(3) kg(-1) VS(added waste)). Operating at a higher OLR of 4.2 kgVS m(-3) d(-1) (4.4 kg TS m(-3) d(-1)) and 40 d HRT produced 0.5 m(3) of methane kg(-1) VS (added waste) (0.63-0.52 m(3) kg(-1) TS (added waste). Up to 70% of TS of industrial orange waste (11.6% TS) was methanised. Further increase in OLR to 5.6 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) (5.9 kg TS m(-3) d(-1); HRT of 20 d) resulted in an unstable and non-functional digester process shown directly through complete cessation of methanogenesis, drop in methane content, reduced pH and increase in volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, especially acetate and soluble chemical oxygen demand. A pH adjustment (from an initial 3.2 to ca. 8) for the low pH orange waste was necessary and was found to be a crucial factor for stable digester operation as the process showed a tendency to be inhibited due to accumulation of VFAs and decrease in digester pH. Aerobic post-treatment of digestate resulted in removal of ammonia and VFAs. PMID:16865918

  5. Solvent-Switching Gelation and Orange-Red Emission of Ultrasmall Copper Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinhua; Zhang, Qiang Matthew; Feng, Yong; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Shih, Kaimin

    2016-01-18

    By tuning the Cu⋅⋅⋅Cu and hydrogen-bonding interactions, the small cluster Cu3 L can be selectively synthesized to develop a stable and highly fluorescent material, as confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectroscopy. Further characterizations, including absorbance spectroscopy, XPS, and XRD demonstrate the formation of tiny Cu nanoclusters (NCs). In water, the as-prepared Cu NCs can exhibit high orange fluorescence via solution evaporation to eliminate hydrogen-bonding, and in dimethylformamide, a strong orange fluorescent gel is obtained by solvent induction to enhance the Cu⋅⋅⋅Cu and hydrogen-bonding interactions. More importantly, the Cu NCs in their substantial form exhibit nonlinear optical properties upon two-photon excitation. These results will shed light on Cu and related cluster applications in two-photon biological imaging, optical power limiting, and solar energy conversion. PMID:26584405

  6. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. PMID:23909609

  7. Fluorescence spectroscopy applied to orange trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcassa, L. G.; Gasparoto, M. C. G.; Belasque, J., Jr.; Lins, E. C.; Dias Nunes, F.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2006-05-01

    In this work, we have applied laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate biological processes in orange trees (Citrus aurantium L.). We have chosen to investigate water stress and Citrus Canker, which is a disease caused by the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri bacteria. The fluorescence spectroscopy was investigated by using as an excitation source a 442-nm 15-mW HeCd gas multimode discharge laser and a 532-nm 10-mW Nd3+:YAG laser. The stress manifestation was detected by the variation of fluorescence ratios of the leaves at different wavelengths. The fluorescence ratios present a significant variation, showing the possibility to observe water stress by fluorescence spectrum. The Citrus Canker’s contaminated leaves were discriminated from the healthy leaves using a more complex analysis of the fluorescence spectra. However, we were unable to discriminate it from another disease, and new fluorescence experiments are planned for the future.

  8. Identification of sulfur volatiles in canned orange juices lacking orange flavor.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Smoot, John M; Rouseff, Russell

    2007-07-11

    The purpose of this study was to understand why some canned orange juices are not perceived as orange juice. Sensory flavor profile data indicated that the primary odor (orthonasal) attributes were tropical fruit/grapefruit, cooked/caramel, musty, and medicine. By comparison fresh-squeezed juice lacked these odor attributes. GC-O analysis found 43 odor-active components in canned juices. Eight of these aroma volatiles were sulfur based. Four of the 12 most intense aroma peaks were sulfur compounds that included methanethiol, 1-p-menth-1-ene-8-thiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, and dimethyl trisulfide. The other most intense odorants included 7-methyl-3-methylene-1,6-octadiene (myrcene), octanal, 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), 2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (homofuraneol), (E)-non-2-enal, (E,E)-deca-2,4-dienal, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin), and alpha-sinensal. Odorants probably responsible for the undesirable sensory attributes included grapefruit (1-p-menth-1-ene-8-thiol), cooked [2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol), and 3-(methylthio)propanal (methional)], musty [7-methyl-3-methylene-1,6-octadiene and (E)-non-2-enal], and medicine (2-methoxyphenol). The canned juices also lacked several aldehydes and esters normally found in fresh orange juice. PMID:17579430

  9. Oranges or "lemons"? Family farming and product quality in the Spanish orange industry, 1870-1960.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In the early twentieth century California became a big exporter of some agricultural products that, until then, had only been grown on a large scale in the mediterranean basin. As a result, exports of those products diminished or stagnated in Mediterranean countries, with important repercussions on their economies. The Spanish orange industry, however, continued to expand, despite the fact that a substantial percentage of Spanish oranges came from farms owned by (often illiterate) small peasants who, in comparison to the California growers, used a great deal of labor, small amounts of capital, and little science. This paper shows that Spanish farmers were in fact capable of growing high-quality oranges at prices that were more competitive than those in California, although interested they often preferred to satisfy the strong demand for middling fruit from Great Britain because it was a more profitable business. This, combined with a deficient use of brand names, gave the Spanish citrus industry serious reputation problems by the 1930s, from which, however, it recovered quickly. PMID:20509234

  10. Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer by orange juice.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Y; Om, A S; Chee, K M; Bennink, M R

    2000-01-01

    Previous research has shown that hesperidin, a flavanone glycoside in orange juice, inhibits colon carcinogenesis and that feeding double-strength orange juice delays the onset of chemically induced mammary cancer in rats. This study determined whether feeding single-strength, pasteurized orange juice would inhibit azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer in male Fischer 344 rats. Colon cancer was initiated by injecting AOM (15 mg/kg body wt) at 22 and 29 days of age. One week after the second AOM injection, orange juice replaced drinking water for the experimental group (n = 30). The rats were killed 28 weeks later, and tumors were removed for histological analysis. Feeding orange juice reduced tumor incidence by 22% (p < 0.05). Tumor reduction was associated with a decreased labeling index and proliferation zone in the colonic mucosa. Hesperidin, other flavonoids, limonin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and other limonoid glucosides are potential chemopreventive agents in orange juice that could account for the decreased colon tumorigenesis associated with feeding orange juice. PMID:10890034

  11. Apollo 17 "Orange soil" and meteorite impact on liquid lava

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1973-01-01

    THE 'orange soil' from Shorty Crater differs greatly from ordinary lunar soils in that it consists of ???99% 10-300 ??m smooth shiny spherules and broken fragments of spherules of transparent orange glass, about 20% of which contain partly crystallized to opaque material. The remaining 1 % is chiefly crystalline basalt fragments. Although the colour of the individual orange spherule varies with thickness from yellow-orange to red-brown, all orange glass in our sample (74220, 70; 0.25 g) has a uniform index of refraction (??? 1.712). By contrast, other lunar soils contain spherules ranging from 1.50 to 1.75. The orange glass is also completely free of bubbles, to the limit of resolution of the light microscope, whereas bubbles are present in many other spherule samples. The spherules generally appear spherical in a normal microscope mount, but when viewed from two directions many are found to be oblate spheroids with axial ratios varying from near 1.00 to as low as 0.42 (Fig. 1a). Some have fissioned during free flight1 and all stages of the fission process are found, as described for the Apollo 11 samples. Only a few spherules seem to have been distorted by landing while still soft. One notable exception is the occurrence of small spherules of orange glass conforming and adhering to the surface of larger black spherules (Fig. 1b). ?? 1973 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Toward the design of a catalytic metallodrug: selective cleavage of G-quadruplex telomeric DNA by an anticancer copper-acridine-ATCUN complex.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhen; Han, Menglu; Cowan, James A

    2015-02-01

    Telomeric DNA represents a novel target for the development of anticancer drugs. By application of a catalytic metallodrug strategy, a copper-acridine-ATCUN complex (CuGGHK-Acr) has been designed that targets G-quadruplex telomeric DNA. Both fluorescence solution assays and gel sequencing demonstrate the CuGGHK-Acr catalyst to selectively bind and cleave the G-quadruplex telomere sequence. The cleavage pathway has been mapped by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) experiments. CuGGHK-Acr promotes significant inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and shortening of telomere length. Both senescence and apoptosis are induced in the breast cancer cell line MCF7. PMID:25504651

  13. 76 FR 73996 - Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International..., Florida during the Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, a series of sailboat races. The Orange Bowl... this rule because the Coast Guard did not receive necessary information about the Orange...

  14. Inhibition of DNA Synthesis by a Platinum–Acridine Hybrid Agent Leads to Potent Cell Kill in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The platinum–acridine anticancer agent [PtCl(en)(LH)](NO3)2 (1) [en = ethane-1,2-diamine, LH = N-(2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl)-N-methylpropionimidamide, acridinium cation] and the clinical drug cisplatin were studied in chemoresistant nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines for their cytotoxic potency and cell kill mechanisms. In the three cell lines tested (NCI-H460, NCI-H522, and NCI-H1435), compound 1 shows a pronounced cytotoxic enhancement of 40–200-fold as compared to cisplatin at inhibitory concentrations reaching the low nanomolar range. On the basis of changes in cell adhesion and cell morphology, monitored in real time by impedance measurements, compound 1 kills NCI-H460 cells significantly more efficiently than cisplatin at equitoxic concentrations. Flow cytometry analysis of NCI-H460 cells reveals a robust S phase arrest of cells treated with compound 1, whereas cells treated with cisplatin progress to G2/M of the cell cycle. A pronounced inhibition of DNA replication in 75% of viable cells is observed in NCI-H460 cells treated with compound 1 at an IC90 molar concentration for 48 h, based on the reduced incorporation of the fluorophore-clickable nucleoside analogue 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) into newly synthesized DNA. The distinct cell cycle perturbations and cell kill potential of compound 1 are discussed in the light of the DNA interactions of this agent and its potential to overcome cisplatin resistance in NSCLC. PMID:22328962

  15. Inhibition of DNA Synthesis by a Platinum-Acridine Hybrid Agent Leads to Potent Cell Kill in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Smyre, Christopher L; Saluta, Gilda; Kute, Timothy E; Kucera, Gregory L; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2011-08-31

    The platinum-acridine anti-cancer agent [PtCl(en)(LH)](NO(3))(2) (1) (en = ethane-1,2-diamine, LH = N-(2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl)-N-methylpropionimidamide, acridinium cation) and the clinical drug cisplatin were studied in chemoresistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines for their cytotoxic potency and cell-kill mechanisms. In the three cell lines tested (NCI-H460, NCI-H522, and NCI-H1435) compound 1 shows a pronounced cytotoxic enhancement of 40-200-fold compared to cisplatin at inhibitory concentrations reaching the low-nanomolar range. Based on changes in cell adhesion and cell morphology, monitored in real time by impedance measurements, compound 1 kills NCI-H460 cells significantly more efficiently than cisplatin at equitoxic concentrations. Flow cytometry analysis of NCI-H460 cells reveals a robust S-phase arrest of cells treated with compound 1, whereas cells treated with cisplatin progress to G2/M of the cell cycle. A pronounced inhibition of DNA replication in 75% of viable cells is observed in NCI-H460 cells treated with compound 1 at an IC(90) molar concentration for 48 h, based on the reduced incorporation of the fluorophore-clickable nucleoside analogue 5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine (EdU) into newly synthesized DNA. The distinct cell-cycle perturbations and cell-kill potential of compound 1 are discussed in the light of the DNA interactions of this agent and its potential to overcome cisplatin resistance in NSCLC. PMID:22328962

  16. Agent Orange: management of patients exposed in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Anne; Fessele, Kristen

    2003-01-01

    Since the Vietnam War ended in 1975, numerous studies have been conducted to determine if an association exists between Agent Orange exposure and certain disabling conditions specifically cancer. Although a definite causal relationship has not yet been established, sufficient data associate Agent Orange with certain conditions. Because of their advancing age similar to other baby boomers, Vietnam veterans are at a higher risk of developing malignancies. However, their exposure to Agent Orange also may increase their risk for cancer and other associated diseases. This article examines the latest findings of scientific research sponsored by the Department of Veterans Affairs and discusses the importance of well-informed oncology nurses when providing care for patients with cancer exposed to Agent Orange. PMID:12793339

  17. Orange Peel The Orange’s Life Vest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suskavcevic, Milijana; Hagedorn, E.

    2006-12-01

    We developed a lesson unit using an orange as a main ingredient to illustrate the concept of density of the system. The orange may be treated as a system comprised of two major components: pulp and peel. Teachers involved in the study tested whether they can average the densities of these components to find the value for the density of the system. The unit is flexible enough to be introduced in inquiry based classrooms at several grade bands and at different levels of sophistication: from basic qualitative description of the behavior of the orange in different liquids to quantitative calculations of the buoyant force which selected liquids exert on the orange. The activity has been implemented among several populations of pre and in service teachers through physical science courses and workshops. The impact of this activity on teachers’ and their K-12 students’ understanding of the density of the system will be discussed in this presentation.

  18. Are Vietnamese food exports contaminated with dioxin from Agent Orange?

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Malisch, Rainer; Ryan, John Jake

    2003-08-01

    In this study the levels of dioxins and dioxinlike compounds, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in food exported from Vietnam to the United States. In the past, some Vietnamese fish was found to be contaminated with dioxin, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, or TCDD, from Agent Orange. U.S. commercial catfish farmers recently claimed that exported Vietnamese food, especially catfish, was contaminated with dioxin from Agent Orange and was thus a matter of concern to the U.S. Congress. In 2001, twenty-two exported Vietnamese food samples (mostly fish) were purchased in the United States and Laos to evaluate possible contamination with dioxin from Agent Orange. Dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar PCB congeners were measured by high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry by laboratories in Germany and Canada certified for dioxin analysis by the World Health Organization (WHO). In the current study, only low levels of dioxins and dioxinlike compounds were present in all exported Vietnamese food analyzed, despite recent findings of elevated levels of one dioxin, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, from Agent Orange exposure in some Vietnamese individuals, presumably due to food consumption. It appears unlikely that exported Vietnamese food is, in general, contaminated with large amounts of dioxin (TCDD) from Agent Orange or other sources. Further food sampling from areas of heavy Agent Orange spraying in Vietnam is warranted to map out where the source of TCDD contamination of food may be originating. PMID:12857631

  19. Origin of orange scoria from Omuroyama volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiie, T.; Ohba, T.; Fujimaki, H.

    2003-12-01

    Origin of color variation of scoria from Omuroyama volcano, Izu peninsula, Shizuoka, Japan, was investigated. In the fresh glass domains, the compositions are homogeneous whereas the color of the scoria widely varies from black to orange. In fall units, the orange scoria clasts are homogeneously mixed with the black scoria clasts, and gray scoria clasts are included in some units. Continuous spectra of chemical (bulk clast) compositions correspond to the systematic variation of the scoria color from black to orange. Gray scoria has intermediate composition between orange and black scoria. The orange scoria is richer in Al, Fe3+, Si, and Ti and poorer in Ca, Mg, Na, and K than the black scoria. Back-scattered electron image observations of the orange scoria exhibit that the volcanic glass includes altered domains in which iron content is higher than the other area of the glass. Electron microprobe analyses, visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction indicate the presence of goethite-like ferric iron hydroxide in volcanic glass. On possible explanation for the formation of ferric iron hydroxide is a leaching of iron by acid water including contributions from volcanic gasses and a precipitation-crystallization of iron hydroxides under near neutral pH conditions.

  20. Hydrology of Lake Butler, Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoot, James L.; Schiffer, Donna M.

    1984-01-01

    Lake Butler is one of the lakes that collectively make up the Butler chain of lakes in the headwaters of the Kissimmee River, Florida. The bottom configuration of the lake is typical of relict karst features formed during lower stages in sea level. The top of the Floridan aquifer is 50 to 100 feet below the land surface. The drainage area of Lake Butler is approximately 14.5 sq mi and is comprised of sub-basins of other lakes in the vicinity. Surface outflow from Lake Butler is generally southward to Cypress Creek, a tributary of the Kissimmee River. The extremes in lake stage for the period 1933-81 are 94.67 ft on June 23, 1981 and 101.78 ft on September 13, 1960. The median lake stage for this period was 99.28 ft above sea level. The quality of water in Lake Butler is excellent, based on studies of physical, chemical, and biological conditions by the Orange County Pollution Control Department. The lake water is slightly acidic and soft (48 mg/L hardness as calcium carbonate). Pesticides in water were below detection levels at two sites sampled in the lake, but were detected in the bottom sediments. (USGS)

  1. The Signaling State of Orange Carotenoid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Maksimov, Eugene G.; Shirshin, Evgeny A.; Sluchanko, Nikolai N.; Zlenko, Dmitry V.; Parshina, Evgenia Y.; Tsoraev, Georgy V.; Klementiev, Konstantin E.; Budylin, Gleb S.; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Friedrich, Thomas; Fadeev, Victor V.; Paschenko, Vladimir Z.; Rubin, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    Orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is the photoactive protein that is responsible for high light tolerance in cyanobacteria. We studied the kinetics of the OCP photocycle by monitoring changes in its absorption spectrum, intrinsic fluorescence, and fluorescence of the Nile red dye bound to OCP. It was demonstrated that all of these three methods provide the same kinetic parameters of the photocycle, namely, the kinetics of OCP relaxation in darkness was biexponential with a ratio of two components equal to 2:1 independently of temperature. Whereas the changes of the absorption spectrum of OCP characterize the geometry and environment of its chromophore, the intrinsic fluorescence of OCP reveals changes in its tertiary structure, and the fluorescence properties of Nile red indicate the exposure of hydrophobic surface areas of OCP to the solvent following the photocycle. The results of molecular-dynamics studies indicated the presence of two metastable conformations of 3′-hydroxyechinenone, which is consistent with characteristic changes in the Raman spectra. We conclude that rotation of the β-ionylidene ring in the C-terminal domain of OCP could be one of the first conformational rearrangements that occur during photoactivation. The obtained results suggest that the photoactivated form of OCP represents a molten globule-like state that is characterized by increased mobility of tertiary structure elements and solvent accessibility. PMID:26244741

  2. Low temperature solution process-based defect-induced orange-red light emitting diode

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Pranab; Baek, Sung-Doo; Hoon Lee, Sang; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Jeong Lee, Su; Il Lee, Tae; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2015-01-01

    We report low-temperature solution-processed p-CuO nanorods (NRs)/n-ZnO NRs heterojunction light emitting diode (LED), exploiting the native point defects of ZnO NRs. ZnO NRs were synthesized at 90 °C by using hydrothermal method while CuO NRs were synthesized at 100 °C by using microwave reaction system. The electrical properties of newly synthesized CuO NRs revealed a promising p-type nature with a hole concentration of 9.64 × 1018 cm−3. The current-voltage characteristic of the heterojunction showed a significantly high rectification ratio of 105 at 4 V with a stable current flow. A broad orange-red emission was obtained from the forward biased LED with a major peak at 610 nm which was attributed to the electron transition from interstitial zinc to interstitial oxygen point defects in ZnO. A minor shoulder peak was also observed at 710 nm, corresponding to red emission which was ascribed to the transition from conduction band of ZnO to oxygen vacancies in ZnO lattice. This study demonstrates a significant progress toward oxide materials based, defect-induced light emitting device with low-cost, low-temperature methods. PMID:26648420

  3. Characterization and luminescence properties of Sr3Gd): Sm3+ orange-red phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zaifa; Xu, Denghui; Sun, Jiayue; Sun, Yumei; Du, Haiyan

    2015-10-01

    Reddish-orange emitting phosphors, Sr3Gd): Sm3+, were successfully synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction. The crystal structure of the phosphors was characterized by x-ray diffraction. The excitation spectra and emission spectra were utilized to characterize the luminescence properties of the as-prepared phosphors. The results show that the phosphor consisted of some sharp emission peaks of Sm3+ ions centered at 564, 600, 647, and 707 nm, respectively. The critical distance of Sr3Gd0.93): 0.07Sm3+ was calculated to be 19.18 Å and the lifetime value of the sample was 1.63 ms. The band gap of Sr3Gd) was estimated to be about 2.74 eV from the diffuse reflection spectrum. The optimum doping concentration is 7 mol. % and the quenching occurs via dipole-dipole interaction according to Dexter's theory. The Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage value of Sr3Gd): Sm3+ phosphors presented that it has high color purity. These results indicated that the Sr3Gd): Sm3+ may be a promising reddish-orange emitting phosphor for cost-effective near ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes.

  4. Outdoor residential water use trends in Orange County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijoor, N. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Berg, J.; Baum-Haley, M.

    2012-12-01

    Irrigation is required to maintain outdoor landscapes in semi-arid climates, such as in Orange County, California. Landscape water use efficiency is a priority in Orange County, as nearly half the water supply is imported and the region is vulnerable to water shortages. The purpose of this research is to determine whether single family household residents adjust landscape irrigation based on climate or income in Orange County. Specifically, the goals were to (1) estimate the volume of single family residence (SFR) landscape irrigation applied (2) determine the depth (mm) of over- or under-irrigation compared to theoretical need (3) determine the climatic and socioeconomic controls on landscape irrigation. We plan to compare results from agencies with uniform vs. allocation-based rate structures. A research partnership was established between six water retail agencies in Orange County: Huntington Beach Water District, El Toro Water District, Irvine Ranch Water District, East Orange County Water District, City of San Juan Capistrano, and Laguna Beach County Water District. These agencies represent a wide range of climatic and economic conditions and contributed between 3 and 13 years of SFR water use data on a monthly/bimonthly basis. Household water use, climate, and socioeconomic factors were mapped using Arcview GIS. Air temperature (California Irrigation Management Information System), precipitation (Orange County Cooperative Observer System), landscape size, and income (US Census) were evaluated as possible controls on SFR water use. Findings indicate that landscape water use may constitute the majority of household water use. We found over-irrigation relative to plant water demand in areas of Orange County. Domestic landscape water use may depend on climate and/or income. Results suggest a high potential for residential water savings with improved landscape irrigation efficiency. This information would be useful for improving or developing water use efficiency

  5. Nanobiocatalytic Degradation of Acid Orange 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Jason

    The catalytic properties of various metal nanoparticles have led to their use in environmental remediation applications. However, these remediation strategies are limited by their ability to deliver catalytic nanoparticles and a suitable electron donor to large treatment zones. Clostridium pasteurianum BC1 cells, loaded with bio-Pd nanoparticles, were used to effectively catalyze the reductive degradation and removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7), a model azo compound. Hydrogen produced fermentatively by the C. pasteurianum BC1 acted as the electron donor for the process. Pd-free bacterial cultures or control experiments conducted with heat-killed cells showed limited reduction of AO7. Experiments also showed that the in situ biological production of H2 by C. pasteurianum BC1 was essential for the degradation of AO7, which suggests a novel process where the in situ microbial production of hydrogen is directly coupled to the catalytic bio-Pd mediated reduction of AO7. The differences in initial degradation rate for experiments conducted using catalyst concentrations of 1ppm Pd and 5ppm Pd and an azo dye concentration of 100ppm AO7 was 0.39 /hr and 1.94 /hr respectively, demonstrating the importance of higher concentrations of active Pd(0). The degradation of AO7 was quick as demonstrated by complete reductive degradation of 50ppm AO7 in 2 hours in experiments conducted using a catalyst concentration of 5ppm Pd. Dye degradation products were analyzed via Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), UltraViolet-Visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) spectrometry. The presence of 1-amino 2-naphthol, one of the hypothesized degradation products, was confirmed using mass spectrometry.

  6. Supra­molecular inter­actions in a 1:1 co-crystal of acridine and 3-chloro­thio­phene-2-carb­oxy­lic acid

    PubMed Central

    Prajina, Olakkandiyil; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan; Perdih, Franc

    2016-01-01

    In the title co-crystal, C5H3ClO2S·C13H9N, the components inter­act with each other via an O—H⋯N hydrogen bond. Acridine–acridine stacking, thio­phene–thio­phene stacking and acridine–thio­phene C—H⋯π inter­actions also occur in the crystal. PMID:27308013

  7. Heavy metals in navel orange orchards of Xinfeng County and their transfer from soils to navel oranges.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated heavy metal concentrations in soils and navel oranges of Xinfeng County, a well-known navel orange producing area of China. The results showed that the average concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in orchard soils all increased compared to the regional background values, especially for Cd, which increased by 422%. When compared to the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for soil (GB15618-1995), Pb, Cr and Hg concentrations in all orchard soil samples were below the limit standards, but Cd concentrations in 24 soil samples (21%) and As concentrations in 8 soil samples (7%) exceeded the limit standards. However, concentrations of all heavy metals in navel orange pulps were within the National Food Safety Standard of China (GB 2762-2012). Dietary risk assessment also showed that the exposure to these five heavy metals by consumption of navel oranges could hardly pose adverse health effects on adults and children. Since the range and degree of soil Cd pollution was widest and the most severe of all, Cd was taken as an example to reveal the transfer characteristics of heavy metals in soil-navel orange system. Cd concentrations in different organs of navel orange trees decreased in the following order: root>leaf>peel>pulp. That navel oranges planted in the Cd contaminated soils were within the national food safety standard was mainly due to the low transfer factor for Cd from soil to pulp (TFpulp). Further studies showed that TFpulp was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH, organic carbon (OC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Based on these soil properties, a prediction equation for TFpulp was established, which indicated that the risk for Cd concentration of navel orange pulp exceeding the national food limit is generally low, when soil Cd concentration is below 7.30 mg/kg. If appropriate actions are taken to increase soil pH, OC and CEC, Cd concentrations in navel orange pulps

  8. ORANGE: a Monte Carlo dose engine for radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, W; Hogenbirk, A; van der Marck, S C

    2005-02-21

    This study presents data for the verification of ORANGE, a fast MCNP-based dose engine for radiotherapy treatment planning. In order to verify the new algorithm, it has been benchmarked against DOSXYZ and against measurements. For the benchmarking, first calculations have been done using the ICCR-XIII benchmark. Next, calculations have been done with DOSXYZ and ORANGE in five different phantoms (one homogeneous, two with bone equivalent inserts and two with lung equivalent inserts). The calculations have been done with two mono-energetic photon beams (2 MeV and 6 MeV) and two mono-energetic electron beams (10 MeV and 20 MeV). Comparison of the calculated data (from DOSXYZ and ORANGE) against measurements was possible for a realistic 10 MV photon beam and a realistic 15 MeV electron beam in a homogeneous phantom only. For the comparison of the calculated dose distributions and dose distributions against measurements, the concept of the confidence limit (CL) has been used. This concept reduces the difference between two data sets to a single number, which gives the deviation for 90% of the dose distributions. Using this concept, it was found that ORANGE was always within the statistical bandwidth with DOSXYZ and the measurements. The ICCR-XIII benchmark showed that ORANGE is seven times faster than DOSXYZ, a result comparable with other accelerated Monte Carlo dose systems when no variance reduction is used. As shown for XVMC, using variance reduction techniques has the potential for further acceleration. Using modern computer hardware, this brings the total calculation time for a dose distribution with 1.5% (statistical) accuracy within the clinical range (less then 10 min). This means that ORANGE can be a candidate for a dose engine in radiotherapy treatment planning. PMID:15773624

  9. ORANGE: a Monte Carlo dose engine for radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zee, W.; Hogenbirk, A.; van der Marck, S. C.

    2005-02-01

    This study presents data for the verification of ORANGE, a fast MCNP-based dose engine for radiotherapy treatment planning. In order to verify the new algorithm, it has been benchmarked against DOSXYZ and against measurements. For the benchmarking, first calculations have been done using the ICCR-XIII benchmark. Next, calculations have been done with DOSXYZ and ORANGE in five different phantoms (one homogeneous, two with bone equivalent inserts and two with lung equivalent inserts). The calculations have been done with two mono-energetic photon beams (2 MeV and 6 MeV) and two mono-energetic electron beams (10 MeV and 20 MeV). Comparison of the calculated data (from DOSXYZ and ORANGE) against measurements was possible for a realistic 10 MV photon beam and a realistic 15 MeV electron beam in a homogeneous phantom only. For the comparison of the calculated dose distributions and dose distributions against measurements, the concept of the confidence limit (CL) has been used. This concept reduces the difference between two data sets to a single number, which gives the deviation for 90% of the dose distributions. Using this concept, it was found that ORANGE was always within the statistical bandwidth with DOSXYZ and the measurements. The ICCR-XIII benchmark showed that ORANGE is seven times faster than DOSXYZ, a result comparable with other accelerated Monte Carlo dose systems when no variance reduction is used. As shown for XVMC, using variance reduction techniques has the potential for further acceleration. Using modern computer hardware, this brings the total calculation time for a dose distribution with 1.5% (statistical) accuracy within the clinical range (less then 10 min). This means that ORANGE can be a candidate for a dose engine in radiotherapy treatment planning.

  10. Chemical elements in organic and conventional sweet oranges.

    PubMed

    Turra, Christian; Fernandes, Elisabete A De Nadai; Bacchi, Márcio Arruda; Barbosa Júnior, Fernando; Sarriés, Gabriel Adrián; Blumer, Lucimara

    2011-12-01

    This work focuses on the determination of chemical elements in sweet oranges of variety Valencia produced under organic and conventional systems using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The distribution of chemical elements was variable among the fruit parts with usually higher concentrations of Br, Ca, Ce, K, La, Na, Rb, and Sc in the peel. However, K, Na, and Rb also presented high values in the juice samples, while Fe and Zn were higher in the seeds. Differences between organic and conventional oranges were found for Br and Cu. PMID:21735113