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Sample records for 10-nanosecond time scale

  1. Measurement of Electromagnetic Properties of Lightning with 10 Nanosecond Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, C. E.; Breen, E. L.; Oneill, J. P.; Moore, C. B.; Hall, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic data recorded from lightning strikes are presented. The data analysis reveals general characteristics of fast electromagnetic fields measured at the ground including rise times, amplitudes, and time patterns. A look at the electromagnetic structure of lightning shows that the shortest rise times in the vicinity of 30 ns are associated with leader leader streamers. Lightning location is based on electromagnetic field characteristics and is compared to a nearby sky camera. The fields from both leaders and return strokes were measured and are discussed. The data were obtained during 1978 and 1979 from lightning strikes occuring within 5 kilometers of an underground metal instrumentation room located on South Baldy peak near Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico. The computer controlled instrumentation consisted of sensors previously used for measuring the nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and analog-digital recorders with 10 ns sampling, 256 levels of resolution, and 2 kilobytes of internal memory.

  2. Occupational Cohort Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores how highly correlated time variables (occupational cohort time scales) contribute to confounding and ambiguity of interpretation. Methods: Occupational cohort time scales were identified and organized through simple equations of three time scales (relational triads) and the connections between these triads (time scale web). The behavior of the time scales was examined when constraints were imposed on variable ranges and interrelationships. Results: Constraints on a time scale in a triad create high correlations between the other two time scales. These correlations combine with the connections between relational triads to produce association paths. High correlation between time scales leads to ambiguity of interpretation. Conclusions: Understanding the properties of occupational cohort time scales, their relational triads, and the time scale web is helpful in understanding the origins of otherwise obscure confounding bias and ambiguity of interpretation. PMID:25647318

  3. Time Scales: Terrestrial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, G.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Terrestrial time is at present derived from atomic clocks. The SI second, the unit of time of the international system of units, has been defined since 1967 in terms of a hyperfine transition of the cesium atom and the best primary frequency standards now realize it with a relative uncertainty of a few parts in 1015, which makes it the most accurately measurable physical quantity. INTERNATIONAL A...

  4. Geologic time scale bookmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2012-01-01

    This bookmark, designed for use with U.S. Geological Survey activities at the 2nd USA Science and Engineering Festival (April 26–29, 2012), is adapted from the more detailed Fact Sheet 2010–3059 "Divisions of Geologic Time." The information that it presents is widely sought by educators and students.

  5. Time scales in cognitive neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Papo, David

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience boils down to describing the ways in which cognitive function results from brain activity. In turn, brain activity shows complex fluctuations, with structure at many spatio-temporal scales. Exactly how cognitive function inherits the physical dimensions of neural activity, though, is highly non-trivial, and so are generally the corresponding dimensions of cognitive phenomena. As for any physical phenomenon, when studying cognitive function, the first conceptual step should be that of establishing its dimensions. Here, we provide a systematic presentation of the temporal aspects of task-related brain activity, from the smallest scale of the brain imaging technique's resolution, to the observation time of a given experiment, through the characteristic time scales of the process under study. We first review some standard assumptions on the temporal scales of cognitive function. In spite of their general use, these assumptions hold true to a high degree of approximation for many cognitive (viz. fast perceptual) processes, but have their limitations for other ones (e.g., thinking or reasoning). We define in a rigorous way the temporal quantifiers of cognition at all scales, and illustrate how they qualitatively vary as a function of the properties of the cognitive process under study. We propose that each phenomenon should be approached with its own set of theoretical, methodological and analytical tools. In particular, we show that when treating cognitive processes such as thinking or reasoning, complex properties of ongoing brain activity, which can be drastically simplified when considering fast (e.g., perceptual) processes, start playing a major role, and not only characterize the temporal properties of task-related brain activity, but also determine the conditions for proper observation of the phenomena. Finally, some implications on the design of experiments, data analyses, and the choice of recording parameters are discussed. PMID:23626578

  6. Stability of Rasch Scales over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Catherine S.; Lee, Yoonsun

    2010-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) methods are generally used to create score scales for large-scale tests. Research has shown that IRT scales are stable across groups and over time. Most studies have focused on items that are dichotomously scored. Now Rasch and other IRT models are used to create scales for tests that include polytomously scored items.…

  7. Introduction to the time scale problem

    SciTech Connect

    Voter, A. F.

    2002-01-01

    As motivation for the symposium on extended-scale atomistic methods, I briefly discuss the time scale problem that plagues molecular dynamics simulations, some promising recent developments for circumventing the problem, and some remaining challenges.

  8. Review of time scales. [Universal Time-Ephemeris Time-International Atomic Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinot, B.

    1974-01-01

    The basic time scales are presented: International Atomic Time, Universal Time, and Universal Time (Coordinated). These scales must be maintained in order to satisfy specific requirements. It is shown how they are obtained and made available at a very high level of precision.

  9. Kalman plus weights: a time scale algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    KPW is a time scale algorithm that combines Kalman filtering with the basic time scale equation (BTSE). A single Kalman filter that estimates all clocks simultaneously is used to generate the BTSE frequency estimates, while the BTSE weights are inversely proportional to the white FM variances of the clocks. Results from simulated clock ensembles are compared to previous simulation results from other algorithms.

  10. Multiple time scale methods in tokamak magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jardin, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods are discussed for integrating the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in tokamak systems on other than the fastest time scale. The dynamical grid method for simulating ideal MHD instabilities utilizes a natural nonorthogonal time-dependent coordinate transformation based on the magnetic field lines. The coordinate transformation is chosen to be free of the fast time scale motion itself, and to yield a relatively simple scalar equation for the total pressure, P = p + B/sup 2//2..mu../sub 0/, which can be integrated implicitly to average over the fast time scale oscillations. Two methods are described for the resistive time scale. The zero-mass method uses a reduced set of two-fluid transport equations obtained by expanding in the inverse magnetic Reynolds number, and in the small ratio of perpendicular to parallel mobilities and thermal conductivities. The momentum equation becomes a constraint equation that forces the pressure and magnetic fields and currents to remain in force balance equilibrium as they evolve. The large mass method artificially scales up the ion mass and viscosity, thereby reducing the severe time scale disparity between wavelike and diffusionlike phenomena, but not changing the resistive time scale behavior. Other methods addressing the intermediate time scales are discussed.

  11. Time scale in quasifission reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B.B.; Paul, P.; Nestler, J.

    1995-08-01

    The quasifission process arises from the hindrance of the complete fusion process when heavy-ion beams are used. The strong dissipation in the system tends to prevent fusion and lead the system towards reseparation into two final products of similar mass reminiscent of a fission process. This dissipation slows down the mass transfer and shape transformation and allows for the emission of high energy {gamma}-rays during the process, albeit with a low probability. Giant Dipole {gamma} rays emitted during this time have a characteristic spectral shape and may thus be discerned in the presence of a background of {gamma} rays emitted from the final fission-like fragments. Since the rate of GDR {gamma} emission is very well established, the strength of this component may therefore be used to measure the timescale of the quasifission process. In this experiment we studied the reaction between 368-MeV {sup 58}Ni and a {sup 165}Ho target, where deep inelastic scattering and quasifission processes are dominant. Coincidences between fission fragments (detected in four position-sensitive avalanche detectors) and high energy {gamma} rays (measured in a 10{close_quotes} x 10{close_quotes} actively shielded NaI detector) were registered. Beams were provided by the Stony Brook Superconducting Linac. The {gamma}-ray spectrum associated with deep inelastic scattering events is well reproduced by statistical cooling of projectile and target-like fragments with close to equal initial excitation energy sharing. The y spectrum associated with quasifission events is well described by statistical emission from the fission fragments alone, with only weak evidence for GDR emission from the mono-nucleus. A 1{sigma} limit of t{sub ss} < 11 x 10{sup -21} s is obtained for the mono-nucleus lifetime, which is consistent with the lifetime obtained from quasifission fragment angular distributions. A manuscript was accepted for publication.

  12. Time-dependent corona models - Scaling laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korevaar, P.; Martens, P. C. H.

    1989-01-01

    Scaling laws are derived for the one-dimensional time-dependent Euler equations that describe the evolution of a spherically symmetric stellar atmosphere. With these scaling laws the results of the time-dependent calculations by Korevaar (1989) obtained for one star are applicable over the whole Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and even to elliptic galaxies. The scaling is exact for stars with the same M/R-ratio and a good approximation for stars with a different M/R-ratio. The global relaxation oscillation found by Korevaar (1989) is scaled to main sequence stars, a solar coronal hole, cool giants and elliptic galaxies.

  13. Mouse Activity across Time Scales: Fractal Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Lima, G. Z. dos Santos; Lobão-Soares, B.; do Nascimento, G. C.; França, Arthur S. C.; Muratori, L.; Ribeiro, S.; Corso, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we devise a classification of mouse activity patterns based on accelerometer data using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We use two characteristic mouse behavioural states as benchmarks in this study: waking in free activity and slow-wave sleep (SWS). In both situations we find roughly the same pattern: for short time intervals we observe high correlation in activity - a typical 1/f complex pattern - while for large time intervals there is anti-correlation. High correlation of short intervals ( to : waking state and to : SWS) is related to highly coordinated muscle activity. In the waking state we associate high correlation both to muscle activity and to mouse stereotyped movements (grooming, waking, etc.). On the other side, the observed anti-correlation over large time scales ( to : waking state and to : SWS) during SWS appears related to a feedback autonomic response. The transition from correlated regime at short scales to an anti-correlated regime at large scales during SWS is given by the respiratory cycle interval, while during the waking state this transition occurs at the time scale corresponding to the duration of the stereotyped mouse movements. Furthermore, we find that the waking state is characterized by longer time scales than SWS and by a softer transition from correlation to anti-correlation. Moreover, this soft transition in the waking state encompass a behavioural time scale window that gives rise to a multifractal pattern. We believe that the observed multifractality in mouse activity is formed by the integration of several stereotyped movements each one with a characteristic time correlation. Finally, we compare scaling properties of body acceleration fluctuation time series during sleep and wake periods for healthy mice. Interestingly, differences between sleep and wake in the scaling exponents are comparable to previous works regarding human heartbeat. Complementarily, the nature of these sleep-wake dynamics could lead to a better

  14. Observing Reality on Different Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyushin, Alexey

    2005-10-01

    In the first part of the paper, I examine cases of acceleration of perception and cognition and provide my explanation of the mechanism of the effect. The explanation rests on the conception of neuronal temporal frames, or windows of simultaneity. Frames have different standard durations and yield to stretching and compressing. I suggest it to be the cause of the effect, as well as the ground for differences in perceptive time scales of living beings. In the second part, I apply the conception of temporal frames to model observation in the extended time scales that reach far beyond the temporal perceptive niche of individual living beings. Duration of a frame is taken as the basic parameter setting a particular time scale. By substituting a different frame duration, we set a hypothetical time scale and emulate observing reality in a wider or a narrower angle of embracing events in time. I discuss the status of observer in its relation to objective reality, and examine how reality does change its appearance when observed in different time scales.

  15. Time scales involved in emergent market coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwapień, J.; Drożdż, S.; Speth, J.

    2004-06-01

    In addressing the question of the time scales characteristic for the market formation, we analyze high-frequency tick-by-tick data from the NYSE and from the German market. By using returns on various time scales ranging from seconds or minutes up to 2 days, we compare magnitude of the largest eigenvalue of the correlation matrix for the same set of securities but for different time scales. For various sets of stocks of different capitalization (and the average trading frequency), we observe a significant elevation of the largest eigenvalue with increasing time scale. Our results from the correlation matrix study can be considered as a manifestation of the so-called Epps effect. There is no unique explanation of this effect and it seems that many different factors play a role here. One of such factors is randomness in transaction moments for different stocks. Another interesting conclusion to be drawn from our results is that in the contemporary markets the emergence of significant correlations occurs on time scales much smaller than in the more distant history.

  16. The Laplace transform on time scales revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, John M.; Gravagne, Ian A.; Jackson, Billy J.; Marks, Robert J., II; Ramos, Alice A.

    2007-08-01

    In this work, we reexamine the time scale Laplace transform as defined by Bohner and Peterson [M. Bohner, A. Peterson, Dynamic Equations on Time Scales: An Introduction with Applications, Birkhauser, Boston, 2001; M. Bohner, A. Peterson, Laplace transform and Z-transform: Unification and extension, Methods Appl. Anal. 9 (1) (2002) 155-162]. In particular, we give conditions on the class of functions which have a transform, develop an inversion formula for the transform, and further, we provide a convolution for the transform. The notion of convolution leads to considering its algebraic structure--in particular the existence of an identity element--motivating the development of the Dirac delta functional on time scales. Applications and examples of these concepts are given.

  17. Global scale precipitation from monthly to centennial scales: empirical space-time scaling analysis, anthropogenic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, Isabel; Lovejoy, Shaun

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of precipitation scaling regimes represents a key contribution to the improved understanding of space-time precipitation variability, which is the focus here. We conduct space-time scaling analyses of spectra and Haar fluctuations in precipitation, using three global scale precipitation products (one instrument based, one reanalysis based, one satellite and gauge based), from monthly to centennial scales and planetary down to several hundred kilometers in spatial scale. Results show the presence - similarly to other atmospheric fields - of an intermediate "macroweather" regime between the familiar weather and climate regimes: we characterize systematically the macroweather precipitation temporal and spatial, and joint space-time statistics and variability, and the outer scale limit of temporal scaling. These regimes qualitatively and quantitatively alternate in the way fluctuations vary with scale. In the macroweather regime, the fluctuations diminish with time scale (this is important for seasonal, annual, and decadal forecasts) while anthropogenic effects increase with time scale. Our approach determines the time scale at which the anthropogenic signal can be detected above the natural variability noise: the critical scale is about 20 - 40 yrs (depending on the product, on the spatial scale). This explains for example why studies that use data covering only a few decades do not easily give evidence of anthropogenic changes in precipitation, as a consequence of warming: the period is too short. Overall, while showing that precipitation can be modeled with space-time scaling processes, our results clarify the different precipitation scaling regimes and further allow us to quantify the agreement (and lack of agreement) of the precipitation products as a function of space and time scales. Moreover, this work contributes to clarify a basic problem in hydro-climatology, which is to measure precipitation trends at decadal and longer scales and to

  18. Analysis of the time scales in time periodic Darcy flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Waluga, C.; Wohlmuth, B.; Manhart, M.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate unsteady flow in a porous medium under time - periodic (sinusoidal) pressure gradient. DNS were performed to benchmark the analytical solution of the unsteady Darcy equation with two different expressions of the time scale : one given by a consistent volume averaging of the Navier - Stokes equation [1] with a steady state closure for the flow resistance term, another given by volume averaging of the kinetic energy equation [2] with a closure for the dissipation rate . For small and medium frequencies, the analytical solutions with the time scale obtained by the energy approach compare well with the DNS results in terms of amplitude and phase lag. For large frequencies (f > 100 [Hz]) we observe a slightly smaller damping of the amplitude. This study supports the use of the unsteady form of Darcy's equation with constant coefficients to solve time - periodic Darcy flows at low and medium frequencies. Our DNS simulations, however, indicate that the time scale predicted by the VANS approach together with a steady - state closure for the flow resistance term is too small. The one obtained by the energy approach matches the DNS results well. At large frequencies, the amplitudes deviate slightly from the analytical solution of the unsteady Darcy equation. Note that at those high frequencies, the flow amplitudes remain below 1% of those of steady state flow. This result indicates that unsteady porous media flow can approximately be described by the unsteady Darcy equation with constant coefficients for a large range of frequencies, provided, the proper time scale has been found.

  19. Structure of Student Time Management Scale (STMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balamurugan, M.

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of constructing a Student Time Management Scale (STMS), the initial version was administered and data were collected from 523 standard eleventh students. (Mean age = 15.64). The data obtained were subjected to Reliability and Factor analysis using PASW Statistical software version 18. From 42 items 14 were dropped, resulting in the…

  20. Accuracy metrics for judging time scale algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, R. J.; Boulanger, J.-S.; Jacques, C.

    1994-01-01

    Time scales have been constructed in different ways to meet the many demands placed upon them for time accuracy, frequency accuracy, long-term stability, and robustness. Usually, no single time scale is optimum for all purposes. In the context of the impending availability of high-accuracy intermittently-operated cesium fountains, we reconsider the question of evaluating the accuracy of time scales which use an algorithm to span interruptions of the primary standard. We consider a broad class of calibration algorithms that can be evaluated and compared quantitatively for their accuracy in the presence of frequency drift and a full noise model (a mixture of white PM, flicker PM, white FM, flicker FM, and random walk FM noise). We present the analytic techniques for computing the standard uncertainty for the full noise model and this class of calibration algorithms. The simplest algorithm is evaluated to find the average-frequency uncertainty arising from the noise of the cesium fountain's local oscillator and from the noise of a hydrogen maser transfer-standard. This algorithm and known noise sources are shown to permit interlaboratory frequency transfer with a standard uncertainty of less than 10(exp -15) for periods of 30-100 days.

  1. Soil Hydrology Across Space And Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, B.; Gaur, N.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture and hydrologic fluxes at the land surface are critical to climate feedback, hydrology, and biogeochemical cycling. Soil moisture temporal and spatial variability over catchment areas affects surface and subsurface runoff, modulates evaporation and transpiration, determines the extent of groundwater recharge and contaminant transport, and initiates or sustains feedback between the land surface and the atmosphere. At a particular point in time soil moisture content is influenced by: (1) the precipitation history, (2) the texture of the soil, which determines the water-holding capacity, (3) the slope of the land surface, which affects runoff and infiltration, and (4) the vegetation and land cover, which influences evapotranspiration and deep percolation. In other terms the partitioning of soil moisture to recharge to the groundwater, evapotranspiration to the atmosphere, and surface/subsurface runoff to the streams at different spatio-temporal scales and under different hydro-climatic conditions pose one of the greatest challenges to weather and climate prediction, water resources availability, sustainability, quality, and variability in agricultural, range and forested watersheds and hydro-climatic conditions. In this context we hypothesize that: 1) soil moisture variability is dominated by soil properties at the field scale, topographic features at the catchment/watershed scale, and vegetation characteristics and precipitation patterns at the regional scale and beyond; and 2) ensemble hydrologic fluxes (evapotranspiration, infiltration, and shallow ground water recharge) across the vadose zone at the corresponding scale can be effectively represented by one or more soil, topography, vegetation, or climate scale factors. Using ground-based and various active and passive microwave remote sensing measurements during the NASA field campaigns in the past decade we test these hypotheses. Various scaling techniques for soil moisture and soil hydrologic and

  2. A comment on the use of flushing time, residence time, and age as transport time scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monsen, N.E.; Cloern, J.E.; Lucas, L.V.; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2002-01-01

    Applications of transport time scales are pervasive in biological, hydrologic, and geochemical studies yet these times scales are not consistently defined and applied with rigor in the literature. We compare three transport time scales (flushing time, age, and residence time) commonly used to measure the retention of water or scalar quantities transported with water. We identify the underlying assumptions associated with each time scale, describe procedures for computing these time scales in idealized cases, and identify pitfalls when real-world systems deviate from these idealizations. We then apply the time scale definitions to a shallow 378 ha tidal lake to illustrate how deviations between real water bodies and the idealized examples can result from: (1) non-steady flow; (2) spatial variability in bathymetry, circulation, and transport time scales; and (3) tides that introduce complexities not accounted for in the idealized cases. These examples illustrate that no single transport time scale is valid for all time periods, locations, and constituents, and no one time scale describes all transport processes. We encourage aquatic scientists to rigorously define the transport time scale when it is applied, identify the underlying assumptions in the application of that concept, and ask if those assumptions are valid in the application of that approach for computing transport time scales in real systems.

  3. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Substorm Recovery Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Chua, D H.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Previous statistical observations have shown that the recovery time scales of substorms occurring in the winter and near equinox (when the nighttime auroral zone was in darkness) are roughly twice as long as the recovery time scales for substorms occurring in the summer (when the nighttime auroral region was sunlit). This suggests that auroral substorms in the northern and southern hemispheres develop asymmetrically during solstice conditions with substorms lasting longer in the winter (dark) hemisphere than in the summer (sunlit) hemisphere. Additionally, this implies that more energy is deposited by electron precipitation in the winter hemisphere than in the summer one during substorms. This result, coupled with previous observations that have shown that auroral activity is more common when the ionosphere is in darkness and is suppressed when the ionosphere is in daylight, strongly suggests that the ionospheric conductivity plays an important role governing how magnetospheric energy is transferred to the ionosphere during substorms. Therefore, the ionosphere itself may dictate how much energy it will accept from the magnetosphere during substorms rather than this being an externally imposed quantity. Here, we extend our earlier work by statistically analyzing the recovery time scales for a large number of substorms observed in the conjugate hemispheres simultaneously by two orbiting global auroral imagers: Polar UVI and IMAGE FUV. Our current results are consistent with previous observations. The recovery time scales are observed to be longer in the winter (dark) hemisphere while the auroral activity has a shorter duration in the summer (sunlit) hemisphere. This leads to an asymmetric energy input from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere with more energy being deposited in the winter hemisphere than in the summer hemisphere.

  4. Liquidity crises on different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, Francesco; Zaccaria, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

    2015-12-01

    We present an empirical analysis of the microstructure of financial markets and, in particular, of the static and dynamic properties of liquidity. We find that on relatively large time scales (15 min) large price fluctuations are connected to the failure of the subtle mechanism of compensation between the flows of market and limit orders: in other words, the missed revelation of the latent order book breaks the dynamical equilibrium between the flows, triggering the large price jumps. On smaller time scales (30 s), instead, the static depletion of the limit order book is an indicator of an intrinsic fragility of the system, which is related to a strongly nonlinear enhancement of the response. In order to quantify this phenomenon we introduce a measure of the liquidity imbalance present in the book and we show that it is correlated to both the sign and the magnitude of the next price movement. These findings provide a quantitative definition of the effective liquidity, which proves to be strongly dependent on the considered time scales.

  5. Multidimensional scaling of musical time estimations.

    PubMed

    Cocenas-Silva, Raquel; Bueno, José Lino Oliveira; Molin, Paul; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the psycho-musical factors that govern time evaluation in Western music from baroque, classic, romantic, and modern repertoires. The excerpts were previously found to represent variability in musical properties and to induce four main categories of emotions. 48 participants (musicians and nonmusicians) freely listened to 16 musical excerpts (lasting 20 sec. each) and grouped those that seemed to have the same duration. Then, participants associated each group of excerpts to one of a set of sine wave tones varying in duration from 16 to 24 sec. Multidimensional scaling analysis generated a two-dimensional solution for these time judgments. Musical excerpts with high arousal produced an overestimation of time, and affective valence had little influence on time perception. The duration was also overestimated when tempo and loudness were higher, and to a lesser extent, timbre density. In contrast, musical tension had little influence. PMID:21853763

  6. Cell water dynamics on multiple time scales

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Erik; Halle, Bertil

    2008-01-01

    Water–biomolecule interactions have been extensively studied in dilute solutions, crystals, and rehydrated powders, but none of these model systems may capture the behavior of water in the highly organized intracellular milieu. Because of the experimental difficulty of selectively probing the structure and dynamics of water in intact cells, radically different views about the properties of cell water have proliferated. To resolve this long-standing controversy, we have measured the 2H spin relaxation rate in living bacteria cultured in D2O. The relaxation data, acquired in a wide magnetic field range (0.2 mT–12 T) and analyzed in a model-independent way, reveal water dynamics on a wide range of time scales. Contradicting the view that a substantial fraction of cell water is strongly perturbed, we find that ≈85% of cell water in Escherichia coli and in the extreme halophile Haloarcula marismortui has bulk-like dynamics. The remaining ≈15% of cell water interacts directly with biomolecular surfaces and is motionally retarded by a factor 15 ± 3 on average, corresponding to a rotational correlation time of 27 ps. This dynamic perturbation is three times larger than for small monomeric proteins in solution, a difference we attribute to secluded surface hydration sites in supramolecular assemblies. The relaxation data also show that a small fraction (≈0.1%) of cell water exchanges from buried hydration sites on the microsecond time scale, consistent with the current understanding of protein hydration in solutions and crystals. PMID:18436650

  7. A perspective on time: Loss frequencies, time scales, and lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Michael; Holmes, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    The need to describe the Earth system and its components with a quantity that has units of time is ubiquitous since the 1970s work of Bolin, Rodhe and Junge. These quantities are often used as metrics of the system to describe the duration or cumulative impact of an action, such as in global-warming and ozone-depletion potentials, as in the SPARC lifetime re-assessment. The quantity designated "lifetime" is often calculated inconsistently and/or misused when applied to the subsequent evaluations of impacts. A careful set of definitions and derivations is needed to ensure that we are reporting, publishing, and comparing the same quantities. There are many different ways to derive metrics of time, and they describe different properties of the system. Here we carefully define several of those metrics - denoted here as loss frequency, time scale, and lifetime - and demonstrate which properties of the system they describe. Three generalizable examples demonstrate (i) how the non-linear chemistry of tropospheric ozone makes simple approaches for tracking pollution in error; (ii) why the lifetime of a gas depends on the history of emissions, and (iii) when multiple reservoirs generate time scales quite separate from the traditionally defined lifetime. Proper use of the many "time" parameters in a system, however, gives a very powerful understanding of the response to anthropogenic perturbations.

  8. South Atlantic Spreading Velocities and Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S. R.; Smethurst, M. A.; Bianchi, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Plate reconstructions based on hierarchical spherical rotations have been around for many years. For the breakup of Pangea and Gondwana, these reconstructions are based on two major sources: magnetic isochrons and geological evidence for the onset of rifting and the tightness of the fit between continents. These reconstructions imply spreading velocities and it is the changes in velocities that can be used to probe questions of the forces moving plates around. In order to calculate the velocities correctly though, the importance of the choice of geologic time scale is often ignored. In this talk, we focus on the South Atlantic and calculate the spreading velocity errors implied by the choice of time scale for three major epochs: the Cenozoic and Late Mesozoic, the Cretaceous Quiet Zone and the Late Cretaceous to the Early Jurassic. In addition, we report the spreading velocities implied through these phases by various available magnetic isochron-derived reconstructions and the geological fits for South America and Africa used by large scale global reconstruction as well as in recent papers. Finally, we will highlight the implications for the choice of the mantle reference frame on African plate velocities.

  9. Deciphering Time Scale Hierarchy in Reaction Networks.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, Yutaka; Maeda, Satoshi; Teramoto, Hiroshi; Horiyama, Takashi; Taketsugu, Tetsuya; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2016-03-01

    Markovian dynamics on complex reaction networks are one of the most intriguing subjects in a wide range of research fields including chemical reactions, biological physics, and ecology. To represent the global kinetics from one node (corresponding to a basin on an energy landscape) to another requires information on multiple pathways that directly or indirectly connect these two nodes through the entire network. In this paper we present a scheme to extract a hierarchical set of global transition states (TSs) over a discrete-time Markov chain derived from first-order rate equations. The TSs can naturally take into account the multiple pathways connecting any pair of nodes. We also propose a new type of disconnectivity graph (DG) to capture the hierarchical organization of different time scales of reactions that can capture changes in the network due to changes in the time scale of observation. The crux is the introduction of the minimum conductance cut (MCC) in graph clustering, corresponding to the dividing surface across the network having the "smallest" transition probability between two disjoint subnetworks (superbasins on the energy landscape) in the network. We present a new combinatorial search algorithm for finding this MCC. We apply our method to a reaction network of Claisen rearrangement of allyl vinyl ether that consists of 23 nodes and 66 links (saddles on the energy landscape) connecting them. We compare the kinetic properties of our DG to those of the transition matrix of the rate equations and show that our graph can properly reveal the hierarchical organization of time scales in a network. PMID:26641663

  10. Scaling laws from geomagnetic time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voros, Z.; Kovacs, P.; Juhasz, A.; Kormendi, A.; Green, A.W.

    1998-01-01

    The notion of extended self-similarity (ESS) is applied here for the X - component time series of geomagnetic field fluctuations. Plotting nth order structure functions against the fourth order structure function we show that low-frequency geomagnetic fluctuations up to the order n = 10 follow the same scaling laws as MHD fluctuations in solar wind, however, for higher frequencies (f > l/5[h]) a clear departure from the expected universality is observed for n > 6. ESS does not allow to make an unambiguous statement about the non triviality of scaling laws in "geomagnetic" turbulence. However, we suggest to use higher order moments as promising diagnostic tools for mapping the contributions of various remote magnetospheric sources to local observatory data. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Time sequence and time scale of intermediate mass fragment emission

    SciTech Connect

    De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Cardella, G.; Lanzano, G.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Wilczynski, J.

    2005-04-01

    Semiperipheral collisions in the {sup 124}Sn+{sup 64}Ni reaction at 35 MeV/nucleon were studied using the forward part of the Charged Heavy Ion Mass and Energy Resolving Array. Nearly completely determined ternary events involving projectilelike fragments (PLF), targetlike fragments (TLF), and intermediate mass fragments (IMF) were selected. A new method of studying the reaction mechanism, focusing on the analysis of the correlations between relative velocities in the IMF+PLF and IMF+TLF subsystems, is proposed. The relative velocity correlations provide information on the time sequence and time scale of the neck fragmentation processes leading to production of IMFs. It is shown that the majority of light IMFs are produced within 40-80 fm/c after the system starts to reseparate. Heavy IMFs are formed at times of about 120 fm/c or later and can be viewed as resulting from two-step (sequential) neck rupture processes.

  12. Parametric instabilities in picosecond time scales

    SciTech Connect

    Baldis, H.A.; Rozmus, W.; Labaune, C.; Mounaix, Ph.; Pesme, D.; Baton, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.

    1993-03-01

    The coupling of intense laser light with plasmas is a rich field of plasma physics, with many applications. Among these are inertial confinement fusion (ICF), x-ray lasers, particle acceleration, and x-ray sources. Parametric instabilities have been studied for many years because of their importance to ICF; with laser pulses with duration of approximately a nanosecond, and laser intensities in the range 10{sup 14}--10{sup 15}W/cm{sup 2} these instabilities are of crucial concern because of a number of detrimental effects. Although the laser pulse duration of interest for these studies are relatively long, it has been evident in the past years that to reach an understanding of these instabilities requires their characterization and analysis in picosecond time scales. At the laser intensities of interest, the growth rate for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is of the order of picoseconds, and of an order of magnitude shorter for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). In this paper the authors discuss SBS and SRS in the context of their evolution in picosecond time scales. They describe the fundamental concepts associated with their growth and saturation, and recent work on the nonlinear treatment required for the modeling of these instabilities at high laser intensities.

  13. EDITORIAL: Special issue on time scale algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsakis, Demetrios; Tavella, Patrizia

    2008-12-01

    This special issue of Metrologia presents selected papers from the Fifth International Time Scale Algorithm Symposium (VITSAS), including some of the tutorials presented on the first day. The symposium was attended by 76 persons, from every continent except Antarctica, by students as well as senior scientists, and hosted by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA) in San Fernando, Spain, whose staff further enhanced their nation's high reputation for hospitality. Although a timescale can be simply defined as a weighted average of clocks, whose purpose is to measure time better than any individual clock, timescale theory has long been and continues to be a vibrant field of research that has both followed and helped to create advances in the art of timekeeping. There is no perfect timescale algorithm, because every one embodies a compromise involving user needs. Some users wish to generate a constant frequency, perhaps not necessarily one that is well-defined with respect to the definition of a second. Other users might want a clock which is as close to UTC or a particular reference clock as possible, or perhaps wish to minimize the maximum variation from that standard. In contrast to the steered timescales that would be required by those users, other users may need free-running timescales, which are independent of external information. While no algorithm can meet all these needs, every algorithm can benefit from some form of tuning. The optimal tuning, and even the optimal algorithm, can depend on the noise characteristics of the frequency standards, or of their comparison systems, the most precise and accurate of which are currently Two Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) and GPS carrier phase time transfer. The interest in time scale algorithms and its associated statistical methodology began around 40 years ago when the Allan variance appeared and when the metrological institutions started realizing ensemble atomic time using more than

  14. EDITORIAL: Special issue on time scale algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsakis, Demetrios; Tavella, Patrizia

    2008-12-01

    This special issue of Metrologia presents selected papers from the Fifth International Time Scale Algorithm Symposium (VITSAS), including some of the tutorials presented on the first day. The symposium was attended by 76 persons, from every continent except Antarctica, by students as well as senior scientists, and hosted by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA) in San Fernando, Spain, whose staff further enhanced their nation's high reputation for hospitality. Although a timescale can be simply defined as a weighted average of clocks, whose purpose is to measure time better than any individual clock, timescale theory has long been and continues to be a vibrant field of research that has both followed and helped to create advances in the art of timekeeping. There is no perfect timescale algorithm, because every one embodies a compromise involving user needs. Some users wish to generate a constant frequency, perhaps not necessarily one that is well-defined with respect to the definition of a second. Other users might want a clock which is as close to UTC or a particular reference clock as possible, or perhaps wish to minimize the maximum variation from that standard. In contrast to the steered timescales that would be required by those users, other users may need free-running timescales, which are independent of external information. While no algorithm can meet all these needs, every algorithm can benefit from some form of tuning. The optimal tuning, and even the optimal algorithm, can depend on the noise characteristics of the frequency standards, or of their comparison systems, the most precise and accurate of which are currently Two Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) and GPS carrier phase time transfer. The interest in time scale algorithms and its associated statistical methodology began around 40 years ago when the Allan variance appeared and when the metrological institutions started realizing ensemble atomic time using more than

  15. Time Horizon and Social Scale in Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    In 2009 our center (CRED) published a first version of The Psychology of Climate Change Communication. In it, we attempted to summarize facts and concepts from psychological research that could help guide communication. While this work focused on climate change, most of the ideas are at least partly applicable for communication about a variety of natural hazards. Of the many examples in this guide, I mention three. Single-action bias is the human tendency to stop considering further actions that might be needed to deal with a given hazard, once a single action has been taken. Another example is the importance of group affiliation in motivating voluntary contributions to joint action. A third concerns the finding that group participation enhances understanding of probabilistic concepts and promotes action in the face of uncertainty. One current research direction, which goes beyond those included in the above publication, focuses on how time horizons arise in the thinking of individuals and groups, and how these time horizons might influence hazard preparedness. On the one hand, individuals sometimes appear impatient, organizations look for immediate results, and officials fail to look beyond the next election cycle. Yet under some laboratory conditions and in some subcultures, a longer time horizon is adopted. We are interested in how time horizon is influenced by group identity and by the very architecture of planning and decision making. Institutional changes, involving long-term contractual relationships among communities, developers, insurers, and governments, could greatly increase resilience in the face of natural hazards. Communication about hazards, in the context of such long-term contractual relationships might look very different from communication that is first initiated by immediate threat. Another new direction concerns the social scale of institutions and of communication about hazards. Traditionally, insurance contracts share risk among a large

  16. Times Scales in Dense Granular Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Duan

    2005-07-01

    Forces in dense granular material are transmitted through particle contacts. The evolution of the contact stress is directly related to dynamical interaction forces between particles. Since particle contacts in a dense granular material are random, a statistical method is employed to describe and model their motions. It is found that the time scales of particle contacts determinate stress relaxation and the fluid- like or solid-like behavior of the material. Numerical simulations are performed to calculate statistical properties of particle interactions. Using results from the numerical simulations we examine the relationship between the averaged local deformation field and the macroscopic deformation field. We also examine the relationship between the averaged local interaction force and the averaged stress field in the material. Validities of the Voigt and the Reuss assumptions are examined; and extensions to these assumptions are studied. Numerical simulations show that tangential frictions between particles significantly increase the contact stress, while the direct contribution of the tangential force to the stress is small. This puzzling observation can be explained by dependency of the relaxation time on the tangential friction.

  17. Time Scales, Bedforms and Bedload Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhont, B.

    2015-12-01

    Bedload transport rates in mountain streams may exhibit wide fluctuations even under constant flow conditions. A better understanding of bedload pulses is key to predict natural hazards induced by torrential activity and sediment issues in mountainous areas. Several processes such as bedforms migration, grain sorting and random particles' trajectories are evoked as the driving agents of pulse formation and development. Quantifying the effects of these processes is a difficult task. This work aims to investigate the interactions between bedload transport and bedform dynamics in steep gravel-bed rivers. Experiments are carried out in a 17-m long 60-cm wide flume inclined at an angle of 2.7%. The bed is initially flat and made of homogenous natural gravel with a mean diameter of 6 mm. We imposed 200 identical hydrographs (of 1 hr duration) at the flume inlet (the bed surface was not flattened out during these cycling floods). The input hydrograph and the input sediment discharge are nearly triangular. Bed topography is measured after each flood using ultrasound sensors while the bedload transport rate is steadily monitored at the outlet using accelerometers (accelerometers fixed on metallic plates record the impacts of the grains flowing out of the flume). For the sake of comparison, a similar experiment consisting of 19 floods of 10 hours is carried out under constant supply conditions. We show that accelerometers are a cost effective technique to obtain high-frequency bedload discharge data. Spectral analysis of the bedload timeseries is used to highlight the different time scales corresponding to different bedload transport processes. We show that long timeseries are necessary to capture the different processes that drive bedload transport, including the resilience time after a perturbation of the bed. The alternate bars that develop and migrate along the flume are found to significantly influence bedload transport rate fluctuations.

  18. An optimal modification of a Kalman filter for time scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Kalman filter in question, which was implemented in the time scale algorithm TA(NIST), produces time scales with poor short-term stability. A simple modification of the error covariance matrix allows the filter to produce time scales with good stability at all averaging times, as verified by simulations of clock ensembles.

  19. Teaching about time by understanding Geologic Time Scales: The Geological Society of America Geologic Time Scale and its history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, J. W.; Walker, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic time scales, of one form or another, are used in most undergraduate geosciences courses, even including introductory physical geology or equivalent. However, satisfactory discussions of how geologic time scales originated, and how they have evolved to modern versions, are far too often conveniently or inconveniently left out of classroom discussions. Yet it is these kinds of discussions that have the potential of solidifying student appreciation of deep time and rates of geologic processes. We use the history and development of the Geological Society of America Geologic Time Scale, which reflects major developments in the fields of stratigraphy, geochronology, magnetic polarity stratigraphy, astrochronology, and chemostratigraphy, as a focus of how specific details of time scales can be used to teach about time. Advances in all of these fields have allowed many parts of the time scale to be calibrated to precisions approaching less than 0.05 %. Notable time intervals for which collaborative, multifaceted efforts have led to dramatic improvements in our understanding of the character and temporal resolution of key evolutionary events, in both marine and terrestrial environments, include the Triassic-Jurassic, Permo-Triassic, and Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic boundaries (or transitions). Many of the details, but certainly not all, can be incorporated in discussions of how we know about geologic time in the classroom. For example, we presently understand that both the end-Permian ecological crisis and the biostratigraphic Permian-Triassic boundary, as calibrated by conodonts, lie within a ca. 700 ka long normal polarity chron. The reverse to normal polarity transition at the beginning of this chron is ca. 100 ka earlier than the ecological crisis and thus slightly older than the current estimate, based on high precision U-Pb zircon age determinations, of ca. 252.4 Ma for the Permian-Triassic boundary. This polarity transition occurred during the early part of

  20. Detection of crossover time scales in multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Erjia; Leung, Yee

    2013-04-01

    Fractal is employed in this paper as a scale-based method for the identification of the scaling behavior of time series. Many spatial and temporal processes exhibiting complex multi(mono)-scaling behaviors are fractals. One of the important concepts in fractals is crossover time scale(s) that separates distinct regimes having different fractal scaling behaviors. A common method is multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). The detection of crossover time scale(s) is, however, relatively subjective since it has been made without rigorous statistical procedures and has generally been determined by eye balling or subjective observation. Crossover time scales such determined may be spurious and problematic. It may not reflect the genuine underlying scaling behavior of a time series. The purpose of this paper is to propose a statistical procedure to model complex fractal scaling behaviors and reliably identify the crossover time scales under MF-DFA. The scaling-identification regression model, grounded on a solid statistical foundation, is first proposed to describe multi-scaling behaviors of fractals. Through the regression analysis and statistical inference, we can (1) identify the crossover time scales that cannot be detected by eye-balling observation, (2) determine the number and locations of the genuine crossover time scales, (3) give confidence intervals for the crossover time scales, and (4) establish the statistically significant regression model depicting the underlying scaling behavior of a time series. To substantive our argument, the regression model is applied to analyze the multi-scaling behaviors of avian-influenza outbreaks, water consumption, daily mean temperature, and rainfall of Hong Kong. Through the proposed model, we can have a deeper understanding of fractals in general and a statistical approach to identify multi-scaling behavior under MF-DFA in particular.

  1. Time scales in Galveston Bay: An unsteady estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayson, Matthew D.; Gross, Edward S.; Hetland, Robert D.; Fringer, Oliver B.

    2016-04-01

    Estuarine time scales including the turnover, particle e-folding time, the age (calculated with a passive tracer), and residence time (calculated with Lagrangian particles) were computed using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Galveston Bay, a low-flow, partially stratified estuary. Time scales were computed during a time period when river flow varied by several orders of magnitude and all time scales therefore exhibited significant temporal variability because of the unsteadiness of the system. The spatial distributions of age and residence time were qualitatively similar and increased from 15 days in a shipping channel to >45 days in the upper estuary. Volume-averaged age and residence time decreased during high-flow conditions. Bulk time scales, including the freshwater and salinity turnover times, were far more variable due to the changing river discharge and salt flux through the estuary mouth. A criterion for calculating a suitable averaging time is discussed to satisfy a steady state assumption and to estimate a more representative bulk time scale. When scaled with a freshwater advective time, all time scales were approximately equal to the advective time scale during high-flow conditions and many times higher during low-flow conditions. The mean age, Lagrangian residence, and flushing times exhibited a relationship that was weakly dependent on the freshwater advective time scale demonstrating predictability even in an unsteady, realistic estuary.

  2. A Quaternary Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    Reversals and excursions of Earth's geomagnetic field create marker horizons that are readily detected in sedimentary and volcanic rocks worldwide. An accurate and precise chronology of these geomagnetic field instabilities is fundamental to understanding several aspects of Quaternary climate, dynamo processes, and surface processes. For example, stratigraphic correlation between marine sediment and polar ice records of climate change across the cryospheres benefits from a highly resolved record of reversals and excursions. The temporal patterns of dynamo behavior may reflect physical interactions between the molten outer core and the solid inner core or lowermost mantle. These interactions may control reversal frequency and shape the weak magnetic fields that arise during successive dynamo instabilities. Moreover, weakening of the axial dipole during reversals and excursions enhances the production of cosmogenic isotopes that are used in sediment and ice core stratigraphy and surface exposure dating. The Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale (GITS) is based on the direct dating of transitional polarity states recorded by lava flows using the 40Ar/39Ar method, in parallel with astrochronologic age models of marine sediments in which O isotope and magnetic records have been obtained. A review of data from Quaternary lava flows and sediments yields a GITS comprising 10 polarity reversals and 27 excursions during the past 2.6 million years. Nine of the ten reversals bounding chrons and subchrons are associated with 40Ar/39Ar ages of transitionally-magnetized lava flows. The tenth, the Guass-Matuyama chron boundary, is tightly bracketed by 40Ar/39Ar dated ash deposits. Of the 27 well-documented excursions, 14 occurred during the Matuyama chron and 13 during the Brunhes chron; 19 have been dated directly using the 40Ar/39Ar method on transitionally-magnetized volcanic rocks and form the backbone of the GITS. Excursions are clearly not the rare phenomena once thought

  3. On time scales and time synchronization using LORAN-C as a time reference signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    The long term performance of the eight LORAN-C chains is presented in terms of the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) of the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO); and the use of the LORAN-C navigation system for maintaining the user's clock to a UTC scale is described. The atomic time scale and the UTC of several national laboratories and observatories relative to the international atomic time are reported. Typical performance of several NASA tracking station clocks, relative to the USNO master clock, is also presented.

  4. Linking Response-Time Parameters onto a Common Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2010-01-01

    Although response times on test items are recorded on a natural scale, the scale for some of the parameters in the lognormal response-time model (van der Linden, 2006) is not fixed. As a result, when the model is used to periodically calibrate new items in a testing program, the parameter are not automatically mapped onto a common scale. Several…

  5. Detecting separate time scales in genetic expression data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Biological processes occur on a vast range of time scales, and many of them occur concurrently. As a result, system-wide measurements of gene expression have the potential to capture many of these processes simultaneously. The challenge however, is to separate these processes and time scales in the data. In many cases the number of processes and their time scales is unknown. This issue is particularly relevant to developmental biologists, who are interested in processes such as growth, segmentation and differentiation, which can all take place simultaneously, but on different time scales. Results We introduce a flexible and statistically rigorous method for detecting different time scales in time-series gene expression data, by identifying expression patterns that are temporally shifted between replicate datasets. We apply our approach to a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell-cycle dataset and an Arabidopsis thaliana root developmental dataset. In both datasets our method successfully detects processes operating on several different time scales. Furthermore we show that many of these time scales can be associated with particular biological functions. Conclusions The spatiotemporal modules identified by our method suggest the presence of multiple biological processes, acting at distinct time scales in both the Arabidopsis root and yeast. Using similar large-scale expression datasets, the identification of biological processes acting at multiple time scales in many organisms is now possible. PMID:20565716

  6. Timing signatures of large scale solar eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Hock-Mysliwiec, Rachel; Henry, Timothy; Kirk, Michael S.

    2016-05-01

    We examine the timing signatures of large solar eruptions resulting in flares, CMEs and Solar Energetic Particle events. We probe solar active regions from the chromosphere through the corona, using data from space and ground-based observations, including ISOON, SDO, GONG, and GOES. Our studies include a number of flares and CMEs of mostly the M- and X-strengths as categorized by GOES. We find that the chromospheric signatures of these large eruptions occur 5-30 minutes in advance of coronal high temperature signatures. These timing measurements are then used as inputs to models and reconstruct the eruptive nature of these systems, and explore their utility in forecasts.

  7. Modeling orbital changes on tectonic time scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    Geologic time series indicate significant 100 ka and 400 ka pre-Pleistocene climate fluctuations, prior to the time of such fluctuations in Pleistocene ice sheets. The origin of these fluctuations must therefore depend on phenomena other than the ice sheets. In a previous set of experiments, we tested the sensitivity of an energy balance model to orbital insolation forcing, specifically focusing on the filtering effect of the Earth's geography. We found that in equatorial areas, the twice-yearly passage of the sun across the equator interacts with the precession index to generate 100 ka and 400 ka power in our modeled time series. The effect is proportional to the magnitude of land in equatorial regions. We suggest that such changes may reflect monsoonal variations in the real climate system, and the subsequent wind and weathering changes may transfer some of this signal to the marine record. A comparison with observed fluctuations of Triassic lake levels is quite favorable. A number of problems remain to be studied or clarified: (1) the EBM experiments need to be followed up by a limited number of GCM experiments; (2) the sensitivity to secular changes in orbital forcing needs to be examined; (3) the possible modifying role of sedimentary processes on geologic time series warrants considerably more study; (4) the effect of tectonic changes on Earth's rotation rate needs to be studied; and (5) astronomers need to make explicit which of their predictions are robust and geologists and astronomers have to agree on which of the predictions are most testable in the geologic record.

  8. Pennsylvanian time scales and cycle periods

    SciTech Connect

    deV. Klein, G. )

    1990-05-01

    Geochronological results from central Europe indicate that the duration of Pennsylvanian time is only 19 m.y., compared to the Harland et al. and Palmer estimates of 34 m.y. Prior calculations of Pennsylvanian cycle periods from the midcontinent of North America suggesting a fit with Milankovitch orbital parameters may well be in errors; as a consequence, other mechanisms for possible eustatic sea-level changes represented in those cycles are needed. Calculation of cycle periods of 100 ka or less lack precision in stratigraphic intervals representing ages characterized by error margins of millions of years. Thus, cycle periods may be less reliable as an indicator of global process than previously considered, particularly in rocks of Paleozoic and early and middle Mesozoic age.

  9. Rapid evaluation of time scale using an optical clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ido, T.; Hachisu, H.; Nakagawa, F.; Hanado, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Feasibility of steering a time scale using an optical clock is investigated. Since the high stability of optical frequency standards enables rapid evaluation of the scale interval, the requirement for the continuous operation is mitigated. Numerical simulations with the input of real calibration data by a 87Sr lattice clock indicated that the calibrations once in two weeks maintain the time scale within 5 ns level using a currently available hydrogen maser at NICT. “Optical” steering of a time scale by the intermittent calibrations frees an optical frequency standard from being dedicated to the steering, enabling other applications using the same apparatus.

  10. Do quasars evolve over cosmological time scales?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wampler, E. J.; Ponz, D.

    Systematic biases that are redshift dependent can influence the optical discovery of quasars and the evolution laws derived from counts of quasars. New data and their interpretation for quasars brighter than MB = -24 in the Palomar Bright Quasar Survey (BQS) (Schmidt and Green, 1983) are consistent with no evolution. A comparison of BQS quasars with the brightest quasars from the CTIO Schmidt Telescope Survey (Osmer and Smith, 1980) shows that if q(0) is near zero, the comoving density of bright quasars in a Friedmann cosmology is about 15 times higher for the CTIO survey quasars (mean z of about 2.8) than for the BQS quasars (mean z of about 1.8). In this case spectral evolution is also required since the CTIO quasars have stronger CIV 1548 A lines than the BQS quasars of similar luminosity. Alternatively, if q(0) is taken to be near 1, the CTIO survey quasars would then have a lower luminosity than the BQS quasars and these data would be consistent with no evolution. Strong CIV 1548 A lines for the CTIO quasars would then fit the general correlation between absolute quasar luminosity and emission line strength (Wampler, Gaskell, Burke and Baldwin, 1984).

  11. Critical time scale of coarse-graining entropy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Jang-il

    2016-04-01

    We study coarse-grained entropy production in an asymmetric random walk system on a periodic one-dimensional lattice. In coarse-grained systems, the original dynamics are unavoidably destroyed, but the coarse-grained entropy production is not hidden below the critical time-scale separation. The hidden entropy production is rapidly increasing near the critical time-scale separation.

  12. Evolutionary time-scale of primate bocaviruses.

    PubMed

    Babkin, Igor V; Tyumentsev, Alexander I; Tikunov, Artem Yu; Kurilshikov, Alexander M; Ryabchikova, Elena I; Zhirakovskaya, Elena V; Netesov, Sergei V; Tikunova, Nina V

    2013-03-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is associated with acute gastroenteritis in humans, occurring mostly in young children and elderly people. Four bocavirus genotypes (HBoV1-HBoV4) have been found so far. Since there were no data on the contribution of HBoV to gastroenteritis in Russia, 1781 fecal samples collected from infants hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Novosibirsk, Russia during one year were tested for the presence of nucleic acids from HBoV and three major gastrointestinal viruses (rotavirus A, norovirus II, and astrovirus). HBoV was detected only in 1.9% of the samples: HBoV1 was detected in 0.6% and HBoV2, in 1.3%. Complete genome sequencing of three Novosibirsk isolates was performed. An evolutionary analysis of these sequences and the available sequences of human and great apes bocaviruses demonstrated that the current HBoV genotypes diverged comparatively recently, about 60-300years ago. The independent evolution of bocaviruses from chimpanzees and gorillas commenced at the same time period. This suggests that these isolates of great apes bocaviruses belong to separate genotypes within the species of human bocavirus, which is actually the primate bocavirus. The rate of mutation accumulation in the genome of primate bocaviruses has been estimated as approximately 9×10(-4)substitutions/site/year. It has been demonstrated that HBoV1 diverged from the ancestor common with chimpanzee bocavirus approximately 60-80years ago, while HBoV4 separated from great apes bocaviruses about 200-300years ago. The hypothesis postulating independent evolution of HBoV1 and HBoV4 genotypes from primate bocaviruses has been proposed. PMID:23313830

  13. Scaling analysis of multi-variate intermittent time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitt, Robert; Kalda, Jaan

    2005-08-01

    The scaling properties of the time series of asset prices and trading volumes of stock markets are analysed. It is shown that similar to the asset prices, the trading volume data obey multi-scaling length-distribution of low-variability periods. In the case of asset prices, such scaling behaviour can be used for risk forecasts: the probability of observing next day a large price movement is (super-universally) inversely proportional to the length of the ongoing low-variability period. Finally, a method is devised for a multi-factor scaling analysis. We apply the simplest, two-factor model to equity index and trading volume time series.

  14. On time scale invariance of random walks in confined space.

    PubMed

    Bearup, Daniel; Petrovskii, Sergei

    2015-02-21

    Animal movement is often modelled on an individual level using simulated random walks. In such applications it is preferable that the properties of these random walks remain consistent when the choice of time is changed (time scale invariance). While this property is well understood in unbounded space, it has not been studied in detail for random walks in a confined domain. In this work we undertake an investigation of time scale invariance of the drift and diffusion rates of Brownian random walks subject to one of four simple boundary conditions. We find that time scale invariance is lost when the boundary condition is non-conservative, that is when movement (or individuals) is discarded due to boundary encounters. Where possible analytical results are used to describe the limits of the time scaling process, numerical results are then used to characterise the intermediate behaviour. PMID:25481837

  15. Liquidity Spillover in International Stock Markets through Distinct Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale. PMID:24465918

  16. Liquidity spillover in international stock markets through distinct time scales.

    PubMed

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale. PMID:24465918

  17. Space and Time Scale Variability and Interdependencies in Hydrological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddes, Reinder A.

    1995-09-01

    The atmospheric, hydrologic, and terrestrial components of the earth's systems operate on different time and space scales. Resolving these scaling incongruities as well as understanding and modeling the complex interaction of land surface processes at the different scales represents a major challenge for hydrologists, ecologists and meteorologists alike. This book presents the contributions of hydrologists, meteorologists, and ecologists to the first IHP/IAHS George Kovacs Colloqium on global hydrology and climate change. It deals with time and space scale variations with reference to several topics including soil water balance, ecosystems and interaction of flow systems, and macroscale hydrologic modeling. This book will be of great use to researchers, engineers and forecasters with an interest in space and time scale variability.

  18. NEA Scout Solar Sail: Half-scale Fold Time Lapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this time lapse, the Near-Earth Asteroid Scout (NEA Scout) CubeSat team rolls a half-scale prototype of the small satellite's solar sail in preparation for a deployment test. During its mission,...

  19. Kibble-Zurek mechanism and finite-time scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yingyi; Yin, Shuai; Feng, Baoquan; Zhong, Fan

    2014-10-01

    The Kibble-Zurek (KZ) mechanism has been applied to a variety of systems ranging from low-temperature Bose-Einstein condensations to grand unification scales in particle physics and cosmology and from classical phase transitions to quantum phase transitions. Here, we show that finite-time scaling (FTS) provides a detailed improved understanding of the mechanism. In particular, the finite time scale, which is introduced by the external driving (or quenching) and results in FTS, is the origin of the division of the adiabatic regimes from the impulse regime in the KZ mechanism. The origin of the KZ scaling for the defect density, generated during the driving through a critical point, is not that the correlation length ceases growing in the nonadiabatic impulse regime, but rather, is that it is taken over by the effective finite length scale corresponding to the finite time scale. We also show that FTS accounts well for and improves the scaling ansatz proposed recently by Liu, Polkovnikov, and Sandvik, [Phys. Rev. B 89, 054307 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.054307]. Further, we show that their universal power-law scaling form applies only to some observables in cooling but not to heating. Even in cooling, it is invalid either when an appropriate external field is present. However, this finite-time-finite-size scaling calls for caution in application of FTS. Detailed scaling behaviors of the FTS and finite-size scaling, along with their crossover, are explicitly demonstrated, with the dynamic critical exponent z being estimated for two- and three-dimensional Ising models under the usual Metropolis dynamics. These values of z are found to give rise to better data collapses than the extant values do in most cases but take on different values in heating and cooling in both two- and three-dimensional spaces.

  20. Diffusion Time-Scale of Porous Pressure-Sensitive Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Teduka, Norikazu; Kameda, Masaharu; Asai, Keisuke

    2001-01-01

    Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is an optical pressure sensor that utilizes the oxygen quenching of luminescence. PSP measurements in unsteady aerodynamic flows require fast time response of the paint. There are two characteristic time-scales that are related to the time response of PSP. One is the luminescent lifetime representing an intrinsic physical limit for the achievable temporal resolution of PSP. Another is the time-scale of oxygen diffusion across the PSP layer. When the time-scale of oxygen diffusion is much larger than the luminescent lifetime, the time response of PSP is controlled by oxygen diffusion. In a thin homogenous polymer layer where diffusion is Fickian, the oxygen concentration 1021 can be described by the diffusion equation in one-dimension.

  1. Time scale for point-defect equilibration in nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, Paul C.; Wolf, Dieter; Desai, Tapan; Yamakov, Vesselin

    2008-10-20

    Molecular dynamics simulations of high-temperature annealing are performed on nanostructured materials enabling direct observation of vacancy emission from planar defects (i.e., grain boundaries and free surfaces) to populate the initially vacancy-free grain interiors on a subnanosecond time scale. We demonstrate a universal time-length scale correlation that governs these re-equilibration processes, suggesting that nanostructures are particularly stable against perturbations in their point-defect concentrations, caused for example by particle irradiation or temperature fluctuations.

  2. Scale-dependent intrinsic entropies of complex time series.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jia-Rong; Peng, Chung-Kang; Huang, Norden E

    2016-04-13

    Multi-scale entropy (MSE) was developed as a measure of complexity for complex time series, and it has been applied widely in recent years. The MSE algorithm is based on the assumption that biological systems possess the ability to adapt and function in an ever-changing environment, and these systems need to operate across multiple temporal and spatial scales, such that their complexity is also multi-scale and hierarchical. Here, we present a systematic approach to apply the empirical mode decomposition algorithm, which can detrend time series on various time scales, prior to analysing a signal's complexity by measuring the irregularity of its dynamics on multiple time scales. Simulated time series of fractal Gaussian noise and human heartbeat time series were used to study the performance of this new approach. We show that our method can successfully quantify the fractal properties of the simulated time series and can accurately distinguish modulations in human heartbeat time series in health and disease. PMID:26953181

  3. Russian national time scale long-term stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshina, A. P.; Gaigerov, B. A.; Koshelyaevsky, N. B.; Pushkin, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    The Institute of Metrology for Time and Space NPO 'VNIIFTRI' generates the National Time Scale (NTS) of Russia -- one of the most stable time scales in the world. Its striking feature is that it is based on a free ensemble of H-masers only. During last two years the estimations of NTS longterm stability based only on H-maser intercomparison data gives a flicker floor of about (2 to 3) x 10(exp -15) for averaging times from 1 day to 1 month. Perhaps the most significant feature for a time laboratory is an extremely low possible frequency drift -- it is too difficult to estimate it reliably. The other estimations, free from possible inside the ensemble correlation phenomena, are available based on the time comparison of NTS relative to the stable enough time scale of outer laboratories. The data on NTS comparison relative to the time scale of secondary time and frequency standards at Golitzino and Irkutsk in Russia and relative to NIST, PTB and USNO using GLONASS and GPS time transfer links gives stability estimations which are close to that based on H-maser intercomparisons.

  4. Trends in Surface Radiation Budgets at Climatic Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinker, R. T.; Zhang, B.; Ma, Y.

    2015-12-01

    For assessment of variability and trends in the Earth Radiation Balance, information is needed at climatic time scales. Satellite observations have been instrumental for advancing the understanding of radiative balance at global scale, however, the length of available satellite records is limited due to the frequent changes in the observing systems. In this paper we report on an effort to synthesize satellite observations from independent sources to estimates shortwave and longwave surface radiative fluxes at climatic time scales and use them to learn about their variability and trends at global scale with a focus on the tropics. An attempt will be made to learn from the comparison about possible causes of observed trends. The radiative fluxes were derived in the framework of the MEaSURES and NEWS programs; they are evaluated against ground observations and compared to independent satellite and model estimates. Attention is given to updated knowledge on radiative balance as compared to what is known from shorter time records.

  5. Time scale construction from multiple sources of information (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinverno, A.

    2013-12-01

    Geological age estimates are provided by diverse chronometers, such as radiometric measurements, astrochronology, and the spacing of magnetic anomalies recorded on mid-ocean ridges by seafloor spreading. These age estimates are affected by errors that can be systematic (e.g., biased radiometric dates due to imperfect assumptions) or random (e.g., imprecise recording of astronomical cycles in sedimentary records). Whereas systematic errors can be reduced by improvements in technique and calibration, uncertainties due to random errors will always be present and need to be dealt with. A Bayesian framework can be used to construct an integrated time scale that is based on several uncertain sources of information. In this framework, each piece of data and the final time scale have an associated probability distribution that describes their uncertainty. The key calculation is to determine the uncertainty in the time scale from the uncertain data that constrain it. In practice, this calculation can be performed by Monte Carlo sampling. In Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, the time scale is iteratively perturbed and the perturbed time scale is accepted or rejected depending on how closely it fits the data. The final result is a large ensemble of possible time scales that are consistent with all the uncertain data; while the average of this ensemble defines a 'best' time scale, the ensemble variability quantifies the time scale uncertainty. An example of this approach is the M-sequence (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, ~160-120 Ma) MHTC12 geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) of Malinverno et al. (2012, J. Geophys. Res., B06104, doi:10.1029/2012JB009260). Previous GPTSs were constructed by interpolating between dated marine magnetic anomalies while assuming constant or smoothly varying spreading rates. These GPTSs were typically based on magnetic lineations from one or a few selected spreading centers, and an undesirable result is that they imply larger spreading rate

  6. Multiple-time scales analysis of physiological time series under neural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, C. K.; Hausdorff, J. M.; Havlin, S.; Mietus, J. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss multiple-time scale properties of neurophysiological control mechanisms, using heart rate and gait regulation as model systems. We find that scaling exponents can be used as prognostic indicators. Furthermore, detection of more subtle degradation of scaling properties may provide a novel early warning system in subjects with a variety of pathologies including those at high risk of sudden death.

  7. Scaling properties in time-varying networks with memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyewon; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-12-01

    The formation of network structure is mainly influenced by an individual node's activity and its memory, where activity can usually be interpreted as the individual inherent property and memory can be represented by the interaction strength between nodes. In our study, we define the activity through the appearance pattern in the time-aggregated network representation, and quantify the memory through the contact pattern of empirical temporal networks. To address the role of activity and memory in epidemics on time-varying networks, we propose temporal-pattern coarsening of activity-driven growing networks with memory. In particular, we focus on the relation between time-scale coarsening and spreading dynamics in the context of dynamic scaling and finite-size scaling. Finally, we discuss the universality issue of spreading dynamics on time-varying networks for various memory-causality tests.

  8. Thermodynamics Constrains Allometric Scaling of Optimal Development Time in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Michael E.; Frazier, Melanie R.

    2013-01-01

    Development time is a critical life-history trait that has profound effects on organism fitness and on population growth rates. For ectotherms, development time is strongly influenced by temperature and is predicted to scale with body mass to the quarter power based on 1) the ontogenetic growth model of the metabolic theory of ecology which describes a bioenergetic balance between tissue maintenance and growth given the scaling relationship between metabolism and body size, and 2) numerous studies, primarily of vertebrate endotherms, that largely support this prediction. However, few studies have investigated the allometry of development time among invertebrates, including insects. Abundant data on development of diverse insects provides an ideal opportunity to better understand the scaling of development time in this ecologically and economically important group. Insects develop more quickly at warmer temperatures until reaching a minimum development time at some optimal temperature, after which development slows. We evaluated the allometry of insect development time by compiling estimates of minimum development time and optimal developmental temperature for 361 insect species from 16 orders with body mass varying over nearly 6 orders of magnitude. Allometric scaling exponents varied with the statistical approach: standardized major axis regression supported the predicted quarter-power scaling relationship, but ordinary and phylogenetic generalized least squares did not. Regardless of the statistical approach, body size alone explained less than 28% of the variation in development time. Models that also included optimal temperature explained over 50% of the variation in development time. Warm-adapted insects developed more quickly, regardless of body size, supporting the “hotter is better” hypothesis that posits that ectotherms have a limited ability to evolutionarily compensate for the depressing effects of low temperatures on rates of biological processes

  9. Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

  10. Physics in space-time with scale-dependent metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.

    2013-10-01

    We construct three-dimensional space Rγ3 with the scale-dependent metric and the corresponding Minkowski space-time Mγ,β4 with the scale-dependent fractal (DH) and spectral (DS) dimensions. The local derivatives based on scale-dependent metrics are defined and differential vector calculus in Rγ3 is developed. We state that Mγ,β4 provides a unified phenomenological framework for dimensional flow observed in quite different models of quantum gravity. Nevertheless, the main attention is focused on the special case of flat space-time M1/3,14 with the scale-dependent Cantor-dust-like distribution of admissible states, such that DH increases from DH=2 on the scale ≪ℓ0 to DH=4 in the infrared limit ≫ℓ0, where ℓ0 is the characteristic length (e.g. the Planck length, or characteristic size of multi-fractal features in heterogeneous medium), whereas DS≡4 in all scales. Possible applications of approach based on the scale-dependent metric to systems of different nature are briefly discussed.

  11. Inferring synaptic structure in presence of neural interaction time scales.

    PubMed

    Capone, Cristiano; Filosa, Carla; Gigante, Guido; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico; Del Giudice, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Biological networks display a variety of activity patterns reflecting a web of interactions that is complex both in space and time. Yet inference methods have mainly focused on reconstructing, from the network's activity, the spatial structure, by assuming equilibrium conditions or, more recently, a probabilistic dynamics with a single arbitrary time-step. Here we show that, under this latter assumption, the inference procedure fails to reconstruct the synaptic matrix of a network of integrate-and-fire neurons when the chosen time scale of interaction does not closely match the synaptic delay or when no single time scale for the interaction can be identified; such failure, moreover, exposes a distinctive bias of the inference method that can lead to infer as inhibitory the excitatory synapses with interaction time scales longer than the model's time-step. We therefore introduce a new two-step method, that first infers through cross-correlation profiles the delay-structure of the network and then reconstructs the synaptic matrix, and successfully test it on networks with different topologies and in different activity regimes. Although step one is able to accurately recover the delay-structure of the network, thus getting rid of any a priori guess about the time scales of the interaction, the inference method introduces nonetheless an arbitrary time scale, the time-bin dt used to binarize the spike trains. We therefore analytically and numerically study how the choice of dt affects the inference in our network model, finding that the relationship between the inferred couplings and the real synaptic efficacies, albeit being quadratic in both cases, depends critically on dt for the excitatory synapses only, whilst being basically independent of it for the inhibitory ones. PMID:25807389

  12. A methane-based time scale for Vostok ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddiman, William F.; Raymo, Maureen E.

    2003-02-01

    Tuning the Vostok methane signal to mid-July 30°N insolation yields a new ice-core gas time scale. This exercise has two rationales: (1) evidence supporting Kutzbach's theory that low-latitude summer insolation in the northern hemisphere controls the strength of tropical monsoons, and (2) interhemispheric CH 4 gradients showing that the main control of orbital-scale CH 4 variations is tropical (monsoonal) sources. The immediate basis for tuning CH 4 to mid-July insolation is the coincident timing of the most recent (pre-anthropogenic) CH 4 maximum at 11,000-10,500 calendar years ago and the most recent July 30°N insolation maximum (all ages in this paper are in calendar years unless specified as 14C years). The resulting CH 4 gas time scale diverges by as much as 15,000 years from the GT4 gas time scale (Petit et al., Nature 399 (1999) 429) prior to 250,000 years ago, but it matches fairly closely a time scale derived by tuning ice-core δ18O atm to a lagged insolation signal (Shackleton, Science 289 (2000) 1897). Most offsets between the CH 4 and δ18O atm time scales can be explained by assuming that tropical monsoons and ice sheets alternate in controlling the phase of the δ18O atm signal. The CH 4 time scale provides an estimate of the timing of the Vostok CO 2 signal against SPECMAP marine δ18O, often used as an index of global ice volume. On the CH 4 time scale, all CO 2 responses are highly coherent with SPECMAP δ18O at the orbital periods. CO 2 leads δ18O by 5000 years at 100,000 years (eccentricity), but the two signals are nearly in-phase at 41,000 years (obliquity) and 23,000 years (precession). The actual phasing between CO 2 and ice volume is difficult to infer because of likely SST overprints on the SPECMAP δ18O signal. CO 2 could lead, or be in phase with, ice volume, but is unlikely to lag behind the ice response.

  13. Trends in Surface Radiation Budgets at Climatic Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Zhang, Banglin; Ma, Yingtao

    2015-04-01

    For assessment of variability and trends in the Earth Radiation Balance, information is needed at climatic time scales. Satellite observations have been instrumental for advancing the understanding of the radiative balance at global scale, however, due to the frequent changes in the observing systems, the length of available satellite records is limited. In this paper we report on an effort to synthesize satellite observations from independent sources to estimates shortwave, longwave and spectral surface radiative fluxes at climatic time scales and use them to learn about their variability and trends. The radiative fluxes were derived in the framework of the MEaSURES and NEWS programs; they are evaluated against ground observations and compared to independent satellite and model estimates. Attention is given to updates on the radiative balance as compared to what is known from shorter time records and from models.

  14. Segregation time-scales in model granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staron, Lydie; Phillips, Jeremy C.

    2016-04-01

    Segregation patterns in natural granular systems offer a singular picture of the systems evolution. In many cases, understanding segregation dynamics may help understanding the system's history as well as its future evolution. Among the key questions, one concerns the typical time-scales at which segregation occurs. In this contribution, we present model granular flows simulated by means of the discrete Contact Dynamics method. The granular flows are bi-disperse, namely exhibiting two grain sizes. The flow composition and its dynamics are systematically varied, and the segregation dynamics carefully analyzed. We propose a physical model for the segregation that gives account of the observed dependence of segregation time scales on composition and dynamics. References L. Staron and J. C. Phillips, Stress partition and micro-structure in size-segregating granular flows, Phys. Rev. E 92 022210 (2015) L. Staron and J. C. Phillips, Segregation time-scales in bi-disperse granular flows, Phys. Fluids 26 (3), 033302 (2014)

  15. An algorithm for the Italian atomic time scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, F.; Vizio, G.; Tavella, P.; Pettiti, V.

    1994-01-01

    During the past twenty years, the time scale at the IEN has been realized by a commercial cesium clock, selected from an ensemble of five, whose rate has been continuously steered towards UTC to maintain a long term agreement within 3 x 10(exp -13). A time scale algorithm, suitable for a small clock ensemble and capable of improving the medium and long term stability of the IEN time scale, has been recently designed taking care of reducing the effects of the seasonal variations and the sudden frequency anomalies of the single cesium clocks. The new time scale, TA(IEN), is obtained as a weighted average of the clock ensemble computed once a day from the time comparisons between the local reference UTC(IEN) and the single clocks. It is foreseen to include in the computation also ten cesium clocks maintained in other Italian laboratories to further improve its reliability and its long term stability. To implement this algorithm, a personal computer program in Quick Basic has been prepared and it has been tested at the IEN time and frequency laboratory. Results obtained using this algorithm on the real clocks data relative to a period of about two years are presented.

  16. Improving the Geologic Time Scale (Jean Baptiste Lamarck Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradstein, Felix M.

    2010-05-01

    The Geologic Time Scale (GTS) provides the framework for the physical, chemical and biological processes on Earth. The time scale is the tool "par excellence" of the geological trade, and insight in its construction, strength, and limitations enhances its function and its utility. Earth scientists should understand how time scales are constructed and its myriad of physical and abstract data are calibrated, rather than merely using ages plucked from a convenient chart or card. Calibration to linear time of the succession of events recorded in the rocks on Earth has three components: (1) the standard stratigraphic divisions and their correlation in the global rock record, (2) the means of measuring linear time or elapsed durations from the rock record, and (3) the methods of effectively joining the two scales, the stratigraphic one and the linear one. Under the auspices of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), the international stratigraphic divisions and their correlative events are now largely standardized, especially using the GSSP (Global Stratigraphic Section and Point) concept. The means of measuring linear time or elapsed durations from the rock record are objectives in the EARTH TIME and GTS NEXT projects, that also are educating a new generation of GTS dedicated scientists. The U/Pb, Ar/Ar and orbital tuning methods are intercalibrated, and external error analysis improved. Existing Ar/Ar ages become almost 0.5% older, and U/Pb ages stratigraphically more realistic. The new Os/Re method has potential for directly dating more GSSP's and its correlative events. Such may reduce scaling uncertainty between the sedimentary levels of an age date and that of a stage boundary. Since 1981, six successive Phanerozoic GTS have been published, each new one achieving higher resolution and more users. The next GTS is scheduled for 2011/2012, with over 50 specialists taking part. New chapters include an expanded planetary time scale, sequence stratigraphy

  17. Evaluation of Scaling Invariance Embedded in Short Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie; Zhu, Chenping

    2014-01-01

    Scaling invariance of time series has been making great contributions in diverse research fields. But how to evaluate scaling exponent from a real-world series is still an open problem. Finite length of time series may induce unacceptable fluctuation and bias to statistical quantities and consequent invalidation of currently used standard methods. In this paper a new concept called correlation-dependent balanced estimation of diffusion entropy is developed to evaluate scale-invariance in very short time series with length . Calculations with specified Hurst exponent values of show that by using the standard central moving average de-trending procedure this method can evaluate the scaling exponents for short time series with ignorable bias () and sharp confidential interval (standard deviation ). Considering the stride series from ten volunteers along an approximate oval path of a specified length, we observe that though the averages and deviations of scaling exponents are close, their evolutionary behaviors display rich patterns. It has potential use in analyzing physiological signals, detecting early warning signals, and so on. As an emphasis, the our core contribution is that by means of the proposed method one can estimate precisely shannon entropy from limited records. PMID:25549356

  18. Going up in time and length scales in modeling polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grest, Gary S.

    Polymer properties depend on a wide range of coupled length and time scales, with unique macroscopic viscoelastic behavior stemming from interactions at the atomistic level. The need to probe polymers across time and length scales and particularly computational modeling is inherently challenging. Here new paths to probing long time and length scales including introducing interactions into traditional bead-spring models and coarse graining of atomistic simulations will be compared and discussed. Using linear polyethylene as a model system, the degree of coarse graining with two to six methylene groups per coarse-grained bead derived from a fully atomistic melt simulation were probed. We show that the degree of coarse graining affects the measured dynamic. Using these models we were successful in probing highly entangled melts and were able reach the long-time diffusive regime which is computationally inaccessible using atomistic simulations. We simulated the relaxation modulus and shear viscosity of well-entangled polyethylene melts for scaled times of 500 µs. Results for plateau modulus are in good agreement with experiment. The long time and length scale is coupled to the macroscopic viscoelasticity where the degree of coarse graining sets the minimum length scale instrumental in defining polymer properties and dynamics. Results will be compared to those obtained from simple bead-spring models to demonstrate the additional insight that can be gained from atomistically inspired coarse grained models. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Time scales for molecule formation by ion-molecule reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W. D.; Glassgold, A. E.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical solutions are obtained for nonlinear differential equations governing the time-dependence of molecular abundances in interstellar clouds. Three gas-phase reaction schemes are considered separately for the regions where each dominates. The particular case of CO, and closely related members of the Oh and CH families of molecules, is studied for given values of temperature, density, and the radiation field. Nonlinear effects and couplings with particular ions are found to be important. The time scales for CO formation range from 100,000 to a few million years, depending on the chemistry and regime. The time required for essentially complete conversion of C(+) to CO in the region where the H3(+) chemistry dominates is several million years. Because this time is longer than or comparable to dynamical time scales for dense interstellar clouds, steady-state abundances may not be observed in such clouds.

  20. Time scales of crystal mixing in magma mushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, Jillian M.; Bergantz, George W.; Breidenthal, Robert E.; Burgisser, Alain

    2016-02-01

    Magma mixing is widely recognized as a means of producing compositional diversity and preconditioning magmas for eruption. However, the processes and associated time scales that produce the commonly observed expressions of magma mixing are poorly understood, especially under crystal-rich conditions. Here we introduce and exemplify a parameterized method to predict the characteristic mixing time of crystals in a crystal-rich magma mush that is subject to open-system reintrusion events. Our approach includes novel numerical simulations that resolve multiphase particle-fluid interactions. It also quantifies the crystal mixing by calculating both the local and system-wide progressive loss of the spatial correlation of individual crystals throughout the mixing region. Both inertial and viscous time scales for bulk mixing are introduced. Estimated mixing times are compared to natural examples and the time for basaltic mush systems to become well mixed can be on the order of 10 days.

  1. Dynamics symmetries of Hamiltonian system on time scales

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Keke Luo, Yiping

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, the dynamics symmetries of Hamiltonian system on time scales are studied. We study the symmetries and quantities based on the calculation of variation and Lie transformation group. Particular focus lies in: the Noether symmetry leads to the Noether conserved quantity and the Lie symmetry leads to the Noether conserved quantity if the infinitesimal transformations satisfy the structure equation. As the new application of result, at end of the article, we give a simple example of Noether symmetry and Lie symmetry on time scales.

  2. Appropriate time scales for nonlinear analyses of deterministic jump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Tomoya

    2011-06-01

    In the real world, there are many phenomena that are derived from deterministic systems but which fluctuate with nonuniform time intervals. This paper discusses the appropriate time scales that can be applied to such systems to analyze their properties. The financial markets are an example of such systems wherein price movements fluctuate with nonuniform time intervals. However, it is common to apply uniform time scales such as 1-min data and 1-h data to study price movements. This paper examines the validity of such time scales by using surrogate data tests to ascertain whether the deterministic properties of the original system can be identified from uniform sampled data. The results show that uniform time samplings are often inappropriate for nonlinear analyses. However, for other systems such as neural spikes and Internet traffic packets, which produce similar outputs, uniform time samplings are quite effective in extracting the system properties. Nevertheless, uniform samplings often generate overlapping data, which can cause false rejections of surrogate data tests.

  3. Separation of Time Scales in a Quantum Newton's Cradle.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, R; Wouters, B; Eliëns, S; De Nardis, J; Konik, R M; Caux, J-S

    2016-06-01

    We provide detailed modeling of the Bragg pulse used in quantum Newton's-cradle-like settings or in Bragg spectroscopy experiments for strongly repulsive bosons in one dimension. We reconstruct the postpulse time evolution and study the time-dependent local density profile and momentum distribution by a combination of exact techniques. We further provide a variety of results for finite interaction strengths using a time-dependent Hartree-Fock analysis and bosonization-refermionization techniques. Our results display a clear separation of time scales between rapid and trap-insensitive relaxation immediately after the pulse, followed by slow in-trap periodic behavior. PMID:27314723

  4. Separation of Time Scales in a Quantum Newton's Cradle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, R.; Wouters, B.; Eliëns, S.; De Nardis, J.; Konik, R. M.; Caux, J.-S.

    2016-06-01

    We provide detailed modeling of the Bragg pulse used in quantum Newton's-cradle-like settings or in Bragg spectroscopy experiments for strongly repulsive bosons in one dimension. We reconstruct the postpulse time evolution and study the time-dependent local density profile and momentum distribution by a combination of exact techniques. We further provide a variety of results for finite interaction strengths using a time-dependent Hartree-Fock analysis and bosonization-refermionization techniques. Our results display a clear separation of time scales between rapid and trap-insensitive relaxation immediately after the pulse, followed by slow in-trap periodic behavior.

  5. Satellite attitude prediction by multiple time scales method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Y. C.; Ramnath, R.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation is made of the problem of predicting the attitude of satellites under the influence of external disturbing torques. The attitude dynamics are first expressed in a perturbation formulation which is then solved by the multiple scales approach. The independent variable, time, is extended into new scales, fast, slow, etc., and the integration is carried out separately in the new variables. The theory is applied to two different satellite configurations, rigid body and dual spin, each of which may have an asymmetric mass distribution. The disturbing torques considered are gravity gradient and geomagnetic. Finally, as multiple time scales approach separates slow and fast behaviors of satellite attitude motion, this property is used for the design of an attitude control device. A nutation damping control loop, using the geomagnetic torque for an earth pointing dual spin satellite, is designed in terms of the slow equation.

  6. Time scale algorithm: Definition of ensemble time and possible uses of the Kalman filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavella, Patrizia; Thomas, Claudine

    1990-01-01

    The comparative study of two time scale algorithms, devised to satisfy different but related requirements, is presented. They are ALGOS(BIPM), producing the international reference TAI at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, and AT1(NIST), generating the real-time time scale AT1 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. In each case, the time scale is a weighted average of clock readings, but the weight determination and the frequency prediction are different because they are adapted to different purposes. The possibility of using a mathematical tool, such as the Kalman filter, together with the definition of the time scale as a weighted average, is also analyzed. Results obtained by simulation are presented.

  7. Gott Time Machines, BTZ Black Hole Formation, and Choptuik Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmingham, Danny; Sen, Siddhartha

    2000-02-01

    We study the formation of Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes by the collision of point particles. It is shown that the Gott time machine, originally constructed for the case of vanishing cosmological constant, provides a precise mechanism for black hole formation. As a result, one obtains an exact analytic understanding of the Choptuik scaling.

  8. Speech Compensation for Time-Scale-Modified Auditory Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogane, Rintaro; Honda, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine speech compensation in response to time-scale-modified auditory feedback during the transition of the semivowel for a target utterance of /ija/. Method: Each utterance session consisted of 10 control trials in the normal feedback condition followed by 20 perturbed trials in the modified auditory…

  9. Spectral decomposition of time-scales in hyporheic exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörman, Anders; Riml, Joakim

    2015-04-01

    Hyporheic exchange of heat and solute mass in streams is manifested both in form of different exchange mechanisms and their associated distributions of residence times as well as the range of time-scales characterizing the forcing boundary conditions. A recently developed analytical technique separates the spectrum of time-scales and relates the forcing boundary fluctuations of heat and solute mass through a physical model of the hydrological transport to the response of heat and solute mass. This spectral decomposition can be done both for local (point-scale) observations in the hyporhiec zone itself as well as for transport processes on the watershed scale that can be considered 'well-behaved' in terms of knowledge of the forcing (input) quantities. This paper presents closed-form solutions in spectral form for the point-, reach- and watershed-scale and discusses their applicability to selected data of heat and solute concentration. We quantify the reliability and highlight the benefits of the spectral approach to different scenarios and, peculiarly, the importance for linking the periods in the spectral decomposition of the solute response to the distribution of transport times that arise due to the multitude of exchange mechanisms existing in a watershed. In a point-scale example the power spectra of in-stream temperature is related to the power spectrum of the temperature at a specific sediment depth by means of exact solutions of a physically based formulation of the vertical heat transport. It is shown that any frequency (ω) of in-stream temperature fluctuation scales with the effective thermal diffusivity (κe) and the vertical separation distance between the pairs of temperature (ɛ) data as ω ≈ κe/(2ɛ2), which implies a decreasing weight to higher frequencies (shorter periods) with depth. Similarly on the watershed-scale one can link the watershed dispersion to the damping of the concentration fluctuations in selected frequency intervals

  10. Characterization of a binary karst aquifer using process time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birk, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Within "a theoretical framework for the interpretation of karst spring signals" (Covington, EGU2012-853-1) process length scales that characterize the travel distances required for damping pulses of physicochemical parameters of spring waters such as electrical conductivity and temperature were derived (Covington et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2012). These length scales can be converted to corresponding process time scales characterizing the travel times needed for damping the pulses. This is particularly convenient if the travel distance is unknown. In this case the time lag between the increase of spring discharge and subsequent physicochemical responses at the spring may provide an estimate of the travel time. In binary karst aquifers with localized recharge from a sinking stream, the recharge pulse can be directly observed and thus travel times are readily obtained from the time delay of the physicochemical spring responses. If the spring response is strongly damped travel times can be inferred from artificial tracer testing. In this work, time scales for carbonate dissolution and heat transport were used for characterizing the binary Lurbach-Tanneben karst aquifer (Austria). This aquifer receives allogenic recharge from the sinking stream Lurbach and is drained by two springs, namely the Hammerbach and the Schmelzbach. The two springs show different thermal responses to two recharge events in December 2008: Whereas the temperature of the Schmelzbach responds within one day after the flood pulse in the Lurbach, the temperature signal is strongly damped at the Hammerbach. The evaluation based on the thermal time scale thus suggests that the Schmelzbach spring is fed by conduits with hydraulic diameters at least in the order of decimetres. In contrast, the damping of the thermal responses at the Hammerbach may be due to lower hydraulic diameters and/or longer residence times. Interestingly, the Hammerbach did show thermal responses in the time before a flood event in

  11. The Available Time Scale: Measuring Foster Parents' Available Time to Foster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Donna J.; Orme, John G.; Rhodes, Kathryn W.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a new measure of available time specific to fostering, the Available Time Scale (ATS). It was tested with a national sample of 304 foster mothers and is designed to measure the amount of time foster parents are able to devote to fostering activities. The ATS has excellent reliability, and good support exists for its validity.…

  12. Energy and time determine scaling in biological and computer designs.

    PubMed

    Moses, Melanie; Bezerra, George; Edwards, Benjamin; Brown, James; Forrest, Stephanie

    2016-08-19

    Metabolic rate in animals and power consumption in computers are analogous quantities that scale similarly with size. We analyse vascular systems of mammals and on-chip networks of microprocessors, where natural selection and human engineering, respectively, have produced systems that minimize both energy dissipation and delivery times. Using a simple network model that simultaneously minimizes energy and time, our analysis explains empirically observed trends in the scaling of metabolic rate in mammals and power consumption and performance in microprocessors across several orders of magnitude in size. Just as the evolutionary transitions from unicellular to multicellular animals in biology are associated with shifts in metabolic scaling, our model suggests that the scaling of power and performance will change as computer designs transition to decentralized multi-core and distributed cyber-physical systems. More generally, a single energy-time minimization principle may govern the design of many complex systems that process energy, materials and information.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431524

  13. Time scales and heterogeneous structure in geodynamic earth models

    PubMed

    Bunge; Richards; Lithgow-Bertelloni; Baumgardner; Grand; Romanowicz

    1998-04-01

    Computer models of mantle convection constrained by the history of Cenozoic and Mesozoic plate motions explain some deep-mantle structural heterogeneity imaged by seismic tomography, especially those related to subduction. They also reveal a 150-million-year time scale for generating thermal heterogeneity in the mantle, comparable to the record of plate motion reconstructions, so that the problem of unknown initial conditions can be overcome. The pattern of lowermost mantle structure at the core-mantle boundary is controlled by subduction history, although seismic tomography reveals intense large-scale hot (low-velocity) upwelling features not explicitly predicted by the models. PMID:9525864

  14. Wavelet analysis and scaling properties of time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manimaran, P.; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.; Parikh, Jitendra C.

    2005-10-01

    We propose a wavelet based method for the characterization of the scaling behavior of nonstationary time series. It makes use of the built-in ability of the wavelets for capturing the trends in a data set, in variable window sizes. Discrete wavelets from the Daubechies family are used to illustrate the efficacy of this procedure. After studying binomial multifractal time series with the present and earlier approaches of detrending for comparison, we analyze the time series of averaged spin density in the 2D Ising model at the critical temperature, along with several experimental data sets possessing multifractal behavior.

  15. Wavelet analysis and scaling properties of time series.

    PubMed

    Manimaran, P; Panigrahi, Prasanta K; Parikh, Jitendra C

    2005-10-01

    We propose a wavelet based method for the characterization of the scaling behavior of nonstationary time series. It makes use of the built-in ability of the wavelets for capturing the trends in a data set, in variable window sizes. Discrete wavelets from the Daubechies family are used to illustrate the efficacy of this procedure. After studying binomial multifractal time series with the present and earlier approaches of detrending for comparison, we analyze the time series of averaged spin density in the 2D Ising model at the critical temperature, along with several experimental data sets possessing multifractal behavior. PMID:16383481

  16. Brownian motion at fast time scales and thermal noise imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rongxin

    This dissertation presents experimental studies on Brownian motion at fast time scales, as well as our recent developments in Thermal Noise Imaging which uses thermal motions of microscopic particles for spatial imaging. As thermal motions become increasingly important in the studies of soft condensed matters, the study of Brownian motion is not only of fundamental scientific interest but also has practical applications. Optical tweezers with a fast position-sensitive detector provide high spatial and temporal resolution to study Brownian motion at fast time scales. A novel high bandwidth detector was developed with a temporal resolution of 30 ns and a spatial resolution of 1 A. With this high bandwidth detector, Brownian motion of a single particle confined in an optical trap was observed at the time scale of the ballistic regime. The hydrodynamic memory effect was fully studied with polystyrene particles of different sizes. We found that the mean square displacements of different sized polystyrene particles collapse into one master curve which is determined by the characteristic time scale of the fluid inertia effect. The particle's inertia effect was shown for particles of the same size but different densities. For the first time the velocity autocorrelation function for a single particle was shown. We found excellent agreement between our experiments and the hydrodynamic theories that take into account the fluid inertia effect. Brownian motion of a colloidal particle can be used to probe three-dimensional nano structures. This so-called thermal noise imaging (TNI) has been very successful in imaging polymer networks with a resolution of 10 nm. However, TNI is not efficient at micrometer scale scanning since a great portion of image acquisition time is wasted on large vacant volume within polymer networks. Therefore, we invented a method to improve the efficiency of large scale scanning by combining traditional point-to-point scanning to explore large vacant

  17. Differential force microscope for long time-scale biophysical measurements

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Jason L.; Parekh, Sapun H.; Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Liu, Allen P.; Bustamante, Carlos; Footer, Matthew J.; Theriot, Julie A.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Force microscopy techniques including optical trapping, magnetic tweezers, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have facilitated quantification of forces and distances on the molecular scale. However, sensitivity and stability limitations have prevented the application of these techniques to biophysical systems that generate large forces over long times, such as actin filament networks. Growth of actin networks drives cellular shape change and generates nano-Newtons of force over time scales of minutes to hours, and consequently network growth properties have been difficult to study. Here, we present an AFM-based differential force microscope with integrated epifluorescence imaging in which two adjacent cantilevers on the same rigid support are used to provide increased measurement stability. We demonstrate 14 nm displacement control over measurement times of 3 hours and apply the instrument to quantify actin network growth in vitro under controlled loads. By measuring both network length and total network fluorescence simultaneously, we show that the average cross-sectional density of the growing network remains constant under static loads. The differential force microscope presented here provides a sensitive method for quantifying force and displacement with long time-scale stability that is useful for measurements of slow biophysical processes in whole cells or in reconstituted molecular systems in vitro. PMID:17477674

  18. Surface charge measurements in barrier discharges on different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Robert; Volkhausen, Christian; Benduhn, Johannes; Stollenwerk, Lars

    2015-09-01

    The deposition of surface charge in barrier discharges is a process that influences the ongoing discharge significantly. This contribution presents the measurement of absolute surface charge densities and their dynamics in a laterally extended setup. An electro-optic BSO crystal is used as dielectric. The absolute charge density on its surface is deduced from the change of polarisation of light passing the crystal. Using different temporal resolutions, the behavior of charge is investigated on three different time scales. The highest temporal resolution of the technique is in the order of hundreds of nanoseconds. Therefore it is possible for the first time to observe the charge deposition process during an active discharge. On the time scale of the applied voltage period (several microseconds), the conservation mechanisms of a lateral discharge pattern is investigated. For this, the influence of surface charge and metastable species in the volume is estimated. Further, the behavior of the surface charge spots on a variation of the external voltage and gas pressure is studied. Measurements on a time scale in the magnitude of seconds reveal charge decay and transport phenomena. This work was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  19. Reconstructions of solar irradiance on centennial time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami K.; Dasi Espuig, Maria; Kok Leng, Yeo

    Solar irradiance is the main external source of energy to Earth's climate system. The record of direct measurements covering less than 40 years is too short to study solar influence on Earth's climate, which calls for reconstructions of solar irradiance into the past with the help of appropriate models. An obvious requirement to a competitive model is its ability to reproduce observed irradiance changes, and a successful example of such a model is presented by the SATIRE family of models. As most state-of-the-art models, SATIRE assumes that irradiance changes on time scales longer than approximately a day are caused by the evolving distribution of dark and bright magnetic features on the solar surface. The surface coverage by such features as a function of time is derived from solar observations. The choice of these depends on the time scale in question. Most accurate is the version of the model that employs full-disc spatially-resolved solar magnetograms and reproduces over 90% of the measured irradiance variation, including the overall decreasing trend in the total solar irradiance over the last four cycles. Since such magnetograms are only available for about four decades, reconstructions on time scales of centuries have to rely on disc-integrated proxies of solar magnetic activity, such as sunspot areas and numbers. Employing a surface flux transport model and sunspot observations as input, we have being able to produce synthetic magnetograms since 1700. This improves the temporal resolution of the irradiance reconstructions on centennial time scales. The most critical aspect of such reconstructions remains the uncertainty in the magnitude of the secular change.

  20. Sublinear scaling for time-dependent stochastic density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yi; Neuhauser, Daniel; Baer, Roi; Rabani, Eran

    2015-01-21

    A stochastic approach to time-dependent density functional theory is developed for computing the absorption cross section and the random phase approximation (RPA) correlation energy. The core idea of the approach involves time-propagation of a small set of stochastic orbitals which are first projected on the occupied space and then propagated in time according to the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations. The evolving electron density is exactly represented when the number of random orbitals is infinite, but even a small number (≈16) of such orbitals is enough to obtain meaningful results for absorption spectrum and the RPA correlation energy per electron. We implement the approach for silicon nanocrystals using real-space grids and find that the overall scaling of the algorithm is sublinear with computational time and memory.

  1. Thermal lens measurements in liquids on a submicrosecond time scale

    SciTech Connect

    Isak, S. J.; Komorowski, S. J.; Merrow, C. N.; Poston, P. E.; Eyring, E. M.

    1989-03-01

    The use of the thermal lens method is shown to be quite suitable for kinetic studies of quenching on a submicrosecond time scale. The lower limit of time resolution that can be achieved is determined by the acoustic transit time, /tau//sub /ital a//, in the medium. A thermal lens signal with a 100-ns time constant due to the quenched triplet state of benzophenone is readily measured. The thermal lens method is superior to the photoacoustic (PA) method in the breadth of the accessible time range, and in the significantly fewer measurements required to obtain accurate data, including no requirement for a reference sample; it is also less sensitive to geometrical and laser power requirements than is the PA method.

  2. Time scale of diffusion in molecular and cellular biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcman, D.; Schuss, Z.

    2014-05-01

    Diffusion is the driver of critical biological processes in cellular and molecular biology. The diverse temporal scales of cellular function are determined by vastly diverse spatial scales in most biophysical processes. The latter are due, among others, to small binding sites inside or on the cell membrane or to narrow passages between large cellular compartments. The great disparity in scales is at the root of the difficulty in quantifying cell function from molecular dynamics and from simulations. The coarse-grained time scale of cellular function is determined from molecular diffusion by the mean first passage time of molecular Brownian motion to a small targets or through narrow passages. The narrow escape theory (NET) concerns this issue. The NET is ubiquitous in molecular and cellular biology and is manifested, among others, in chemical reactions, in the calculation of the effective diffusion coefficient of receptors diffusing on a neuronal cell membrane strewn with obstacles, in the quantification of the early steps of viral trafficking, in the regulation of diffusion between the mother and daughter cells during cell division, and many other cases. Brownian trajectories can represent the motion of a molecule, a protein, an ion in solution, a receptor in a cell or on its membrane, and many other biochemical processes. The small target can represent a binding site or an ionic channel, a hidden active site embedded in a complex protein structure, a receptor for a neurotransmitter on the membrane of a neuron, and so on. The mean time to attach to a receptor or activator determines diffusion fluxes that are key regulators of cell function. This review describes physical models of various subcellular microdomains, in which the NET coarse-grains the molecular scale to a higher cellular-level, thus clarifying the role of cell geometry in determining subcellular function.

  3. Space and time scales in human-landscape systems.

    PubMed

    Kondolf, G Mathias; Podolak, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Exploring spatial and temporal scales provides a way to understand human alteration of landscape processes and human responses to these processes. We address three topics relevant to human-landscape systems: (1) scales of human impacts on geomorphic processes, (2) spatial and temporal scales in river restoration, and (3) time scales of natural disasters and behavioral and institutional responses. Studies showing dramatic recent change in sediment yields from uplands to the ocean via rivers illustrate the increasingly vast spatial extent and quick rate of human landscape change in the last two millennia, but especially in the second half of the twentieth century. Recent river restoration efforts are typically small in spatial and temporal scale compared to the historical human changes to ecosystem processes, but the cumulative effectiveness of multiple small restoration projects in achieving large ecosystem goals has yet to be demonstrated. The mismatch between infrequent natural disasters and individual risk perception, media coverage, and institutional response to natural disasters results in un-preparedness and unsustainable land use and building practices. PMID:23716006

  4. Tailored real-time scaling of heteronuclear couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Franz; Glaser, Steffen J.

    2012-10-01

    Heteronuclear couplings are a valuable source of molecular information, which is measured from the multiplet splittings of an NMR spectrum. Radiofrequency irradiation on one coupled nuclear spin allows to modify the effective coupling constant, scaling down the multiplet splittings in the spectrum observed at the resonance frequency of the other nuclear spin. Such decoupling sequences are often used to collapse a multiplet into a singlet and can therefore simplify NMR spectra significantly. Continuous-wave (cw) decoupling has an intrinsic non-linear offset dependence of the scaling of the effective J-coupling constant. Using optimal control pulse optimization, we show that virtually arbitrary off-resonance scaling of the J-coupling constant can be achieved. The new class of tailored decoupling pulses is named SHOT (Scaling of Heteronuclear couplings by Optimal Tracking). Complementing cw irradiation, SHOT pulses offer an alternative approach of encoding chemical shift information indirectly through off-resonance decoupling, which however makes it possible for the first time to achieve linear J scaling as a function of offset frequency. For a simple mixture of eight aromatic compounds, it is demonstrated experimentally that a 1D-SHOT {1H}-13C experiment yields comparable information to a 2D-HSQC and can give full assignment of all coupled spins.

  5. Statistical Analysis of Sensor Network Time Series at Multiple Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granat, R. A.; Donnellan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Modern sensor networks often collect data at multiple time scales in order to observe physical phenomena that occur at different scales. Whether collected by heterogeneous or homogenous sensor networks, measurements at different time scales are usually subject to different dynamics, noise characteristics, and error sources. We explore the impact of these effects on the results of statistical time series analysis methods applied to multi-scale time series data. As a case study, we analyze results from GPS time series position data collected in Japan and the Western United States, which produce raw observations at 1Hz and orbit corrected observations at time resolutions of 5 minutes, 30 minutes, and 24 hours. We utilize the GPS analysis package (GAP) software to perform three types of statistical analysis on these observations: hidden Markov modeling, probabilistic principle components analysis, and covariance distance analysis. We compare the results of these methods at the different time scales and discuss the impact on science understanding of earthquake fault systems generally and recent large seismic events specifically, including the Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan and El Mayor-Cucupah earthquake in Mexico.

  6. Selective visual scaling of time-scale processes facilitates broadband learning of isometric force frequency tracking.

    PubMed

    King, Adam C; Newell, Karl M

    2015-10-01

    The experiment investigated the effect of selectively augmenting faster time scales of visual feedback information on the learning and transfer of continuous isometric force tracking tasks to test the generality of the self-organization of 1/f properties of force output. Three experimental groups tracked an irregular target pattern either under a standard fixed gain condition or with selectively enhancement in the visual feedback display of intermediate (4-8 Hz) or high (8-12 Hz) frequency components of the force output. All groups reduced tracking error over practice, with the error lowest in the intermediate scaling condition followed by the high scaling and fixed gain conditions, respectively. Selective visual scaling induced persistent changes across the frequency spectrum, with the strongest effect in the intermediate scaling condition and positive transfer to novel feedback displays. The findings reveal an interdependence of the timescales in the learning and transfer of isometric force output frequency structures consistent with 1/f process models of the time scales of motor output variability. PMID:26041272

  7. The length and time scales of water's glass transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limmer, David T.

    2014-06-01

    Using a general model for the equilibrium dynamics of supercooled liquids, I compute from molecular properties the emergent length and time scales that govern the nonequilibrium relaxation behavior of amorphous ice prepared by rapid cooling. Upon cooling, the liquid water falls out of equilibrium whereby the temperature dependence of its relaxation time is predicted to change from super-Arrhenius to Arrhenius. A consequence of this crossover is that the location of the apparent glass transition temperature depends logarithmically on cooling rate. Accompanying vitrification is the emergence of a dynamical length-scale, the size of which depends on the cooling rate and varies between angstroms and tens of nanometers. While this protocol dependence clarifies a number of previous experimental observations for amorphous ice, the arguments are general and can be extended to other glass forming liquids.

  8. Entropy Production of Nanosystems with Time Scale Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shou-Wen; Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Sasa, Shin-ichi; Tang, Lei-Han

    2016-08-01

    Energy flows in biomolecular motors and machines are vital to their function. Yet experimental observations are often limited to a small subset of variables that participate in energy transport and dissipation. Here we show, through a solvable Langevin model, that the seemingly hidden entropy production is measurable through the violation spectrum of the fluctuation-response relation of a slow observable. For general Markov systems with time scale separation, we prove that the violation spectrum exhibits a characteristic plateau in the intermediate frequency region. Despite its vanishing height, the plateau can account for energy dissipation over a broad time scale. Our findings suggest a general possibility to probe hidden entropy production in nanosystems without direct observation of fast variables.

  9. Entropy Production of Nanosystems with Time Scale Separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shou-Wen; Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Sasa, Shin-Ichi; Tang, Lei-Han

    2016-08-12

    Energy flows in biomolecular motors and machines are vital to their function. Yet experimental observations are often limited to a small subset of variables that participate in energy transport and dissipation. Here we show, through a solvable Langevin model, that the seemingly hidden entropy production is measurable through the violation spectrum of the fluctuation-response relation of a slow observable. For general Markov systems with time scale separation, we prove that the violation spectrum exhibits a characteristic plateau in the intermediate frequency region. Despite its vanishing height, the plateau can account for energy dissipation over a broad time scale. Our findings suggest a general possibility to probe hidden entropy production in nanosystems without direct observation of fast variables. PMID:27563943

  10. Long-term variation time scales in OJ 287

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jun-Hui; Liu, Yi; Qian, Bo-Chun; Tao, Jun; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Jiang-Shui; Huang, Yong; Wang, Jin

    2010-11-01

    The light curve data from 1894 to 2008 are compiled for the BL Lacertae object OJ 287 from the available literature. Periodicity analysis methods (the Discrete Correlation Function-DCF, the Jurkevich method, the power spectral (Fourier) analysis, and the CLEANest method) are performed to search for possible periodicites in the light curve of OJ 287. Significance levels are given for the possible periods. The analysis results confirm the existence of the 12.2±0.6 yr time scale and show a hint of a ~53 yr time scale. The 12.2±0.6 yr period is used as the orbital period to investigate the supermassive binary black hole system parameters.

  11. Sub-diffusive scaling with power-law trapping times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Liang; Tang, Lei-Han

    2014-07-01

    Thermally driven diffusive motion of a particle underlies many physical and biological processes. In the presence of traps and obstacles, the spread of the particle is substantially impeded, leading to subdiffusive scaling at long times. The statistical mechanical treatment of diffusion in a disordered environment is often quite involved. In this short review, we present a simple and unified view of the many quantitative results on anomalous diffusion in the literature, including the scaling of the diffusion front and the mean first-passage time. Various analytic calculations and physical arguments are examined to highlight the role of dimensionality, energy landscape, and rare events in affecting the particle trajectory statistics. The general understanding that emerges will aid the interpretation of relevant experimental and simulation results.

  12. Adaptive Haar transforms with arbitrary time and scale splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egiazarian, Karen O.; Astola, Jaakko T.

    2001-05-01

    The Haar transform is generalized to the case of an arbitrary time and scale splitting. To any binary tree we associate an orthogonal system of Haar-type functions - tree-structured Haar (TSH) functions. Unified fast algorithm for computation of the introduced tree-structured Haar transforms is presented. It requires 2(N - 1) additions and 3N - 2 multiplications, where N is transform order or, equivalently, the number of leaves of the binary tree.

  13. Solar Irradiance Variations on Active Region Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labonte, B. J. (Editor); Chapman, G. A. (Editor); Hudson, H. S. (Editor); Willson, R. C. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The variations of the total solar irradiance is an important tool for studying the Sun, thanks to the development of very precise sensors such as the ACRIM instrument on board the Solar Maximum Mission. The largest variations of the total irradiance occur on time scales of a few days are caused by solar active regions, especially sunspots. Efforts were made to describe the active region effects on total and spectral irradiance.

  14. Biogenic Calcium Phosphate Transformation in Soils over Millennium Time Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, S.; Neves, E; Solomon, D; Liang, B; Lehmann, J

    2009-01-01

    Changes in bioavailability of phosphorus (P) during pedogenesis and ecosystem development have been shown for geogenic calcium phosphate (Ca-P). However, very little is known about long-term changes of biogenic Ca-P in soil. Long-term transformation characteristics of biogenic Ca-P were examined using anthropogenic soils along a chronosequence from centennial to millennial time scales. Phosphorus fractionation of Anthrosols resulted in overall consistency with the Walker and Syers model of geogenic Ca-P transformation during pedogenesis. The biogenic Ca-P (e.g., animal and fish bones) disappeared to 3% of total P within the first ca. 2,000 years of soil development. This change concurred with increases in P adsorbed on metal-oxides surfaces, organic P, and occluded P at different pedogenic time. Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed that the crystalline and therefore thermodynamically most stable biogenic Ca-P was transformed into more soluble forms of Ca-P over time. While crystalline hydroxyapatite (34% of total P) dominated Ca-P species after about 600-1,000 years, {Beta}-tricalcium phosphate increased to 16% of total P after 900-1,100 years, after which both Ca-P species disappeared. Iron-associated P was observable concurrently with Ca-P disappearance. Soluble P and organic P determined by XANES maintained relatively constant (58-65%) across the time scale studied. Conclusions - Disappearance of crystalline biogenic Ca-P on a time scale of a few thousand years appears to be ten times faster than that of geogenic Ca-P.

  15. Time scale interactions and the coevolution of humans and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Blöschl, Günter

    2015-09-01

    We present a coevolutionary view of hydrologic systems, revolving around feedbacks between environmental and social processes operating across different time scales. This brings to the fore an emphasis on emergent phenomena in changing water systems, such as the levee effect, adaptation to change, system lock-in, and system collapse due to resource depletion. Changing human values play a key role in the emergence of these phenomena and should therefore be considered as internal to the system. Guidance is provided for the framing and modeling of these phenomena to test alternative hypotheses about how they arose. A plurality of coevolutionary models, from stylized to comprehensive system-of-system models, may assist strategic water management for long time scales through facilitating stakeholder participation, exploring the possibility space of alternative futures, and helping to synthesize the observed dynamics in a wide range of case studies. Future research opportunities lie in exploring emergent phenomena arising from time scale interactions through historical, comparative, and process studies of human-water feedbacks.

  16. Backpropagation and ordered derivatives in the time scales calculus.

    PubMed

    Seiffertt, John; Wunsch, Donald C

    2010-08-01

    Backpropagation is the most widely used neural network learning technique. It is based on the mathematical notion of an ordered derivative. In this paper, we present a formulation of ordered derivatives and the backpropagation training algorithm using the important emerging area of mathematics known as the time scales calculus. This calculus, with its potential for application to a wide variety of inter-disciplinary problems, is becoming a key area of mathematics. It is capable of unifying continuous and discrete analysis within one coherent theoretical framework. Using this calculus, we present here a generalization of backpropagation which is appropriate for cases beyond the specifically continuous or discrete. We develop a new multivariate chain rule of this calculus, define ordered derivatives on time scales, prove a key theorem about them, and derive the backpropagation weight update equations for a feedforward multilayer neural network architecture. By drawing together the time scales calculus and the area of neural network learning, we present the first connection of two major fields of research. PMID:20615808

  17. Scale dependence of the directional relationships between coupled time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi, Amir Hossein; Aghamohammadi, Cina; Anvari, Mehrnaz; Bahraminasab, Alireza; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza; Peinke, Joachim; Sahimi, Muhammad; Marsili, Matteo

    2013-02-01

    Using the cross-correlation of the wavelet transformation, we propose a general method of studying the scale dependence of the direction of coupling for coupled time series. The method is first demonstrated by applying it to coupled van der Pol forced oscillators and coupled nonlinear stochastic equations. We then apply the method to the analysis of the log-return time series of the stock values of the IBM and General Electric (GE) companies. Our analysis indicates that, on average, IBM stocks react earlier to possible common sector price movements than those of GE.

  18. Scale and time dependence of serial correlations in word-length time series of written texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Aguilar-Cornejo, M.; Femat, R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2014-11-01

    This work considered the quantitative analysis of large written texts. To this end, the text was converted into a time series by taking the sequence of word lengths. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was used for characterizing long-range serial correlations of the time series. To this end, the DFA was implemented within a rolling window framework for estimating the variations of correlations, quantified in terms of the scaling exponent, strength along the text. Also, a filtering derivative was used to compute the dependence of the scaling exponent relative to the scale. The analysis was applied to three famous English-written literary narrations; namely, Alice in Wonderland (by Lewis Carrol), Dracula (by Bram Stoker) and Sense and Sensibility (by Jane Austen). The results showed that high correlations appear for scales of about 50-200 words, suggesting that at these scales the text contains the stronger coherence. The scaling exponent was not constant along the text, showing important variations with apparent cyclical behavior. An interesting coincidence between the scaling exponent variations and changes in narrative units (e.g., chapters) was found. This suggests that the scaling exponent obtained from the DFA is able to detect changes in narration structure as expressed by the usage of words of different lengths.

  19. Time scaling with efficient time-propagation techniques for atoms and molecules in pulsed radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hamido, Aliou; Frapiccini, Ana Laura; Piraux, Bernard; Eiglsperger, Johannes; Madronero, Javier; Mota-Furtado, Francisca; O'Mahony, Patrick

    2011-07-15

    We present an ab initio approach to solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation to treat electron- and photon-impact multiple ionization of atoms or molecules. It combines the already known time-scaled coordinate method with a high-order time propagator based on a predictor-corrector scheme. In order to exploit in an optimal way the main advantage of the time-scaled coordinate method, namely, that the scaled wave packet stays confined and evolves smoothly toward a stationary state, of which the squared modulus is directly proportional to the electron energy spectra in each ionization channel, we show that the scaled bound states should be subtracted from the total scaled wave packet. In addition, our detailed investigations suggest that multiresolution techniques like, for instance, wavelets are the most appropriate ones to represent the scaled wave packet spatially. The approach is illustrated in the case of the interaction of a one-dimensional model atom as well as atomic hydrogen with a strong oscillating field.

  20. Is there a break in scaling on centennial time scale in Holocene temperature records?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Tine; Rypdal, Kristoffer; Fredriksen, Hege-Beate

    2015-04-01

    A variety of paleoclimatic records have been used to study scaling properties of past climate, including ice core paleotemperature records and multi-proxy reconstructions. Records extending further back in time than the Holocene are divided into glacial/interglacial segments before analysis. The methods used to infer the scaling include the power spectral density (Lomb-Scargle periodogram and standard periodogram), detrended fluctuation analysis, wavelet variance analysis and the Haar fluctuation function. All the methods have individual strengths, weaknesses, uncertainties and biases, and for this reason it is useful to compare results from different methods when possible. Proxy-based reconstructions have limited spatial and temporal coverage, and must be used and interpreted with great care due to uncertainties. By elaborating on physical mechanisms for the actual climate fluctuations seen in the paleoclimatic temperature records as well as uncertainties in both data and methods, we demonstrate the possible pitfalls that may lead to the conclusion that the variability in temperature time series can be separated into different scaling regimes. Categorizing the Earth's surface temperature variability into a «macroweather» and "climate" regime has little or no practical meaning since the different components in the climate system are connected and interact on all time scales. Our most important result is that a break between two different scaling regimes at time scales around one century cannot be identified in Holocene climate. We do, however, observe departures from scaling, which can be attributed to variability such as a single internal quasi-periodic oscillation, an externally forced trend, or a combination of factors. If two scaling regimes are claimed to be present in one single time series, both regimes must be persistent. We show that the limited temporal resolution/length of the records significantly lowers the confidence for such persistence. A total of

  1. Time scaling of tree rings cell production in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popkova, Margarita; Babushkina, Elena; Tychkov, Ivan; Shishov, Vladimir; Vaganov, Eugene

    2016-04-01

    It is assumed that an annual tree-ring growth is adequately determined by a linear function of local or regional precipitation and temperature with a set of coefficients that are temporally invariant. But often that relations are non-linear. The process-based tree-ring VS-model can be used to resolve the critical processes linking climate variables to tree-ring formation. This work describes a new block of VS-model which allows to estimate a cell production in tree rings and transfer it into time scale based on the simulated integral growth rates of the model. In the algorithm of time identification for cell production we used a integral growth rates simulated by the VS-model for each growing season. The obtained detailed approach with a calculation of the time of each cell formation improves significantly the date accuracy of new cell formation in growing season. As a result for each cell in the tree-ring we estimate the temporal moment of the cell production corresponded to the seasonal growth rate in the same time scale. The approach was applied and tested for the cell measurements obtained for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) for the period 1964-2013 in Malaya Minusa river (Khakassia, South Siberia). The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (RSF # 14-14-00219)

  2. Time scale hierarchies in the functional organization of complex behaviors.

    PubMed

    Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2011-09-01

    Traditional approaches to cognitive modelling generally portray cognitive events in terms of 'discrete' states (point attractor dynamics) rather than in terms of processes, thereby neglecting the time structure of cognition. In contrast, more recent approaches explicitly address this temporal dimension, but typically provide no entry points into cognitive categorization of events and experiences. With the aim to incorporate both these aspects, we propose a framework for functional architectures. Our approach is grounded in the notion that arbitrary complex (human) behaviour is decomposable into functional modes (elementary units), which we conceptualize as low-dimensional dynamical objects (structured flows on manifolds). The ensemble of modes at an agent's disposal constitutes his/her functional repertoire. The modes may be subjected to additional dynamics (termed operational signals), in particular, instantaneous inputs, and a mechanism that sequentially selects a mode so that it temporarily dominates the functional dynamics. The inputs and selection mechanisms act on faster and slower time scales then that inherent to the modes, respectively. The dynamics across the three time scales are coupled via feedback, rendering the entire architecture autonomous. We illustrate the functional architecture in the context of serial behaviour, namely cursive handwriting. Subsequently, we investigate the possibility of recovering the contributions of functional modes and operational signals from the output, which appears to be possible only when examining the output phase flow (i.e., not from trajectories in phase space or time). PMID:21980278

  3. Time Scale Hierarchies in the Functional Organization of Complex Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional approaches to cognitive modelling generally portray cognitive events in terms of ‘discrete’ states (point attractor dynamics) rather than in terms of processes, thereby neglecting the time structure of cognition. In contrast, more recent approaches explicitly address this temporal dimension, but typically provide no entry points into cognitive categorization of events and experiences. With the aim to incorporate both these aspects, we propose a framework for functional architectures. Our approach is grounded in the notion that arbitrary complex (human) behaviour is decomposable into functional modes (elementary units), which we conceptualize as low-dimensional dynamical objects (structured flows on manifolds). The ensemble of modes at an agent’s disposal constitutes his/her functional repertoire. The modes may be subjected to additional dynamics (termed operational signals), in particular, instantaneous inputs, and a mechanism that sequentially selects a mode so that it temporarily dominates the functional dynamics. The inputs and selection mechanisms act on faster and slower time scales then that inherent to the modes, respectively. The dynamics across the three time scales are coupled via feedback, rendering the entire architecture autonomous. We illustrate the functional architecture in the context of serial behaviour, namely cursive handwriting. Subsequently, we investigate the possibility of recovering the contributions of functional modes and operational signals from the output, which appears to be possible only when examining the output phase flow (i.e., not from trajectories in phase space or time). PMID:21980278

  4. Flow excursion time scales in the advanced neutron source reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sulfredge, C.D.

    1995-04-01

    Flow excursion transients give rise to a key thermal limit for the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor because its core involves many parallel flow channels with a common pressure drop. Since one can envision certain accident scenarios in which the thermal limits set by flow excursion correlations might be exceeded for brief intervals, a key objective is to determine how long a flow excursion would take to bring about a system failure that could lead to fuel damage. The anticipated time scale for flow excursions has been examined by subdividing the process into its component phenomena: bubble nucleation and growth, deceleration of the resulting two-phase flow, and finally overcoming thermal inertia to heat up the reactor fuel plates. Models were developed to estimate the time required for each individual stage. Accident scenarios involving sudden reduction in core flow or core exit pressure have been examined, and the models compared with RELAP5 output for the ANS geometry. For a high-performance reactor like the ANS, flow excursion time scales were predicted to be in the millisecond range, so that even very brief transients might lead to fuel damage. These results should prove useful whenever one must determine the time involved in any portion of a flow excursion transient.

  5. Terrestrial Waters and Sea Level Variations on Interannual Time Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llovel, W.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A.; Jevrejeva, S.; Alkama, R.; Decharme, B.; Douville, H.; Ablain, M.; Beckley, B.

    2011-01-01

    On decadal to multi-decadal time scales, thermal expansion of sea waters and land ice loss are the main contributors to sea level variations. However, modification of the terrestrial water cycle due to climate variability and direct anthropogenic forcing may also affect sea level. For the past decades, variations in land water storage and corresponding effects on sea level cannot be directly estimated from observations because these are almost non-existent at global continental scale. However, global hydrological models developed for atmospheric and climatic studies can be used for estimating total water storage. For the recent years (since mid-2002), terrestrial water storage change can be directly estimated from observations of the GRACE space gravimetry mission. In this study, we analyse the interannual variability of total land water storage, and investigate its contribution to mean sea level variability at interannual time scale. We consider three different periods that, each, depend on data availability: (1) GRACE era (2003-2009), (2) 1993-2003 and (3) 1955-1995. For the GRACE era (period 1), change in land water storage is estimated using different GRACE products over the 33 largest river basins worldwide. For periods 2 and 3, we use outputs from the ISBA-TRIP (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere-Total Runoff Integrating Pathways) global hydrological model. For each time span, we compare change in land water storage (expressed in sea level equivalent) to observed mean sea level, either from satellite altimetry (periods 1 and 2) or tide gauge records (period 3). For each data set and each time span, a trend has been removed as we focus on the interannual variability. We show that whatever the period considered, interannual variability of the mean sea level is essentially explained by interannual fluctuations in land water storage, with the largest contributions arising from tropical river basins.

  6. The Role of Time-Scales in Socio-hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöschl, Günter; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2016-04-01

    Much of the interest in hydrological modeling in the past decades revolved around resolving spatial variability. With the rapid changes brought about by human impacts on the hydrologic cycle, there is now an increasing need to refocus on time dependency. We present a co-evolutionary view of hydrologic systems, in which every part of the system including human systems, co-evolve, albeit at different rates. The resulting coupled human-nature system is framed as a dynamical system, characterized by interactions of fast and slow time scales and feedbacks between environmental and social processes. This gives rise to emergent phenomena such as the levee effect, adaptation to change and system collapse due to resource depletion. Changing human values play a key role in the emergence of these phenomena and should therefore be considered as internal to the system in a dynamic way. The co-evolutionary approach differs from the traditional view of water resource systems analysis as it allows for path dependence, multiple equilibria, lock-in situations and emergent phenomena. The approach may assist strategic water management for long time scales through facilitating stakeholder participation, exploring the possibility space of alternative futures, and helping to synthesise the observed dynamics of different case studies. Future research opportunities include the study of how changes in human values are connected to human-water interactions, historical analyses of trajectories of system co-evolution in individual places and comparative analyses of contrasting human-water systems in different climate and socio-economic settings. Reference Sivapalan, M. and G. Blöschl (2015) Time scale interactions and the coevolution of humans and water. Water Resour. Res., 51, 6988-7022, doi:10.1002/2015WR017896.

  7. Optimal Control Modification for Time-Scale Separated Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2012-01-01

    Recently a new optimal control modification has been introduced that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. This modification is based on an optimal control formulation to minimize the L2 norm of the tracking error. The optimal control modification adaptive law results in a stable adaptation in the presence of a large adaptive gain. This study examines the optimal control modification adaptive law in the context of a system with a time scale separation resulting from a fast plant with a slow actuator. A singular perturbation analysis is performed to derive a modification to the adaptive law by transforming the original system into a reduced-order system in slow time. A model matching conditions in the transformed time coordinate results in an increase in the actuator command that effectively compensate for the slow actuator dynamics. Simulations demonstrate effectiveness of the method.

  8. Multiple-Time Scaling and Universal Behavior of the Earthquake Interevent Time Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Bottiglieri, M.; Godano, C.; Lippiello, E.; Arcangelis, L. de

    2010-04-16

    The interevent time distribution characterizes the temporal occurrence in seismic catalogs. Universal scaling properties of this distribution have been evidenced for entire catalogs and seismic sequences. Recently, these universal features have been questioned and some criticisms have been raised. We investigate the existence of universal scaling properties by analyzing a Californian catalog and by means of numerical simulations of an epidemic-type model. We show that the interevent time distribution exhibits a universal behavior over the entire temporal range if four characteristic times are taken into account. The above analysis allows us to identify the scaling form leading to universal behavior and explains the observed deviations. Furthermore, it provides a tool to identify the dependence on the mainshock magnitude of the c parameter that fixes the onset of the power law decay in the Omori law.

  9. Time Scale Optimization and the Hunt for Astronomical Cycles in Deep Time Strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    2016-04-01

    A valuable attribute of astrochronology is the direct link between chronometer and climate change, providing a remarkable opportunity to constrain the evolution of the surficial Earth System. Consequently, the hunt for astronomical cycles in strata has spurred the development of a rich conceptual framework for climatic/oceanographic change, and has allowed exploration of the geologic record with unprecedented temporal resolution. Accompanying these successes, however, has been a persistent skepticism about appropriate astrochronologic testing and circular reasoning: how does one reliably test for astronomical cycles in stratigraphic data, especially when time is poorly constrained? From this perspective, it would seem that the merits and promise of astrochronology (e.g., a geologic time scale measured in ≤400 kyr increments) also serves as its Achilles heel, if the confirmation of such short rhythms defies rigorous statistical testing. To address these statistical challenges in astrochronologic testing, a new approach has been developed that (1) explicitly evaluates time scale uncertainty, (2) is resilient to common problems associated with spectrum confidence level assessment and 'multiple testing', and (3) achieves high statistical power under a wide range of conditions (it can identify astronomical cycles when present in data). Designated TimeOpt (for "time scale optimization"; Meyers 2015), the method employs a probabilistic linear regression model framework to investigate amplitude modulation and frequency ratios (bundling) in stratigraphic data, while simultaneously determining the optimal time scale. This presentation will review the TimeOpt method, and demonstrate how the flexible statistical framework can be further extended to evaluate (and optimize upon) complex sedimentation rate models, enhancing the statistical power of the approach, and addressing the challenge of unsteady sedimentation. Meyers, S. R. (2015), The evaluation of eccentricity

  10. Ti diffusion in quartz inclusions: implications for metamorphic time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, Frank S.; Ashley, Kyle T.; Webb, Laura E.; Thomas, Jay B.

    2012-12-01

    Quartz inclusions in garnet from samples collected from the staurolite zone in central New England are zoned in cathodoluminescence (CL). The CL intensity is interpreted to be a proxy for Ti concentration and the zoning attributed to Ti diffusion into the quartz grains driven by Ti exchange between quartz and enclosing garnet as a function of changing temperature. The CL zoning has been interpreted using a numerical diffusion model to constrain the time scales over which the diffusion has occurred. Temperature-time histories are sensitive to the presumed peak temperature but not to other model parameters. The total time of the metamorphic heating and cooling cycle from around 450 °C to the peak temperature (550-600 °C) back to 450 °C is surprisingly short and encompasses only 0.2-2 million years for peak temperatures of 600-550 °C. The metamorphism was accompanied by large-scale nappe and dome formation, and it is suggested that this occurred as a consequence of in-sequence thrusting resulting in a mid-crustal ductile duplex structure.

  11. Time scale algorithms for an inhomogeneous group of atomic clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacques, C.; Boulanger, J.-S.; Douglas, R. J.; Morris, D.; Cundy, S.; Lam, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    Through the past 17 years, the time scale requirements at the National Research Council (NRC) have been met by the unsteered output of its primary laboratory cesium clocks, supplemented by hydrogen masers when short-term stability better than 2 x 10(exp -12)tau(sup -1/2) has been required. NRC now operates three primary laboratory cesium clocks, three hydrogen masers, and two commercial cesium clocks. NRC has been using ensemble averages for internal purposes for the past several years, and has a realtime algorithm operating on the outputs of its high-resolution (2 x 10(exp -13) s at 1 s) phase comparators. The slow frequency drift of the hydrogen masers has presented difficulties in incorporating their short-term stability into the ensemble average, while retaining the long-term stability of the laboratory cesium frequency standards. We report on this work on algorithms for an inhomogeneous ensemble of atomic clocks, and on our initial work on time scale algorithms that could incorporate frequency calibrations at NRC from the next generation of Zacharias fountain cesium frequency standards having frequency accuracies that might surpass 10(exp -15), or from single-trapped-ion frequency standards (Ba+, Sr+,...) with even higher potential accuracies. The requirements for redundancy in all the elements (including the algorithms) of an inhomogeneous ensemble that would give a robust real-time output of the algorithms are presented and discussed.

  12. Role of relaxation time scale in noisy signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Maity, Alok Kumar; Chaudhury, Pinaki; Banik, Suman K

    2015-01-01

    Intra-cellular fluctuations, mainly triggered by gene expression, are an inevitable phenomenon observed in living cells. It influences generation of phenotypic diversity in genetically identical cells. Such variation of cellular components is beneficial in some contexts but detrimental in others. To quantify the fluctuations in a gene product, we undertake an analytical scheme for studying few naturally abundant linear as well as branched chain network motifs. We solve the Langevin equations associated with each motif under the purview of linear noise approximation and derive the expressions for Fano factor and mutual information in close analytical form. Both quantifiable expressions exclusively depend on the relaxation time (decay rate constant) and steady state population of the network components. We investigate the effect of relaxation time constraints on Fano factor and mutual information to indentify a time scale domain where a network can recognize the fluctuations associated with the input signal more reliably. We also show how input population affects both quantities. We extend our calculation to long chain linear motif and show that with increasing chain length, the Fano factor value increases but the mutual information processing capability decreases. In this type of motif, the intermediate components act as a noise filter that tune up input fluctuations and maintain optimum fluctuations in the output. For branched chain motifs, both quantities vary within a large scale due to their network architecture and facilitate survival of living system in diverse environmental conditions. PMID:25955500

  13. Role of Relaxation Time Scale in Noisy Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Alok Kumar; Chaudhury, Pinaki; Banik, Suman K

    2015-01-01

    Intra-cellular fluctuations, mainly triggered by gene expression, are an inevitable phenomenon observed in living cells. It influences generation of phenotypic diversity in genetically identical cells. Such variation of cellular components is beneficial in some contexts but detrimental in others. To quantify the fluctuations in a gene product, we undertake an analytical scheme for studying few naturally abundant linear as well as branched chain network motifs. We solve the Langevin equations associated with each motif under the purview of linear noise approximation and derive the expressions for Fano factor and mutual information in close analytical form. Both quantifiable expressions exclusively depend on the relaxation time (decay rate constant) and steady state population of the network components. We investigate the effect of relaxation time constraints on Fano factor and mutual information to indentify a time scale domain where a network can recognize the fluctuations associated with the input signal more reliably. We also show how input population affects both quantities. We extend our calculation to long chain linear motif and show that with increasing chain length, the Fano factor value increases but the mutual information processing capability decreases. In this type of motif, the intermediate components act as a noise filter that tune up input fluctuations and maintain optimum fluctuations in the output. For branched chain motifs, both quantities vary within a large scale due to their network architecture and facilitate survival of living system in diverse environmental conditions. PMID:25955500

  14. Time scales in the context of general relativity.

    PubMed

    Guinot, Bernard

    2011-10-28

    Towards 1967, the accuracy of caesium frequency standards reached such a level that the relativistic effect could not be ignored anymore. Corrections began to be applied for the gravitational frequency shift and for distant time comparisons. However, these corrections were not applied to an explicit theoretical framework. Only in 1991 did the International Astronomical Union provide metrics (then improved in 2000) for a definition of space-time coordinates in reference systems centred at the barycentre of the Solar System and at the centre of mass of the Earth. In these systems, the temporal coordinates (coordinate times) can be realized on the basis of one of them, the International Atomic Time (TAI), which is itself a realized time scale. The definition and the role of TAI in this context will be recalled. There remain controversies regarding the name to be given to the unit of coordinate times and to other quantities appearing in the theory. However, the idea that astrometry and celestial mechanics should adopt the usual metrological rules is progressing, together with the use of the International System of Units, among astronomers. PMID:21930569

  15. Scaling in a Continuous Time Model for Biological Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, R. M. C.; Thomas, G. L.

    In this paper, we consider a generalization to the asexual version of Penna model for biological aging, where we take a continuous time limit. The genotype associated to each individual is an interval of real numbers over which Dirac δ-functions are defined, representing genetically programmed diseases to be switched on at defined ages of the individual life. We discuss two different continuous limits for the evolution equation and two different mutation protocols, to be implemented during reproduction. Exact stationary solutions are obtained and scaling properties are discussed.

  16. Time-Dependent Earthquake Forecasts on a Global Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Holliday, J. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Graves, W. R.

    2014-12-01

    We develop and implement a new type of global earthquake forecast. Our forecast is a perturbation on a smoothed seismicity (Relative Intensity) spatial forecast combined with a temporal time-averaged ("Poisson") forecast. A variety of statistical and fault-system models have been discussed for use in computing forecast probabilities. An example is the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, which has been using fault-based models to compute conditional probabilities in California since 1988. An example of a forecast is the Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS), which is based on the Gutenberg-Richter (GR) magnitude-frequency law, the Omori aftershock law, and Poisson statistics. The method discussed in this talk is based on the observation that GR statistics characterize seismicity for all space and time. Small magnitude event counts (quake counts) are used as "markers" for the approach of large events. More specifically, if the GR b-value = 1, then for every 1000 M>3 earthquakes, one expects 1 M>6 earthquake. So if ~1000 M>3 events have occurred in a spatial region since the last M>6 earthquake, another M>6 earthquake should be expected soon. In physics, event count models have been called natural time models, since counts of small events represent a physical or natural time scale characterizing the system dynamics. In a previous research, we used conditional Weibull statistics to convert event counts into a temporal probability for a given fixed region. In the present paper, we move belyond a fixed region, and develop a method to compute these Natural Time Weibull (NTW) forecasts on a global scale, using an internally consistent method, in regions of arbitrary shape and size. We develop and implement these methods on a modern web-service computing platform, which can be found at www.openhazards.com and www.quakesim.org. We also discuss constraints on the User Interface (UI) that follow from practical considerations of site usability.

  17. Alignment of Noisy and Uniformly Scaled Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowsky, Constanze; Dranischnikow, Egor; Göttler, Herbert; Gottron, Thomas; Kemeter, Mathias; Schömer, Elmar

    The alignment of noisy and uniformly scaled time series is an important but difficult task. Given two time series, one of which is a uniformly stretched subsequence of the other, we want to determine the stretching factor and the offset of the second time series within the first one. We adapted and enhanced different methods to address this problem: classical FFT-based approaches to determine the offset combined with a naïve search for the stretching factor or its direct computation in the frequency domain, bounded dynamic time warping and a new approach called shotgun analysis, which is inspired by sequencing and reassembling of genomes in bioinformatics. We thoroughly examined the strengths and weaknesses of the different methods on synthetic and real data sets. The FFT-based approaches are very accurate on high quality data, the shotgun approach is especially suitable for data with outliers. Dynamic time warping is a candidate for non-linear stretching or compression. We successfully applied the presented methods to identify steel coils via their thickness profiles.

  18. The earth's angular momentum budget on subseasonal time scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, J. O.; Marcus, S. L.; Steppe, J. A.; Hide, R.

    1992-01-01

    Irregular length of day (LOD) fluctuations on time scales of less than a few years are largely produced by atmospheric torques on the underlying planet. Significant coherence is found between the respective time series of LOD and atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) determinations at periods down to 8 days, with lack of coherence at shorter periods caused by the declining signal-to-measurement noise ratios of both data types. Refinements to the currently accepted model of tidal earth rotation variations are required, incorporating in particular the nonequilibrium effect of the oceans. The remaining discrepancies between LOD and AAM in the 100- to 10-day period range may be due to either a common error in the AAM data sets from different meteorological centers, or another component of the angular momentum budget.

  19. Nonlinear Dynamics of Extended Hydrologic Systems over long time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, Upmanu

    2014-05-01

    We often view our knowledge of hydrology and hence of nature as intransient, at least over the time scales over which we study processes we wish to predict and understand. Over the last few decades, this assumption has come under question, largely because of the vocal expression of a changing climate, but also the recurrent demonstration of significant land use change, both of which significantly affect the boundary conditions for terrestrial hydrology that is our forte. Most recently, the concepts of hydromorphology and social hydrology have entered the discussion, and the notion that climate and hydrology influence human action, which in turn shapes hydrology, is being recognized. Finally, as a field, we seem to be coming to the conclusion that the hydrologic system is an open system, whose boundaries evolve in time, and that the hydrologic system, at many scales, has a profound effect on the systems that drive it -- whether they be the ecological and climatic systems, or the social system. What a mess! Complexity! Unpredictability! At a certain level of abstraction, one can consider the evolution of these coupled systems with nonlinear feedbacks and ask what types of questions are relevant in terms of such a coupled evolution? What are their implications at the planetary scale? What are their implications for a subsistence farmer in an arid landscape who may under external influence achieve a new transient hydro-ecological equilibrium? What are the implications for the economy and power of nations? In this talk, I will try to raise some of these questions and also provide some examples with very simple dynamical systems that suggest ways of thinking about some practical issues of feedback across climate, hydrology and human behavior.

  20. Reusable Launch Vehicle Control In Multiple Time Scale Sliding Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shtessel, Yuri; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark

    2000-01-01

    A reusable launch vehicle control problem during ascent is addressed via multiple-time scaled continuous sliding mode control. The proposed sliding mode controller utilizes a two-loop structure and provides robust, de-coupled tracking of both orientation angle command profiles and angular rate command profiles in the presence of bounded external disturbances and plant uncertainties. Sliding mode control causes the angular rate and orientation angle tracking error dynamics to be constrained to linear, de-coupled, homogeneous, and vector valued differential equations with desired eigenvalues placement. Overall stability of a two-loop control system is addressed. An optimal control allocation algorithm is designed that allocates torque commands into end-effector deflection commands, which are executed by the actuators. The dual-time scale sliding mode controller was designed for the X-33 technology demonstration sub-orbital launch vehicle in the launch mode. Simulation results show that the designed controller provides robust, accurate, de-coupled tracking of the orientation angle command profiles in presence of external disturbances and vehicle inertia uncertainties. This is a significant advancement in performance over that achieved with linear, gain scheduled control systems currently being used for launch vehicles.

  1. Surface Radiation Budget Variability at Climatic Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinker, R. T.; Ma, Y.; Nussbaumer, E.

    2014-12-01

    Information on Earth Radiation Balance is needed at climatic time scales for enabling assessment of variability and trends in the forcing functions of the climate system. Satellite observations have been instrumental for advancing the understanding of such balance at global scale; yet, the length of available records does not meet climatic needs. Major issues hindering such efforts are related to the frequent changes in satellite observing systems, including the specification of the satellite instruments, and changes in the quality of atmospheric inputs that drive the inference schemes. In this paper we report on an effort to synthesize estimates of shortwave, longwave and spectral surface radiative fluxes by fusing observations from numerous satellite platforms that include MODIS observations. This information was obtained in the framework of the MEaSURES and NEWS programs; it will be evaluated against ground observations and compared to independent satellite and model estimates. Attention will be given to updates on our knowledge on the radiative balance as compared to what is known from shorter time records.

  2. Complex processes from dynamical architectures with time-scale hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    The idea that complex motor, perceptual, and cognitive behaviors are composed of smaller units, which are somehow brought into a meaningful relation, permeates the biological and life sciences. However, no principled framework defining the constituent elementary processes has been developed to this date. Consequently, functional configurations (or architectures) relating elementary processes and external influences are mostly piecemeal formulations suitable to particular instances only. Here, we develop a general dynamical framework for distinct functional architectures characterized by the time-scale separation of their constituents and evaluate their efficiency. Thereto, we build on the (phase) flow of a system, which prescribes the temporal evolution of its state variables. The phase flow topology allows for the unambiguous classification of qualitatively distinct processes, which we consider to represent the functional units or modes within the dynamical architecture. Using the example of a composite movement we illustrate how different architectures can be characterized by their degree of time scale separation between the internal elements of the architecture (i.e. the functional modes) and external interventions. We reveal a tradeoff of the interactions between internal and external influences, which offers a theoretical justification for the efficient composition of complex processes out of non-trivial elementary processes or functional modes. PMID:21347363

  3. Global Precipitation Analyses at Monthly to 3-HR Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Global precipitation analysis covering the last few decades and the impact of the new TRMM precipitation observations are discussed. The 20+ year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is used to explore global and regional variations and trends and is compared to the much shorter TRMM(Tropica1 Rainfall Measuring Mission) tropical data set. A trend pattern that is a combination of both El Nino and La Nina precipitation features is evident in the 20-year data set. This pattern is related to an increase with time in the number of combined months of El Nino and La Nina during the 20 year period. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENSO variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. The GPCP daily, 1deg latitude-longitude analysis, which is available from January 1997 to the present is described and the evolution of precipitation patterns on this time scale related to El Nino and La Nina is described. Finally, a TRMM-based 3-hr analysis is described that uses TRMM to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I and geosynchronous IR observations and merges the various calibrated observations into a final, 3-hr resolution map. This TRMM standard product will soon be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998- present). A real-time version of this merged product is being produced and is available at 0.25deg latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 50degN-50degS. Images from this data set can be seen at the U.S. TRMM web site (trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov). Examples will be shown, including its use in monitoring flood conditions and relating weather-scale events to climate variations.

  4. Critical time scales for advection-diffusion-reaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellery, Adam J.; Simpson, Matthew J.; McCue, Scott W.; Baker, Ruth E.

    2012-04-01

    The concept of local accumulation time (LAT) was introduced by Berezhkovskii and co-workers to give a finite measure of the time required for the transient solution of a reaction-diffusion equation to approach the steady-state solution [A. M. Berezhkovskii, C. Sample, and S. Y. Shvartsman, Biophys. J.BIOJAU0006-349510.1016/j.bpj.2010.07.045 99, L59 (2010); A. M. Berezhkovskii, C. Sample, and S. Y. Shvartsman, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.83.051906 83, 051906 (2011)]. Such a measure is referred to as a critical time. Here, we show that LAT is, in fact, identical to the concept of mean action time (MAT) that was first introduced by McNabb [A. McNabb and G. C. Wake, IMA J. Appl. Math.IJAMDM0272-496010.1093/imamat/47.2.193 47, 193 (1991)]. Although McNabb's initial argument was motivated by considering the mean particle lifetime (MPLT) for a linear death process, he applied the ideas to study diffusion. We extend the work of these authors by deriving expressions for the MAT for a general one-dimensional linear advection-diffusion-reaction problem. Using a combination of continuum and discrete approaches, we show that MAT and MPLT are equivalent for certain uniform-to-uniform transitions; these results provide a practical interpretation for MAT by directly linking the stochastic microscopic processes to a meaningful macroscopic time scale. We find that for more general transitions, the equivalence between MAT and MPLT does not hold. Unlike other critical time definitions, we show that it is possible to evaluate the MAT without solving the underlying partial differential equation (pde). This makes MAT a simple and attractive quantity for practical situations. Finally, our work explores the accuracy of certain approximations derived using MAT, showing that useful approximations for nonlinear kinetic processes can be obtained, again without treating the governing pde directly.

  5. Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds - combining annual and decadal time scales.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P; Chylarecki, Przemysław; Jiguet, Frédéric; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Noble, David G; Reif, Jiri; Schmid, Hans; van Turnhout, Chris; Burfield, Ian J; Foppen, Ruud; Voříšek, Petr; van Strien, Arco; Gregory, Richard D; Rahbek, Carsten

    2016-02-01

    Species attributes are commonly used to infer impacts of environmental change on multiyear species trends, e.g. decadal changes in population size. However, by themselves attributes are of limited value in global change attribution since they do not measure the changing environment. A broader foundation for attributing species responses to global change may be achieved by complementing an attributes-based approach by one estimating the relationship between repeated measures of organismal and environmental changes over short time scales. To assess the benefit of this multiscale perspective, we investigate the recent impact of multiple environmental changes on European farmland birds, here focusing on climate change and land use change. We analyze more than 800 time series from 18 countries spanning the past two decades. Analysis of long-term population growth rates documents simultaneous responses that can be attributed to both climate change and land-use change, including long-term increases in populations of hot-dwelling species and declines in long-distance migrants and farmland specialists. In contrast, analysis of annual growth rates yield novel insights into the potential mechanisms driving long-term climate induced change. In particular, we find that birds are affected by winter, spring, and summer conditions depending on the distinct breeding phenology that corresponds to their migratory strategy. Birds in general benefit from higher temperatures or higher primary productivity early on or in the peak of the breeding season with the largest effect sizes observed in cooler parts of species' climatic ranges. Our results document the potential of combining time scales and integrating both species attributes and environmental variables for global change attribution. We suggest such an approach will be of general use when high-resolution time series are available in large-scale biodiversity surveys. PMID:26486804

  6. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes.

    PubMed

    Stevison, Laurie S; Woerner, August E; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Kelley, Joanna L; Veeramah, Krishna R; McManus, Kimberly F; Bustamante, Carlos D; Hammer, Michael F; Wall, Jeffrey D

    2016-04-01

    We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and population history. Nature 499:471-475). We also identified species-specific recombination hotspots in each group using a modified LDhot framework, which greatly improves statistical power to detect hotspots at varying strengths. We show that fewer hotspots are shared among chimpanzee subspecies than within human populations, further narrowing the time scale of complete hotspot turnover. Further, using species-specific PRDM9 sequences to predict potential binding sites (PBS), we show higher predicted PRDM9 binding in recombination hotspots as compared to matched cold spot regions in multiple great ape species, including at least one chimpanzee subspecies. We found that correlations between broad-scale recombination rates decline more rapidly than nucleotide divergence between species. We also compared the skew of recombination rates at centromeres and telomeres between species and show a skew from chromosome means extending as far as 10-15 Mb from chromosome ends. Further, we examined broad-scale recombination rate changes near a translocation in gorillas and found minimal differences as compared to other great ape species perhaps because the coordinates relative to the chromosome ends were unaffected. Finally, on the basis of multiple linear regression analysis, we found that various correlates of recombination rate persist throughout the African great apes including repeats, diversity, and divergence. Our study is the first to analyze within- and between-species genome-wide recombination rate variation in several close relatives. PMID:26671457

  7. Variations in solar Lyman alpha irradiance on short time scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Variations in solar UV irradiance at Lyman alpha are studied on short time scales (from days to months) after removing the long-term changes over the solar cycle. The SME/Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analysis. In order to study the nonlinear effects, Lyman alpha irradiance is modeled with a 5th-degree polynomial as well. It is shown that the full-disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm, which is used as a proxy for the plages and active network, can best reproduce the changes observed in Lyman alpha. Approximately 72 percent of the solar-activity-related changes in Lyman alpha irradiance arise from plages and the network. The network contribution is estimated by the correlation analysis to be about 19 percent. It is shown that significant variability remains in Lyman alpha irradiance, with periods around 300, 27, and 13.5d, which is not explained by the solar activity indices. It is shown that the nonlinear effects cannot account for a significant part of the unexplained variation in Lyman alpha irradiance. Therefore, additional events (e.g., large-scale motions and/or a systematic difference in the area and intensity of the plages and network observed in the lines of Ca-K, He 1083, and Lyman alpha) may explain the discrepancies found between the observed and estimated irradiance values.

  8. Multi-scale gravity field modeling in space and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuo; Panet, Isabelle; Ramillien, Guillaume; Guilloux, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    The Earth constantly deforms as it undergoes dynamic phenomena, such as earthquakes, post-glacial rebound and water displacement in its fluid envelopes. These processes have different spatial and temporal scales and are accompanied by mass displacements, which create temporal variations of the gravity field. Since 2002, the GRACE satellite missions provide an unprecedented view of the gravity field spatial and temporal variations. Gravity models built from these satellite data are essential to study the Earth's dynamic processes (Tapley et al., 2004). Up to present, time variations of the gravity field are often modelled using spatial spherical harmonics functions averaged over a fixed period, as 10 days or 1 month. This approach is well suited for modeling global phenomena. To better estimate gravity related to local and/or transient processes, such as earthquakes or floods, and adapt the temporal resolution of the model to its spatial resolution, we propose to model the gravity field using localized functions in space and time. For that, we build a model of the gravity field in space and time with a four-dimensional wavelet basis, well localized in space and time. First we design the 4D basis, then, we study the inverse problem to model the gravity field from the potential differences between the twin GRACE satellites, and its regularization using prior knowledge on the water cycle. Our demonstration of surface water mass signals decomposition in time and space is based on the use of synthetic along-track gravitational potential data. We test the developed approach on one year of 4D gravity modeling and compare the reconstructed water heights to those of the input hydrological model. Perspectives of this work is to apply the approach on real GRACE data, addressing the challenge of a realistic noise, to better describe and understand physical processus with high temporal resolution/low spatial resolution or the contrary.

  9. Fireballs: Detonation Initiation on the Microsecond Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassoy, D. R.; Wojciechowski, K.

    2003-11-01

    A mathematical model is developed for detonation initiation following a time and spatially resolved burst of thermal power from an external source into a spherical target of reactive gas. The objective is to produce a detonation in or near the target with the least possible energy input. Source heating occurs on a sub-microsecond time scale, short compared to the acoustic time of the millimeter-sized target. This leads to a period of near inertial confinement, where the pressure rises with temperature, the density change is very small and local Mach number is extremely subsonic. As a result the thermal enegy change is maximized while the induced kinetic energy is minimized. The large temperature increase within the localized high pressure spot initiates a high activation energy, exothermic reaction which spreads hypersonically from the maximum temperature point. The chemical front is co-located with a large localized pressure gradient, responsible for rapid gas acceleration. A detonation appears at the edge of target, in the form of a strong shock with a coupled reaction zone. The evolutionary process differs fundamentally from that in a DDT and that in a traditional model of direct initiation.

  10. Response time of large-scale electrochromic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Randin, J.P.

    1990-12-31

    The studies related to electrochromic phenomena performed in the seventies were mainly aimed at the development of information displays. Such applications require small electrode sizes, i.e. with active surface areas of between about 0.01 to 10 cm{sup 2}. The development of large information devices and chiefly smart windows require much larger switching areas. This paper deals with the influence of increasing the active surface area on the response time. The latter depends on both properties of the cell components (transparent conducting layer, electrochromic film, electrolyte and counter electrode) and structure of the cell (size, shape, gap, resistivity of the busbar). Experimental devices were constructed with given components and cell geometry. The effect of a series resistance arisen mainly from the cell size was investigated and explained by the effect of the additional series resistance on the response time of a diffusion-controlled process. The study indicates that the scaling-up of WO{sub 3} devices will be limited by an increase of the response time with increasing active area.

  11. X-ray signatures: New time scales and spectral features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The millisecond bursts from Cyg X-1 are investigated and the overall chaotic variability for the bulk of the Cyg X-1 emission is compared to that of Sco X-1, showing that the essential character is remarkably similar (i.e. shot noise) although the fundamental time scales involved differ widely, from a fraction of a second (for Cyg X-1) to a fraction of a day (for Sco X-1). Recent OSO-8 observations of spectra features attributable to iron are reviewed. In particular, line emission is discussed within the context of a model for thermal radiation by a hot evolved gas in systems as different as supernova remnants and clusters of galaxies. Newly observed spectral structure in the emission from the X-ray pulsar Her X-1 is reported.

  12. Control of Systems With Slow Actuators Using Time Scale Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyan, Vehram; Nguyen, Nhan

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling a nonlinear plant with a slow actuator using singular perturbation method. For the known plant-actuator cascaded system the proposed scheme achieves tracking of a given reference model with considerably less control demand than would otherwise result when using conventional design techniques. This is the consequence of excluding the small parameter from the actuator dynamics via time scale separation. The resulting tracking error is within the order of this small parameter. For the unknown system the adaptive counterpart is developed based on the prediction model, which is driven towards the reference model by the control design. It is proven that the prediction model tracks the reference model with an error proportional to the small parameter, while the prediction error converges to zero. The resulting closed-loop system with all prediction models and adaptive laws remains stable. The benefits of the approach are demonstrated in simulation studies and compared to conventional control approaches.

  13. Dynamic Leidenfrost Effect: Relevant Time and Length Scales.

    PubMed

    Shirota, Minori; van Limbeek, Michiel A J; Sun, Chao; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-02-12

    When a liquid droplet impacts a hot solid surface, enough vapor may be generated under it to prevent its contact with the solid. The minimum solid temperature for this so-called Leidenfrost effect to occur is termed the Leidenfrost temperature, or the dynamic Leidenfrost temperature when the droplet velocity is non-negligible. We observe the wetting or drying and the levitation dynamics of the droplet impacting on an (isothermal) smooth sapphire surface using high-speed total internal reflection imaging, which enables us to observe the droplet base up to about 100 nm above the substrate surface. By this method we are able to reveal the processes responsible for the transitional regime between the fully wetting and the fully levitated droplet as the solid temperature increases, thus shedding light on the characteristic time and length scales setting the dynamic Leidenfrost temperature for droplet impact on an isothermal substrate. PMID:26918994

  14. Dynamic Leidenfrost Effect: Relevant Time and Length Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirota, Minori; van Limbeek, Michiel A. J.; Sun, Chao; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-02-01

    When a liquid droplet impacts a hot solid surface, enough vapor may be generated under it to prevent its contact with the solid. The minimum solid temperature for this so-called Leidenfrost effect to occur is termed the Leidenfrost temperature, or the dynamic Leidenfrost temperature when the droplet velocity is non-negligible. We observe the wetting or drying and the levitation dynamics of the droplet impacting on an (isothermal) smooth sapphire surface using high-speed total internal reflection imaging, which enables us to observe the droplet base up to about 100 nm above the substrate surface. By this method we are able to reveal the processes responsible for the transitional regime between the fully wetting and the fully levitated droplet as the solid temperature increases, thus shedding light on the characteristic time and length scales setting the dynamic Leidenfrost temperature for droplet impact on an isothermal substrate.

  15. Towards a stable numerical time scale for the early Paleogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgen, Frederik; Kuiper, Klaudia; Sierro, Francisco J.; Wotzlaw, Jorn; Schaltegger, Urs; Sahy, Diana; Condon, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The construction of an astronomical time scale for the early Paleogene is hampered by ambiguities in the number, correlation and tuning of 405-kyr eccentricity related cycles in deep marine records from ODP cores and land-based sections. The two most competing age models result in astronomical ages for the K/Pg boundary that differ by ~750 kyr (~66.0 Ma of Vandenberghe et al. (2012) versus 65.25 Ma of Westerhold et al. (2012); these ages in turn are consistent with proposed ages for the Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) that differ by ~300 kyr (28.201 Ma of Kuiper et al. (2008) versus 27.89 Ma of Westerhold et al. (2012)); an even older age of 28.294 Ma is proposed based on a statistical optimization model (Renne et al., 2011). The astronomically calibrated FCs age of 28.201 ± 0.046 Ma of Kuiper et al. (2008), which is consistent with the astronomical age of ~66.0 Ma for the K/Pg boundary, is currently adopted in the standard geological time scale (GTS2012). Here we combine new and published data in an attempt to solve the controversy and arrive at a stable nuemrical time scale for the early Paleogene. Supporting their younger age model, Westerhold et al. (2012) argue that the tuning of Miocene sections in the Mediterranean, which underlie the older FCs age of Kuiper et al. (2008) and, hence, the coupled older early Paleogene age model of Vandenberghe et al. (2012), might be too old by three precession cycles. We thoroughly rechecked this tuning; distinctive cycle patterns related to eccentricity and precession-obliquity interference make a younger tuning that would be consistent with the younger astronomical age of 27.89 Ma for the FCs of Westerhold et al. (2012) challenging. Next we compared youngest U/Pb zircon and astronomical ages for a number of ash beds in the tuned Miocene section of Monte dei Corvi. These ages are indistinguishable, indicating that the two independent dating methods yield the same age when the same event is dated. This is consistent with results

  16. Use of a Walk Through Time to Facilitate Student Understandings of the Geological Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, H. L.

    2004-12-01

    Students often have difficulties in appreciating just how old the earth and the universe are. While they can simply memorize a number, they really do not understand just how big that number really is, in comparison with other, more familiar student referents like the length of a human lifetime or how long it takes to eat a pizza. (See, e.g., R.D. Trend 2001, J. Research in Science Teaching 38(2): 191-221) Students, and members of the general public, also display such well-known misconceptions as the "Flintstone chronology" of believing that human beings and dinosaurs walked the earth at the same time. (In the classic American cartoon "The Flintstones," human beings used dinosaurs as draft animals. As scientists we know this is fiction, but not all members of the public understand that.) In an interdisciplinary undergraduate college class that dealt with astronomy, cosmology, and biological evolution, I used a familiar activity to try to improve student understanding of the concept of time's vastness. Students walked through a pre-determined 600-step path which provided a spatial analogy to the geological time scale. They stopped at various points and engaged in some pre-determined discussions and debates. This activity is as old as the hills, but reports of its effectiveness or lack thereof are quite scarce. This paper demonstrates that this activity was effective for a general-audience, college student population in the U.S. The growth of student understandings of the geological time scale was significant as a result of this activity. Students did develop an understanding of time's vastness and were able to articulate this understanding in various ways. This growth was monitored through keeping track of several exam questions and through pre- and post- analysis of student writings. In the pre-writings, students often stated that they had "no idea" about how to illustrate the size of the geological time scale to someone else. While some post-time walk responses

  17. Selective attention to temporal features on nested time scales.

    PubMed

    Henry, Molly J; Herrmann, Björn; Obleser, Jonas

    2015-02-01

    Meaningful auditory stimuli such as speech and music often vary simultaneously along multiple time scales. Thus, listeners must selectively attend to, and selectively ignore, separate but intertwined temporal features. The current study aimed to identify and characterize the neural network specifically involved in this feature-selective attention to time. We used a novel paradigm where listeners judged either the duration or modulation rate of auditory stimuli, and in which the stimulation, working memory demands, response requirements, and task difficulty were held constant. A first analysis identified all brain regions where individual brain activation patterns were correlated with individual behavioral performance patterns, which thus supported temporal judgments generically. A second analysis then isolated those brain regions that specifically regulated selective attention to temporal features: Neural responses in a bilateral fronto-parietal network including insular cortex and basal ganglia decreased with degree of change of the attended temporal feature. Critically, response patterns in these regions were inverted when the task required selectively ignoring this feature. The results demonstrate how the neural analysis of complex acoustic stimuli with multiple temporal features depends on a fronto-parietal network that simultaneously regulates the selective gain for attended and ignored temporal features. PMID:23978652

  18. Forecasting decadal and shorter time-scale solar cycle features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikpati, Mausumi

    2016-07-01

    Solar energetic particles and magnetic fields reach the Earth through the interplanetary medium and affect it in various ways, producing beautiful aurorae, but also electrical blackouts and damage to our technology-dependent economy. The root of energetic solar outputs is the solar activity cycle, which is most likely caused by dynamo processes inside the Sun. It is a formidable task to accurately predict the amplitude, onset and peak timings of a solar cycle. After reviewing all solar cycle prediction methods, including empirical as well as physical model-based schemes, I will describe what we have learned from both validation and nonvalidation of cycle 24 forecasts, and how to refine the model-based schemes for upcoming cycle 25 forecasts. Recent observations indicate that within a solar cycle there are shorter time-scale 'space weather' features, such as bursts of various forms of activity with approximately one year periodicity. I will demonstrate how global tachocline dynamics could play a crucial role in producing such space weather. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

  19. Lunar Crater Rays Point to a New Lunar Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2004-09-01

    The Lunar Time Scale should be reevaluated -- suggest remote sensing studies of lunar crater rays by B. Ray Hawke (University of Hawaii) and colleagues at the University of Hawaii, NovaSol, Cornell University, National Air and Space Museum, and Northwestern University. These scientists have found that the mere presence of crater rays is not a reliable indicator that the crater is young, as once thought, and that the working definition of the Copernican/Eratosthenian (C/E) boundary should be reconsidered. The team used Earth-based spectral and radar data with FeO, TiO2, and optical maturity maps derived from Clementine UVVIS images to determine the origin and composition of selected lunar ray segments. They conclude that the optical maturity parameter, which uses chemical analyses of lunar samples as its foundation, should be used to redefine the C/E boundary. Under this classification, the Copernican System would be defined as the time required for an immature surface to reach full optical maturity.

  20. Observing real time motion of nano-scale objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Vondel, Joris; Timmermans, Matias; Samuely, Tomás; Raes, Bart; Serrier-Garcia, Lise; Moshchalkov, Victor

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics of nanoscale objects is a very interesting field of research with a strong technological impact. Still, the combination of a technique resolving (sub)nanometer particles within a time frame relevant to observe dynamics is a very challenging task. Due to the inherent atomic-scale resolution, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is an ideal candidate to achieve this goal. Nevertheless, in most physical systems the dynamic events of the objects under investigation cannot be resolved by conventional STM image acquisition and will only reveal an average trace of the moving object. This is why a strong drive exists to develop new functionalities of STM, which allow studying dynamic events at the nanoscale. We address this issue, for vortex matter in NbSe2, by driving the vortices using an ac magnetic field and probing the induced periodic tunnel current modulations. Our results reveal different dynamical modes of the driven vortex lattice. In addition, by extending a known functionality of STM, (i.e. the `Lazy Fisherman' technique) we can use single pixel information to obtain the overall dynamics of the vortex lattice with submillisecond time resolution and subnanometer spatial resolution. This work is supported by the FWO and the Methusalem funding of the Flemish government.

  1. Time-Scales of the Variability of the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnston, Anthony G.

    1996-05-01

    In this study the time-scales of variability of several weather elements are explored by season and location across the globe, emphasizing the Northern Hemisphere and especially the USA. The resulting description is useful because regions that exhibit low frequency variability (i.e. longer periods than the 2-5 days synoptic-scale) are assumed to be related more directly to changes in boundary conditions (e.g. anomalies of ENSO-related sea-surface temperature [SST], snow cover, etc.). Therefore, this low frequency variability may be predictable at greater ranges than those for which numerical weather prediction is helpful.New as well as established measures of persistence and frequency dependence are used and intercompared. In particular, the standard deviation of the differences between adjacent period means, when compared over a range of period lengths, reflects both autocorrelation and (if applicable) cycle time. Frequency dependence is thereby summarized with minimal computation.The geographical distribution of the amplitude (amount of variability depends largely on latitude and the upstream geographical environment (i.e. higher latitude and continentality of upstream environment tend to increase variability). At most locations, variability is greatest (lowest) during the cold (warm) seasons of the year. The geographical distribution of the dominant frequencies of variability are examined by season for Northern Hemisphere sea-level pressure and 700 hPa geopotential height, and USA surface temperature and precipitation. It is demonstrated that the dominant frequencies tend to vary in parallel across all four fields.In general, weather variables are found to vary at relatively low frequency (long periods) at high latitudes and, to a lesser extent, at subtropical latitudes. At mid-latitude, low frequency variability prevails most over the blocking regions in the eastern and central North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. High frequency variability occurs in the

  2. Science at the Time-scale of the Electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murnane, Margaret

    2010-03-01

    Replace this text with your abstract Ever since the invention of the laser 50 years ago and its application in nonlinear optics, scientists have been striving to extend coherent laser beams into the x-ray region of the spectrum. Very recently however, the prospects for tabletop coherent sources, with attosecond pulse durations, at very short wavelengths even in the hard x-ray region of the spectrum at wavelengths < 1nm, have brightened considerably. These advances are possible by taking nonlinear optics techniques to an extreme, and are the direct result of a new ability to manipulate electrons on the fastest, attosecond, time-scales of our natural world. My talk will discuss new experimental data that demonstrates high harmonic generation of laser-like, fully coherent, 10 attosecond duration, soft x-ray beams at photon energies around 0.5keV. Several applications will also be discussed, including making a movie of how electron orbitals in a molecule change shape as a molecule breaks apart, following how fast a magnetic material can flip orientation, understanding how fast heat flows in a nanocircuit, or building a microscope without lenses. [4pt] [1] T. Popmintchev et al., ``Phase matched upconversion of coherent ultrafast laser light into the soft and hard x-ray regions of the spectrum'', PNAS 106, 10516 (2009). [0pt] [2] C. LaOVorakiat et al., ``Ultrafast Soft X-Ray Magneto-Optics at the M-edge Using a Tabletop High-Harmonic Source'', Physical Review Letters 103, 257402 (2009). [0pt] [3] M. Siemens et al. ``Measurement of quasi-ballistic heat transport across nanoscale interfaces using ultrafast coherent soft x-ray beams'', Nature Materials 9, 26 (2010). [0pt] [4] K. Raines et al., ``Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,'' Nature 463, 214 (2010). [0pt] [5] W. Li et al., ``Time-resolved Probing of Dynamics in Polyatomic Molecules using High Harmonic Generation'', Science 322, 1207 (2008).

  3. Detonation initiation on the microsecond time scale: DDTs

    SciTech Connect

    Kassoy, Dr. David R; Kuehn, Jeffery A; Nabity, Mr. Matthew W.; Clarke, Dr. John F.

    2008-01-01

    Spatially resolved, thermal power deposition of limited duration into a finite volume of reactive gas is the initiator for a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) on the microsecond time scale. The reactive Euler equations with one-step Arrhenius kinetics are used to derive novel formulas for velocity and temperature variation that describe the physical phenomena characteristic of DDTs. A transformation of the variables is shown to yield a canonical equation system, independent of the activation energy. Numerical solutions of the reactive Euler equations are used to describe the detailed sequence of reactive gasdynamic processes leading to an overdriven planar detonation far from the power deposition location. Results are presented for deposition into a region isolated from the planar boundary of the reactive gas as well as for that adjacent to the boundary. The role of compressions and shocks reflected from the boundary into the partially reacted hot gas is described. The quantitative dependences of DDT evolution on the magnitude of thermal power deposition and activation energy are identified.

  4. Detonation initiation on the microsecond time scale: DDTs

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, Jeffery A; Kassoy, Dr. David R; Nabity, Mr. Matthew W.; Clarke, Dr. John F.

    2006-01-01

    Spatially resolved, thermal power deposition of limited duration into a finite volume of reactive gas is the initiator for a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) on the microsecond time scale. The reactive Euler equations with one-step Arrhenius kinetics are used to derive novel formulas for velocity and temperature variation that describe the physical phenomena characteristic of DDTs. A nonlinear transformation of the variables is shown to yield a canonical equation system, independent of the activation energy. Numerical solutions of the reactive Euler equations are used to describe the detailed sequence of reactive gas dynamic processes leading to an overdriven planar detonation far from the power deposition location. Results are presented for deposition into a region isolated from the planar boundary of the reactive gas as well as for that adjacent to the boundary. The role of compressions and shocks reflected from the boundary into the partially reacted hot gas is described. The quantitative dependences of DDT evolution on the magnitude of thermal power deposition and activation energy are identified.

  5. Representation of Time-Varying Stimuli by a Network Exhibiting Oscillations on a Faster Time Scale

    PubMed Central

    Shamir, Maoz; Ghitza, Oded; Epstein, Steven; Kopell, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Sensory processing is associated with gamma frequency oscillations (30–80 Hz) in sensory cortices. This raises the question whether gamma oscillations can be directly involved in the representation of time-varying stimuli, including stimuli whose time scale is longer than a gamma cycle. We are interested in the ability of the system to reliably distinguish different stimuli while being robust to stimulus variations such as uniform time-warp. We address this issue with a dynamical model of spiking neurons and study the response to an asymmetric sawtooth input current over a range of shape parameters. These parameters describe how fast the input current rises and falls in time. Our network consists of inhibitory and excitatory populations that are sufficient for generating oscillations in the gamma range. The oscillations period is about one-third of the stimulus duration. Embedded in this network is a subpopulation of excitatory cells that respond to the sawtooth stimulus and a subpopulation of cells that respond to an onset cue. The intrinsic gamma oscillations generate a temporally sparse code for the external stimuli. In this code, an excitatory cell may fire a single spike during a gamma cycle, depending on its tuning properties and on the temporal structure of the specific input; the identity of the stimulus is coded by the list of excitatory cells that fire during each cycle. We quantify the properties of this representation in a series of simulations and show that the sparseness of the code makes it robust to uniform warping of the time scale. We find that resetting of the oscillation phase at stimulus onset is important for a reliable representation of the stimulus and that there is a tradeoff between the resolution of the neural representation of the stimulus and robustness to time-warp. PMID:19412531

  6. Time scales for the decay of induced large-scale magnetic fields in the Venus ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Russell, C. T.; Elphic, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Observations made with the aid of a magnetometer on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter have shown large-scale horizontal magnetic fields in the dayside ionosphere of Venus. According to Cloutier and Daniell (1981), the observed magnetic structures may be quasi-steady features produced by an ionospheric current system driven by solar wind interaction. Russell et al. (1983) have suggested that the altitude profiles of the horizontal field on different orbits exhibit a pattern which can be interpreted as phases in the temporal evolution of an initial state in which the ionosphere was permeated with magnetosheath-like fields. The present investigation is concerned with the argument in favor of a temporal versus spatial explanation for some of the observed field structure. A calculation indicates that the diffusion time for ionospheric fields is long enough to justify attributing the observed fields to the 'memory' of the Venus ionosphere in certain regions.

  7. EON: software for long time simulations of atomic scale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chill, Samuel T.; Welborn, Matthew; Terrell, Rye; Zhang, Liang; Berthet, Jean-Claude; Pedersen, Andreas; Jónsson, Hannes; Henkelman, Graeme

    2014-07-01

    The EON software is designed for simulations of the state-to-state evolution of atomic scale systems over timescales greatly exceeding that of direct classical dynamics. States are defined as collections of atomic configurations from which a minimization of the potential energy gives the same inherent structure. The time evolution is assumed to be governed by rare events, where transitions between states are uncorrelated and infrequent compared with the timescale of atomic vibrations. Several methods for calculating the state-to-state evolution have been implemented in EON, including parallel replica dynamics, hyperdynamics and adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo. Global optimization methods, including simulated annealing, basin hopping and minima hopping are also implemented. The software has a client/server architecture where the computationally intensive evaluations of the interatomic interactions are calculated on the client-side and the state-to-state evolution is managed by the server. The client supports optimization for different computer architectures to maximize computational efficiency. The server is written in Python so that developers have access to the high-level functionality without delving into the computationally intensive components. Communication between the server and clients is abstracted so that calculations can be deployed on a single machine, clusters using a queuing system, large parallel computers using a message passing interface, or within a distributed computing environment. A generic interface to the evaluation of the interatomic interactions is defined so that empirical potentials, such as in LAMMPS, and density functional theory as implemented in VASP and GPAW can be used interchangeably. Examples are given to demonstrate the range of systems that can be modeled, including surface diffusion and island ripening of adsorbed atoms on metal surfaces, molecular diffusion on the surface of ice and global structural optimization of nanoparticles.

  8. Collisional Time Scales in the Kuiper Disk and Their Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1995-01-01

    We explore the rate of collisions among bodies in the present-day Kuiper Disk as a function of the total mass and population size structure of the disk. We find that collisional evolution is an important evolutionary process in the disk as a whole, and indeed, that it is likely the dominant evolutionary process beyond approx. 42 AU, where dynamical instability time scales exceed the age of the solar system. Two key findings we report from this modeling work are: that unless the disk's population structure is sharply truncated for radii smaller than approx. 1-2 km, collisions between comets and smaller debris are occurring so frequently in the disk, and with high enough velocities, that the small body (i.e., KM-class object) population in the disk has probably developed into a collisional cascade, thereby implying that the Kuiper Disk comets may not all be primordial, and that the rate of collisions of smaller bodies with larger 100 less R less 400 km objects (like 1992QB(sub 1) and its cohorts) is so low that there appears to be a dilemma in explaining how QB(sub 1)s could have grown by binary accretion in the disk as we know it. Given these findings, it appears that either the present-day paradigm for the formation of Kuiper Disk is failed in some fundamental respect, or that the present-day disk is no longer representative of the ancient structure from which it evolved. This in turn suggests the intriguing possibility that the present-day Kuiper Disk evolved through a more erosional stage reminiscent of the disks around the stars Beta Pictorus, alpha PsA, and alpha Lyr.

  9. Attractors of relaxation discrete-time systems with chaotic dynamics on a fast time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslennikov, Oleg V.; Nekorkin, Vladimir I.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a new type of relaxation systems is considered. Their prominent feature is that they comprise two distinct epochs, one is slow regular motion and another is fast chaotic motion. Unlike traditionally studied slow-fast systems that have smooth manifolds of slow motions in the phase space and fast trajectories between them, in this new type one observes, apart the same geometric objects, areas of transient chaos. Alternating periods of slow regular motions and fast chaotic ones as well as transitions between them result in a specific chaotic attractor with chaos on a fast time scale. We formulate basic properties of such attractors in the framework of discrete-time systems and consider several examples. Finally, we provide an important application of such systems, the neuronal electrical activity in the form of chaotic spike-burst oscillations.

  10. Advances in the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale--Developments and Integration with the Geologic Time Scale and Future Directions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    We celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Vine-Matthews/Morley-Larochelle hypothesis (Vine and Matthews, Nature, 1963, v. 199, #4897, p. 947-949), which integrated marine magnetic anomaly data with a rapidly evolving terrestrial-based geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS). The five decades of research since 1963 have witnessed the expansion and refinement of the GPTS, to the point where ages of magnetochron boundaries, in particular in the Cenozoic, can be estimated with uncertainties better than 0.1%. This has come about by integrating high precision geochronology, cyclostratigraphy at different time scales, and magnetic polarity data of increased quality, allowing extension of the GPTS back into the Paleozoic. The definition of a high resolution GPTS across time intervals of major events in Earth history has been of particular interest, as a specific magnetochron boundary correlated across several localities represents a singular global datum. A prime example is the end Permian, when some 80 percent of genus-level extinctions and a range of 75 to 96 percent species- level extinctions took place in the marine environment, depending upon clade. Much our understanding of the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) is based on relatively slowly deposited marine sequences in Europe and Asia, yet a growing body of observations from continental sequences demonstrates a similar extinction event and new polarity data from some of these sequences are critical to refining the GPTS across the PTB and testing synchronicity of marine and terrestrial events. The data show that the end-Permian ecological crisis and the conodont calibrated biostratigraphic PTB both followed a key polarity reversal between a short interval (subchron) of reverse polarity to a considerably longer (chron) of normal polarity. Central European Basin strata (continental Permian and epicontinental Triassic) yield high-quality magnetic polarity stratigraphic records (Szurlies et al., 2003

  11. Noether theorem for nonholonomic nonconservative mechanical systems in phase space on time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Qi-hang; Zhu, Jian-qing

    2016-08-01

    The paper focuses on studying the Noether theorem for nonholonomic nonconservative mechanical systems in phase space on time scales. First, the Hamilton equations of nonholonomic nonconservative systems on time scales are established, which is based on the Lagrange equations for nonholonomic systems on time scales. Then, based upon the quasi-invariance of Hamilton action of systems under the infinitesimal transformations with respect to the time and generalized coordinate on time scale, the Noether identity and the conserved quantity of nonholonomic nonconservative systems on time scales are obtained. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the application of the results.

  12. Polynomial-time-scaling quantum dynamics with time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Christov, Ivan P

    2009-05-21

    Here we study the dynamics of many-body quantum systems using the time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo method where the evolution is described by ensembles of particles and guide waves. The exponential time scaling inherent to the quantum many-body problem is reduced to polynomial-time computation by solving concurrently a set of coupled Schrodinger equations for the guide waves in physical space and a set of first-order equations for the Monte Carlo walkers. We use effective potentials to account for the local and nonlocal quantum correlations in time-varying fields, where for fermionic states an exchange "hole" is introduced explicitly through screened Coulomb potentials. The walker distributions for the ground states of para- and ortho-helium reproduce well the statistical properties, such as the electron-pair density function, of the real atoms. Our predictions for the dipole response and the ionization of an atom exposed to strong ultrashort optical pulse are in good agreement with the exact results. PMID:19391581

  13. Results from the New IGS Time Scale Algorithm (version 2.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senior, K.; Ray, J.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2004 the IGS Rapid and Final clock products have been aligned to a highly stable time scale derived from a weighted ensemble of clocks in the IGS network. The time scale is driven mostly by Hydrogen Maser ground clocks though the GPS satellite clocks also carry non-negligible weight, resulting in a time scale having a one-day frequency stability of about 1E-15. However, because of the relatively simple weighting scheme used in the time scale algorithm and because the scale is aligned to UTC by steering it to GPS Time the resulting stability beyond several days suffers. The authors present results of a new 2.0 version of the IGS time scale highlighting the improvements to the algorithm, new modeling considerations, as well as improved time scale stability.

  14. Input-output description of linear systems with multiple time-scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madriz, R. S.; Sastry, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that the study of systems evolving at multiple time-scales is simplified by studying reduced-order models of these systems valid at specific time-scales. The present investigation is concerned with an extension of results on the time-scale decomposition of autonomous systems to that of input-output systems. The results are employed to study conditions under which positive realness of a transfer function is preserved under singular perturbation. Attention is given to the perturbation theory for linear operators, the multiple time-scale structure of autonomous linear systems, the input-output description of two time-scale linear systems, the positive realness of two time-scale systems, and multiple time-scale linear systems.

  15. Asymptotic stability on slow time scales from periodic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Persek, S.C.

    1981-08-01

    Asymptotic stability for a periodic system of ordinary differential equations with a small parameter is shown to follow from the stability of the corresponding iterated-average system. Applications are made to biological systems experiencing varying seasonal factors, to large scale dynamical systems that are principally irrotational and to nuclear reactor dynamics. 7 refs.

  16. Global terrestrial biogeochemistry: Perturbations, interactions, and time scales

    SciTech Connect

    Braswell, B.H. Jr.

    1996-12-01

    Global biogeochemical processes are being perturbed by human activity, principally that which is associated with industrial activity and expansion of urban and agricultural complexes. Perturbations have manifested themselves at least since the beginning of the 19th Century, and include emissions of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from fossil fuel combustion, agricultural emissions of reactive nitrogen, and direct disruption of ecosystem function through land conversion. These perturbations yield local impacts, but there are also global consequences that are the sum of local-scale influences. Several approaches to understanding the global-scale implications of chemical perturbations to the Earth system are discussed. The lifetime of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is an important concept for understanding the current and future commitment to an altered atmospheric heat budget. The importance of the terrestrial biogeochemistry relative to the lifetime of excess CO{sub 2} is demonstrated using dynamic, aggregated models of the global carbon cycle.

  17. Fractal scaling properties in nonstationary heartbeat time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, C.-K.; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1996-06-01

    Under healthy conditions, the normal cardiac (sinus) interbeat interval fluctuates in a complex manner. Quantitative analysis using techniques adapted from statistical physics reveals the presence of long-range power-law correlations extending over thousands of heartbeats. This scale-invariant (fractal) behavior suggests that the regulatory system generating these fluctuations is operating far from equilibrium. In contrast, we find that for subjects at high risk of sudden death (e.g. congestive heart failure patients) these long-range correlations break down. Application of fractal scaling analysis and related techniques provides new approaches to assessing cardiac risk and forecasting sudden cardiac death, as well as motivating development of novel physiological models of systems that appear to be ``hetero-dynamic'' rather than ``homeo-static.''

  18. Fractal scaling properties in nonstationary heartbeat time series

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C. |; Havlin, S. |; Stanley, H.E.; Goldberger, A.L. |

    1996-06-01

    Under healthy conditions, the normal cardiac (sinus) interbeat interval fluctuates in a complex manner. Quantitative analysis using techniques adapted from statistical physics reveals the presence of long-range power-law correlations extending over thousands of heartbeats. This scale-invariant (fractal) behavior suggests that the regulatory system generating these fluctuations is operating far from equilibrium. In contrast, we find that for subjects at high risk of sudden death (e.g. congestive heart failure patients) these long-range correlations break down. Application of fractal scaling analysis and related techniques provides new approaches to assessing cardiac risk and forecasting sudden cardiac death, as well as motivating development of novel physiological models of systems that appear to be {open_quote}{open_quote}hetero-dynamic{close_quote}{close_quote} rather than {open_quote}{open_quote}homeo-static.{close_quote}{close_quote} {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Light storage on the time scale of a minute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudin, Y. O.; Li, L.; Kuzmich, A.

    2013-03-01

    Light storage on the minute scale is an important capability for future scalable quantum information networks spanning intercontinental distances. We employ an ultracold atomic gas confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice for long-term light storage. The differential ac Stark shift of the ground-level microwave transition used for storage is reduced to a sub-Hz level by the application of a magic-valued magnetic field. The 1/e lifetime for storage of coherent states of light is prolonged up to 16 s by a microwave dynamic decoupling protocol.

  20. Time Evolution of Galaxy Scaling Relations in Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Philip; Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2016-08-01

    We predict the evolution of galaxy scaling relationships from cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations, that reproduce the scaling relations of present-day galaxies. Although we do not assume co-evolution between galaxies and black holes a priori, we are able to reproduce the black hole mass-velocity dispersion relation. This relation does not evolve, and black holes actually grow along the relation from significantly less massive seeds than have previously been used. AGN feedback does not very much affect the chemical evolution of our galaxies. In our predictions, the stellar mass-metallicity relation does not change its shape, but the metallicity significantly increases from z ˜ 2 to z ˜ 1, while the gas-phase mass-metallicity relation does change shape, having a steeper slope at higher redshifts (z ≲ 3). Furthermore, AGN feedback is required to reproduce observations of the most massive galaxies at z ≲ 1, specifically their positions on the star formation main sequence and galaxy mass-size relation.

  1. Thomson scattering on a 20-psec time scale.

    PubMed

    Baldis, H A; Walsh, C J; Benesch, R

    1982-01-15

    A technique for high resolution Thomson scattering is discussed. By coupling a spectrograph to a streak camera with high sensitivity detectors, time and spectrally resolved scattered signals are obtained. Time resolutions down to 20 psec have been achieved, with the primary limitation on this figure coming from temporal dispersion in the spectrograph. The results of some laser plasma interaction experiments designed to study plasma instabilities are presented. PMID:20372444

  2. Structure and dating errors in the geologic time scale and periodicity in mass extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Structure in the geologic time scale reflects a partly paleontological origin. As a result, ages of Cenozoic and Mesozoic stage boundaries exhibit a weak 28-Myr periodicity that is similar to the strong 26-Myr periodicity detected in mass extinctions of marine life by Raup and Sepkoski. Radiometric dating errors in the geologic time scale, to which the mass extinctions are stratigraphically tied, do not necessarily lessen the likelihood of a significant periodicity in mass extinctions, but do spread the acceptable values of the period over the range 25-27 Myr for the Harland et al. time scale or 25-30 Myr for the DNAG time scale. If the Odin time scale is adopted, acceptable periods fall between 24 and 33 Myr, but are not robust against dating errors. Some indirect evidence from independently-dated flood-basalt volcanic horizons tends to favor the Odin time scale.

  3. Modelling financial markets with agents competing on different time scales and with different amount of information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlmuth, Johannes; Andersen, Jørgen Vitting

    2006-05-01

    We use agent-based models to study the competition among investors who use trading strategies with different amount of information and with different time scales. We find that mixing agents that trade on the same time scale but with different amount of information has a stabilizing impact on the large and extreme fluctuations of the market. Traders with the most information are found to be more likely to arbitrage traders who use less information in the decision making. On the other hand, introducing investors who act on two different time scales has a destabilizing effect on the large and extreme price movements, increasing the volatility of the market. Closeness in time scale used in the decision making is found to facilitate the creation of local trends. The larger the overlap in commonly shared information the more the traders in a mixed system with different time scales are found to profit from the presence of traders acting at another time scale than themselves.

  4. Clustering of time-evolving scaling dynamics in a complex signal.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Hamidreza; Chau, Tom; Kushki, Azadeh

    2016-07-01

    Complex time series are widespread in physics and physiology. Multifractal analysis provides a tool to study the scaling dynamics of such time series. However, the temporal evolution of scaling dynamics has been ignored by traditional tools such as the multifractal spectrum. We present scaling maps that add the time dimension to the study of scaling dynamics. This is particularly important in cases in which the dynamics of the underlying processes change in time or in applications that necessitate real-time detection of scaling dynamics. In addition, we present a methodology for automatic clustering of existing scaling regimes in a signal. We demonstrate the methodology on time-evolving correlated and uncorrelated noise and the output of a physiological control system (i.e., cardiac interbeat intervals) in healthy and pathological states. PMID:27575136

  5. Clustering of time-evolving scaling dynamics in a complex signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghir, Hamidreza; Chau, Tom; Kushki, Azadeh

    2016-07-01

    Complex time series are widespread in physics and physiology. Multifractal analysis provides a tool to study the scaling dynamics of such time series. However, the temporal evolution of scaling dynamics has been ignored by traditional tools such as the multifractal spectrum. We present scaling maps that add the time dimension to the study of scaling dynamics. This is particularly important in cases in which the dynamics of the underlying processes change in time or in applications that necessitate real-time detection of scaling dynamics. In addition, we present a methodology for automatic clustering of existing scaling regimes in a signal. We demonstrate the methodology on time-evolving correlated and uncorrelated noise and the output of a physiological control system (i.e., cardiac interbeat intervals) in healthy and pathological states.

  6. Time scales of variability associated with Nordeste precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K.R. ); Hameed, S. . Inst. for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres)

    1991-06-01

    The Northeast section of Brazil, called the Nordeste, experiences flood and drought regimes as the norm rather than the exception. This region receives its principal dose of precipitation during March--April, subsequent to regions to the west and north due to its proximity to the southern Atlantic subtropical high. A weakening of this anticyclone and strengthening of its counterpart in the northern Atlantic during this season results in the farthest southward penetration of the ITCZ and the Nordeste rainy season. Fluctuations in the large-scale circulation of the atmosphere, such as ENSO, modulate the track of the ITCZ causing the interannual drought or flood conditions that plague this region. Empirical studies have shown that Nordeste rainfall is related to the sea-surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Microsecond-Scale Timing Precision in Rodent Trigeminal Primary Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Michael R.; Campagner, Dario; Erskine, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Communication in the nervous system occurs by spikes: the timing precision with which spikes are fired is a fundamental limit on neural information processing. In sensory systems, spike-timing precision is constrained by first-order neurons. We found that spike-timing precision of trigeminal primary afferents in rats and mice is limited both by stimulus speed and by electrophysiological sampling rate. High-speed video of behaving mice revealed whisker velocities of at least 17,000°/s, so we delivered an ultrafast “ping” (>50,000°/s) to single whiskers and sampled primary afferent activity at 500 kHz. Median spike jitter was 17.4 μs; 29% of neurons had spike jitter < 10 μs. These results indicate that the input stage of the trigeminal pathway has extraordinary spike-timing precision and very high potential information capacity. This timing precision ranks among the highest in biology. PMID:25878266

  8. Scaling of expected survival time in a stochastic harvesting model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Harold; Radin, Michael; Wiandt, Tamas

    We explore the dynamics of modified version of a standard fishery model (Gordon-Schafer-Munro), with additive and multiplicative noise, under a quota-based harvest. A harvest quota induces an effective strong Allee effect (a positive unstable steady state population level, below which populations die out), with expected survival time following generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck dynamics. In particular, for additive noise, the expected survival time is exponential in s3/σ2, where s is the difference between stable and unstable steady state populations and σ the noise level. Thus survival time depends sensitively upon harvest quota (which determines steady state population), perhaps a warning to avoid future collapses such as that of the Atlantic cod fishery.

  9. Space Charge Models for Particle Tracking on Long Time Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Jeffrey A; Cousineau, Sarah M; Shishlo, Andrei P; Potts III, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    In order to efficiently track charged particles over long times, most tracking codes use either analytic charge distributions or particle-in-cell (PIC) methods based on fast Fourier transforms (FFTs). While useful for theoretical studies, analytic distribution models do not allow accurate simulation of real machines. PIC calculations can utilize realistic space charge distributions, but these methods suffer from the presence of discretization errors. We examine the situation for particle tracking with space charge over long times, and consider possible ideas to improve the accuracy of such calculations.

  10. Random time-scale invariant diffusion and transport coefficients.

    PubMed

    He, Y; Burov, S; Metzler, R; Barkai, E

    2008-08-01

    Single particle tracking of mRNA molecules and lipid granules in living cells shows that the time averaged mean squared displacement delta2[over ] of individual particles remains a random variable while indicating that the particle motion is subdiffusive. We investigate this type of ergodicity breaking within the continuous time random walk model and show that delta2[over ] differs from the corresponding ensemble average. In particular we derive the distribution for the fluctuations of the random variable delta2[over ]. Similarly we quantify the response to a constant external field, revealing a generalization of the Einstein relation. Consequences for the interpretation of single molecule tracking data are discussed. PMID:18764430

  11. Probing Single-Photon Ionization on the Attosecond Time Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Kluender, K.; Dahlstroem, J. M.; Gisselbrecht, M.; Fordell, T.; Swoboda, M.; Guenot, D.; Johnsson, P.; Mauritsson, J.; L'Huillier, A.; Caillat, J.; Maquet, A.; Taieeb, R.

    2011-04-08

    We study photoionization of argon atoms excited by attosecond pulses using an interferometric measurement technique. We measure the difference in time delays between electrons emitted from the 3s{sup 2} and from the 3p{sup 6} shell, at different excitation energies ranging from 32 to 42 eV. The determination of photoemission time delays requires taking into account the measurement process, involving the interaction with a probing infrared field. This contribution can be estimated using a universal formula and is found to account for a substantial fraction of the measured delay.

  12. Computer Response Time Measurements of Mood, Fatigue and Symptom Scale Items: Implications for Scale Response Time Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryman, David H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes study conducted with U.S. Marine Corps enlisted personnel to measure response time to computer-administered questionnaire items, and to evaluate how measurement of response time might be useful in various research areas. Topics addressed include mood states; the occurrence of straight lining; and experimental effects of sleep loss and…

  13. Time Scales in the JPL and CfA Ephemerides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standish, E. M.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decades, the IAU has repeatedly attempted to correct its definition of the basic fundamental argument used in the emphemerides. Finally, they have defined a time system which is physically possible, according to the accepted standard theory of gravitation.

  14. Brain connectivity at different time-scales measured with EEG

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, T; Studer, D; Hubl, D; Melie, L; Strik, W.K

    2005-01-01

    We present an overview of different methods for decomposing a multichannel spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) into sets of temporal patterns and topographic distributions. All of the methods presented here consider the scalp electric field as the basic analysis entity in space. In time, the resolution of the methods is between milliseconds (time-domain analysis), subseconds (time- and frequency-domain analysis) and seconds (frequency-domain analysis). For any of these methods, we show that large parts of the data can be explained by a small number of topographic distributions. Physically, this implies that the brain regions that generated one of those topographies must have been active with a common phase. If several brain regions are producing EEG signals at the same time and frequency, they have a strong tendency to do this in a synchronized mode. This view is illustrated by several examples (including combined EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)) and a selective review of the literature. The findings are discussed in terms of short-lasting binding between different brain regions through synchronized oscillations, which could constitute a mechanism to form transient, functional neurocognitive networks. PMID:16087445

  15. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations and approximate dynamic programming on time scales.

    PubMed

    Seiffertt, John; Sanyal, Suman; Wunsch, Donald C

    2008-08-01

    The time scales calculus is a key emerging area of mathematics due to its potential use in a wide variety of multidisciplinary applications. We extend this calculus to approximate dynamic programming (ADP). The core backward induction algorithm of dynamic programming is extended from its traditional discrete case to all isolated time scales. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations, the solution of which is the fundamental problem in the field of dynamic programming, are motivated and proven on time scales. By drawing together the calculus of time scales and the applied area of stochastic control via ADP, we have connected two major fields of research. PMID:18632378

  16. What is the timing of orbital-scale monsoon changes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddiman, William F.

    2006-04-01

    A major (but little noted) divergence of opinion has developed among climate scientists over the orbital-scale periodicity and phasing of tropical monsoon variations. Kutzbach (1981. Monsoon climate of the early Holocene: climate experiment with Earth's orbital parameters for 9000 years ago. Science 214, 59-61) proposed that monsoons are driven by northern summer insolation at the precession period, but Clemens and Prell (1990. Late Pleistocene variability of Arabian Sea summer monsoon winds and continental aridity: eolian records from the lithogenic component of deep-sea sediments. Paleoceanography 5, 109-145; 2003. A 350,000-year summer-monsoon multi-proxy stack from the Owen Ridge, Northern Arabian Sea. Marine Geology 201, 35-51) inferred a more complicated response tied to latent heat transfer from the Southern Hemisphere. Because tropical monsoons affect climate over a vast area, resolving this divergence is an important task for the climate community. The purpose of this note is to highlight definitive evidence from high-resolution dating of speleothem calcite that provides unambiguous support for the Kutzbach hypothesis.

  17. Inducing and Probing Attosecond-Time-Scale Electronic Wavefunction Beating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Christian; Raith, Philipp; Pfeifer, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Much of the current interest in the field of ultrafast science focuses on the observation of attosecond dynamics of electronic wavepackets. These experiments typically require attosecond pulses either for pumping or probing such dynamics and/or are limited to observing electronic states embedded in the ionization continuum of atoms. Here, we present numerical evidence---based on solutions of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation for a 1-dimensional model atom---that a pump--probe scheme with two few-cycle femtosecond laser pulses provides interferometric access to sub-femtosecond electron wavepacket dynamics. Both continuum- and bound-state electronic wavepacket interference can be simultaneously observed by recording and analyzing time-delay dependent interferences in the ATI spectrum of an atom. Both dipole-allowed and forbidden electronic transition information can be extracted from the data, making this approach a versatile and comprehensive spectroscopic method for probing the bound electronic level structure of an atom.

  18. Sub-Daily Runoff Simulations with Parameters Inferred at the Daily Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, J. E.; Xu, C. Y.; Seibert, J.; Halldin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Concentration times in small and medium-sized watersheds (~100-1000 km2) are commonly less than 24 hours. Flood-forecasting models then require data at sub-daily time scales, but time-series of input and runoff data with sufficient lengths are often only available at the daily time scale, especially in developing countries. This has led to a search for time-scale relationships to infer parameter values at the time scales where they are needed from the time scales where they are available. In this study, time-scale dependencies in the HBV-light conceptual hydrological model were assessed within the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) approach. It was hypothesised that the existence of such dependencies is a result of the numerical method or time-stepping scheme used in the models rather than a real time-scale-data dependence. Parameter values inferred showed a clear dependence on time scale when the explicit Euler method was used for modelling at the same time steps as the time scale of the input data (1 to 24 h). However, the dependence almost fully disappeared when the explicit Euler method was used for modelling in 1-hour time steps internally irrespectively of the time scale of the input data. In other words, it was found that when an adequate time-stepping scheme was implemented, parameter sets inferred at one time scale (e.g., daily) could be used directly for runoff simulations at other time scales (e.g., 3 h or 6 h) without any time scaling and this approach only resulted in a small (if any) model performance decrease, in terms of Nash-Sutcliffe and volume-error efficiencies. The overall results of this study indicated that as soon as sub-daily driving data can be secured, flood forecasting in watersheds with sub-daily concentration times is possible with model parameter values inferred from long time series of daily data, as long as an appropriate numerical method is used.

  19. Bi-Plasma Interactions on Femtosecond Time-Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-22

    Ultrafast THz radiation has important applications in materials science studies, such as characterizing transport properties, studying the vibrational response of materials, and in recent years, controlling materials and elucidating their response in intense electromagnetic fields. THz fields can be generated in a lab setting using various plasma-based techniques. This study seeks to examine the interaction of two plasmas in order to better understand the fundamental physics associated with femtosecond filamentation processes and to achieve more efficient THz generation in a lab setting. The intensity of fluorescence in the region of overlap was measured as a function of polarization, power, and relative time delay of the two plasma-generating laser beams. Results of time dependent intensity studies indicate strikingly similar behaviors across polarizations and power levels; a sudden intensity spike was observed at time-zero, followed by a secondary maxima and subsequent decay to the initial plasma intensity. Dependence of the intensity on the power through either beam arm was also observed. Spectral studies of the enhanced emission were also carried out. Although this physical phenomenon is still not fully understood, future studies, including further spectral analysis of the fluorescence overlap, could yield new insight into the ultrafast processes occurring at the intersection of femtosecond filaments, and would provide a better understanding of the mechanisms for enhanced THz production.

  20. Quantifying the uncertainty of the annular mode time scale and the role of the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junsu; Reichler, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The proper simulation of the annular mode time scale may be regarded as an important benchmark for climate models. Previous research demonstrated that this time scale is systematically overestimated by climate models. As suggested by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, this may imply that climate models are overly sensitive to external forcings. Previous research also made it clear that calculating the AM time scale is a slowly converging process, necessitating relatively long time series and casting doubts on the usefulness of the historical reanalysis record to constrain climate models in terms of the annular mode time scale. Here, we use long control simulations with the coupled and uncoupled version of the GFDL climate model, CM2.1 and AM2.1, respectively, to study the effects of internal atmospheric variability and forcing from the lower boundary on the stability of the annular mode time scale. In particular, we ask whether a model's annular mode time scale and dynamical sensitivity can be constrained from the 50-year-long reanalysis record. We find that internal variability attaches large uncertainty to the annular mode time scale when diagnosed from decadal records. Even under the fixed forcing conditions of our long control run at least 100 years of data are required in order to keep the uncertainty in the annular mode time scale of the Northern Hemisphere to 10 %; over the Southern Hemisphere, the required length increases to 200 years. If nature's annular mode time scale over the Northern Hemisphere is similarly variable, there is no guarantee that the historical reanalysis record is a fully representative target for model evaluation. Over the Southern Hemisphere, however, the discrepancies between model and reanalysis are sufficiently large to conclude that the model is unable to reproduce the observed time scale structure correctly. The effects of ocean coupling lead to a considerable increase in time scale and uncertainty in time scale, effects which

  1. Quantifying the uncertainty of the annular mode time scale and the role of the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junsu; Reichler, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The proper simulation of the annular mode time scale may be regarded as an important benchmark for climate models. Previous research demonstrated that this time scale is systematically overestimated by climate models. As suggested by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, this may imply that climate models are overly sensitive to external forcings. Previous research also made it clear that calculating the AM time scale is a slowly converging process, necessitating relatively long time series and casting doubts on the usefulness of the historical reanalysis record to constrain climate models in terms of the annular mode time scale. Here, we use long control simulations with the coupled and uncoupled version of the GFDL climate model, CM2.1 and AM2.1, respectively, to study the effects of internal atmospheric variability and forcing from the lower boundary on the stability of the annular mode time scale. In particular, we ask whether a model's annular mode time scale and dynamical sensitivity can be constrained from the 50-year-long reanalysis record. We find that internal variability attaches large uncertainty to the annular mode time scale when diagnosed from decadal records. Even under the fixed forcing conditions of our long control run at least 100 years of data are required in order to keep the uncertainty in the annular mode time scale of the Northern Hemisphere to 10 %; over the Southern Hemisphere, the required length increases to 200 years. If nature's annular mode time scale over the Northern Hemisphere is similarly variable, there is no guarantee that the historical reanalysis record is a fully representative target for model evaluation. Over the Southern Hemisphere, however, the discrepancies between model and reanalysis are sufficiently large to conclude that the model is unable to reproduce the observed time scale structure correctly. The effects of ocean coupling lead to a considerable increase in time scale and uncertainty in time scale, effects which

  2. A Cool Business: Trapping Intermediates on the submillisecond time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Syun-Ru

    2004-03-01

    The freeze-quenching technique is extremely useful for trapping meta-stable intermediates populated during fast chemical or biochemical reactions. The application of this technique, however, is limited by the long mixing time of conventional solution mixers and the slow freezing time of cryogenic fluids. To overcome these problems, we have designed and tested a novel microfluidic silicon mixer equipped with a new freeze-quenching device, with which reactions can be followed down to 50 microseconds. In the microfluidic silicon mixer, seven vertical pillars with 10 micrometer diameter are arranged perpendicular to the flow direction and in a staggered fashion in the 450 picoliter mixing chamber to enhance turbulent mixing. The mixed solution jet, with a cross-section of 10 micrometer by 100 micrometer, exits from the microfluidic silicon mixer with a linear flow velocity of 20 m/sec. It instantaneously freezes on one of two rotating copper wheels maintained at 77 K and is subsequently ground into an ultra-fine powder. The ultra-fine frozen powder exhibits excellent spectral quality, high packing factor and can be readily transferred between spectroscopic observation cells. The microfluidic mixer was tested by the reaction between azide and myoglobin at pH 5.0. It was found that complete mixing was achieved within the mixing dead-time of the mixer (20 microseconds) and the first observable point for this coupled device was determined to be 50 microseconds, which is approximately two orders of magnitude faster than commercially available instruments. Several new applications of this device in ultra-fast biological reactions will be presented. Acknowledgements: This work is done in collaboration with Dr. Denis Rousseau and is supported by the NIH Grants HL65465 to S.-R.Y. and GM67814 to D.L.R.

  3. Stimulated Brillouin scattering in picosecond time scales: Experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Baldis, H.A.; Villeneuve, D.M.; La Fontaine, B.; Enright, G.D. ); Labaune, C.; Baton, S.; Mounaix, P.; Pesme, D. ); Casanova, M. ); Rozmus, W. )

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in laser produced plasma using a laser pump with a duration of 8--10 psec. The experiments were performed in a preformed plasma to minimize the flow velocity and have the same plasma conditions over a large range of laser intensities. The reflectivity was then compared to theoretical results over an intensity range of 10[sup 13]--2[times]10[sup 15] W/cm[sup 2]. A short pulse was used so that the SBS was in the temporally growing regime and saturation was not an issue.

  4. Simultaneous storm time equatorward and poleward large-scale TIDs on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habarulema, John Bosco; Katamzi, Zama Thobeka; Yizengaw, Endawoke; Yamazaki, Yosuke; Seemala, Gopi

    2016-07-01

    We report on the first simultaneous observations of poleward and equatorward traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) during the same geomagnetic storm period on a global scale. While poleward propagating TIDs originate from the geomagnetic equator region, equatorward propagating TIDs are launched from the auroral regions. On a global scale, we use total electron content observations from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems to show that these TIDs existed over South American, African, and Asian sectors. The American and African sectors exhibited predominantly strong poleward TIDs, while the Asian sector recorded mostly equatorward TIDs which crossed the geomagnetic equator to either hemisphere on 9 March 2012. However, both poleward and equatorward TIDs are simultaneously present in all three sectors. Using a combination of ground-based magnetometer observations and available low-latitude radar (JULIA) data, we have established and confirmed that poleward TIDs of geomagnetic equator origin are due to ionospheric electrodynamics, specifically changes in E × B vertical drift after the storm onset.

  5. Time scale of the largest imaginable magnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliūnas, V. M.

    2013-01-01

    The depression of the horizontal magnetic field at Earth's equator for the largest imaginable magnetic storm has been estimated (Vasyliūnas, 2011a) as -Dst ~ 2500 nT, from the assumption that the total pressure in the magnetosphere (plasma plus magnetic field perturbation) is limited, in order of magnitude, by the minimum pressure of Earth's dipole field at the location of each flux tube. The obvious related question is how long it would take the solar wind to supply the energy content of this largest storm. The maximum rate of energy input from the solar wind to the magnetosphere can be evaluated on the basis either of magnetotail stress balance or of polar cap potential saturation, giving an estimate of the time required to build up the largest storm, which (for solar-wind and magnetospheric parameter values typical of observed superstorms) is roughly between ~2 and ~6 h.

  6. Invited review article: The statistical modeling of atomic clocks and the design of time scales.

    PubMed

    Levine, Judah; Ibarra-Manzano, O

    2012-02-01

    I will show how the statistical models that are used to describe the performance of atomic clocks are derived from their internal design. These statistical models form the basis for time scales, which are used to define international time scales such as International Atomic Time and Coordinated Universal Time. These international time scales are realized by ensembles of clocks at national laboratories such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and I will describe how ensembles of atomic clocks are characterized and managed. PMID:22380071

  7. Invited Review Article: The statistical modeling of atomic clocks and the design of time scales

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Judah

    2012-02-15

    I will show how the statistical models that are used to describe the performance of atomic clocks are derived from their internal design. These statistical models form the basis for time scales, which are used to define international time scales such as International Atomic Time and Coordinated Universal Time. These international time scales are realized by ensembles of clocks at national laboratories such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and I will describe how ensembles of atomic clocks are characterized and managed.

  8. Updating the planetary time scale: focus on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Quantin-Nataf, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Formal stratigraphic systems have been developed for the surface materials of the Moon, Mars, Mercury, and the Galilean satellite Ganymede. These systems are based on geologic mapping, which establishes relative ages of surfaces delineated by superposition, morphology, impact crater densities, and other relations and features. Referent units selected from the mapping determine time-stratigraphic bases and/or representative materials characteristic of events and periods for definition of chronologic units. Absolute ages of these units in some cases can be estimated using crater size-frequency data. For the Moon, the chronologic units and cratering record are calibrated by radiometric ages measured from samples collected from the lunar surface. Model ages for other cratered planetary surfaces are constructed primarily by estimating cratering rates relative to that of the Moon. Other cratered bodies with estimated surface ages include Venus and the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. New global geologic mapping and crater dating studies of Mars are resulting in more accurate and detailed reconstructions of its geologic history.

  9. The Bichromatic Optical Force on the Atomic Life- time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corder, Christopher; Arnold, Brian; Metcalf, Harold

    2013-05-01

    Our experimental and theoretical studies of the bichromatic force (BF) have shown that its strength and velocity range are very much larger than those of the usual radiative force. Since the BF relies on stimulated effects, the role of spontaneous emission in laser cooling has come into question. We drive the 23 S -->33 P transition of He at λ = 389 nm with laser frequencies ωl =ωa +/- δ , where ωa is the atomic transition frequency and δ ~ 30 MHz. Thus the velocity range of the force is Δv ~ δ / 2 k = 6 m/s. Because of the large and nearly constant strength of the BF, F ~ ℏkδ / π , all atoms can reach the velocity limit in a time <= MΔv / F = π / 4ωr = 380 ns, where ωr is the atomic recoil frequency. In our experiment a beam of He atoms crosses perpendicular through the BF laser beams in 380 ns so the relatively long lifetime of the excited state (τ = 106 ns) allows one or at most two spontaneous emission events, despite Δv of many tens of recoils. We will present our initial measurements of the BF in this new domain. Supported by ONR and Dept. of Ed. GAANN.

  10. Scale (in)variance in a unified diffusion model of decision making and timing.

    PubMed

    Simen, Patrick; Vlasov, Ksenia; Papadakis, Samantha

    2016-03-01

    Weber's law is the canonical scale-invariance law in psychology: when the intensities of 2 stimuli are scaled by any value k, the just-noticeable-difference between them also scales by k. A diffusion model that approximates a spike-counting process accounts for Weber's law (Link, 1992), but there exist surprising corollaries of this account that have not yet been described or tested. We show that (a) this spike-counting diffusion model predicts time-scale invariant decision time distributions in perceptual decision making, and time-scale invariant response time (RT) distributions in interval timing; (b) for 2-choice perceptual decisions, the model predicts equal accuracy but faster responding for stimulus pairs with equally scaled-up intensities; (c) the coefficient of variation (CV) of decision times should remain constant across average intensity scales, but should otherwise decrease as a specific function of stimulus discriminability and speed-accuracy trade-off; and (d) for timing tasks, RT CVs should be constant for all durations, and RT skewness should always equal 3 times the CV. We tested these predictions using visual, auditory and vibrotactile decision tasks and visual interval timing tasks in humans. The data conformed closely to the predictions in all modalities. These results support a unified theory of decision making and timing in terms of a common, underlying spike-counting process, compactly represented as a diffusion process. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26461957

  11. A search for short time scale TeV variability in Mkn501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Michael; McKernan, Barry; Yaqoob, Tahir; Fegan, David

    1999-06-01

    We analyse Whipple TeV gamma-ray data from active states of Mkn501 for short time scale variability using the new Excess Pair Fraction (EPF) method. No evidence is found for significant variability on time scales less than 10 minutes.

  12. Addition of random run FM noise to the KPW time scale algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    2002-01-01

    The KPW (Kalman plus weights) time scale algorithm uses a Kalman filter to provide frequency and drift information to a basic time scale equation. This paper extends the algorithm to three-state clocks nd gives results for a simulated eight-clock ensemble.

  13. Variability Trends in QSOs Over Monthly Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, B. T.; Kennefick, J.

    2005-12-01

    Variation in quasar magnitude from night to night can reveal long term variability trends as well as have a greater chance of detecting sudden luminosity changes than a typical long-term variability survey. In this study, five quasars with a range of properties were observed approximately every other night over 40 days using the 24" NFO webscope in Silver City, NM. Three 200 second exposure images were taken in both the R and V color filters each observation. Two passbands were used so that the data could be correlated to support findings. The images were stacked and processed using IRAF and SExtractor. Differential photometry using field stars was utilized. The five quasars were selected so that as large a range of redshift and absolute magnitude observable by the NFO webscope was represented. They are: (1) MRK 0877 with z=0.1124, (2) 3C-334 a RQQ with z=0.5551, (3) HS 1603+3820 a very luminous, very distant QSO with z=2.51, and two quasars from the QUEST survey (J1507-0202 and J1507-0207) which were selected because they both showed evidence of magnitude variations during the QUEST1 survey. Two of the observed quasars showed no significant variability. 3C-334 displayed a sudden apparent magnitude jump in both passbands, with Δ mR = 0.5602 ± 0.0474, corresponding to an increase of 6.62E+11 solar luminosities on June 21st. The magnitude returned to previous levels by the next observation. QUEST 1507-0202 and MRK 0877 suggested evidence of small long term variability over the 40 day study. Future observations revealing significant changes in magnitude corresponding to these trends may lead to the conclusion that these slow long-term variations can be detected over a 40 day time period with frequent observations. Funding was provided through an Arkansas Space Center grant.

  14. Computational Modeling of Semiconductor Dynamics at Femtosecond Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Govind P.; Goorjian, Peter M.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of the Joint-Research Interchange NCC2-5149 was to develop computer codes for accurate simulation of femtosecond pulse propagation in semiconductor lasers and semiconductor amplifiers [I]. The code should take into account all relevant processes such as the interband and intraband carrier relaxation mechanisms and the many-body effects arising from the Coulomb interaction among charge carriers [2]. This objective was fully accomplished. We made use of a previously developed algorithm developed at NASA Ames [3]-[5]. The new algorithm was tested on several problems of practical importance. One such problem was related to the amplification of femtosecond optical pulses in semiconductors. These results were presented in several international conferences over a period of three years. With the help of a postdoctoral fellow, we also investigated the origin of instabilities that can lead to the formation of femtosecond pulses in different kinds of lasers. We analyzed the occurrence of absolute instabilities in lasers that contain a dispersive host material with third-order nonlinearities. Starting from the Maxwell-Bloch equations, we derived general multimode equations to distinguish between convective and absolute instabilities. We find that both self-phase modulation and intensity-dependent absorption can dramatically affect the absolute stability of such lasers. In particular, the self-pulsing threshold (the so-called second laser threshold) can occur at few times the first laser threshold even in good-cavity lasers for which no self-pulsing occurs in the absence of intensity-dependent absorption. These results were presented in an international conference and published in the form of two papers.

  15. Computational Modeling of Semiconductor Dynamics at Femtosecond Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Govind P.; Goorjian, Peter M.

    1998-01-01

    The Interchange No. NCC2-5149 deals with the emerging technology of photonic (or optoelectronic) integrated circuits (PICs or OEICs). In PICs, optical and electronic components are grown together on the same chip. To build such devices and subsystems, one needs to model the entire chip. PICs are useful for building components for integrated optical transmitters, integrated optical receivers, optical data storage systems, optical interconnects, and optical computers. For example, the current commercial rate for optical data transmission is 2.5 gigabits per second, whereas the use of shorter pulses to improve optical transmission rates would yield an increase of 400 to 1000 times. The improved optical data transmitters would be used in telecommunications networks and computer local-area networks. Also, these components can be applied to activities in space, such as satellite to satellite communications, when the data transmissions are made at optical frequencies. The research project consisted of developing accurate computer modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in semiconductors. Such modeling is necessary for the successful development of PICs. More specifically, these computer codes would enable the modeling of such devices, including their subsystems, such as semiconductor lasers and semiconductor amplifiers in which there is femtosecond pulse propagation. Presently, there are no computer codes that could provide this modeling. Current codes do not solve the full vector, nonlinear, Maxwell's equations, which are required for these short pulses and also current codes do not solve the semiconductor Bloch equations, which are required to accurately describe the material's interaction with femtosecond pulses. The research performed under NCC2-5149 solves the combined Maxwell's and Bloch's equations.

  16. Detecting abrupt climate changes on different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyasovszky, István

    2011-10-01

    Two concepts are introduced for detecting abrupt climate changes. In the first case, the sampling frequency of climate data is high as compared to the frequency of climate events examined. The method is based on a separation of trend and noise in the data and is applicable to any dataset that satisfies some mild smoothness and statistical dependence conditions for the trend and the noise, respectively. We say that an abrupt change occurs when the first derivative of the trend function has a discontinuity and the task is to identify such points. The technique is applied to Northern Hemisphere temperature data from 1850 to 2009, Northern Hemisphere temperature data from proxy data, a.d. 200-1995 and Holocene δ18O values going back to 11,700 years BP. Several abrupt changes are detected that are, among other things, beneficial for determining the Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and Holocene Climate Optimum. In the second case, the sampling frequency is low relative to the frequency of climate events studied. A typical example includes Dansgaard-Oeschger events. The methodology used here is based on a refinement of autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic models. The key element of this approach is the volatility that characterises the time-varying variance, and abrupt changes are defined by high volatilities. The technique applied to δ18O values going back to 122,950 years BP is suitable for identifying DO events. These two approaches for the two cases are closely related despite the fact that at first glance, they seem quite different.

  17. Salinization of aquifers at the regional scale by marine transgression: Time scales and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armandine Les Landes, A.; Davy, P.; Aquilina, L.

    2014-12-01

    Saline fluids with moderate concentrations have been sampled and reported in the Armorican basement at the regional scale (northwestern France). The horizontal and vertical distributions of high chloride concentrations (60-1400mg/L) at the regional scale support the marine origin and provide constraints on the age of these saline fluids. The current distribution of fresh and "saline" groundwater at depth is the result mostly of processes occurring at geological timescales - seawater intrusion processes followed by fresh groundwater flushing -, and only slightly of recent anthropogenic activities. In this study, we focus on seawater intrusion mechanisms in continental aquifers. We argue that one of the most efficient processes in macrotidal environments is the gravity-driven downconing instability below coastal salinized rivers. 2-D numerical experiments have been used to quantify this process according to four main parameter types: (1) the groundwater system permeability, (2) the salinity degree of the river, (3) the river width and slope, and (4) the tidal amplitude. A general expression of the salinity inflow rates have been derived, which has been used to estimate groundwater salinization rates in Brittany, given the geomorphological and environmental characteristics (drainage basin area, river widths and slopes, tidal range, aquifer permeability). We found that downconing below coastal rivers entail very high saline rates, indicating that this process play a major role in the salinization of regional aquifers. This is also likely to be an issue in the context of climate change, where sea-level rise is expected.

  18. Empirical study on structural properties in temporal networks under different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Duanbing

    2015-12-01

    Many network analyzing methods are usually based on static networks. However, temporal networks should be considered so as to investigate real complex systems deeply since some dynamics on these systems cannot be described by static networks accurately. In this paper, four structural properties in temporal networks are empirically studied, including degree, clustering coefficient, adjacent correlation, and connected component. Three real temporal networks with different time scales are analyzed in this paper, including short message, telephone, and router networks. Moreover, structural properties of these temporal networks are compared with that of corresponding static aggregation networks in the whole time window. Some essential differences of structural properties between temporal and static networks are achieved through empirical analysis. Finally, the effect of structural properties on spreading dynamics under different time scales is investigated. Some interesting results such as turning point of structure evolving time scale corresponding to certain spreading dynamics time scale from the point of view of infected scale are achieved.

  19. [The Project on a Large Scale in its first times: time for a recall].

    PubMed

    Bassinello, Greicelene Aparecida Hespanhol; Bagnato, Maria Helena Salgado

    2009-01-01

    In this work we rebuilt the first attempts on the creation of the Program of Formation on a Large Scale of Elementary and High School people for basic health services. We examined the Program of Formation on a Large Scale from its beginning, being supported by documentary sources, such as Izabel dos Santos's interview, which filled in all the meanings of this experience. In the investigations, we went trough the purpose and the procedures of the proposal on a national scale. According to our point of view, this experience acquired a wider meaning of qualification: in which the focal point of the work, as a condition to workers' formation process, constituted as a methodological-pedagogical purpose of qualification at the work environment in order to obtain a critical professional. PMID:19768343

  20. Proportional hazards regression in epidemiologic follow-up studies: an intuitive consideration of primary time scale.

    PubMed

    Cologne, John; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Abbott, Robert D; Ohishi, Waka; Grant, Eric J; Fujiwara, Saeko; Cullings, Harry M

    2012-07-01

    In epidemiologic cohort studies of chronic diseases, such as heart disease or cancer, confounding by age can bias the estimated effects of risk factors under study. With Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling in such studies, it would generally be recommended that chronological age be handled nonparametrically as the primary time scale. However, studies involving baseline measurements of biomarkers or other factors frequently use follow-up time since measurement as the primary time scale, with no explicit justification. The effects of age are adjusted for by modeling age at entry as a parametric covariate. Parametric adjustment raises the question of model adequacy, in that it assumes a known functional relationship between age and disease, whereas using age as the primary time scale does not. We illustrate this graphically and show intuitively why the parametric approach to age adjustment using follow-up time as the primary time scale provides a poor approximation to age-specific incidence. Adequate parametric adjustment for age could require extensive modeling, which is wasteful, given the simplicity of using age as the primary time scale. Furthermore, the underlying hazard with follow-up time based on arbitrary timing of study initiation may have no inherent meaning in terms of risk. Given the potential for biased risk estimates, age should be considered as the preferred time scale for proportional-hazards regression with epidemiologic follow-up data when confounding by age is a concern. PMID:22517300

  1. Existence and exponential stability of positive almost periodic solution for Nicholson's blowflies models on time scales.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongkun; Li, Bing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we first give a new definition of almost periodic time scales, two new definitions of almost periodic functions on time scales and investigate some basic properties of them. Then, as an application, by using a fixed point theorem in Banach space and the time scale calculus theory, we obtain some sufficient conditions for the existence and exponential stability of positive almost periodic solutions for a class of Nicholson's blowflies models on time scales. Finally, we present an illustrative example to show the effectiveness of obtained results. Our results show that under a simple condition the continuous-time Nicholson's blowflies model and its discrete-time analogue have the same dynamical behaviors. PMID:27468397

  2. Evolution in time and scales of the stability of heart interbeat rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Pérez, R.; Guzmán-Vargas, L.; Reyes-Ramírez, I.; Angulo-Brown, F.

    2010-12-01

    We approach heart interbeat rate by observing the evolution of its stability on scales and time, using tools for the analysis of frequency standards. In particular, we employ the dynamic Allan variance, which is used to characterize the time-varying stability of an atomic clock, to analyze heart interbeat time series for normal subjects and patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Our stability analysis shows that healthy dynamics is characterized by at least two stability regions along different scales. In contrast, diseased patients exhibit at least three different stability regions; over short scales the fluctuations resembled white-noise behavior whereas for large scales a drift is observed. The inflection points delimiting the first two stability regions for both groups are located around the same scales. Moreover, we find that CHF patients show lower variation of the stability in time than healthy subjects.

  3. The space-time variability and scaling of climate data, climate models and their converge as functions of space-time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun; Elias, Lydia

    2014-05-01

    Climate models are evaluated by comparing them with other models and (when possible), with climate data: one attempts to match the data and numerics as closely as possible pixel by pixel, time step by time step- i.e. deterministically. As a consequence very little attention has been paid to understanding the space-time statistical properties of the models and data. There is little understanding of the convergence of the model and data to their 'climates' and to each other. In the time domain, there is no objective definition of the distinction between weather and climate in the spatial domain, there is corresponding lack of understanding of climate regions. In order to overcome this, we systematically study the statistics of fluctuations (primarily of temperature but also precipitation and pressure) as function of space and time. For both data and models, we find that in space, that fluctuations increase up to about 5000 km before starting to decrease; this quantitatively defines the typical size of regional climates. In time, we find that fluctuations decrease out to about 10-30 years in the industrial epoch, out to 50 -100 years in the pre-industrial epoch and then starts to increase; this defines the difference between 'macroweather' and the climate. Applying fluctuation analysis to longer time scales, we examine last millennium simulations from four GCMs, we show that control runs only reproduce macroweather. When various (reconstructed) climate forcings are included, in the recent (industrial) period they show global fluctuations strongly increasing at scales >_10-30 yr, which is quite close to the observations. However, in the preindustrial period we find that the multicentennial variabilities are too weak and by analysing the scale dependence of solar and volcanic forcings, we argue that these forcings are unlikely to be sufficiently strong to account for the multicentennial and longer-scale temperature variability. A likely explanation is that the models

  4. Using Focused Regression for Accurate Time-Constrained Scaling of Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B; Garren, J; Lowenthal, D; Reeves, J; de Supinski, B; Schulz, M; Rountree, B

    2010-01-28

    Many large-scale clusters now have hundreds of thousands of processors, and processor counts will be over one million within a few years. Computational scientists must scale their applications to exploit these new clusters. Time-constrained scaling, which is often used, tries to hold total execution time constant while increasing the problem size along with the processor count. However, complex interactions between parameters, the processor count, and execution time complicate determining the input parameters that achieve this goal. In this paper we develop a novel gray-box, focused median prediction errors are less than 13%. regression-based approach that assists the computational scientist with maintaining constant run time on increasing processor counts. Combining application-level information from a small set of training runs, our approach allows prediction of the input parameters that result in similar per-processor execution time at larger scales. Our experimental validation across seven applications showed that median prediction errors are less than 13%.

  5. Super-transient scaling in time-delay autonomous Boolean network motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Huys, Otti; Lohmann, Johannes; Haynes, Nicholas D.; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2016-09-01

    Autonomous Boolean networks are commonly used to model the dynamics of gene regulatory networks and allow for the prediction of stable dynamical attractors. However, most models do not account for time delays along the network links and noise, which are crucial features of real biological systems. Concentrating on two paradigmatic motifs, the toggle switch and the repressilator, we develop an experimental testbed that explicitly includes both inter-node time delays and noise using digital logic elements on field-programmable gate arrays. We observe transients that last millions to billions of characteristic time scales and scale exponentially with the amount of time delays between nodes, a phenomenon known as super-transient scaling. We develop a hybrid model that includes time delays along network links and allows for stochastic variation in the delays. Using this model, we explain the observed super-transient scaling of both motifs and recreate the experimentally measured transient distributions.

  6. Scaling Behavior of the First Arrival Time of a Random-Walking Magnetic Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, M.-Y.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, D.-H.; Fischer, P.; Shin, S.-C.

    2008-04-01

    We report a universal scaling behavior of the first arrival time of a traveling magnetic domain wall into a finite space-time observation window of a magneto-optical microscope enabling direct visualization of a Barkhausen avalanche in real time. The first arrival time of the traveling magnetic domain wall exhibits a nontrivial fluctuation and its statistical distribution is described by universal power-law scaling with scaling exponents of 1.34±0.07 for CoCr and CoCrPt films, despite their quite different domain evolution patterns. Numerical simulation of the first arrival time with an assumption that the magnetic domain wall traveled as a random walker well matches our experimentally observed scaling behavior, providing an experimental support for the random-walking model of traveling magnetic domain walls.

  7. Scaling behavior of the first arrival time of a random-walking magnetic domain.

    PubMed

    Im, M-Y; Lee, S-H; Kim, D-H; Fischer, P; Shin, S-C

    2008-04-25

    We report a universal scaling behavior of the first arrival time of a traveling magnetic domain wall into a finite space-time observation window of a magneto-optical microscope enabling direct visualization of a Barkhausen avalanche in real time. The first arrival time of the traveling magnetic domain wall exhibits a nontrivial fluctuation and its statistical distribution is described by universal power-law scaling with scaling exponents of 1.34+/-0.07 for CoCr and CoCrPt films, despite their quite different domain evolution patterns. Numerical simulation of the first arrival time with an assumption that the magnetic domain wall traveled as a random walker well matches our experimentally observed scaling behavior, providing an experimental support for the random-walking model of traveling magnetic domain walls. PMID:18518241

  8. Scaling Behavior of the First Arrival Time of a Random-Walking Magnetic Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Im, M.-Y.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, D.-H.; Fischer, P.; Shin, S.-C.

    2008-02-04

    We report a universal scaling behavior of the first arrival time of a traveling magnetic domain wall into a finite space-time observation window of a magneto-optical microscope enabling direct visualization of a Barkhausen avalanche in real time. The first arrival time of the traveling magnetic domain wall exhibits a nontrivial fluctuation and its statistical distribution is described by universal power-law scaling with scaling exponents of 1.34 {+-} 0.07 for CoCr and CoCrPt films, despite their quite different domain evolution patterns. Numerical simulation of the first arrival time with an assumption that the magnetic domain wall traveled as a random walker well matches our experimentally observed scaling behavior, providing an experimental support for the random-walking model of traveling magnetic domain walls.

  9. Distinguishing Direct from Indirect Interactions in Oscillatory Networks with Multiple Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawrath, Jakob; Romano, M. Carmen; Thiel, Marco; Kiss, István Z.; Wickramasinghe, Mahesh; Timmer, Jens; Kurths, Jürgen; Schelter, Björn

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method to infer the coupling structure in networks of nonlinear oscillatory systems with multiple time scales. The method of partial phase synchronization allows us to infer the coupling structure for coupled nonlinear oscillators with one well-defined time scale. The case of oscillators with multiple time scales has remained a challenge until now. Here, we introduce partial recurrence based synchronization analysis to tackle this challenge. We successfully apply the proposed method to model systems and experimental data from coupled electrochemical oscillators. The statistical significance of the results is evaluated based on a surrogate hypothesis test.

  10. A wavelet based approach to measure and manage contagion at different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Theo

    2015-10-01

    We decompose financial return series of US stocks into different time scales with respect to different market regimes. First, we examine dependence structure of decomposed financial return series and analyze the impact of the current financial crisis on contagion and changing interdependencies as well as upper and lower tail dependence for different time scales. Second, we demonstrate to which extent the information of different time scales can be used in the context of portfolio management. As a result, minimizing the variance of short-run noise outperforms a portfolio that minimizes the variance of the return series.

  11. Time scale defined by the fractal structure of the price fluctuations in foreign exchange markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Yoshiaki

    2010-04-01

    In this contribution, a new time scale named C-fluctuation time is defined by price fluctuations observed at a given resolution. The intraday fractal structures and the relations of the three time scales: real time (physical time), tick time and C-fluctuation time, in foreign exchange markets are analyzed. The data set used is trading prices of foreign exchange rates; US dollar (USD)/Japanese yen (JPY), USD/Euro (EUR), and EUR/JPY. The accuracy of the data is one minute and data within a minute are recorded in order of transaction. The series of instantaneous velocity of C-fluctuation time flowing are exponentially distributed for small C when they are measured by real time and for tiny C when they are measured by tick time. When the market is volatile, for larger C, the series of instantaneous velocity are exponentially distributed.

  12. ScaleNet--multiscale neural-network architecture for time series prediction.

    PubMed

    Geva, A B

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of a multiscale neural-network (NN) architecture for the time series prediction of nonlinear dynamic systems has been investigated. The prediction task is simplified by decomposing different scales of past windows into different scales of wavelets (local frequencies), and predicting the coefficients of each scale of wavelets by means of a separate multilayer perceptron NN. The short-term history (short past windows) is decomposed into the lower scales of wavelet coefficients (high frequencies) which are utilized for "detailed" analysis and prediction, while the long-term history (long past window) is decomposed into higher scales of wavelet coefficients (low frequencies) that are used for the analysis and prediction of slow trends in the time series. These coordinated scales of time and frequency provides an interpretation of the series structures, and more information about the history of the series, using fewer coefficients than other methods. The prediction's results concerning all the different scales of time and frequencies are combined by another "expert" perceptron NN which learns the weight of each scale in the goal-prediction of the original time series. Each network is trained by the backpropagation algorithm using the Levenberg-Marquadt method. The weights and biases are initialized by a new clustering algorithm of the temporal patterns of the time series, which improves the prediction results as compared to random initialization. Three main sets of data were analyzed: the sunspots' benchmark, fluctuations in a farinfrared laser and a nonlinear numerically generated series. Taking the ultimate goal to be the accuracy of the prediction, we found that the suggested multiscale architecture outperforms the corresponding single-scale architectures. The employment of improved learning methods for each of the ScaleNet networks can further improve the prediction results. PMID:18255824

  13. Mastering Uncertainty and Risk at Multiple Time Scales in the Future Electrical Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Bent, Russell W.; Backhaus, Scott N.

    2012-07-10

    Today's electrical grids enjoy a relatively clean separation of spatio-temporal scales yielding a compartmentalization of grid design, optimization, control and risk assessment allowing for the use of conventional mathematical tools within each area. In contrast, the future grid will incorporate time-intermittent renewable generation, operate via faster electrical markets, and tap the latent control capability at finer grid modeling scales; creating a fundamentally new set of couplings across spatiotemporal scales and requiring revolutionary advances in mathematics techniques to bridge these scales. One example is found in decade-scale grid expansion planning in which today's algorithms assume accurate load forecasts and well-controlled generation. Incorporating intermittent renewable generation creates fluctuating network flows at the hourly time scale, inherently linking the ability of a transmission line to deliver electrical power to hourly operational decisions. New operations-based planning algorithms are required, creating new mathematical challenges. Spatio-temporal scales are also crossed when the future grid's minute-scale fluctuations in network flows (due to intermittent generation) create a disordered state upon which second-scale transient grid dynamics propagate effectively invalidating today's on-line dynamic stability analyses. Addressing this challenge requires new on-line algorithms that use large data streams from new grid sensing technologies to physically aggregate across many spatial scales to create responsive, data-driven dynamic models. Here, we sketch the mathematical foundations of these problems and potential solutions.

  14. Factor Structure and Scale Reliabilities of the Adjective Check List Across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Stephen H.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Investigated factor structure and scale reliabilities of Gough's Adjective Check List (ACL) and their stability over time. Employees in a community mental health center completed the ACL twice, separated by a one-year interval. After each administration, separate factor analyses were computed. All scales had highly significant test-retest…

  15. Time scales of porphyry Cu deposit formation: insights from titanium diffusion in quartz

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, Celestine N.; Reed, Mark H.; Mercer, Cameron M.

    2015-01-01

    Porphyry dikes and hydrothermal veins from the porphyry Cu-Mo deposit at Butte, Montana, contain multiple generations of quartz that are distinct in scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) images and in Ti concentrations. A comparison of microprobe trace element profiles and maps to SEM-CL images shows that the concentration of Ti in quartz correlates positively with CL brightness but Al, K, and Fe do not. After calibrating CL brightness in relation to Ti concentration, we use the brightness gradient between different quartz generations as a proxy for Ti gradients that we model to determine time scales of quartz formation and cooling. Model results indicate that time scales of porphyry magma residence are ~1,000s of years and time scales from porphyry quartz phenocryst rim formation to porphyry dike injection and cooling are ~10s of years. Time scales for the formation and cooling of various generations of hydrothermal vein quartz range from 10s to 10,000s of years. These time scales are considerably shorter than the ~0.6 m.y. overall time frame for each porphyry-style mineralization pulse determined from isotopic studies at Butte, Montana. Simple heat conduction models provide a temporal reference point to compare chemical diffusion time scales, and we find that they support short dike and vein formation time scales. We interpret these relatively short time scales to indicate that the Butte porphyry deposit formed by short-lived episodes of hydrofracturing, dike injection, and vein formation, each with discrete thermal pulses, which repeated over the ~3 m.y. generation of the deposit.

  16. A Dynamically Computed Convective Time Scale for the Kain–Fritsch Convective Parameterization Scheme

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many convective parameterization schemes define a convective adjustment time scale τ as the time allowed for dissipation of convective available potential energy (CAPE). The Kain–Fritsch scheme defines τ based on an estimate of the advective time period for deep con...

  17. Combined use of meteorological drought indices at multi-time scales for improving hydrological drought detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ye; Wang, Wen; Singh, Vijay P; Liu, Yi

    2016-11-15

    Prediction of hydrological drought in the absence of hydrological records is of great significance for water resources management and risk assessment. In this study, two meteorological drought indices, including standardized precipitation index (SPI) and standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) calculated at different time scales (1 to 12months), were analyzed for their capabilities in detecting hydrological droughts. The predictive skills of meteorological drought indices were assessed through correlation analysis, and two skill scores, i.e. probability of detection (POD) and false alarm rate (FAR). When used independently, indices of short time scales generally performed better than did those of long time scales. However, at least 31% of hydrological droughts were still missed in view of the peak POD score (0.69) of a single meteorological drought index. Considering the distinguished roles of different time scales in explaining hydrological droughts with disparate features, an optimization approach of blending SPI/SPEI at multiple time scales was proposed. To examine the robustness of the proposed method, data of 1964-1990 was used to establish the multiscalar index, then validate during 2000-2010. Results showed that POD exhibited a significant increase when more than two time scales were used, and the best performances were found when blending 8 time scales of SPI and 9 for SPEI, with the corresponding values of 0.82 and 0.85 for POD, 0.205 and 0.21 for FAR, in the calibration period, and even better performance in the validation period. These results far exceeded the performance of any single meteorological drought index. This suggests that when there is lack of streamflow measurements, blending climatic information of multiple time scales to jointly monitor hydrological droughts could be an alternative solution. PMID:27450249

  18. Time-frequency and time-scale techniques for the classification of native and bioprosthetic heart valve sounds.

    PubMed

    Bentley, P M; Grant, P M; McDonnell, J T

    1998-01-01

    The determination of diagnostic features in recorded heart sounds was investigated with Carpentier-Edwards (CE) bioprosthetic valves. Morphological features, extracted using the Choi-Williams distribution, achieved between 96 and 61% correct classification. The time-scale wavelet-transform feature set achieved 100% correct classification with native valve populations, and 87% with the CE replacements. PMID:9444847

  19. Topographic and meteorological influences on space-time scaling of heavy convective rainfall in mountainous regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubert Godoy, A.; Nykanen, D.

    2003-04-01

    Characterizing the space-time scaling and dynamics of convective precipitation in mountainous terrain and the development of downscaling methods to transfer precipitation fields from one scale to another is the overall motivation for this research. Subtantiing a space-time statistical downscaling model for orographic convective precipitation based on the interplay between meteorological forcings and topographic influences on the scale-invariant properties of precipitation will be assessed.al progress has been made on characterizing the space-time organization of mid-western convective systems and tropical rainfall, which has lead to the development of statistical/dynamical downscaling models. Space-time analysis and downscaling of orographic precipitation has received much less attention due to the complexities of topographic influences. This study uses multi-scale statistical analysis to investigate the space-time scaling of organized thunderstorms that produced heavy rainfall and catastrophic flooding in mountainous regions. Focus is placed on the eastern and western slopes of the Appalachian region and the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Parameter estimates are analyzed over time and focus is placed on linking changes in the multi-scale parameters with meteorological forcings and orographic influences on the rainfall. Influences of geographic region (e.g., western versus eastern United States) and predominant orographic controls (e.g., windward versus leeward forcing)on trends in multi-scale properties of precipitation are investigated. Spatial resolutions from 1 km to 50 km and temporal integrations from 5 minutes to 3 hours ae considered. This range of space-time scales is needed to bridge typical scale gaps between distributed hydrologic models and numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts and attempts to address the open research problem of scaling organized thunderstorms and convection in mountainous terrain down to 1-4 km scales. The potential for

  20. Virtual Testing of Large Composite Structures: A Multiple Length/Time-Scale Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigliotti, Luigi; Pinho, Silvestre T.

    2015-12-01

    This paper illustrates a multiple length/time-scale framework for the virtual testing of large composite structures. Such framework hinges upon a Mesh Superposition Technique (MST) for the coupling between areas of the structure modelled at different length-scales and upon an efficient solid-to-shell numerical homogenization which exploits the internal symmetries of Unit Cells (UCs). Using this framework, it is possible to minimize the areas of the structure modelled at the lowest- (and computationally demanding) scales and the computational cost required to calculate the homogenised to be used in the higher-scales subdomains of multiscale FE models, as well as to simulate the mechanical response of different parts of the structure using different solvers, depending on where they are expected to provide the most computationally efficient solution. The relevance and key-aspects of the multiple length/time-scale framework are demonstrated through the analysis of a real-sized aeronautical composite component.

  1. [Stormflow hydrochemical characteristics at different time scales in a typical karst catchment of northwest Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Yang, Jing; Nie, Yun-peng; Chen, Hong-song; Fu, Zhi-yong

    2015-09-01

    Through in situ observation and indoor tests, the hydrochemical characteristics of a typical karst watershed at three different time scales (diurnal, single storm, and seasonal scales) from June 2013 to March 2014 were investigated, and their influencing factors were analyzed. The results showed that the diurnal variations of the hydrochemistry exhibited a regular changing pattern resulting from the shifting of the main vegetation physiological activity from photosynthesis in the day to respiration in the night. At single storm scale, however, the hydrochemical processes were mainly determined by the number of consecutive rainless days and rainfall intensity, while the diurnal scale effect was weakened. As to the seasonal scale, the overall hydrochemical processes showed quick responses to rainfall events although they responded more quickly in the rainy season than in the dry season. The temperature and the yearly rainfall distribution regime were the two main influencing factors at this scale. PMID:26785541

  2. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Lilai; Gao, Peiqing; Cui, Shenghui; Liu, Chun

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ► The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ► At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ► At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ► At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to

  3. Relation between hemispheric scale factors and the occurrence of winter storms on seasonal time scales and its predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renggli, D.; Leckebusch, G. C.; Ulbrich, U.; Faust, E.

    2009-04-01

    Previous work has demonstrated a limited but statistically significant skill in predicting the winter NAO and the occurrence of winter storms on seasonal time scales. One possible actor modulating the interannual variability of winter storm climate could be surface conditions such as snow cover or SST. However, the physical mechanisms behind this predictability are still unknown. In this study, the relation of the occurrence of winter storms in the North Atlantic/European region to hemispheric scale drivers like continental snow cover, SST in the North Atlantic and the NAO is examined in observational and/or reanalysis data for different lead times. Winter storm events are defined according their impact and therefore identified by means of a tracking algorithm based on the exceedance of the local 98% percentile of the 10m wind speed. It is shown that there are statistically significant correlations between the considered hemispheric scale drivers and the occurrence of winter storms with the former leading by up to 8 month. Largest correlations of about 45% are found with a lead time of 4-6 month. These empirical relationships can be used for a simple statistical forecast scheme. The same approach is applied to dynamical seasonal forecast data of the DEMETER project. In this way, the ability of the models to reproduce winter storms and their relation to the hemispheric scale factors is analysed. First results show that the simulated relationships are weaker than observed for both snow and SST as predictors. Furthermore, there is evidence that models reproducing the observed relations more realistically attain higher skill in predicting the occurrence of winter storms.

  4. Change ΔS of the entropy in natural time under time reversal: Complexity measures upon change of scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarlis, N. V.; Christopoulos, S.-R. G.; Bemplidaki, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    The entropy S in natural time as well as the entropy in natural time under time reversal S- have already found useful applications in the physics of complex systems, e.g., in the analysis of electrocardiograms (ECGs). Here, we focus on the complexity measures Λl which result upon considering how the statistics of the time series Δ S≤ft[\\equiv S- S-\\right] changes upon varying the scale l. These scale-specific measures are ratios of the standard deviations σ(Δ S_l) and hence independent of the mean value and the standard deviation of the data. They focus on the different dynamics that appear on different scales. For this reason, they can be considered complementary to other standard measures of heart rate variability in ECG, like SDNN, as well as other complexity measures already defined in natural time. An application to the analysis of ECG —when solely using NN intervals— is presented: We show how Λl can be used to separate ECG of healthy individuals from those suffering from congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death.

  5. The stability of the critical scaling against the time-dependent perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Heungsik; Park, Hyunggyu

    2004-04-01

    We study the stability of critical scaling against the time-dependent perturbation in the contact process(CP) model. The critical probability of the particle varies asp = p0 + ct-α. we perform the static Monte Carlo simulation using the finite size scaling theory in the steady state. For the α > 1/v∥, the time dependent perturbation is irrelevant, therefore , the critical exponents β/v∥,β/v⊥ have the DP value. For the α = 1/v∥, β/v∥ is DP value but β/v⊥ is varied with perturbation strength c. For the α < 1/v∥, the particle density is decayed with ρ ˜ tαβ in thermodynamic limit. However, for the all case, z have DP value. To study the stability of critical scaling, we introduce the time-dependent perturbation and know that critical scaling function is satisfied in all cases. Numerical simulations confirm our predictions.

  6. Time Scales in the Approach to Equilibrium of Macroscopic Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Hara, Takashi; Tasaki, Hal

    2013-10-01

    We prove two theorems concerning the time evolution in general isolated quantum systems. The theorems are relevant to the issue of the time scale in the approach to equilibrium. The first theorem shows that there can be pathological situations in which the relaxation takes an extraordinarily long time, while the second theorem shows that one can always choose an equilibrium subspace, the relaxation to which requires only a short time for any initial state.

  7. Increasing temperature forcing reduces the Greenland Ice Sheet's response time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, Patrick J.; Parizek, Byron R.; Nicholas, Robert E.; Alley, Richard B.; Keller, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    Damages from sea level rise, as well as strategies to manage the associated risk, hinge critically on the time scale and eventual magnitude of sea level rise. Satellite observations and paleo-data suggest that the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) loses mass in response to increased temperatures, and may thus contribute substantially to sea level rise as anthropogenic climate change progresses. The time scale of GIS mass loss and sea level rise are deeply uncertain, and are often assumed to be constant. However, previous ice sheet modeling studies have shown that the time scale of GIS response likely decreases strongly with increasing temperature anomaly. Here, we map the relationship between temperature anomaly and the time scale of GIS response, by perturbing a calibrated, three-dimensional model of GIS behavior. Additional simulations with a profile, higher-order, ice sheet model yield time scales that are broadly consistent with those obtained using the three-dimensional model, and shed light on the feedbacks in the ice sheet system that cause the time scale shortening. Semi-empirical modeling studies that assume a constant time scale of sea level adjustment, and are calibrated to small preanthropogenic temperature and sea level changes, may underestimate future sea level rise. Our analysis suggests that the benefits of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, in terms of avoided sea level rise from the GIS, may be greatest if emissions reductions begin before large temperature increases have been realized. Reducing anthropogenic climate change may also allow more time for design and deployment of risk management strategies by slowing sea level contributions from the GIS.

  8. Putting scales into evolutionary time: the divergence of major scale insect lineages (Hemiptera) predates the radiation of modern angiosperm hosts.

    PubMed

    Vea, Isabelle M; Grimaldi, David A

    2016-01-01

    The radiation of flowering plants in the mid-Cretaceous transformed landscapes and is widely believed to have fuelled the radiations of major groups of phytophagous insects. An excellent group to test this assertion is the scale insects (Coccomorpha: Hemiptera), with some 8,000 described Recent species and probably the most diverse fossil record of any phytophagous insect group preserved in amber. We used here a total-evidence approach (by tip-dating) employing 174 morphological characters of 73 Recent and 43 fossil taxa (48 families) and DNA sequences of three gene regions, to obtain divergence time estimates and compare the chronology of the most diverse lineage of scale insects, the neococcoid families, with the timing of the main angiosperm radiation. An estimated origin of the Coccomorpha occurred at the beginning of the Triassic, about 245 Ma [228-273], and of the neococcoids 60 million years later [210-165 Ma]. A total-evidence approach allows the integration of extinct scale insects into a phylogenetic framework, resulting in slightly younger median estimates than analyses using Recent taxa, calibrated with fossil ages only. From these estimates, we hypothesise that most major lineages of coccoids shifted from gymnosperms onto angiosperms when the latter became diverse and abundant in the mid- to Late Cretaceous. PMID:27000526

  9. Putting scales into evolutionary time: the divergence of major scale insect lineages (Hemiptera) predates the radiation of modern angiosperm hosts

    PubMed Central

    Vea, Isabelle M.; Grimaldi, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The radiation of flowering plants in the mid-Cretaceous transformed landscapes and is widely believed to have fuelled the radiations of major groups of phytophagous insects. An excellent group to test this assertion is the scale insects (Coccomorpha: Hemiptera), with some 8,000 described Recent species and probably the most diverse fossil record of any phytophagous insect group preserved in amber. We used here a total-evidence approach (by tip-dating) employing 174 morphological characters of 73 Recent and 43 fossil taxa (48 families) and DNA sequences of three gene regions, to obtain divergence time estimates and compare the chronology of the most diverse lineage of scale insects, the neococcoid families, with the timing of the main angiosperm radiation. An estimated origin of the Coccomorpha occurred at the beginning of the Triassic, about 245 Ma [228–273], and of the neococcoids 60 million years later [210–165 Ma]. A total-evidence approach allows the integration of extinct scale insects into a phylogenetic framework, resulting in slightly younger median estimates than analyses using Recent taxa, calibrated with fossil ages only. From these estimates, we hypothesise that most major lineages of coccoids shifted from gymnosperms onto angiosperms when the latter became diverse and abundant in the mid- to Late Cretaceous. PMID:27000526

  10. Analytical expression for gas-particle equilibration time scale and its numerical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anttila, Tatu; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Dal Maso, Miikka

    2016-05-01

    We have derived a time scale τeq that describes the characteristic time for a single compound i with a saturation vapour concentration Ceff,i to reach thermodynamic equilibrium between the gas and particle phases. The equilibration process was assumed to take place via gas-phase diffusion and absorption into a liquid-like phase present in the particles. It was further shown that τeq combines two previously derived and often applied time scales τa and τs that account for the changes in the gas and particle phase concentrations of i resulting from the equilibration, respectively. The validity of τeq was tested by comparing its predictions against results from a numerical model that explicitly simulates the transfer of i between the gas and particle phases. By conducting a large number of simulations where the values of the key input parameters were varied randomly, it was found out that τeq yields highly accurate results when i is a semi-volatile compound in the sense that the ratio of total (gas and particle phases) concentration of i to the saturation vapour concentration of i, μ, is below unity. On the other hand, the comparison of analytical and numerical time scales revealed that using τa or τs alone to calculate the equilibration time scale may lead to considerable errors. It was further shown that τeq tends to overpredict the equilibration time when i behaves as a non-volatile compound in a sense that μ > 1. Despite its simplicity, the time scale derived here has useful applications. First, it can be used to assess if semi-volatile compounds reach thermodynamic equilibrium during dynamic experiments that involve changes in the compound volatility. Second, the time scale can be used in modeling of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) to check whether SOA forming compounds equilibrate over a certain time interval.