Science.gov

Sample records for 100-percent design equivalent

  1. Investigation of Performance of Axial-Flow Compressor of XT-46 Turbine-Propeller Engine. I - Preliminary Investigation at 50-,70-, and 100-Percent Design Equivalent Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creagh, John W.R.; Sandercrock, Donald M.

    1950-01-01

    An investigation is being conducted to determine the performance of the 12-stage axial-flow compressor of the XT-46 turbine-propeller engine. This compressor was designed to produce a pressure ratio of 9 at an adiabatic efficiency of 0.86. The design pressure ratios per stage were considerably greater than any employed in current aircraft gas-turbine engines using this type of compressor. The compressor performance was evaluated at two stations. The station near the entrance section of the combustors indicated a peak pressure ratio of 6.3 at an adiabatic efficiency of 0.63 for a corrected weight flow of 23.1 pounds per second. The other, located one blade-chord downstream of the last stator row, indicated a peak pressure ratio of 6.97 at an adiabatic efficiency of 0.81 for a corrected weight flow of 30.4 pounds per second. The difference in performance obtained at the two stations is attributed to shock waves in the vicinity of the last stator row. These shock waves and the accompanying flow choking, together with interstage circulatory flows, shift the compressor operating curves into the region where surge would normally occur. The inability of the compressor to meet design pressure ratio is probably due to boundary-layer buildup in the last stages, which cause axial velocities greater than design values that, in turn, adversely affect the angles of attack and turning angles in these blade rows.

  2. 32 CFR 48.508 - Certain 100 percent disability retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certain 100 percent disability retirement. 48... disability retirement. An election filed on or after August 13, 1968 is not effective if the member dies within 30 days following retirement from a disability of 100 per centum (under the standard schedule...

  3. 32 CFR 48.508 - Certain 100 percent disability retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certain 100 percent disability retirement. 48... disability retirement. An election filed on or after August 13, 1968 is not effective if the member dies within 30 days following retirement from a disability of 100 per centum (under the standard schedule...

  4. 32 CFR 48.508 - Certain 100 percent disability retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certain 100 percent disability retirement. 48... disability retirement. An election filed on or after August 13, 1968 is not effective if the member dies within 30 days following retirement from a disability of 100 per centum (under the standard schedule...

  5. 32 CFR 48.508 - Certain 100 percent disability retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certain 100 percent disability retirement. 48... disability retirement. An election filed on or after August 13, 1968 is not effective if the member dies within 30 days following retirement from a disability of 100 per centum (under the standard schedule...

  6. 32 CFR 48.508 - Certain 100 percent disability retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certain 100 percent disability retirement. 48... disability retirement. An election filed on or after August 13, 1968 is not effective if the member dies within 30 days following retirement from a disability of 100 per centum (under the standard schedule...

  7. 7 CFR 1717.854 - Advance approval-100 percent private financing of distribution, subtransmission and headquarters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., report on compliance, report on internal controls, and management letter in accordance with 7 CFR part... distribution, subtransmission and headquarters facilities, and certain other community infrastructure. 1717.854... approval—100 percent private financing of distribution, subtransmission and headquarters facilities,...

  8. 46 CFR 42.20-8 - Flooding standard: Type “B” vessel, 100 percent reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flooding standard: Type âBâ vessel, 100 percent... LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-8 Flooding standard: Type “B” vessel, 100...-11 as applied to the following flooding standards: (1) If the vessel is 225 meters (738 feet) or...

  9. 46 CFR 42.20-8 - Flooding standard: Type “B” vessel, 100 percent reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flooding standard: Type âBâ vessel, 100 percent... LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-8 Flooding standard: Type “B” vessel, 100...-11 as applied to the following flooding standards: (1) If the vessel is 225 meters (738 feet) or...

  10. 46 CFR 42.20-8 - Flooding standard: Type “B” vessel, 100 percent reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flooding standard: Type âBâ vessel, 100 percent... LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-8 Flooding standard: Type “B” vessel, 100...-11 as applied to the following flooding standards: (1) If the vessel is 225 meters (738 feet) or...

  11. 46 CFR 42.20-8 - Flooding standard: Type “B” vessel, 100 percent reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flooding standard: Type âBâ vessel, 100 percent... LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-8 Flooding standard: Type “B” vessel, 100...-11 as applied to the following flooding standards: (1) If the vessel is 225 meters (738 feet) or...

  12. 46 CFR 42.20-8 - Flooding standard: Type “B” vessel, 100 percent reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flooding standard: Type âBâ vessel, 100 percent... LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-8 Flooding standard: Type “B” vessel, 100...-11 as applied to the following flooding standards: (1) If the vessel is 225 meters (738 feet) or...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15380 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  20. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15380 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A...

  9. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  12. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15380 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  14. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15380 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A...

  1. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  2. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15380 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  3. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Yard Waste § 62.14815 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? (a) After the date the initial test for opacity...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Yard Waste § 62.14815 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? (a) After the date the initial test for opacity...

  5. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Yard Waste § 62.14815 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? (a) After the date the initial test for opacity...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Yard Waste § 62.14815 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? (a) After the date the initial test for opacity...

  7. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Yard Waste § 62.14815 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? (a) After the date the initial test for opacity...

  8. 7 CFR 205.303 - Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.303 Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products... product, the following: (1) The term, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to modify...

  9. 7 CFR 205.303 - Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.303 Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products... product, the following: (1) The term, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to modify...

  10. 7 CFR 205.303 - Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.303 Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products... product, the following: (1) The term, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to modify...

  11. 7 CFR 205.303 - Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.303 Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products... product, the following: (1) The term, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to modify...

  12. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as ] amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of a new equivalent method...

  13. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... 53, as amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The new equivalent methods are automated... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of three new...

  14. Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester MLI (multilayer insulation) system for the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Boroski, W.N.; Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.

    1989-09-01

    Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) were conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) under three experimental test arrangements. Each experiment measured the thermal performance of a 32-layer MLI blanket instrumented with twenty foil sensors to measure interstitial layer temperatures. Heat leak values and sensor temperatures were monitored during transient and steady state conditions under both design and degraded insulating vacuums. Heat leak values were measured using a heatmeter. MLI interstitial layer temperatures were measured using Cryogenic Linear Temperature Sensors (CLTS). Platinum resistors monitored system temperatures. High vacuum was measured using ion gauges; degraded vacuum employed thermocouple gauges. A four-wire system monitored instrumentation sensors and calibration heaters. An on-line computerized data acquisition system recorded and processes data. This paper reports on the instrumentation and experimental preparation used in carrying out these measurements. In complement with this paper is an associate paper bearing the same title head, but with the title extension Part 2: Laboratory results (300K--80K). 13 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Breathing 100 percent oxygen compared with 50 percent oxygen:50 percent nitrogen reduces altitude-induced venous gas emboli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, James T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    1993-01-01

    The study investigates effects of 40 zero-prebreathe decompressions of male subjects to 8.3-6.8 psia for 6 h while they were breathing 100 percent oxygen and performing moderate exercise. No decompression sickness (DCS) symptoms were observed. Severe venous gas emboli (VGE) were not detected at 8.3 psia, but were present during 10, 20, and 40 percent of the exposures at 7.8, 7.3, and 6.8 psia, respectively. Zero-prebreathe decompression while breathing 100 percent oxygen results in significantly lower VGE and DCS risk levels than while breathing a 50:50 mix. It is shown that 7.3 psia EVA pressure suits with 100 percent oxygen should be safer than 8.3 psia suits with a 50:50 mix.

  16. 7 CFR 205.303 - Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaged products labeled â100 percent organicâ or âorganic.â 205.303 Section 205.303 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION...

  17. 77 FR 32632 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has designated, in accordance with 40 CFR Part 53, three new equivalent methods: One for measuring concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and two for measuring concentrations of lead (Pb) in the ambient...

  18. Section Preequating under the Equivalent Groups Design without IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Hongwen; Puhan, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a section preequating (SPE) method (linear and nonlinear) under the randomly equivalent groups design. In this equating design, sections of Test X (a future new form) and another existing Test Y (an old form already on scale) are administered. The sections of Test X are equated to Test Y, after adjusting for the…

  19. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Yard Waste § 62.14820 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820...

  20. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Yard Waste § 62.14820 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820...

  1. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Yard Waste § 62.14820 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, Appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820...

  2. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Yard Waste § 62.14820 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, Appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820...

  3. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Yard Waste § 62.14820 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820...

  4. Equivalent plate modeling for conceptual design of aircraft wing structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis method that generates conceptual-level design data for aircraft wing structures. A key requirement is that this data must be produced in a timely manner so that is can be used effectively by multidisciplinary synthesis codes for performing systems studies. Such a capability is being developed by enhancing an equivalent plate structural analysis computer code to provide a more comprehensive, robust and user-friendly analysis tool. The paper focuses on recent enhancements to the Equivalent Laminated Plate Solution (ELAPS) analysis code that significantly expands the modeling capability and improves the accuracy of results. Modeling additions include use of out-of-plane plate segments for representing winglets and advanced wing concepts such as C-wings along with a new capability for modeling the internal rib and spar structure. The accuracy of calculated results is improved by including transverse shear effects in the formulation and by using multiple sets of assumed displacement functions in the analysis. Typical results are presented to demonstrate these new features. Example configurations include a C-wing transport aircraft, a representative fighter wing and a blended-wing-body transport. These applications are intended to demonstrate and quantify the benefits of using equivalent plate modeling of wing structures during conceptual design.

  5. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). Two of the new equivalent methods for PM are automated monitoring... meteorological sensor. With or without optional ESTEL analog inputs/outputs, serial link: 1 RS-232/422; USB port... inlet and zero check enabled; sample permeation dryer. Serial link: 2 RS-232; USB port; Ethernet...

  6. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural products to be sold or labeled as “100 percent organic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... food group(s)).â 205.670 Section 205.670 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... ingredients or food group(s)).” (a) All agricultural products that are to be sold, labeled, or represented as “100 percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))”...

  7. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural products to be sold or labeled as “100 percent organic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... food group(s)).â 205.670 Section 205.670 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... ingredients or food group(s)).” (a) All agricultural products that are to be sold, labeled, or represented as “100 percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))”...

  8. 47 CFR 54.319 - Elimination of high-cost support in areas with 100 percent coverage by an unsubsidized competitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elimination of high-cost support in areas with 100 percent coverage by an unsubsidized competitor. 54.319 Section 54.319 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas §...

  9. Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

  10. Gaussian beam ray-equivalent modeling and optical design.

    PubMed

    Herloski, R; Marshall, S; Antos, R

    1983-04-15

    It is shown that the propagation and transformation of a simply astigmatic Gaussian beam by an optical system with a characteristic ABCD matrix can be modeled by relatively simple equations whose terms consist solely of the heights and slopes of two paraxial rays. These equations are derived from the ABCD law of Gaussian beam transformation. They can be used in conjunction with a conventional automatic optical design program to design and optimize Gaussian beam optical systems. Several design examples are given using the CODE-V optical design package. PMID:18195936

  11. Application of Adjoint Methodology to Supersonic Aircraft Design Using Reversed Equivalent Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rallabhandi, Sriram K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to shape an aircraft to equivalent area based objectives using the discrete adjoint approach. Equivalent areas can be obtained either using reversed augmented Burgers equation or direct conversion of off-body pressures into equivalent area. Formal coupling with CFD allows computation of sensitivities of equivalent area objectives with respect to aircraft shape parameters. The exactness of the adjoint sensitivities is verified against derivatives obtained using the complex step approach. This methodology has the benefit of using designer-friendly equivalent areas in the shape design of low-boom aircraft. Shape optimization results with equivalent area cost functionals are discussed and further refined using ground loudness based objectives.

  12. Comparison of a Stimulus Equivalence Protocol and Traditional Lecture for Teaching Single-Subject Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Sadie; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Garcia, Yors; Dunning, Johnna

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the effects of a computer-based stimulus equivalence protocol to a traditional lecture format in teaching single-subject experimental design concepts to undergraduate students. Participants were assigned to either an equivalence or a lecture group, and performance on a paper-and-pencil test that targeted relations among the…

  13. MEMS 3-DoF gyroscope design, modeling and simulation through equivalent circuit lumped parameter model

    SciTech Connect

    Mian, Muhammad Umer Khir, M. H. Md.; Tang, T. B.; Dennis, John Ojur; Riaz, Kashif; Iqbal, Abid; Bazaz, Shafaat A.

    2015-07-22

    Pre-fabrication, behavioural and performance analysis with computer aided design (CAD) tools is a common and fabrication cost effective practice. In light of this we present a simulation methodology for a dual-mass oscillator based 3 Degree of Freedom (3-DoF) MEMS gyroscope. 3-DoF Gyroscope is modeled through lumped parameter models using equivalent circuit elements. These equivalent circuits consist of elementary components which are counterpart of their respective mechanical components, used to design and fabricate 3-DoF MEMS gyroscope. Complete designing of equivalent circuit model, mathematical modeling and simulation are being presented in this paper. Behaviors of the equivalent lumped models derived for the proposed device design are simulated in MEMSPRO T-SPICE software. Simulations are carried out with the design specifications following design rules of the MetalMUMPS fabrication process. Drive mass resonant frequencies simulated by this technique are 1.59 kHz and 2.05 kHz respectively, which are close to the resonant frequencies found by the analytical formulation of the gyroscope. The lumped equivalent circuit modeling technique proved to be a time efficient modeling technique for the analysis of complex MEMS devices like 3-DoF gyroscopes. The technique proves to be an alternative approach to the complex and time consuming couple field analysis Finite Element Analysis (FEA) previously used.

  14. MEMS 3-DoF gyroscope design, modeling and simulation through equivalent circuit lumped parameter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Muhammad Umer; Dennis, John Ojur; Khir, M. H. Md.; Riaz, Kashif; Iqbal, Abid; Bazaz, Shafaat A.; Tang, T. B.

    2015-07-01

    Pre-fabrication, behavioural and performance analysis with computer aided design (CAD) tools is a common and fabrication cost effective practice. In light of this we present a simulation methodology for a dual-mass oscillator based 3 Degree of Freedom (3-DoF) MEMS gyroscope. 3-DoF Gyroscope is modeled through lumped parameter models using equivalent circuit elements. These equivalent circuits consist of elementary components which are counterpart of their respective mechanical components, used to design and fabricate 3-DoF MEMS gyroscope. Complete designing of equivalent circuit model, mathematical modeling and simulation are being presented in this paper. Behaviors of the equivalent lumped models derived for the proposed device design are simulated in MEMSPRO T-SPICE software. Simulations are carried out with the design specifications following design rules of the MetalMUMPS fabrication process. Drive mass resonant frequencies simulated by this technique are 1.59 kHz and 2.05 kHz respectively, which are close to the resonant frequencies found by the analytical formulation of the gyroscope. The lumped equivalent circuit modeling technique proved to be a time efficient modeling technique for the analysis of complex MEMS devices like 3-DoF gyroscopes. The technique proves to be an alternative approach to the complex and time consuming couple field analysis Finite Element Analysis (FEA) previously used.

  15. PERFORMANCE TEST RESULTS AND COMPARATIVE DATA FOR DESIGNATED REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS FOR OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under Part 53 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 53), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency designates specific ambient monitoring methods and analyzers as reference or equivalent methods acceptable for use in National Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS), S...

  16. Small-Sample Equating Using a Single-Group Nearly Equivalent Test (SiGNET) Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhan, Gautam; Moses, Timothy P.; Grant, Mary C.; McHale, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    A single-group (SG) equating with nearly equivalent test forms (SiGNET) design was developed by Grant to equate small-volume tests. Under this design, the scored items for the operational form are divided into testlets or mini tests. An additional testlet is created but not scored for the first form. If the scored testlets are testlets 1-6 and the…

  17. Unbalanced and Minimal Point Equivalent Estimation Second-Order Split-Plot Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Peter A.; Kowalski, Scott M.; Vining, G. Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    Restricting the randomization of hard-to-change factors in industrial experiments is often performed by employing a split-plot design structure. From an economic perspective, these designs minimize the experimental cost by reducing the number of resets of the hard-to- change factors. In this paper, unbalanced designs are considered for cases where the subplots are relatively expensive and the experimental apparatus accommodates an unequal number of runs per whole-plot. We provide construction methods for unbalanced second-order split- plot designs that possess the equivalence estimation optimality property, providing best linear unbiased estimates of the parameters; independent of the variance components. Unbalanced versions of the central composite and Box-Behnken designs are developed. For cases where the subplot cost approaches the whole-plot cost, minimal point designs are proposed and illustrated with a split-plot Notz design.

  18. Inverse Design of Low-Boom Supersonic Concepts Using Reversed Equivalent-Area Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Rallabhand, Sriam

    2011-01-01

    A promising path for developing a low-boom configuration is a multifidelity approach that (1) starts from a low-fidelity low-boom design, (2) refines the low-fidelity design with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) equivalent-area (Ae) analysis, and (3) improves the design with sonic-boom analysis by using CFD off-body pressure distributions. The focus of this paper is on the third step of this approach, in which the design is improved with sonic-boom analysis through the use of CFD calculations. A new inverse design process for off-body pressure tailoring is formulated and demonstrated with a low-boom supersonic configuration that was developed by using the mixed-fidelity design method with CFD Ae analysis. The new inverse design process uses the reverse propagation of the pressure distribution (dp/p) from a mid-field location to a near-field location, converts the near-field dp/p into an equivalent-area distribution, generates a low-boom target for the reversed equivalent area (Ae,r) of the configuration, and modifies the configuration to minimize the differences between the configuration s Ae,r and the low-boom target. The new inverse design process is used to modify a supersonic demonstrator concept for a cruise Mach number of 1.6 and a cruise weight of 30,000 lb. The modified configuration has a fully shaped ground signature that has a perceived loudness (PLdB) value of 78.5, while the original configuration has a partially shaped aft signature with a PLdB of 82.3.

  19. Classes of Split-Plot Response Surface Designs for Equivalent Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Peter A.; Kowalski, Scott M.; Vining, G. Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    When planning an experimental investigation, we are frequently faced with factors that are difficult or time consuming to manipulate, thereby making complete randomization impractical. A split-plot structure differentiates between the experimental units associated with these hard-to-change factors and others that are relatively easy-to-change and provides an efficient strategy that integrates the restrictions imposed by the experimental apparatus. Several industrial and scientific examples are presented to illustrate design considerations encountered in the restricted randomization context. In this paper, we propose classes of split-plot response designs that provide an intuitive and natural extension from the completely randomized context. For these designs, the ordinary least squares estimates of the model are equivalent to the generalized least squares estimates. This property provides best linear unbiased estimators and simplifies model estimation. The design conditions that allow for equivalent estimation are presented enabling design construction strategies to transform completely randomized Box-Behnken, equiradial, and small composite designs into a split-plot structure.

  20. Design and analysis of numerical experiments. [applicable to fully nonlinear, global, equivalent-barotropic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Kenneth P.; Sacks, Jerome; Chang, Yue-Fang

    1993-01-01

    Methods for the design and analysis of numerical experiments that are especially useful and efficient in multidimensional parameter spaces are presented. The analysis method, which is similar to kriging in the spatial analysis literature, fits a statistical model to the output of the numerical model. The method is applied to a fully nonlinear, global, equivalent-barotropic dynamical model. The statistical model also provides estimates for the uncertainty of predicted numerical model output, which can provide guidance on where in the parameter space to conduct further experiments, if necessary. The method can provide significant improvements in the efficiency with which numerical sensitivity experiments are conducted.

  1. A Scrutiny of the Equivalent Static Lateral Load Method of Design for Multistory Masonry Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Touqan, A. R.; Helou, S. H.

    2008-07-08

    Building structures with a soft storey are gaining widespread popularity in urban areas due to the scarcity of land and due to the pressing need for wide open spaces at the entrance level. In earthquake prone zones dynamic analysis based on the Equivalent Static Lateral Load method is attractive to the novice and the design codes leave the choice of the analysis procedure up to the discretion of the designer. The following is a comparison of the said method with the more elaborate Response Spectrum Method of analysis as they apply to a repertoire of different structural models. The results clearly show that the former provides similar results of response in structures with gradual change in storey stiffness; while it is over conservative for a bare frame structure. It is however less conservative for structures with a soft storey.

  2. Tissue Equivalent Phantom Design for Characterization of a Coherent Scatter X-ray Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albanese, Kathryn Elizabeth

    Scatter in medical imaging is typically cast off as image-related noise that detracts from meaningful diagnosis. It is therefore typically rejected or removed from medical images. However, it has been found that every material, including cancerous tissue, has a unique X-ray coherent scatter signature that can be used to identify the material or tissue. Such scatter-based tissue-identification provides the advantage of locating and identifying particular materials over conventional anatomical imaging through X-ray radiography. A coded aperture X-ray coherent scatter spectral imaging system has been developed in our group to classify different tissue types based on their unique scatter signatures. Previous experiments using our prototype have demonstrated that the depth-resolved coherent scatter spectral imaging system (CACSSI) can discriminate healthy and cancerous tissue present in the path of a non-destructive x-ray beam. A key to the successful optimization of CACSSI as a clinical imaging method is to obtain anatomically accurate phantoms of the human body. This thesis describes the development and fabrication of 3D printed anatomical scatter phantoms of the breast and lung. The purpose of this work is to accurately model different breast geometries using a tissue equivalent phantom, and to classify these tissues in a coherent x-ray scatter imaging system. Tissue-equivalent anatomical phantoms were designed to assess the capability of the CACSSI system to classify different types of breast tissue (adipose, fibroglandular, malignant). These phantoms were 3D printed based on DICOM data obtained from CT scans of prone breasts. The phantoms were tested through comparison of measured scatter signatures with those of adipose and fibroglandular tissue from literature. Tumors in the phantom were modeled using a variety of biological tissue including actual surgically excised benign and malignant tissue specimens. Lung based phantoms have also been printed for future

  3. [Application of PASS in sample size estimation of non-inferiority, equivalence and superiority design in clinical trials].

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Y; Sun, R H

    2016-05-10

    The sample size of non-inferiority, equivalence and superiority design in clinical trial was estimated by using PASS 11 software. The result was compared with that by using SAS to evaluate the practicability and accuracy of PASS 11 software for the purpose of providing reference for sample size estimation in clinical trial design. PMID:27188375

  4. Multiscale strain analysis of tissue equivalents using a custom-designed biaxial testing device.

    PubMed

    Bell, B J; Nauman, E; Voytik-Harbin, S L

    2012-03-21

    Mechanical signals transferred between a cell and its extracellular matrix play an important role in regulating fundamental cell behavior. To further define the complex mechanical interactions between cells and matrix from a multiscale perspective, a biaxial testing device was designed and built. Finite element analysis was used to optimize the cruciform specimen geometry so that stresses within the central region were concentrated and homogenous while minimizing shear and grip effects. This system was used to apply an equibiaxial loading and unloading regimen to fibroblast-seeded tissue equivalents. Digital image correlation and spot tracking were used to calculate three-dimensional strains and associated strain transfer ratios at macro (construct), meso, matrix (collagen fibril), cell (mitochondria), and nuclear levels. At meso and matrix levels, strains in the 1- and 2-direction were statistically similar throughout the loading-unloading cycle. Interestingly, a significant amplification of cellular and nuclear strains was observed in the direction perpendicular to the cell axis. Findings indicate that strain transfer is dependent upon local anisotropies generated by the cell-matrix force balance. Such multiscale approaches to tissue mechanics will assist in advancement of modern biomechanical theories as well as development and optimization of preconditioning regimens for functional engineered tissue constructs. PMID:22455913

  5. Design and use of multisine signals for Li-ion battery equivalent circuit modelling. Part 1: Signal design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widanage, W. D.; Barai, A.; Chouchelamane, G. H.; Uddin, K.; McGordon, A.; Marco, J.; Jennings, P.

    2016-08-01

    The Pulse Power Current (PPC) profile is often the signal of choice for obtaining the parameters of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery Equivalent Circuit Model (ECM). Subsequently, a drive-cycle current profile is used as a validation signal. Such a profile, in contrast to a PPC, is more dynamic in both the amplitude and frequency bandwidth. Modelling errors can occur when using PPC data for parametrisation since the model is optimised over a narrower bandwidth than the validation profile. A signal more representative of a drive-cycle, while maintaining a degree of generality, is needed to reduce such modelling errors. In Part 1 of this 2-part paper a signal design technique defined as a pulse-multisine is presented. This superimposes a signal known as a multisine to a discharge, rest and charge base signal to achieve a profile more dynamic in amplitude and frequency bandwidth, and thus more similar to a drive-cycle. The signal improves modelling accuracy and reduces the experimentation time, per state-of-charge (SoC) and temperature, to several minutes compared to several hours for an PPC experiment.

  6. Design parameters of a resonant infrared photoconductor with unity quantum efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhoomand, Jam; Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept of a resonant infrared photoconductor that has characteristics of 100 percent quantum efficiency, high photoconductive gain, and very low noise equivalent power. Central to this concept is an establishment of a high-finesse absorption cavity internal to the detector element. A theoretical analysis is carried out, demonstrating this concept and providing some design guidelines. A Ge:Ga FIR detector is presently being fabricated using this approach.

  7. AN EVALUATION OF THE STIMULUS EQUIVALENCE PARADIGM TO TEACH SINGLE-SUBJECT DESIGN TO DISTANCE EDUCATION STUDENTS VIA BLACKBOARD

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Brooke D; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the degree to which instruction based on stimulus equivalence procedures could be used to teach single-subject design methodology to graduate-level professionals through a Web-based course management system known as Blackboard (see http://www.blackboard.com). Specifically, we used the stimulus equivalence paradigm to teach relations among the names, definitions, graphical representations of the designs, and two practical scenarios of when it would be appropriate to implement each design. Most participants demonstrated the emergence of untaught relations, and some participants showed generalization to novel vignettes and graphs. Relations largely were not maintained at follow-up but were retaught. PMID:22844140

  8. 40 CFR 53.8 - Designation of reference and equivalent methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... satisfy the applicable requirements of this part shall be designated as a FRM or FEM (as applicable) by... notice indicating that the method has been designated as a FRM or FEM shall be sent to the applicant. (c) The Administrator will maintain a current list of methods designated as FRM or FEM in accordance...

  9. 40 CFR 53.8 - Designation of reference and equivalent methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... satisfy the applicable requirements of this part shall be designated as a FRM or FEM (as applicable) by... notice indicating that the method has been designated as a FRM or FEM shall be sent to the applicant. (c) The Administrator will maintain a current list of methods designated as FRM or FEM in accordance...

  10. Generation of Parametric Equivalent-Area Targets for Design of Low-Boom Supersonic Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Shields, Elwood

    2011-01-01

    A tool with an Excel visual interface is developed to generate equivalent-area (A(sub e)) targets that satisfy the volume constraints for a low-boom supersonic configuration. The new parametric Ae target explorer allows users to interactively study the tradeoffs between the aircraft volume constraints and the low-boom characteristics (e.g., loudness) of the ground signature. Moreover, numerical optimization can be used to generate the optimal A(sub e) target for given A(sub e) volume constraints. A case study is used to demonstrate how a generated low-boom Ae target can be matched by a supersonic configuration that includes a fuselage, wing, nacelle, pylon, aft pod, horizontal tail, and vertical tail. The low-boom configuration is verified by sonic-boom analysis with an off-body pressure distribution at three body lengths below the configuration

  11. Design of an axial flux PM motor using magnetic and thermal equivalent network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignot, Romain-Bernard; Glises, Raynal; Espanet, Christophe; Saint Ellier, Emeline; Dubas, Frédéric; Chamagne, Didier

    2013-09-01

    This paper deals with the development of a new generation of electric motors (7.5-15 kW) for automotive powertrains. The target is a full electric direct drive vehicle, for the particular application to heavy quadricycles. An original axial flux PM structure is proposed due to the simplicity of its manufacturing. However it leads to a 3D structure, difficult to study. The paper deals with analytical models that can be used to achieve the analysis and the sizing of the motor. The electromagnetic behavior is modeled using a simple magnetic equivalent network and the thermal behavior is analyzed with a thermal network. Finally, the analytical results are compared to those experimentally obtained and it proves the interest of the proposed structure: the construction is simple and the performances are satisfying.

  12. Establishing Equivalence: Methodological Progress in Group-Matching Design and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kover, Sara T.; Atwood, Amy K.

    2013-01-01

    This methodological review draws attention to the challenges faced by intellectual and developmental disabilities researchers in the appropriate design and analysis of group comparison studies. We provide a brief overview of matching methodologies in the field, emphasizing group-matching designs used in behavioral research on cognition and…

  13. Interactive Software "Isotonic Design using Normalized Equivalent Toxicity Score (ID-NETS©TM)" for Cancer Phase I Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengjia; Wang, Zhibo; Wang, Haibin; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Kowalski, Jeanne; Khuri, Fadlo R

    2013-01-01

    Isotonic Design using Normalized Equivalent Toxicity Score (ID-NETS) is a novel Phase I design that integrates the novel toxicity scoring system originally proposed by Chen et al. [1] and the original Isotonic Design proposed by Leung et al. [2]. ID-NETS has substantially improved the accuracy of maximum tolerated dose (MTD) estimation and trial efficiency in the Phase I clinical trial setting by fully utilizing all toxicities experienced by each patient and treating toxicity response as a quasi-continuous variable instead of a binary indicator of dose limiting toxicity (DLT). To facilitate the incorporation of the ID-NETS method into the design and conduct of Phase I clinical trials, we have designed and developed a user-friendly software, ID-NETS(©TM), which has two functions: 1) Calculating the recommended dose for the subsequent patient cohort using available completed data; and 2) Performing simulations to obtain the operating characteristics of a trial designed with ID-NETS. Currently, ID-NETS(©TM)v1.0 is available for free download at http://winshipbbisr.emory.edu/IDNETS.html. PMID:23847695

  14. Wavelength conversion in modulated coupled-resonator systems and their design via an equivalent linear filter representation.

    PubMed

    Wade, Mark T; Zeng, Xiaoge; Popović, Miloš A

    2015-01-01

    We propose wavelength converters based on modulated coupled resonators that achieve conversion by matching the modulation frequency to the frequency splitting of the supermodes of the unmodulated system. Using temporal coupled-mode theory, we show that these time-variant systems have an equivalent linear, time-invariant filter representation that simplifies the optimal engineering of design parameters for realistic systems. Applying our model to carrier plasma-dispersion modulators as an example implementation, we calculate conversion efficiencies between -5.4 and -1.7  dB for intrinsic quality factors of 10(4)-10(6). We show that the ratio of the resonance shift to the total linewidth is the most important parameter when determining conversion efficiency. Finally, we discuss how this model can be used to design devices such as frequency shifters, widely tunable radio frequency oscillators, and frequency combs. PMID:25531621

  15. Enhanced efficiency in helical tomotherapy quality assurance using a custom-designed water-equivalent phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddu, S. Murty; Mutic, Sasa; Pechenaya, Olga L.; Chaudhari, Summer R.; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Klein, Eric E.; Yang, Deshan; Grigsby, James; Low, Daniel A.

    2009-10-01

    Tomotherapy is an image-guided, intensity-modulated radiation therapy system that delivers highly conformal dose distributions in a helical fashion. This system is also capable of acquiring megavoltage computed-tomography images and registering them to the planning kVCT images for accurate target localization. Quality assurance (QA) of this device is time intensive, but can be expedited by improved QA tools and procedures. A custom-designed phantom was fabricated to improve the efficiency of daily QA of our Tomotherapy machine. The phantom incorporates ionization chamber measurement points, plugs of different densities and slide-out film cartridges. The QA procedure was designed to verify in less than 30 min the vital components of the tomotherapy system: static beam quality and output, image quality, correctness of image registration and energy of the helical dose delivery. Machine output, percent depth dose and off-axis factors are simultaneously evaluated using a static 5 × 40 cm2 open field. A single phantom scan is used to evaluate image quality and registration accuracy. The phantom can also be used for patient plan-specific QA. The QA results over a period of 6 months are reported in this paper. The QA process was found to be simple, efficient and capable of simultaneously verifying several important parameters.

  16. Ultrasonic transducers as a black-box: equivalent circuit synthesis and matching network design.

    PubMed

    Capineri, L; Masotti, L; Rinieri, M; Rocchi, S

    1993-01-01

    A new modeling technique for ultrasonic transducers is developed in order to build an analytical model in the Laplace s-domain. The model is intended for use in analog circuit CAD system for the front-end electronic design and to visualize the acoustic pulse modifications under different excitation conditions. The transducer is characterized by two analytical functions representing the driving point impedance and the electroacoustic transfer function. The transfer function is obtained as the ratio of the transducer axial response and the excitation voltage. The reference responses of the impedance and transfer function are derived by the Fourier transform of the measured signals. The model is derived by the measurements of the driving point current and voltage, and the field axial response is sensed by a hydrophone. The procedure for the model identification is described. The results of testing 5-MHz transducer for medical applications are presented. An approach for the design of broadband matching networks using a constant resistance network is reported. PMID:18263236

  17. Equivalence of time-multiplexed and frequency-multiplexed signals in digital communications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timor, U.

    1972-01-01

    In comparing different techniques for multiplexing N binary data signals into a single channel, time-division multiplexing (TDM) is known to have a theoretic efficiency of 100 percent (neglecting sync power) and thus seems to outperform frequency-division multiplexing systems (FDM). By considering more general FDM systems, we will show that both TDM and FDM are equivalent and have an efficiency of 100 percent. The difference between the systems is in the multiplexing and demultiplexing subsystems, but not in the performance or in the generated waveforms.

  18. Postsurgical pain outcome of vertical and transverse abdominal incision: Design of a randomized controlled equivalence trial [ISRCTN60734227

    PubMed Central

    Reidel, Margot A; Knaebel, Hanns-Peter; Seiler, Christoph M; Knauer, Christine; Motsch, Johann; Victor, Norbert; Büchler, Markus W

    2003-01-01

    Background There are two ways to open the abdominal cavity in elective general surgery: vertically or transversely. Various clinical studies and a meta-analysis have postulated that the transverse approach is superior to other approaches as regards complications. However, in a recent survey it was shown that 90 % of all abdominal incisions in visceral surgery are still vertical incisions. This discrepancy between existing recommendations of clinical trials and clinical practice could be explained by the lack of acceptance of these results due to a number of deficits in the study design and analysis, subsequent low internal validity, and therefore limited external generalisability. The objective of this study is to address the issue from the patient's perspective. Methods This is an intraoperatively randomized controlled observer and patient-blinded two-group parallel equivalence trial. The study setting is the Department of General-, Visceral-, Trauma Surgery and Outpatient Clinic of the University of Heidelberg, Medical School. A total of 172 patients of both genders, aged over 18 years who are scheduled for an elective abdominal operation and are eligible for either a transverse or vertical incision. To show equivalence of the two approaches or the superiority of one of them from the perspective of the patient, a primary endpoint is defined: the pain experienced by the patient (VAS 0–100) on day two after surgery and the amount of analgesic required (piritramide [mg/h]). A confidence interval approach will be used for analysis. A global α-Level of 0.05 and a power of 0.8 is guaranteed, resulting in a size of 86 patients for each group. Secondary endpoints are: time interval to open and close the abdomen, early-onset complications (frequency of burst abdomen, postoperative pulmonary complications, and wound infection) and late complications (frequency of incisional hernias). Different outcome variables will be ranked by patients and surgeons to assess the

  19. Design and Fabrication of a Differential Electrostatic Accelerometer for Space-Station Testing of the Equivalence Principle.

    PubMed

    Han, Fengtian; Liu, Tianyi; Li, Linlin; Wu, Qiuping

    2016-01-01

    The differential electrostatic space accelerometer is an equivalence principle (EP) experiment instrument proposed to operate onboard China's space station in the 2020s. It is designed to compare the spin-spin interaction between two rotating extended bodies and the Earth to a precision of 10(-12), which is five orders of magnitude better than terrestrial experiment results to date. To achieve the targeted test accuracy, the sensitive space accelerometer will use the very soft space environment provided by a quasi-drag-free floating capsule and long-time observation of the free-fall mass motion for integration of the measurements over 20 orbits. In this work, we describe the design and capability of the differential accelerometer to test weak space acceleration. Modeling and simulation results of the electrostatic suspension and electrostatic motor are presented based on attainable space microgravity condition. Noise evaluation shows that the electrostatic actuation and residual non-gravitational acceleration are two major noise sources. The evaluated differential acceleration noise is 1.01 × 10(-9) m/s²/Hz(1/2) at the NEP signal frequency of 0.182 mHz, by neglecting small acceleration disturbances. The preliminary work on development of the first instrument prototype is introduced for on-ground technological assessments. This development has already confirmed several crucial fabrication processes and measurement techniques and it will open the way to the construction of the final differential space accelerometer. PMID:27517927

  20. Performance of a 13-Stage Development Compressor for the J40-WE-24 Engine at Equivalent Speeds from 30 to 112 Percent of Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatch, James E.; Lucas, James G.; Finger, Harold B.

    1953-01-01

    The performance of a 13-stage development comressor for the J40-WE-24 engine has been determined at equivalent speeds from 30 to 112 percent of design. The design total-pressure ratio of 6.0 and the design weight flow of 164 pounds per second were not attained, An analysis was conducted to determine the reasons for the poor performance at the design and over-design speed. The analysis indicated that most of the difficulty could be attributed to the fact that the first stage was overcompromised to favor part-speed performance,

  1. Near-100 percent Bragg Reflectivity of X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Y Shvydko; S Stoupin; V Blank; S Terentyev

    2011-12-31

    Ultrahigh-reflectance mirrors are essential optical elements of the most sophisticated optical instruments devised over the entire frequency spectrum. In the X-ray regime, super-polished mirrors with close to 100% reflectivity are routinely used at grazing angles of incidence. However, at large angles of incidence, and particularly at normal incidence, such high reflectivity has not yet been achieved. Here, we demonstrate by direct measurements that synthetic, nearly defect-free diamond crystals reflect more than 99% of hard X-ray photons backwards in Bragg diffraction, with a remarkably small variation in magnitude across the sample. This is a quantum leap in the largest reflectivity measured to date, which is at the limit of what is theoretically possible. This accomplishment is achieved under the most challenging conditions of normal incidence and with extremely hard X-ray photons.

  2. TNT equivalency of M10 propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, F. L.; Price, P.

    1978-01-01

    Peak, side-on blast overpressure and scaled, positive impulse have been measured for M10 single-perforated propellant, web size 0.018 inches, using configurations that simulate the handling of bulk material during processing and shipment. Quantities of 11.34, 22.7, 45.4, and 65.8 kg were tested in orthorhombic shipping containers and fiberboard boxes. High explosive equivalency values for each test series were obtained as a function of scaled distance by comparison to known pressure, arrival time and impulse characteristics for hemispherical TNT surface bursts. The equivalencies were found to depend significantly on scaled distance, with higher values of 150-100 percent (pressure) and 350-125 percent (positive impulse) for the extremes within the range from 1.19 to 3.57 m/cube root of kg. Equivalencies as low as 60-140 percent (pressure) and 30-75 percent (positive impulse) were obtained in the range of 7.14 to 15.8 m/cube root of kg. Within experimental error, both peak pressure and positive impulse scaled as a function of charge weight for all quantities tested in the orthorhombic configuration.

  3. Design and use of multisine signals for Li-ion battery equivalent circuit modelling. Part 2: Model estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widanage, W. D.; Barai, A.; Chouchelamane, G. H.; Uddin, K.; McGordon, A.; Marco, J.; Jennings, P.

    2016-08-01

    An Equivalent Circuit Model (ECM) of a lithium ion (Li-ion) battery is an empirical, linear dynamic model and the bandwidth of the input current signal and level of non-linearity in the voltage response are important for the model's validity. An ECM is, however, generally parametrised with a pulse current signal, which is low in signal bandwidth (Part 1) and any non-linear dependence of the voltage on the current due to transport limitations is ignored. This paper presents a general modelling methodology which utilises the higher bandwidth and number of signal levels of a pulse-multisine signal to estimate the battery dynamics and non-linear characteristics without the need of a 3D look-up table for the model parameters. In the proposed methodology a non-parametric estimate of the battery dynamics and non-linear characteristics are first obtained which assists in the model order selection, and to assess the level of non-linearity. The new model structure, termed as the Non-linear ECM (NL-ECM), gives a lower Root Mean Square (RMS) and peak error when compared to an ECM estimated using a pulse data set.

  4. Synthesizing Equivalence Indices for the Comparative Evaluation of Technoeconomic Efficiency of Industrial Processes at the Design/Re-engineering Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotilas, P.; Batzias, A. F.

    2007-12-01

    The equivalence indices synthesized for the comparative evaluation of technoeconomic efficiency of industrial processes are of critical importance since they serve as both, (i) positive/analytic descriptors of the physicochemical nature of the process and (ii) measures of effectiveness, especially helpful for investigated competitiveness in the industrial/energy/environmental sector of the economy. In the present work, a new algorithmic procedure has been developed, which initially standardizes a real industrial process, then analyzes it as a compromise of two ideal processes, and finally synthesizes the index that can represent/reconstruct the real process as a result of the trade-off between the two ideal processes taking as parental prototypes. The same procedure makes fuzzy multicriteria ranking within a set of pre-selected industrial processes for two reasons: (a) to analyze the process most representative of the production/treatment under consideration, (b) to use the `second best' alternative as a dialectic pole in absence of the two ideal processes mentioned above. An implantation of this procedure is presented, concerning a facility of biological wastewater treatment with six alternatives: activated sludge through (i) continuous-flow incompletely-stirred tank reactors in series, (ii) a plug flow reactor with dispersion, (iii) an oxidation ditch, and biological processing through (iv) a trickling filter, (v) rotating contactors, (vi) shallow ponds. The criteria used for fuzzy (to count for uncertainty) ranking are capital cost, operating cost, environmental friendliness, reliability, flexibility, extendibility. Two complementary indices were synthesized for the (ii)-alternative ranked first and their quantitative expressions were derived, covering a variety of kinetic models as well as recycle/bypass conditions. Finally, analysis of estimating the optimal values of these indices at maximum technoeconomic efficiency is presented and the implications

  5. Testing for Additivity in Chemical Mixtures Using a Fixed-Ratio Ray Design and Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fixed-ratio ray designs have been used for detecting and characterizing interactions of large numbers of chemicals in combination. Single chemical dose-response data are used to predict an “additivity curve” along an environmentally relevant ray. A “mixture curve” is estimated fr...

  6. Interactive Software “Isotonic Design using Normalized Equivalent Toxicity Score (ID-NETS©TM)” for Cancer Phase I Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhengjia; Wang, Zhibo; Wang, Haibin; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Kowalski, Jeanne; Khuri, Fadlo R

    2013-01-01

    Isotonic Design using Normalized Equivalent Toxicity Score (ID-NETS) is a novel Phase I design that integrates the novel toxicity scoring system originally proposed by Chen et al. [1] and the original Isotonic Design proposed by Leung et al. [2]. ID-NETS has substantially improved the accuracy of maximum tolerated dose (MTD) estimation and trial efficiency in the Phase I clinical trial setting by fully utilizing all toxicities experienced by each patient and treating toxicity response as a quasi-continuous variable instead of a binary indicator of dose limiting toxicity (DLT). To facilitate the incorporation of the ID-NETS method into the design and conduct of Phase I clinical trials, we have designed and developed a user-friendly software, ID-NETS©TM, which has two functions: 1) Calculating the recommended dose for the subsequent patient cohort using available completed data; and 2) Performing simulations to obtain the operating characteristics of a trial designed with ID-NETS. Currently, ID-NETS©TMv1.0 is available for free download at http://winshipbbisr.emory.edu/IDNETS.html. PMID:23847695

  7. Investigation of Performance of Axial-Flow Compressor of XT-46 Turbine-Propeller Engine. II - Performance of Revised Compressor at Design Equivalent Speed. II; Performance of Revised Compressor at Design Equivalent Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creagh, John W. R.

    1950-01-01

    The compressor from the XT-46 turbine-propeller engine was revised by removing the last two rows of stator blades and by eliminating the interstage leakage paths described in a previous report. With the revised compressor, the flow choking point shifted upstream into the last rotor-blade row but the maximum weight flow was not increased over that of the original compressor. The flow range of the revised compressor was reduced to about two-thirds that obtained with the original compressor. The later stages of the compressor did not produce the design static-pressure increase probably because of excessive boundary-layer build-up in this region. Measurements obtained in the ninth-stage stator showed that the performance up to this station was promising but that the last three stages of the compressor were limiting the useful operating range of the preceding stages. Some modifications in flow-passage geometry and blade settings are believed to be necessary, however, before any major improvements in over-all compressor performance can be obtained.

  8. Testing Communities That Care: The Rationale, Design and Behavioral Baseline Equivalence of the Community Youth Development Study

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F; Arthur, Michael W.; Egan, Elizabeth; Brown, Eric C.; Abbott, Robert D.; Murray, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in prevention science provide evidence that adolescent health and behavior problems can be prevented by high-quality prevention services. However, many communities continue to use prevention strategies that have not been shown to be effective. Studying processes for promoting the dissemination and high-quality implementation of prevention strategies found to be effective in controlled research trials has become an important focus for prevention science. The Communities That Care prevention operating system provides manuals, tools, training, and technical assistance to activate communities to use advances in prevention science to plan and implement community prevention services to reduce adolescent substance use, delinquency, and related health and behavior problems. This paper describes the rationale, aims, intervention, and design of the Community Youth Development Study, a randomized controlled community trial of the Communities That Care system, and investigates the baseline comparability of the 12 intervention and 12 control communities in the study. Results indicate baseline similarity of the intervention and control communities in levels of adolescent drug use and antisocial behavior prior to the Communities That Care intervention. Strengths and limitations of the study’s design are discussed. PMID:18516681

  9. Design of wide-bandwidth electromagnetic wave absorbers using the inductance and capacitance of a square loop-frequency selective surface calculated from an equivalent circuit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tian; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The design of wide-bandwidth microwave absorbers is conducted using a square loop-frequency selective surface (SL-FSS) on the surface of the grounded dielectric substrate. The parallel circuit combination of the input impedance of the grounded substrate and the complex impedance of the SL-FSS leads to impedance matching in a broad frequency range. The inductance (L) and capacitance (C) of the SL-FSS is calculated using the equivalent circuit model, which is dependent on the SL-FSS geometry. For the SL-FSS, the inductance and capacitance are calculated from the equations of reactance and susceptance at the resonance frequency (f0) of the equivalent L-C circuit. The circuit is capacitive below f0 and inductive above f0. For a grounded substrate with a quarter wavelength thickness, however, the input impedance is inductive at lower frequencies and capacitive at higher frequencies. Through combining these two impedances, impedance matching can be derived over a wide frequency range with the controlled FSS resistance matched to the free-space impedance. The optimized surface resistance of the FSS conductor is Rs=26 Ω for the widest bandwidth (4.9-16.4 GHz with respect to -10 dB reflection loss), which is consistent with the simulation results obtained via computational tool.

  10. Estimating equivalence with quantile regression.

    PubMed

    Cade, Brian S

    2011-01-01

    Equivalence testing and corresponding confidence interval estimates are used to provide more enlightened statistical statements about parameter estimates by relating them to intervals of effect sizes deemed to be of scientific or practical importance rather than just to an effect size of zero. Equivalence tests and confidence interval estimates are based on a null hypothesis that a parameter estimate is either outside (inequivalence hypothesis) or inside (equivalence hypothesis) an equivalence region, depending on the question of interest and assignment of risk. The former approach, often referred to as bioequivalence testing, is often used in regulatory settings because it reverses the burden of proof compared to a standard test of significance, following a precautionary principle for environmental protection. Unfortunately, many applications of equivalence testing focus on establishing average equivalence by estimating differences in means of distributions that do not have homogeneous variances. I discuss how to compare equivalence across quantiles of distributions using confidence intervals on quantile regression estimates that detect differences in heterogeneous distributions missed by focusing on means. I used one-tailed confidence intervals based on inequivalence hypotheses in a two-group treatment-control design for estimating bioequivalence of arsenic concentrations in soils at an old ammunition testing site and bioequivalence of vegetation biomass at a reclaimed mining site. Two-tailed confidence intervals based both on inequivalence and equivalence hypotheses were used to examine quantile equivalence for negligible trends over time for a continuous exponential model of amphibian abundance. PMID:21516905

  11. Design, Synthesis, and Chemical and Biological Properties of Cyclic ADP-4-Thioribose as a Stable Equivalent of Cyclic ADP-Ribose

    PubMed Central

    Tsuzuki, Takayoshi; Takano, Satoshi; Sakaguchi, Natsumi; Kudoh, Takashi; Murayama, Takashi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hashii, Minako; Higashida, Haruhiro; Weber, Karin; Guse, Andreas H.; Kameda, Tomoshi; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Kumaki, Yasuhiro; Arisawa, Mitsuhiro; Potter, Barry V. L.; Shuto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the successful synthesis of cyclic ADP-4-thioribose (cADPtR, 3), designed as a stable mimic of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR, 1), a Ca2+-mobilizing second messenger, in which the key N1-β-thioribosyladenosine structure was stereoselectively constructed by condensation between the imidazole nucleoside derivative 8 and the 4-thioribosylamine 7 via equilibrium in 7 between the α-anomer (7α) and the β-anomer (7β) during the reaction course. cADPtR is, unlike cADPR, chemically and biologically stable, while it effectively mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ like cADPR in various biological systems, such as sea urchin homogenate, NG108-15 neuronal cells, and Jurkat T-lymphocytes. Thus, cADPtR is a stable equivalent of cADPR, which can be useful as a biological tool for investigating cADPR-mediated Ca2+-mobilizing pathways. PMID:27200225

  12. TH-C-19A-01: Analytic Design Method to Make a 2D Planar, Segmented Ion Chamber Water-Equivalent for Proton Dose Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W; Hollebeek, R; Teo, B; Maughan, R; Dolney, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quality Assurance (QA) measurements of proton therapy fields must accurately measure steep longitudinal dose gradients as well as characterize the dose distribution laterally. Currently, available devices for two-dimensional field measurements perturb the dose distribution such that routine QA measurements performed at multiple depths require multiple field deliveries and are time consuming. Methods: A design procedure for a two-dimensional detector array is introduced whereby the proton energy loss and scatter are adjusted so that the downstream dose distribution is maintained to be equivalent to that which would occur in uniform water. Starting with the design for an existing, functional two-dimensional segmented ion chamber prototype, a compensating material is introduced downstream of the detector to simultaneously equate the energy loss and lateral scatter in the detector assembly to the values in water. An analytic formalism and procedure is demonstrated to calculate the properties of the compensating material in the general case of multiple layers of arbitrary material. The resulting design is validated with Monte Carlo simulations. Results: With respect to the specific prototype design considered, the results indicate that a graphite compensating layer of the proper dimensions can yield proton beam range perturbation less than 0.1mm and beam sigma perturbation less than 2% across the energy range of therapeutic proton beams. Conclusion: We have shown that, for a 2D gas-filled detector array, a graphite-compensating layer can balance the energy loss and multiple Coulomb scattering relative to uniform water. We have demonstrated an analytic formalism and procedure to determine a compensating material in the general case of multiple layers of arbitrary material. This work was supported by the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command under Contract Agreement No. DAMD17-W81XWH-04-2-0022. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations

  13. Using a Non-Equivalent Groups Quasi Experimental Design to Reduce Internal Validity Threats to Claims Made by Math and Science K-12 Teacher Recruitment Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moin, Laura

    2009-10-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act national policy established in 2009 calls for ``meaningful data'' that demonstrate educational improvements, including the recruitment of high-quality teachers. The scant data available and the low credibility of many K-12 math/science teacher recruitment program evaluations remain the major barriers for the identification of effective recruitment strategies. Our study presents a methodology to better evaluate the impact of recruitment programs on increasing participants' interest in teaching careers. The research capitalizes on the use of several control groups and presents a non-equivalent groups quasi-experimental evaluation design that produces program effect claims with higher internal validity than claims generated by current program evaluations. With this method that compares responses to a teaching career interest question from undergraduates all along a continuum from just attending an information session to participating (or not) in the recruitment program, we were able to compare the effect of the program in increasing participants' interest in teaching careers versus the evolution of the same interest but in the absence of the program. We were also able to make suggestions for program improvement and further research. While our findings may not apply to other K-12 math/science teacher recruitment programs, we believe that our evaluation methodology does and will contribute to conduct stronger program evaluations. In so doing, our evaluation procedure may inform recruitment program designers and policy makers.

  14. Comments on TNT Equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.W.

    1994-07-01

    The term ``TNT Equivalence`` is used throughout the explosives and related industries to compare the effects of the output of a given explosive to that of TNT. This is done for technical design reasons in scaling calculation such as for the prediction of blast waves, craters, and structural response, and is also used as a basis for government regulations controlling the shipping, handling and storage of explosive materials, as well as for the siting and design of explosive facilities. TNT equivalence is determined experimentally by several different types of tests, the most common of which include: plate dent, ballistic mortar, trauzl, sand crush, and air blast. All of these tests do not necessarily measure the same output property of the sample explosive. As examples of this, some tests depend simply upon the CJ pressure, some depend upon the PV work in the CJ zone and in the Taylor wave behind the CJ plane, some are functions of the total work which includes that from secondary combustion in the air mixing region of the fireball and are acutely effected by the shape of the pressure-time profile of the wave. Some of the tests incorporate systematic errors which are not readily apparent, and which have a profound effect upon skewing the resultant data. Further, some of the tests produce different TNT Equivalents for the same explosive which are a function of the conditions at which the test is run. This paper describes the various tests used, discusses the results of each test and makes detailed commentary on what the test is actually measuring, how the results may be interpreted, and if and how these results can be predicted by first principals based calculations. Extensive data bases are referred to throughout the paper and used in examples for each point in the commentaries.

  15. Towards the bioequivalence of pressurised metered dose inhalers 1: design and characterisation of aerodynamically equivalent beclomethasone dipropionate inhalers with and without glycerol as a non-volatile excipient.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D A; Young, P M; Buttini, F; Church, T; Colombo, P; Forbes, B; Haghi, M; Johnson, R; O'Shea, H; Salama, R; Traini, D

    2014-01-01

    A series of semi-empirical equations were utilised to design two solution based pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) formulations, with equivalent aerosol performance but different physicochemical properties. Both inhaler formulations contained the drug, beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), a volatile mixture of ethanol co-solvent and propellant (hydrofluoroalkane-HFA). However, one formulation was designed such that the emitted aerosol particles contained BDP and glycerol, a common inhalation particle modifying excipient, in a 1:1 mass ratio. By modifying the formulation parameters, including actuator orifice, HFA and metering volumes, it was possible to produce two formulations (glycerol-free and glycerol-containing) which had identical mass median aerodynamic diameters (2.4μm±0.1 and 2.5μm±0.2), fine particle dose (⩽5μm; 66μg±6 and 68μg±2) and fine particle fractions (28%±2% and 30%±1%), respectively. These observations demonstrate that it is possible to engineer formulations that generate aerosol particles with very different compositions to have similar emitted dose and in vitro deposition profiles, thus making them equivalent in terms of aerosol performance. Analysis of the physicochemical properties of each formulation identified significant differences in terms of morphology, thermal properties and drug dissolution of emitted particles. The particles produced from both formulations were amorphous; however, the formulation containing glycerol generated particles with a porous structure, while the glycerol-free formulation generated particles with a primarily spherical morphology. Furthermore, the glycerol-containing particles had a significantly lower dissolution rate (7.8%±2.1%, over 180min) compared to the glycerol-free particles (58.0%±2.9%, over 60min) when measured using a Franz diffusion cell. It is hypothesised that the presence of glycerol in the emitted aerosol particles altered solubility and drug transport, which may have

  16. Psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inada, Toshiya; Inagaki, Ataru

    2015-08-01

    Psychotropic dose equivalence is an important concept when estimating the approximate psychotropic doses patients receive, and deciding on the approximate titration dose when switching from one psychotropic agent to another. It is also useful from a research viewpoint when defining and extracting specific subgroups of subjects. Unification of various agents into a single standard agent facilitates easier analytical comparisons. On the basis of differences in psychopharmacological prescription features, those of available psychotropic agents and their approved doses, and racial differences between Japan and other countries, psychotropic dose equivalency tables designed specifically for Japanese patients have been widely used in Japan since 1998. Here we introduce dose equivalency tables for: (i) antipsychotics; (ii) antiparkinsonian agents; (iii) antidepressants; and (iv) anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics available in Japan. Equivalent doses for the therapeutic effects of individual psychotropic compounds were determined principally on the basis of randomized controlled trials conducted in Japan and consensus among dose equivalency tables reported previously by psychopharmacological experts. As these tables are intended to merely suggest approximate standard values, physicians should use them with discretion. Updated information of psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan is available at http://www.jsprs.org/en/equivalence.tables/. [Correction added on 8 July 2015, after first online publication: A link to the updated information has been added.]. PMID:25601291

  17. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  18. 5 CFR 843.205 - Designation of beneficiary-form and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... witnessed and filed as required by this section, will not have any force or effect. (c) A witness to a... the unexpended balance. (g)(1) If the shares designated equal less than 100 percent, the...

  19. 5 CFR 843.205 - Designation of beneficiary-form and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... witnessed and filed as required by this section, will not have any force or effect. (c) A witness to a... the unexpended balance. (g)(1) If the shares designated equal less than 100 percent, the...

  20. PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE UPDATE: PFRP EQUIVALENCY DETERMINATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will:

    Review the mandate of the Pathogen Equivalency Committee
    Review the PEC's current membership of 10
    Discuss how a typical application is evaluated
    Note where information can be found
    List present deliberations/applications and describe t...

  1. Equivalence of Dirac formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, William P.; Martin, Jeremy G.

    2002-06-01

    We construct general Dirac theories in both ⊗ ℓ(3, 1) and ⊗ ℓ(1, 3) using a first order left acting Dirac operator. Any two such theories are equivalent provided they have the same dimension. We also show that every 16- or 8-dimensional real Dirac theory in ℓ(3, 1) is equivalent to some (complex) Dirac theory in ⊗ ℓ(1, 3). As an immediate consequence of this we have that the Hestenes and original Dirac formulations are equivalent.

  2. Equivalent Imperfections In Arched Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallemule, Marian

    2015-09-01

    There are currently three design methods to verify the in-plane buckling of an arched structure: substitute member method, the method of equivalent imperfection with recommendations for arched bridges, and the equivalent unique global and local initial imperfection method (EUGLI), which uses the critical elastic buckling mode as an imperfection. The latter method is included in the EN 1993-1-1 cl. 5.3.2 (11) since 2002; however, to this day it is neither utilized in the design practice nor is it incorporated in ordinary structural analysis software. The main purpose of this article is to show the application of the proposed methods in a step-by-step manner to the numerical example considered and to compare these design methods for various arched structures. Verification of the in-plane buckling of an arch is explained in detail.

  3. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  4. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hua; Casson, William H.; Vasilik, Dennis G.; Kleck, Jeffrey H.; Beverding, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  5. Concurrent management of postprandial glycaemia and nutrient intake using glycaemic glucose equivalents, food composition data and computer-assisted meal design.

    PubMed

    Monro, J A; Williams, M

    2000-06-01

    A computer system, called SERVE-NZ Nutririon Management System, for use in diabetes management, addresses the problem of concurrently controlling postprandial glycaemic response and nutrient intake in meals containing a number of foods, is described. It converts the weight and relative glycaemic potency of each food to its content of glycaemic glucose equivalents (GGE) - the amount of glucose theoretically inducing the same blood glucose response as would the specified quantity of food. Glycaemic glucose equivalents in a meal can be simply obtained by adding the GGE content of all foods in the meal to give a figure for the maximal glycaemic impact of the meal. Glycaemic glucose equivalents may be calculated using food composition databases that include available carbohydrate, common standard measure weights and glycaemic index values. If GGE is treated as a nutrient, an output of the total nutrient profile of a food or meal, and its glycaemic impact as GGE, can be obtained simultaneously. Application of a nutritional software system incorporating GGE values to management of glycaemic loadings and nutrient intakes over five meals within a day is demonstrated. The system may be a useful aid in self-management of glycaemia, as it will identify quantities of foods that can be consumed without exceeding the predetermined glucose tolerances of individuals. The graphical presentation of GGE and nutrient composition of meals may be a useful visual aid in educating clients with diabetes. The GGE values on food labels would provide easily understood guidance, not obtained from glycaemic index values, to the maximum number of items or quantity of a food that an individual should eat at a time. In its present basic form the calculation of GGE is most likely to slightly overestimate glycaemic impact, so it presents a worst-case prediction. PMID:24394390

  6. Comparison of whole-body phantom designs to estimate organ equivalent neutron doses for secondary cancer risk assessment in proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moteabbed, Maryam; Geyer, Amy; Drenkhahn, Robert; Bolch, Wesley E.; Paganetti, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Secondary neutron fluence created during proton therapy can be a significant source of radiation exposure in organs distant from the treatment site, especially in pediatric patients. Various published studies have used computational phantoms to estimate neutron equivalent doses in proton therapy. In these simulations, whole-body patient representations were applied considering either generic whole-body phantoms or generic age- and gender-dependent phantoms. No studies to date have reported using patient-specific geometry information. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of patient-phantom matching when using computational pediatric phantoms. To achieve this goal, three sets of phantoms, including different ages and genders, were compared to the patients’ whole-body CT. These sets consisted of pediatric age-specific reference, age-adjusted reference and anatomically sculpted phantoms. The neutron equivalent dose for a subset of out-of-field organs was calculated using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit, where proton fields were used to irradiate the cranium and the spine of all phantoms and the CT-segmented patient models. The maximum neutron equivalent dose per treatment absorbed dose was calculated and found to be on the order of 0 to 5 mSv Gy-1. The relative dose difference between each phantom and their respective CT-segmented patient model for most organs showed a dependence on how close the phantom and patient heights were matched. The weight matching was found to have much smaller impact on the dose accuracy except for very heavy patients. Analysis of relative dose difference with respect to height difference suggested that phantom sculpting has a positive effect in terms of dose accuracy as long as the patient is close to the 50th percentile height and weight. Otherwise, the benefit of sculpting was masked by inherent uncertainties, i.e. variations in organ shapes, sizes and locations. Other sources of uncertainty included errors associated

  7. Comparison of whole-body phantom designs to estimate organ equivalent neutron doses for secondary cancer risk assessment in proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Moteabbed, Maryam; Geyer, Amy; Drenkhahn, Robert; Bolch, Wesley E; Paganetti, Harald

    2012-01-21

    Secondary neutron fluence created during proton therapy can be a significant source of radiation exposure in organs distant from the treatment site, especially in pediatric patients. Various published studies have used computational phantoms to estimate neutron equivalent doses in proton therapy. In these simulations, whole-body patient representations were applied considering either generic whole-body phantoms or generic age- and gender-dependent phantoms. No studies to date have reported using patient-specific geometry information. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of patient–phantom matching when using computational pediatric phantoms. To achieve this goal, three sets of phantoms, including different ages and genders, were compared to the patients' whole-body CT. These sets consisted of pediatric age specific reference, age-adjusted reference and anatomically sculpted phantoms. The neutron equivalent dose for a subset of out-of-field organs was calculated using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit, where proton fields were used to irradiate the cranium and the spine of all phantoms and the CT-segmented patient models. The maximum neutron equivalent dose per treatment absorbed dose was calculated and found to be on the order of 0 to 5 mSv Gy(-1). The relative dose difference between each phantom and their respective CT-segmented patient model for most organs showed a dependence on how close the phantom and patient heights were matched. The weight matching was found to have much smaller impact on the dose accuracy except for very heavy patients. Analysis of relative dose difference with respect to height difference suggested that phantom sculpting has a positive effect in terms of dose accuracy as long as the patient is close to the 50th percentile height and weight. Otherwise, the benefit of sculpting was masked by inherent uncertainties, i.e. variations in organ shapes, sizes and locations.Other sources of uncertainty included errors associated

  8. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  9. SU-E-J-210: Characterizing Tissue Equivalent Materials for the Development of a Dual MRI-CT Heterogeneous Anthropomorphic Phantom Designed Specifically for MRI Guided Radiotherapy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmann, A; Stafford, R; Yung, J; Followill, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: MRI guided radiotherapy (MRIgRT) is an emerging technology which will eventually require a proficient quality auditing system. Due to different principles in which MR and CT acquire images, there is a need for a multi-imaging-modality, end-to-end QA phantom for MRIgRT. The purpose of this study is to identify lung, soft tissue, and tumor equivalent substitutes that share similar human-like CT and MR properties (i.e. Hounsfield units and relaxation times). Methods: Materials of interested such as common CT QA phantom materials, and other proprietary gels/silicones from Polytek, SmoothOn, and CompositeOne were first scanned on a GE 1.5T Signa HDxT MR. Materials that could be seen on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images were then scanned on a GE Lightspeed RT16 CT simulator and a GE Discovery 750HD CT scanner and their HU values were then measured. The materials with matching HU values of lung (−500 to −700HU), muscle (+40HU) and soft tissue (+100 to +300HU) were further scanned on GE 1.5T Signa HDx to measure their T1 and T2 relaxation times from varying parameters of TI and TE. Results: Materials that could be visualized on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images from a 1.5T MR unit and had an appropriate average CT number, −650, −685, 46,169, and 168 HUs were: compressed cork saturated with water, Polytek Platsil™ Gel-00 combined with mini styrofoam balls, radiotherapy bolus material, SmoothOn Dragon-Skin™ and SmoothOn Ecoflex™, respectively. Conclusion: Post processing analysis is currently being performed to accurately map T1 and T2 values for each material tested. From previous MR visualization and CT examinations it is expected that Dragon-Skin™, Ecoflex™ and bolus will have values consistent with tissue and tumor substitutes. We also expect compressed cork statured with water, and Polytek™-styrofoam combination to have approximate T1 and T2 values suitable for lung-equivalent materials.

  10. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  11. The Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyazoe, Terumi; Anderson, Terry

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the key issues regarding The Interaction Equivalency Theorem posited by Anderson (2003a), which consists of the three interaction elements found in formal education courses among teacher, student, and content. It first examines the core concepts of the theorem and argues that two theses of different dimensions can be…

  12. PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE (PEC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency created the PEC in 1985 to make recommendations to EPA and State managers on the equivalency of unproven sewage sludge disinfection technologies/processes to either a Process to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) or a Process to Further...

  13. Five Equivalent d Orbitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus; McClure, Vance

    1970-01-01

    Amplifies and clarifies a previous paper on pyramidal d orbitals. Discusses two sets of pyramid d orbitals with respect to their maximum bond strength and their symmetry. Authors described the oblate and prolate pentagonal antiprisms arising from the two sets of five equivalent d orbitals. (RR)

  14. Weight management by phone conference call: A comparison with a traditional face-to-face clinic. Rationale and design for a randomized equivalence trial

    PubMed Central

    Lambourne, Kate; Washburn, Richard A.; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra K.; Goetz, Jeannine; Lee, Robert; Smith, Bryan K.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    State-of-the-art treatment for weight management consists of a behavioral intervention to facilitate decreased energy intake and increased physical activity. These interventions are typically delivered face-to-face (FTF) by a health educator to a small group of participants. There are numerous barriers to participation in FTF clinics including availability, scheduling, the expense and time required to travel to the clinic site, and possible need for dependent care. Weight management clinics delivered by conference call have the potential to diminish or eliminate these barriers. The conference call approach may also reduce burden on providers, who could conduct clinic groups from almost any location without the expenses associated with maintaining FTF clinic space. A randomized trial will be conducted in 395 overweight/obese adults (BMI 25–39.9 kg/m2) to determine if weight loss (6 months) and weight maintenance (12 months) are equivalent between weight management interventions utilizing behavioral strategies and pre-packaged meals delivered by either a conference call or the traditional FTF approach. The primary outcome, body weight, will be assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Secondary outcomes including waist circumference, energy and macronutrient intake, and physical activity and will be assessed on the same schedule. In addition, a cost analysis and extensive process evaluation will be completed. PMID:22664647

  15. Performance of J33-A-27 Turbojet-Engine Compressor. III; Over-All Performance Characteristics of Modified Compressor with Water Injection at Design Equivalent Speed of 11,800 RPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withee, Joseph R., Jr.; Beede, William L.; Ginsburg, Ambrose

    1950-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of water injection on the over-all performance of a modified J33-A-27 turbojet-engine compressor at the design equivalent speed of 11,800 rpm. The water-air ratio by weight was 0.05. With water injection the peak pressure ratio increased 9.0 per- cent, the maximum efficiency decreased 15 percent (actual numerical difference 0.12), and. the maximum total weight flow increased 9.3 percent.

  16. Pooling Morphometric Estimates: A Statistical Equivalence Approach.

    PubMed

    Pardoe, Heath R; Cutter, Gary R; Alter, Rachel; Hiess, Rebecca Kucharsky; Semmelroch, Mira; Parker, Donna; Farquharson, Shawna; Jackson, Graeme D; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Changes in hardware or image-processing settings are a common issue for large multicenter studies. To pool MRI data acquired under these changed conditions, it is necessary to demonstrate that the changes do not affect MRI-based measurements. In these circumstances, classical inference testing is inappropriate because it is designed to detect differences, not prove similarity. We used a method known as statistical equivalence testing to address this limitation. Equivalence testing was carried out on 3 datasets: (1) cortical thickness and automated hippocampal volume estimates obtained from healthy individuals imaged using different multichannel head coils; (2) manual hippocampal volumetry obtained using two readers; and (3) corpus callosum area estimates obtained using an automated method with manual cleanup carried out by two readers. Equivalence testing was carried out using the "two one-sided tests" (TOST) approach. Power analyses of the TOST were used to estimate sample sizes required for well-powered equivalence testing analyses. Mean and standard deviation estimates from the automated hippocampal volume dataset were used to carry out an example power analysis. Cortical thickness values were found to be equivalent over 61% of the cortex when different head coils were used (q < .05, false discovery rate correction). Automated hippocampal volume estimates obtained using the same two coils were statistically equivalent (TOST P = 4.28 × 10(-15) ). Manual hippocampal volume estimates obtained using two readers were not statistically equivalent (TOST P = .97). The use of different readers to carry out limited correction of automated corpus callosum segmentations yielded equivalent area estimates (TOST P = 1.28 × 10(-14) ). Power analysis of simulated and automated hippocampal volume data demonstrated that the equivalence margin affects the number of subjects required for well-powered equivalence tests. We have presented a statistical method for determining if

  17. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  18. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  19. Local unitary equivalence of quantum states and simultaneous orthogonal equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Naihuan; Yang, Min; Zhao, Hui

    2016-06-01

    The correspondence between local unitary equivalence of bipartite quantum states and simultaneous orthogonal equivalence is thoroughly investigated and strengthened. It is proved that local unitary equivalence can be studied through simultaneous similarity under projective orthogonal transformations, and four parametrization independent algorithms are proposed to judge when two density matrices on ℂd1 ⊗ ℂd2 are locally unitary equivalent in connection with trace identities, Kronecker pencils, Albert determinants and Smith normal forms.

  20. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Rebecca D.

    2012-07-01

    Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)

  1. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  2. Equivalence of superspace groups

    PubMed Central

    van Smaalen, Sander; Campbell, Branton J.; Stokes, Harold T.

    2013-01-01

    An algorithm is presented which determines the equivalence of two settings of a (3 + d)-dimensional superspace group (d = 1, 2, 3). The algorithm has been implemented as a web tool on , providing the transformation of any user-given superspace group to the standard setting of this superspace group in . It is shown how the standard setting of a superspace group can be directly obtained by an appropriate transformation of the external-space lattice vectors (the basic structure unit cell) and a transformation of the internal-space lattice vectors (new modulation wavevectors are linear combinations of old modulation wavevectors plus a three-dimensional reciprocal-lattice vector). The need for non-standard settings in some cases and the desirability of employing standard settings of superspace groups in other cases are illustrated by an analysis of the symmetries of a series of compounds, comparing published and standard settings and the transformations between them. A compilation is provided of standard settings of compounds with two- and three-dimensional modulations. The problem of settings of superspace groups is discussed for incommensurate composite crystals and for chiral superspace groups. PMID:23250064

  3. Pseudo-Equivalent Groups and Linking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.

    2015-01-01

    Adjustment by minimum discriminant information provides an approach to linking test forms in the case of a nonequivalent groups design with no satisfactory common items. This approach employs background information on individual examinees in each administration so that weighted samples of examinees form pseudo-equivalent groups in the sense that…

  4. 33 CFR 157.07 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 30.15-1, of a design or an equipment to fulfill a requirement in this part, except an operational... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalents. 157.07 Section 157.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  5. 33 CFR 157.07 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 30.15-1, of a design or an equipment to fulfill a requirement in this part, except an operational... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 157.07 Section 157.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  6. 33 CFR 157.07 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 30.15-1, of a design or an equipment to fulfill a requirement in this part, except an operational... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 157.07 Section 157.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  7. 33 CFR 157.07 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 30.15-1, of a design or an equipment to fulfill a requirement in this part, except an operational... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 157.07 Section 157.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  8. 33 CFR 157.07 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 30.15-1, of a design or an equipment to fulfill a requirement in this part, except an operational... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 157.07 Section 157.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  9. Biomonitoring Equivalents for triclosan.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Kannan; Gagné, Michelle; Nong, Andy; Aylward, Lesa L; Hays, Sean M

    2010-10-01

    Recent efforts worldwide have resulted in a growing database of measured concentrations of chemicals in blood and urine samples taken from the general population. However, few tools exist to assist in the interpretation of the measured values in a health risk context. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration or range of concentrations of a chemical or its metabolite(s) in a biological medium (blood, urine, or other medium) consistent with an existing health-based exposure guideline, and are derived by integrating available data on pharmacokinetics with existing chemical risk assessments. This study reviews available health-based exposure guidance values for triclosan based on recent evaluations from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (EC SCCP) and the Australian National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS). BE values corresponding to the reference dose (RfD) or margin of safety (MOS) targets from these agencies were derived based on kinetic data (urinary excretion and plasma clearance) from human studies and measured blood concentration data in animal studies. Estimated BE values for urinary total triclosan (free plus conjugates) corresponding to the US EPA RfD and the EC-identified margin of safety target from the NOAEL are 6.4 and 2.6 mg/L, respectively (corresponding to 8.3 and 3.3mg/g creatinine, respectively). Plasma BE values corresponding to the US EPA, EC, and Australian NICNAS values are 0.3, 0.9, and 0.4 mg/L, respectively. These values may be used as screening tools for evaluation of population biomonitoring data for triclosan in a risk assessment context. PMID:20541577

  10. 7 CFR 1717.855 - Application contents: Advance approval-100 percent private financing of distribution...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... environmental report and/or other environmental documentation, if required by 7 CFR part 1794; (g) RUS Form 740c... Buildings; (h) A CWP or CWP amendment covering the proposed project, in accordance with 7 CFR part 1710..., Suspension, and Other Responsibility Matters—Primary Covered Transactions, as required by 7 CFR part 3017;...

  11. 7 CFR 1717.855 - Application contents: Advance approval-100 percent private financing of distribution...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... environmental report and/or other environmental documentation, if required by 7 CFR part 1794; (g) RUS Form 740c... Buildings; (h) A CWP or CWP amendment covering the proposed project, in accordance with 7 CFR part 1710..., Suspension, and Other Responsibility Matters—Primary Covered Transactions, as required by 7 CFR part 3017;...

  12. 7 CFR 1717.855 - Application contents: Advance approval-100 percent private financing of distribution...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... environmental report and/or other environmental documentation, if required by 7 CFR part 1794; (g) RUS Form 740c... Buildings; (h) A CWP or CWP amendment covering the proposed project, in accordance with 7 CFR part 1710..., Suspension, and Other Responsibility Matters—Primary Covered Transactions, as required by 7 CFR part 3017;...

  13. Dual-cycle ergometry as an exercise modality during prebreathe with 100 percent oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, Cristine L.; Fischer, Michele D.; Webb, James T.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to reduce prebreathe time requirements prior to extravehicular activities and high-altitude flights, a combined arm and leg exercise task proposes to enhance denitrogenation by incorporation of both upper and lower body musculature at a moderately high work intensity during prebreathe with 100% oxygen. Preliminary findings indicated peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) levels attained on the dual-cycle ergometer do not differ significantly from those levels attained on the treadmill. Eight male subjects were exercised to VO2peak using leg-only cycle ergometry and dual-cycle ergometry on separate days. Preliminary data during dual-cycle ergometry showed arm work equaling 30% of the leg workrate at each stage of the incremental test resulted in arm fatigue in several subjects and a reduced VO2peak compared to dual-cycle ergometry with arm work at 20%. Thus, the 20% workrate was used during the dual-cycle VO2peak trial. On a third experimental day, subjects performed a 10 minute exercise test at a workrate required to elicit 75% of VO2peak for each subject on the dual-cycle ergometer. Blood lactate response to the exercise was monitored as an objective measure of fatigue. Peak VO2 levels attained on the leg-only and the dual-cycle ergometry tasks were not significantly different. Blood lactate levels were significantly elevated following the dual-cycle ergometry at 75% VO2peak. However, lactate levels show the expected rate of decline during recovery and, as demonstrated in the literature, should return to baseline levels within 30 minutes following exercise cessation. Thus, dual-cycle ergometry at 75% VO2peak appears to be a valid exercise for use during prebreathe and should not contribute to fatigue during subsequent EVA's.

  14. 7 CFR 1717.855 - Application contents: Advance approval-100 percent private financing of distribution...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Suspension, and Other Responsibility Matters—Primary Covered Transactions, as required by 7 CFR part 3017; (l... environmental report and/or other environmental documentation, if required by 7 CFR part 1794; (g) RUS Form 740c... Buildings; (h) A CWP or CWP amendment covering the proposed project, in accordance with 7 CFR part...

  15. 7 CFR 1717.856 - Application contents: Normal review-100 percent private financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... long-range financial forecast. The financial forecast must comply with the requirements of 7 CFR part... documents. These documents must meet the requirements of 7 CFR part 1710, subpart F and, as applicable... requirements study, which must meet the requirements of 7 CFR part 1710, subpart E, to the same extent as...

  16. 7 CFR 1717.854 - Advance approval-100 percent private financing of distribution, subtransmission and headquarters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., report on compliance, report on internal controls, and management letter in accordance with 7 CFR part... distribution, subtransmission and headquarters facilities, and certain other community infrastructure. 1717.854... certain other community infrastructure. (a) Policy. Requests for a lien accommodation or...

  17. 7 CFR 1717.854 - Advance approval-100 percent private financing of distribution, subtransmission and headquarters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., report on compliance, report on internal controls, and management letter in accordance with 7 CFR part... distribution, subtransmission and headquarters facilities, and certain other community infrastructure. 1717.854... certain other community infrastructure. (a) Policy. Requests for a lien accommodation or...

  18. 7 CFR 1717.854 - Advance approval-100 percent private financing of distribution, subtransmission and headquarters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., report on compliance, report on internal controls, and management letter in accordance with 7 CFR part... distribution, subtransmission and headquarters facilities, and certain other community infrastructure. 1717.854... certain other community infrastructure. (a) Policy. Requests for a lien accommodation or...

  19. 7 CFR 1717.854 - Advance approval-100 percent private financing of distribution, subtransmission and headquarters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., report on compliance, report on internal controls, and management letter in accordance with 7 CFR part... distribution, subtransmission and headquarters facilities, and certain other community infrastructure. 1717.854... certain other community infrastructure. (a) Policy. Requests for a lien accommodation or...

  20. 7 CFR 1717.855 - Application contents: Advance approval-100 percent private financing of distribution...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... environmental report and/or other environmental documentation, if required by 7 CFR part 1794; (g) RUS Form 740c... Buildings; (h) A CWP or CWP amendment covering the proposed project, in accordance with 7 CFR part 1710..., Suspension, and Other Responsibility Matters—Primary Covered Transactions, as required by 7 CFR part 3017;...

  1. 7 CFR 1717.856 - Application contents: Normal review-100 percent private financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... long-range financial forecast. The financial forecast must comply with the requirements of 7 CFR part... documents. These documents must meet the requirements of 7 CFR part 1710, subpart F and, as applicable... requirements study, which must meet the requirements of 7 CFR part 1710, subpart E, to the same extent as...

  2. 7 CFR 1717.856 - Application contents: Normal review-100 percent private financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... long-range financial forecast. The financial forecast must comply with the requirements of 7 CFR part... documents. These documents must meet the requirements of 7 CFR part 1710, subpart F and, as applicable... requirements study, which must meet the requirements of 7 CFR part 1710, subpart E, to the same extent as...

  3. 7 CFR 1717.856 - Application contents: Normal review-100 percent private financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... long-range financial forecast. The financial forecast must comply with the requirements of 7 CFR part... documents. These documents must meet the requirements of 7 CFR part 1710, subpart F and, as applicable... requirements study, which must meet the requirements of 7 CFR part 1710, subpart E, to the same extent as...

  4. 7 CFR 1717.856 - Application contents: Normal review-100 percent private financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... long-range financial forecast. The financial forecast must comply with the requirements of 7 CFR part... documents. These documents must meet the requirements of 7 CFR part 1710, subpart F and, as applicable... requirements study, which must meet the requirements of 7 CFR part 1710, subpart E, to the same extent as...

  5. Equivalence Principle and Gravitational Redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Hohensee, Michael A.; Chu, Steven; Mueller, Holger; Peters, Achim

    2011-04-15

    We investigate leading order deviations from general relativity that violate the Einstein equivalence principle in the gravitational standard model extension. We show that redshift experiments based on matter waves and clock comparisons are equivalent to one another. Consideration of torsion balance tests, along with matter-wave, microwave, optical, and Moessbauer clock tests, yields comprehensive limits on spin-independent Einstein equivalence principle-violating standard model extension terms at the 10{sup -6} level.

  6. Equivalence-Equivalence: Matching Stimuli with Same Discriminative Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Franck; Smeets, Paul M.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that after being trained on A-B and A-C match-to-sample tasks, adults match not only same-class B and C stimuli (equivalence) but also BC compounds with same-class elements and with different-class elements (BC-BC). The assumption was that the BC-BC performances are based on matching equivalence and nonequivalence…

  7. Teaching Statistical Variability with Equivalence-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Leif; Reeve, Kenneth F.; Reeve, Sharon A.; Kisamore, April N.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, equivalence-based instruction was used to teach 2 4-member classes representing high and low statistical variability to 10 college students. Computerized equivalence-based instruction with multiple-exemplar training was used to teach the classes. A pretest-training-posttest design evaluated performances on both computer-based…

  8. Equivalency Theory and Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Discusses distance education and the need for an accepted theory. Highlights include theories of independent study; theory of industrialization of teaching; theory of interaction and communication; and equivalency theory that is based on local control, personalized instruction, and telecommunications. (LRW)

  9. Optical metrics and projective equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Stephen; Dunajski, Maciej; Gibbons, Gary; Warnick, Claude

    2011-04-15

    Trajectories of light rays in a static spacetime are described by unparametrized geodesics of the Riemannian optical metric associated with the Lorentzian spacetime metric. We investigate the uniqueness of this structure and demonstrate that two different observers, moving relative to one another, who both see the Universe as static may determine the geometry of the light rays differently. More specifically, we classify Lorentzian metrics admitting more than one hyper-surface orthogonal timelike Killing vector and analyze the projective equivalence of the resulting optical metrics. These metrics are shown to be projectively equivalent up to diffeomorphism if the static Killing vectors generate a group SL(2,R), but not projectively equivalent in general. We also consider the cosmological C metrics in Einstein-Maxwell theory and demonstrate that optical metrics corresponding to different values of the cosmological constant are projectively equivalent.

  10. Development of consistent equivalent models by mixed-model search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, X.; Stoica, A.; Zebulum, R.; Keymeulen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach to the development of equivalent models. Models of various accuracy and simulation speed may be needed in different contexts of design and analysis, or within different simulators.

  11. Equivalent damage: A critical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflen, J. R.; Cook, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    Concepts in equivalent damage were evaluated to determine their applicability to the life prediction of hot path components of aircraft gas turbine engines. Equivalent damage was defined as being those effects which influence the crack initiation life-time beyond the damage that is measured in uniaxial, fully-reversed sinusoidal and isothermal experiments at low homologous temperatures. Three areas of equivalent damage were examined: mean stress, cumulative damage, and multiaxiality. For each area, a literature survey was conducted to aid in selecting the most appropriate theories. Where possible, data correlations were also used in the evaluation process. A set of criteria was developed for ranking the theories in each equivalent damage regime. These criteria considered aspects of engine utilization as well as the theoretical basis and correlative ability of each theory. In addition, consideration was given to the complex nature of the loading cycle at fatigue critical locations of hot path components; this loading includes non-proportional multiaxial stressing, combined temperature and strain fluctuations, and general creep-fatigue interactions. Through applications of selected equivalent damage theories to some suitable data sets it was found that there is insufficient data to allow specific recommendations of preferred theories for general applications. A series of experiments and areas of further investigations were identified.

  12. Sievert, gray and dose equivalent.

    PubMed

    Pfalzner, P M

    1983-12-01

    The concepts of physical quantity and physical units of measurement are presented. The relations between quantities, the names and symbols for SI (International System) base units, derived units and special names of SI units are illustrated. From the definition of the radiation quantity dose equivalent, the SI unit for this quantity is shown to be dimensionally identical with the joule per kilogram. The sievert (Sv) is the special (restricted) name for the SI unit of the quantity dose equivalent, with 1 Sv = 1 J/kg. PMID:6668293

  13. Multiple Functions in Equivalence Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVeigh, Brian; Keenan, Mickey

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effects of training a "drawing" response to each of three stimuli in a 5-member equivalence class. In Experiment 1 the stimuli were an arbitrary word, a shape, or a mathematical symbol. Subjects then were trained to draw a separate component of a stickman at each of the 3 stimuli. Subsequent tests for function…

  14. Children's Equivalence Judgments: Crossmapping Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mix, Kelly S.

    2008-01-01

    Preschoolers made numerical comparisons between sets with varying degrees of shared surface similarity. When surface similarity was pitted against numerical equivalence (i.e., crossmapping), children made fewer number matches than when surface similarity was neutral (i.e, all sets contained the same objects). Only children who understood the…

  15. Equivalence to the Minimum Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Academic Senate.

    Assembly Bill (AB) 1725 provides for the hiring of faculty who do not meet the precise letter of the minimum qualifications, provided that the governing board of an institution determines that an applicant possesses qualifications that are at least equivalent. In order to make these determinations, each district must have and use an equivalency…

  16. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Brenda Cecilia Padilla; Armellini, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner) is present at a high level. This…

  17. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  18. USEPA PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE RETREAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pathogen Equivalency Committee held its retreat from September 20-21, 2005 at Hueston Woods State Park in College Corner, Ohio. This presentation will update the PEC’s membership on emerging pathogens, analytical methods, disinfection techniques, risk analysis, preparat...

  19. Equivalence to the Minimum Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In 1988 the Community College Reform Act (AB 1725) began a phase out of credentials in favor of a process for establishing minimum qualifications and the determination of equivalencies that are at least equal to the state-adopted minimum qualifications for a particular discipline. According to Education Code sections 87359 and 87360, someone…

  20. Experiencing Equivalence but Organizing Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asghari, Amir H.

    2009-01-01

    The notion of equivalence relation is arguably one of the most fundamental ideas of mathematics. Accordingly, it plays an important role in teaching mathematics at all levels, whether explicitly or implicitly. Our success in introducing this notion for its own sake or as a means to teach other mathematical concepts, however, depends largely on our…

  1. Equivalence theorem and infrared divergences

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, T.

    1996-08-01

    We look at the equivalence theorem as a statement about the absence of polynomial infrared divergences when {ital m}{sub {ital W}}{r_arrow}0. We prove their absence in a truncated toy model and conjecture that, if they exist at all, they are due to couplings between light particles. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  3. 75 FR 22126 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new equivalent method for O 3 is an automated method that... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  4. 75 FR 45627 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new equivalent method for... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  5. 75 FR 51039 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... provisions of 40 CFR Part 53, as amended on November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new PM 10 equivalent... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Two New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  6. 76 FR 62402 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35597). The new O 3 equivalent method is an... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods; Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  7. On Vasyliunas's equivalent conductivity formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, D. H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Vasyliunas's (1972) equivalent conductivity formalism (ECF) for representing the coupling of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere is discussed, and a new, simpler, derivation is presented of the ECF, in which certain of the underlying assumptions and their implications are made transparent. The derivation presented indicates that the only role of the ions in the ECF is to insure quasi-neutrality. It is shown that the ECF is not as robust as usually assumed and that caution must be used to insure that reasonable results are obtained.

  8. Therapeutic equivalents in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Benson, M D

    2001-01-01

    With increasing debate over the rising expenses of health care, a variety of cost-saving measures has been attempted over the years. Use of primary care physicians as "gate keepers," reduction in the length of hospital stays, and pushing women toward vaginal birth after Cesarean section have all been utilized despite on going issues with patient satisfaction and even safety. One remarkable success in stretching health-care dollars that has often been overlooked is the prescription of therapeutic equivalents, or generic drugs. Although available on a limited basis for decades, off-brand manufacture of pharmaceuticals with identical active ingredients as those of the branded drug received a large boost through Congressional legislation in 1984 with the Hatch-Waxman Act. "Fast-track" FDA approval was initiated by Congress to introduce competition into the marketplace for drugs whose patients had expired. While giving close scrutiny to the manufacturing process and requiring the same level of regulatory supervision for factors such as bioavailability and shelf life, the Hatch-Waxman Act removed the burden and expense from generic manufacturers of proving the safety and efficacy all over again of a previously FDA-approved drug. With less than a 20% market share of all prescribed drugs in 1984, the generic drug industry has captured roughly 44% of the market in recent years while accounting for only 8% of expenditures on prescription medication. The prescription of therapeutic equivalents is one method of keeping health care costs down without compromising patient satisfaction or safety. PMID:11374660

  9. Speed analyses of stimulus equivalence.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, T J; Chase, P N

    1996-01-01

    The functional substitutability of stimuli in equivalence classes was examined through analyses of the speed of college students' accurate responding. After training subjects to respond to 18 conditional relations, subjects' accuracy and speed of accurate responding were compared across trial types (baseline, symmetry, transitivity, and combined transitivity and symmetry) and nodal distance (one- through five-node transitive and combined transitive and symmetric relations). Differences in accuracy across nodal distance and trial type were significant only on the first tests of equivalence, whereas differences in speed were significant even after extended testing. Response speed was inversely related to the number of nodes on which the tested relations were based. Significant differences in response speed were also found across trial types, except between transitivity and combined trials. To determine the generality of these comparisons, three groups of subjects were included: An instructed group was given an instruction that specified the interchangeability of stimuli related through training; a queried group was queried about the basis for test-trial responding: and a standard group was neither instructed nor queried. There were no significant differences among groups. These results suggest the use of response speed and response accuracy to measure the strength of matching relations. PMID:8636663

  10. Validation Of Equivalent Viscous Damping Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquer Araujo, Xavier; Fransen, S. H. J. A.; Germes, S.; Thiry, N.

    2012-07-01

    An important step in the design and verification process of spacecraft structures is the coupled dynamic analysis with the launch vehicle in the low-frequency domain. To obtain accurate predictions of the satellite’s dynamic environment it is essential that the damping of the system is correctly defined and taken into account within the resolution methodologies for the Coupled Loads Analysis (CLA). When working with finite element models, the materials’ damping is characterized by structural damping ratios. In addition, most of the load cases present in the CLA are transient excitations so the resolution of the equations of motion must be done in the time domain. Unfortunately, transient analyses cannot be carried out using structural damping models. Thus, a transformation from a structural to a viscous damping characterization is necessary. Nevertheless, this transformation is not trivial. There exist many methodologies aiming at computing an equivalent viscous damping matrix of the system so it can be used in transient analyses. This paper describes the results obtained in the validation of equivalent viscous damping methodologies used in the European Space Agency. This work permitted to identify the limitations of these methodologies and to come up with an enhanced methodology that predicts more reliable results.

  11. Equivalent crystal theory of alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1991-01-01

    Equivalent Crystal Theory (ECT) is a new, semi-empirical approach to calculating the energetics of a solid with defects. The theory has successfully reproduced surface energies in metals and semiconductors. The theory of binary alloys to date, both with first-principles and semi-empirical models, has not been very successful in predicting the energetics of alloys. This procedure is used to predict the heats of formation, cohesive energy, and lattice parameter of binary alloys of Cu, Ni, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt as functions of composition. The procedure accurately reproduces the heats of formation versus composition curves for a variety of binary alloys. The results are then compared with other approaches such as the embedded atom and lattice parameters of alloys from pure metal properties more accurately than Vegard's law is presented.

  12. Light WIMPs and Equivalent Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigman, Gary; Nollett, Kenneth M.

    Very light WIMPs (χ), thermal relics that annihilate late in the early Universe, change the energy and entropy densities at BBN and at recombination. BBN, in combination with the CMB, can remove some of the degeneracies among light WIMPs and equivalent neutrinos, constraining the existence and properties of each. Depending on the nature of the light WIMP (Majorana or Dirac fermion, real or complex scalar) the joint BBN + CMB analyses set lower bounds to mχ in the range 0.5 - 5 MeV (mχ/me ≲1 - 10), and they identify best fit values for mχ in the range 5 - 10 MeV. The joint BBN + CMB analysis finds a best fit value for the number of equivalent neutrinos, ΔNν ≈ 0.65, nearly independent of the nature of the WIMP. In the absence of a light WIMP (mχ ≲20 MeV), Neff = 3.05(1 + ΔNν/3). In this case, there is excellent agreement between BBN and the CMB, but the joint fit reveals ΔNν = 0.40 ± 0.17, disfavoring standard big bang nucleosynthesis (SBBN) (ΔNν = 0) at ∼ 2.4 σ, as well as a sterile neutrino (ΔNν = 1) at ∼ 3.5 σ. The best BBN + CMB joint fit disfavors the absence of dark radiation (ΔNν = 0 at ∼ 95% confidence), while allowing for the presence of a sterile neutrino (ΔNν = 1 at ≲1 σ). For all cases considered here, the lithium problem persists. These results, presented at the TAUP 2013 Conference, are based on Nollett & Steigman [14].

  13. Torsion Balance Test of Einstein's Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercrombie, Michael; Archibald, Adam; Nussinov, Tsitsi; Wagoner, Kasey; Cowsik, Ramanath

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a torsion balance experiment to test the equivalence principle (EP) which follows the solar attractor approach pioneered by Dicke in the early 1960s. By monitoring the response of a balance arranged as a composition dipole with an azimuthally symmetric mass distribution to the gravitational field produced by the Sun, we search for a diurnal modulation of the balance which would indicate a violation of the EP. Since reporting on the status of this experiment last year, the instrument has begun collecting data at a remote underground site. This talk will cover the design and fundamental sensitivity of the balance, and present the results of preliminary analysis of over 1200 hours of data.

  14. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.39 Section 26.39 Food... Specific Sector Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.39 Equivalence assessment. (a) In the final 6 months of the transition period, the parties shall proceed to a joint assessment of the equivalence of...

  15. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.39 Section 26.39 Food... Specific Sector Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.39 Equivalence assessment. (a) In the final 6 months of the transition period, the parties shall proceed to a joint assessment of the equivalence of...

  16. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.6 Section 26.6 Food and... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence assessment... or processes. (c) The equivalence assessment shall include information exchanges...

  17. Classroom Activities for Introducing Equivalence Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Equivalence relations and partitions are two interconnected ideas that play important roles in advanced mathematics. While students encounter the informal notion of equivalence in many courses, the formal definition of an equivalence relation is typically introduced in a junior level transition-to-proof course. This paper reports the results of a…

  18. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  19. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  20. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  1. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.6 Section 26.6 Food and... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence assessment... or processes. (c) The equivalence assessment shall include information exchanges...

  2. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  3. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  4. Equivalency Testing in Development of Health Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Margaret A.

    1974-01-01

    A faculty must think effectivelyto build a congruent meaningful equivalency testing effort as an intimate part of its curriculum. No faculty should feel embarrassed if its conclusion, after careful assessment, is that it cannot or should not offer equivalency testing. Each faculty should study equivalency testing and its feasibility. (Author/AJ)

  5. Interaction Equivalency in an OER, MOOCs and Informal Learning Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyazoe, Terumi; Anderson, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This theoretical paper attempts to clarify design issues that the field of education has encountered in the context of OER (Open Educational Resources), Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and increased emphasis on informal learning, as examined through the lens of the Interaction Equivalency Theorem. An overview of the core concepts of the…

  6. Advanced Life Support Equivalent System Mass Guidelines Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie; Fisher, John W.; Jones, Harry W.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Ewert, Michael K.; Hanford, Anthony J.; Hogan, John A.; Joshi, Jitendri, A.; Vaccari, David A.

    2003-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation which provides guidelines for performing an Equivalent System Mass (ESM) evaluation for trade study purposes. The document: 1) Defines ESM; 2) Explains how to calculate ESM; 3) Discusses interpretation of ESM results. The document is designed to provide detailed instructive material for researchers who are performing ESM evaluations for the first time.

  7. 75 FR 9894 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    .... This designation is made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on November 12, 2008 (73 FR... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  8. It Pays to Be Organized: Organizing Arithmetic Practice around Equivalent Values Facilitates Understanding of Math Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Nicole M.; Chesney, Dana L.; Matthews, Percival G.; Fyfe, Emily R.; Petersen, Lori A.; Dunwiddie, April E.; Wheeler, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that organizing arithmetic fact practice by equivalent values facilitates children's understanding of math equivalence. Children (M age = 8 years 6 months, N = 104) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 practice conditions: (a) equivalent values, in which problems were grouped by equivalent sums (e.g., 3 + 4 = 7, 2…

  9. VERSE - Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yang; Martin, Bryan J.; Villaume, Nathaniel

    2005-01-01

    Distributed real-time simulations provide important timing validation and hardware in the- loop results for the spacecraft flight software development cycle. Occasionally, the need for higher fidelity modeling and more comprehensive debugging capabilities - combined with a limited amount of computational resources - calls for a non real-time simulation environment that mimics the real-time environment. By creating a non real-time environment that accommodates simulations and flight software designed for a multi-CPU real-time system, we can save development time, cut mission costs, and reduce the likelihood of errors. This paper presents such a solution: Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation Environment (VERSE). VERSE turns the real-time operating system RTAI (Real-time Application Interface) into an event driven simulator that runs in virtual real time. Designed to keep the original RTAI architecture as intact as possible, and therefore inheriting RTAI's many capabilities, VERSE was implemented with remarkably little change to the RTAI source code. This small footprint together with use of the same API allows users to easily run the same application in both real-time and virtual time environments. VERSE has been used to build a workstation testbed for NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) instrument flight software. With its flexible simulation controls and inexpensive setup and replication costs, VERSE will become an invaluable tool in future mission development.

  10. Frequencies and Flutter Speed Estimation for Damaged Aircraft Wing Using Scaled Equivalent Plate Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    Equivalent plate analysis is often used to replace the computationally expensive finite element analysis in initial design stages or in conceptual design of aircraft wing structures. The equivalent plate model can also be used to design a wind tunnel model to match the stiffness characteristics of the wing box of a full-scale aircraft wing model while satisfying strength-based requirements An equivalent plate analysis technique is presented to predict the static and dynamic response of an aircraft wing with or without damage. First, a geometric scale factor and a dynamic pressure scale factor are defined to relate the stiffness, load and deformation of the equivalent plate to the aircraft wing. A procedure using an optimization technique is presented to create scaled equivalent plate models from the full scale aircraft wing using geometric and dynamic pressure scale factors. The scaled models are constructed by matching the stiffness of the scaled equivalent plate with the scaled aircraft wing stiffness. It is demonstrated that the scaled equivalent plate model can be used to predict the deformation of the aircraft wing accurately. Once the full equivalent plate geometry is obtained, any other scaled equivalent plate geometry can be obtained using the geometric scale factor. Next, an average frequency scale factor is defined as the average ratio of the frequencies of the aircraft wing to the frequencies of the full-scaled equivalent plate. The average frequency scale factor combined with the geometric scale factor is used to predict the frequency response of the aircraft wing from the scaled equivalent plate analysis. A procedure is outlined to estimate the frequency response and the flutter speed of an aircraft wing from the equivalent plate analysis using the frequency scale factor and geometric scale factor. The equivalent plate analysis is demonstrated using an aircraft wing without damage and another with damage. Both of the problems show that the scaled

  11. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  12. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  13. Wave propagation in equivalent continuums representing truss lattice materials

    SciTech Connect

    Messner, Mark C.; Barham, Matthew I.; Kumar, Mukul; Barton, Nathan R.

    2015-07-29

    Stiffness scales linearly with density in stretch-dominated lattice meta-materials offering the possibility of very light yet very stiff structures. Current additive manufacturing techniques can assemble structures consisting of these lattice materials, but the design of such structures will require accurate, efficient simulation techniques. Equivalent continuum models have several advantages over discrete truss models of stretch dominated lattices, including computational efficiency and ease of model construction. However, the development an equivalent model suitable for representing the dynamic response of a periodic truss is complicated by microinertial effects. This paper derives a dynamic equivalent continuum model for periodic truss structures and verifies it against detailed finite element simulations. The model must incorporate microinertial effects to accurately reproduce long-wavelength characteristics of the response such as anisotropic elastic soundspeeds. The formulation presented here also improves upon previous work by preserving equilibrium at truss joints for affine lattice deformation and by improving numerical stability by eliminating vertices in the effective yield surface.

  14. Methods for proving the equivalency of detonator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Munger, Alan C; Akinci, Adrian A; Thomas, Keith A; Clarke, Steve A; Martin, Eric S; Murphy, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges facing engineers is developing newer, safer detonators that are equivalent to devices currently in use. There is no clear consensus on an exact method for drawing equivalence of detonators. This paper summarizes our current efforts to develop diagnostics addressing various aspects of detonator design to better quantify and prove equivalency. We consider various optical techniques to quantify the output pressure and output wave shape. The development of a unique interpretation of streak camera breakouts, known as the apparent center of initiation, will be discussed as a metric for detonation wave shape. Specific examples apply these techniques to the comparison of a new laser-driven detonator with an existing exploding bridgewire (EBW) detonator. Successes and short-comings of the techniques will be discussed.

  15. Equivalent medium theory of layered sphere particle with anisotropic shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingcai; Wang, Minzhong; Zhang, Beidou

    2016-08-01

    Researches on the optical properties of small particle have been widely concerned in the atmospheric science, astronomy, astrophysics, biology and medical science. This paper provides an equivalent dielectric theory for the functional graded particle with anisotropic shells, in which inhomogeneous and anisotropic particle was equivalently transformed into a new kind of homogeneous, continuous and isotropic sphere with same size but different permittivity, and then greatly simplify the calculation process of particle's optical property. Meanwhile, the paper also discusses whether the charge on the particle can change the expression of its equivalent permittivity or not. These results proposed in this paper can be used to simulate the electrical, optical properties of layered sphere, it also meet the research requirement in the design of functional graded particles in different subjects.

  16. Development of modified poly(perfluoropropyleneoxide) urethane systems for use in liquid oxygen and in enriched 100 percent oxygen atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, E. S.

    1973-01-01

    This program consisted of two separate though related phases. The initial phase was directed toward improving the mechanical and adhesive properties of the very highly fluorinated-polyurethane resin system derived from the hydroxyl-terminated polyperfluoropropylene oxide and 6-chloro-2,4,5-trifluoro-m-phenylene diisocyanate. Various new curing agents for this system were investigated, with the goal of providing a more thermally stable crosslink (cure) mechanism to provide wider applicability and fuller utilization of the outstanding oxygen resistance of the PFPO system. Complete resistance to liquid- and gaseous-oxygen impact at presures as high as 1035 N/sq cm were attained with the use of the PFPO resin castings. The second corollary phase was directed toward investigating the feasibility and optimization of the allophanate cured, urethane extended polymer derived from hydroxyl-terminated polyperfluoropropyleneoxide and 6-chloro-2,4,5-trifluoro-m-phenylene diisocyanate, as the adhesive system for use in a weld-bond configuration for liquid oxygen tankage. The synthesis and application procedures of the adhesive system to insure liquid oxygen compatibility (under 10 kg-m loading), and the development of procedures and techniques to provide high quality weld-bonded joint configurations were studied.

  17. Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester MLI (multilayer insulation) system for the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Gonczy, J.D.; Boroski, W.N.; Niemann, R.C.

    1989-09-01

    The plastic materials used in the multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets of the superconducting magnets of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are comprised entirely of polyesters. This paper reports on tests conducted in three separate experimental blanket arrangements. The tests explore the thermal performance of two candidate blanket joint configurations each employing a variation of a stepped-butted joint nested between sewn blanket seams. The results from the joint configurations are compared to measurements made describing the thermal performance of the basic blanket materials as tested in an ideal joint configuration. Twenty foil sensors were incorporated within each test blanket to measure interstitial layer and joint layer temperatures. Heat flux and thermal gradients are reported for high and degraded insulating vacuums, and during transient and steady state conditions. In complement with this paper is an associate paper bearing the same title head but with the title extension Part 1: Instrumentation and experimental preparation (300K-80K)'. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Equivalent-Continuum Modeling With Application to Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Thomas S.; Nicholson, Lee M.; Wise, Kristopher E.

    2002-01-01

    A method has been proposed for developing structure-property relationships of nano-structured materials. This method serves as a link between computational chemistry and solid mechanics by substituting discrete molecular structures with equivalent-continuum models. It has been shown that this substitution may be accomplished by equating the vibrational potential energy of a nano-structured material with the strain energy of representative truss and continuum models. As important examples with direct application to the development and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes and the design of nanotube-based devices, the modeling technique has been applied to determine the effective-continuum geometry and bending rigidity of a graphene sheet. A representative volume element of the chemical structure of graphene has been substituted with equivalent-truss and equivalent continuum models. As a result, an effective thickness of the continuum model has been determined. This effective thickness has been shown to be significantly larger than the interatomic spacing of graphite. The effective thickness has been shown to be significantly larger than the inter-planar spacing of graphite. The effective bending rigidity of the equivalent-continuum model of a graphene sheet was determined by equating the vibrational potential energy of the molecular model of a graphene sheet subjected to cylindrical bending with the strain energy of an equivalent continuum plate subjected to cylindrical bending.

  19. Diminished acquired equivalence yet good discrimination performance in older participants

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jasper; Owens, Emma

    2013-01-01

    We asked younger and older human participants to perform computer-based configural discriminations that were designed to detect acquired equivalence. Both groups solved the discriminations but only the younger participants demonstrated acquired equivalence. The discriminations involved learning the preferences [“like” (+) or “dislike” (−)] for sports [e.g., tennis (t) and hockey (h)] of four fictitious people [e.g., Alice (A), Beth (B), Charlotte (C), and Dorothy (D)]. In one experiment, the discrimination had the form: At+, Bt−, Ct+, Dt−, Ah−, Bh+, Ch−, Dh+. Notice that, e.g., Alice and Charlotte are “equivalent” in liking tennis but disliking hockey. Acquired equivalence was assessed in ancillary components of the discrimination (e.g., by looking at the subsequent rate of “whole” versus “partial” reversal learning). Acquired equivalence is anticipated by a network whose hidden units are shared when inputs (e.g., A and C) signal the same outcome (e.g., +) when accompanied by the same input (t). One interpretation of these results is that there are age-related differences in the mechanisms of configural acquired equivalence. PMID:24130542

  20. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54....

  1. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  2. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  3. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  4. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  5. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  6. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  7. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  8. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  9. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price...

  10. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  11. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  12. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  13. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  14. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54....

  15. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  16. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  17. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  18. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  19. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  20. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  1. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price...

  2. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  3. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  4. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  5. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price...

  6. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  7. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  8. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  9. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  10. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54....