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Sample records for 103ru 106ru 141ce

  1. Studies of quadrupole collectivity in the γ -soft 106Ru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Vega, M.; Mach, H.; Taylor, R. B. E.; Fogelberg, B.; Lindroth, A.; Aas, A. J.; Dendooven, P.; Honkanen, A.; Huhta, M.; Lhersonneau, G.; Oinonen, M.; Parmonen, J. M.; Penttilä, H.; Äystö, J.; Persson, J. R.; Kurpeta, J.

    2008-02-01

    Various alternative models were used to describe the structure of 106Ru . For example, the General Collective Model (GCM) predicts shape-coexistence for 106Ru with a spherical and a triaxial minimum and strongly mixed structures, while in the IBA-2 calculations, where 106Ru was considered as transitional from vibrational U(5) to γ -soft O(6) , no need was found to include the shape-coexisting configurations. In order to provide additional constraints on the model interpretations, we have applied the Advanced Time-Delayed (ATD) βγγ( t) method to measure the level lifetimes of the excited levels in 106Ru . The new results include the half-lives of T 1/2 = 183(3) ps and 7.5(30)ps for the 2+ 1 and 2+ 2 states, respectively.

  2. Distribution of 103Ru-chloride in tumor-bearing animals and the mechanism for accumulation in tumor and liver.

    PubMed

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1988-01-01

    Tumor uptake rates of 103Ru-chloride were smaller than those for 67Ga-citrate. In three tumors and liver, 103Ru in the mitochondrial fraction containing lysosome increased with time after the administration of 103Ru-chloride. The concentration of 103Ru was more dominant in connective tissue (especially inflammatory tissue) than in viable tumor tissue or in necrotic tissue. Quite large amounts of 103Ru in the tumor and liver were bound to the acid mucopolysaccharide whose molecular masses exceeded 40,000. Behavior of this nuclide was essentially similar to that of 67Ga. PMID:3366616

  3. Biochemistry of metalocenes. The organ distribution of hydroxyacetyl (/sup 103/Ru)ruthenocene and its glucuronide in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.J.; Macha, J.; Wenzel, M.

    1980-01-01

    Hydroxyacetyl(/sup 103/Ru)ruthenocene and its o-glucuronide were prepared in vitro by incubation of acetyl(/sup 103/Ru)ruthenocene with rat-liver homogenate, NADPH, and UDP-glucuronate. The factors affecting hydroxylation and glucuronidation in vitro were optimized for acetylruthenocene. Hydroxyacetyl(/sup 103/Ru)ruthenocene glucuronide showed no affinity for the adrenal glands, but after iv administration of hydroxyacetyl(/sup 103/Ru)ruthenocene there was a distinct accumulation of Ru-103 in adrenals, similar to that found after administration of acetyl(/sup 103/Ru)ruthenocene.

  4. Numerical calculation of relative dose rates from spherical 106Ru beta sources used in ophthalmic brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paiva, Eduardo

    Concave beta sources of 106Ru/106Rh are used in radiotherapy to treat ophthalmic tumors. However, a problem that arises is the difficult determination of absorbed dose distributions around such sources mainly because of the small range of the electrons and the steep dose gradients. In this sense, numerical methods have been developed to calculate the dose distributions around the beta applicators. In this work a simple code in Fortran language is developed to estimate the dose rates along the central axis of 106Ru/106Rh curved plaques by numerical integration of the beta point source function and results are compared with other calculated data.

  5. Development of a phantom and assessment of (141)Ce as a surrogate radionuclide for flood field uniformity testing of gamma cameras.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Sanjay Kumar; Kumar, Yogendra; Malpani, Basant; Rakshit, Sutapa; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes an indigenous method for development and deployment of rechargeable liquid filled phantom with newly proposed radionuclide (141)Ce for determination of extrinsic uniformity of gamma cameras. Details about design of phantom, neutron irradiation of cerium targets, chemical processing of (141)Ce, charging of phantom with (141)Ce solution and their performance evaluation are presented. Suitability of (141)Ce in quality assurance of gamma cameras used in in-vivo diagnostic imaging procedures has been amply demonstrated. PMID:27031297

  6. Results after beta-irradiation (106Ru/106Rh) of choroidal melanomas: 20 years' experience.

    PubMed Central

    Lommatzsch, P K

    1986-01-01

    From 1964 to 1984 309 patients with choroidal melanoma were treated with 106Ru/106Rh beta ray applicators (1000 Gy at the apex of the tumour within 7-14 days). In cases 216 (69.9%) this treatment was successful for a mean follow-up period of 6.7 years after irradiation. In 53 cases (17.2%) the eye had to be enucleated, and 40 patients (12.9%) died from metastases within this period. Of the 216 successfully treated patients 114 (52.8%) developed flat scars and 49 (22.7%) retained a visual acuity of 1.5-0.5. Radiogenic late complications with damage to the retinal capillary system were the main causes of visual deterioration, especially in eyes with tumours close to the posterior pole. The survival rate is substantially higher than that for patients whose eyes were primarily enucleated. beta Ray applicators with 106Ru/106Rh can be recommended as an effective tool and a simple and cheap procedure to cure patients with small and medium sized choroidal melanomas. They save the eye without endangering our patients' lives. Images PMID:3790487

  7. {beta}-Ray brachytherapy with {sup 106}Ru plaques for retinoblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Schueler, Andreas O. . E-mail: andreas.schueler@uni-essen.de; Fluehs, Dirk; Anastassiou, Gerassimos; Jurklies, Christine; Neuhaeuser, Markus; Schilling, Harald; Bornfeld, Norbert; Sauerwein, Wolfgang

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis of 134 patients who received {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy for retinoblastomas (175 tumors in 140 eyes). Treatment and follow-up were analyzed with special emphasis on tumor control organ, preservation, and late complications. Results: Treated tumors had a mean height and diameter of 3.7 {+-} 1.4 mm and 5.0 {+-} 2.8 disk diameters, respectively. The radiation dose values were recalculated according to the calibration standard recently introduced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The recalculation revealed a mean applied dose of 419 Gy at the sclera (SD, 207 Gy) and 138 Gy (SD, 67 Gy) at the tumor apex. The 5-year tumor control rate was 94.4%. Tumor recurrence was more frequent in eyes with vitreous tumor cell seeding or fish-flesh regression. The estimated 5-year eye preservation rate was 86.5%. Previous treatment by brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy, as well as a large tumor diameter, were significant factors for enucleation. The radiotherapy-induced complications after 5 years of follow-up were retinopathy (22%), optic neuropathy (21%), and cataract (17%). These complications were significantly more frequent after prior brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy. Conclusion: Brachytherapy using {sup 106}Ru plaques is a highly efficient therapy with excellent local tumor control and an acceptable incidence of side effects.

  8. Monte Carlo calculation of dose to water of a 106Ru COB-type ophthalmic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šolc, J.

    2008-02-01

    The concave eye applicators with 106Ru/106Rh or 90Sr/90Y beta-ray sources are worldwide used in brachytherapy for treating intraocular tumors. It raises the need to know the exact dose delivered by beta radiation to tumors but measurement of the dose to water (or tissue) is very difficult due to short range of electrons. The Monte Carlo technique provides a powerful tool for calculation of the dose and dose distributions which helps to predict and determine the doses from different shapes of various types of eye applicators more accurately. The Monte Carlo code MCNPX has been used to calculate dose distributions from a COB-type 106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic applicator manufactured by Eckert & Ziegler BEBIG GmbH. This type of a concave eye applicator has a cut-out whose purpose is to protect the eye nerve which makes the dose distribution more complicated. Several calculations have been performed including depth dose along the applicator central axis and various dose distributions. The depth dose along the applicator central axis and the dose distribution on a spherical surface 1 mm above the plaque inner surface have been compared with measurement data provided by the manufacturer. For distances from 0.5 to 4 mm above the surface, the agreement was within 2.5 % and from 5 mm the difference increased from 6 % up to 25 % at 10 mm whereas the uncertainty on manufacturer data is 20 % (2s). It is assumed that the difference is caused by nonuniformly distributed radioactivity over the applicator radioactive layer.

  9. Local tumor control after {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy of choroidal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Damato, Bertil . E-mail: Bertil@damato.co.uk; Patel, Imran; Campbell, Ian R.; Mayles, Helen M.; Errington, R. Douglas

    2005-10-01

    Purpose To report on local tumor control after {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma. Methods and Materials A total of 458 patients with choroidal melanoma were treated at a single institution between January 1993 and December 2001. The tumors had a median longest basal dimension of 10.6 mm and a median height of 3.2 mm. The brachytherapy was administered using a 15- or 20-mm plaque. For posterior tumors, the plaque was positioned eccentrically with its posterior edge aligned with the posterior tumor margin to reduce the radiation dose to the optic disk and fovea. A minimal scleral dose sufficient to cause visible choroidal atrophy provided a permanent ophthalmoscopic record of the distribution of choroidal irradiation. If radiotherapy to the posterior tumor was uncertain, adjunctive transpupillary thermotherapy was administered 6 months postoperatively. Results The actuarial rates of tumor recurrence were 1%, 2%, and 3% at 2, 5, and 7 years, respectively. Local tumor recurrence correlated with the longest basal tumor dimension (Cox univariate analysis, p = 0.02, risk ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.88). Seven of the nine eyes with recurrent tumor were salvaged with additional conservative therapy. Conclusion The low rate of local tumor recurrence suggests that ruthenium plaque radiotherapy is effective with good case selection and if special measures are taken to ensure that the plaque is positioned correctly.

  10. Beta-Irradiation of choroidal melanoma with /sup 106/Ru//sup 106/Rh applicators. 16 years' experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lommatzsch, P.K.

    1983-05-01

    From 1964 to 1980, 205 patients with choroidal melanoma were treated with /sup 106/Ru//sup 106/Rh beta-ray applicators (8,000 to 10,000 rad at the summit of the tumor within 14 days). In 132 (64.4%) cases, this treatment was successful. Thirty-six (17.6%) had to be enucleated after irradiation and 37 died, 21 of them of metastases. Of the 132 successfully treated patients, 60 (45.5%) had flat scars and 34 (25.8%) retained a visual acuity of 0.5 to 1.5. Radiogenic late complications with damage to the retinal capillary system were the main causes of visual deterioration, especially in eyes with tumors close to the posterior pole. The survival rate of 85.1% after five years is substantially higher than that for patients who were primarily treated with enucleation.

  11. Results after beta-irradiation (/sup 106/Ru//sup 106/Rh) of choroidal melanomas. Twenty years' experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lommatzsch, P.K.

    1987-04-01

    For two decades, from 1964 to 1984, 309 patients suffering from choroidal melanoma were treated with /sup 106/Ru//sup 106/Rh applications, following confirmation of diagnosis by a variety of tests. A total of 216 patients (69.9%) were treated successfully and have been under observation for a mean period of 6.7 years after irradiation. 188 patients were followed for more than five years. Results indicate that enucleation for choroidal melanoma, especially in cases of eyes with good vision, may no longer be the standard treatment for this disease. This appears particularly true inasmuch as almost 50% of all patients with large choroidal melanomas who have enucleation die from metastases within 5 years of the operation. Therefore, conservative methods such as photocoagulation, irradiation, and microsurgical excision have been used with more or less success to destroy tumor and save a functioning eye.

  12. Multidimensional dosimetry of {sup 106}Ru eye plaques using EBT3 films and its impact on treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Heilemann, G. Kostiukhina, N.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish a method to perform multidimensional radiochromic film measurements of {sup 106}Ru plaques and to benchmark the resulting dose distributions against Monte Carlo simulations (MC), microdiamond, and diode measurements. Methods: Absolute dose rates and relative dose distributions in multiple planes were determined for three different plaque models (CCB, CCA, and COB), and three different plaques per model, using EBT3 films in an in-house developed polystyrene phantom and the MCNP6 MC code. Dose difference maps were generated to analyze interplaque variations for a specific type, and for comparing measurements against MC simulations. Furthermore, dose distributions were validated against values specified by the manufacturer (BEBIG) and microdiamond and diode measurements in a water scanning phantom. Radial profiles were assessed and used to estimate dosimetric margins for a given combination of representative tumor geometry and plaque size. Results: Absolute dose rates at a reference depth of 2 mm on the central axis of the plaque show an agreement better than 5% (10%) when comparing film measurements (MCNP6) to the manufacturer’s data. The reproducibility of depth-dose profile measurements was <7% (2 SD) for all investigated detectors and plaque types. Dose difference maps revealed minor interplaque deviations for a specific plaque type due to inhomogeneities of the active layer. The evaluation of dosimetric margins showed that for a majority of the investigated cases, the tumor was not completely covered by the 100% isodose prescribed to the tumor apex if the difference between geometrical plaque size and tumor base ≤4 mm. Conclusions: EBT3 film dosimetry in an in-house developed phantom was successfully used to characterize the dosimetric properties of different {sup 106}Ru plaque models. The film measurements were validated against MC calculations and other experimental methods and showed a good agreement with

  13. Comparison of measured and calculated spatial dose distributions for a bench-mark 106Ru/106Rh hot particle source.

    PubMed

    Aydarous, A Sh; Charles, M W; Darley, P J

    2008-01-01

    This study is a part of a programme of research to provide validated dose measurement and calculation techniques for beta emitting hot particles by the construction of well-defined model hot particle sources. This enables parallel measurements and calculations to be critically compared. This particular study concentrates on the high-energy beta emitter, (106)Ru/(106)Rh (Emax = 3.54 MeV). This source is a common constituent of failed nuclear fuel, particularly in accident situations. The depth dose distributions were measured using radiochromic dye film (RDF); an imaging photon detector coupled to an LiF thermoluminescent dosemeter (LiF-IPD) and an extrapolation ionisation chamber (ECH). Dose calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP4C. Doses were measured and calculated as average values over various areas and depths. Of particular interest are the doses at depths of 7 and 30-50 mg cm(-2), and averaged over an area of 1 cm2, as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for use in routine and accidental over-exposures of the skin. In this case, the average ratios (MCNP/measurement) for RDF, ECH and LiF-IPD were 1.07 +/- 0.02, 1.02 +/- 0.01 and 0.83 +/- 0.16, respectively. There are significantly greater discrepancies between the ECH and LiF-IPD measurement techniques and calculations-particularly for shallow depths and small averaging areas. PMID:18083995

  14. Application of new imaging and calculation techniques to activity and dose assessment in the case of a 106Ru contaminated wound.

    PubMed

    de Carlan, L; Aubineau-Lanièce, I; Lemosquet, A; Borissov, N; Jourdain, J R; Jeanbourquin, D; Le Guen, B; Franck, D

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the dosimetric evaluation of a point contamination that occurred in a laboratory during the examination of an irradiated sample. The incident led to point contamination of the operator's finger due to the presence of mainly 106Ru, with its progeny, 106Rh. The paper reports on the activity and dose assessment, performed using several methods. The measured activity was obtained using a conventional device based on a germanium detector and confirmed using software developed at IRSN, based on reconstruction of voxel phantom associated with the Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) for in vivo measurement. Two dose assessment calculations were performed using both analytical and Monte Carlo methods, applying the same approach as for activity assessment based on the personal computational phantom of the finger. The results are compared, followed by a discussion on the suitability of the tools described in this study. PMID:14526959

  15. Monte Carlo Simulation of the Treatment of Eye Tumors with 106Ru Plaques: A Study on Maximum Tumor Height and Eccentric Placement

    PubMed Central

    Brualla, Lorenzo; Zaragoza, Francisco J.; Sauerwein, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Ruthenium plaques are used for the treatment of ocular tumors. There is, however, a controversy regarding the maximum treatable tumor height. Some advocate eccentric plaque placement, without a posterior safety margin, to avoid collateral damage to the fovea and optic disc, but this has raised concerns about marginal tumor recurrence. There is a need for quantitative information on the spatial absorbed dose distribution in the tumor and adjacent tissues. We have overcome this obstacle using an approach based on Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport. Methods CCA and CCB 106Ru plaques were modeled and their geometry embedded in a computerized tomography scan of the eye of a patient. Different tumor sizes and locations were simulated with the general-purpose Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. Results Cumulative dose-volume histograms were obtained for the tumors and the tissues at risk considered. Plots of isodose lines for both plaques were obtained in a computerized tomography study. Conclusions Ruthenium eye plaques are an adequate treatment option for tumors up to around 5 mm in height. According to our results, assuming a correct placement of the plaque, a tumor of 6.5 mm apical height is about the maximum size that can be treated safely with the large CCB plaque. PMID:27175356

  16. Assessment of selected fission products in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.

    1997-04-01

    Most of the radioactivity produced by the operation of a nuclear reactor results from the fission process, during which the nucleus of a fissionable atom (such as 235U) splits into two or more nuclei, which typically are radioactive. The Radionuclide Assessment Program (RAP) has reported on fission products cesium, strontium, iodine, and technetium. Many other radionuclides are produced by the fission process. Releases of several additional fission products that result in dose to the offsite population are discussed in this publication. They are 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 141Ce, and 144Ce. This document will discuss the production, release, migration, and dose to humans for each of these selected fission products.

  17. [Comparative analysis of the radionuclide composition in fallout after the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents].

    PubMed

    Kotenko, K V; Shinkarev, S M; Abramov, Iu V; Granovskaia, E O; Iatsenko, V N; Gavrilin, Iu I; Margulis, U Ia; Garetskaia, O S; Imanaka, T; Khoshi, M

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident occurred at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (March 11, 2011) similarly to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (April 26, 1986) is related to the level 7 of the INES. It is of interest to make an analysis of the radionuclide composition of the fallout following the both accidents. The results of the spectrometric measurements were used in that comparative analysis. Two areas following the Chernobyl accident were considered: (1) the near zone of the fallout - the Belarusian part of the central spot extended up to 60 km around the Chernobyl NPS and (2) the far zone of the fallout--the "Gomel-Mogilev" spot centered 200 km to the north-northeast of the damaged reactor. In the case of Fukushima accident the near zone up to about 60 km considered. The comparative analysis has been done with respect to refractory radionuclides (95Zr, 95Nb, 141Ce, 144Ce), as well as to the intermediate and volatile radionuclides 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140La, 140Ba and the results of such a comparison have been discussed. With respect to exposure to the public the most important radionuclides are 131I and 137Cs. For the both accidents the ratios of 131I/137Cs in the considered soil samples are in the similar ranges: (3-50) for the Chernobyl samples and (5-70) for the Fukushima samples. Similarly to the Chernobyl accident a clear tendency that the ratio of 131I/137Cs in the fallout decreases with the increase of the ground deposition density of 137Cs within the trace related to a radioactive cloud has been identified for the Fukushima accident. It looks like this is a universal tendency for the ratio of 131I/137Cs versus the 137Cs ground deposition density in the fallout along the trace of a radioactive cloud as a result of a heavy accident at the NPP with radionuclides releases into the environment. This tendency is important for an objective reconstruction of 131I fallout based on the results of 137Cs measurements of soil samples carried out at

  18. A simple calibration method for 106Ru-106Rh eye applicators.

    PubMed

    Kovacević, Nenad; Vrtar, Mladen; Vekić, Branko

    2005-03-01

    Ru-Rh eye applicators are used for the radiotherapy of eye malignancies such as melanomas. We present a method of dosimetry of these beta particle emitting applicators. Method is based on a Plexiglas phantom (constructed for this purpose) containing spherical shells and very small, 1x1x1mm3 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) as dosimeters. We determined 3-D depth doses and interpolated depth dose functions. Surface dose rate inhomogeneities and the consequences were considered and discussed. A possible influence of photon component of the emission on the results was analysed. The method has overall combined uncertainty + or -6% which is comparable, and slightly better, than other recent dosimetric methods. PMID:15763310

  19. The three-dimensional scintillation dosimetry method: test for a 106Ru eye plaque applicator.

    PubMed

    Kirov, A S; Piao, J Z; Mathur, N K; Miller, T R; Devic, S; Trichter, S; Zaider, M; Soares, C G; LoSasso, T

    2005-07-01

    The need for fast, accurate and high resolution dosimetric quality assurance in radiation therapy has been outpacing the development of new and improved 2D and 3D dosimetry techniques. This paper summarizes the efforts to create a novel and potentially very fast, 3D dosimetry method based on the observation of scintillation light from an irradiated liquid scintillator volume serving simultaneously as a phantom material and as a dose detector medium. The method, named three-dimensional scintillation dosimetry (3DSD), uses visible light images of the liquid scintillator volume at multiple angles and applies a tomographic algorithm to a series of these images to reconstruct the scintillation light emission density in each voxel of the volume. It is based on the hypothesis that with careful design and data processing, one can achieve acceptable proportionality between the local light emission density and the locally absorbed dose. The method is applied to a Ru-106 eye plaque immersed in a 16.4 cm3 liquid scintillator volume and the reconstructed 3D dose map is compared along selected profiles and planes with radiochromic film and diode measurements. The comparison indicates that the 3DSD method agrees, within 25% for most points or within approximately 2 mm distance to agreement, with the relative radiochromic film and diode dose distributions in a small (approximately 4.5 mm high and approximately 12 mm diameter) volume in the unobstructed, high gradient dose region outside the edge of the plaque. For a comparison, the reproducibility of the radiochromic film results for our measurements ranges from 10 to 15% within this volume. At present, the 3DSD method is not accurate close to the edge of the plaque, and further than approximately 10 mm (<10% central axis depth dose) from the plaque surface. Improvement strategies, considered important to provide a more accurate quick check of the dose profiles in 3D for brachytherapy applicators, are discussed. PMID:15972981

  20. The three-dimensional scintillation dosimetry method: test for a 106Ru eye plaque applicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirov, A. S.; Piao, J. Z.; Mathur, N. K.; Miller, T. R.; Devic, S.; Trichter, S.; Zaider, M.; Soares, C. G.; Lo Sasso, T.

    2005-07-01

    The need for fast, accurate and high resolution dosimetric quality assurance in radiation therapy has been outpacing the development of new and improved 2D and 3D dosimetry techniques. This paper summarizes the efforts to create a novel and potentially very fast, 3D dosimetry method based on the observation of scintillation light from an irradiated liquid scintillator volume serving simultaneously as a phantom material and as a dose detector medium. The method, named three-dimensional scintillation dosimetry (3DSD), uses visible light images of the liquid scintillator volume at multiple angles and applies a tomographic algorithm to a series of these images to reconstruct the scintillation light emission density in each voxel of the volume. It is based on the hypothesis that with careful design and data processing, one can achieve acceptable proportionality between the local light emission density and the locally absorbed dose. The method is applied to a Ru-106 eye plaque immersed in a 16.4 cm3 liquid scintillator volume and the reconstructed 3D dose map is compared along selected profiles and planes with radiochromic film and diode measurements. The comparison indicates that the 3DSD method agrees, within 25% for most points or within ~2 mm distance to agreement, with the relative radiochromic film and diode dose distributions in a small (~4.5 mm high and ~12 mm diameter) volume in the unobstructed, high gradient dose region outside the edge of the plaque. For a comparison, the reproducibility of the radiochromic film results for our measurements ranges from 10 to 15% within this volume. At present, the 3DSD method is not accurate close to the edge of the plaque, and further than ~10 mm (<10% central axis depth dose) from the plaque surface. Improvement strategies, considered important to provide a more accurate quick check of the dose profiles in 3D for brachytherapy applicators, are discussed.

  1. The biokinetics of ruthenium in the human body

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The biokinetics of ruthenium (Ru) in the human body is of interest due mainly to the potential for occupational or environmental exposure to 106Ru (T1/2 = 373.6 d) and 103Ru (T1/2 = 39.3 d), which typically represent a significant portion of the fission products in a reactor inventory. During reactor operations or nuclear fuel reprocessing these ruthenium isotopes may be present as ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) vapor, a highly mobile form of ruthenium that has been involved in a number of cases of accidental exposure to 106Ru or 103Ru. This paper summarizes the biokinetic database for ruthenium and proposes a new respiratory model for inhaled RuO4 vapor, a new biokinetic for systemic (absorbed) ruthenium, and material-specific gastrointestinal absorption fractions for ruthenium. The proposed respiratory model for RuO4 differs from the current ICRP model mainly in that it depicts slower clearance of deposited activity from the respiratory tract and lower absorption to blood than depicted in the current ICRP model. The proposed systemic biokinetic model depicts more realistic paths of movement of absorbed ruthenium in the body than the current ICRP model and, in contrast to the present model, a less uniform distribution of systemic activity. Implications of the proposed models with regard to inhalation and ingestion dose coefficients for 106Ru are examined.

  2. Measurement of leaching from simulated nuclear-waste glass using radiotracers

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Jardine, L.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1982-09-01

    The use of radiotracer spiking as a method of measuring the leaching from simulated nuclear-waste glass is shown to give results comparable with other analytical detection methods. The leaching behavior of /sup 85/Sr, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 133/Ba, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 141/Ce, /sup 152/Eu, and other isotopes is measured for several defense waste glasses. These tests show that radiotracer spiking is a sensitive, multielement technique that can provide leaching data, for actual waste elements, that are difficult to obtain by other methods. Additionally, a detailed procedure is described that allows spiked glass to be prepared with a suitable distribution of radionuclides.

  3. Determination of critical assembly absolute power using post-irradiation activation measurement of week-lived fission products.

    PubMed

    Košťál, Michal; Švadlenková, Marie; Milčák, Ján; Rypar, Vojtěch; Koleška, Michal

    2014-07-01

    The work presents a detailed comparison of calculated and experimentally determined net peak areas of longer-living fission products after 100 h irradiation on a reactor with power of ~630 W and several days cooling. Specifically the nuclides studied are (140)Ba, (103)Ru, (131)I, (141)Ce, (95)Zr. The good agreement between the calculated and measured net peak areas, which is better than in determination using short lived (92)Sr, is reported. The experiment was conducted on the VVER-1000 mock-up installed on the LR-0 reactor. The Monte Carlo approach has been used for calculations. The influence of different data libraries on results of calculation is discussed as well. PMID:24566373

  4. [A procedure for the determination of dose performance of radioactive eye applicators (106-Ru/106-Rh) and their significance for indications and treatment in malignant choroid melanomas].

    PubMed

    Menapace, R; Binder, W

    1985-11-01

    Choroidal melanomas occasionally respond very differently to irradiation by ruthenium beta-ray applicators. In order to clarify the role of the radiation parameters on the one hand and the tumor properties on the other, more precise data on the actual surface does rate than those furnished by the supplier are indispensable. With the aid of a measuring method based on the principle of thermoluminescence, the deviation was halved a +/- 15%. The measuring instrument is described, and its impact pact on therapeutic safety and indication limits is discussed. PMID:4087812

  5. Infrared spectroscopy of ruthenium tetroxide and high-resolution analysis of the ν3 band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reymond-Laruinaz, S.; Boudon, V.; Manceron, L.; Lago, L.; Doizi, D.

    2015-09-01

    RuO4 is a heavy tetrahedral molecule which has practical uses for several industrial fields. Due to its chemical toxicity and the radiological impact of its 103 and 106 isotopologues, the possible remote sensing of this compound in the atmosphere has renewed interest in its spectroscopic properties. New, higher resolution FTIR spectra have been recorded at room temperature, using an isotopic pure sample of 102RuO4 and a sample with all stable isotopes present in natural abundance. We reinvestigate here the strong ν3 stretching fundamental region and perform new assignments and effective Hamiltonian parameter fits for the five main isotopologues (99RuO4, 100RuO4, 101RuO4, 102RuO4 and 104RuO4), by considering the ν3 stretching mode as an isolated band. We provide precise effective Hamiltonian parameters, including band centers and Coriolis interaction parameters. We discuss isotopic shifts and estimate the band centers for the two minor isotopologues (97RuO4 and 98RuO4) and the two radioactive isotopologues (103RuO4 and 106RuO4). Experimental band strengths for the two IR active fundamentals are also reported for the first time.

  6. [Sublimatographic separation of fission products by beta-diketone complexes--FP chelate complexes produced directly by recoil effects (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, S

    1980-03-01

    The sublimatographic separation of volatile beta-diketonate complexes of fission products produced directly by the recoil atoms of fission products under exposure of a mixture of M (beta-diketone)n and U3O8 on neutron, was carried out. When Fe(dpm)3 and Fe(pta)3 were used as the catcher chelates, both samples, the sublimated radioactive chelates located at the one zone, and the positions agreed with the deposited position of inactive each catcher chelate. The unclides presented in the zone were almost 97Zr-97Nb, 105Ru and 99Mo-99mTc. When Y(dpm)3 was used as the catcher chelates, the sublimated radioactive chelates located at the one zone, and the zone agreed with the deposited position of inactive catcher chelates, the presented nuclides in the zone were mainly 97Zr-97Nb, 95Zr-95Nb, 105Ru, 103Ru, 143Ce, 141Ce, 93Y, 92Y and 147Nd. In the case of Y(pta)3, the sublimated radioactive chelates located at the two zones. The zone at higher temperature side agreed with the deposited position of inactive catcher chelates, and the nuclides presented in this zone were the same as in the case of Y(dpm)3. On the other hand, it was observed that mainly carrier free states of 97Zr-97Nb were deposited at the zone of lower temperature side. When Ni(acac)2 was used as the catcher chelates, the sublimated radioactive chelates located at the same pattern as Y(pta)3, but the amount of deposited zones of activity was quite low. As a U3O8 target was diluted with Fe(dpm)3 catcher chelates, the yield of deposited 97Zr and 95Zr nuclides was enhanced, to about 50%. PMID:7455176

  7. {sup 106}Ruthenium Brachytherapy for Retinoblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Abouzeid, Hana; Moeckli, Raphael; Gaillard, Marie-Claire; Beck-Popovic, Maja; Pica, Alessia; Zografos, Leonidas; Balmer, Aubin; Pampallona, Sandro; Munier, Francis L.

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of {sup 106}Ru plaque brachytherapy for the treatment of retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: We reviewed a retrospective, noncomparative case series of 39 children with retinoblastoma treated with {sup 106}Ru plaques at the Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital between October 1992 and July 2006, with 12 months of follow-up. Results: A total of 63 tumors were treated with {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy in 41 eyes. The median patient age was 27 months. {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy was the first-line treatment for 3 tumors (4.8%), second-line treatment for 13 (20.6%), and salvage treatment for 47 tumors (74.6%) resistant to other treatment modalities. Overall tumor control was achieved in 73% at 1 year. Tumor recurrence at 12 months was observed in 2 (12.5%) of 16 tumors for which {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy was used as the first- or second-line treatment and in 15 (31.9%) of 47 tumors for which {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy was used as salvage treatment. Eye retention was achieved in 76% of cases (31 of 41 eyes). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed no statistically significant risk factors for tumor recurrence. Radiation complications included retinal detachment in 7 (17.1%), proliferative retinopathy in 1 (2.4%), and subcapsular cataract in 4 (9.7%) of 41 eyes. Conclusion: {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy is an effective treatment for retinoblastoma, with few secondary complications. Local vitreous seeding can be successfully treated with {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy.

  8. Distribution of organic carbon, selected stable elements and artificial radionuclides among dissolved, colloidal and particulate phases in the Rhône River (France): preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Eyrolle, F; Charmasson, S

    2001-01-01

    The behaviour of radionuclides discharged from nuclear facilities in the Rhône River depends on their distribution among the dissolved, colloidal and particulate phases. A large water sample was fractionated using sequential ultrafiltration. Size distributions of organic carbon, Fe, Al, Si, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, 137Cs, 60Co and 106Ru were obtained. Our results show that organic colloids account for 11% of the total organic carbon content. Approximately 20% of the dissolved (< 450 nm) Fe and Al are in colloidal classes. 137Cs is not significantly transferred by the colloidal phase while 25% of 60Co or 106Ru is associated with organic and inorganic colloids. PMID:11398374

  9. Effect of tropicamide on ocular blood flow in the rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado, D.; Michel, P.; Jaanus, S.D.

    1982-05-01

    Intracardiac injection of 15 microspheres labeled with /sup 85/Sr (strontium) and /sup 141/Ce (cerium) were used to determine ocular blood flow in seven rabbits before and 25 min after bilateral application of tropicamide to the cornea. By using two different isotopes distinguishable under gammaspectrometry, each animal served as its own control. After administration of two drops of 1% tropicamide, no significant difference in blood flow between treated and untreated eyes was observed.

  10. Development of A phantom for ophthalmic beta source applicator quality control using TL dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, N. A.; da Rosa, L. A. R.; Braz, D.

    2015-11-01

    Concave eye applicators with 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta ray sources are usually used in brachytherapy for the treatment of superficial intraocular tumors as uveal melanoma with thickness up to 5 mm. The calculation of the dose delivered to the eye is carried out based on the data present in the beta source calibration certificate. Therefore, it would be interesting to have a system that could evaluate that dose. In this work, an eye phantom to be used with 106Ru/106Rh betatherapy applicators was developed in solid water. This phantom can hold nine micro-cube thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters, TLD-100. The characteristics of the TL response of the dosimeters, namely reproducibility and individual sensitivity, were determined for a 60Co source. Using Monte Carlo code MCNPX, the dose to a water eye was determined at different depths. Exposing the eye phantom with TL dosimeters to the 106Ru/106Rh applicator, it is possible to assess calibration factors using the dose values obtained by Monte Carlo simulation to each depth. Using mean calibration factors, dose values obtained by TL dosimetry were compared to the data present in the applicators certificate. Mean differences for both applicators were lower than ±10%, maximum value 17% and minimum value 0.08%. Considering that the certificate values present an uncertainty of ±20%, the calibration procedure and the developed phantom are validated and can be applied.

  11. Radionuclide transfer to marine biota species: review of Russian language studies.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Fesenko, E; Titov, I; Karpenko, E; Sanzharova, N; Fonseca, A Gondin; Brown, J

    2010-11-01

    An extensive programme of experiments on transfer of radionuclides to aquatic species was conducted in the former USSR starting from the early 1950s. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of radionuclide behaviour in marine ecosystems. Therefore, an overview of original information on radionuclide transfer to marine biota species available from Russian language literature sources is presented here. The concentration ratio (CR) values for many radionuclides and for marine species such as: (239)Pu, (106)Ru and (95)Zr (crustacean), (54)Mn, (90)Sr, (95)Nb, (106)Ru, (137)Cs (239)Pu, (241)Am and natural U (molluscs), and (54)Mn, (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (144)Ce (fish) are in good agreement with those previously published, whilst for some of them, in particular, for (32)P and (110)Ag (crustaceans), (35)S (molluscs), (32)P, (35)S, (95)Nb, and (106)Ru (macroalgae) and (60)Co and (239,240)Pu (fish) the data presented here suggest that changes in the default CR reference values presented in recent marine reviews may be required. The data presented here are intended to supplement substantially the CR values being collated within the handbook on Wildlife Transfer Coefficients, coordinated under the IAEA EMRAS II programme. PMID:20798950

  12. Brachytherapy treatment simulation of strontium-90 and ruthenium-106 plaques on small size posterior uveal melanoma using MCNPX code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, N. A.; da Rosa, L. A. R.; Facure, A.; Braz, D.

    2014-02-01

    Concave eye applicators with 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta-ray sources are usually used in brachytherapy for the treatment of superficial intraocular tumors as uveal melanoma with thickness up to 5 mm. The aim of this work consisted in using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX to calculate the 3D dose distribution on a mathematical model of the human eye, considering 90Sr/90Y and 160Ru/160Rh beta-ray eye applicators, in order to treat a posterior uveal melanoma with a thickness 3.8 mm from the choroid surface. Mathematical models were developed for the two ophthalmic applicators, CGD produced by BEBIG Company and SIA.6 produced by the Amersham Company, with activities 1 mCi and 4.23 mCi respectively. They have a concave form. These applicators' mathematical models were attached to the eye model and the dose distributions were calculated using the MCNPX *F8 tally. The average doses rates were determined in all regions of the eye model. The *F8 tally results showed that the deposited energy due to the applicator with the radionuclide 106Ru/106Rh is higher in all eye regions, including tumor. However the average dose rate in the tumor region is higher for the applicator with 90Sr/90Y, due to its high activity. Due to the dosimetric characteristics of these applicators, the PDD value for 3 mm water is 73% for the 106Ru/106Rh applicator and 60% for 90Sr/90Y applicator. For a better choice of the applicator type and radionuclide it is important to know the thickness of the tumor and its location.

  13. Use of tree bark to monitor radionuclide pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Brownridge, J.D.

    1985-08-01

    The outer surface bark of many trees is an excellent monitoring source of fallout radionuclides. The accumulation and retention of these pollutants is evident by the presence of /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 144/Ce and /sup 155/Eu in the outer layer of bark from many trees surveyed during this study. The accumulation and retention of these and other radionuclides suggest that tree bark is an ecosystem monitoring resource that should be exploited for these and possible other environmental pollutants. Therefore, the emphasis of this study was a broad survey of the detectability of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in and on tree bark rather than a narrow quantitative study.

  14. Incorporation of radioactive wastes into styrenated polyester

    SciTech Connect

    Ikladious, N.E.; Ghattas, N.K.; Eskander, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Styrenated polyester (poly(oxydiethylene maleate)) is examined as a medium for immobilization of simulated spent-ion exchange resin used at Inshas Reactor (Egypt). Compressive strength and hardness values illustrated the stability of the final products towards radiation. TG, DTG, and DTA diagrams showed the thermal instability of the final waste form at about 375/sup 0/C. Leaching experiment on incorporated blocks of active resin labelled with /sup 137/Cs, /sup 144/Ce, and /sup 106/Ru showed that the cumulative leaching rate for Ce is lower than those for Ru and Cs.

  15. Studies of silicon photodetectors for scintillator-based Hadron Calorimetry at the International Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Kubik, D.; Lima, J. G.; Rykalin, V.; Zutshi, V.

    2006-11-01

    We present results on the operation and performance characteristics of the Metal/Resistor/Semiconductor (MRS) photodiode. These include measurements of threshold characteristics, noise frequency, dependence of signal amplitude on the applied voltage and temperature, and stability as a function of time and radiation dose. The single photoelectron separation for this photosensor is demonstrated with a light-emitting diode. The response of the photodetector to light produced in scintillator is studied with cosmic ray muons and a 106Ru source. In addition, fiber-sensor alignment issues were evaluated. The results are promising and illustrate the potential use of MRS as photosensors in high energy physics detectors.

  16. Investigation of a solid-state photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Kubik, D.; Lima, J. G.; Rykalin, V.; Zutshi, V.

    2005-06-01

    We present results on the operation and performance characteristics of the MRS (metal/resistor/semiconductor) photodiode. These include measurements of threshold characteristics, noise frequency, dependence of signal amplitude on the applied voltage and temperature, and stability as a function of time and radiation dose. The single photoelectron separation for this photosensor is demonstrated with a light emitting diode. The response of the photodetector to light produced in a scintillator is studied with cosmic ray muons and a 106Ru source. In addition, fiber-sensor alignment issues were evaluated. The results are promising and illustrate the potential use of MRS as photosensors in high-energy physics detectors.

  17. Programs and procedures for assessing quality of spectral gamma-ray borehole data for the UGTA

    SciTech Connect

    Conaway, J.G.

    1998-11-01

    This report describes the procedures and computer programs used to process spectral gamma-ray borehole logging data in the UGTA (UnderGround Test Area) program at the NTS (Nevada Test Site) to assess data quality. These programs and procedures were used to analyze data from five boreholes in the UGTA program. Development of these computer programs and procedures required considerable effort and the primary purpose of this report is to provide continuity with future activities related to spectral gamma-ray borehole logging in the UGTA program. This is especially important because of the long time interval between cessation of logging in April, 1996 and the next round of activity, which has not yet occurred. This report should also be useful if any quality control issues arise regarding past or forthcoming spectral gamma-ray log analyses. In the characterization work underway at the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area, the logging contractor, Western Atlas, agreed to identify five artificial nuclides based on their gamma-ray signatures. Those nuclides are {sup 60}Co, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs. In the case of {sup 106}Ru, which is not a gamma emitter, any detected gamma rays come from the daughter nuclide {sup 106}Rh which has a half-life of 30 s. With such a short half-life, {sup 106}Rh can be considered to be in equilibrium with {sup 106}Ru under most conditions so the result is the same as if the gamma rays were emitted by the {sup 106}Ru. The Western Atlas spectral gamma-ray curve plots from a given borehole present detailed qualitative information on the apparent distribution of natural and artificial nuclides with depth in the borehole. The computer programs and procedures described in this report were used to provide a quality analysis of the contractor`s processed data and to work with the contractor to validate and/or refine their existing automatic processing. This was done using a procedure that was developed and tested

  18. PMT signal increase using a wavelength shifting paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allada, K.; Hurlbut, Ch.; Ou, L.; Schmookler, B.; Shahinyan, A.; Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2015-05-01

    We report a 1.65 times increase of the PMT signal and a simple procedure of application of a new wavelength shifting (WLS) paint for PMTs with non-UV-transparent windows. Samples of four different WLS paints, made from hydrocarbon polymers and organic fluors, were tested on a 5-in. PMT (ET 9390KB) using Cherenkov radiation produced in fused silica disks by 106Ru electrons on a 'table-top' setup. The best performing paint was employed on two different types of 5-in. PMTs (ET 9390KB and XP4572B), installed in atmospheric pressure CO2 gas Cherenkov detectors, and tested using GeV electrons.

  19. Nuclear Decay Data for the International Reactor Dosimetry Library for Fission and Fusion (IRDFF): Updated Evaluations of the Half-Lives and Gamma Ray Intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chechev, Valery P.; Kuzmenko, Nikolay K.

    2016-02-01

    Updated evaluations of the half-lives and prominent gamma ray intensities have been presented for 20 radionuclides - dosimetry reaction residuals. The new values of these decay characteristics recommended for the IRDFF library were obtained using the approaches and methodology adopted by the working group of the Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP) cooperation. The experimental data published up to 2014 were taken into account in updated evaluations. The list of radionuclides includes 3H, 18F, 22Na, 24Na, 46Sc, 51Cr, 54Mn, 59Fe, 57Co, 60Co, 57Ni, 64Cu, 88Y, 132Te, 131I, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce, 182Ta, 198Au.

  20. Spatial trends on an ungrazed West Cumbrian saltmarsh of surface contamination by selected radionuclides over a 25 year period.

    PubMed

    Caborn, Jane A; Howard, Brenda J; Blowers, Paul; Wright, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Long term spatial and temporal variations in radionuclide activity have been measured in a contaminated ungrazed saltmarsh near Ravenglass, Cumbria. Over a twenty-five year period there has been a decrease in activity concentration with (106)Ru and (137)Cs showing the highest rate of change followed by Pu alpha and (241)Am. A number of factors contribute to the reduction with time; including radiological half lives, discharge and remobilisation. For (241)Am the lower reduction rate is partially due to ingrowth from (241)Pu and partially as a result of transport of sediment from the offshore Irish Sea mud patch. Considerable spatial variation for the different radionuclides was observed, which with time became less defined. The highest activity concentrations of long-lived radionuclides were in low energy areas, typically where higher rates of sedimentation and vegetation occurred. The trend was reversed for the shorter lived radionuclide, (106)Ru, with higher activity concentrations observed in high energy areas where there was frequent tidal inundation. Surface scrape samples provide a pragmatic, practical method of measuring sediment contamination over large areas and is a sampling approach adopted by most routine environmental monitoring programs, but it does not allow for interpretation of the effect of variation in sedimentation rates. This paper proposes a method for calculating indicative sedimentation rates across the saltmarsh using surface scrape data, which produces results consistent with values experimentally obtained. PMID:26440699

  1. Ruthenium-106 brachytherapy for thick uveal melanoma: reappraisal of apex and base dose radiation and dose rate

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi, Ramin; Sedaghat, Ahad; Azma, Zohreh; Nojomi, Marzieh; Falavarjani, Khalil Ghasemi; Nazari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the outcomes of ruthenium-106 (106Ru) brachytherapy in terms of radiation parameters in patients with thick uveal melanomas. Material and methods Medical records of 51 patients with thick (thickness ≥ 7 mm and < 11 mm) uveal melanoma treated with 106Ru brachytherapy during a ten-year period were reviewed. Radiation parameters, tumor regression, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and treatment-related complications were assessed. Results Fifty one eyes of 51 consecutive patients including 25 men and 26 women with a mean age of 50.5 ± 15.2 years were enrolled. Patients were followed for 36.1 ± 26.5 months (mean ± SD). Mean radiation dose to tumor apex and to sclera were 71 (± 19.2) Gy and 1269 (± 168.2) Gy. Radiation dose rates to tumor apex and to sclera were 0.37 (± 0.14) Gy/h and 6.44 (± 1.50) Gy/h. Globe preservation was achieved in 82.4%. Preoperative mean tumor thickness of 8.1 (± 0.9) mm decreased to 4.5 (± 1.6) mm, 3.4 (± 1.4) mm, and 3.0 (± 1.46) mm at 12, 24, and 48 months after brachytherapy (p = 0.03). Four eyes that did not show regression after 6 months of brachytherapy were enucleated. Secondary enucleation was performed in 5 eyes because of tumor recurrence or neovascular glaucoma. Tumor recurrence was evident in 6 (11.8%) patients. Mean Log MAR (magnification requirement) visual acuity declined from 0.75 (± 0.63) to 0.94 (± 0.5) (p = 0.04). Best corrected visual acuity of 20/200 or worse was recorded in 37% of the patients at the time of diagnosis and 61.7% of the patients at last exam (p = 0.04). Non-proliferative and proliferative radiation-induced retinopathy was observed in 20 and 7 eyes. Conclusions Thick uveal melanomas are amenable to 106Ru brachytherapy with less than recommended apex radiation dose and dose rates. PMID:26985199

  2. Effect of the electron decay of metallic fission products on the chemical and phase compositions of an uranium-plutonium fuel irradiated by fast neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, G. G.; Bulatov, G. S.; Gedgovd, K. N.; Lyubimov, D. Yu.; Yakushkin, M. M.

    2011-11-01

    After fast-neutron irradiation, uranium-plutonium nitride U0.8Pu0.2N is shown to acquire a complex structure consisting of a solid solution that is based on the nitrides of uranium, plutonium, americium, neptunium, zirconium, yttrium, and lanthanides and contains condensed phases U2N3, CeRu2, BaTe, Ba3N2, CsI, Sr3N2, LaSe, metallic molybdenum, technetium, and U(Ru, Rh, Pd)3 intermetallics. The contents and compositions of these phases are calculated at a temperature of 900 K and a burn-up fraction up to 14% (U + Pu). The change in the composition of the irradiated uranium-plutonium nitride is studied during the electron decay of metallic radionuclides. The kinetics of transformation of U103Ru3, 137CsI, 140Ba3N2, and 241PuN is calculated.

  3. Analysis of a uranium solution for evaluating the total number of fissions in the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, G; Watanabe, K; Miyauchi, M; Togashi, Y; Nakahara, Y; Fukaya, H; Inagawa, J; Suzuki, D; Sonoda, T; Kohno, N; Gunji, K; Ito, M; Sato, T

    2001-09-01

    The uranium solution in the precipitation tank in the JCO's uranium conversion facility was analyzed in order to evaluate the total number of fissions in the criticality accident. Two analytical groups at JAERI performed chemical analyses independently in order to check the validity of the results: the concentration of the fission products (95Zr, 99Mo, 103Ru, 131I, 140Ba, etc), uranium, boron and impurity elements in the solution. The analytical results obtained by the two groups were almost in agreement within the analytical error. The number of fissions per one gram of uranium in the accident was determined to be (1.5 +/- 0.1 ) x 10(14). Also, the total number of events was evaluated to be (2.5 +/- 0.1) x 10(18) fissions using the total amount of uranium (16.6 kg) fed into the precipitation tank at the accident. PMID:11791744

  4. An iterative approach for TRIGA fuel burn-up determination using nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, T K; Peir, J J

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish a method for evaluating the burn-up values of the rod-type TRIGA spent fuel by using gamma-ray spectrometry of the short-lived fission products 97Zr/97Nb, 132I, and 140La. Fuel irradiation history is not needed in this method. Short-lived fission-product activities were established by reirradiating the spent fuels in a nuclear reactor. Based on the measured activities, 235U burn-up values can be deduced by iterative calculations. The complication caused by 239Pu production and fission is also discussed in detail. The burn-up values obtained by this method are in good agreement with those deduced from the conventional method based on long-lived fission products 137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs ratio and 106Ru/137Cs ratio. PMID:10670930

  5. Calculation of Isodose Curves for Cca and Ccb Concave Eye Applicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Yazdani, Majed

    BEBIG Ruthenium-106 ophthalmic plaques have been used for treatment of uveal melanoma, retinoblastoma, melanoma of the iris and other special applications for more than 30 years. The plaques consist of a thin film of Ru-106, a beta emitter encapsulated in pure silver. Simulations of small concave applicators CCA and CCB, manufactured by Bebig, were performed using Monte Carlo MCNP4C code which allows for description of the applicator (geometry and materials) in detail. Electrons are emitted from the 106Ru nuclei isotropically with initial energy randomly sampled from the corresponding Fermi spectra and with initial positions uniformly distributed on the radioactive layer. In this work, relative doses were calculated in soft tissue phantom near the active layer. Isodose curves for CCA and CCB eye applicators were determined. Our calculated data agrees well with the measured phantom data reported in literature.

  6. Electron momentum distribution in amorphous metals investigated by positron annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiakova, K.; Kristiak, J.; Galan, P.

    Electron momentum distribution in amorphous metals and the crystalline form of Ni xFe 80- xB 20 ( x = 10, 20, 30, 40) were investigated by positron annihilation. The samples were 30 mn thick ribbons, produced by rapid quenching of liquid metal on a rotating Cu wheel. The positron source was 22Na on mylar or blotting paper between two samples in sandwich arrangement. The γ-radiation was detected by a Ge(Li) detector which has a resolution at 511.9 keV ( 106Ru) of 1.6 keV. An unfolding method based on Bayes principle was applied to calculate the Doppler-broadening; S-parameter values were also determined. The calculated momentum distribution revealed a difference for the Ni 30Fe 50B 20 sample.

  7. The chernobyl fallout in Greece and its effects on the dating of archaeological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liritzis, Y.

    1987-10-01

    The effects of the fallout from the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl have been monitored at various sites in Greece. Here we present the first estimates of gamma dose rates, an essential parameter in the dating of archaeological materials by thermoluminescence (TL) and ESR methods. The dose rates are derived from the long-lived radionuclides of 137Cs, 134Cs, 106Ru and 144Ce (with t {1}/{2} ⩾ 1 yr). The present dose rates vary between 30 and 60 mrad/yr, but maximum values of around 811 mrad/yr have also been recorded, for ground-surface exposures. These dose rate values must be regarded as very significant to TL and ESR dating of samples from now on and a correction factor should be applied.

  8. Recent studies related to head-end fuel processing at the Hanford PUREX plant

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    This report presents the results of studies addressing several problems in the head-end processing (decladding, metathesis, and core dissolution) of N Reactor fuel elements in the Hanford PUREX plant. These studies were conducted over 2 years: FY 1986 and FY 1987. The studies were divided into three major areas: 1) differences in head-end behavior of fuels having different histories, 2) suppression of /sup 106/Ru volatilization when the ammonia scrubber solution resulting from decladding is decontaminated by distillation prior to being discharged, and 3) suitability of flocculating agents for lowering the amount of transuranic (TRU) element-containing solids that accompany the decladding solution to waste. 16 refs., 43 figs.

  9. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters.

  10. Exchange effects in. beta. decays of many-electron atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Harston, M.R. University Chemical Laboratory, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB21EW ); Pyper, N.C. )

    1992-05-01

    The effect on the {beta} spectrum of exchange between bound and continuum electrons is discussed for decay of a many-electron atom. Results of calculations of the exchange distortion of the {beta} spectrum are presented using both a screened hydrogenic and a Hartree-Fock approximation for the electron wave functions. The results of the two approaches agree well and show that the inclusion of exchange leads to an enhancement of the {beta} spectrum, particularly at low electron energy. This corrects an error in a previous calculation that found that exchange decreased the {beta} intensity. For the low-energy {beta}{sup {minus}} emitters {sup 106}Ru and {sup 241}Pu, the present calculation indicates that the enhancement due to exchange is of the order of several percent over much of the spectrum, becoming larger at very low electron energy. Exchange with 1{ital s} electrons dominates in the high-energy part of the spectrum, but exchange with {ital ns} ({ital n}{ge}2) electrons becomes significant in the low-energy region. The inclusion of exchange leads to an increase in the phase-space integral by 6.4% for {sup 106}Ru and 7.5% for {sup 241}Pu. Results are presented for exchange effects in other {beta} spectra, including those of {sup 14}C and {sup 35}S, in which experimentally measured distortions have been interpreted as evidence for a heavy antineutrino of mass 17 keV. The distortions due to exchange are found to be significantly smaller than the measured distortions.

  11. Dosimetry of the gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.F.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.

    1986-10-01

    In order to obtain information on radiation doses to the intestine, doses were determined in dogs for beta-emitters that might be delivered to critical cells in the bowel in the event of an accident. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were implanted beneath the large-bowel mucosa of dogs that had ingested /sup 106/Ru-/sup 106/Rh (1.4 MeV anti E/sub ..beta../). Results were related to toxicity in the dogs and extrapolated to toxicity observed in other experiments with suckling, weanling and adult rats similarly treated. That information enabled us to calculate the depth of the critical cells in both dogs and rats. Further studies, in rats, with a weak beta-emitter, /sup 147/Pm, and an intermediate-energy beta-emitter, /sup 91/Y, supported that extrapolation. The doses delivered to target cells differed from the doses calculated at the mucosal surface of the large bowel by a factor of as much as 50, depending on the beta-emitter ingested. In the neonatal rats, death resulted from damage to cells within the mucosa of the small bowel, demonstrating that these animals were more sensitive to intestinal irradiation from /sup 106/Ru-/sup 106/Rh, on a body-weight basis, than weanlings or adult rats. Studies with isotopes, of thorium, uranium, protactinium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, and einsteinium showed that substantial amounts of these alpha-emitting actinides were retained in the intestines of neonatal rats, guinea pigs, dogs, and swine after gavage. 26 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Comparison between beta radiation dose distribution due to LDR and HDR ocular brachytherapy applicators using GATE Monte Carlo platform.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Laoues; Rachid, Khelifi; Ahmed, Sidi Moussa

    2016-08-01

    Eye applicators with 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta-ray sources are generally used in brachytherapy for the treatment of eye diseases as uveal melanoma. Whenever, radiation is used in treatment, dosimetry is essential. However, knowledge of the exact dose distribution is a critical decision-making to the outcome of the treatment. The Monte Carlo technique provides a powerful tool for calculation of the dose and dose distributions which helps to predict and determine the doses from different shapes of various types of eye applicators more accurately. The aim of this work consisted in using the Monte Carlo GATE platform to calculate the 3D dose distribution on a mathematical model of the human eye according to international recommendations. Mathematical models were developed for four ophthalmic applicators, two HDR 90Sr applicators SIA.20 and SIA.6, and two LDR 106Ru applicators, a concave CCB model and a flat CCB model. In present work, considering a heterogeneous eye phantom and the chosen tumor, obtained results with the use of GATE for mean doses distributions in a phantom and according to international recommendations show a discrepancy with respect to those specified by the manufacturers. The QC of dosimetric parameters shows that contrarily to the other applicators, the SIA.20 applicator is consistent with recommendations. The GATE platform show that the SIA.20 applicator present better results, namely the dose delivered to critical structures were lower compared to those obtained for the other applicators, and the SIA.6 applicator, simulated with MCNPX generates higher lens doses than those generated by GATE. PMID:27499370

  13. Radioactivity in persons exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Schlenker, R.A.; Oltman, B.G.; Lucas, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity were made in the thyroid region, abdomen, whole body, or urine of 96 persons who were in eastern Europe at the time of the Chernobyl reactor accident or who went there shortly afterward. The most frequently encountered radionuclides were /sup 131/I, sup 134,137/Cs, and /sup 103/Ru//sup 103/Rh. The median /sup 131/I activity in the thyroids of 42 subjects in whom radioiodine was detected and who were in Europe when the accident began was projected as 42 nCi the day the accident began. The median total body activity of /sup 134/Cs in 40 subjects in which it was detected was 1.7 nCi upon arrival in the US. For 51 subjects with detectable /sup 137/Cs burdens, the total body activity was 4.6 nCi. The risk of fatal thyroid cancer is less than 3 x 10/sup -6/ for nearly all subjects in this series. The risk of fatal cancer from /sup 134,137/Cs for subjects with cesium exposures similar to the ones observed by us, but who remained in Europe, is estimated as 1.4 x 10/sup -6/ to 4.2 x 10/sup -5/ with 95% of the risk attributable to /sup 137/Cs. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Automated monitoring of in-process plutonium concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Rebagay, T.V.; Huff, G.A.; Hofstetter, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    An automated low-level plutonium monitor capable of measuring total and isotopic plutonium abundances in solutions is described. To demonstrate near real-time assay of in-process plutonium, we installed a monitor on a flowing stream of a laboratory experimental facility. The stream was composed of uranium and plutonium in nitric acid at concentrations typical of a plant using a Purex flowsheet modified to permit coprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The plutonium isotopic abundances were typical of those found in light water reactor grade fuel. The plutonium isotopic concentrations in the stream with the exception of /sup 242/Pu were determined by direct lambda-ray spectrometry. The /sup 242/Pu abundance was calculated by isotope correlation techniques. Additional data were obtained on coprocessed uranium-plutonium solutions denatured with fission products (/sup 103/Ru, /sup 144/Ce//sup 144/Pr, and /sup 95/Zr//sup 95/Nb). /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu concentrations can be determined to within 2% and 5%, respectively, of the concentrations determined by mass spectrometry.

  15. Investigation of the α-particle induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditrói, F.; Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2012-08-01

    Cross-sections of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum have been studied in the frame of a systematic investigation of charged particle induced nuclear reactions on metals for different applications. The excitation functions of 93mTc, 93gTc(m+), 94mTc, 94gTc, 95mTc, 95gTc, 96gTc(m+), 99mTc, 93mMo, 99Mo(cum), 90Nb(m+), 94Ru, 95Ru,97Ru, 103Ru and 88Zr were measured up to 40 MeV alpha energy by using a stacked foil technique and activation method. The main goals of this work were to get experimental data for accelerator technology, for monitoring of alpha beam, for thin layer activation technique and for testing nuclear reaction theories. The experimental data were compared with critically analyzed published data and with the results of model calculations, obtained by using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and TALYS codes (TENDL-2011).

  16. Neural control of adrenal medullary and cortical blood flow during hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Breslow, M.J.; Jordan, D.A.; Thellman, S.T.; Traystman, R.J.

    1987-03-01

    Hemorrhagic hypotension produces an increase in adrenal medullary blood flow and a decrease in adrenal cortical blood flow. To determine whether changes in adrenal blood flow during hemorrhage are neurally mediated, the authors compared blood flow responses following adrenal denervation (splanchnic nerve section) with changes in the contralateral, neurally intact adrenal. Carbonized microspheres labeled with /sup 153/Gd, /sup 114/In, /sup 113/Sn, /sup 103/Ru, /sup 95/Nb or /sup 46/Se were used. Blood pressure was reduced and maintained at 60 mmHg for 25 min by hemorrhage into a pressurized bottle system. Adrenal cortical blood flow decreased to 50% of control with hemorrhage in both the intact and denervated adrenal. Adrenal medullary blood flow increased to four times control levels at 15 and 25 min posthemorrhage in the intact adrenal, but was reduced to 50% of control at 3, 5, and 10 min posthemorrhage in the denervated adrenal. In a separate group of dogs, the greater splanchnic nerve on one side was electrically stimulated at 2, 5, or 15 Hz for 40 min. Adrenal medullary blood flow increased 5- to 10-fold in the stimulated adrenal but was unchanged in the contralateral, nonstimulated adrenal. Adrenal cortical blood flow was not affected by nerve stimulation. They conclude that activity of the splanchnic nerve profoundly affects adrenal medullary vessels but not adrenal cortical vessels and mediates the observed increase in adrenal medullary blood flow during hemorrhagic hypotension.

  17. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 1: Radiological surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Stockdale, J.A.D.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Lee, H.T.

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation and comparison of proposed thermal treatment systems for mixed wastes can be expedited by tests in which the radioactive components of the wastes are replaced by surrogate materials chosen to mimic, as far as is possible, the chemical and physical properties of the radioactive materials of concern. In this work, sponsored by the Mixed Waste Integrated Project of the US Department of Energy, the authors have examined reported experience with such surrogates and suggest a simplified standard list of materials for use in tests of thermal treatment systems. The chief radioactive nuclides of concern in the treatment of mixed wastes are {sup 239}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 90}Sr. These nuclides are largely by-products of uranium enrichment, reactor fuel reprocessing, and weapons program activities. Cs, Ru, and Sr all have stable isotopes that can be used as perfect surrogates for the radioactive forms. Technetium exists only in radioactive form, as do plutonium and uranium. If one wishes to preclude radioactive contamination of the thermal treatment system under trial burn, surrogate elements must be chosen for these three. For technetium, the authors suggest the use of natural ruthenium, and for both plutonium and uranium, they recommend cerium. The seven radionuclides listed can therefore be simulated by a surrogate package containing stable isotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, and cerium.

  18. Simulation of radioelement volatility during the vitrification of radioactive wastes by arc plasma.

    PubMed

    Ghiloufi, Imed

    2009-04-15

    A computer model is used to simulate the volatility of some radioelements cesium ((137)Cs), cobalt ((60)Co), and ruthenium ((106)Ru) during the radioactive wastes vitrification by thermal plasma. This model is based on the calculation of system composition using the free enthalpy minimization method, coupled with the equation of mass transfer at the reactional interface. The model enables the determination of the effects of various parameters (e.g., temperature, plasma current, and matrix composition) on the radioelement volatility. The obtained results indicate that any increase in molten bath temperature causes an increase in the cobalt volatility; while ruthenium has a less obvious behavior. It is also found that the oxygen flux in the carrier gas supports the radioelement incorporations in the containment matrix, except in the case of the ruthenium which is more volatile under an oxidizing atmosphere. For electrolyses effects, an increase in the plasma current considerably increases both the vaporization speed and the vaporized quantities of (137)Cs and (60)Co. The increase of silicon percentage in the containment matrix supports the incorporation of (60)Co and (137)Cs in the matrix. The simulation results are compared favorably to the experimental measurements obtained by emission spectroscopy. PMID:18752888

  19. Separation of carrier-free {sup 90}Y from high level waste by extraction chromatographic technique using 2-ethylhexyl-2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid (KSM-17)

    SciTech Connect

    Achuthan, P.V.; Dhami, P.S.; Kannan, R.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Ramanujam, A.

    2000-01-01

    An extraction chromatographic technique has been developed for the separation of carrier-free {sup 90}Y from the {sup 90}Sr present in the high level waste (HLW) of the Purex process. When a Purex HLW solution in 2--3 M HNO{sub 3} is passed through a CMPO-Chromosorb-102 (CAC) column, all the trivalent, tetravalent, and hexavalent ions are sorbed. The effluent from this experiment, after adjusting the pH to 2 with NaOH, was passed through a 2-ethylhexyl-2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid (KSM-17)-Chromosorb-102 (KSMC) extraction chromatographic column where only {sup 90}Y was sorbed. All the other ions ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 106}Rh, etc.) were washed off with dilute HNO{sub 3} (pH 2), and carrier-free {sup 90}Y was eluted with 0.5 M HNO{sub 3}. This technique can yield {sup 90}Y in mCi levels in pure form for medical applications. The {sup 90}Sr can be used repeatedly after allowing for {sup 90}Y buildup.

  20. Ruthenium-106 brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Pe'er, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Brachytherapy is the most common method for treating uveal melanoma, and currently the ruthenium-106 (Ru-106) and iodine-125 (I-125) applicators are the most frequently used. Ru-106 applicators were introduced by Prof. Peter Lommatzsch in the 1960s, and since then have been used widely by many ocular oncologists, mainly in Europe. The Ru-106 isotope is a beta ray (electron) emitter, and as such it has a limited depth of penetration. This is the reason why many experts use Ru-106 applicators for tumors with a maximal thickness of up to 7.0 mm, although others use it successfully for thicker tumors. The Ru-106 applicators are manufactured commercially and have a half-life of about 1 year. Ru-106 brachytherapy for uveal melanoma provides excellent local control rates and eye preservation with a relatively low recurrence rate. The main advantage of Ru-106 over other isotopes is the better preservation of vision in the treated eye, and less damage to the healthy parts of the eye due to its limited range of radiation. This can also be achieved by positioning the Ru-106 plaque eccentrically, away from the macula and optic nerve head. Ru-106 brachytherapy can be used in combination with other methods of treatment of uveal melanoma, such as local resection or transpupillary thermotherapy, and is sporadically combined with other isotopes, such as gamma-emitting cobalt-60 and I-125. PMID:22042011

  1. Aging studies for the muon detector of HERA-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, M.; Guilitsky, Yu.; Kvaratschellia, T.; Tikhomirov, I.; Titov, M.; Zaitsev, Yu.

    2003-12-01

    The severe radiation environment of the HERA-B experiment leads to a maximum accumulated charge on a wire, within the muon detector, of 200 mC/cm wire . For operation in this high-intensity environment, the main criteria for the gas choice turned out to be stability against aging. We report recent results of aging studies performed by irradiating aluminum proportional wire chambers filled with Ar/CF 4/CH 4 (74:20:6), Ar/CF 4/CH 4 (67:30:3), Ar/CF 4/CO 2 (65:30:5) Ar/CF 4 (70:30), CF 4/CH 4 (90:10) and CF 4/CH 4 (80:20) mixtures in three different experimental setups: laboratory conditions ( 55Fe and 106Ru sources), a 100 MeV α -beam and the high-rate HERA-B environment (secondaries from interactions of 920 GeV protons with target nucleus). Our experience shows that the aging rate depends not only on the total collected charge, but, in addition, on the mode of operation (high voltage and/or gas gain) and area of irradiation. Effects of CF 4 addition on aging performance of gaseous detectors are summarized. Possible application of these results for operation of large scale gaseous detectors in the high rate environment is discussed.

  2. Chernobyl radionuclides in a Black Sea sediment trap.

    PubMed

    Buesseler, K O; Livingston, H D; Honjo, S; Hay, B J; Manganini, S J; Degens, E; Ittekkot, V; Izdar, E; Konuk, T

    The Chernobyl nuclear power station accident released large quantities of vaporized radionuclides, and, to a lesser extent, mechanically released small (less than 1-10 micron) aerosol particles. The total release of radioactivity is estimated to be out of the order of 1-2 x 10(18) Bq (3-5 x 10(7) Ci) not allowing for releases of the xenon and krypton gases. The 137Cs releases of 3.8 x 10(16) Bq from Chernobyl can be compared to 1.3 x 10(18) Bq 137Cs released due to atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Chernobyl-derived radionuclides can be used as transient tracers to study physical and biogeochemical processes. Initial measurements of fallout Chernobyl radionuclides from a time-series sediment trap at 1,071 m during June-September 1986 in the southern Black Sea are presented. The specific activities of 137Cs, 144Ce and 106Ru in the trap samples (0.5-2, 4-12 and 6-13 Bq g-1) are independent of the particle flux while their relative activities reflect their rates of scavenging in the order Ce greater than Ru greater than Cs. PMID:3670387

  3. Specific activity and activity ratios of radionuclides in soil collected about 20 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Radionuclide release to the south and southwest.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Uchihori, Yukio; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2011-10-15

    Soil samples at different depths (0-2, 5-7 and 10-12cm) were collected from J Village, about 20km south of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) to determine their radionuclide specific activities and activity ratios. The concentrations and activity ratios of (131)I, (134, 136, 137)Cs and (129m)Te were obtained, but only trace amounts of (95)Nb, (110m)Ag and (140)La were detected which were too low to provide accurate concentrations. Radionuclides such as (95)Zr, (103, 106)Ru and (140)Ba that were found in Chernobyl fallout, were not found in these soil samples. This suggests that noble gasses and volatile radionuclides predominated in the releases from FNPP to the terrestrial environment. The average activity ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs, (134)Cs/(137)Cs, (136)Cs/(137)Cs and (129m)Te/(137)Cs were 55, 0.90, 0.22 and 4.0 (corrected to March 11, 2011) in the 0-2cm soil samples of April 20 and 28, 2011. PMID:21906779

  4. Marine and freshwater concentration ratios (CR(wo-water)): review of Japanese data.

    PubMed

    Tagami, K; Uchida, S

    2013-12-01

    The water-to-organism (whole body) concentration ratio (CR(wo-water)), which is defined as the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in the biota (Bq kg(-1) fresh weight) to that in water (Bq L(-1)), has been used in mathematical models for environmental radiation protection. In the present paper, published global fallout (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (106)Ru, (144)Ce and (239+240)Pu activity concentration data and stable element concentration data for Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and Mn for organisms living in freshwater or seawater areas in Japan were collated. The data suitable for obtaining CR(wo-water) values were identified. CR(wo-water) values of (137)Cs were similar for pelagic fish, benthic fish and whitebait (immature, small fish) with respective geometric means of 30 (range: 4.4-69), 32 (range: 15-54) and 33 (range: 13-84). The calculated CR(wo-water) values of the other radionuclides and stable elements were generally similar to other previously reported values; with the exception that those for Ce were lower for marine biota and those of Cu were higher for freshwater fish. PMID:22770770

  5. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  6. Radiological status of the ground water beneath the Hanford Site, January-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, P.A.; Cline, C.S.; Prater, L.S.

    1982-04-01

    During 1981, 299 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radionuclide chemical contaminants. This report is one of a series prepared annually to document and evaluate the status of ground water at the Hanford Site. Two substances, tritium and nonradioactive nitrate, are easily transported in ground water; therefore, these substances are used as primary tracers to monitor the movement of contaminated ground water. Data collected during 1981 describe the movement of tritium and the nonradioactive nitrate plumes as well as their response to the influences of ground-water flow, ionic dispersion, and radioactive decay. The gross beta (/sup 106/Ru) levels have become so low that it will no longer be considered a major radionuclide contaminant. The tritium plume continues to show increasing concentrations near the Columbia River. While it is mapped as having reached the Columbia River, its contribution to the river has not been distinguished from other sources at this time. This plume shows much the same configuration as in 1977, 1978, 1979, and 1980. The size of the nitrate plume appears stable. Concentrations of nitrate in the vicinity of the 100-H Area continue to be high as a result of past leaks from the evaporation facility. The overall quality of the ground water at the Hanford Site is generally comparable to that of other ground waters in eastern Washington. Any exceptions to this statement will be noted in this report.

  7. High-level waste glass field burial test: leaching and migration of fission products

    SciTech Connect

    Melnyk, T.W.; Johnson, L.H.; Walton, F.B.

    1984-01-01

    In June 1960, 25 nepheline syenite-based glass hemispheres containing the fission products /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 144/Ce and /sup 106/Ru were buried below the water table in a sandy-soil aquifer at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Measurements of soil and groundwater concentrations of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs have been interpreted using non-equilibrium migration models to deduce the leaching history of the glass for these burial conditions. The leaching history derived from the field data has been compared to laboratory leaching of samples taken from a glass hemisphere retrieved in 1978, and also to pre-burial laboratory leaching of identical hemispheres. The time dependence of the leach rates observed for the buried specimens suggests that leaching is inhibited by the formation of a protective surface layer. The effect of the kinetic limitations of the fission-product/sandy-soil interactions is discussed with respect to the migration of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs over a 20 year time scale. It is concluded that kinetically limited sorption by oxyhdroxides, rather than equilibrium ion exchange, controls the long-term migration of /sup 90/Sr. Cesium is initially rapidly bound to the micaceous fraction of the sand, but slow remobilization of /sup 137/Cs in particulate form is observed and is believed to be related to bacterial action.

  8. Estimated radiological doses to the maximumly exposed individual and downstream populations from releases of tritium, strontium-90, ruthenium-106, and cesium-137 from White Oak Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.A.; Cotter, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    Concentrations of tritium, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 106/Ru, and /sup 137/Cs in the Clinch River for 1978 were estimated by using the known 1978 releases of these nuclides from the White Oak Dam and diluting them by the integrated annual flow rate of the Clinch River. Estimates of 50-year dose commitment to a maximumly exposed individual were calculated for both aquatic and terestrial pathways of exposure. The maximumly exposed individual was assumed to reside at the mouth of White Oak Creek where it enters the Clinch River and obtain all foodstuffs and drinking water at that location. The estimated total-body dose from all pathways to the maximumly exposed individual as a result of 1978 releases was less than 1% of the dose expected from natural background. Using appropriate concentrations of to subject radionuclides diluted downstream, the doses to populations residing at Harriman, Kingston, Rockwood, Spring City, Soddy-Daisy, and Chattanooga were calculated for aquatic exposure pathways. The total-body dose estimated for aquatic pathways for the six cities was about 0.0002 times the expected dose from natural background. For the pathways considered in this report, the nuclide which contributed the largest fraction of dose was /sup 90/Sr. The largest dose delivered by /sup 90/Sr was to the bone of the subject individual or community.

  9. [Carbon stable isotope composition (delta 13C) of lichen thalli in the forests in the vicinity of the Chernobyl atomic power station].

    PubMed

    Biazrov, L G; Gongal'skiĭ, K B; Pel'gunova, L A; Tiunov, A V

    2010-01-01

    The stable isotope abundance of carbon in the lichens Cladina mitis, Cladonia crispata Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata has been investigated in a study relating these values with known levels of 106Ru, 134Cs, 137Cs and 144Ce defined activity in their thalli in the pine forests of region within a 30-km radius of the Chernobyl atomic power station and beyond it (37 km). All 63 samples of the lichens were obtained from 7 different sites. Small effects on delta 13C values in the lichens Cladina mitis, Hypogymnia physodes were found to be associated with distance from CNPP, activity level of radionuclides in them thalli whereas at Cladonia crispata is observed weighting of carbon with increase in values of 134Cs and 137Cs activity in thalli. Values of delta 13C the investigated lichen species more depends on habitat conditions rather than from levels of thalli radioactivity. In our study we didn't reveal the isotope specificity of any one species as it was not possible to establish a correlation between values of delta 13C and a particular species. PMID:20297687

  10. Response of ionization chamber based pocket dosimeter to beta radiation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Munish; Gupta, Anil; Pradhan, S M; Bakshi, A K; Chougaonkar, M P; Babu, D A R

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative estimate of the response of ionization chamber based pocket dosimeters (DRDs) to various beta sources was performed. It has been established that the ionization chamber based pocket dosimeters do not respond to beta particles having energy (Emax)<1 MeV and same was verified using (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (204)Tl beta sources. However, for beta particles having energy >1 MeV, the DRDs exhibit measureable response and the values are ~8%, ~14% and ~27% per mSv for natural uranium, (90)Sr/(90)Y and (106)Ru/(106)Rh beta sources respectively. As the energy of the beta particles increases, the response also increases. The response of DRDs to beta particles having energy>1 MeV arises due to the fact that the thickness of the chamber walls is less than the maximum range of beta particles. This may also be one of the reasons for disparity between doses measured with passive/legal dosimeters (TLDs) and DRDs in those situations in which radiation workers are exposed to mixed field of gamma photons and beta particles especially at uranium processing plants, nuclear (power and research) reactors, waste management facilities and fuel reprocessing plants etc. The paper provides the reason (technical) for disparity between the doses recorded by TLDs and DRDs in mixed field of photons and beta particles. PMID:23978508

  11. Light water reactor fuel reprocessing: dissolution studies of voloxidized and nonvoloxidized fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.; Stone, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    Small-scale tests with irradiated Zircaloy-clad fuels from Robinson, Oconee, Saxton, and Point Beach reactors with burnups from about 200 to 28,000 MWD/MTHM have been made to determine the dissolution behavior of both voloxidized (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and nonvoloxidized (UO{sub 2}) fuel. No significant technical problems were encountered in batch-dissolving of either form. Dissolution rates were well-controlled in all tests. Significant characteristics of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} dissolution that differed from UO{sub 2} dissolution included: (1) reduced tritium and ruthenium ({sup 106}Ru) concentrations in product solutions, (2) increased insoluble noble metal fission product residue (about 2.2X greater), and (3) increased insoluble plutonium in the fission product residue. The insoluble plutonium is easily leached from the residue by 10M HNO{sub 3}. The weight of the fission product residue collected from both U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and UO{sub 2} fuels increased aproximately linearly with fuel burnup. A major fraction (>83%) of the {sup 85}Kr was evolved from U{sub 3}O{sub 8} fuel during dissolution rather than voloxidation. The {sup 85}Kr evolution rate was an appropriate monitor of fuel dissolution rate. Virtually all of the {sup 129}I was evolved by air sparging of the dissolver solution during dissolution. 30 tables, 18 figures.

  12. Correction factors for the ISO rod phantom, a cylinder phantom, and the ICRU sphere for reference beta radiation fields of the BSS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, R.

    2015-03-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) requires in its standard ISO 6980 that beta reference radiation fields for radiation protection be calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to tissue at a depth of 0.07 mm in a slab phantom (30 cm x 30 cm x 15 cm). However, many beta dosemeters are ring dosemeters and are, therefore, irradiated on a rod phantom (1.9 cm in diameter and 30 cm long), or they are eye dosemeters possibly irradiated on a cylinder phantom (20 cm in diameter and 20 cm high), or area dosemeters irradiated free in air with the conventional quantity value (true value) being defined in a sphere (30 cm in diameter, made of ICRU tissue (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements)). Therefore, the correction factors for the conventional quantity value in the rod, the cylinder, and the sphere instead of the slab (all made of ICRU tissue) were calculated for the radiation fields of 147Pm, 85Kr, 90Sr/90Y, and, 106Ru/106Rh sources of the beta secondary standard BSS 2 developed at PTB. All correction factors were calculated for 0° up to 75° (in steps of 15°) radiation incidence. The results are ready for implementation in ISO 6980-3 and have recently been (partly) implemented in the software of the BSS 2.

  13. Waste/Rock Interactions Technology Program. Status report on LWR spent-fuel leach tests

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Y.B.; Bradley, D.J.; Harvey, C.O.

    1980-11-01

    Spent fuels with burnups of 9000, 28,000 and 54,500 MWd/MTU have been leach tested at 25/sup 0/C. Three leach-test procedures (Paige, IAEA and static) were used. IAEA and static tests were conducted in five different solutions: deionized water, sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride, calcium chloride and Waste Isolation Pilot Plant B brine solutions. Elemental leach data are reported based on the release of /sup 90/Sr/sup +90/Y, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 154/Eu, /sup 239 +240/Pu, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 244/Cm, /sup 129/I, /sup 99/Tc, and total uranium. This is the first report on /sup 129/I and /sup 99/Tc from spent fuel. Termination of the Paige test showed that the plateout (radionuclide adsorption) on the test apparatus had negligible effect on the leach rate of cesium and plutonium, but a major (up to a factor of 50 times) effect on the curium leach rate. Three-hundred additional days of leach testing by the IAEA procedure, from 467 to 769 d, showed a continuation of the leaching trends observed during the first 467 d. Results from the first two static leach test series, 2 and 8 d, gave the /sup 129/I and /sup 99/Tc release numbers.

  14. Electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1997-10-01

    Under this task, electrochemical treatment processes are being evaluated and developed for the destruction of organic compounds and nitrates/nitrites and the removal of other hazardous species from liquid wastes stored throughout the DOE complex. This technology targets the (1) destruction of nitrates, nitrites and organic compounds; (2) removal of radionuclides; and (3) removal of RCRA metals. The development program consists of five major tasks: (1) evaluation of electrochemical reactors for the destruction and removal of hazardous waste components, (2) development and validation of engineering process models, (3) radioactive laboratory-scale tests, (4) demonstration of the technology in an engineering-scale reactor, and (5) analysis and evaluation of test data. The development program team is comprised of individuals from national laboratories, academic institutions, and private industry. Possible benefits of this technology include: (1) improved radionuclide separation as a result of the removal of organic complexants, (2) reduction in the concentrations of hazardous and radioactive species in the waste (e.g., removal of nitrate, mercury, chromium, cadmium, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 106}Ru), (3) reduction in the size of the off-gas handling equipment for the vitrification of low-level waste (LLW) by reducing the source of NO{sub x} emissions, (4) recovery of chemicals of value (e.g. sodium hydroxide), and (5) reduction in the volume of waste requiring disposal.

  15. Improved Detection of Cherenkov Radiation using Wavelength-Shifting Paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmookler, Barak; Ou, Longwu

    2014-03-01

    Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) are often used to detect Cherenkov radiation in accelerator-based physics experiments. Since the Cherenkov spectrum is inversely proportional to the square of the photon's wavelength, PMTs with relatively good quantum efficiencies in the ultraviolet region can produce on average a higher number of photoelectrons. The application of certain paints, which absorb light at ultraviolet wavelengths and emit in the visible spectrum, to the surface of some PMTs allows for better sampling of the Cherenkov spectrum. The effects of various wavelength-shifting (WLS) paints designed by Eljen Technologies were tested on ET Enterprises, Model: 9390KB PMTs. Using a 106Ru β-source, Cherenkov light was produced in disks of fused silica. The charge spectrums of the PMTs were measured before and after application of the paint. The average number of photoelectrons produced from the Cherenkov radiation could be determined by knowing the value of the single-photoelectron peak and the mean of the charge spectrum. Four paints were tested, and the gain in the number photoelectrons produced varied from 10-35% for the different paints. Work Conducted at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  16. Atrial natriuretic peptide increases resistance to venous return in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, Y.W.; Frohlich, E.D.; Trippodo, N.C.

    1987-05-01

    To examine mechanisms by which administration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) decreases venous return, the authors compared the hemodynamic effects of ANP furosemide (FU), and hexamethonium (HEX) with those of vehicle (VE) in anesthetized rats. Compared with VE, ANP reduced mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, and cardiac index and increased calculated resistance to venous return. /sup 141/Ce-labeled microspheres were used to determine cardiac output. Mean circulatory filling pressure, distribution of blood flow between splanchnic organs and skeletal muscles, and total peripheral resistance remained unchanged. FU increased urine output similar to that of ANP, yet produced no hemodynamic changes, dissociating diuresis, and decreased cardiac output. HEX lowered arterial pressure through a reduction in total peripheral resistance without altering cardiac output or resistance to venous return. The results confirm previous findings that ANP decreases cardiac output through a reduction in venous return and suggest that this results partly from increased resistance to venous return and not from venodilation or distribution of blood flow.

  17. Regional blood flows measured in Mongolian gerbil by a modified microsphere method.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, M; Kimura, K; Fujisawa, A; Matsuyama, T; Asai, T; Uyama, O; Yoneda, S; Abe, H

    1982-06-01

    Regional blood flow to major organs and regional cerebral blood flow were determined in seven anesthetized male gerbils by a modified microsphere method. Carbonized microspheres, 15 micrometers in diameter and labeled with 85Sr or 141Ce, were injected into the left ventricle by cardiac puncture through the closed thorax, and reference samples of known volume were withdrawn from tail-artery cannula. No significant hemodynamic alterations were observed during microsphere administration, and extraction of 15-micrometers microspheres by the pulmonary or systemic capillary beds was nearly 100%. The adequacy of mixing of microspheres in the left ventricle was also validated. The absolute regional blood flow to various organs and regional cerebral blood flow were expressed in terms of milliliters per minute per gram tissue weight, and the values mostly agreed with those reported previously in rats. The results indicate that the reference sample method can be applied to the gerbil. This method should allow the gerbil, which is an animal widely used in stroke research, to be conveniently used for hemodynamic studies when organ blood flow and regional cerebral blood flow are necessary. PMID:7091359

  18. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  19. Influence of gamma irradiation on conductivity of YBa2Cu3O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjunatha, H. C.

    2015-08-01

    We report a study on influence of gamma irradiation on conductivity of YBa2Cu3O7. We have measured the mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number, electron density and electrical conductivity for various gamma sources of energy ranging from 0.084 MeV to 1.330 MeV (170Tm, 57Co, 141Ce, 203Hg, 51Cr, 113Sn, 22Na, 137Cs, 60Co, 22Na and 60Co). The measured values agree with the theoretical values. The values of these parameters have been found to change with energy and interaction of gamma. We find evidence for a variation of the electrical conductivity of YBa2Cu3O7 with the irradiated photon energy and this variation is shown in figures up to 105 MeV. The variations of effective atomic number and electron density with energy are shown graphically for all photon interactions. Conductivity found to vary with the energy of the irradiated gamma radiation and interaction process of gamma. This kind of studies is important in the field of superconductivity.

  20. Effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide on vascular conductance are unaffected by anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Bouder, T.G.; Huffman, L.J.; Hedge, G.A. )

    1988-12-01

    In rats anesthetized with ketamine and pentobarbital (KET/PB), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) increases vascular conductance (VC) in the salivary gland, pancreas, and thyroid gland, whereas no changes in VC are observed in a number of other organs. Because anesthesia may alter the responsiveness of physiological systems, we compared the effects of VIP on organ VC in conscious or anesthetized rats. Chronically catheterized rats were studied in the conscious state or 30 min after induction of anesthesia with KET/PB, isoflurane, or Inactin. Blood flows were measured by the reference sample version of the radioactive microsphere (MS) technique using two MS injections ({sup 141}Ce-MS/{sup 85}Sr-MS). Mean arterial blood pressure was monitored and used in the calculation of VC. Organ VCs were similar under basal conditions in conscious and anesthetized rats. VIP infusion caused systemic hypotension and increased VCs in the salivary gland, pancreas, and thyroid gland, and these responses were largely unaffected by anesthesia. These results indicate that the anesthetics used do not alter basal VC or the responsiveness of the vasculature to exogenous VIP.

  1. Magnetic moment of the 2083 keV level of 140Ce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Y.; Taniguchi, A.; Xu, Q.; Tanigaki, M.; Shimizu, N.; Otsuka, T.

    2013-04-01

    For the magnetic moment of the 2083 keV level of 140Ce, there are four published data, all obtained by applying an external magnetic field of less than 5 T to a liquid sample containing 140La using the time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique. Although these four values are consistent within two times their uncertainties (2σ), the range of values in 2σ extends from μ=+3.0 to +5.2 (in units of nuclear magneton, μN). This time, the TDPAC technique was successfully applied to the 2083 keV level of 140Ce implanted in an Fe foil. The magnetic moment of this level was determined to be μ=+4.00(20)μN, employing the known hyperfine field at 141Ce in Fe, -41(2) T, which agrees very well with one of the values, μ=+4.06(15)μN. The present value is compared with two shell-model calculations.

  2. Mucociliary clearance and particle retention in the maxillary and ethmoid turbinate regions of beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Whaley, S.L.; Wolff, R.K.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Snipes, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, the retention and clearance of particles instilled onto the epithelium at two sites in the nasal cavity were examined. Polystyrene microspheres (3 ..mu..m geometric diameter) were labeled with /sup 141/Ce or /sup 85/Sr and instilled simultaneously on the maxillary and ethmoid turbinates of beagle dogs. The retention and clearance patterns of the microspheres were followed for 30 d after instillation. Tissue samples, excreta content, and autoradiography of the radiolabels provided the basis for defining the fate of the microspheres or the radiolabels dissolved from the microspheres. Early nasal mucus velocity was significantly faster from the maxillary turbinate region than from the ethmoid turbinate region. Retention at both instillation sites at 30 d after instillation was approximately 0.1% of the amount initially instilled. Radioactivity was excreted primarily via the feces during the first few days. Radiolabel measured in urine and tissues other than turbines was small, indicating minimal dissolution of the radiolabel from the particles. Autoradiographs of turbinate tissue revealed particles sporadically located in the epithelial submucosa. From these data, it was concluded that a significant difference in early clearance for particles exists between the ethmoid and maxillary turbinates, but there was no difference in the fraction of particles retained in these two areas for long periods of time.

  3. VIP and its homologous increase vascular conductance in certain endocrine and exocrine glands

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, L.J.; Connors, J.M.; Hedge, G.A. )

    1988-04-01

    The effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and related structural homologues on tissue vascular conductances were investigated in anesthetized male rats. VIP, peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), secretin, growth hormone-releasing factor (GHRF), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), or saline was infused intravenously over 4 min. Tissue blood flows were measured during this time by use of {sup 141}Ce-labeled microspheres. Circulating thyrotropin (TSH), triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), and thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels were determined before and at 20 min and 2 h after treatment. Marked increases in thyroid, pancreatic, and salivary gland vascular Cs occurred during peptide infusion with the order of potency correlating with the degree of structural homology to VIP. PHI and secretin produced maximal increases in vascular Cs, which were the same as those obtained with VIP. Circulating TSH, T{sub 3}, and T{sub 4} levels were not different from values in saline-infused rats after peptide treatments that caused striking increases in thyroid vascular C. These observations indicate that the vascular beds of certain endocrine and exocrine glands are responsive to the vasodilatory action of VIP and related homologues with the order of potency corresponding to the degree of structural homology to VIP. These results are also consistent with the proposal that structural homologues of VIP act at the same vascular receptor as VIP. Alternative, the involvement of different vascular receptors, acting through the same mechanism at a level beyond the receptor site, cannot be excluded.

  4. Dose assessment for the Metlino and Muslyumovo populations who lived along the Techa river from 1949 to 1954.

    PubMed

    Mokrov, Yuri G

    2004-09-01

    In the period from 1949 to 1956, liquid radioactive waste was routinely and accidentally discharged by the Mayak Production Association, Southern Urals, Russia, into the Techa river. Based on a novel approach, the contamination of the Techa river water, the bottom sediments and the adjacent flood plains was modelled, and internal and external doses were estimated for two villages located downstream of the site of liquid radioactive waste release. Altogether, 11 radionuclides that occurred in the liquid radioactive waste were included in the calculations. The results suggest significantly higher doses than previously assumed, with the major contribution in the year 1951. Radionuclides with half-lives of less than 1 year, such as 89Sr, 131I, 95Zr+95Nb, 103Ru+103mRh, 140Ba+140La, and 144Ce+144Pr, represent the major sources and, in contrast, long-lived radionuclides, such as 90Sr and 137Cs that have so far been assumed to be most important, did not dominate the doses. For adults from the village Metlino, located 7 km downstream of the site of liquid radioactive waste discharge, the committed effective doses due to intake of radionuclides were calculated to be about 2.3 Sv, while the external doses were between about 1.2 Sv and 6.9 Sv. On the other hand, for adults from Muslyumovo, located 75 km downstream, the committed effective doses due to intake of radionuclides were calculated to be about 0.5 Sv, while the external doses were between 0.5 Sv and 2.0 Sv. The values for the skin doses to the Metlino and Muslyumovo populations were about 7.1 Sv and 1.3 Sv, respectively. It is concluded that the current dose estimates for the residents of the Techa river need, therefore, reevaluation. PMID:15378312

  5. Amniotic fluid volume and fetal swallowing rate in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Tomoda, S.; Brace, R.A.; Longo, L.D.

    1985-07-01

    To investigate amniotic fluid (AF) dynamics and volume regulatory mechanisms, the authors measured the concentration of radioiodinated (/sup 125/I) serum albumin (RISA), /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cells (Cr-RBC), and /sup 103/Ru-labeled microspheres after injection into the amniotic cavity and determined AF volume and fetal swallowing rate in 22 singleton pregnant sheep. Under normal conditions 2-3 h were required for complete mixing of RISA and Cr-RBC within AF; however, when the fetus was dead only 3-5 h were required. AF volume of 17 sheep on the 5th postoperative day averaged 975 +/- 128 ml by RISA and 986 +/- 130 ml by Cr-RBC. AF volume determined with RISA and Cr-RBC correlated well. In contrast, AF volume measurement with microspheres produced erratic results. The disappearance rate of the labels in 17 ewes on the 5th postoperative day averaged 4.9 +/- 0.7%/h for RISA and 5.5 +/- 0.7 for Cr-RBC, and the calculated rates of fetal swallowing were 935 +/- 78 ml/day by RISA and 1,085 +/- 102 by Cr-RBC. In dead fetuses the disappearance rates were almost zero, suggesting that the labels disappear mainly by swallowing. Absolute volume swallowed and swallowed volume per fetal weight correlated with gestational age. AF volume correlated with fetal weight. Radiolabeled albumin or red blood cells may be used to simultaneously measure amniotic fluid volume and the rate of fetal swallowing. Furthermore it appears that fetal swallowing increases with gestational age.

  6. Dosimetric calibration of solid state detectors with low energy β sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidanzio, Andrea; Pia Toni, Maria; Capote, Roberto; Pena, Juan; Pasciuti, Katia; Bovi, Maurizio; Perrone, Franco; Azario, Luigi; Lazzeri, Mauro; Gaudino, Diego; Piermattei, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    A PTW Optidos plastic scintillation and a PTW natural diamond detectors were calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water with β fields produced by 90Sr + 90Y and 85Kr reference sources. Each source was characterized at the Italian National Metrological Institute - the Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti of ENEA (ENEA-INMRI) - for two different series, 1 and 2, of ISO reference β-particle radiation fields. Beam flattening filters were used for the series 1 β fields to give uniform absorbed dose rates over a large area at a source-to-reference plane distance of 30 cm. The series 2 β fields were produced at source-to-reference plane distance of 10 cm, without the beam flattening filters, in order to obtain higher absorbed dose rates. The reference absorbed dose rate values were directly determined by the Italian national standard for β-particle dosimetry (a PTW extrapolation ionization chamber) for the series 1 β fields and by a calibrated transfer standard chamber, (a Capintec thin fixed-volume parallel plate ionization chamber) for the series 2 β fields. Finally the two solid state detectors were calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water with the series 2 β field. The expanded uncertainties of the calibration coefficients obtained for the plastic scintillation dosimeter were 10% and 12% (2SD) for the 90Sr + 90Y and the 85Kr sources, respectively. The expanded uncertainties obtained for the diamond dosimeter were 10% (2SD) and 16% (2SD) for the 90Sr + 90Y and the 85Kr sources, respectively. The good results obtained with the 90Sr + 90Y and the 85Kr β sources encourage to implement this procedure to calibrate this type of detectors at shorter distances and with other β sources of interest in brachytherapy, for example the 106Ru source.

  7. Comparison of leach results from field and laboratory prepared samples

    SciTech Connect

    Oblath, S.B.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-03-25

    The leach behavior of saltstone prepared in the laboratory agrees well with that from samples mixed in the field using the Littleford mixer. Leach rates of nitrates and cesium from the current reference formulation saltstone were compared. The laboratory samples were prepared using simulated salt solution; those in the field used Tank 50 decontaminated supernate. For both nitrate and cesium, the field and laboratory samples showed nearly identical leach rates for the first 30 to 50 days. For the remaining period of the test, the field samples showed higher leach rates with the maximum difference being less than a factor of three. Ruthenium and antimony were present in the Tank 50 supernate in known amounts. Antimony-125 was observed in the leachate and a fractional leach rate was calculated to be at least a factor of ten less than that of /sup 137/Cs. No /sup 106/Ru was observed in the leachate, and the release rate was not calculated. However, based on the detection limits for the analysis, the ruthenium leach rate must also be at least a factor of ten less than cesium. These data are the first measurements of the leach rates of Ru and Sb from saltstone. The nitrate leach rates for these samples were 5 x 10/sup -5/ grams of nitrate per square cm per day after 100 days for the laboratory samples and after 200 days for the field samples. These values are consistent with the previously measured leach rates for reference formulation saltstone. The relative standard deviation in the leach rate is about 15% for the field samples, which all were produced from one batch of saltstone, and about 35% for the laboratory samples, which came from different batches. These are the first recorded estimates of the error in leach rates for saltstone.

  8. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Favalli, Andrea; Vo, D.; Grogan, Brandon R.; Jansson, Peter; Liljenfeldt, Henrik; Mozin, Vladimir; Schwalbach, P.; Sjoland, A.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Trellue, Holly; et al

    2016-02-26

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)–Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI–SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuelmore » assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity’s behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. Furthermore, the results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.« less

  9. Passive gamma analysis of the boiling-water-reactor assemblies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vo, D.; Favalli, A.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S.; Trellue, H.; et al

    2016-06-04

    This research focused on the analysis of a set of stationary passive gamma measurements taken on the spent nuclear fuel assemblies from a boiling water reactor (BWR) using pulse height analysis data acquisition. The measurements were performed on 25 different BWR assemblies in 2014 at Sweden’s Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab). This study was performed as part of the Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative–Spent Fuel project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies. The NGSI–SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in themore » past using nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. The final objective of this project is to quantify the capability of several integrated NDA instruments to meet the aforementioned goals using the combined signatures of neutrons, gamma rays, and heat. This report presents a selection of the measured data and summarizes an analysis of the results. Specifically, trends in the count rates measured for spectral lines from the following isotopes were analyzed as a function of the declared burnup and cooling time: 137Cs, 154Eu, 134Cs, and to a lesser extent, 106Ru and 144Ce. From these measured count rates, predictive algorithms were developed to enable the estimation of the burnup and cooling time. Furthermore, these algorithms were benchmarked on a set of assemblies not included in the standard assemblies set used by this research team.« less

  10. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favalli, A.; Vo, D.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S. J.; Trellue, H.; Vaccaro, S.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)-Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI-SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity's behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. The results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  11. Laboratory development of methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, W.D.; Bostick, D.T.; Burgess, M.W.; Taylor, P.A.; Perona, J.J.; Kent, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    Improved centralized treatment methods are needed in the management of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). LLLW, which usually contains radioactive contaminants at concentrations up to millicurie-per-liter levels, has accumulated in underground storage tanks for over 10 years and has reached a volume of over 350,000 gal. These wastes have been collected since 1984 and are a complex mixture of wastes from past nuclear energy research activities. The waste is a highly alkaline 4-5 M NaNO{sub 3} solution with smaller amounts of other salts. This type of waste will continue to be generated as a consequence of future ORNL research programs. Future LLLW (referred to as newly generated LLLW or NGLLLW) is expected to a highly alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide with a smaller concentration of sodium nitrate. New treatment facilities are needed to improve the manner in which these wastes are managed. These facilities must be capable of separating and reducing the volume of radioactive contaminants to small stable waste forms. Treated liquids must meet criteria for either discharge to the environment or solidification for onsite disposal. Laboratory testing was performed using simulated waste solutions prepared using the available characterization information as a basis. Testing was conducted to evaluate various methods for selective removal of the major contaminants. The major contaminants requiring removal from Melton Valley Storage Tank liquids are {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. Principal contaminants in NGLLLW are {sup 9O}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 106}Ru. Strontium removal testing began with literature studies and scoping tests with several ion-exchange materials and sorbents.

  12. Radiotherapy for ocular tumours.

    PubMed

    Stannard, C; Sauerwein, W; Maree, G; Lecuona, K

    2013-02-01

    Ocular tumours present a therapeutic challenge because of the sensitive tissues involved and the necessity to destroy the tumour while minimising visual loss. Radiotherapy (RT) is one of several modalites used apart from surgery, laser, cryotherapy, and chemotherapy. Both external beam RT (EBRT) and brachytherapy are used. Tumours of the bulbar conjunctiva, squamous carcinoma and malignant melanoma, can be treated with a radioactive plaque: strontium-90, ruthenium-106 (Ru-106), or iodine-125 (I-125), after excision. If the tumour involves the fornix or tarsal conjunctiva, proton therapy can treat the conjunctiva and spare most of the eye. Alternatively, an I-125 interstitial implant can be used with shielding of the cornea and lens. Conjunctival mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma can be treated with an anterior electron field with lens shielding and 25-30 Gray (Gy) in 2 Gy fractions. Discrete retinoblastoma (RB), too large for cryotherapy or thermolaser, or recurrent after these modalities, can be treated with plaque therapy, I-125, or Ru-106. For large RB, multiple tumours, or vitreous seeds the whole eye can be treated with an I-125 applicator, sparing the bony orbit, or with EBRT, under anaesthetic, using X-rays or proton therapy with vacuum contact lenses to fix the eyes in the required position. Post-enucleated orbits at risk for recurrent RB can be treated with an I-125 implant with shielding to reduce the dose to the bony orbit. Uveal malignant melanomas can be treated with plaque or proton therapy with excellent local control. Preservation of vision will depend on the initial size and location of the tumour. PMID:23174750

  13. Radiotherapy for ocular tumours

    PubMed Central

    Stannard, C; Sauerwein, W; Maree, G; Lecuona, K

    2013-01-01

    Ocular tumours present a therapeutic challenge because of the sensitive tissues involved and the necessity to destroy the tumour while minimising visual loss. Radiotherapy (RT) is one of several modalites used apart from surgery, laser, cryotherapy, and chemotherapy. Both external beam RT (EBRT) and brachytherapy are used. Tumours of the bulbar conjunctiva, squamous carcinoma and malignant melanoma, can be treated with a radioactive plaque: strontium-90, ruthenium-106 (Ru-106), or iodine-125 (I-125), after excision. If the tumour involves the fornix or tarsal conjunctiva, proton therapy can treat the conjunctiva and spare most of the eye. Alternatively, an I-125 interstitial implant can be used with shielding of the cornea and lens. Conjunctival mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma can be treated with an anterior electron field with lens shielding and 25–30 Gray (Gy) in 2 Gy fractions. Discrete retinoblastoma (RB), too large for cryotherapy or thermolaser, or recurrent after these modalities, can be treated with plaque therapy, I-125, or Ru-106. For large RB, multiple tumours, or vitreous seeds the whole eye can be treated with an I-125 applicator, sparing the bony orbit, or with EBRT, under anaesthetic, using X-rays or proton therapy with vacuum contact lenses to fix the eyes in the required position. Post-enucleated orbits at risk for recurrent RB can be treated with an I-125 implant with shielding to reduce the dose to the bony orbit. Uveal malignant melanomas can be treated with plaque or proton therapy with excellent local control. Preservation of vision will depend on the initial size and location of the tumour. PMID:23174750

  14. The application of radioisotopes in the study of estuarine sedimentary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifton, R. J.; Hamilton, E. I.

    1982-04-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of some radionuclides in effluents originating from the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Windscale, which are released into the Irish Sea, have been studied in sediments at 16 sites in the salt marsh region near Newbiggin on the Esk estuary Cumbria, England. The concentration of non-conservative radionuclides in surface sediments of the area cannot be described by a single parameter, but there is a high correlation with organic C, Cu, Al and the Si : Al ratio with particle size. The preservation of the historical record of the BNFL effluents in the Esk sediments is dependent on the hydrology of the area, as it effects such processes as accretion, erosion and remixing. From the 106Ru and 210Po concentrations and the 137Cs : 134Cs ratio in the sediment profiles with depth, we have identified these processes. Sedimentation rates at sites of accretion vary between 0·5 and 3 cm year -1. However, at some sites they appear to be much higher, approximately 6 cm year -1 in the top 10 cm, but they are not consistent throughout the depth profiles. This may be a true reflection of variable accretion related to sediment type, or one which is influenced by surficial mixing. Some cores showed evidence of continuous accretion but no significant radioactivity was detected at depths below 35-40 cm, indicating an overall sedimentation rate of approximately 1·5 cm year -1 for the 25-30-year period since BNFL effluents first entered the Irish Sea.

  15. Radioactive contamination of bottom sediments in the upper reaches of the Techa river: analysis of the data obtained in 1950 and 1951.

    PubMed

    Mokrov, Yury G

    2003-10-01

    A stationary sorption model has been developed for re-evaluating and analysing archive data from 1950-1951 on the radioactive contamination of Techa river bottom sediments close to the site of liquid radioactive waste discharge. In general, good agreement was obtained between calculations and measurements, which substantiates further the assumptions and conclusions in two preceding articles, on the radionuclide composition of discharged liquid radioactive waste. Estimates on the effective liquid radioactive waste discharges given here are significantly different from those deduced in the 1950s, i.e. in summer 1950 and October 1951. The results are discussed in relation to the Techa River Dosimetry System 2000 (TRDS-2000) that has recently been presented to serve as a means for estimating doses to the Techa river residents. Parameter values describing the exponential decrease of bottom sediment contamination along the river due to short-lived radionuclides, such as (106)Ru, and (144)Ce, agree reasonably with those used in TRDS-2000. However, for other radionuclides, such as (95)Zr, (95)Nb, (91)Y, (90)Sr and (137)Cs, substantial differences are found. It is demonstrated that water flow rate, width of the river, and surface area of bottom sediments are important parameters which were not adequately taken into account in TRDS-2000. Also, the stirring-up of contaminated bottom sediments and their subsequent transport by the water flow are seen to be an important mechanism that governs the radionuclide transport downstream. This mechanism was not included in the TRDS-2000 model. It is concluded that the sorption model used in TRDS-2000 for the reconstruction of radioactive contamination of water and bottom sediments of the Techa river in 1949-1951, is subject to considerable errors. While the present paper is focussed on details of the dosimetric modelling, the implications for the Techa river dosimetry are major. They will be further elucidated in a forthcoming paper

  16. Summary technical report on the electrochemical treatment of alkaline nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1994-07-30

    This report summarizes the laboratory studies investigating the electrolytic treatment of alkaline solutions carried out under the direction of the Savannah River Technology Center from 1985-1992. Electrolytic treatment has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale to be feasible for the destruction of nitrate and nitrite and the removal of radioactive species such as {sup 99}Tc and {sup 106}Ru from Savannah River Site (SRS) decontaminated salt solution and other alkaline wastes. The reaction rate and current efficiency for the removal of these species are dependent on cell configuration, electrode material, nature of electrode surface, waste composition, current density, and temperature. Nitrogen, ammonia, and nitrous oxide have been identified as the nitrogen-containing reaction products from the electrochemical reduction of nitrate and nitrite under alkaline conditions. The reaction mechanism for the reduction is very complex. Voltammetric studies indicated that the electrode reactions involve surface phenomena and are not necessarily mass transfer controlled. In an undivided cell, results suggest an electrocatalytic role for oxygen via the generation of the superoxide anion. In general, more efficient reduction of nitrite and nitrate occurs at cathode materials with higher overpotentials for hydrogen evolution. Nitrate and nitrite destruction has also been demonstrated in engineering-scale flow reactors. In flow reactors, the nitrate/nitrite destruction efficiency is improved with an increase in the current density, temperature, and when the cell is operated in a divided cell configuration. Nafion{reg_sign} cation exchange membranes have exhibited good stability and consistent performance as separators in the divided-cell tests. The membranes were also shown to be unaffected by radiation at doses approximating four years of cell operation in treating decontaminated salt solution.

  17. Passive gamma analysis of the boiling-water-reactor assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, D.; Favalli, A.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S.; Trellue, H.; Vaccaro, S.

    2016-09-01

    This research focused on the analysis of a set of stationary passive gamma measurements taken on the spent nuclear fuel assemblies from a boiling water reactor (BWR) using pulse height analysis data acquisition. The measurements were performed on 25 different BWR assemblies in 2014 at Sweden's Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab). This study was performed as part of the Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative-Spent Fuel project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies. The NGSI-SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. The final objective of this project is to quantify the capability of several integrated NDA instruments to meet the aforementioned goals using the combined signatures of neutrons, gamma rays, and heat. This report presents a selection of the measured data and summarizes an analysis of the results. Specifically, trends in the count rates measured for spectral lines from the following isotopes were analyzed as a function of the declared burnup and cooling time: 137Cs, 154Eu, 134Cs, and to a lesser extent, 106Ru and 144Ce. From these measured count rates, predictive algorithms were developed to enable the estimation of the burnup and cooling time. Furthermore, these algorithms were benchmarked on a set of assemblies not included in the standard assemblies set used by this research team.

  18. Field and model investigations of external gamma dose rates along the Cumbrian coast, NW England.

    PubMed

    McDonald, P; Bryan, S E; Hunt, G J; Baldwin, M; Parker, T G

    2005-03-01

    A survey of the contribution to external dose from gamma rays originating from intertidal sediments in the vicinity of the British Nuclear Group Sellafield site showed that the major anthropogenic contributions were due to (137)Cs and (60)Co. At some sites, traces of other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected, namely (106)Ru, (125)Sb, and (154)Eu. The proportions of fine grained material (<63 microm) were used to improve model predictions of dose contribution due to external exposure to gamma rays, using the CUMBRIA77/DOSE77 model. Model dose predictions were compared to those directly measured in the field. Using the new proportions of fine grained material (1-17.5%) in conjunction with field gamma-ray spectra, model predictions were improved considerably for most sites. Exceptions were at Drigg Barn Scar and Whitehaven Coal Sands sites, which had their own unique characteristics. The highest (60)Co activity concentrations in this study were detected at Drigg Barn Scar. These relatively high activity concentrations of (60)Co were due to the presence of (60)Co in mussels and barnacles, hence upsetting the fine sediment relationships used in previous dose calculations. Whitehaven Coal Sands was unusual in that it contained higher levels of radionuclides than would be expected in sandy sediment. The mineralogy of these sediments was the controlling factor on (137)Cs binding, rather than the proportion of fine grained material. By adjusting the effective fine grained sediment proportions for calculations involving (60)Co and (137)Cs at Drigg Barn Scar and Whitehaven Coal Sands respectively, the CUMBRIA77/DOSE77 model predictions could be improved upon significantly for these sites. This work highlights the influence of particle size and sediment composition on external dose rate calculations, as well as the potential for external dose contributions from biota. PMID:15798279

  19. Direct determination of 90Sr and 147Pm in Chernobyl hot particles collected in Kiev using beta absorption method.

    PubMed

    Papp, Z; Bolyós, A; Dezsó, Z; Daróczy, S

    1997-12-01

    59 hot particles were collected in Kiev, Ukraine, in 1987. All but one were prepared from a moss carpet of 360 cm2 area. Radionuclide composition of the hot particles was investigated by gamma-spectrometry and beta absorption method. Pure beta emitters 90Sr and 147Pm were determined in 25 hot particles measuring the beta absorption curves of the hot particles with an end-window Geiger-Müller counter and decomposing the curves in order to obtain the contributions of 90Sr and 147Pm to the total beta counting rate. All but one of the hot particles were found to be the debris of the fuel. The activity ratio 90Sr:l44Ce was 0.052 in good agreement with theoretical calculations on core inventories. This means that strontium behaved as a nonvolatile element in the process of the formation of the hot particles investigated. The activity ratio 147Pm:144Ce was 0.078 which is half of the theoretical result. Although 147Pm is considered to be a refractory nuclide, it seems that significant part of 147Pm went to the homogeneous fraction of the general fallout. The surface density of hot particles (of higher than about 50 Bq activity) was about 1,600 m(-2) and that of the activities of the nuclides 90Sr, 106Ru, 134Cs, 137Cs, 144Ce and 147Pm as components of hot particles was 12.2, 54.3, 5.9, 9.7, 234 and 18.3 kBq m(-2) (activity values counted for 26 April 1986), respectively, in downtown Kiev city in 1987. PMID:9373073

  20. Cardiac output is an apparent determinant of nitroglycerin pharmacokinetics in rats.

    PubMed

    Fung, H L; Blei, A; Chong, S

    1986-12-01

    The steady-state pharmacokinetics of nitroglycerin (NTG) were investigated in 11 rats after sequential infusions of either NTG alone (10 micrograms/kg/min) or NTG plus vasopressin (the latter at 5.5 mU/kg/min). Arterial and venous plasma concentrations of NTG in the femoral bed were obtained at 41 and 45 min during each infusion phase. Cardiac output was estimated twice in each animal using 85Sr and 141Ce microspheres. NTG systemic clearance in arterial plasma was found to be strongly correlated with cardiac output (r = 0.784, n = 22, P less than .001). Because NTG distribution between red blood cells and plasma was independent of concentration (up to 150 ng/ml in plasma) and hematocrit (25-48%), the systemic clearance of NTG in arterial blood could be estimated as about 3/4 of cardiac output. Vasopressin co-infusion decreased both the cardiac output and the arterial NTG plasma clearance, but it also increased the arteriovenous extraction of NTG. Thus, vasopressin had not net effect on the venous plasma clearance, of NTG. In animals with NTG infusions alone, cardiac output also significantly correlated with NTG venous plasma clearance (P less than .01) and arteriovenous extraction (P less than .05). These data indicate that, in the absence of vasopressin, NTG pharmacokinetics are dependent on the cardiac output, thus providing an example wherein the systemic clearance of a drug was shown to be related to systemic blood flow. These results support the concept that the vasculature acts as a clearing organ for organic nitrates, and they also provide a hemodynamic explanation for the high variability in NTG plasma concentrations observed under presumed steady-state conditions. PMID:3098960

  1. Influence of fentanyl and morphine on intestinal circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-06-01

    The influence of fentanyl and morphine on the intestinal circulation was evaluated in an isolated loop preparation in 37 dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital intravenously. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mm Hg. A mixture of /sup 86/Rb and 9-micron spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A strong correlation was found between the clearances of rubidium and microspheres (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001), suggesting that the shunting of 9-micron spheres through the intestines reflects the shunting of blood through nonnutritive vessels. Intravenous fentanyl decreased oxygen uptake (O/sub 2/up), and vascular resistance (VR), and increased blood flow (BF), rubidium and microsphere clearances (Cl-Rb, Cl-Sph, respectively), and permeability--surface area product (PS) in a dose-related fashion. Intravenous morphine in a dose of 1 mg X kg-1 increased Cl-Rb (nutritive BF) without changes in total (nutritive and nonnutritive) BF. This increase in nutritive BF is probably related to morphine-induced histamine release. Morphine in a dose of 5 mg X kg-1 was accompanied by vasoconstriction that was completely abolished by alpha-adrenoceptor blockade. The data suggest that morphine-induced intestinal vasoconstriction is mediated via a release of epinephrine, apparently from the adrenal medulla. It is concluded that changes in the intestinal circulation during anesthesia with narcotics might play a certain role in the cardiovascular homeostasis during anesthesia and surgery. An increase in oxygen content in portal venous blood, resulting from a decrease in intestinal oxygen uptake, should facilitate hepatic oxygenation.

  2. Determination of the Ce142(γ,n) cross section using quasi-monoenergetic Compton backscattered γ rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauerwein, A.; Sonnabend, K.; Fritzsche, M.; Glorius, J.; Kwan, E.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Rusev, G.; Savran, D.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.

    2014-03-01

    Background: Knowing the energy dependence of the (γ,n) cross section is mandatory to predict the abundances of heavy elements using astrophysical models. The data can be applied directly or used to constrain the cross section of the inverse (n,γ) reaction. Purpose: The measurement of the reaction Ce142(γ,n)141Ce just above the reaction threshold amends the existing experimental database in that mass region for p-process nucleosynthesis and helps to understand the s-process branching at the isotope Ce141. Method: The quasi-monoenergetic photon beam of the High Intensity γ-ray Source (HIγS), TUNL, USA, is used to irradiate naturally composed Ce targets. The reaction yield is determined afterwards with high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy. Results: The experimental data are in agreement with previous measurements at higher energies. Since the cross-section prediction of the Ce142(γ,n) reaction is exclusively sensitive to the γ-ray strength function, the resulting cross-section values were compared to Hauser-Feshbach calculations using different γ-ray strength functions. A microscopic description within the framework of the Hartree-Fock-BCS model describes the experimental values well within the measured energy range. Conclusions: The measured data show that the predicted (γ,n) reaction rate is correct within a factor of 2 even though the closed neutron shell N =82 is approached. This agreement allows us to constrain the (n,γ) cross section and to improve the understanding of the s-process branching at Ce141.

  3. Tracking translocation of industrially relevant engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) across alveolar epithelial monolayers in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Joel M.; Derk, Raymond; Wang, Liying; Godleski, John; Kobzik, Lester; Brain, Joseph; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the fate of industrially relevant engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the lungs. Inhalation exposure and subsequent translocation of ENMs across the epithelial lining layer of the lung might contribute to clearance, toxic effects or both. To allow precise quantitation of translocation across lung epithelial cells, we developed a method for tracking industrially-relevant metal oxide ENMs in vitro using neutron activation. The versatility and sensitivity of the proposed In Vitro Epithelial Translocation (INVET) system was demonstrated using a variety of industry relevant ENMs including CeO2 of various primary particle diameter, ZnO, and SiO2-coated-CeO2 and ZnO particles. ENMs were neutron activated, forming gamma emitting isotopes 141Ce and 65Zn respectively. Calu-3 lung epithelial cells cultured to confluency on transwell inserts were exposed to neutron-activated ENM dispersions at sub-lethal doses to investigate the link between ENM properties and translocation potential. The effects of ENM exposure on monolayer integrity was monitored by various methods. ENM translocation across the cellular monolayer was assessed by gamma spectrometry following 2, 4 and 24 hours of exposure. Our results demonstrate that ENMs translocated in small amounts (e.g. <0.01% of the delivered dose at 24 h), predominantly via transcellular pathways without compromising monolayer integrity or disrupting tight junctions. It was also demonstrated that the delivery of particles in suspension to cells in culture is proportional to translocation, emphasizing the importance of accurate dosimetry when comparing ENM-cellular interactions for large panels of materials. The reported INVET system for tracking industrially relevant ENMs while accounting for dosimetry can be a valuable tool for investigating nano-bio interactions in the future. PMID:24479615

  4. Problems in shallow land disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste in the united states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, P.R.; DeBuchananne, G.D.

    1976-01-01

    Disposal of solid low-level wastes containing radionuclides by burial in shallow trenches was initiated during World War II at several sites as a method of protecting personnel from radiation and isolating the radionuclides from the hydrosphere and biosphere. Today, there are 11 principal shallow-land burial sites in the United States that contain a total of more than 1.4 million cubic meters of solid wastes contaminated with a wide variety of radionuclides. Criteria for burial sites have been few and generalized and have contained only minimal hydrogeologic considerations. Waste-management practices have included the burial of small quantities of long-lived radionuclides with large volumes of wastes contaminated with shorter-lived nuclides at the same site, thereby requiring an assurance of extremely long-time containment for the entire disposal site. Studies at 4 of the 11 sites have documented the migration of radionuclides. Other sites are being studied for evidence of containment failure. Conditions at the 4 sites are summarized. In each documented instance of containment failure, ground water has probably been the medium of transport. Migrating radionuclides that have been identified include90Sr,137Cs,106Ru,239Pu,125Sb,60Co, and3H. Shallow land burial of solid wastes containing radionuclides can be a viable practice only if a specific site satisfies adequate hydrogeologic criteria. Suggested hydrogeologic criteria and the types of hydrogeologic data necessary for an adequate evaluation of proposed burial sites are given. It is mandatory that a concomitant inventory and classification be made of the longevity, and the physical and chemical form of the waste nuclides to be buried, in order that the anticipated waste types can be matched to the containment capability of the proposed sites. Ongoing field investigations at existing sites will provide data needed to improve containment at these sites and help develop hydrogeologic criteria for new sites. These

  5. Analysis of Radionuclide Migration through a 200-m Vadose Zone Following a 16-year Infiltration Event

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A B; Hudson, G B; Smith, D K; Hunt, J R

    2004-09-21

    The CAMBRIC nuclear test was conducted beneath Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site on May 14, 1965. The nuclear device was emplaced in heterogeneous alluvium, approximately 70 m beneath the ambient water table, which is itself 220 m beneath the ground surface. Approximately 10 years later, groundwater adjacent to the test was pumped steadily for 16 years to elicit information on the migration of residual radionuclide migration through the saturated zone. The pumping well effluent--containing mostly soluble radionuclides such as tritium, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 129}I, and {sup 106}Ru--was monitored, discharged to an unlined ditch, and allowed to flow towards Frenchman Lake over one kilometer away. Discharged water and radionuclides infiltrated into the ground and created an unexpected second experiment in which the migration of the effluent through the unsaturated zone back to the water table could be studied. In this paper, the pumping and effluent data are being utilized in conjunction with a series of geologic data, new radionuclide measurements, isotopic age-dating estimates, and vadose zone flow and transport models to better understand the movement of radionuclides between the ditch and the water table. Measurements of radionuclide concentrations in water samples produced from a water table monitoring well 100 m away from the ditch indicate rising levels of tritium since 1993. The detection of tritium in the monitoring well occurs approximately 16 years after its initial discharge into the ditch. Modeling and tritium age dating have suggested 3 to 5 years of this 16-year transit time occurred solely in the vadose zone. They also suggest considerable recirculation of the pumping well discharge back into the original pumping well. Notably, there have been no observations of {sup 14}C or {sup 85}Kr at the water table, suggesting their preferential retention or volatilization during transit to the water table. Overall, the long term nature of

  6. Inorganic, radioisotopic and organic analysis of 241-AP-101 tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    SK Fiskum; PR Bredt; JA Campbell; LR Greenwood; OT Farmer; GJ Lumetta; GM Mong; RT Ratner; CZ Soderquist; RG Swoboda; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-06-28

    Battelle received five samples from Hanford waste tank 241-AP-101, taken at five different depths within the tank. No visible solids or organic layer were observed in the individual samples. Individual sample densities were measured, then the five samples were mixed together to provide a single composite. The composite was homogenized and representative sub-samples taken for inorganic, radioisotopic, and organic analysis. All analyses were performed on triplicate sub-samples of the composite material. The sample composite did not contain visible solids or an organic layer. A subsample held at 10 C for seven days formed no visible solids. The characterization of the 241-AP-101 composite samples included: (1) Inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry for Ag, Al, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pd, Ru, Rh, Si, Sr, Ti, U, Zn, and Zr (Note: Although not specified in the test plan, As, B, Be, Co, Li, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, W, and Y were also measured and reported for information only) (2) Radioisotopic analyses for total alpha and total beta activities, {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Co, {sup 79}Se, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc as pertechnetate, {sup 106}Ru/Rh, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 155}Eu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242}Cm, and {sup 243+244}Cm; (3) Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry for {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 231}Pa, {sup 233}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 241}AMU, {sup 242}AMU, {sup 243}AMU, As, B, Be, Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, I, Li, Mo, Pr, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Te, Th, Tl, V, and W; (4) total U by kinetic phosphorescence analysis; (5) Ion chromatography for Cl, F, NO{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}, PO{sub 4}, SO{sub 4}, acetate, formate, oxalate, and citrate; (6) Density, inorganic carbon and organic carbon by two different methods, mercury, free hydroxide, ammonia, and cyanide. The 241-AP-101 composite met all

  7. Reconstruction of radionuclide contamination of the Techa River caused by liquid waste discharge from radiochemical production at the Mayak Production Association.

    PubMed

    Mokrov, Y; Glagolenko, Y; Napier, B

    2000-07-01

    than relying on a more uncertain reconstruction of quantities released at the point of discharge. Radionuclides considered include 90Sr, 106Ru, 137Cs, and 144Ce. Estimated concentrations of selected radionuclides at various times are presented. PMID:10855774

  8. Volatilities of ruthenium, iodine, and technetium on calcining fission product nitrate wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Rimshaw, S.J.; Case, F.N.

    1980-01-01

    Various high-level nitrate wastes were subjected to formic acid denitration. Formic acid reacts with the nitrate anion to yield noncondensable, inert gases according to the following equation: 4 HCOOH + 2 HNO/sub 3/ ..-->.. N/sub 2/O + 4 CO/sub 2/ + 5 H/sub 2/O. These gases can be scrubbed free of /sup 106/Ru, /sup 131/I, and /sup 99/Tc radioactivities prior to elimination from the plant by passage through HEPA filters. The formation of deleterious NO/sub x/ is avoided. Moreover, formic acid reduces ruthenium to a lower valence state with a sharp reduction in RuO/sub 4/ volatility during subsequent calcination of the pretreated waste. It is shown that a minimum of 3% of RuO/sub 4/ in an off-gas stream reacts with Davison silica gel (Grade 40) to give a fine RuO/sub 2/ aerosol having a particle size of 0.5 ..mu... This RuO/sub 2/ aerosol passes through water or weak acid scrub solutions but is trapped by a caustic scrub solution. Iodine volatilizes almost completely on calcining an acidic waste, and the iodine volatility increases with increasing calcination temperature. On calcining an alkaline sodium nitrate waste the iodine volatility is about an order of magnitude lower, with a relatively low iodine volatility of 0.39% at a calcination temperature of 250/sup 0/C and a moderate volatility of 9.5% at 600/sup 0/C. Volatilities of /sup 99/Tc were generally <1% on calcining acidic or basic wastes at temperatures of 250 to 600/sup 0/C. Data are presented to indicate that /sup 99/Tc concentrates in the alkaline sodium nitrate supernatant waste, with approx. 10 mg /sup 99/Tc being associated with each curie of /sup 137/Cs present in the waste. It is shown that lutidine (2,4 dimethyl-pyridine) extracts Tc(VII) quantitatively from alkaline supernatant wastes. The distribution coefficient (K/sub D/) for Tc(VII) going into the organic phase in the above system is 102 for a simulated West Valley waste and 191 for a simulated Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste.

  9. Analysis of Radionuclide Migration Through a 200-m Vadose Zone Following a 16-Year Infiltration Event

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A F B; Smith, D K; Hudson, G B

    2002-01-31

    The CAMBRIC nuclear test was conducted beneath Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site on May 14, 1965. The nuclear device was emplaced in heterogeneous alluvium, approximately 70 m beneath the ambient water table, which is itself 220 m beneath the ground surface. Approximately 10 years later, groundwater adjacent to the test was pumped steadily for 16 years to elicit information on radionuclide migration in the saturated zone. The pumping well effluent--containing mostly soluble radionuclides such as tritium, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 129}I, and {sup 106}Ru--was monitored, discharged to an unlined ditch, and allowed to flow towards Frenchman Lake just over one kilometer away. Water discharged into the ditch infiltrated into the ground during flow along the ditch. This created an unexpected and remarkable second experiment in which the migration of the effluent through the 220 meters of unsaturated media, or ''vadose zone'', back to the water table, could be studied. In this paper, the pumping and effluent data are being utilized in conjunction with a series of geologic data, new radionuclide measurements, isotopic age-dating estimates, and vadose zone flow and transport models to better understand the movement of radionuclides between the ditch and the water table. Measurements of radionuclide concentrations in water samples produced from a water table monitoring well 100m away from the ditch indicate rising levels of tritium since 1993. The detection of tritium in the monitoring well occurs approximately 16 years after its initial discharge into the ditch. Modeling and tritium age dating have suggested 3 to 5 years of this 16-year transit time occurred solely in the vadose zone. They also suggest considerable recirculation of the pumping well discharge back into the original pumping well. Surprisingly, no {sup 14}C was observed at the water table, suggesting its preferential retention, possibly due to precipitation or other chemical reaction, during

  10. Results of 1999 Spectral Gamma-Ray and Neutron Moisture Monitoring of Boreholes at Specific Retention Facilities in the 200 East Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    DG Horton; RR Randall

    2000-01-18

    Twenty-eight wells and boreholes in the 200 East Are% Hanford Site, Washington were monitored in 1999. The monitored facilities were past-practice liquid waste disposal facilities and consisted of six cribs and nineteen ''specific retention'' cribs and trenches. Monitoring consisted of spectral gamma-ray and neutron moisture logging. All data are included in Appendix B. The isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on spectral gamma logs from boreholes monitoring the PUREX specific retention facilities; the isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 125}Sb, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on the logs from boreholes at the BC Controlled Area cribs and trenches; and {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 125}Sb were, identified on the logs from boreholes at the BX specific retention trenches. Three boreholes in the BC Controlled Area and one at the BX trenches had previous spectral gamma logs available for comparison with 1999 logs. Two of those logs showed that changes in the subsurface distribution of {sup 137}CS and/or {sup 60}Co had occurred since 1992. Although the changes are not great, they do point to continued movement of contaminants in the vadose zone. The logs obtained in 1999 create a larger baseline for comparison with future logs. Numerous historical gross gamma logs exist from most of the boreholes logged. Qualitative comparison of those logs with the 1999 logs show many substantial changes, most of which reflect the decay of deeper short-lived isotopes, such as {sup 106}Ru and {sup 125}Sb, and the much slower decay of shallower and longer-lived isotopes such as {sup 137}Cs. The radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co have moved in two boreholes since 1992. Given the amount of movement and the half-lives of the isotopes, it is expected that they will decay to insignificant amounts before reaching groundwater. However, gamma ray logging cannot detect many of the contaminants of interest such as {sup 99}Tc, NO

  11. Extensions to the Beta Secondary Standard BSS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, R.; Buchholz, G.

    2011-11-01

    Since several years, the irradiation facility for beta radiation, the Beta Secondary Standard BSS 2 developed at PTB, has been in worldwide use for the performance of irradiations with calibrated beta sources. Due to recent developments in eye tumor therapy, in eye lens dosimetry, and in soft- and hardware technology, several extensions have been added to the BSS 2. These extensions are described in this paper: 1. The possibility of using a 106Ru/106Rh beta source was added as this radionuclide is often used in tumor therapy. 2. The (small) contribution due to photon radiation was included in the dose (rate) reported by the BSS 2, as this was missing in the past. 3. The quantity personal dose equivalent at a depth of 3 mm, Hp(3), was implemented due to recent findings on the radio sensitivity of the eye lens regarding cataract induction and the subsequent lowering of the dose limit from 150 mSv down to 20 mSv per year; 4. The correction for ambient conditions (air temperature, pressure, and relative humidity) was improved in order to adequately handle the quantity Hp(3) and in order to extend the range of use beyond 25°C. 5. A checksum test was added to the software to secure the calibration data against (un)intended changes. 6. The connection of the PC and the BSS 2 has been changed to a network interface (TCP/IP) in order to be able to use up-to-date computers not containing a parallel and a serial port. 7. A rod phantom was added in order to make sure the mechanical set-up is of high quality. All these extensions have been implemented in the PTB's BSS 2 model. The routine implementation of extension 1 is still under investigation by the manufacturer. The commercially available BSS 2 will contain extensions 2 to 6 starting approximately in 2012, while extension 7 has already been incorporated since 2011. Extensions 2 to 4 will also be available for old BSS 2 versions via a software update, starting approximately at the beginning of 2012. Extension 6 will be

  12. RESULTS FOR THE THIRD QUARTER 2009 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Diprete, C.; Bibler, N.

    2009-11-13

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2009 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. Recently, a review of the radionuclide inventory in Saltstone Vaults 1 and 4 identified several additional radionuclides, not currently in the WAC, which require quantification ({sup 40}K, {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 207}Bi, {sup 227}Ac, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, {sup 231}Pa, {sup 247}Cm, {sup 249}Cf, {sup 251}Cf). In addition, several of the radionuclides previously reported with minimum detection limits below the requirements listed in the WAC required analysis with reduced detection limits to support future inventory reporting requirements ({sup 22}Na, {sup 26}Al, {sup 59}Ni, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 155}Eu, {sup 226}Ra). This added scope was formally requested in a revision to the standing Technical Task Request for CY2009 Saltstone support and is further discussed in several supporting documents. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants are less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (2) The reported detection limits for {sup 59}Ni, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 247}Cm, and {sup 249}Cf are above the limits requested by LWO; however, they are below the achievable limits established by Analytical Development (AD). (3) The reported detection limit of isopropanol is lower than its WAC Limit for accident analysis in Appendix 8.1, but higher than its WAC concentration given in

  13. COMPARISON OF PROPOSED BARCT DESIGN FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT DEMONSTRACTION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (DBVS) WITH BARCT DESIGN ACCEPTED FOR WTP

    SciTech Connect

    SHUFORD, D.H.

    2004-09-16

    radionuclide inventory to be processed is less than 3% of the WTP radionuclide inventory, the DBVS and WTP airstream temperatures entering the melter to final stack discharge are similar during the vitrification process, the DBVS and WTP abatement control equipment's purpose and function are similar, the DBVS and WTP abatement design include two HEPA filters in series for control of particulates and aerosols, the WTP BARCT proposed no controls for emissions of radioactive gases <0.1 mrem/year, the WTP BARCT proposed using a caustic scrubber for control of radioactive gases >0.1 mrem/year ({sup 129}I), the DBVS radioactive gaseous emissions ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 129}I) are <0.1 mrem/year, the DBVS and WTP abatement design protect the HEPA filters. Based on this review, the selected abatement controls for the WTP and the proposed abatement controls for the DBVS project are similar in purpose and function. BARCT is being incorporated into the design of the DBVS project. The design of the DBVS and WTP offgas systems are similar with the exception of the equipment selected for airstream cooling. The WTP utilizes a submerged bed scrubber and the DBVS utilizes a quencher. It is requested that the Washington State Department of Health concur the proposed DBVS abatement controls meet the BARCT requirements.

  14. Patterns of Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in conjugated landscape systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, E.

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of the study was to reveal spatial patterns of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in soils and plants of conjugated landscapes and to use 137Cs as a tracer for natural migration and accumulation processes in the environment. The studies were based on presumptions that: 1) the environment consisted of interrelated bio- and geochemical fields of hierarchical structure depending on the level and age of factors responsible for spatial distribution of chemical elements; 2)distribution of technogenic radionuclides in natural landscapes depended upon the location and type of the initial source and radionuclide involvement in natural pathways controlled by the state and mobility of the typomorphic elements and water migration. Case studies were undertaken in areas subjected to contamination after the Chernobyl accident and in the estuary zones of the Yenisey and Pechora rivers. First observations in the Chernobyl remote zone in 1987-1989 demonstrated relation between the dose rate, 137Cs, 134Cs, 144Ce, 106Ru, 125Sb in soil cover and the location of the measured plot in landscape toposequence. Later study of 137Cs and 90Sr concentration and speciation confirmed different patterns of their distribution dependent upon the radioisotope, soil features and vegetation cover corresponding to the local landscape and landuse structure. Certain patterns in distribution and migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in soils and local food chain were followed in private farms situated in different landscape position [1]. Detailed study of 137Cs activity in forested site with a pronounced relief 20 and 25 years after the Chernobyl accident showed its stable polycentric structure in soils, mosses and litter which was sensitive to meso- and micro-relief features [2]. Radionuclide contamination of the lower Yenisey and Pechora studied along meridian landscape transects proved both areas be subjected to global 137Cs pollution while the Yenisey floodplain received additional regional contamination

  15. SALTSTONE VAULT CLASSIFICATION SAMPLES MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT/ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS WASTE STREAM APRIL 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.

    2011-09-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained by SRNL on April 5, 2011 (Tank 50H sampling occurred on April 4, 2011) during 2QCY11 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout and for additional vault classification analyses. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B&W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. Additional inorganic species determined by B&W TSG-RACL include aluminum, boron, chloride, cobalt, copper, fluoride, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate/nitrite as Nitrogen, strontium, sulfate, uranium, and zinc and the following radionuclides: gross alpha, gross beta/gamma, 3H, 60Co, 90Sr, 99Tc, 106Ru, 106Rh, 125Sb, 137Cs, 137mBa, 154Eu, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 241Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 243/244Cm. B&W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the VOCs benzene, toluene, and 1-butanol. GEL also determines phenol (total) and the following radionuclides: 147Pm, 226Ra and 228Ra. Preparation of the 2QCY11 saltstone samples for the quarterly analysis and for vault classification purposes and the subsequent TCLP analyses of these samples showed that: (1) The saltstone waste form disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility in 2QCY11 was not characteristically hazardous for toxicity. (2) The concentrations of the eight RCRA metals and UHCs identified as possible in the saltstone waste form were present at levels below the UTS. (3) Most of the