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Sample records for 10b states analogue

  1. Analysis of T = 1 {sup 10}B States Analogue to {sup 10}Be Cluster States

    SciTech Connect

    Uroic, M.; Miljanic, D.; Blagus, S.; Bogovac, M.; Prepolec, L.; Skukan, N.; Soic, N.; Majer, M.; Milin, M.; Lattuada, M.; Musumarra, A.; Acosta, L.

    2009-08-26

    Current status of the search for T = 1 cluster states in {sup 10}Be, {sup 10}B and {sup 10}C is presented. The best known of the three, {sup 10}Be, has an established rotational band (6.18, 7.54 and 10.15 MeV) with unusually large moment of inertia. Search of their isobaric analogue in {sup 10}B is presented, with emphasis on {sup 3}He+{sup 11}B reaction.

  2. Excited state dynamics of brightly fluorescent second generation epicocconone analogues.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Soumit; Karuso, Peter; Boulangé, Agathe; Franck, Xavier; Datta, Anindya

    2015-05-21

    The natural product epicocconone, owing to its unique fluorescence properties, has been developed into a range of products used in biotechnology, especially proteomics. However, its weak green fluorescence in its native state, while advantageous for proteomics applications, is a disadvantage in other applications that require two-color readouts. Here we report the photophysical characterization of two brightly fluorescent analogues of epicocconone. These analogues, with naphthyl or pyridyl groups replacing the heptatriene chain, resulted in bright fluorescence in both the native state and the long Stokes shifted enamine. Time-resolved fluorescence studies and DFT calculations were carried out to understand the excited state processes involved in fluorescence. Results showed the p-chloro group on the pyridyl is responsible for the high fluorescence of the native fluorophore. The application of one of these compounds for staining electrophoresis gels is exemplified. PMID:25902354

  3. OptZyme: Computational Enzyme Redesign Using Transition State Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Grisewood, Matthew J.; Gifford, Nathanael P.; Pantazes, Robert J.; Li, Ye; Cirino, Patrick C.; Janik, Michael J.; Maranas, Costas D.

    2013-01-01

    OptZyme is a new computational procedure for designing improved enzymatic activity (i.e., kcat or kcat/KM) with a novel substrate. The key concept is to use transition state analogue compounds, which are known for many reactions, as proxies for the typically unknown transition state structures. Mutations that minimize the interaction energy of the enzyme with its transition state analogue, rather than with its substrate, are identified that lower the transition state formation energy barrier. Using Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase as a benchmark system, we confirm that KM correlates (R2 = 0.960) with the computed interaction energy between the enzyme and the para-nitrophenyl- β, D-glucuronide substrate, kcat/KM correlates (R2 = 0.864) with the interaction energy of the transition state analogue, 1,5-glucarolactone, and kcat correlates (R2 = 0.854) with a weighted combination of interaction energies with the substrate and transition state analogue. OptZyme is subsequently used to identify mutants with improved KM, kcat, and kcat/KM for a new substrate, para-nitrophenyl- β, D-galactoside. Differences between the three libraries reveal structural differences that underpin improving KM, kcat, or kcat/KM. Mutants predicted to enhance the activity for para-nitrophenyl- β, D-galactoside directly or indirectly create hydrogen bonds with the altered sugar ring conformation or its substituents, namely H162S, L361G, W549R, and N550S. PMID:24116038

  4. Potential transition state analogue inhibitors for the penicillin-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Pechenov, Aleksandr; Stefanova, Miglena E; Nicholas, Robert A; Peddi, Sridhar; Gutheil, William G

    2003-01-21

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are ubiquitous bacterial enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis. The development of new PBP inhibitors is a potentially viable strategy for developing new antibacterial agents. Several potential transition state analogue inhibitors for the PBPs were synthesized, including peptide chloromethyl ketones, trifluoromethyl ketones, aldehydes, and boronic acids. These agents were characterized chemically, stereochemically, and as inhibitors of a set of low molecular mass PBPs: Escherichia coli (EC) PBP 5, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) PBP 3, and NG PBP 4. A peptide boronic acid was the most effective PBP inhibitor in the series, with a preference observed for a d-boroAla-based over an l-boroAla-based inhibitor, as expected given that physiological PBP substrates are based on d-Ala at the cleavage site. The lowest K(I) of 370 nM was obtained for NG PBP 3 inhibition by Boc-l-Lys(Cbz)-d-boroAla (10b). Competitive inhibition was observed for this enzyme-inhibitor pair, as expected for an active site-directed inhibitor. For the three PBPs included in this study, an inverse correlation was observed between the values for log K(I) with 10b and the values for log(k(cat)/K(m)) for activity against the analogous substrate, and K(m)/K(I) ratios were 90, 1900, and 9600 for NG PBP 4, EC PBP 5, and NG PBP 3, respectively. These results demonstrate that peptide boronic acids can be effective transition state analogue inhibitors for the PBPs and provide a basis for the use of these agents as probes of PBP structure, function, and mechanism, as well as a possible basis for the development of new PBP-targeted antibacterial agents. PMID:12525187

  5. Martin B-10B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1935-01-01

    Martin B-10B: Although the front turret looks like it may have bee too high, the drag of the Martin B-10 bomber was low enough for it to have been faster than any U. S. Fighter when it was first ordered in January 1933. The NACA flew one of these B-10Bs in 1937 at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory.

  6. Phosphonate analogues of carboxypeptidase A substrates are potent transition-state analogue inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hanson, J E; Kaplan, A P; Bartlett, P A

    1989-07-25

    Analogues of tri- and tetrapeptide substrates of carboxypeptidase A in which the scissile peptide linkage is replaced with a phosphonate moiety (-PO2--O-) were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of the enzyme. The inhibitors terminated with either L-lactate or L-phenyllactate [designated (O) Ala and (O) Phe, respectively] in the P1' position. Transition-state analogy was shown for a series of 14 tri- and tetrapeptide derivatives containing the structure RCO-AlaP-(O)Ala [RCO-AP(O)A, AP indicates the phosphonic acid analogue of alanine] by the correlation of the Ki values for the inhibitors and the Km/kcat values for the corresponding amide substrates. This correlation supports a transition state for the enzymatic reaction that resembles the tetrahedral intermediate formed upon addition of water to the scissile carbonyl group. The inhibitors containing (O) Phe at the P1' position proved to be the most potent reversible inhibitors of carboxypeptidase A reported to date: the dissociation constants of ZAFP(O)F, ZAAP(O)F, and ZFAP(O)F are 4, 3, and 1 pM, respectively. Because of the high affinity of these inhibitors, their dissociation constants could not be determined by steady-state methods. Instead, the course of the association and dissociation processes was monitored for each inhibitor as its equilibrium with the enzyme was established in both the forward and reverse directions. A phosphonamidate analogue, ZAAPF, in which the peptide linkage is replaced with a -PO2-NH- moiety, was prepared and shown to hydrolyze rapidly at neutral pH (t1/2 = 20 min at pH 7.5). This inhibitor is bound an order of magnitude less tightly than the corresponding phosphonate, ZAAP(O)F, a result that contrasts with the 840-fold higher affinity of phosphonamidates for thermolysin [Bartlett, P. A., & Marlowe, C. K. (1987) Science 235, 569-571], a zinc peptidase with a similar arrangement of active-site catalytic residues. PMID:2790000

  7. A Transition State Analogue for an RNA-Editing Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Haudenschild, Brittany L.; Maydanovych, Olena; Véliz, Eduardo A.; Macbeth, Mark R.; Bass, Brenda L.; Beal, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Deamination at C6 of adenosine in RNA catalyzed by the ADAR enzymes generates inosine at the corresponding position. Because inosine is decoded as guanosine during translation, this modification can lead to codon changes in messenger RNA. Hydration of 8-azanebularine across the C6–N1 double bond generates an excellent mimic of the transition state proposed for the hydrolytic deamination reaction catalyzed by ADARs. Here, we report the synthesis of a phosphoramidite of 8-azanebularine and its use in the preparation of RNAs mimicking the secondary structure found at a known editing site in the glutamate receptor B subunit pre-mRNA. The binding properties of analogue-containing RNAs indicate that a tight binding ligand for an ADAR can be generated by incorporation of 8-azanebularine. The observed high-affinity binding is dependent on a functional active site, the presence of one, but not the other, of ADAR2’s two double-stranded RNA-binding motifs (dsRBMs), and the correct placement of the nucleoside analogue into the sequence/structural context of a known editing site. These results advance our understanding of substrate recognition during ADAR-catalyzed RNA editing and are important for structural studies of ADAR· RNA complexes. PMID:15355102

  8. QM/MM Analysis of Transition States and Transition State Analogues in Metalloenzymes.

    PubMed

    Roston, D; Cui, Q

    2016-01-01

    Enzymology is approaching an era where many problems can benefit from computational studies. While ample challenges remain in quantitatively predicting behavior for many enzyme systems, the insights that often come from computations are an important asset for the enzymology community. Here we provide a primer for enzymologists on the types of calculations that are most useful for mechanistic problems in enzymology. In particular, we emphasize the integration of models that range from small active-site motifs to fully solvated enzyme systems for cross-validation and dissection of specific contributions from the enzyme environment. We then use a case study of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase to illustrate specific application of the methods. The case study involves examination of the binding modes of putative transition state analogues (tungstate and vanadate) to the enzyme. The computations predict covalent binding of these ions to the enzymatic nucleophile and that they adopt the trigonal bipyramidal geometry of the expected transition state. By comparing these structures with transition states found through free energy simulations, we assess the degree to which the transition state analogues mimic the true transition states. Technical issues worth treating with care as well as several remaining challenges to quantitative analysis of metalloenzymes are also highlighted during the discussion. PMID:27498640

  9. Anomalous transition in {sup 10}B

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.

    1995-08-01

    The transitions between the J,T = 3,0 ground state of {sup 10}B and the 3,0 state at 4.77 MeV present some puzzling features. The gamma transition between the states is of unknown multipolarity and very weak, with a strength of only 0.1 WU even if it is a pure E2. The shell model with the Cohen-Kurath POT interaction predicts a nearly pure E2 transition but with a transition probability about 4 times too strong. Recent inelastic pion scattering experiments on {sup 10}B excited this state with a strength only one tenth the value predicted by the shell model. It was found that these weak transitions are very sensitive to the wave functions and that orthogonally mixing the states with an intensity of 2% can satisfy both the pion scattering and the {gamma} decay (60% E2, 40% M1).

  10. Transition State Analogues of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase: the Work of Vernon L. Schramm

    PubMed Central

    Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Transition State Analogue Inhibitors of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase from Plasmodium falciparum (Kicska, G. A., Tyler, P. C., Evans, G. B., Furneaux, R. H., Kim, K., and Schramm, V. L. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 3219–3225) Purine-less Death in Plasmodium falciparum Induced by Immucillin-H, a Transition State Analogue of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (Kicska, G. A., Tyler, P. C., Evans, G. B., Furneaux, R. H., Schramm, V. L., and Kim, K. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 3226–3231) Achieving the Ultimate Physiological Goal in Transition State Analogue Inhibitors for Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (Lewandowicz, A., Tyler, P. C., Evans, G. B., Furneaux, R. H., and Schramm, V. L. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 31465–31468)

  11. Four Generations of Transition State Analogues for Human Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, M.; Shi, W; Rinaldo-Mathis, A; Tyler, P; Evans, G; Almo, S; Schramm, V

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) stops growth of activated T-cells and the formation of 6-oxypurine bases, making it a target for leukemia, autoimmune disorders, and gout. Four generations of ribocation transition-state mimics bound to PNP are structurally characterized. Immucillin-H (K*{sub i} = 58 pM, first-generation) contains an iminoribitol cation with four asymmetric carbons. DADMe-Immucillin-H (K*{sub i} = 9 pM, second-generation), uses a methylene-bridged dihydroxypyrrolidine cation with two asymmetric centers. DATMe-Immucillin-H (K*{sub i} = 9 pM, third-generation) contains an open-chain amino alcohol cation with two asymmetric carbons. SerMe-ImmH (K*{sub i} = 5 pM, fourth-generation) uses achiral dihydroxyaminoalcohol seramide as the ribocation mimic. Crystal structures of PNPs establish features of tight binding to be; (1) ion-pair formation between bound phosphate (or its mimic) and inhibitor cation, (2) leaving-group interactions to N1, O6, and N7 of 9-deazahypoxanthine, (3) interaction between phosphate and inhibitor hydroxyl groups, and (4) His257 interacting with the 5{prime}-hydroxyl group. The first generation analogue is an imperfect fit to the catalytic site with a long ion pair distance between the iminoribitol and bound phosphate and weaker interactions to the leaving group. Increasing the ribocation to leaving-group distance in the second- to fourth-generation analogues provides powerful binding interactions and a facile synthetic route to powerful inhibitors. Despite chemical diversity in the four generations of transition-state analogues, the catalytic site geometry is almost the same for all analogues. Multiple solutions in transition-state analogue design are available to convert the energy of catalytic rate enhancement to binding energy in human PNP.

  12. Nematic order-disorder state transition in a liquid crystal analogue formed by oriented and migrating amoeboid cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemkemer, R.; Teichgräber, V.; Schrank-Kaufmann, S.; Kaufmann, D.; Gruler, H.

    2000-10-01

    In cell culture, liquid crystal analogues are formed by elongated, migrating, and interacting amoeboid cells. An apolar nematic liquid crystal analogue is formed by different cell types like human melanocytes (=pigment cells of the skin), human fibroblasts (=connective tissue cells), human osteoblasts (=bone cells), human adipocytes (=fat cells), etc. The nematic analogue is quite well described by i) a stochastic machine equation responsible for cell orientation and ii) a self-organized extracellular guiding signal, E_2, which is proportional to the orientational order parameter as well as to the cell density. The investigations were mainly made with melanocytes. The transition to an isotropic state analogue can be accomplished either by changing the strength of interaction (e.g. variation of the cell density) or by influencing the cellular machinery by an externally applied signal: i) An isotropic gaseous state analogue is observed at low cell density (ρ < 110melanocytes/mm^2) and a nematic liquid crystal state analogue at higher cell density. ii) The nematic state analogue disappears if the bipolar shaped melanocytes are forced to become a star-like shape (induced by colchicine or staurosporine). The analogy between nematic liquid crystal state analogue formed by elongated, migrating and interacting cells and the nematic liquid crystal phase formed by interacting elongated molecules is discussed.

  13. Stationary bound states of massless scalar fields around black holes and black hole analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benone, Carolina L.; Crispino, Luís C. B.; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Radu, Eugen

    2015-06-01

    We discuss stationary bound states, a.k.a. clouds, for a massless test scalar field around Kerr black holes (BHs) and spinning acoustic BH analogues. In view of the absence of a mass term, the trapping is achieved via enclosing the BH — scalar field system in a cavity and imposing Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions. We discuss the variation of these bounds states with the discrete parameters that label them, as well as their spatial distribution, complementing results in our previous work [C. L. Benone, L. C. B. Crispino, C. Herdeiro and E. Radu, Phys. Rev. D91 (2015) 104038].

  14. Modern Climate Analogues of Late-Quaternary Paleoclimates for the Western United States.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Cary Jeffrey

    This study examined spatial variations of modern and late-Quaternary climates for the western United States. Synoptic climatological analyses of the modern record identified the predominate climatic controls that normally produce the principal modes of spatial climatic variability. They also provided a modern standard to assess past climates. Maps of the month-to-month changes in 500 mb heights, sea-level pressure, temperature, and precipitation illustrated how different climatic controls govern the annual cycle of climatic response. The patterns of precipitation ratios, precipitation bar graphs, and the seasonal precipitation maximum provided additional insight into how different climatic controls influence spatial climatic variations. Synoptic-scale patterns from general circulation model (GCM) simulations or from analyses of climatic indices were used as the basis for finding modern climate analogues for 18 ka and 9 ka. Composite anomaly maps of atmospheric circulation, precipitation, and temperature were compared with effective moisture maps compiled from proxy data to infer how the patterns, which were evident from the proxy data, were generated. The analyses of the modern synoptic climatology indicate that smaller-scale climatic controls must be considered along with larger-scale ones in order to explain patterns of spatial climate heterogeneity. Climatic extremes indicate that changes in the spatial patterns of precipitation seasonality are the exception rather than the rule, reflecting the strong influence of smaller-scale controls. Modern climate analogues for both 18 ka and 9 ka clearly depict the dry Northwest/wet Southwest contrast that is suggested by GCM simulations and paleoclimatic evidence. 18 ka analogues also show the importance of smaller-scale climatic controls in explaining spatial climatic variation in the Northwest and northern Great Plains. 9 ka analogues provide climatological explanations for patterns of spatial heterogeneity over several

  15. Transition state analogues in structures of ricin and saporin ribosome-inactivating proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Meng-Chiao; Sturm, Matthew B.; Almo, Steven C.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2010-01-12

    Ricin A-chain (RTA) and saporin-L1 (SAP) catalyze adenosine depurination of 28S rRNA to inhibit protein synthesis and cause cell death. We present the crystal structures of RTA and SAP in complex with transition state analogue inhibitors. These tight-binding inhibitors mimic the sarcin-ricin recognition loop of 28S rRNA and the dissociative ribocation transition state established for RTA catalysis. RTA and SAP share unique purine-binding geometry with quadruple {pi}-stacking interactions between adjacent adenine and guanine bases and 2 conserved tyrosines. An arginine at one end of the {pi}-stack provides cationic polarization and enhanced leaving group ability to the susceptible adenine. Common features of these ribosome-inactivating proteins include adenine leaving group activation, a remarkable lack of ribocation stabilization, and conserved glutamates as general bases for activation of the H{sub 2}O nucleophile. Catalytic forces originate primarily from leaving group activation evident in both RTA and SAP in complex with transition state analogues.

  16. The Origin of Bond Selectivity and Excited-State Reactivity in Retinal Analogues.

    PubMed

    Schapiro, Igor

    2016-05-19

    The effect of different conformations and substitutions on the photoisomerization of a retinal protonated Schiff base model is investigated by nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulations. Three groups of retinal analogues are studied: (i) conformational isomers, (ii) methyl-substituted retinals, and (iii) C11-C12 bond locked retinals. In total 259 trajectories are calculated in the gas phase starting from different initial conditions. The effect on bond selectivity, the directionality of the isomerization, excited-state lifetime, and product distribution is derived from the ensemble of trajectories. Among the group of four isomers (9-, 11-, 13-cis, and all-trans) the 11-cis analogue is the most selective in terms of isomerizing double bond, while the other three produce a mixture of isomers. However, there is no preference for isomerization directionality and the product formation for the 11-cis isomer. In the group of analogues with different methylation patterns, it is found that a methyl group at position C10 can introduce unidirectionality. This methyl group also speeds the photoisomerization. In case of the analogue that is demethylated at the positions C10 and C13, all trajectories isomerize successfully from cis to trans conformation. The three C11-C12 bond locked retinals are found to have very different properties, which depend on the number of methylene units bridging this bond. The five-membered ring imposes a too-large restriction; hence, all trajectories remain on the excited state in the simulation time of 300 fs. The seven-membered ring is more flexible with preference for isomerization of the C9-C10 bond. Interestingly, the eight-membered ring leads to the fastest isomerization time and full directionality of C11-C12 bond isomerization. The trends observed in these simulations can help to understand whether the effects are intrinsic to the chromophore or are induced by the protein environment, by comparing to the trends from experiment. Furthermore

  17. Mapping visual analogue scale health state valuations onto standard gamble and time trade-off values.

    PubMed

    Dolan, P; Sutton, M

    1997-05-01

    Despite becoming increasingly common in evaluations of health care, different methods of quantitatively measuring health status appear to produce different valuations for identical descriptions of health. This paper reports on a study that elicited health state valuations from the general public using three different methods: the visual analogue scale (VAS), the standard gamble (SG) and the time trade-off (TTO). Two variants of the SG and TTO were tested: Props (using specially designed boards and cards); and No Props (using a self-completion booklet). This paper focuses on empirical relationships between health state valuations from the VAS and the (four) other methods. The relationships were estimated using Tobit regression of individual-level data. In contrast to a priori expectations, the mapping functions estimated suggest that differences are more pronounced across variant than across method. Furthermore, relationships with VAS scores are found to depend on the severity of the state: TTO Props valuations are higher than VAS responses for mild states and lower for more severe states; SG Props valuations are broadly similar to VAS scores over a wide range; and No Props responses are consistently higher than VAS valuations, particularly for more severe states. Explanations are proposed for these findings. PMID:9160441

  18. Two-proton decay of the isobaric analogue state of 31Ar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukha, I.; Axelsson, L.; Äystö, J.; Bergmann, U. C.; Borge, M. J. G.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Honkanen, A.; Hornshøj, P.; Jading, Y.; Jonson, B.; Jokinen, A.; Martel, I.; Oinonen, M.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Petersen, B.; Riisager, K.; Siiskonen, T.; Smedberg, M. H.; Tengblad, O.; Wenander, F.; Isolde Collaboration

    1998-02-01

    We have studied several two proton branches in the β-decay of 31Ar, the most intensive ones proceeding through the isobaric analogue state (IAS) in 31Cl. The energy and angular correlations of the two protons originating from the IAS have been measured. An indication of non-isotropic emission has been observed in the p+p+ 29P branch. The energy spectra of protons from the IAS 2p-branches seem to be continuous, which is difficult to explain by a sequential emission through a few intermediate levels in 30S. The model of non-sequential or democratic three-particle decay gives the best fit to the present data favoring the IAS spin-parity {5}/{2 +}.

  19. Isospin nonconserving interaction in the T =1 analogue states of the mass-70 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, K.; Sun, Y.; Mizusaki, T.; Tazaki, S.

    2014-03-01

    Mirror energy differences (MEDs) and triplet energy differences (TEDs) in the T =1 analogue states are important probes of isospin-symmetry breaking. Inspired by the recent spectroscopic data of 66Se, we investigate these quantities for A =66-78 nuclei with large-scale shell-model calculations. For the first time, we find clear evidence suggesting that the isospin nonconserving (INC) nuclear force has a significant effect for the upper fp shell region. Detailed analysis shows that, in addition to the INC force, the electromagnetic spin-orbit interaction plays an important role for the large, negative MED in A =66 and 70 and the multipole Coulomb term contributes to the negative TED in all the T =1 triplet nuclei. The INC force and its strength needed to reproduce the experimental data are compared with those from the G-matrix calculation using the modern charge-dependent nucleon-nucleon forces.

  20. Measurement of 10B content in thin-film 10B samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guohui; Liu, Jiaming; Xue, Zhihua; Wu, Hao; Liu, Yuxiao; Yuan, Xi; Liu, Xiang

    2011-06-01

    Two thin-film (10)B samples on tantalum backings were made for measurement of cross sections of the (10)B(n,α)(7)Li reaction in the MeV neutron energy region. The number of (10)B atoms in the samples was determined using the relative comparison method by detecting alpha and triton particles from thermal neutron induced nuclear reactions of (10)B(n(th),α)(7)Li and (6)Li(n(th),t)(4)He with a (6)LiF sample as the reference. A twin gridded ionization chamber was used as the detector of charged particles. PMID:21353786

  1. Inhibition and structure of Trichomonas vaginalis purine nucleoside phosphorylase with picomolar transition state analogues.

    PubMed

    Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes; Wing, Corin; Ghanem, Mahmoud; Deng, Hua; Wu, Peng; Gupta, Arti; Tyler, Peter C; Evans, Gary B; Furneaux, Richard H; Almo, Steven C; Wang, Ching C; Schramm, Vern L

    2007-01-23

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan purine auxotroph possessing a unique purine salvage pathway consisting of a bacterial type purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and a purine nucleoside kinase. Thus, T. vaginalis PNP (TvPNP) functions in the reverse direction relative to the PNPs in other organisms. Immucillin-A (ImmA) and DADMe-Immucillin-A (DADMe-ImmA) are transition state mimics of adenosine with geometric and electrostatic features that resemble early and late transition states of adenosine at the transition state stabilized by TvPNP. ImmA demonstrates slow-onset tight-binding inhibition with TvPNP, to give an equilibrium dissociation constant of 87 pM, an inhibitor release half-time of 17.2 min, and a Km/Kd ratio of 70,100. DADMe-ImmA resembles a late ribooxacarbenium ion transition state for TvPNP to give a dissociation constant of 30 pM, an inhibitor release half-time of 64 min, and a Km/Kd ratio of 203,300. The tight binding of DADMe-ImmA supports a late SN1 transition state. Despite their tight binding to TvPNP, ImmA and DADMe-ImmA are weak inhibitors of human and P. falciparum PNPs. The crystal structures of the TvPNP x ImmA x PO4 and TvPNP x DADMe-ImmA x PO4 ternary complexes differ from previous structures with substrate analogues. The tight binding with DADMe-ImmA is in part due to a 2.7 A ionic interaction between a PO4 oxygen and the N1' cation of the hydroxypyrrolidine and is weaker in the TvPNP x ImmA x PO4 structure at 3.5 A. However, the TvPNP x ImmA x PO4 structure includes hydrogen bonds between the 2'-hydroxyl and the protein that are not present in TvPNP x DADMe-ImmA x PO4. These structures explain why DADMe-ImmA binds tighter than ImmA. Immucillin-H is a 12 nM inhibitor of TvPNP but a 56 pM inhibitor of human PNP. And this difference is explained by isotope-edited difference infrared spectroscopy with [6-18O]ImmH to establish that O6 is the keto tautomer in TvPNP x ImmH x PO4, causing an unfavorable leaving-group interaction

  2. The spin-free analogue of Mukherjee's state-specific multireference coupled cluster theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Dipayan; Mukherjee, Debashis

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we develop a rigorously spin-adapted version of Mukherjee's state-specific multireference coupled cluster theory (SS-MRCC, also known as Mk-MRCC) [U. S. Mahapatra, B. Datta, and D. Mukherjee, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 6171 (1999)] for reference spaces comprising open-shell configurations. The principal features of our approach are as follows: (1) The wave operator Ω is written as Ω = ∑μΩμ|ϕμ>cμ, where {ϕμ} is the set of configuration state functions spanning a complete active space. (2) In contrast to the Jeziorski-Monkhorst Ansatz in spin-orbital basis, we write Ωμ as a power series expansion of cluster operators Rμ defined in terms of spin-free unitary generators. (3) The operators Rμ are either closed-shell-like n hole-n particle excitations (denoted as Tμ) or they involve valence (active) destruction operators (denoted as Sμ); these latter type of operators can have active-active scatterings, which can also carry the same active orbital labels (such Sμ's are called to have spectator excitations). (4) To simulate multiple excitations involving powers of cluster operators, we allow the Sμ's carrying the same active orbital labels to contract among themselves. (5) We exclude Sμ's with direct spectator scatterings. (6) Most crucially, the factors associated with contracted composites are chosen as the inverse of the number of ways the Sμ's can be joined among one another leading to the same excitation. The factors introduced in (6) have been called the automorphic factors by us. One principal thrust of this paper is to show that the use of the automorphic factors imparts a remarkable simplicity to the final amplitude equations: the equations consist of terms that are at most quartic in cluster amplitudes, barring only a few. In close analogy to the Mk-MRCC theory, the inherent linear dependence of the cluster amplitudes leading to redundancy is resolved by invoking sufficiency conditions, which are exact spin-free analogues of the

  3. One- and two-step mechanisms of the 9Be( 12C, 11B) 10B reaction at Elab( 12C)=65 MeV and the energy dependence of 11,10B+ 10B interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudchik, A. T.; Momotyuk, O. A.; Budzanowski, A.; Chernievsky, V. K.; Koshchy, E. I.; Mokhnach, A. V.; Ziman, V. A.; Kliczewski, S.; Siudak, R.; Skwirczyńska, I.; Szczurek, A.; Makowska-Rzeszutko, M.; G l̵owacka, L.; Turkiewicz, J.

    2000-09-01

    Angular distributions of the 9Be( 12C, 11B) 10B reaction were measured at the energy of Elab( 12C)=65 MeV for transitions to the ground and 0.72 MeV (1 +), 1.74 MeV (0 +, T=1), 3.59 MeV (2 +) excited states of the 10B nucleus and 2.12 MeV (1/2 -)+2.15 MeV (1 +) excited states of 11B and 10B nuclei, respectively. Data were analyzed within the coupled reaction channel (CRC) model including one- and two-step transfer mechanisms. The elastic and inelastic scattering and p-, d-, (d + n)-, (n + p)-, ( 3He + p)- and ( 3He + d)-transfer mechanisms were included in the coupled channel scheme. It was found that two-step processes are important for all transitions. Data of 10B+ 10B elastic scattering from the literature were included in the analysis of the energy dependence of optical model parameters for 10B+ 10B and 10B+ 11B interactions. A good description of all sets of experimental data was achieved.

  4. Effects of Wnt-10b on proliferation and differentiation of murine melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Misu, Masayasu; Ouji, Yukiteru; Kawai, Norikazu; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Yoshikawa, Masahide

    2015-08-07

    In spite of the strong expression of Wnt-10b in melanomas, its role in melanoma cells has not been elucidated. In the present study, the biological effects of Wnt-10b on murine B16F10 (B16) melanoma cells were investigated using conditioned medium from Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-CM). After 2 days of culture in the presence of Wnt-CM, proliferation of B16 melanoma cells was inhibited, whereas tyrosinase activity was increased. An in vitro wound healing assay demonstrated that migration of melanoma cells to the wound area was inhibited with the addition of Wnt-CM. Furthermore, evaluation of cellular senescence revealed prominent induction of SA-β-gal-positive senescent cells in cultures with Wnt-CM. Finally, the growth of B16 melanoma cell aggregates in collagen 3D-gel cultures was markedly suppressed in the presence of Wnt-CM. These results suggest that Wnt-10b represses tumor cell properties, such as proliferation and migration of B16 melanoma cells, driving them toward a more differentiated state along a melanocyte lineage. - Highlights: • Wnt-10b inhibited proliferation and migration of melanoma cells. • Wnt-10b induced tyrosinase activity and senescence of melanoma cells. • Wnt-10b suppressed growth of cell aggregates in collagen 3D-gel cultures. • Wnt-10b represses tumor cell properties, driving them toward a more differentiated state along a melanocyte lineage.

  5. Novel Convenient Synthesis of (10)B-Enriched Sodium Borohydride.

    PubMed

    Safronov, Alexander V; Jalisatgi, Satish S; Hawthorne, M Frederick

    2016-06-01

    A convenient and efficient synthesis of (10)B-enriched sodium borohydride [Na(10)BH4] from commercially available (10)B-enriched boric acid [(10)B(OH)3] is described. The reaction sequence (10)B(OH)3 → (10)B(On-Bu)3 → (10)BH3·Et3N → Na(10)BH4 afforded the product in 60-80% yield. The reaction was successfully scaled to hundreds of gram per run. PMID:27195803

  6. NASA/ESMD Analogue Mission Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation exploring Earth and its analogues is shown. The topics include: 1) ESMD Goals for the Use of Earth Analogues; 2) Stakeholders Summary; 3) Issues with Current Analogue Situation; 4) Current state of Analogues; 5) External Implementation Plan (Second Step); 6) Recent Progress in Utilizing Analogues; 7) Website Layout Example-Home Page; 8) Website Layout Example-Analogue Site; 9) Website Layout Example-Analogue Mission; 10) Objectives of ARDIG Analog Initiatives; 11) Future Plans; 12) Example: Cold-Trap Sample Return; 13) Example: Site Characterization Matrix; 14) Integrated Analogue Studies-Prerequisites for Human Exploration; and 15) Rating Scale Definitions.

  7. Analogue mouse pointer control via an online steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) brain-computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John J.; Palaniappan, Ramaswamy

    2011-04-01

    The steady state visual evoked protocol has recently become a popular paradigm in brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. Typically (regardless of function) these applications offer the user a binary selection of targets that perform correspondingly discrete actions. Such discrete control systems are appropriate for applications that are inherently isolated in nature, such as selecting numbers from a keypad to be dialled or letters from an alphabet to be spelled. However motivation exists for users to employ proportional control methods in intrinsically analogue tasks such as the movement of a mouse pointer. This paper introduces an online BCI in which control of a mouse pointer is directly proportional to a user's intent. Performance is measured over a series of pointer movement tasks and compared to the traditional discrete output approach. Analogue control allowed subjects to move the pointer faster to the cued target location compared to discrete output but suffers more undesired movements overall. Best performance is achieved when combining the threshold to movement of traditional discrete techniques with the range of movement offered by proportional control.

  8. 17 CFR 260.10b-5 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2000-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2000-04-01 2000-04-01 false Content. 260.10b-5 Section 260.10b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rule Under Section 310 § 260.10b-5 Content. (a) Each application for a stay of a trustee's duty...

  9. 17 CFR 260.10b-5 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Content. 260.10b-5 Section 260.10b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rule Under Section 310 § 260.10b-5 Content. (a)...

  10. 17 CFR 260.10b-5 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Content. 260.10b-5 Section 260.10b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rule Under Section 310 § 260.10b-5 Content. (a)...

  11. 17 CFR 260.10b-5 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2005-04-01 2005-04-01 false Content. 260.10b-5 Section 260.10b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rule Under Section 310 § 260.10b-5 Content. (a)...

  12. 17 CFR 260.10b-5 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Content. 260.10b-5 Section 260.10b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rule Under Section 310 § 260.10b-5 Content. (a)...

  13. 17 CFR 260.10b-5 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content. 260.10b-5 Section 260.10b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rule Under Section 310 § 260.10b-5 Content. (a)...

  14. 17 CFR 260.10b-5 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Content. 260.10b-5 Section 260.10b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rule Under Section 310 § 260.10b-5 Content. (a)...

  15. 17 CFR 260.10b-5 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2015-04-01 2015-04-01 false Content. 260.10b-5 Section 260.10b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rule Under Section 310 § 260.10b-5 Content. (a)...

  16. Study of the 10B(p,α)7Be Reaction through the Indirect Trojan Horse Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglia, S. M. R.; Romano, S.; Del Santo, M. G.; Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Carlin, N.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Kroha, V.; Kubono, S.; La Cognata, M.; Li, C.; Pizzone, R. G.; Qungang, W.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Sergi, M. L.; Somoryai, E.; Souza, F.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2010-03-01

    The 10B(p,α)7Be reaction is the main responsible for 10B destruction in stellar interior. In such environments the process takes places mainly through a resonant state of the compound 11C nucleus. The 10B(p,α)7Be reaction has been studied by means of the Trojan Horse Method using the 2H(10B,α7Be)n three-body reaction. The experiment was performed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud in Catania. The 10B(p,α)7Be reaction cross section has been extracted at low neutron momentum.

  17. Two Active Site Divalent Ions in the Crystal Structure of the Hammerhead Ribozyme Bound to a Transition State Analogue.

    PubMed

    Mir, Aamir; Golden, Barbara L

    2016-02-01

    The crystal structure of the hammerhead ribozyme bound to the pentavalent transition state analogue vanadate reveals significant rearrangements relative to the previously determined structures. The active site contracts, bringing G10.1 closer to the cleavage site and repositioning a divalent metal ion such that it could, ultimately, interact directly with the scissile phosphate. This ion could also position a water molecule to serve as a general acid in the cleavage reaction. A second divalent ion is observed coordinated to O6 of G12. This metal ion is well-placed to help tune the pKA of G12. On the basis of this crystal structure as well as a wealth of biochemical studies, we propose a mechanism in which G12 serves as the general base and a magnesium-bound water serves as a general acid. PMID:26551631

  18. Acute and subacute toxicity of 10B-paraboronophenylalanine

    SciTech Connect

    Taniyama, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Kuno, T.; Saito, N.; Shuntoh, H.; Sakaue, M.; Tanaka, C. )

    1989-07-01

    The acute and subacute toxicities of 10B-paraboronophenylalanine (10B-BPA) were investigated in the rat, according to the Good Laboratory Practice Standard for safety studies on drugs in Japan. In the acute toxicity test of 10B-BPA, LD50 values of acidic 10B-BPA for intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injections were 640 mg/kg for male and 710 mg/kg for female rats, and more than 1,000 mg/kg for male and female rats, respectively. The LD50 values of neutral 10B-BPA for intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injections were more than 3,000 mg/kg for male and female rats. The difference in LD50 values between acidic and neutral 10B-BPA may be attributed to the acidity of material. From the subacute toxicity test, in which the rats were injected daily subcutaneously for 28 days, the following toxic effects of 10B-BPA were observed. Increase in ketone level in the urine was induced in all rats treated with 10B-BPA. High dose of 10B-BPA (1,500 mg/kg) induced increase in spleen weight and reticulocyte count, and decrease in hemoglobin count, thereby suggesting that 10B-BPA causes hemolysis. Increases in the leukocyte count and the ratio of neutrophils and lymphocytes were also observed in rats treated with a high dose of 10B-BPA. This may be attributed to local reactions at the injection site. There were no significant differences in the findings between control rats and rats treated with a low dose of 10B-BPA (300 mg/kg). Thus, low doses of neutral 10B-BPA may be available for use as a drug.

  19. Occurrence of eight bisphenol analogues in indoor dust from the United States and several Asian countries: implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chunyang; Liu, Fang; Guo, Ying; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-08-21

    Bisphenol A has been reported to be a ubiquitous contaminant in indoor dust, and human exposure to this compound is well documented. Information on the occurrence of and human exposure to other bisphenol analogues is limited. In this study, eight bisphenol analogues, namely 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (BPA), 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphenol (BPAF), 4,4'-(1-phenylethylidene)bisphenol (BPAP), 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)butane (BPB), 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenylmethane (BPF), 4,4'-(1,4-phenylenediisopropylidene)bisphenol (BPP), 4,4'- sulfonyldiphenol (BPS), and 4,4'-cyclohexylidenebisphenol (BPZ), were determined in indoor dust samples (n = 156) collected from the United States (U.S.), China, Japan, and Korea. Samples were extracted by solid-liquid extraction, purified by automated solid phase extraction methods, and determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The total concentrations of bisphenols (∑BPs; sum of eight bisphenols) in dust were in the range of 0.026-111 μg/g (geometric mean: 2.29 μg/g). BPA, BPS, and BPF were the three major bisphenols, accounting for >98% of the total concentrations. Other bisphenol analogues were rare or not detected, with the exception of BPAF, which was found in 76% of the 41 samples collected in Korea (geometric mean: 0.0039 μg/g). The indoor dust samples from Korea contained the highest concentrations of both individual and total bisphenols. BPA concentrations in dust were compared among three microenvironments (house, office, and laboratory). The estimated median daily intake (EDI) of ∑BPs through dust ingestion in the U.S., China, Japan, and Korea was 12.6, 4.61, 15.8, and 18.6 ng/kg body weight (bw)/day, respectively, for toddlers and 1.72, 0.78, 2.65, and 3.13 ng/kg bw/day, respectively, for adults. This is the first report on the occurrence of bisphenols, other than BPA, in indoor dust. PMID:22784190

  20. 17 CFR 260.10b-5 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    1998-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 1998-04-01 1998-04-01 false Content. 260.10b-5 Section 260.10b-5 GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rule Under Section 310 § 260.10b-5 Content. (a) Each application for a stay of a trustee's duty to resign under section 310(b) of the...

  1. Formation of substrate and transition-state analogue complexes in crystals of phosphoglucomutase after removing the crystallization salt.

    PubMed

    Ray, W J; Puvathingal, J M; Liu, Y W

    1991-07-16

    Crystals of phosphoglucomutase, grown in 2.1 M ammonium sulfate, "desalted", and suspended in a 30% polyoxyethylene-8000/1 M glycine solution as described in the accompanying paper [Ray, W. J., Jr., Puvathingal, J. M., Bolin, J. T., Minor, W., Liu, Y., & Muchmore, S. W. (1991) Biochemistry 30 (preceding paper in this issue)], were treated with glucose phosphates to form an equilibrium mixture of the catalytically active substrate/product complexes. However, this treatment extensively fractured the crystals, even when very dilute solutions of glucose phosphates were used. But formation of the desired complexes was achieved, without fracturing, by introducing the glucose phosphates at high salt concentration, where they do not bind significantly to the enzyme, and maintaining their presence during subsequent sulfate-removal steps, in order to obtain essentially uniform binding throughout the crystal at all times. Although this procedure produced unfractured crystals of the catalytically active complexes, an adjustment in water activity was required to prevent the crystals from slowly liquefying in the presence of the added glucose phosphates. After this adjustment, the quality of diffraction-grade crystals subjected to this treatment was not significantly altered. An even larger adjustment in water activity was required to stabilize crystals that had been largely converted into a mixture of vanadate-based transition-state analogue complexes [cf. Ray, W. J., Jr., & Puvathingal, J. M. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 2790-2801] by means of an analogous procedure. The rationale for, and the implications of, this adjustment of water activity are discussed. The phenomenon of lattice-based binding cooperativity also is discussed together with a possible role for such cooperativity in the fracturing of protein crystals during formation of ligand complexes and possible ways to circumvent such fracturing based on the annealing of crystals at fractional saturation. An assay for

  2. Population-Based Preference Weights for the EQ-5D Health States Using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzi, Reza; Zeraati, Hojjat; Akbari Sari, Ali; Rashidian, Arash; Mohammad, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is used as a measure to valuate healthcare interventions and guide policy making. The EuroQol EQ-5D is a widely used generic preference-based instrument to measure Health-related quality of life. Objectives The objective of this study was to develop a value set of the EQ-5D health states for an Iranian population. Patients and Methods This study is a cross-sectional study of Iranian populations. Our sample from Iranian populations consists out of 869 participants, who were selected for this study using a stratified probability sampling method. The sample was taken from individuals living in the city of Tehran and was stratified by age and gender from July to November 2013. Respondents valued 13 health states using the visual analogue scale (VAS) of the EQ-5D. Several fixed effects regression models were tested to predict the full set of health states. We selected the final model based on the logical consistency of the estimates, the sign and magnitude of the regression coefficients, goodness of fit, and parsimony. We also compared predicted values with a value set from similar studies in the UK and other countries. Results Our results show that the HRQoL does not vary among socioeconomic groups. Models at the individual level resulted in an additive model with all coefficients being statistically significant, R2 = 0.55, a value of 0.75 for the best health state (11112), and a value of -0.074 for the worst health state (33333). The value set obtained for the study sample remarkably differs from those elicited in developed countries. Conclusions This study is the first estimate for the EQ-5D value set based on the VAS in Iran. Given the importance of locally adapted value set the use of this value set can be recommended for future studies in Iran and In the EMRO regions. PMID:27186384

  3. Measurement of the 4. 8-MeV /sup 9/B state width by the reaction /sup 10/B(/sup 3/He,. cap alpha. )/sup 9/B(. cap alpha. ) /sup 5/Li at E( /sup 3/He) = 2. 3 and 5. 0 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, N.; Cavallaro, S.; Fazio, G.; Giardina, G.; Italiano, A.; Mezzanares, F.

    1986-10-13

    The analog of the 4.7-MeV state of the /sup 9/Be nucleus has been observed in its mirror /sup 9/B by the reaction /sup 10/B(/sup 3/He, ..cap alpha..)/sup 9/B(..cap alpha..) /sup 5/Li (g.s.) at E( /sup 3/He) = 2.3 and 5.0 MeV. The excitation energy and width of the state have been deduced. The value of 1.5 +- 0.3 MeV found for the width is in line with the value deduced by the reaction /sup 7/Li(/sup 3/He,n) /sup 9/B, but it is larger by a factor of about 4 than the one measured by the proton following the ..beta../sup +/ decay of the /sup 9/C nucleus.

  4. 18 CFR 35.10b - Electric Quarterly Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric Quarterly Reports. 35.10b Section 35.10b Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND...

  5. 18 CFR 35.10b - Electric Quarterly Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric Quarterly Reports. 35.10b Section 35.10b Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND...

  6. 18 CFR 35.10b - Electric Quarterly Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric Quarterly Reports. 35.10b Section 35.10b Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND...

  7. 18 CFR 35.10b - Electric Quarterly Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electric Quarterly Reports. 35.10b Section 35.10b Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... energy or transmission services within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas or any entity...

  8. 18 CFR 35.10b - Electric Quarterly Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electric Quarterly Reports. 35.10b Section 35.10b Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... energy or transmission services within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas or any entity...

  9. 17 CFR 260.10b-1 - Calculation of percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of percentages. 260.10b-1 Section 260.10b-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Calculation of percentages. The percentages of voting securities and other securities specified in section...

  10. Transient resonance Raman spectra of benzophenone and its four isotopic analogues in the lowest excited triplet state

    SciTech Connect

    Tahara, T.; Hamaguchi, H.; Tasumi, M.

    1987-11-05

    Transient resonance Raman spectra of T/sub 1/ benzophenone (T/sub 1/BP) and its four isotopic analogues in carbon tetrachloride solutions were measured. Vibrational assignments of eight T/sub 1/ bands have been made on the basis of the observed isotopic frequency shifts. The assignments clarified the following three points concerning the structure of T/sub 1/ BP in solution. (1) The CO bond order in T/sub 1/ BP is much lower than that in the ground-state benzophenone (S/sub 0/ BP). The CO stretching frequency in T/sub 1/ is found to be 1222 cm/sup -1/, whereas the corresponding value in S/sub 0/ is 1665 cm/sup -1/. The former frequency indicates a single-bond-like character of the CO bonding in the T/sub 1/ state. (2) Vibrational frequencies of several ring modes show marked downshifts in going from S/sub 0/ to T/sub 1/. This suggests the delocalization of the ..pi..* electron into the ring part. (3) The assignment (1302 cm/sup -1/) of the symmetric C-phenyl stretch mode in the T/sub 1/ withdraws S/sub 0/ absorption spectrum is questioned. According to the present assignment, the frequency of this mode (approx. 1100 cm/sup -1/) is slightly lower than that in the ground state (1150 cm/sup -1/). The simple quantum chemical picture of T/sub 1/ BP, which predicted the increase of the C-phenyl bond order with the ..pi..* withdraws n excitation, should therefore be reconsidered.

  11. Competitive radiative and reactive relaxation channels in the excited state decay of some thio-analogues of EE-distyrylbenzene.

    PubMed

    Ginocchietti, G; Galiazzo, G; Mazzucato, U; Spalletti, A

    2005-07-01

    The photophysical and photochemical properties of some thio-analogues of symmetrically substituted EE-1,4-distyrylbenzene (linear conjugation) and EE-1,3-distyrylbenzene (crossed conjugation), where thiophene rings replace the side benzene rings or the central benzene ring, have been investigated. The kinetic competition between the radiative and reactive relaxation channels of the lowest excited singlet state has been compared with that found for the corresponding hydrocarbons. The photobehaviour markedly depends on the type of conjugation and on the position (2' or 3') of the ethenic bridge with respect to the sulfur atom. The main effect of the heteroatom is an increase in the photoisomerization yield due to a decrease of the torsional barrier in S(1) and to an increase in the S(1)--> T(1) intersystem crossing, which opens the way to isomerization in the triplet manifold. Conformational equilibria, due to restricted rotation around the quasi-single bonds with the ethenic carbons, have also been investigated by selective photoexcitation for the compounds with side 3'-thienyl groups. PMID:15986063

  12. Study of the 10B(p, αγ) 7Be and 10B (p,p‧ γ)10B reactions for PIGE purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagoyannis, A.; Preketes-Sigalas, K.; Axiotis, M.; Foteinou, V.; Harissopulos, S.; Kokkoris, M.; Misaelides, P.; Paneta, V.; Patronis, N.

    2015-01-01

    Differential cross sections were measured at 8 angles and at proton energies from 2 to 5 MeV for the 10B(p, αγ) 7Be and 10B (p,p‧ γ)10B reactions using two thin targets. The γ-rays emitted at Eγ = 429 and 718 keV respectively, were detected by four HPGe detectors placed on a motorized turntable. The overall systematic uncertainty of the measurements was estimated to be ∼8% while the statistical errors did not exceed 5%. The validity of the obtained cross sections was tested by performing a thick target benchmarking experiment. The results of the present work are compared with existing ones from literature and possible explanations for the observed differences are discussed.

  13. Inhibition and Structure of Trichomonas vaginalis Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase with Picomolar Transition State Analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldo-Matthis,A.; Wing, C.; Ghanem, M.; Deng, H.; Wu, P.; Gupta, A.; Tyler, P.; Evans, G.; Furneaux, R.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan purine auxotroph possessing a unique purine salvage pathway consisting of a bacterial type purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and a purine nucleoside kinase. Thus, T. vaginalis PNP (TvPNP) functions in the reverse direction relative to the PNPs in other organisms. Immucillin-A (ImmA) and DADMe-Immucillin-A (DADMe-ImmA) are transition stte mimics of adenosine with geometric and electrostatic features that resemble early and late transition states of adenosine at the transition state stabilized by TvPNP. ImmA demonstrates slow-onset tight-binding inhibition with TvPNP, to give an equilibrium dissociation constant of 87 pM, an inhibitor release half-time of 17.2 min, and a K{sub m}/K{sub d} ratio of 70,100. DADMe-ImmA resembles a late ribooxacarbenium ion transition state for TvPNP to give a dissociation constant of 30 pM, an inhibitor release half-time of 64 min, and a K{sub m}/K{sub d} ratio of 203,300. The tight binding of DADMe-ImmA supports a late S{sub N}1 transition state. Despite their tight binding to TvPNP, ImmA and DADMe-ImmA are weak inhibitors of human and P. falciparum PNPs. The crystal structures of the TvPNP-ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} and TvPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} ternary complexes differ from previous structures with substrate anologues. The tight binding with DADMe-ImmA is in part due to a 2.7 {angstrom} ionic interaction between a PO{sub 4} oxygen and the N1 cation of the hydroxypyrrolidine and is weaker in the TvPNP{center_dot}ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} structure at 3.5 {angstrom}. However, the TvPNP{center_dot}ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} structure includes hydrogen bonds between the 2'-hydroxyl and the protein that are not present in TvPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4}. These structures explain why DADMe-ImmA binds tighter than ImmA. Immucillin-H is a 12 nM inhibitor of TvPNP but a 56 pM inhibitor of human PNP. And this difference is explained by isotope

  14. Immune Modulation of the T Cell Response in Asthma through Wnt10b.

    PubMed

    Trischler, Jordis; Shiomi, Takayuki; Turner, Damian L; Sklepkiewicz, Piotr L; Goldklang, Monica P; Tanaka, Kenji F; Xu, Ming; Farber, Donna L; D'Armiento, Jeanine M

    2016-04-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease, which is characterized by activation of CD4(+) T helper 2 cells orchestrating an allergic airway response. Whereas the role of Wnt family members in regulating T cell maintenance and maturation is established, their contribution to T cell activation in allergic asthma is not known. We hypothesized that Wnt10b plays a role in the modulation of the allergic airway response and affects T cell activation and polarization. Using an in vivo house dust mite asthma model, Wnt10b-deficient (Wnt10b(-/-)) mice were allergen-sensitized and inflammation, as well as T cell activation, was studied in vivo and in vitro. Wnt10b(-/-) mice exhibited an augmented inflammatory phenotype with an increase in eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage and IL-4 and IL-13 in the lungs when compared with wild-type mice. In vitro studies confirmed an increased T helper type 2 polarization and increased T cell activation of Wnt10b(-/-) cells. Accordingly, the percentage of naive T cells was elevated by the addition of recombinant Wnt10b protein. Finally, Wnt10b(-/-) mice exhibited an increase in the percentage of effector T cells in the lungs after house dust mite sensitization, which indicated a heightened activation state, measured by an increased percentage of CD69(hi)CD11a(hi) cells. These findings suggest that Wnt10b plays an important role in regulating asthmatic airway inflammation through modification of the T cell response and is a prospective target in the disease process. PMID:26436894

  15. 33 CFR 157.10b - Segregated ballast tanks, dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Continental Shelf oil. 157.10b Section 157.10b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Continental Shelf oil. (a) Each tank vessel that is engaged in the transfer of crude oil from an offshore oil exploitation or production facility on the Outer Continental Shelf of the United States on or after June...

  16. 33 CFR 157.10b - Segregated ballast tanks, dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Continental Shelf oil. 157.10b Section 157.10b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Continental Shelf oil. (a) Each tank vessel that is engaged in the transfer of crude oil from an offshore oil exploitation or production facility on the Outer Continental Shelf of the United States on or after June...

  17. 33 CFR 157.10b - Segregated ballast tanks, dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Continental Shelf oil. 157.10b Section 157.10b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Continental Shelf oil. (a) Each tank vessel that is engaged in the transfer of crude oil from an offshore oil exploitation or production facility on the Outer Continental Shelf of the United States on or after June...

  18. 33 CFR 157.10b - Segregated ballast tanks, dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Continental Shelf oil. 157.10b Section 157.10b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Continental Shelf oil. (a) Each tank vessel that is engaged in the transfer of crude oil from an offshore oil exploitation or production facility on the Outer Continental Shelf of the United States on or after June...

  19. 33 CFR 157.10b - Segregated ballast tanks, dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Continental Shelf oil. 157.10b Section 157.10b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Continental Shelf oil. (a) Each tank vessel that is engaged in the transfer of crude oil from an offshore oil exploitation or production facility on the Outer Continental Shelf of the United States on or after June...

  20. The locus of microRNA-10b

    PubMed Central

    Biagioni, Francesca; Bossel Ben-Moshe, Noa; Fontemaggi, Giulia; Yarden, Yosef; Domany, Eytan; Blandino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary microRNA research has led to significant advances in our understanding of the process of tumorigenesis. MicroRNAs participate in different events of a cancer cell’s life, through their ability to target hundreds of putative transcripts involved in almost every cellular function, including cell cycle, apoptosis, and differentiation. The relevance of these small molecules is even more evident in light of the emerging linkage between their expression and both prognosis and clinical outcome of many types of human cancers. This identifies microRNAs as potential therapeutic modifiers of cancer phenotypes. From this perspective, we overview here the miR-10b locus and its involvement in cancer, focusing on its role in the establishment (miR-10b*) and spreading (miR-10b) of breast cancer. We conclude that targeting the locus of microRNA 10b holds great potential for cancer treatment. PMID:23839045

  1. Field investigation of dried lakes in western United States as an analogue to desiccation fractures on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Maarry, M. R.; Watters, W. A.; Yoldi, Z.; Pommerol, A.; Fischer, D.; Eggenberger, U.; Thomas, N.

    2015-12-01

    Potential Desiccation Polygons (PDPs), tens to hundreds of meters in size, have been observed in numerous regions on Mars, particularly in ancient (>3 Gyr old) terrains of inferred paleolacustrine/playa geologic setting, and in association with hydrous minerals such as smectites. Therefore, a better understanding of the conditions in which large desiccation polygons form could yield unique insight into the ancient climate on Mars. Many dried lakebeds/playas in western United States display large (>50 m wide) desiccation polygons, which we consider to be analogues for PDPs on Mars. Therefore, we have carried out fieldwork in seven of these dried lakes in San Bernardino and the Death Valley National Park regions complemented with laboratory and spectral analysis of collected samples. Our study shows that the investigated lacustrine/playa sediments have (a) a soil matrix containing ~40-75% clays and fine silt (by volume) where the clay minerals are dominated by illite/muscovite followed by smectite, (b) carbonaceous mineralogy with variable amounts of chloride and sulfate salts, and significantly, (c) roughly similar spectral signatures in the visible-near-infrared (VIS-NIR) range. We conclude that the development of large desiccation fractures is consistent with water table retreat. In addition, the comparison of the mineralogical to the spectral observations further suggests that remote sensing VIS-NIR spectroscopy has its limitations for detailed characterization of lacustrine/playa deposits. Finally, our results imply that the widespread distribution of PDPs on Mars indicates global or regional climatic transitions from wet conditions to more arid ones making them important candidate sites for future in situ missions.

  2. Effects of State and Decompression Rate on the Decompressive Response of Volatile- and Crystal-Bearing Analogue Magmas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spina, L.; Cimarelli, C.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic eruptive styles are influenced both by the physical properties of the ascending magma as well as the decompression rates involved. Systematic experimental investigations of both state and rate have been performed here on analogue basaltic systems. Controlled decompression experiments were performed in a shock tube system, using a silicon oil basis as the basalt proxy. The samples were saturated with 10 MPa of Ar for 72h, followed by controlled decompression. Four series of experiments were performed: 1) Pure liquids with viscosities ranging from 1 to 1000 Pa s were used to map the liquid response. 2) Micrometric spherical particles were added to the liquid to evaluate the effect of crystal fraction. 3) The role of crystal shape was examined by using particles with different aspect ratios. 4) Finally, the effects of saturation time and of pressure were examined via a series of experiments at 24 h, performed over a range of saturation pressure. The dynamics of foaming and flow of the bubbly fluid during decompression were constrained using image analysis, by measuring the height of the expanding column, as well as analyzing the bubble size distribution. At the onset a delayed nucleation event is observed. When the amount of nucleated bubbles approaches a critical thickness, a foam develops. Finally, the foam reaches equilibrium, and starts oscillating in response to the balance between foam disruption and growth. These observation may have important implications for oscillatory eruptive phenomena observed in active volcanoes (i.e. gas piston activity). Finally, the effect of crystals was investigated. In their presence, heterogeneous nucleation enhances the number of bubble nuclei, even at low crystal fractions. As a consequence, the foam develops earlier, and is able to ascend with major upward speed, in comparison to the pure oil. Experimental decompression of silicon oil has proven to be a unique tool to unravel the hidden dynamics of magma into the

  3. Study of the {sup 10}B(p,alpha){sup 7}Be Reaction through the Indirect Trojan Horse Method

    SciTech Connect

    Puglia, S. M. R.; Romano, S.; Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Sergi, M. L.; Tudisco, S.; Del Santo, M. G.; Carlin, N.; Souza, F.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Kroha, V.; Kubono, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Li, C.

    2010-03-01

    The {sup 10}B(p,alpha){sup 7}Be reaction is the main responsible for {sup 10}B destruction in stellar interior. In such environments the process takes places mainly through a resonant state of the compound {sup 11}C nucleus. The {sup 10}B(p,alpha){sup 7}Be reaction has been studied by means of the Trojan Horse Method using the {sup 2}H({sup 10}B,alpha{sup 7}Be)n three-body reaction. The experiment was performed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud in Catania. The {sup 10}B(p,alpha){sup 7}Be reaction cross section has been extracted at low neutron momentum.

  4. Size-frequency analysis of petroleum accumulations in selected United States plays: potential analogues for frontier areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the petroleum accumulation size-frequency relationships of selected mature plays assessed in the U.S. Geological Survey?s 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. The plays provide assessors with potential analogue models from which to estimate the numbers of undiscovered accumulations in medium and smaller size categories. Each play selected was required to have at least 50 discovered accumulations. Discovered accumulations plus the mean number of undiscovered accumulations equals the total accumulations assessed at the play level. There were 36 plays that met the criteria for oil accumulations and 25 plays that met the criteria for gas accumulations. Other properties of the plays such as primary trap type, lithology, depth, and hydrocarbon characteristics are also provided to assist the geologist in choosing an appropriate analogue. The text explains how the analogue size-frequency relationships can be used to estimate the number of small and medium size accumulations for frontier-area plays or partially explored plays in high cost areas. Although this document has been written in support of the Alaska North Slope Assessment, the basic size?frequency relationships provided are applicable elsewhere.

  5. Low-Luminosity AGN As Analogues of Galactic Black Holes in the Low/Hard State: Evidence from X-Ray Timing of NGC 4258

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, A.; Uttley, P.

    2005-01-01

    We present a broadband power spectral density function (PSD) measured from extensive RXTE monitoring data of the low-luminosity AGN NGC 4258, which has an accurate, maser-determined black hole mass of (3.9 plus or minus 0.1) x 10(exp 7) solar mass. We constrain the PSD break time scale to be greater than 4.5 d at greater than 90% confidence, which appears to rule out the possibility that NGC 4258 is an analogue of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXRBs) in the high/soft state. In this sense, the PSD of NGC 4258 is different to that of some more-luminous Seyferts, which appear similar to the PSDs of high/soft state X-ray binaries. This result supports previous analogies between LLAGN and X-ray binaries in the low/hard state based on spectral energy distributions, indicating that the AGN/BHXRB analogy is valid across a broad range of accretion rates.

  6. Modeling Ranking, Time Trade-Off and Visual Analogue Scale Values for EQ-5D Health States

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Benjamin M.; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; Salomon, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is rising interest in eliciting health state valuations using rankings. Due to their relative simplicity, ordinal measurement methods may offer an attractive practical alternative to cardinal methods, such as time trade-off (TTO) and visual analog scale (VAS). In this paper, we explore alternative models for estimating cardinal health state values from rank responses in a unique multi-country database. We highlight an estimation challenge pertaining to health states just below perfect health (the ‘non-optimal gap’) and propose an analytic solution to ameliorate this problem. Methods Using rank, a standardized protocol developed by the EuroQol Group, TTO and VAS responses were collected for 43 health states in eight countries: Slovenia, Argentina, Denmark, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom, and United States, yielding a sample of 179,431 state responses from 11,483 subjects. States were described using the EQ-5D system, which allows for three different possible levels on five different dimensions of health. We estimated conditional logit and probit regression models for rank responses. The regressions included 17 health-state attribute variables reflecting specific levels on each dimension and counts of different levels across dimensions. This flexible specification accommodates previously published valuation models, such as models applied in the United Kingdom and United States. In addition to fitting standard conditional logit and probit models, which assume equal variance across health states (homoskedasticity), we examined a heteroskedastic probit model that assumes no variance for the two points anchoring the scale (“optimal health” and “dead”) and relaxes the equal-variance assumption for all other states. Rank-based predictions for the 243 unique states defined by the EQ-5D system were compared to predictions from conventional linear models fitted to TTO and VAS responses. Results By construction, the TTO and VAS models

  7. Reprocessing of 10B-contaminated 10Be AMS targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, K. J.; Pedro, J. B.; Smith, A. M.; Child, D. P.; Fink, D.

    2013-01-01

    10Be accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an increasingly important tool in studies ranging from exposure age dating and palaeo-geomagnetism to the impact of solar variability on the Earth’s climate. High levels of boron in BeO AMS targets can adversely impact the quality of 10Be measurements through interference from the isobar 10B. Numerous methods in chemical sample preparation and AMS measurement have been employed in order to reduce the impact of excessive boron rates. We present details of a method developed to chemically reprocess a set of forty boron-contaminated BeO targets derived from modern Antarctic ice. Previously, the excessive boron levels in these samples, as measured in an argon-filled absorber cell preceding the ionisation detector, had precluded routine AMS measurement. The procedure involved removing the BeO + Nb mixture from the target holders and dissolving the BeO in hot concentrated H2SO4. The solution was then heated with HF to remove the boron as volatile BF3 before re-precipitating as Be(OH)2 and calcining to BeO. This was again mixed with niobium and pressed into fresh target holders. Following reprocessing, the samples gave boron rates reduced by 10-100×, which were sufficiently low and similar to previous successful batches of ice core, snow and associated blank samples, thus allowing a successful 10Be measurement in the absence of any boron correction. Overall recovery of the BeO for this process averaged 40%. Extensive testing of relevant processing equipment and reagents failed to determine the source of the boron. As a precautionary measure, a similar H2SO4 + HF step has been subsequently added to the standard ice processing method.

  8. Flat band analogues and flux driven extended electronic states in a class of geometrically frustrated fractal networks.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Atanu; Pal, Biplab; Chakrabarti, Arunava

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate, by explicit construction, that a single band tight binding Hamiltonian defined on a class of deterministic fractals of the b = 3N Sierpinski type can give rise to an infinity of dispersionless, flat-band like states which can be worked out analytically using the scale invariance of the underlying lattice. The states are localized over clusters of increasing sizes, displaying the existence of a multitude of localization areas. The onset of localization can, in principle, be 'delayed' in space by an appropriate choice of the energy of the electron. A uniform magnetic field threading the elementary plaquettes of the network is shown to destroy this staggered localization and generate absolutely continuous sub-bands in the energy spectrum of these non-translationally invariant networks. PMID:25751071

  9. 17 CFR 240.10b-16 - Disclosure of credit terms in margin transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disclosure of credit terms in margin transactions. 240.10b-16 Section 240.10b-16 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... § 240.10b-16 Disclosure of credit terms in margin transactions. (a) It shall be unlawful for any...

  10. 17 CFR 240.10b-16 - Disclosure of credit terms in margin transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of credit terms in margin transactions. 240.10b-16 Section 240.10b-16 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... § 240.10b-16 Disclosure of credit terms in margin transactions. (a) It shall be unlawful for any...

  11. Growth and Metastases of Human Lung Cancer Are Inhibited in Mouse Xenografts by a Transition State Analogue of 5′-Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase*

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Indranil; Locker, Joseph; Cassera, Maria B.; Belbin, Thomas J.; Merino, Emilio F.; Dong, Xinyuan; Hemeon, Ivan; Evans, Gary B.; Guha, Chandan; Schramm, Vern L.

    2011-01-01

    The S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) salvage enzyme 5′-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) has been implicated as both a cancer target and a tumor suppressor. We tested these hypotheses in mouse xenografts of human lung cancers. AdoMet recycling from 5′-methylthioadenosine (MTA) was blocked by inhibition of MTAP with methylthio-DADMe-Immucillin-A (MTDIA), an orally available, nontoxic, picomolar transition state analogue. Blood, urine, and tumor levels of MTA increased in response to MTDIA treatment. MTDIA treatment inhibited A549 (human non-small cell lung carcinoma) and H358 (human bronchioloalveolar non-small cell lung carcinoma cells) xenograft tumor growth in immunodeficient Rag2−/−γC−/− and NCr-nu mice. Systemic MTA accumulation is implicated as the tumor-suppressive metabolite because MTDIA is effective for in vivo treatment of A549 MTAP−/− and H358 MTAP+/+ tumors. Tumors from treated mice showed increased MTA and decreased polyamines but little alteration in AdoMet, methionine, or adenine levels. Gene expression profiles of A549 tumors from treated and untreated mice revealed only modest alterations with 62 up-regulated and 63 down-regulated mRNAs (≥3-fold). MTDIA antitumor activity in xenografts supports MTAP as a target for lung cancer therapy. PMID:21135097

  12. Rational design of a transition state analogue with picomolar affinity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa PvdQ, a siderophore biosynthetic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, Kenneth D; Wu, Rui; Er, Joyce A V; Liu, Dali; Fast, Walter

    2013-10-18

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa enzyme PvdQ can process different substrates involved in quorum-sensing or in siderophore biosynthesis. Substrate selectivity was evaluated using steady-state kinetic constants for hydrolysis of N-acyl-homoserine lactones (HSLs) and p-nitrophenyl fatty acid esters. PvdQ prefers substrates with alkyl chains between 12 and 14 carbons long that do not bear a 3-oxo substitution and is revealed here to have a relatively high specificity constant for selected N-acyl-HSLs (kcat/KM = 10(5) to 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). However, endogenous P. aeruginosa N-acyl-HSLs are ≥100-fold disfavored, supporting the conclusion that PvdQ was not primarily evolved to regulate endogenous quorum-sensing. PvdQ plays an essential biosynthetic role for the siderophore pyoverdine, on which P. aeruginosa depends for growth in iron-limited environments. A series of alkylboronate inhibitors was found to be reversible, competitive, and extremely potent (Ki ≥ 190 pM). A 1.8 Å X-ray structure shows that 1-tridecylboronic acid forms a monocovalent bond with the N-terminal β-chain Ser residue in the PvdQ heterodimer, mimicking a reaction transition state. This boronic acid inhibits growth of P. aeruginosa in iron-limited media, reproducing the phenotype of a genetic pvdQ disruption, although co-administration of an efflux pump inhibitor is required to maintain growth inhibition. These findings support the strategy of designing boron-based inhibitors of siderophore biosynthetic enzymes to control P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:23883096

  13. Thermal-induced conformational changes in the product release area drive the enzymatic activity of xylanases 10B: Crystal structure, conformational stability and functional characterization of the xylanase 10B from Thermotoga petrophila RKU-1

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Camila Ramos; Meza, Andreia Navarro; Hoffmam, Zaira Bruna; Silva, Junio Cota; Alvarez, Thabata Maria; Ruller, Roberto; Giesel, Guilherme Menegon; Verli, Hugo; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Prade, Rolf Alexander; Murakami, Mario Tyago

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} The hyperthermostable xylanase 10B from Thermotoga petrophila RKU-1 produces exclusively xylobiose at the optimum temperature. {yields} Circular dichroism spectroscopy suggests a coupling effect of temperature-induced structural changes with its enzymatic behavior. {yields} Crystallographic and molecular dynamics studies indicate that conformational changes in the product release area modulate the enzyme action mode. -- Abstract: Endo-xylanases play a key role in the depolymerization of xylan and recently, they have attracted much attention owing to their potential applications on biofuels and paper industries. In this work, we have investigated the molecular basis for the action mode of xylanases 10B at high temperatures using biochemical, biophysical and crystallographic methods. The crystal structure of xylanase 10B from hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga petrophila RKU-1 (TpXyl10B) has been solved in the native state and in complex with xylobiose. The complex crystal structure showed a classical binding mode shared among other xylanases, which encompasses the -1 and -2 subsites. Interestingly, TpXyl10B displayed a temperature-dependent action mode producing xylobiose and xylotriose at 20 {sup o}C, and exclusively xylobiose at 90 {sup o}C as assessed by capillary zone electrophoresis. Moreover, circular dichroism spectroscopy suggested a coupling effect of temperature-induced structural changes with this particular enzymatic behavior. Molecular dynamics simulations supported the CD analysis suggesting that an open conformational state adopted by the catalytic loop (Trp297-Lys326) provokes significant modifications in the product release area (+1,+2 and +3 subsites), which drives the enzymatic activity to the specific release of xylobiose at high temperatures.

  14. Influence of the Charge State on the Structures and Interactions of Vancomycin Antibiotics with Cell-Wall Analogue Peptides: Experimental and Theoretical Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhibo; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Laskin, Julia

    2009-02-16

    In this study we examined the effect of the charge state on the energetics and dynamics of dissociation of the non-covalent complex between the vancomycin and the cell wall peptide analogue Nα,Nε-diacetyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala (V-Ac2KDADA). The binding energies between the vancomycin and the peptide were obtained from the RRKM modeling of the time- and energy resolved surface-induced dissociation (SID) experiments. Our results demonstrate that the stability of the complex toward fragmentation increases in the order: [V+Ac2KDADA+H]+2 < [V+Ac2KDADA+H]+ < [V+Ac2KDADA-H]-. Dissociation of the singly protonated and singly deprotonated complex is characterized by very large entropy effects indicating substantial increase in the conformational flexibility of the resulting products. The experimental threshold energies of 1.75 eV and 1.34 eV obtained for the [V+Ac2KDADA-H]- and [V+Ac2KDADA+H]+ , respectively, are in excellent agreement with the results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The increased stability of the deprotonated complex observed experimentally is attributed to the presence of three charged sites in the deprotonated complex as compared to only one charged site in the singly protonated complex. The low binding energy of 0.93 eV obtained for the doubly protonated complex suggests that this ion is destabilized by Coulomb repulsion between the singly protonated vancomycin and the singly protonated peptide comprising the complex.

  15. 17 CFR 240.10b5-2 - Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in misappropriation insider trading cases. 240.10b5-2 Section 240.10b5-2 Commodity and Securities... Devices and Contrivances § 240.10b5-2 Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading... of insider trading under Section 10(b) of the Act and Rule 10b-5. The law of insider trading...

  16. Wnt-10b promotes differentiation of skin epithelial cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru . E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Shiroi, Akira; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2006-03-31

    To evaluate the role of Wnt-10b in epithelial differentiation, we investigated the effects of Wnt-10b on adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC). Recombinant Wnt-10b protein (rWnt-10b) was prepared using a gene engineering technique and MPSEC were cultured in its presence, which resulted in morphological changes from cuboidal to spindle-shaped and inhibited their proliferation. Further, involvement of the canonical Wnt signal pathway was also observed. MPSEC treated with rWnt-10b showed characteristics of the hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle, in results of Ayoub Shklar staining and immunocytochemistry. Further, the cells expressed mRNA for differentiated epithelial cells, including keratin 1, keratin 2, loricrin, mHa5, and mHb5, in association with a decreased expression of the basal cell marker keratin 5. These results suggest that Wnt-10b promotes the differentiation of MPSEC.

  17. microRNA-10b Is Overexpressed and Critical for Cell Survival and Proliferation in Medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Pal, Rekha; Greene, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the effects of miRNA-10b on medulloblastoma proliferation through transcriptional induction of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL2. Using a cancer specific miRNA-array, high expression of miRNA-10b in medulloblastoma cell lines compared to a normal cerebellar control was shown, and this was confirmed with real time PCR (RT-PCR). Two medulloblastoma cell lines (DAOY and UW228) were transiently transfected with control miRNA, miRNA-10b inhibitor or miRNA-10b mimic and subjected to RT-PCR, MTT, apoptosis, clonogenic assay and western blot analysis. Transfection of miRNA-10b inhibitor induced a significant down-regulation of miRNA-10b expression, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis, while miRNA-10b mimic exerted an opposite effect. Inhibition of miRNA-10b abrogated the colony-forming capability of medulloblastoma cells, and markedly down-regulated the expression of BCL2. Down-regulation of BCL2 by antisense oligonucleotides or siRNA also significantly down-regulated miRNA-10b, suggesting that BCL2 is a major mediator of the effects of miRNA-10b. ABT-737 and ABT-199, potent inhibitors of BCL2, downregulated the expression of miRNA-10b and increased apoptosis. Analysis of miRNA-10b levels in 13 primary medulloblastoma samples revealed that the 2 patients with the highest levels of miRNA-10b had multiple recurrences (4.5) and died within 8 years of diagnosis, compared with the 11 patients with low levels of miRNA-10b who had a mean of 1.2 recurrences and nearly 40% long-term survival. The data presented here indicate that miRNA-10b may act as an oncomir in medulloblastoma tumorigenesis, and reveal a previously unreported mechanism with Bcl-2 as a mediator of the effects of miRNA-10b upon medulloblastoma cell survival. PMID:26394044

  18. miR-10b promotes invasion by targeting HOXD10 in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YUNFENG; LI, ZHEN; ZHAO, XUHONG; ZUO, XIAOMING; PENG, ZHIHAI

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that homeobox D10 (HOXD10) is the target gene of microRNA-10b (miR-10b) and is closely associated with the inhibition of cell migration and invasion. Ras homolog family member C (RhoC) has been reported to promote tumor metastasis in various types of cancer. The effect of miR-10b on colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis and the associated molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The present study aimed to investigate whether miR-10b could promote invasion by targeting HOXD10 in CRC by exploring the association between miR-10b and HOXD10 expression in CRC patients. The findings revealed that miR-10b levels were elevated in the CRC specimens and significantly correlated with advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis. In addition, HOXD10 was a direct target of miR-10b, and the increased expression of RhoC and downregulation of HOXD10 correlated with the increased expression level of miR-10b. HOXD10 protein level was also markedly attenuated in lymph node metastasis-positive tumor tissues compared with lymph node metastasis-free tumor tissues. These findings suggest that miR-10b may stimulate the upregulation of RhoC through targeting HOXD10, thus promoting the invasion and migration in CRC tumor. PMID:27347170

  19. microRNA-10b Is Overexpressed and Critical for Cell Survival and Proliferation in Medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Rekha; Greene, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the effects of miRNA-10b on medulloblastoma proliferation through transcriptional induction of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL2. Using a cancer specific miRNA-array, high expression of miRNA-10b in medulloblastoma cell lines compared to a normal cerebellar control was shown, and this was confirmed with real time PCR (RT-PCR). Two medulloblastoma cell lines (DAOY and UW228) were transiently transfected with control miRNA, miRNA-10b inhibitor or miRNA-10b mimic and subjected to RT-PCR, MTT, apoptosis, clonogenic assay and western blot analysis. Transfection of miRNA-10b inhibitor induced a significant down-regulation of miRNA-10b expression, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis, while miRNA-10b mimic exerted an opposite effect. Inhibition of miRNA-10b abrogated the colony-forming capability of medulloblastoma cells, and markedly down-regulated the expression of BCL2. Down-regulation of BCL2 by antisense oligonucleotides or siRNA also significantly down-regulated miRNA-10b, suggesting that BCL2 is a major mediator of the effects of miRNA-10b. ABT-737 and ABT-199, potent inhibitors of BCL2, downregulated the expression of miRNA-10b and increased apoptosis. Analysis of miRNA-10b levels in 13 primary medulloblastoma samples revealed that the 2 patients with the highest levels of miRNA-10b had multiple recurrences (4.5) and died within 8 years of diagnosis, compared with the 11 patients with low levels of miRNA-10b who had a mean of 1.2 recurrences and nearly 40% long-term survival. The data presented here indicate that miRNA-10b may act as an oncomir in medulloblastoma tumorigenesis, and reveal a previously unreported mechanism with Bcl-2 as a mediator of the effects of miRNA-10b upon medulloblastoma cell survival. PMID:26394044

  20. The 10B(n,α0)7Li and 10B(n,αlγ)7Li alpha-particle angular distributions, branching ratios and cross-sections measurements for En < 3 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F. J.; Ruskov, I.; Vidali, M.

    2010-01-01

    The 10B(n,α0)7Li and 10B(n,αiγ)7Li angular distributions have been measured at the GELINA time-of-flight spectrometer in the incident neutron energy range from 0.1 keV to 1 MeV by means of a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber. With this type of detector it is possible to measure the angular distribution of the charged reaction fragments in a close to 2×2π solid angle with ~100% efficiency and a clear separation of both reaction channels: emission to the 7Li ground state (α0) or to its first excited state (α1). A strong angular anisotropy was observed at ~ 520 keV. In order to extend the energy range up to 2.5-3 MeV and to measure, also, the reaction cross sections, a double twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber was constructed. It is loaded with two very thin 94% 10B-enriched samples, mounted back-to-back with 235U samples on the common cathodes. New data acquisition, visualization and analysis software is used in a new set of long-term measurements, which are still going on.

  1. ATR LEU Monothlic and Dispersed with 10B Loading Minimization Design – Neutronics Performance Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang

    2001-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), currently operating in the United States, is used for material testing at very high neutron fluxes. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting HEU driven reactor cores to low-enriched uranium (LEU) cores. The present work investigates the optimized LEU Monolithic and Dispersed fuel with 10B loading minimization design and evaluates the subsequent neutronics operating effects of these optimized fuel designs. The MCNP ATR 1/8th core model was used to optimize the 235U and minimize the 10B loading in the LEU core, such that the differences in K-eff and heat flux profiles between the HEU and LEU cores were minimized. The fuel depletion methodology MCWO was used to calculate K eff versus effective full power days (EFPD) in this paper. The MCWO-calculated results for the optimized LEU Monolithic and Dispersed fuel cases demonstrated adequate excess reactivity such that the K-eff versus EFPD plot is similar to the ATR reference HEU case study. Each HEU fuel element contains 19 fuel plates with a fuel meat thickness of 0.508 mm (20 mil). In this work, the proposed LEU Monolithic (U-10Mo) core conversion case with nominal fuel meat thickness of 0.330 mm (13 mil) and 235U enrichment of 19.7 wt% is used to optimize the radial heat flux profile by varying the fuel meat thickness. The proposed LEU fuel meat varies from 0.203 mm (8.0 mil) to 0.254 mm (10.0 mil) at the inner four fuel plates (1-4) and outer four fuel plates (16-19). In addition, an optimized LEU dispersed (U7Mo) case with all the fuel meat thickness of 0.635 mm (25 mil) was also proposed. Then, for both Monolithic and dispersed cases, a burnable absorber – 10B, was added in the inner and outer plates to reduce the initial excess reactivity, and the higher to average ratio of the inner

  2. Overexpression of tissue microRNA10b may help predict glioma prognosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxin; Cheng, Jian; Fu, Ling; Li, Qingshui

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between microRNA-10b (miR-10b) expression and prognosis in human glioma patients. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was used to characterize the expression patterns of miR-10b in 128 glioma and 20 normal brain tissues. Clinical information - age, sex, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) and World Health Organization (WHO) grade - were also collected. The associations between miR-10b expression and the clinicopathological factors and outcome of glioma patients were statistically analyzed. Expression levels of miR-10b in glioma tissue were significantly higher than in normal brain tissue (P<0.001). High-grade glioma (WHO grade III and IV) had much higher miR-10b expression levels than low-grade tumors (WHO grade I and II). Additionally, the increased miR-10b expression in the glioma tissues was significantly associated with a low KPS (P=0.03). Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression analyses showed that overexpression of miR-10b (P=0.01) and high grade (P=0.02) were independent factors predicting poor outcome for glioma patients. Furthermore, subgroup analyses showed that the miR-10b expression level was significantly associated with poor overall survival in glioma patients with high grades (P<0.001). Up-regulation of miR-10b may have value in predicting clinical outcome in glioma patients, particularly for those with high pathological grades. PMID:26988656

  3. 10B(n, Z) measurements in the energy range 0.7 to 5.0 MeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Massey, T. N.; Ralston, J.; Grimes, S. M.; Haight, R. C.

    2014-09-03

    Four ΔE E telescopes were used at the WNR (n,Z) station to investigate the production of charged particles from 10B. The telescope consisted of a gas proportional detector and a silicon surface barrier detector. The flux was determined using a 238U fission chamber. A clear separation of the ground state alpha group and first excited state a was not achieved due to the target thickness. Proton emission was also observed. Furthermore, the proton branch was up to an order of magnitude larger than predicted in ENDF/B-VII A simple R-matrix analysis has been performed on the available data

  4. Effects of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth in hair follicle cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru . E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2007-08-03

    Wnts are deeply involved in the proliferation and differentiation of skin epithelial cells. We previously reported the differentiation of cultured primary skin epithelial cells toward hair shaft and inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle via {beta}-catenin stabilization caused by Wnt-10b, however, the effects of Wnt-10b on cultured hair follicles have not been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of Wnt-10b on shaft growth using organ cultures of whisker hair follicles in serum-free conditions. No hair shaft growth was observed in the absence of Wnt-10b, whereas its addition to the culture promoted elongation of the hair shaft, intensive incorporation of BrdU in matrix cells flanking the dermal papilla (DP), and {beta}-catenin stabilization in DP and IRS cells. These results suggest a promoting effect of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth that is involved with stimulation of the DP via Wnt-10b/{beta}-catenin signalling, proliferation of matrix cells next to the DP, and differentiation of IRS cells by Wnt-10b.

  5. A Point Mutation in the Gene for Asparagine-Linked Glycosylation 10B (Alg10b) Causes Nonsyndromic Hearing Impairment in Mice (Mus musculus)

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Frank J.; Corrigan, Rebecca R.; del Gaudio, Daniela; Salinger, Andrew P.; Lorenzo, Isabel; Gao, Simon S.; Chiu, Ilene; Xia, Anping

    2013-01-01

    The study of mouse hearing impairment mutants has led to the identification of a number of human hearing impairment genes and has greatly furthered our understanding of the physiology of hearing. The novel mouse mutant neurological/sensory 5 (nse5) demonstrates a significantly reduced or absent startle response to sound and is therefore a potential murine model of human hearing impairment. Genetic analysis of 500 intercross progeny localized the mutant locus to a 524 kilobase (kb) interval on mouse chromosome 15. A missense mutation in a highly-conserved amino acid was found in the asparagine-linked glycosylation 10B gene (Alg10b), which is within the critical interval for the nse5 mutation. A 20.4 kb transgene containing a wildtype copy of the Alg10b gene rescued the mutant phenotype in nse5/nse5 homozygous animals, confirming that the mutation in Alg10b is responsible for the nse5/nse5 mutant phenotype. Homozygous nse5/nse5 mutants had abnormal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), and cochlear microphonics (CMs). Endocochlear potentials (EPs), on the other hand, were normal. ABRs and DPOAEs also confirmed the rescue of the mutant nse5/nse5 phenotype by the wildtype Alg10b transgene. These results suggested a defect in the outer hair cells of mutant animals, which was confirmed by histologic analysis. This is the first report of mutation in a gene involved in the asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation pathway causing nonsyndromic hearing impairment, and it suggests that the hearing apparatus, and the outer hair cells in particular, are exquisitely sensitive to perturbations of the N-linked glycosylation pathway. PMID:24303013

  6. a New Method to Measure 10B Uptake in Lung Adenocarcinoma in Hospital Bnct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donegani, E. M.; Basilico, F.; Bolognini, D.; Borasio, P.; Capelli, E.; Cappelletti, P.; Chiari, P.; Frigerio, M.; Gelosa, S.; Giannini, G.; Hasan, S.; Mattera, A.; Mauri, P.; Monti, A. F.; Ostinelli, A.; Prest, M.; Vallazza, E.; Zanini, A.

    2010-04-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapic technique still under development that could become crucial in the fight against some types of cancer (extended ones, located near vital organs or radio resistant). This binary technique requires the administration to the patient of a boron delivery agent and the irradiation with a thermal neutron beam. The high LET particles produced in the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction are exploited to destroy the tumour cells. This work presents a new system based on neutron autoradiography with a non-depleted self-triggering microstrip silicon detector, using a neutron beam produced by a hospital Linac. The system is fast, real time and allows the detection of 10B contents down to 25 ng. The main results on the study of 10B uptake in biological samples will be described in terms of kinetic curves (10B uptake as a function of time).

  7. A Gallium-Substituted Distibene and an Antimony-Analogue Bicyclo[1.1.0]butane: Synthesis and Solid-State Structures.

    PubMed

    Tuscher, Lars; Ganesamoorthy, Chelladurai; Bläser, Dieter; Wölper, Christoph; Schulz, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    RGa {R=HC[C(Me)N(2,6-iPr2C6H3)]2} reacts with Sb(NMe2)3 with insertion into the Sb-N bond and elimination of RGa(NMe2)2 (2), yielding the Ga-substituted distibene R(Me2N)GaSb=SbGa(NMe2 )R (1). Thermolysis of 1 proceeded with elimination of RGa and 2 and subsequent formation of the bicyclo[1.1.0]butane analogue [R(Me2N)Ga]2Sb4 (3). PMID:26248643

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A-4 to Part 60 - Test Methods 6 through 10B

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test Methods 6 through 10B A Appendix A-4 to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED) Pt. 60, App. A-4 Appendix A-4 to Part 60—Test Methods 6 through 10B Method...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A-4 to Part 60 - Test Methods 6 through 10B

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test Methods 6 through 10B A Appendix A-4 to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED) Pt. 60, App. A-4 Appendix A-4 to Part 60—Test Methods 6 through 10B Method...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A-4 to Part 60 - Test Methods 6 through 10B

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Test Methods 6 through 10B A Appendix A-4 to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED) Pt. 60, App. A-4 Appendix A-4 to Part 60—Test Methods 6 through 10B Method...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A-4 to Part 60 - Test Methods 6 through 10B

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test Methods 6 through 10B A Appendix A-4 to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED) Pt. 60, App. A-4 Appendix A-4 to Part 60—Test Methods 6 through 10B Method...

  12. Wnt-10b secreted from lymphocytes promotes differentiation of skin epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru . E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Shiroi, Akira; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2006-04-21

    Wnt-10b was originally isolated from lymphoid tissue and is known to be involved in a wide range of biological actions, while recently it was found to be expressed early in the development of hair follicles. However, few studies have been conducted concerning the role of Wnt-10b with the differentiation of skin epithelial cells. To evaluate its role in epithelial differentiation, we purified Wnt-10b from the supernatant of a concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocyte culture using an affinity column and investigated its effects on the differentiation of adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC). MPSEC cultured with Wnt-10b showed morphological changes from cuboidal to spindle-shaped with inhibited proliferation, and also obtained characteristics of the hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle, represented by red-colored Ayoub Shklar staining, and reactions to AE-13 and AE-15 as seen with immunocytology. Further, RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the expression of mRNA for keratin 1, keratin 2, loricrin, mHa5, and mHb5, in association with a decreased expression of the basal cell marker keratin 5, in Wnt-10b-treated MPSEC. In addition, involvement of the canonical Wnt signal pathway was demonstrated by a TCF reporter (pTOPFLASH) assay. These results suggest that Wnt-10b promotes the differentiation of MPSEC and may play an important role in hair follicle development by promoting differentiation of epithelial cells.

  13. Therapeutic silencing of miR-10b inhibits metastasis in a mouse mammary tumor model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Reinhardt, Ferenc; Pan, Elizabeth; Soutschek, Jürgen; Bhat, Balkrishen; Marcusson, Eric; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Bell, George W.; Weinberg, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly implicated in regulating metastasis. Despite progress in silencing miRNAs in normal tissues of rodents and non-human primates, the development of effective approaches for sequence-specific inhibition of miRNAs in fast-growing tumors remains a significant scientific and clinical challenge. Here we show that systemic treatment of tumor-bearing mice with miR-10b antagomirs – a class of chemically modified anti-miRNA oligonucleotides – suppresses breast cancer metastasis. Silencing of miR-10b both in vitro and in vivo with antagomirs significantly decreases miR-10b levels and increases levels of a functionally important miR-10b target, Hoxd10. Administration of miR-10b antagomirs to mice bearing highly metastatic cells does not reduce primary mammary tumor growth but instead markedly suppresses formation of lung metastases. This metastasis-suppressing effect is sequence-specific. The miR-10b antagomir, which is well tolerated by normal animals, appears to be a promising candidate and a starting point for the development of new anti-metastasis agents. PMID:20351690

  14. Canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, show ability to maintain dermal papilla cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Yoshikawa, Masahide

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •First report on effects of various Wnts on DP cells. •Wnt-10b promoted trichogenesis, while Wnt-3a showed to a limited extent. •Canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, is important for DP cells maintenance. -- Abstract: Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles (HFs) and considered to be crucial for maintaining dermal papilla (DP) cells, the functional differences among them remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, 5a, 10b, 11) on the proliferation of mouse-derived primary DP cells in vitro as well as their trichogenesis-promoting ability using an in vivo skin reconstitution protocol. Wnt-10b promoted cell proliferation and trichogenesis, while Wnt-3a showed those abilities to a limited extent, and Wnt-5a and 11 had no effects. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of these Wnts on cultured DP cells obtained from versican-GFP transgenic mice and found that Wnt-10b had a potent ability to sustain their GFP-positivity. These results suggest that canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, play important roles in the maintenance of DP cells and trichogenesis.

  15. Structures in 9,10Be and 10B studied with the tensor-optimized shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myo, Takayuki; Umeya, Atsushi; Toki, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Kiyomi

    2015-06-01

    We study the structures of ^{9,10}Be and ^{10}B with the tensor-optimized shell model (TOSM) using an effective interaction based on the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction AV8^'. The tensor correlation is treated in TOSM using the full space of 2p2h configurations including high-momentum components. The short-range correlation is treated with the unitary correlation operator method. It is found that the level orders of the low-lying states of ^{9,10}Be and ^{10}B are entirely reproduced. For ^9Be, ground band states are located at relatively higher energies than the experiments, which indicates missing α clustering correlation in these states as seen in the case of ^8Be. In addition, the tensor force gives a larger attraction for T=1/2 states than for T=3/2 ones for ^9Be. The level order of the three nuclei is found to be sensitive to the presence of the tensor force in comparison with the results using the Minnesota effective interaction without the tensor force.

  16. Design and testing of a 10B4C capsule for spectral-tailoring in mixed-spectrum reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, L. R.; Wittman, R.; Metz, L. A.; Finn, E. C.; Friese, J. I.

    2014-04-01

    A boron carbide capsule highly enriched in 10B has been designed and used for spectral-tailoring experiments at the TRIGA reactor at Washington State University. New experiments show that enriching the boron to 96% B-10 results in additional absorption of neutrons in the resonance region thereby producing a neutron spectrum that is much closer to a pure 235U fission spectrum than measured previously with a natural boron carbide capsule. A cadmium outer cover was used to reduce thermal alpha heating. The neutron spectrum calculated with MCNP was found to be in very good agreement with measured activation rates from neutron fluence monitors.

  17. Design and Testing of a 10B4C Capsule for Spectral-Tailoring in Mixed-Spectrum Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Wittman, Richard S.; Metz, Lori A.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.

    2014-04-11

    A boron carbide capsule highly enriched in 10B has been designed and used for spectral-tailoring experiments at the TRIGA reactor at Washington State University. New experiments show that enriching the boron to 96% B-10 results in additional absorption of neutrons in the resonance region thereby producing a neutron spectrum that is much closer to a pure 235U fission spectrum. A cadmium outer cover was used to reduce thermal heating. The neutron spectrum calculated with MCNP was found to be in very good agreement with measured activation rates from neutron fluence monitors.

  18. Rocky super-Earth interiors. Structure and internal dynamics of CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F. W.; Tosi, N.; Sohl, F.; Rauer, H.; Spohn, T.

    2012-05-01

    Aims: We present interior structure models of the recently discovered exoplanets CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b addressing their bulk compositions, present thermal states, and internal dynamics. We investigate how mantle convection patterns are influenced by the depth-dependence of thermodynamic parameters (e.g., thermal expansivity and conductivity) caused by the extended pressure and temperature ranges within rocky super-Earths. Methods: To model the interior of rocky exoplanets, we construct a four-layer structural model solving the mass and energy balance equations in conjunction with a generalized Rydberg equation of state providing the radial density distribution within each layer. The present thermal state is calculated according to a modified mixing-length approach for highly viscous fluids. Furthermore, the obtained internal structure is used to carry out two-dimensional convection simulations to visualize the mantle convection pattern within massive exoplanets such as CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b. Results: Both CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b most likely have large iron cores and a bulk composition similar to that of Mercury. For a planetary radius of Rp = (1.58 ± 0.10) R⊕, a revised total mass of Mp = (7.42 ± 1.21) M⊕, and the existence of a third planet in the CoRoT-7 planetary system, calculations suggest that an iron core of 64 wt-% and a silicate mantle of 36 wt-% is produced owing to the relatively high average compressed density of ρavg = (10.4 ± 1.8) g cm-3. Kepler-10b's planetary radius and total mass yield an iron core of 59.5 wt-%, which complements the silicate mantle of 40.5 wt-%. An enhanced radiogenic heating rate owing to CoRoT-7b's young age (1.2-2.3 Gyr) raises the radial distribution of temperature by only a few hundred Kelvin, but reduces the viscosity by an order of magnitude. The planform of mantle convection is found to be strongly modified for depth-dependent material properties, with hot plumes rising across the whole mantle and cold slabs

  19. Unstable nuclei in coherent dissociation of relativistic nuclei 7,9Be, 10B and 10,11C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Firu, E.; Kornegrutsa, N. K.; Haiduc, M.; Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Neagu, A.; Rukoyatkin, P. A.; Rusakova, V. V.; Sarkisyan, V. R.; Stanoeva, R.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.

    2016-06-01

    Contribution of the unstable nuclei 7Be, 8Be and ®B into coherent dissociation events (“white” stars) of relativistic nuclei 7,9Be, 10B and 10,11C is under study on the basis of a nuclear track emulsion exposed to beams of the JINR Nuclotron. Distributions over the opening angle of α-pairs indicate to a simultaneous presence of virtual 8Beg.s. and 8Be2+ states in the ground states of the 9Be and 10C nuclei. The core 9B is manifested in the 10C nucleus with a probability of (30 ± 4)%, Selection of the 10C “white” stars accompanied by 8Beg.s. (9B) leads to the appearance in the excitation energy distribution of 2α2p “quartets” of the distinct peak with a maximum at 4.1 ± 0.3 MeV. 8Beg.s. decays are presented in 21% 2He + 2H and 19% in the 3He of the all 11C “white” stars. 9Bg.s. decays are identified in “white” stars 11C → 2He + 2H constituting 14% of the 11C “white” stars. The 9B nucleus. is manifested in the “white” stars 10B → 2He + 2H with a probability of (9 ± 1)%. For the 10B case yield of 8Beg.s. nuclei with the respect to 9B is about a factor of 3 higher than 9B.

  20. miRNA-10b sponge: An anti-breast cancer study in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Ning; Wu, Cui Yun; Lin, Man-Hua; Liu, Yong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is a malignant tumor with the highest incidence among women. Breast cancer metastasis is the major cause of treatment failure and mortality among such patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small molecular non-coding regulatory RNAs, which act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in breast cancer. miRNA-10b has been found to exhibit a high expression level in advanced and metastatic breast cancer, and is closely related to breast cancer metastasis. An miRNA sponge is an mRNA with several repeated sequences of complete or incomplete complementarity to the natural miRNA in its 3' non-translating region. It acts as a sponge adsorbing miRNAs and ensures their separation from their targets and inhibits their function. The present study designed a sponge plasmid against miRNA-10b and transiently transfected it into high and low metastatic human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, and analyzed the effects of the miRNA-10b sponge on the growth and proliferation, migration and invasion in these cell lines. qRT-PCR results found that the sponge plasmid effectively inhibited the expression of miRNA-10b, and upregulated the expression of the miRNA‑10b target protein HOXD-10. The results from the CCK-8 assay found that the miRNA-10b sponge inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Results of the plate cloning experiments indicated that the miRNA-10b sponge suppressed the colony formation of the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The results of wound healing and Transwell assays showed that the miRNA-10b sponge inhibited the migration and invasion of the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Our results demonstrated that the miRNA-10b sponge effectively inhibited the growth and proliferation of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. In addition, it also restrained the migration and invasion of human highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:26820121

  1. miRNA-10b sponge: An anti-breast cancer study in vitro

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, AI-LING; ZHANG, TING-TING; ZHOU, NING; WU, CUI YUN; LIN, MAN-HUA; LIU, YONG-JUN

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a malignant tumor with the highest incidence among women. Breast cancer metastasis is the major cause of treatment failure and mortality among such patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small molecular non-coding regulatory RNAs, which act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in breast cancer. miRNA-10b has been found to exhibit a high expression level in advanced and metastatic breast cancer, and is closely related to breast cancer metastasis. An miRNA sponge is an mRNA with several repeated sequences of complete or incomplete complementarity to the natural miRNA in its 3′ non-translating region. It acts as a sponge adsorbing miRNAs and ensures their separation from their targets and inhibits their function. The present study designed a sponge plasmid against miRNA-10b and transiently transfected it into high and low metastatic human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, and analyzed the effects of the miRNA-10b sponge on the growth and proliferation, migration and invasion in these cell lines. qRT-PCR results found that the sponge plasmid effectively inhibited the expression of miRNA-10b, and upregulated the expression of the miRNA-10b target protein HOXD-10. The results from the CCK-8 assay found that the miRNA-10b sponge inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Results of the plate cloning experiments indicated that the miRNA-10b sponge suppressed the colony formation of the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The results of wound healing and Transwell assays showed that the miRNA-10b sponge inhibited the migration and invasion of the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Our results demonstrated that the miRNA-10b sponge effectively inhibited the growth and proliferation of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. In addition, it also restrained the migration and invasion of human highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:26820121

  2. AP1- and NF-kappaB-binding sites conserved among mammalian WNT10B orthologs elucidate the TNFalpha-WNT10B signaling loop implicated in carcinogenesis and adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

    2007-04-01

    WNT signals are context-dependently transduced to canonical and non-canonical signaling cascades. We cloned and characterized wild-type human WNT10B, while another group cloned aberrant human WNT10B with Gly60Asp amino-acid substitution. Proto-oncogene WNT10B is expressed in gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, esophageal cancer, and cervical cancer. Because WNT10B blocks adipocyte differentiation, coding SNP of WNT10B gene is associated with familial obesity. In 2001, we reported WNT10B upregulation by TNFalpha. Here, comparative integromics analyses on WNT10B orthologs were performed to elucidate the transcriptional mechanism of WNT10B. Chimpanzee WNT10B and cow Wnt10b genes were identified within NW_001223159.1 and AC150975.2 genome sequences, respectively, by using bioinformatics (Techint) and human intelligence (Humint). Chimpanzee WNT10B and cow Wnt10b showed 98.7% and 95.1% total-amino-acid identity with human WNT10B, respectively. N-terminal signal peptide, 24 Cys residues, two Asn-linked glycosylation sites, and Gly60 of human WNT10B were conserved among mammalian WNT10B orthologs. Transcription start site of human WNT10B gene was 106-bp upstream of NM_003394.2 RefSeq 5'-end. Number of GC di-nucleotide repeats just down-stream of WNT10B transcription start site varied among primates and human population. Comparative genomics analyses revealed that double AP1-binding sites in the 5'-flanking promoter region and NF-kappaB-binding site in intron 3 were conserved among human, chimpanzee, cow, mouse, and rat WNT10B orthologs. Because TNFalpha signaling through TNFR1 and TRADD/RIP/TRAF2 complex activates JUN kinase (JNK) and IkappaB kinase (IKK) signaling cascades, conserved AP1- and NF-kappaB-binding sites explain the mechanism of TNFalpha-induced WNT10B upregulation. TNFalpha-WNT10B signaling loop is the negative feedback mechanism of adipogenesis to prevent obesity and metabolic syndrome. On the other hand, TNFalpha-WNT10B signaling loop is

  3. Data for the neutron interactions with /sup 6/Li and /sup 10/B

    SciTech Connect

    Poenitz, W.P.

    1984-01-01

    The /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..), /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha../sub 1/) and, increasingly in more recent measurement, the /sup 6/Li(n,..cap alpha..) cross sections are the major references used in low energy experiments. Many data from modern measurements are available for the neutron interaction with /sup 6/Li, including total, scattering, and absolute and relative (n,..cap alpha..) cross sections. A consensus has been reached with these new /sup 6/Li + n data. In contrast, the data base for the /sup 10/B neutron interaction cross sections is unfortunately poor. This is even the case for the total cross section which is supposed to be the easiest quantity to be measured. The most serious deficiency is the absence of data from absolute measurements of the /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..) and /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha../sub 1/) cross sections in the last 10 to 15 years. The available cross section data which were used for the ENDF/B-VI evaluation will be discussed. 43 references.

  4. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  5. An update on 11B,10B fractionation in the fundamental reaction: 10B(OH)3 + 11B(OH)4- = 11B(OH)3 + 10B(OH)4-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochko, K.; Tossell, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    It has recently been demonstrated experimentally by Byrne, et al. (2006) and Klochko, et al. (2006) that the equilibrium constant for the isotopic exchange reaction: 10B(OH)3 + 11B(OH)4- = 11B(OH)3 + 10B(OH)4- (1) has a value around 1.027 for seawater at 25°C, for total B concentrations from 0.01 to 0.05 molal. These experimental studies involved essentially the accurate determination of the small pKa difference between the 11B and 10B isotopomers of boric acid. This new equilibrium constant value is significantly higher than the traditional value of 1.0194 from Kakihana, et al. (1977). This result has been obscured in recent controversies (Honisch, et al., 2007). The new value agrees well with the ab initio quantum cluster calculated values of Liu and Tossell (2005) and with the ab initio MD harmonic values of Rustad and Bylaska (2007). We will present additional calculations supporting and extending the study of Liu and Tossell (2005) and will discuss the general unsuitability of methods such as Sanchez-Valle, et al. (2005) which employ experimental spectral data. We have also established that polyborate formation in solutions as concentrated as 0.50 molal total B has little effect on the equilibrium constant. A mechanism is also presented for the interaction of B(OH)3 and B(OH)4- with HCO3- species occurring on the calcite surface. References: Byrne, et al. Deep-Sea Research I (2006) 53, 684-688. Honisch, et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2007) 71, 1636-1641. Kakihana, et al. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. (1977) 50, 158-163. Klochko, et al. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (2006) 248, 276-285. Liu and Tossell Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2005) 69, 3995-4006. Rustad and Bylaska J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2007) 129, 2222-2223. Sanchez-Valle, et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2005) 69, 4301-4313.

  6. Wnt-10b, uniquely among Wnts, promotes epithelial differentiation and shaft growth

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Nishiofuku, Mariko; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2008-03-07

    Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles throughout life from embryo to adult, and considered to be critical for their development and maturation, their roles remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, Wnt-5a, Wnt-10b, and Wnt-11) on epithelial cell differentiation using adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cell (MPSEC) cultures and hair growth using hair follicle organ cultures. Only Wnt-10b showed evident promotion of epithelial cell differentiation and hair shaft growth, in contrast to Wnt-3a, 5a, and 11. Our results suggest that Wnt-10b is unique and plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial cells in the hair follicle.

  7. Concentrations and profiles of bisphenol A and other bisphenol analogues in foodstuffs from the United States and their implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-05-15

    As the concern over the safety of bisphenol A (BPA) continues to grow, this compound is gradually being replaced, in industrial applications, with compounds such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS). Occurrence of bisphenols, including BPA and BPS, has been reported in paper products and in environmental matrices. Information on the occurrence of bisphenols, other than BPA, in foodstuffs, however, is scarce. In this study, several bisphenol analogues, including BPA, BPF, and BPS, were analyzed in foodstuffs (N = 267) collected from Albany, NY, USA, using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Foodstuffs were divided into nine categories of beverages, dairy products, fats and oils, fish and seafood, cereals, meat and meat products, fruits, vegetables, and "others". Bisphenols were found in the majority (75%) of the food samples, and the total concentrations of bisphenols (ΣBPs: sum of eight bisphenols) were in the range of below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 1130 ng/g fresh weight, with an overall mean value of 4.38 ng/g. The highest overall mean concentration of ΣBPs was found in the "others" category, which included condiments (preserved, ready-to-serve foods). A sample of mustard (dressing) and ginger, placed in the category of vegetables, contained the highest concentrations of 1130 ng/g for bisphenol F (BPF) and 237 ng/g for bisphenol P (BPP). Concentrations of BPs in beverages (mean = 0.341 ng/g) and fruits (0.698 ng/g) were low. The predominant bisphenol analogues found in foodstuffs were BPA and BPF, which accounted for 42 and 17% of the total BP concentrations, respectively. Canned foods contained higher concentrations of individual and total bisphenols in comparison to foods sold in glass, paper, or plastic containers. On the basis of measured concentrations and daily ingestion rates of foods, the daily dietary intakes of bisphenols (calculated from the mean concentration) were estimated to be 243, 142

  8. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers. PMID:26935166

  9. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer

    PubMed Central

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers. PMID:26935166

  10. 76 FR 12845 - Airworthiness Directives; APEX Aircraft Model CAP 10 B Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Register on December 30, 2010 (75 FR 82335). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant... CAP 10 B Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation...

  11. 8Be and 9B nuclei in dissociation of relativistic 10B and 11C nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Firu, E.; Kornegrutsa, N. K.; Haiduc, M.; Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Neagu, A.; Rukoyatkin, P. A.; Rusakova, V. V.; Stanoeva, R.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.

    2016-02-01

    Progress in the study of nuclear clustering in the relativistic 10B and 11C nuclei dissociation in nuclear track emulsion is presented. The contribution of the unbound 8Be and 9B nuclei to their structure is determined on the basis of measurements of the emission angles of relativistic He and H fragments.

  12. Mutations in WNT10B Are Identified in Individuals with Oligodontia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Yang, Wenli; Han, Dong; Wang, Xi; Guo, Sen; Li, Jinchen; Li, Fang; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Wong, Sing-Wai; Bai, Baojing; Liu, Yao; Du, Jie; Sun, Zhong Sheng; Shi, Songtao; Feng, Hailan; Cai, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Tooth agenesis is one of the most common developmental anomalies in humans. Oligodontia, a severe form of tooth agenesis, is genetically and phenotypically a heterogeneous condition. Although significant efforts have been made, the genetic etiology of dental agenesis remains largely unknown. In the present study, we performed whole-exome sequencing to identify the causative mutations in Chinese families in whom oligodontia segregates with dominant inheritance. We detected a heterozygous missense mutation (c.632G>A [p.Arg211Gln]) in WNT10B in all affected family members. By Sanger sequencing a cohort of 145 unrelated individuals with non-syndromic oligodontia, we identified three additional mutations (c.569C>G [p.Pro190Arg], c.786G>A [p.Trp262(∗)], and c.851T>G [p.Phe284Cys]). Interestingly, analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations revealed that mutations in WNT10B affect the development of permanent dentition, particularly the lateral incisors. Furthermore, a functional assay demonstrated that each of these mutants could not normally enhance the canonical Wnt signaling in HEPG2 epithelial cells, in which activity of the TOPFlash luciferase reporter was measured. Notably, these mutant WNT10B ligands could not efficiently induce endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells. Our findings provide the identification of autosomal-dominant WNT10B mutations in individuals with oligodontia, which increases the spectrum of congenital tooth agenesis and suggests attenuated Wnt signaling in endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells. PMID:27321946

  13. Use of nude mice in experimental neutron capture therapy with 10B-BPA

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaoki, N.; Ueda, M.; Tamauchi, S.; Yamamoto, K.; Mishima, Y. )

    1989-07-01

    Mouse B16 melanoma allografts in nude mice were successfully treated by thermal neutron irradiation after IP injection of 10B-paraboronophenylalanine hydrochloride. The tumor growth was significantly suppressed for 4 weeks after irradiation, compared with animals given neutron irradiation alone. Tumor-bearing nude mice were shown to be useful for evaluating the treatment for melanoma.

  14. Structural Analogues of Selfotel.

    PubMed

    Dziuganowska, Zofia A; Ślepokura, Katarzyna; Volle, Jean-Noël; Virieux, David; Pirat, Jean-Luc; Kafarski, Paweł

    2016-06-17

    A small library of phosphonopiperidylcarboxylic acids, analogues of NMDA antagonist selfotel (CGS 19755), was synthesized. First, the series of aromatic esters was obtained via a palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction (Hirao coupling) of dialkyl phosphites with bromopyridinecarboxylates, followed by their hydrolysis. Then, hydrogenation of the resulting phosphonopyridylcarboxylic acids over PtO2 yielded the desired phosphonopiperidylcarboxylic acids. NMR studies indicated that the hydrogenation reaction proceeds predominantly by cis addition. Several compounds were obtained as monocrystal structures. Preliminary biological studies performed on cultures of neurons suggest that the obtained compounds possess promising activity toward NMDA receptors. PMID:27187758

  15. Preparation and characterization of (10)B boric acid with high purity for nuclear industry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijiang; Liu, Tianyu; Xu, Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Boric acid is often added into coolant as neutron capture agent for pressurized water reactor, whose amount is influenced by its abundance and purity. Therefore, the preparation of enriched (10)B boric acid with high purity is beneficial to nuclear industry. (10)B is also used in developing tumor-specific boronated drugs in boron neutron capture therapy. The boronated drug can be administered to patient intravenously, intratumorally, or deposited at tumor site in surgical excision. Thus, enriched (10)B boric acid is of practical significance in the field of medicine. Self-made boron trifluoride-methanol-complex solution was selected as one of the experimental reagents, and the preparation of (10)B acid was realized by one-step reaction for the complexes with water and calcium chloride. The determination of electrical conductivity in reaction process proves that the optimum reaction time was 16-20 h. Furthermore, the effect of reaction time, ratio of calcium chloride to complex as well as the amount of water on the purity and yield of boric acid was investigated. Finally, the optimum reaction time was 20 h, the optimal solid-liquid ratio (molar ratio) was 3:1, and the amount of water was 1 L of deionized water for each mol of the complex. H2O2 was added in the reaction process to remove Fe(2+). After recrystallization, IR spectra of (10)B boric acid was measured and compared with standard to verify the product of boric acid. The feasibility of the preparation method was determined by the detection of XRD of boric acid. To observe the morphology by polarizing microscope, crystal structure was obtained. The purity of the final product is 99.95 %, and the yield is 96.47 %. The ion concentration of boric acid accords with the national standard of high purity, which was determined by ICP. PMID:27516940

  16. The effects of NaCl concentration and pH on the stability of hyperthermophilic protein Ssh10b

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yong-Jin; Sheng, Xiang-Rong; Pan, Xian-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Background Hyperthermophiles constitute a group of microorganisms with an optimum growth temperature of between 80°C and 100°C. Although the molecular underpinnings of protein thermostabilization have been the focus of many theoretical and experimental efforts, the properties leading to the higher denaturation temperature of hyperthermophilic proteins are still controversial. Among the large number of factors identified as responsible for the thermostability of hyperthermophilic proteins, the electrostatic interactions are thought to be a universally important factor. Results In this study, we report the effects of pH and salt concentration on the urea-induced denaturation of the protein Ssh10b from a hyperthermophile in low ionic strength buffer. In the absence of NaCl, the unfolding ΔG of the protein increased from about 33 kJ/mol at pH 3 to about 78 kJ/mol at pH 10. At all values of pH, the ΔG increased with increasing NaCl concentration, indicating that salt stabilizes the protein significantly. Conclusion These findings suggests that the increased number of charged residues and ion pairs in the protein Ssh10b from hyperthermophiles does not contribute to the stabilization of the folded protein, but may play a role in determining the denatured state ensemble and also in increasing the denaturation temperature. PMID:18096085

  17. Analogue-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analogue Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses circuits for three-bit and four-bit analogue digital converters and digital analogue converters. These circuits feature slow operating speeds that enable the circuitry to be used to demonstrate the mode of operation using oscilloscopes and signal generators. (DDR)

  18. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-09-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mltogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  19. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  20. Study of the 10B ( p ,α)7Be reaction through the indirect Trojan Horse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglia, S. M. R.; Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Burjan, V.; Carlin, N.; Chengbo, L.; Del Santo, M. G.; Kroha, V.; Hons, Z.; Irgaziev, B.; La Cognata, M.; Mrazek, J.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Pizzone, R. G.; Qungang, W.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Shu-Hua, Z.; Sergi, M. L.; Somoryai, E.; Souza, F.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Tabacaru, G.; Tumino, A.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2015-02-01

    Boron abundances in stellar atmospheres, as well as berillium and lithium ones, can give useful hints for non-standard transport processes discrimination in stars. They can also be relevant for understanding several astrophysical processes (e.g. primordial nucleosynthesis and spallation reactions in ISM). A comprehensive study of Li Be B abundances can therefore confirm or not the presence of non-standard mixing processes in stellar envelopes. For this reason nuclear processes producing or depleting boron isotope abundance need to be studied at astrophysical energies. The 10B ( p ,α)7Be reaction has been studied by means of the Trojan Horse Method. The Trojan Horse Method was thus applied to the 10B ( d ,α7Be ) n reaction, studied at 24 MeV. The obtained results will be discussed.

  1. Characterization of a 10B-doped liquid scintillator as a capture-gated neutron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, S.; Iliadis, C.; Longland, R.

    2016-03-01

    We use a 250 MHz digitizer to characterize the pulse shape discrimination of a BC-523A 10B-doped liquid scintillator with capture-gating capabilities. Our results are compared to recent work claiming pulse shape discrimination between fast and thermal neutron signals. The capture event is identified, and we explain the origin of signals that are often misinterpreted. We use the time-of-flight method to measure the detector energy resolution for fast incident monoenergetic neutrons and the intrinsic neutron detection efficiency. Monte Carlo simulations are performed and we find agreement between measured and simulated results. These steps are important for understanding 10B-doped capture-gated spectroscopy in mixed radiation environments, as efficiencies using capture-gating are rarely reported in the literature.

  2. Association Analysis of WNT10B With Bone Mass and Structure Among Individuals of African Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Zmuda, Joseph M; Yerges, Laura M; Kammerer, Candace M; Cauley, Jane A; Wang, Xiaojing; Nestlerode, Cara S; Wheeler, Victor W; Patrick, Alan L; Bunker, ClareAnn H; Moffett, Susan P; Ferrell, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    Wnts comprise a family of secreted growth factors that regulate the development and maintenance of many organs. Recently, Wnt10b was shown to stimulate osteoblastogenesis and bone formation in mice. To evaluate further the role of Wnt10b in bone health in humans, we performed bidirectional sequencing of ∼8 kb of the WNT10B gene region in 192 individuals (96 African, 96 white) to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We identified 19 SNPs with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.01. Ten of these SNPs were not present in the NCBI dbSNP database (build 127), whereas 10 of the 20 SNPs (50%) reported in dbSNP were not verified. We initially genotyped seven tagging SNPs that captured common (MAF ≥ 0.05) variation in the region with r 2 > 0.80 and a potentially functional SNP in exon 5 in 1035 Afro-Caribbean men ≥40 yr of age. Association analysis showed three SNPs in a 3′ region of linkage disequilibrium that were associated with DXA measures of hip BMD. Associations between two of these three SNPs (rs1051886, rs3741627) with hip BMD were replicated in an additional 980 Afro-Caribbean men (p < 0.05), in the combined sample of 2015 men (p ≤ 0.006), and in 416 individuals ≥18 yr of age (mean, 44 yr) belonging to eight extended, multigenerational Afro-Caribbean families with mean family size >50 (3535 relative pairs; p < 0.05). Further analysis showed that rs1051886 and rs3741627 were associated with cortical cross-sectional area, periosteal circumference, and BMC in the radius, such that individuals with the minor alleles had lower biomechanical indices of long-bone bending strength. This analysis implicates the WNT10B locus as a genetic element in the regulation of bone mass and structural geometry. PMID:19016593

  3. Phosphonate analogues of aminoacyl adenylates.

    PubMed Central

    Southgate, C C; Dixon, H B

    1978-01-01

    Phosphonomethyl analogues of glycyl phosphate and valyl phosphate, i.e. NH2-CHR-CO-CH2-PO(OH)2, were synthesized and esterified with adenosine to give analogues of aminoacyl adenylates. The interaction of these adenylate analogues with valyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli was studied by fluorescence titration. The analogue of valyl phosphate has an affinity for the enzyme comparable with that of valine, but that of valyl adenylate is bound much less tightly than either valyl adenylate or corresponding derivative of valinol. The affinity of the analogue of glycyl adenylate was too low to be measured. We conclude that this enzyme interacts specifically with both the side chain and the anhydride linkage of the adenylate intermediate. PMID:743207

  4. 10B multi-grid proportional gas counters for large area thermal neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, K.; Bigault, T.; Birch, J.; Buffet, J. C.; Correa, J.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Hultman, L.; Höglund, C.; Guérard, B.; Jensen, J.; Khaplanov, A.; Kirstein, O.; Piscitelli, F.; Van Esch, P.; Vettier, C.

    2013-08-01

    3He was a popular material in neutrons detectors until its availability dropped drastically in 2008. The development of techniques based on alternative convertors is now of high priority for neutron research institutes. Thin films of 10B or 10B4C have been used in gas proportional counters to detect neutrons, but until now, only for small or medium sensitive area. We present here the multi-grid design, introduced at the ILL and developed in collaboration with ESS for LAN (large area neutron) detectors. Typically thirty 10B4C films of 1 μm thickness are used to convert neutrons into ionizing particles which are subsequently detected in a proportional gas counter. The principle and the fabrication of the multi-grid are described and some preliminary results obtained with a prototype of 200 cm×8 cm are reported; a detection efficiency of 48% has been measured at 2.5 Å with a monochromatic neutron beam line, showing the good potential of this new technique.

  5. Heterogeneity of miR-10b expression in circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Gasch, Christin; Plummer, Prue N.; Jovanovic, Lidija; McInnes, Linda M.; Wescott, David; Saunders, Christobel M.; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Wallwiener, Markus; Nelson, Colleen; Spring, Kevin J.; Riethdorf, Sabine; Thompson, Erik W.; Pantel, Klaus; Mellick, Albert S.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of cancer patients are recognized as important potential targets for future anticancer therapies. As mediators of metastatic spread, CTCs are also promising to be used as ‘liquid biopsy’ to aid clinical decision-making. Recent work has revealed potentially important genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity within CTC populations, even within the same patient. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression and have emerged as potentially important diagnostic markers and targets for anti-cancer therapy. Here, we describe a robust in situ hybridization (ISH) protocol, incorporating the CellSearch® CTC detection system, enabling clinical investigation of important miRNAs, such as miR-10b on a cell by cell basis. We also use this method to demonstrate heterogeneity of such as miR-10b on a cell-by-cell basis. We also use this method to demonstrate heterogeneity of miR-10b in individual CTCs from breast, prostate and colorectal cancer patients. PMID:26522916

  6. Parthenolide induces apoptosis via TNFRSF10B and PMAIP1 pathways in human lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Parthenolide (PTL) is a sesquiterpene lactone which can induce apoptosis in cancer cells and eradicate cancer stem cells such as leukemia stem cells, prostate tumor-initiating cells and so on. However, the mechanism remains largely unclear. Methods Lung cancer cells were treated with parthenolide and the cell lysates were prepared to detect the given proteins by Western Blot analysis, and the cell survival was assayed by SRB and MTT assay. Cell cycle was evaluated by DNA flow cytometry analysis. TNFRSF10B, PMAIP1, ATF4 and DDIT3 genes were knocked down by siRNA technique. Apoptosis was evaluated by using Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and flow cytometry analysis. Results Parthenolide (PTL) induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human lung cancer cells. Moreover, PTL treatment in NSCLC cells increases expression of TNFRSF10B/DR5 and PMAIP1/NOXA. Silencing of TNFRSF10B or PMAIP1 or overexpression of CFLAR /c-FLIP (long form) could protect cells from PTL-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, PTL could increase the levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress hallmarks such as ERN1, HSPA5, p-EIF2A, ATF4 and DDIT3. Knockdown of ATF4 and DDIT3 abrogated PTL-induced apoptosis, which suggested that PTL induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. More importantly, we found that ATF4, DDIT3, TNFRSF10B and PMAIP1 were up-regulated more intensively, while CFLAR and MCL1 were down-regulated more dramatically by PTL in A549/shCDH1 cells than that in control cells, suggesting that PTL preferred to kill cancer stem cell-like cells by activating more intensive ER stress response in cancer stem cell-like cells. Conclusion We showed that parthenolide not only triggered extrinsic apoptosis by up-regulating TNFRSF10B and down-regulating CFLAR, but also induced intrinsic apoptosis through increasing the expression of PMAIP1 and decreasing the level of MCL1 in NSCLC cells. In addition, parthenolide triggered stronger ER stress response in

  7. Effect of time period after boric acid injection on 10B absorption in different regions of adult male rat's brain.

    PubMed

    Khojasteh, Nasrin Baghban; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Behnam; Goodarzi, Samereh

    2012-06-01

    Distribution of (10)B in different regions of rat normal brain was studied. Two groups were chosen as control and trial. Trial group received 2 ml of neutral boron compound. 2, 4 and 6 h after the injection brain removed, coronal sections of forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain were sandwiched between two pieces of polycarbonate. Autoradiography plots of (10)B distribution showed significant differences in three regions with the highest (10)B concentration in the forebrain during 4 h after injection. PMID:22476013

  8. New investigations of the 10B(p,{\\alpha }_{0})7Be reaction at bombarding energies between 0.6 and 1 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, I.; Dell'Aquila, D.; Conte, F.; Francalanza, L.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; La Torre, R.; Spadaccini, G.; Spitaleri, C.; Vigilante, M.

    2016-08-01

    We measured the 10B(p,{α }0)7Be reaction in the bombarding energy domain of 0.6-1.0 MeV, a region where very few data (with large uncertainties) have been reported in the literature. Despite the experimental difficulties, due to the unfavourable reaction kinematics and the presence of contaminants in the 10B target, we were able to measure excitation functions at both forward and backward angles thanks to the use of the inverse absorber technique. The obtained angular distributions show a continuous shape evolution, testifying to the contributions of several resonant states in the 11C compound nucleus. An R-matrix analysis of some reaction and scattering channels allows us to refine the spectroscopy of 11C excited states.

  9. Characterization of the new NSLS infrared microspectroscopy beamline U10B

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, G.L.

    1999-07-19

    The first of several new infrared beamlines, built on a modified bending magnet port of the NSLS VUV ring, is now operational for mid-infrared microspectroscopy. The port simultaneously delivers 40 mrad by 40 mrad to two separate beamlines and spectrometer endstations designated U10A and U10B. The latter is equipped with a scanning infrared microspectrometer. The combination of this instrument and high brightness synchrotron radiation makes diffraction-limited microspectroscopy practical. This paper describes the beamline's performance and presents quantitative information on the diffraction-limited resolution.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE NEW NSLS INFARED MICROSPECTROSCOPY BEAMLINE U10B.

    SciTech Connect

    CARR,G.L.

    1999-07-19

    The first of several new infrared beamlines, built on a modified bending magnet port of the NSLS VUV ring, is now operational for mid-infrared microspectroscopy. The port simultaneously delivers 40 mrad by 40 mrad to two separate beamlines and spectrometer endstations designated U10A and U10B. The latter is equipped with a scanning infrared microspectrometer. The combination of this instrument and high brightness synchrotron radiation makes diffraction-limited microspectroscopy practical. This paper describes the beamline's performance and presents quantitative information on the diffraction-limited resolution.

  11. 75 FR 52344 - Sinicway International Logistics Ltd. Possible Violations of Sections 10(A)(1) and 10(B)(2) of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Distribution Publications, Inc., and is published electronically at https://www.dpiusa.com . Sinicway currently..., in violation of 10(b)(2) of the Shipping Act. Now therefore, it is ordered, That pursuant to sections... Sinicway International Logistics Ltd. Possible Violations of Sections 10(A)(1) and 10(B)(2) of the...

  12. Structure-based Design, Synthesis, Biochemical and Pharmacological Characterization of Novel Salvinorin A Analogues as Active State Probes of the κ-Opioid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Feng; Bikbulatov, Ruslan V.; Mocanu, Viorel; Dicheva, Nedyalka; Parker, Carol E.; Wetsel, William C.; Mosier, Philip D.; Westkaemper, Richard B.; Allen, John A.; Zjawiony, Jordan K.; Roth, Bryan L.

    2009-01-01

    Salvinorin A, the most potent naturally occurring hallucinogen, has gained increasing attention since the κ-opioid receptor (KOR) was identified as its principal molecular target by us (Roth et al, PNAS, 2002). Here we report the design, synthesis and biochemical characterization of novel, irreversible, salvinorin A-derived ligands suitable as active state probes of the KOR. Based on prior substituted cysteine accessibility and molecular modeling studies, C3157.38 was chosen as a potential anchoring point for covalent labeling of salvinorin A-derived ligands. Automated docking of a series of potential covalently-bound ligands suggested that either a haloacetate moiety or other similar electrophilic groups could irreversibly bind with C3157.38. 22-thiocyanatosalvinorin A (RB-64) and 22-chlorosalvinorin A (RB-48) were both found to be extraordinarily potent and selective KOR agonists in vitro and in vivo. As predicted based on molecular modeling studies, RB-64 induced wash-resistant inhibition of binding with a strict requirement for a free cysteine in or near the binding pocket. Mass spectrometry (MS) studies utilizing synthetic KOR peptides and RB-64 supported the hypothesis that the anchoring residue was C3157.38 and suggested one biochemical mechanism for covalent binding. These studies provide direct evidence for the presence of a free cysteine in the agonist-bound state of KOR and provide novel insights into the mechanism by which salvinorin A binds to and activates KOR. PMID:19555087

  13. Direct experimental evidence for a metastable state of D/sub 2/F, an analogue of D/sub 3/O

    SciTech Connect

    Raksit, A.B.; Jeon, S.J.; Porter, R.F.

    1986-05-22

    The D/sub 2/F radical has been studied by a combination of neutralized ion beam and charge stripping techniques. Neutrals formed by D/sub 2/SF/sup +//Na charge exchange are observed in metastable and dissociative states. The lifetime of metastable D/sub 2/F is greater than 0.4 ..mu..s. Metastability is not observed for HDF or H/sub 2/F. The dissociative state of D/sub 2/F releases about 1.9 eV of kinetic energy in its fragmentation products (DF + D). The vertical electron affinity of H/sub 2/F/sup +/ is calculated to be 6.6 +- 0.2 eV. The possibility of observing an emission continuum from electronically excited H/sub 2/F formed by H/sub 2/F/sup +//K charge exchange is suggested. Similarities in the mass spectra of D/sub 2/F and the isoelectronic D/sub 3/O radical are indicated.

  14. Ultracold neutron detectors based on 10B converters used in the qBounce experiments☆

    PubMed Central

    Jenke, Tobias; Cronenberg, Gunther; Filter, Hanno; Geltenbort, Peter; Klein, Martin; Lauer, Thorsten; Mitsch, Kevin; Saul, Heiko; Seiler, Dominik; Stadler, David; Thalhammer, Martin; Abele, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Gravity experiments with very slow, so-called ultracold neutrons connect quantum mechanics with tests of Newton's inverse square law at short distances. These experiments face a low count rate and hence need highly optimized detector concepts. In the frame of this paper, we present low-background ultracold neutron counters and track detectors with micron resolution based on a 10B converter. We discuss the optimization of 10B converter layers, detector design and concepts for read-out electronics focusing on high-efficiency and low-background. We describe modifications of the counters that allow one to detect ultracold neutrons selectively on their spin-orientation. This is required for searches of hypothetical forces with spin–mass couplings. The mentioned experiments utilize a beam-monitoring concept which accounts for variations in the neutron flux that are typical for nuclear research facilities. The converter can also be used for detectors, which feature high efficiencies paired with high spatial resolution of 1–2μm. They allow one to resolve the quantum mechanical wave function of an ultracold neutron bound in the gravity potential above a neutron mirror. PMID:25843998

  15. MicroRNA-10b downregulation mediates acute rejection of renal allografts by derepressing BCL2L11

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaoyou; Dong, Changgui; Jiang, Zhengyao; Wu, William K.K.; Chan, Matthew T.V.; Zhang, Jie; Li, Haibin; Qin, Ke; Sun, Xuyong

    2015-04-10

    Kidney transplantation is the major therapeutic option for end-stage kidney diseases. However, acute rejection could cause allograft loss in some of these patients. Emerging evidence supports that microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation is implicated in acute allograft rejection. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to profile miRNA expression in normal and acutely rejected kidney allografts. Among 75 identified dysregulated miRNAs, miR-10b was the most significantly downregulated miRNAs in rejected allografts. Transfecting miR-10b inhibitor into human renal glomerular endothelial cells recapitulated key features of acute allograft rejection, including endothelial cell apoptosis, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α, interferon-γ, and chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2) and chemotaxis of macrophages whereas transfection of miR-10b mimics had opposite effects. Downregulation of miR-10b directly derepressed the expression of BCL2L11 (an apoptosis inducer) as revealed by luciferase reporter assay. Taken together, miR-10b downregulation mediates many aspects of disease pathogenicity of acute kidney allograft rejection. Restoring miR-10b expression in glomerular endothelial cells could be a novel therapeutic approach to reduce acute renal allograft loss. - Highlights: • miR-10b was the most downregulated microRNAs in acutely rejected renal allografts. • miR-10b downregulation triggered glomerular endothelial cell apoptosis. • miR-10b downregulation induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • miR-10b downregulation derepressed its pro-apoptotic target BCL2L11.

  16. Capillary electrophoresis-electrospray mass spectrometry and HR-ICP-MS for the detection and quantification of 10B-boronophenylalanine (10B-BPA) used in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Pitois, Aurélien; de las Heras, Laura Aldave; Zampolli, Antonella; Menichetti, Luca; Carlos, Ramon; Lazzerini, Guido; Cionini, Luca; Salvatori, Pietro Alberto; Betti, Maria

    2006-02-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a bimodal radiotherapeutic treatment based on the irradiation of neoplastic tissues with neutrons after the tissues have selectively accumulated molecules loaded with nuclides with large neutron capture cross-sections (such boron-10). Boron-10 carriers have been tested to a limited extent, and clinical trials have been conducted on sulfhydryl borane (10B-BSH) and boronophenylalanine (10B-BPA). However, precise and accurate measurements of boron-10 concentrations (0.1-100 microg/g) in specimens and samples of limited size (microg scale) are needed in order to be able to biologically characterise new compounds in predictive tissue dosimetry, toxicology and pharmacology studies as well as in clinical investigations. A new approach based on fast separation and detection of 10B-BPA performed by coupling capillary electrophoresis to electrospray mass spectrometry is reported. This method allows the quantitative analysis and characterisation of 10B-BPA in a short time with a high separation efficiency. Detection limits of 3 microM for 10B-BPA and 30 ng/mL for 10B were obtained with CE-ESI-MS. A quantification limit of 10 microM for 10B-BPA (100 ng/mL for 10B) was attained. The total boron-10 concentration was determined by high-resolution inductively coupled mass spectrometry in order to validate the method. Boron-10 isotope measurements were carried out by HR-ICP-MS at medium resolution (R=4000) due to the presence of an isobaric interference at mass 10. Good agreement was obtained between the values from CE-ESI-MS and those from HR-ICP-MS. The method has been successfully used to determine the 10B-BPA in two lines of cultured cells. PMID:16372182

  17. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest as a Spaceflight Analogue on Resting State Sensorimotor Network Functional Connectivity and Neurocognitive Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, K.; Koppelmans, V.; Yuan, P.; Cooke, K.; De Dios, Y.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S.; Reuter-Lorenz, P.; Castenada, R. Riascos; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2015-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight has been associated with detrimental alterations in human sensorimotor systems and neurocognitive performance. Prolonged exposure to a head-down tilt position during long duration bed rest can resemble several effects of the microgravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The question of whether microgravity affects other central nervous system functions such as brain functional connectivity and its relationship with neurocognitive performance is largely unknown, but of potential importance to the health and performance of astronauts both during and post-flight. The aims of the present study are 1) to identify changes in sensorimotor resting state functional connectivity that occur with extended bed rest exposure, and to characterize their recovery time course; 2) to evaluate how these neural changes correlate with neurocognitive performance. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data were collected from 17 male participants. The data were acquired through the NASA bed rest facility, located at the University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX). Participants remained in bed with their heads tilted down six degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. RsfMRI data were obtained at seven time points: 7 and 12 days before bed rest; 7, 50, and 65 days during bed rest; and 7 and 12 days after bed rest. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) analysis was performed to measure the connectivity of sensorimotor networks in the brain before, during, and post-bed rest. We found a decrease in left putamen connectivity with the pre- and post-central gyri from pre bed rest to the last day in bed rest. In addition, vestibular cortex connectivity with the posterior cingulate cortex decreased from pre to post bed rest. Furthermore, connectivity between cerebellar right superior posterior fissure and other cerebellar regions decreased from

  18. Effect of oxygen pressure during incubation with a (10)B-carrier on (10)B uptake capacity of cultured p53 wild-type and mutated tumor cells: dependency on p53 status of tumor cells and types of (10)B-carriers.

    PubMed

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Tatebe, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Tano, Keizo; Sanada, Yu; Moriwaki, Takahiro; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of oxygen pressure during incubation with a (10)B-carrier on (10)B uptake capacity of cultured p53 wild-type and mutated tumor cells. Materials and methods Cultured human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line transfected with mutant TP53 (SAS/mp53), or with a neo vector as a control (SAS/neo) was incubated with L-para-boronophenylalanine-(10)B (BPA) or sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate-(10)B (BSH) as a (10)B-carrier at the (10)B concentration of 60 ppm for 24 h under aerobic (20.7% of oxygen) or hypoxic (0.28% of oxygen) conditions. Immediately after incubation, cultured tumor cells received reactor thermal neutron beams, and a cell survival assay was performed. (10)B concentration of cultured SAS/neo or SAS/mp53 cells incubated under aerobic or hypoxic conditions was determined with a thermal neutron guide tube. Results Hypoxic incubation significantly decreased (10)B concentration of cultured cells with a clearer tendency observed following BPA than BSH treatment in both SAS/neo and SAS/mp53 cells. Following neutron beam irradiation, SAS/mp53 cells showed significantly higher relative biological effectiveness values than SAS/neo cells because of the significantly lower radiosensitivity of SAS/mp53 to γ-rays than SAS/neo cells. Conclusion Oxygen pressure during incubation with a (10)B-carrier had a critical impact on (10)B uptake of cultured tumor cells. PMID:26887694

  19. The edaravone and 3-n-butylphthalide ring-opening derivative 10b effectively attenuates cerebral ischemia injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Kai; Sheng, Xiao; Li, Ting-ting; Wang, Lin-na; Zhang, Yi-hua; Huang, Zhang-jian; Ji, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Compound 10b is a hybrid molecule of edaravone and a ring-opening derivative of 3-n-butylphthalide (NBP). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of compound 10b on brain damage in rats after focal cerebral ischemia. Methods: SD rats were subjected to 2-h-middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). At the onset of reperfusion, the rats were orally treated with NBP (60 mg/kg), edaravone (3 mg/kg), NBP (60 mg/kg)+edaravone (3 mg/kg), or compound 10b (70, 140 mg/kg). The infarct volume, motor behavior deficits, brain water content, histopathological alterations, and activity of GSH, SOD, and MDA were analyzed 24 h after reperfusion. The levels of relevant proteins in the ipsilateral striatum were examined using immunoblotting. Results: Administration of compound 10b (70 or 140 mg/kg) significantly reduced the infarct volume and neurological deficits in MCAO rats. The neuroprotective effects of compound 10b were more pronounced compared to NBP, edaravone or NBP+edaravone. Furthermore, compound 10b significantly upregulated the protein levels of the cytoprotective molecules Bcl-2, HO-1, Nrf2, Trx, P-NF-κB p65, and IκB-α, while decreasing the expression of Bax, caspase 3, caspase 9, Txnip, NF-κB p65, and P-IκB-α. Conclusion: Oral administration of compound 10b effectively attenuates rat cerebral ischemia injury. PMID:26073328

  20. Promotion of hair follicle development and trichogenesis by Wnt-10b in cultured embryonic skin and in reconstituted skin

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru . E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Shiroi, Akira; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2006-06-30

    We previously showed that Wnt-10b promoted the differentiation of primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC) toward hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle (IRS) cells in vitro. In the present study, we found that Wnt-10b promotes the development of hair follicles using a culture of mouse embryonic skin tissue and trichogenesis using a reconstitution experiment with nude mice. Hair follicle development was observed in skin taken from mouse embryos on embryonic day 10.5 following a 2-day culture with recombinant Wnt-10b (rWnt-10b), however, not without rWnt-10b. Brown hair growth was observed at the site of reconstituted skin in Balb/c nude mice where dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, derived from C3H/HeN new born mice, were transplanted with Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-COS). Without the co-transplantation of Wnt-COS, no hair growth was observed. Our results suggest an important role of Wnt-10b in the initiation of hair follicle development and following trichogenesis.

  1. miR-148a is a downstream effector of X-box-binding protein 1 that silences Wnt10b during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoon Mi; Kim, Tae-Min; Hun Kim, Dae; Hee Kim, Dong; Jeong, Seong-Whan; Kwon, Oh-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Wnt10b, an endogenous inhibitor of adipogenesis, maintains preadipocytes in an undifferentiated state by suppressing adipogenic transcription factors. We have previously demonstrated that Wnt10b transcription during adipogenesis is negatively regulated by X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1), an important transcription factor of the unfolded protein response. In this report, we demonstrate that XBP1s can directly induce the transcription of microRNA-148a, which in turn mediates the silencing of Wnt10b mRNA during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Stability of Wnt10b mRNA was found to be significantly increased by knockdown of XBP1s. Using computational algorithms, a set of microRNAs was predicted to bind Wnt10b mRNA, of which microRNA-148a was selected as a potential target for XBP1s. Our results revealed that microRNA-148a could bind to the 3′UTR of Wnt10b mRNA. Its ectopic expression significantly suppressed both Wnt10b expression and β-catenin activity. When we altered the expression of XBP1 in 3T3-L1 cells, microRNA-148a levels changed accordingly. A potential XBP1 response element was found in the promoter region of microRNA-148a, and XBP1s directly bound to this response element as shown by point mutation analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. In addition, a microRNA-148a mimic significantly restored adipogenic potential in XBP1-deficient 3T3-L1 cells. These findings provide the first evidence that XBP1s can regulate Wnt10b by a post-transcriptional mechanism through directly inducing microRNA-148a. PMID:27055562

  2. Over-expression of miR-10b in NPC patients: correlation with LMP1 and Twist1.

    PubMed

    Allaya, Nesrine; Khabir, Abdelmajid; Sallemi-Boudawara, Tahia; Sellami, Noura; Daoud, Jamel; Ghorbel, Abdelmonem; Frikha, Mounir; Gargouri, Ali; Mokdad-Gargouri, Raja; Ayadi, Wajdi

    2015-05-01

    Aberrant expression of miR-10b has been described in many cancers but remains unexplored in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Therefore, we aimed to study the miR-10b expression level in 43 NPC biopsies collected from Tunisian patients and three NPC xenografts. Then, we investigated the correlation between miR-10b expression and its upstream regulators LMP1/Twist1 as well as its adjacent gene HoxD4. We showed that miR-10b was significantly up-regulated in NPC biopsies compared to non-tumor nasopharyngeal tissues (fold change 153; p = 0.004) and associated with advanced clinical stage and young age at diagnosis (p = 0.005 and p = 0.011, respectively). In addition, over-expression of miR-10b was positively associated with the transcription factor Twist1 as well as the EBV oncoprotein LMP1 (fold change 6.32; p = 0.014, fold change 6.58; p = 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, higher level of miR-10b was observed in tumors with simultaneous expression of LMP1 and Twist1, compared to those expressing only Twist1 (fold change 2.49; p = 0.033). Meanwhile, the analysis of the link between miR-10b and its neighbor gene HoxD4 did not show any significant correlation (Fisher test p = 0.205; Mann-Whitney test p = 0.676). This study reports the first evidence of miR-10b over-expression in NPC patients. Furthermore, our findings can support hsa-miR-10b gene regulation through LMP1/Twist1 in NPC malignancy. PMID:25597482

  3. Role of miR-10b in breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Ninety percent of cancer-related mortality is caused by metastasis. Current cancer treatments can control many primary tumors but rarely stop the metastatic spread. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that miRNAs are involved in cancer initiation and progression. Furthermore, several miRNAs have been found to regulate metastasis. In particular, recent studies provide the first functional evidence that overexpression of a specific miRNA, miR-10b, can contribute to the development of metastasis, which can be exploited therapeutically in treating breast cancer metastasis in mice. Further in-depth analysis should provide more precise evaluation of the roles, mechanisms, and therapeutic utility of this miRNA in breast cancer. PMID:21067538

  4. XRD, TDPAC and LAPW study of Hf10B2 under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevy, I.; Beck, A.; Yaar, I.; Kahane, S.; Levy, O.; Auster, E.; Ettedgui, U.; Caspi, E. N.; Rivin, O.; Berant, Z.; Hu, J.

    The crystallographic structure and electronic properties of Hf10B2 were studied as a function of pressure by combining X-ray diffraction measurements with full potential linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) calculations. No phase transition was observed up to a pressure of 30.8 GPa, with a total volume contraction of V/V 0 =0.85 and a bulk modulus value of B 0=232±13 GPa. The calculated V zz value at the hafnium site is linearly increasing as a function of the pressure induced volume reduction, while the V zz value at the boron site stays almost zero. The major contribution to the V zz value at the hafnium site comes from a p-p contribution next to the probe nucleus, with a relatively large d-d contribution of about 25%. This unusual large d-d contribution arises from the hafnium p-d electrons coupling.

  5. XRD, TDPAC and LAPW study of Hf10B2 under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevy, I.; Beck, A.; Yaar, I.; Kahane, S.; Levy, O.; Auster, E.; Ettedgui, H.; Caspi, E. N.; Rivin, O.; Berant, Z.; Hu, J.

    2007-06-01

    The crystallographic structure and electronic properties of Hf10B2 were studied as a function of pressure by combining X-ray diffraction measurements with full potential linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) calculations. No phase transition was observed up to a pressure of 30.8 GPa, with a total volume contraction of V/ V 0 = 0.85 and a bulk modulus value of B 0 = 232 ±13 GPa. The calculated V zz value at the hafnium site is linearly increasing as a function of the pressure induced volume reduction, while the V zz value at the boron site stays almost zero. The major contribution to the V zz value at the hafnium site comes from a p p contribution next to the probe nucleus, with a relatively large d d contribution of about 25%. This unusual large d d contribution arises from the hafnium p d electrons coupling.

  6. Combined TL and 10B-alanine ESR dosimetry for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Bartolotta, A; D'Oca, M C; Lo Giudice, B; Brai, M; Borio, R; Forini, N; Salvadori, P; Manera, S

    2004-01-01

    The dosimetric technique described in this paper is based on electron spin resonance (ESR) detectors using an alanine-boric compound acid enriched with (10)B, and beryllium oxide thermoluminescent (TL) detectors; with this combined dosimetry, it is possible to discriminate the doses due to thermal neutrons and gamma radiation in a mixed field. Irradiations were carried out inside the thermal column of a TRIGA MARK II water-pool-type research nuclear reactor, also used for Boron Neutron Capture therapy (BNCT) applications, with thermal neutron fluence from 10(9) to 10(14) nth cm(-2). The ESR dosemeters using the alanine-boron compound indicated ESR signals about 30-fold stronger than those using only alanine. Moreover, a negligible correction for the gamma contribution, measured with TL detectors, almost insensitive to thermal neutrons, was necessary. Therefore, a simultaneous analysis of our TL and ESR detectors allows discrimination between thermal neutron and gamma doses, as required in BNCT. PMID:15353720

  7. Tidal dissipation in a homogeneous spherical body. II. Three examples: Mercury, Io, and Kepler-10 b

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Valeri V.; Efroimsky, Michael E-mail: michael.efroimsky@usno.navy.mil

    2014-11-01

    In Efroimsky and Makarov (Paper I), we derived from the first principles a formula for the tidal heating rate in a homogeneous sphere, compared it with the previously used formulae, and noted the differences. Now we present case studies: Mercury, Kepler-10 b, and a triaxial Io. A sharp frequency dependence of k {sub 2}/Q near spin-orbit resonances yields a sharp dependence of k {sub 2}/Q (and, therefore, of tidal heating) upon the spin rate. Thereby physical libration plays a major role in tidal heating of synchronously rotating planets. The magnitude of libration in the spin rate being defined by the planet's triaxiality, the latter becomes a factor determining the dissipation rate. Other parameters equal, a strongly triaxial synchronized body generates more heat than a similar body of a more symmetrical shape. After an initially triaxial object melts and loses its triaxiality, dissipation becomes less intensive; the body can solidify, with the tidal bulge becoming a new figure with triaxiality lower than the original. We derive approximate expressions for the dissipation rate in a Maxwell planet with the Maxwell time longer than the inverse tidal frequency. The expressions derived pertain to the 1:1 and 3:2 resonances and a nonresonant case; so they are applicable to most close-in super-Earths detected. In these planets, the heating outside synchronism is weakly dependent on the eccentricity and obliquity, provided both these parameters's values are moderate. According to our calculation, Kepler-10 b could hardly survive the intensive tidal heating without being synchronized, circularized, and reshaped through a complete or partial melt-down.

  8. Detection of the secondary eclipse of WASP-10b in the Ks-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Patricia; Barrado, David; Lillo-Box, Jorge; Diaz, Marcos; Birkby, Jayne; López-Morales, Mercedes; Hodgkin, Simon; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2015-02-01

    Context. WASP-10b, a non-inflated hot Jupiter, was discovered around a K-dwarf in a near circular orbit (~0.06). Since its discovery in 2009, different published parameters for this system have led to a discussion about the size, density, and eccentricity of this exoplanet. Aims: In order to test the hypothesis of a circular orbit for WASP-10b, we observed its secondary eclipse in the Ks-band, where the contribution of planetary light is high enough to be detected from the ground. Methods: Observations were performed with the OMEGA2000 instrument at the 3.5 m telescope at Calar Alto (Almería, Spain), in staring mode during 5.4 continuous hours, with the telescope defocused, monitoring the target during the expected secondary eclipse. A relative light curve was generated and corrected from systematic effects, using the principal component analysis (PCA) technique. The final light curve was fitted using a transit model to find the eclipse depth and a possible phase shift. Results: The best model obtained from the Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis resulted in an eclipse depth of ΔF of 0.137%+0.013%-0.019% and a phase offset of Δφ of -0.0028 +0.0005-0.0004. The eclipse phase offset derived from our modeling has systematic errors that were not taken into account and should not be considered as evidence of an eccentric orbit. The offset in phase obtained leads to a value for | ecosω | of 0.0044. The derived eccentricity is too small to be of any significance. Based on observations collected at the Calar Alto Observatory, Almería, Spain.

  9. Ruthenium(0) nanoparticle-catalyzed isotope exchange between 10B and 11B nuclei in decaborane(14).

    PubMed

    Yinghuai, Zhu; Widjaja, Effendi; Sia, Shirley Lo Pei; Zhan, Wang; Carpenter, Keith; Maguire, John A; Hosmane, Narayan S; Hawthorne, M Frederick

    2007-05-23

    Well dispersed ruthenium(0) nanoparticles, stabilized in the ionic liquid agent, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, have been successfully prepared via a reduction reaction of the precursor [CpRuCp*RuCp*]PF6 (Cp* = C5Me5). The ruthenium(0) nanoparticles were shown to catalyze the isotope exchange reaction between 10B enriched diborane and natural abundant B10H14 to produce highly 10B enriched (approximately 90%) decaborane(14) products. The ruthenium(0) nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, XRD, and XPS. The 10B enriched decaborane(14) has been analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, NMR, and high-resolution MS. PMID:17472379

  10. Materials analogue of zero-stiffness structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arun; Subramaniam, Anandh

    2011-04-01

    Anglepoise lamps and certain tensegrities are examples of zero-stiffness structures. These structures are in a state of neutral equilibrium with respect to changes in configuration of the system. Using Eshelby's example of an edge dislocation in a thin plate that can bend, we report the discovery of a non-trivial new class of material structures as an analogue to zero-stiffness structures. For extended positions of the edge dislocation in these structures, the dislocation experiences a zero image force. Salient features of these material structures along with the key differences from conventional zero-stiffness structures are pointed out.

  11. Analogue modelling of syntectonic leucosomes in migmatitic schists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druguet, Elena; Carreras, Jordi

    2006-10-01

    Migmatites from the Cap de Creus tectonometamorphic belt display a wide variety of structures, from those formed when the leucosomes were melt-bearing, to those developed during solid-state deformation. The observed field structures have been modelled by means of analogue experiments. The materials used in the models are layered plasticine as a schist analogue, and chocolate as analogue of the crystallizing leucosome. A model for the development of syntectonic migmatites is proposed in which initial melt-bearing patches, preferentially formed within fertile pelitic layers, progressively evolve towards lens-shaped veins. Furthermore, heterogeneous deformation of anisotropic metasediments facilitates formation of extensional sites for further melt accumulation and transport. Melt crystallization implies a rapid increase in effective viscosity of leucosomes producing a reversal in competence contrast with respect to the enclosing schists. During the whole process, deformation localizes around crystallizing veins, giving rise to different and contrasting structures for melt-bearing and for solid-state stages.

  12. Phosphonomethyl analogues of hexose phosphates.

    PubMed

    Webster, D; Jondorf, W R; Dixon, H B

    1976-05-01

    The analogue of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in which the phosphate group, -O-PO3H2, on C-6 is replaced by the phosphonomethyl group, -CH2-PO3H2, was made enzymically from the corresponding analogue of 3-phosphoglycerate. It was a substrate for aldolase, which was used to form it, but not for fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase. It was hydrolysed chemically to yield the corresponding analogue of fructose 6-phosphate [i.e. 6-deoxy-6-(phosphonomethyl)-D-fructose, or, more strictly, 6,7-dideoxy-7-phosphono-D-arabino-2-heptulose]. This proved to be a substrate for the sequential actions of glucose 6-phosphate isomerase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Thus seven out of the nine enzymes of the glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways so far tested catalyse the reactions of the phosphonomethyl isosteres of their substrates. PMID:7247

  13. Comparison of the Josephson Voltage Standards of the NIMT and the BIPM (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K10.b)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Stock, M.; Pimsut, S.; Rujirat, N.

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of the Josephson array voltage standards of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) and the National Institute of Metrology - (Thailand), NIMT, was carried out in November 2015 at the level of 10 V. For this exercise, options A and B of the BIPM.EM-K10.b comparison protocol were applied. Option B required the BIPM to provide a reference voltage for measurement by the NIMT using its Josephson standard with its own measuring device. Option A required the NIMT to provide a reference voltage with its Josephson voltage standard for measurement by the BIPM using an analogue nanovoltmeter and associated measurement loop. In all cases the BIPM array was kept floating from ground. The final results were in good agreement within the combined relative standard uncertainty of 2.6 parts in 1010 for the nominal voltage of 10 V. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. 5,10b-Ethanophenanthridine amaryllidaceae alkaloids inspire the discovery of novel bicyclic ring systems with activity against drug resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Henry, Sean; Kidner, Ria; Reisenauer, Mary R; Magedov, Igor V; Kiss, Robert; Mathieu, Véronique; Lefranc, Florence; Dasari, Ramesh; Evidente, Antonio; Yu, Xiaojie; Ma, Xiuye; Pertsemlidis, Alexander; Cencic, Regina; Pelletier, Jerry; Cavazos, David A; Brenner, Andrew J; Aksenov, Alexander V; Rogelj, Snezna; Kornienko, Alexander; Frolova, Liliya V

    2016-09-14

    Plants of the Amaryllidaceae family produce a large variety of alkaloids and non-basic secondary metabolites, many of which are investigated for their promising anticancer activities. Of these, crinine-type alkaloids based on the 5,10b-ethanophenanthridine ring system were recently shown to be effective at inhibiting proliferation of cancer cells resistant to various pro-apoptotic stimuli and representing tumors with dismal prognoses refractory to current chemotherapy, such as glioma, melanoma, non-small-cell lung, esophageal, head and neck cancers, among others. Using this discovery as a starting point and taking advantage of a concise biomimetic route to the crinine skeleton, a collection of crinine analogues were synthetically prepared and evaluated against cancer cells. The compounds exhibited single-digit micromolar activities and retained this activity in a variety of drug-resistant cancer cell cultures. This investigation resulted in the discovery of new bicyclic ring systems with significant potential in the development of effective clinical cancer drugs capable of overcoming cancer chemotherapy resistance. PMID:27218860

  15. The locus of microRNA-10b: a critical target for breast cancer insurgence and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Biagioni, Francesca; Bossel Ben-Moshe, Noa; Fontemaggi, Giulia; Yarden, Yosef; Domany, Eytan; Blandino, Giovanni

    2013-08-01

    Contemporary microRNA research has led to significant advances in our understanding of the process of tumorigenesis. MicroRNAs participate in different events of a cancer cell's life, through their ability to target hundreds of putative transcripts involved in almost every cellular function, including cell cycle, apoptosis, and differentiation. The relevance of these small molecules is even more evident in light of the emerging linkage between their expression and both prognosis and clinical outcome of many types of human cancers. This identifies microRNAs as potential therapeutic modifiers of cancer phenotypes. From this perspective, we overview here the miR-10b locus and its involvement in cancer, focusing on its role in the establishment (miR-10b*) and spreading (miR-10b) of breast cancer. We conclude that targeting the locus of microRNA 10b holds great potential for cancer treatment. PMID:23839045

  16. Capability of NIPAM polymer gel in recording dose from the interaction of (10)B and thermal neutron in BNCT.

    PubMed

    Khajeali, Azim; Reza Farajollahi, Ali; Kasesaz, Yaser; Khodadadi, Roghayeh; Khalili, Assef; Naseri, Alireza

    2015-11-01

    The capability of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel to record the dose resulting from boron neutron capture reaction in BNCT was determined. In this regard, three compositions of the gel with different concentrations of (10)B were prepared and exposed to gamma radiation and thermal neutrons. Unlike irradiation with gamma rays, the boron-loaded gels irradiated by neutron exhibited sensitivity enhancement compared with the gels without (10)B. It was also found that the neutron sensitivity of the gel increased by the increase of concentration of (10)B. It can be concluded that NIPAM gel might be suitable for the measurement of the absorbed dose enhancement due to (10)B and thermal neutron reaction in BNCT. PMID:26356043

  17. The Complete Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli DH10B: Insights into the Biology of a Laboratory Workhorse▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Durfee, Tim; Nelson, Richard; Baldwin, Schuyler; Plunkett, Guy; Burland, Valerie; Mau, Bob; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Qin, Xiang; Muzny, Donna M.; Ayele, Mulu; Gibbs, Richard A.; Csörgő, Bálint; Pósfai, György; Weinstock, George M.; Blattner, Frederick R.

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli DH10B was designed for the propagation of large insert DNA library clones. It is used extensively, taking advantage of properties such as high DNA transformation efficiency and maintenance of large plasmids. The strain was constructed by serial genetic recombination steps, but the underlying sequence changes remained unverified. We report the complete genomic sequence of DH10B by using reads accumulated from the bovine sequencing project at Baylor College of Medicine and assembled with DNAStar's SeqMan genome assembler. The DH10B genome is largely colinear with that of the wild-type K-12 strain MG1655, although it is substantially more complex than previously appreciated, allowing DH10B biology to be further explored. The 226 mutated genes in DH10B relative to MG1655 are mostly attributable to the extensive genetic manipulations the strain has undergone. However, we demonstrate that DH10B has a 13.5-fold higher mutation rate than MG1655, resulting from a dramatic increase in insertion sequence (IS) transposition, especially IS150. IS elements appear to have remodeled genome architecture, providing homologous recombination sites for a 113,260-bp tandem duplication and an inversion. DH10B requires leucine for growth on minimal medium due to the deletion of leuLABCD and harbors both the relA1 and spoT1 alleles causing both sensitivity to nutritional downshifts and slightly lower growth rates relative to the wild type. Finally, while the sequence confirms most of the reported alleles, the sequence of deoR is wild type, necessitating reexamination of the assumed basis for the high transformability of DH10B. PMID:18245285

  18. 77 FR 56681 - Order Granting Limited Exemptions From Exchange Act Rule 10b-17 and Rules 101 and 102 of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Order Granting Limited Exemptions From Exchange Act Rule 10b-17 and Rules 101 and 102 of Regulation M to iShares, Inc. and iShares MSCI Frontier 100 Index Fund Pursuant to Exchange Act Rule 10b-17(b)(2) and Rule 101(d) and 102(e) of...

  19. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-08-02

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  20. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-01-01

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  1. XRD, TDPAC and LAPW Study of Hf10B2 Under High Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Halevy, I.; Beck, A; Yaar, I; Kahane, S; Levy, O; Auster, E; Ettedgui, H; Caspi, E; Rivin, O; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    The crystallographic structure and electronic properties of Hf{sup 10}B{sub 2} were studied as a function of pressure by combining X-ray diffraction measurements with full potential linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) calculations. No phase transition was observed up to a pressure of 30.8 GPa, with a total volume contraction of V/V{sub 0}=0.85 and a bulk modulus value of B{sub 0}=232 {+-}13 GPa. The calculated V{sub zz} value at the hafnium site is linearly increasing as a function of the pressure induced volume reduction, while the V{sub zz} value at the boron site stays almost zero. The major contribution to the V{sub zz} value at the hafnium site comes from a p-p contribution next to the probe nucleus, with a relatively large d-d contribution of about 25%. This unusual large d-d contribution arises from the hafnium p-d electrons coupling.

  2. Copper ion detection using novel silver nanoclusters stabilized with amido black 10B.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fangfang; Liang, Sheng; Peng, Yibo; Kuang, Yangfang; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Shu; Long, Yunfei; Zeng, Rongjin

    2016-05-01

    Novel fluorescent silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) were synthesized using amido black 10B (AB) as a stabilizing agent and then employed for the detection of copper ions (Cu(2+)). The AB-stabilized AgNCs (AB-AgNCs) were well dispersed in aqueous solution with an average diameter of around 1.3 nm and exhibited illustrious blue fluorescence emission. Moreover, the fluorescence of AB-AgNCs could be quenched efficiently by Cu(2+), which might be a result of the coordination between Cu(2+) and the free recognition group of AB on surfaces of AB-AgNCs, inducing the aggregation of AB-AgNCs. Based on the linear decrease of fluorescence intensity, the Cu(2+) concentration was determined in the range of 0.01-1.1 μmol L(-1) and the limit of detection (LOD) was 4.0 nΜ. In addition, the detection of Cu(2+) could be performed with AB-AgNCs in the presence of other ions, including 13 kinds of conventional metal ions and 11 kinds of anions. Based on the above experiment, the developed AB-AgNC probe was successfully further applied to detect Cu(2+) in three electroplating effluents, which showed high accuracy. Graphical abstract The process of synthesised silver nanoclusters and the application for Cu(2+) detection. PMID:26873219

  3. A new study of 10B(p,α)7Be reaction at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caciolli, A.; Depalo, R.; Broggini, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Menegazzo, R.; Mou, L.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rigato, V.; Romano, S.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Sergi, M. L.; Spitaleri, C.; Tumino, A.

    2016-05-01

    The 10B(p,α)7Be reaction is of great interest since it has many applications in different fields of research such as nuclear astrophysics, nuclear physics, and models of new reactors for clean energy generation. This reaction has been studied at the AN2000 accelerator of the INFN National Laboratories of Legnaro (LNL). The total cross section has been measured in a wide energy range (250-1182 keV) by using the activation method. The decays of the 7Be nuclei produced by the reaction were measured at the low counting facility of LNL by using two fully shielded high-purity germanium detectors. The present dataset shows a large discrepancy with respect to one of the previous data at the same energies and reduces the total uncertainty to the level of 6%. An R-matrix calculation has been performed on the present data using the parameters from previous Trojan Horse measurements for the 10 and 500keV resonances. The present data do not lay on the R-matrix fit in one point suggesting the existence of a 11C level not observed yet. Further nuclear investigations are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  4. New measurement of the 10B(p,α0)7Be reaction cross section at low energies and the structure of 11C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, I.; Dell'Aquila, D.; Conte, F.; Francalanza, L.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; La Torre, R.; Spadaccini, G.; Spitaleri, C.; Vigilante, M.

    2016-05-01

    We report preliminary results of a new measurement of the 10B(p,α0)7Be cross section in the 0.6 - 1.0 MeV bombarding energy domain. In this region very few data have been reported in the literature. Excitation functions at both forward and backward angles have been obtained. Angular distributions testify the contribution due to several excited states in the 11C compound nucleus. The experimental S-factor is about 30% lower than the one reported in the literature and based on activation methods.

  5. Farnesyl Diphosphate Analogues with Aryl Moieties are Efficient Alternate Substrates for Protein Farnesyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Thangaiah; Pais, June E.; Liu, Suxia; Troutman, Jerry M.; Suzuki, Yuta; Subramanian, Karunai Leela; Fierke, Carol; Andres, Douglas A.; Spielmann, H. Peter

    2012-01-01

    Farnesylation is an important post-translational modification essential for proper localization and function of many proteins. Transfer of the farnesyl group from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to proteins is catalyzed by protein farnesyltransferase (FTase). We employed a library of FPP analogues with a range of aryl groups substituting for individual isoprene moieties to examine some of the structural and electronic properties of analogue transfer to peptide catalyzed by FTase. Analysis of steady-state kinetics for modification of peptide substrates revealed that the multiple turnover activity depends on the analogue structure. Analogues where the first isoprene is replaced by a benzyl group and an analogue where each isoprene is replaced by an aryl group are good substrates. In sharp contrast with the steady-state reaction, the single turnover rate constant for dansyl-GCVLS alkylation was found to be the same for all analogues, despite the increased chemical reactivity of the benzyl analogues and the increased steric bulk of other analogues. However, the single turnover rate constant for alkylation does depend on the Ca1a2X peptide sequence. These results suggest that the isoprenoid transition state conformation is preferred over the inactive E•FPP• Ca1a2X ternary complex conformation. Furthermore, these data suggest that the farnesyl binding site in the exit groove may be significantly more selective for the farnesyl diphosphate substrate than the active site binding pocket and therefore might be a useful site for design of novel inhibitors. PMID:22989235

  6. Review of insulin and its analogues in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mane, Krishnappa; Chaluvaraju, Kc; Niranjan, Ms; Zaranappa, Tr; Manjuthej, Tr

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder where in human body does not produce or properly uses insulin, a hormone that is required to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy. Diabetes finally leads to more complications and to prevent these complications insulin and its analogues are used. After more than half a century of treating diabetics with animal insulin's, recombinant DNA technologies and advanced protein chemistry made human insulin preparations available in the early 1980s. As the next step, over the last decade, insulin analogues were constructed by changing the structure of the native protein with the goal of improving the therapeutic properties of it, because the pharmacokinetic characteristics of rapid, intermediate and long-acting preparations of human insulin make it almost impossible to achieve sustained normoglycemia. The first clinically available insulin analogue, lispro, confirmed the hopes by showing that improved glycaemic control can be achieved without an increase in hypoglycaemic events. Two new insulin analogues, insulin glargine and insulin aspart, have recently been approved for clinical use in the United States and several other analogues are being intensively tested. PMID:24826038

  7. Curcumin analogues with high activity for inhibiting human prostate cancer cell growth and androgen receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dai-Ying; Ding, Ning; Du, Zhi-Yun; Cui, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Hong; Wei, Xing-Chuan; Conney, Allan H; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Xi

    2014-09-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) has a critical role in prostate cancer development and progression. Several curcumin analogues (A10, B10, C10, E10 and F10) with different linker groups were investigated for their effects in human prostate cancer CWR‑22Rv1 and LNCaP cell lines. The ability of these compounds to inhibit testosterone (TT)‑ or dihydrotestosterone (DHT)‑induced AR activity was determined by an AR‑linked luciferase assay and by TT‑ or DHT‑induced expression of prostate specific antigen. Compounds F10 and E10 had stronger inhibitory effects on the growth of cultured CWR‑22Rv1 and LNCaP cell lines, and they also had enhanced stimulatory effects on apoptosis compared with curcumin and other curcumin analogues (A10, B10, C10) in CWR‑22Rv1 cells. E10 and F10 were more potent inhibitors of AR activity than curcumin, A10 and B10. The higher activities of E10 and F10 may be correlated with a heteroatom linker. The results indicate that one of the potential mechanisms for the anticancer effect of the curcumin analogues was inhibition of AR pathways in human prostate cancer cells. PMID:25060817

  8. Thermal conductivity changes upon neutron transmutation of {sup 10}B doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Jagannadham, K.; Verghese, K.; Butler, J. E.

    2014-08-28

    {sup 10}B doped p-type diamond samples were subjected to neutron transmutation reaction using thermal neutron flux of 0.9 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} and fast neutron flux of 0.09 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Another sample of epilayer grown on type IIa (110) single crystal diamond substrate was subjected to equal thermal and fast neutron flux of 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. The defects in the diamond samples were previously characterized by different methods. In the present work, thermal conductivity of these diamond samples was determined at room temperature by transient thermoreflectance method. The thermal conductivity change in the samples as a function of neutron fluence is explained by the phonon scattering from the point defects and disordered regions. The thermal conductivity of the diamond samples decreased more rapidly initially and less rapidly for larger neutron fluence. In addition, the thermal conductivity in type IIb diamond decreased less rapidly with thermal neutron fluence compared to the decrease in type IIa diamond subjected to fast neutron fluence. It is concluded that the rate of production of defects during transmutation reaction is slower when thermal neutrons are used. The thermal conductivity of epilayer of diamond subjected to high thermal and fast neutron fluence is associated with the covalent carbon network in the composite structure consisting of disordered carbon and sp{sup 2} bonded nanocrystalline regions.

  9. Microanalytical techniques for boron analysis using the 10B(n,alpha)7Li reaction.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, R G; Gabel, D; Laster, B H; Greenberg, D; Kiszenick, W; Micca, P L

    1986-01-01

    In order to predict the efficacy of boronated compounds for neutron capture therapy (NCT), it is mandatory that the boron concentration in tissues be known. Various techniques for measurement of trace amounts of boron (1-100 ppm) are available, including chemical and physical procedures. Experience has shown that, with the polyhedral boranes and carboranes in particular, the usual colorimetric and spark emission spectroscopic methods are not reliable. Although these compounds may be traced with additional radiolabels, direct physical detection of boron by nondestructive methods is clearly preferable. Boron analysis via detection of the prompt-gamma ray from the 10B(n, alpha)7Li reaction has been shown to be a reliable technique. Two prompt-gamma facilities developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory are described. One, at the 60-MW high flux beam reactor, uses sophisticated beam extraction techniques to enhance thermal neutron intensity and reduce fast neutron and gamma contamination. The other was constructed at Brookhaven's 5-MW medical research reactor and uses conventional shielding and electronics to provide an "on-line" boron analysis facility adjacent to beams designed for NCT, thus satisfying one of the requisites for clinical application of this procedure. Technical restrictions attendant upon the synthesis and testing of boronated biomolecules often require the measurement of trace amounts of boron in extremely small (mg) samples. A track-etching technique capable of detecting ng amounts of boron in mg liquid or cell samples is described. Thus it is possible to measure the boron content in small amounts (mg samples) of antibodies, or boron uptake in cells grown in tissue culture. PMID:3951409

  10. Peculiarities of changes of some physicomechanical characteristics of monoisotopes {sup 10}B, {sup 11}B and natural {beta}-boron

    SciTech Connect

    Gabunia, D. . E-mail: d_gabunia@hotmail.com; Tsagareishvili, O.; Lezhava, D.; Gabunia, L.; Antadze, M.; Darsavelidze, G.; Tanaka, T.

    2006-09-15

    Real structure and some physicomechanical characteristics of the samples of natural beta-rhombohedral boron B as well as of its {sup 10}B and {sup 11}B monoisotopes have been studied. It was shown that the influence of {sup 10}B and {sup 11}B isotopes on physicomechanical properties of boron had a different character. In particular, the samples enriched with {sup 11}B had high values of microhardness, shear modulus (SM) and elastic limit if compared to those of boron, while the samples enriched with {sup 10}B monoisotopes were characterized with high values of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) and thermal conductivity; lattice parameters a and c increased by the sequence: {sup 11}B, B, {sup 10}B. It was established that TEC, thermal conductivity, microhardness, SM and shear elastic limit increased in all samples at annealing for 5 h at 1500 deg. C regardless of isotope content. - Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of the SM in the samples of natural boron B, {sup 10}B and {sup 11}B monoisotopes.

  11. WNT10B/β-catenin signalling induces HMGA2 and proliferation in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wend, Peter; Runke, Stephanie; Wend, Korinna; Anchondo, Brenda; Yesayan, Maria; Jardon, Meghan; Hardie, Natalie; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Ulasov, Ilya; Lesniak, Maciej S; Wolsky, Rebecca; Bentolila, Laurent A; Grant, Stephen G; Elashoff, David; Lehr, Stephan; Latimer, Jean J; Bose, Shikha; Sattar, Husain; Krum, Susan A; Miranda-Carboni, Gustavo A

    2013-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling has been suggested to be active in basal-like breast cancer. However, in highly aggressive metastatic triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) the role of β-catenin and the underlying mechanism(s) for the aggressiveness of TNBC remain unknown. We illustrate that WNT10B induces transcriptionally active β-catenin in human TNBC and predicts survival-outcome of patients with both TNBC and basal-like tumours. We provide evidence that transgenic murine Wnt10b-driven tumours are devoid of ERα, PR and HER2 expression and can model human TNBC. Importantly, HMGA2 is specifically expressed during early stages of embryonic mammogenesis and absent when WNT10B expression is lost, suggesting a developmentally conserved mode of action. Mechanistically, ChIP analysis uncovered that WNT10B activates canonical β-catenin signalling leading to up-regulation of HMGA2. Treatment of mouse and human triple-negative tumour cells with two Wnt/β-catenin pathway modulators or siRNA to HMGA2 decreases HMGA2 levels and proliferation. We demonstrate that WNT10B has epistatic activity on HMGA2, which is necessary and sufficient for proliferation of TNBC cells. Furthermore, HMGA2 expression predicts relapse-free-survival and metastasis in TNBC patients. PMID:23307470

  12. The electrical properties of Mars analogue dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrison, J.; Jensen, J.; Kinch, K.; Mugford, R.; Nørnberg, P.

    2004-03-01

    Dust is a major environmental factor on the surface and in the atmosphere of Mars. Knowing the electrical charge state of this dust would be of both scientific interest and important for the safety of instruments on the Martian surface. In this study the first measurements have been performed of dust electrification using suspended Mars analogue material. This has been achieved by attracting suspended dust onto electrodes placed inside a Mars simulation wind tunnel. The Mars analogue used was from Salten Skov in Denmark, this contained a high concentration of ferric oxide precipitate. Once suspended, this dust was found to consist of almost equal quantities of negatively (46±6%) and positively (44±15%) charged grains. These grains were estimated to typically carry a net charge of around 10 5e, this is sufficient to dominate the processes of adhesion and cohesion of this suspended dust. Evidence is presented for electrostatic aggregation of the dust while in suspension. Development of a simple instrument for measuring electrical charging of the suspended dust on Mars will be discussed.

  13. Muscarinic interactions of bisindolylmaleimide analogues.

    PubMed

    Lazareno, S; Popham, A; Birdsall, N J

    1998-11-01

    We have used radioligand binding studies to determine the affinities of seven bisindolylmaleimide analogues, six of which are selective inhibitors of protein kinase C, at human muscarinic M1-M4 receptors. The compounds were most potent at M1 receptors, and Ro-31-8220 was the most potent analogue, with a Kd of 0.6 microM at M1 receptors. The weakest compounds, bisindolylmaleimide IV and bisindolylmaleimide V, had Kd values of 100 microM. If it is necessary to use protein kinase C inhibitors at concentrations of 10 microM or more in studies involving muscarinic receptors then bisindolylmaleimide IV may be the most appropriate inhibitor to use. PMID:9851596

  14. Analysis of 10B antitumoral compounds by means of flow-injection into ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Basilico, F; Sauerwein, W; Pozzi, F; Wittig, A; Moss, R; Mauri, P L

    2005-12-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment for cancer. BNCT is based on the ability of the nonradioactive isotope (10)B to capture, with a very high probability, thermal neutrons. This nuclear reaction results in two particles (an alpha and a lithium nucleus). The particles have a high biological effectiveness, which is limited in tissue to approximately the diameter of one cell. If the reaction can be limited to a tumor cell, the physical characteristic opens up the possibility to selectively destroy cancer cells, while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. Quality control of (10)B-containing compounds and their distribution at present are very important, and different analytical methods have been developed, such as time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS), prompt gamma analysis and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). These methods allow the analyses of (10)B, but it is not possible to characterize the specific molecular compounds containing (10)B. For this reason, we propose a fast and quantitative method that permits the determination of closo-undecahydro-1-mercaptododecaborate (BSH) and (10)boron-phenylalanine (BPA) and their eventual metabolites. In particular, (10)B-containing compounds are detected by means of flow-injection electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (FI/ESI-MS/MS). This approach allows the identification of Boron compounds, BSH and BPA, using tandem mass spectrometry, and quantitative analysis is also possible (c.v. +/-4.7%; n = 5; linear range 10-10,000 ng/ml). Furthermore, (10)B-containing compounds were detected in actual biological sample (urine and plasma, diluted 10,000- and 1,000-fold, respectively) injecting a small volume (1 microl) of diluted samples. PMID:16320299

  15. Reduction of TIP30 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells involves promoter methylation and microRNA-10b

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Wenjie; Shen, Ruizhe; Cheng, Shidan

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • TIP30 expression is frequently suppressed in ESCC. • TIP30 was hypermethylated in ESCC. • Reduction of TIP30 was significantly correlated with LN metastasis. • miR-10b is a direct regulator of TIP30. - Abstract: TIP30 is a putative tumor suppressor that can promote apoptosis and inhibit angiogenesis. However, the role of TIP30 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) biology has not been investigated. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of TIP30 in 70 ESCC. Hypermethylation of TIP30 was evaluated by the methylation specific PCR (MSP) method in ESCC (tumor and paired adjacent non-tumor tissues). Lost expression of TIP30 was observed in 50 of 70 (71.4%) ESCC. 61.4% (43 of 70) of primary tumors analyzed displayed TIP30 hypermethylation, indicating that this aberrant characteristic is common in ESCC. Moreover, a statistically significant inverse association was found between TIP30 methylation status and expression of the TIP30 protein in tumor tissues (p = 0.001). We also found that microRNA-10b (miR-10b) targets a homologous DNA region in the 3′untranslated region of the TIP30 gene and represses its expression at the transcriptional level. Reporter assay with 3′UTR of TIP30 cloned downstream of the luciferase gene showed reduced luciferase activity in the presence of miR-10b, providing strong evidence that miR-10b is a direct regulator of TIP30. These results suggest that TIP30 expression is regulated by promoter methylation and miR-10b in ESCC.

  16. Structural insights into the specificity of Xyn10B from Paenibacillus barcinonensis and its improved stability by forced protein evolution.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Oscar; Pastor, F I Javier; Polaina, Julio; Diaz, Pilar; Łysek, Robert; Vogel, Pierre; Isorna, Pablo; González, Beatriz; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia

    2010-01-22

    Paenibacillus barcinonensis is a soil bacterium bearing a complex set of enzymes for xylan degradation, including several secreted enzymes and Xyn10B, one of the few intracellular xylanases reported to date. The crystal structure of Xyn10B has been determined by x-ray analysis. The enzyme folds into the typical (beta/alpha)(8) barrel of family 10 glycosyl hydrolases (GH10), with additional secondary structure elements within the beta/alpha motifs. One of these loops -L7- located at the beta7 C terminus, was essential for xylanase activity as its partial deletion yielded an inactive enzyme. The loop contains residues His(249)-Glu(250), which shape a pocket opened to solvent in close proximity to the +2 subsite, which has not been described in other GH10 enzymes. This wide cavity at the +2 subsite, where methyl-2,4-pentanediol from the crystallization medium was found, is a noteworthy feature of Xyn10B, as compared with the narrow crevice described for other GH10 xylanases. Docking analysis showed that this open cavity can accommodate glucuronic acid decorations of xylo-oligosaccharides. Co-crystallization experiments with conduramine derivative inhibitors supported the importance of this open cavity at the +2 subsite for Xyn10B activity. Several mutant derivatives of Xyn10B with improved thermal stability were obtained by forced evolution. Among them, mutant xylanases S15L and M93V showed increased half-life, whereas the double mutant S15L/M93V exhibited a further increase in stability, showing a 20-fold higher heat resistance than the wild type xylanase. All the mutations obtained were located on the surface of Xyn10B. Replacement of a Ser by a Leu residue in mutant xylanase S15L can increase hydrophobic packing efficiency and fill a superficial indentation of the protein, giving rise to a more compact structure of the enzyme. PMID:19940147

  17. Measurements of 10B(p,a)7Be Cross-sections: A Reaction Relevant to Nuclear Fusion Energy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Barbara; Kafkarkou, Adamos; Ahmed, Mohammad; Weller, Henry; Myers, Luke; Sparker, Mark; Zimmerman, William; Mueller, Jon; Sikora, Mark; Mazumdar, Indral

    2012-10-01

    There is growing interest in aneutronic nuclear fusion reactors. One facility proposes to utilize the 11B(p,a)7Be reaction. The Radiative Capture Group at Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) has been engaged in a long-term study of this and related reactions. This poster will present preliminary data and analysis of the 10B(p,a)7Be reaction which is of interest because 10B is a potential reactor contaminant. Differential and total cross-sections will be presented for incident protons of 4.4 and 4.6 MeV. The data is necessary for simulations of an aneutrionic nuclear fusion reactor.

  18. Irradiation data for the MFA-1 and MFA-2 tests during FFTF cycles 10A and 10B

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.V.

    1996-10-30

    This report provides key information on the irradiation environment of the MONJU fuel test MFA-1 and MFA-2 in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) during operating cycles 10A and 10B.This information includes the fission powers, neutron fluxes, sodium temperatures and sodium flow rates in MFA-1, MFA-2, and adjacent assemblies. It also includes MFA-1 and MFA-2 compositions as a function of exposure during cycles 10A and 10B. The work was performed at the request of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuels (PNC) of Japan.

  19. Substrate analogues for isoprenoid enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Stremler, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Diphosphonate analogues of geranyl diphosphate, resistant to degradation by phosphatases, were found to be alternate substrates for the reaction with farnesyl diphosphate synthetase isolated from avian liver. The difluoromethane analogue was shown to be the better alternate substrate, in agreement with solvolysis results which indicate that the electronegativity of the difluoromethylene unit more closely approximates that of the normal bridging oxygen. The usefulness of the C/sub 10/ difluoro analogue, for detecting low levels of isoprenoid enzymes in the presence of high levels of phosphatase activity, was demonstrated with a cell-free preparation from lemon peel. A series of C/sub 5/ through C/sub 15/ homoallylic and allylic diphosphonates, as well as two 5'-nucleotide diphosphonates, was prepared in high overall yield using the activation-displacement sequence. Radiolabeled samples of several of the allylic diphosphonates were prepared with tritium located at C1. A series of geraniols, stereospecifically deuterated at C1, was prepared. The enantiomeric purities and absolute configurations were determined by derivatization as the mandelate esters for analysis by /sup 1/H NMR. The stereochemistry of the activation-displacement sequence was examined using C1-deuterated substrates.

  20. Phosphonate analogue substrates for enolase.

    PubMed

    Anderson, V E; Cleland, W W

    1990-11-20

    Phosphonate analogues in which the bridge between C-2 and phosphorus is a CH2 group are slow substrates for yeast enolase. The pH variation of the kinetic parameters for the methylene analogue of 2-phosphoglycerate suggests that the substrate binds as a dianion and that Mg2+ can bind subsequently only if a metal ligand and the catalytic base are unprotonated. Primary deuterium isotope effects of 4-8 on V/KMg, but ones of only 1.15-1.32 on V for dehydration, show that proton removal to give the carbanion intermediate largely limits V/KMg and that a slow step follows which largely limits V (presumably carbanion breakdown). Since there is a D2O solvent isotope effect on V for the reverse reaction of 5, but not an appreciable one on the forward reaction, it appears that the slow rates with phosphonate analogues result from the fact that the carbanion intermediate is more stable than that formed from the normal substrates, and its reaction in both directions limits V. Increased stability as a result of replacement of oxygen by carbon at C-2 of the carbanion is the expected chemical behavior. PMID:2271661

  1. Policy issues in space analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, Robin N.; Facktor, Debra D.

    Space mission planning is increasingly focusing on destinations beyond Earth orbit. Advancements in technology will inevitably be required to enable long-duration human spaceflight missions, and breakthroughs in the policy arena will also be needed to achieve success in such missions. By exploring how policy issues have been addressed in analogous extreme environments, policymakers can develop a framework for addressing these issues as they apply to long-term human spaceflight. Policy issues that need to be addressed include: crew selection, training, organization, and activities, medical testing, illness, injury, and death; communication; legal accountability and liability; mission safety and risk management; and environmental contamination. This paper outlines the approach of a study underway by The George Washington University and ANSER to examine how these policy issues have been addressed in several analogues and how the experiences of these analogues can help formulate policies for long-duration human spaceflight missions. Analogues being studied include Antarctic bases, submarine voyages, undersea stations, Biosphere 2, and the U.S. Skylab and Russian Mir space stations.

  2. Associations of TCF12, CTNNAL1 and WNT10B gene polymorphisms with litter size in pigs.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hu; Mei, Shuqi; Sun, Xiaojie; Peng, Xianwen; Zhang, Xuying; Ma, Changping; Wang, Lei; Hua, Lun; Li, Fenge

    2013-08-01

    In previous research, several WNT signaling pathway genes including transcription factor 12 (TCF12), catenin alpha-like protein 1 (CTNNAL1) and wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10B (WNT10B) were differentially expressed in PMSG-hCG stimulated preovulatory ovarian follicles of Large White and Chinese Taihu sows. In the present research, these three genes were selected as the candidate genes for litter size traits in pigs. Four mutations (TCF12 c.-201+65 G>A, TCF12 c.-200-300 G>A, CTNNAL1 c.1878 G>C and WNT10B c.*12 C>T) were detected in eleven pig populations, and results indicated CTNNAL1 c.1878 G and WNT10B c.*12 C were the major alleles in all tested pig populations, while TCF12 c.-201+65 A and TCF12 c.-200-300 A were the major alleles in several Chinese native pig breeds. Association analysis of four mutations with litter size in Large White and DIV pigs showed that both the signficant differences of total number born (TNB) and number born alive (NBA) among three genotypes and the significance of additive effects appeared at TCF12 c.-200-300 G>A and CTNNAL1 c.1878 G>C loci, suggesting these two mutations might be reliable markers for pig selection and breeding. PMID:23820070

  3. Inherited deficiency of second component of complement and HLA haplotype A10,B18 associated with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Slade, J D; Luskin, A T; Gewurz, H; Kraft, S C; Kirsner, J B; Zeitz, H J

    1978-06-01

    A patient with inflammatory bowel disease and sacroiliitis had haplotypes A10,B18 and Aw32,b18 at the major histocompatibility locus. Serum total complement and C2 hemolytic complement activities were undetectable; levels of the remaining C1-C9 components were normal. The parents, both siblings, and a child each had half-normal levels of C2 and either the A10,B18 or the Aw32,b18 hla haplotype. In a second unrelated family, an only child and both parents developed inflammatory bowel disease. The father and child had HLA haplotype A10,B18, but, along with the mother, each had normal serum levels of hemolytic C and C2. Homozygous C2 deficiency, often in association with the A10,B18 haplotype, has previously been linked with various autoimmune diseases and with propensity to infection. Our findings suggest that C2 deficiency or this haplotype also may predispose to inflammatory diseases of the intestine. PMID:666136

  4. Uptake of [sup 10]B in gliosarcomas following the injection of gluthathione monoethyl ester and sulfhydryl borane

    SciTech Connect

    Joel, D.D.; Slatkin, D.N.; Coderre, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The sulfhydryl borane Na[sub 2][sup 10]B[sub 12]H[sub 11]SH (BSH) was developed as a capture agent for BNCT about 20 years ago and is the compound currently used clinically in Japan for BNCT of malignant brain tumors. Tumor [sup 10]B concentrations following the infusion of the oxidized BSH, a disulfide dimer (Na[sub 4][sup 10]B[sub 24]H[sub 22]S[sub 2]), are nearly twice those obtained following administration of equal amounts of boron as BSH. Also, the rate of decrease of tumor [sup 10]B concentration is slower after dimer infusion than after BSH infusion. When BNCT was administered to rats bearing intracerebral gliosarcomas, the animals infused with dimer had a significant longer median survival time. Dimer, on the other hand, induces a moderately severe, but reversible, hepatotoxicity which may complicate its use in humans. Intracellular glutathione plays an important role in defense against radical-mediated tissue injury. Glutathione monoesters have been reported to have a protective effective on cisplatin toxicity and on radical-induced acute pancreatitis. We investigated the possibility of reducing dimer-induced hepatotoxicity by pre-administration of GSH-ME. The results indicate that not only does the pre-administration of GSH-ME markedly reduce dimer-induced hepatotoxicity, but also results in nearly a doubling of tumor boron concentration. Furthermore, GSH-ME markedly increases tumor boron uptake and retention following administration of BSH.

  5. Uptake of {sup 10}B in gliosarcomas following the injection of gluthathione monoethyl ester and sulfhydryl borane

    SciTech Connect

    Joel, D.D.; Slatkin, D.N.; Coderre, J.A.

    1992-12-31

    The sulfhydryl borane Na{sub 2}{sup 10}B{sub 12}H{sub 11}SH (BSH) was developed as a capture agent for BNCT about 20 years ago and is the compound currently used clinically in Japan for BNCT of malignant brain tumors. Tumor {sup 10}B concentrations following the infusion of the oxidized BSH, a disulfide dimer (Na{sub 4}{sup 10}B{sub 24}H{sub 22}S{sub 2}), are nearly twice those obtained following administration of equal amounts of boron as BSH. Also, the rate of decrease of tumor {sup 10}B concentration is slower after dimer infusion than after BSH infusion. When BNCT was administered to rats bearing intracerebral gliosarcomas, the animals infused with dimer had a significant longer median survival time. Dimer, on the other hand, induces a moderately severe, but reversible, hepatotoxicity which may complicate its use in humans. Intracellular glutathione plays an important role in defense against radical-mediated tissue injury. Glutathione monoesters have been reported to have a protective effective on cisplatin toxicity and on radical-induced acute pancreatitis. We investigated the possibility of reducing dimer-induced hepatotoxicity by pre-administration of GSH-ME. The results indicate that not only does the pre-administration of GSH-ME markedly reduce dimer-induced hepatotoxicity, but also results in nearly a doubling of tumor boron concentration. Furthermore, GSH-ME markedly increases tumor boron uptake and retention following administration of BSH.

  6. miR-10b*, a master inhibitor of the cell cycle, is down-regulated in human breast tumours

    PubMed Central

    Biagioni, Francesca; Bossel Ben-Moshe, Noa; Fontemaggi, Giulia; Canu, Valeria; Mori, Federica; Antoniani, Barbara; Di Benedetto, Anna; Santoro, Raffaela; Germoni, Sabrina; De Angelis, Fernanda; Cambria, Anna; Avraham, Roi; Grasso, Giuseppe; Strano, Sabrina; Muti, Paola; Mottolese, Marcella; Yarden, Yosef; Domany, Eytan; Blandino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Deregulated proliferation is a hallmark of cancer cells. Here, we show that microRNA-10b* is a master regulator of breast cancer cell proliferation and is downregulated in tumoural samples versus matched peritumoural counterparts. Two canonical CpG islands (5 kb) upstream from the precursor sequence are hypermethylated in the analysed breast cancer tissues. Ectopic delivery of synthetic microRNA-10b* in breast cancer cell lines or into xenograft mouse breast tumours inhibits cell proliferation and impairs tumour growth in vivo, respectively. We identified and validated in vitro and in vivo three novel target mRNAs of miR-10b* (BUB1, PLK1 and CCNA2), which play a remarkable role in cell cycle regulation and whose high expression in breast cancer patients is associated with reduced disease-free survival, relapse-free survival and metastasis-free survival when compared to patients with low expression. This also suggests that restoration of microRNA-10b* expression might have therapeutic promise. PMID:23125021

  7. miR-10b*, a master inhibitor of the cell cycle, is down-regulated in human breast tumours.

    PubMed

    Biagioni, Francesca; Bossel Ben-Moshe, Noa; Fontemaggi, Giulia; Canu, Valeria; Mori, Federica; Antoniani, Barbara; Di Benedetto, Anna; Santoro, Raffaela; Germoni, Sabrina; De Angelis, Fernanda; Cambria, Anna; Avraham, Roi; Grasso, Giuseppe; Strano, Sabrina; Muti, Paola; Mottolese, Marcella; Yarden, Yosef; Domany, Eytan; Blandino, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Deregulated proliferation is a hallmark of cancer cells. Here, we show that microRNA-10b* is a master regulator of breast cancer cell proliferation and is downregulated in tumoural samples versus matched peritumoural counterparts. Two canonical CpG islands (5 kb) upstream from the precursor sequence are hypermethylated in the analysed breast cancer tissues. Ectopic delivery of synthetic microRNA-10b* in breast cancer cell lines or into xenograft mouse breast tumours inhibits cell proliferation and impairs tumour growth in vivo, respectively. We identified and validated in vitro and in vivo three novel target mRNAs of miR-10b* (BUB1, PLK1 and CCNA2), which play a remarkable role in cell cycle regulation and whose high expression in breast cancer patients is associated with reduced disease-free survival, relapse-free survival and metastasis-free survival when compared to patients with low expression. This also suggests that restoration of microRNA-10b* expression might have therapeutic promise. PMID:23125021

  8. 76 FR 18761 - Worldwide Logistics Co., Ltd.; Possible Violations of Sections 10(a)(1) and 10(b)(2) of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Worldwide Logistics Co., Ltd.; Possible Violations of Sections 10(a)(1) and 10(b)(2) of the Shipping Act of 1984; Order of Investigation and Hearing Worldwide Logistics Co., Ltd. (Worldwide) is a company based.... It is a part of the Worldwide Logistics Group, said to be one of the leading integrated...

  9. 77 FR 76106 - Order Granting Limited Exemptions From Exchange Act Rule 10b-17 and Rules 101 and 102 of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Regulation M to ALPS ETF Trust, ALPS/GS Momentum Builder Growth Markets Equities and U.S. Treasuries Index ETF, ALPS/GS Momentum Builder Multi-Asset Index ETF, and ALPS/GS Momentum Builder Asia ex-Japan Equities and U.S. Treasuries Index ETF Pursuant to Exchange Act Rule 10b-17(b)(2) and Rules 101(d) and...

  10. 78 FR 14376 - Order Granting Limited Exemptions From Exchange Act Rule 10b-17 and Rules 101 and 102 of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Order Granting Limited Exemptions From Exchange Act Rule 10b-17 and Rules 101 and 102 of.... The Fund's investment objective is to seek investment results that correspond generally to the... transactions may raise, including, but not limited to the adequacy of the disclosure concerning, and...

  11. Two-dimensional combinatorial screening enables the bottom-up design of a microRNA-10b inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Disney, Matthew D

    2014-03-21

    The RNA motifs that bind guanidinylated kanamycin A (G Kan A) and guanidinylated neomycin B (G Neo B) were identified via two-dimensional combinatorial screening (2DCS). The results of these studies enabled the "bottom-up" design of a small molecule inhibitor of oncogenic microRNA-10b. PMID:24503738

  12. Two-dimensional combinatorial screening enables the bottom-up design of a microRNA-10b inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Disney, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    The RNA motifs that bind guanidinylated kanamycin A (G Kan A) and guanidinylated neomycin B (G Neo B) were identified via two-dimensional combinatorial screening (2DCS). The results of these studies enabled the “bottom-up” design of a small molecule inhibitor of oncogenic microRNA-10b. PMID:24503738

  13. The influence of Leucine-rich amelogenin peptide on MSC fate by inducing Wnt10b expression.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin; Cawthorn, William P; MacDougald, Ormond A; Stupp, Samuel I; Snead, Malcolm L; Zhou, Yan

    2011-09-01

    Amelogenin is the most abundant protein of the enamel organic matrix and is a structural protein indispensable for enamel formation. One of the amelogenin splicing isoforms, Leucine-rich Amelogenin Peptide (LRAP) induces osteogenesis in various cell types. Previously, we demonstrated that LRAP activates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway to induce osteogenic differentiation of mouse ES cells through the concerted regulation of Wnt agonists and antagonists. There is a reciprocal relationship between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). Wnt10b-mediated activation of canonical Wnt signaling has been shown to regulate mesenchymal stem cell fate. Using the bipotential bone marrow stromal cell line ST2, we have demonstrated that LRAP activates the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. A specific Wnt inhibitor sFRP-1 abolishes the effect of LRAP on the stimulation of osteogenesis and the inhibition of adipogenesis of ST2 cells. LRAP treatment elevates the Wnt10b expression level whereas Wnt10b knockdown by siRNA abrogates the effect of LRAP. We show here that LRAP promotes osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells at the expense of adipogenesis through upregulating Wnt10b expression to activate Wnt signaling. PMID:21663957

  14. Alpha particles accompanying the weak decay of {sub {lambda}}{sup 10}Be and {sub {lambda}}{sup 10}B hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Majling, L. Kuzmin, V. A. Tetereva, T. V.

    2006-05-15

    The possibility of a detailed investigation of weak {lambda}N interaction in the {sub {lambda}}{sup 10}Be and {sub {lambda}}{sub /10}B hypernuclei, which stand out owing to their {alpha}{alpha}N{lambda} cluster structure, is discussed. The detection of a few groups of correlated {alpha}{alpha} pairs will furnish information about decays to specific states of product nuclei ({sup 8}Be*, {sup 8}Li, {sup 8}B), thereby paving the way to a phenomenological analysis of the weak decays of p-shell hypernuclei. The ratios of the intensities of individual alpha-particle groups to be measured in experiments at the cyclotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna) will provide a useful criterion for choosing an appropriate model of weak {lambda}N interaction. The current state of hypernuclear physics is briefly reviewed.

  15. Search for the isovector monopole resonance via the 28Si(10Be,10B+ γ)28Al reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Michael; e11021 Collaboration Team

    2013-10-01

    The isovector giant monopole resonance (IVGMR) is a fundamental mode of collective oscillation in which the neutron and proton fluids in a nucleus radially expand and contract in an out-of-phase manner. Observation of the IVGMR has been difficult due to the lack of a probe that will excite only its non-spin-flip (ΔS = 0) transitions. The IVGMR's spin-transfer (ΔS = 1) counterpart, the isovector spin giant monopole resonance, is much more strongly excited at bombarding energies higher than 60 MeV/ u. By way of the (10Be,10B+ γ) charge-exchange reaction, the selectivity for the excitation of the IVGMR can be gained. In this probe, the superallowed Fermi transition 10Be(0+,g.s.) -->10B(01+,1.74 MeV, T = 1) allows a nearly pure isolation of the ΔS = 0 component by detecting the 1022 keV gamma rays from the deexcitation of the 10B. We measured the double differential cross sections for the 28Si(10Be,10B+ γ) reaction at 100 MeV/ u using the large acceptance S800 Spectrometer at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory with the GRETINA array detecting the gamma rays emitted from the 10B ejectile. In this presentation, we will report preliminary reults of the IVGMR in 28Al. GRETINA was funded by the US DOE - Office of Science. Operation of the array at NSCL is supported by NSF under Cooperative Agreement PHY-1102511(NSCL) and DOE under grant DE-AC02-05CH11231(LBNL).

  16. Elastic anomalies and acoustic dissipation associated with spin state transitions in LnCoO3 (Ln=La, Nd, Gd) and Co3O4: analogue behaviour for spin state transitions in minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Carpenter, M. A.; Koppensteiner, J.; Schranz, W.

    2010-12-01

    Iron ions in lower mantle minerals magnesiowüstitue (Mg,Fe)O, perovskite (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O3 and post-perovskite phases undergo electronic spin state transitions from high spin (HS) to low spin (LS) or intermediate spin (IS) at high pressures and high temperatures. These spin state transitions give rise to changes in bulk and shear moduli which have significant implications for the physical and chemical properties of the lower mantle. However, the possibility of increased attenuation does not appear to have been considered yet. Co3+ is isoelectronic with Fe2+ and shows analogous HS/LS behaviour at ambient pressure in a temperature range which is easily accessible for in-situ investigations. We have studied spin state transitions in cobalt perovskites LaCoO3, NdCoO3, GdCoO3 and in Co3O4 using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) at high frequencies 0.1-1.5 MHz, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) at low frequencies 0.1-50 Hz, in the temperature range 10-1200 K. The specific objectives were to characterize anomalies in the shear moduli and in acoustic attenuation accompanying changes in the spin state of Co3+. Anomalies in shear moduli have been observed at ~110 K and ~590 K for LaCoO3, ~325 K and ~695 K for NdCoO3, ~720 K for GdCoO3, and ~30 K for Co3O4. For LaCoO3, a spin order parameter qspin is expected to couple with volume strain ea as λeaqspin and with shear strain es as λes2qspin. As a consequence of linear/quadratic coupling with es, the shear modulus is expected to vary linearly with qspin. This appears to be approximately the case for LaCoO3. Changes in spin state do not appear to give rise to acoustic attenuation at either DMA frequencies (~1 Hz) or RUS frequencies (~1 MHz), consistent with the expectation that spin/lattice relaxation is rapid in comparison with the time scale of applied stress in each case. On the other hand, for LaCoO3 there is a peak in dissipation near 590 K at low frequencies, which is attributed to freezing of ferroelastic twin

  17. The silicate and carbon-rich models of CoRoT-7b, Kepler-9d and Kepler-10b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yan-Xiang; Zhou, Ji-Lin

    2012-06-01

    Possible bulk compositions of the super-Earth exoplanets CoRoT-7b, Kepler-9d, and Kepler-10b are investigated by applying a commonly used silicate model and a non-standard carbon model. Their internal structures are deduced using a suitable equation of state for the materials. The degeneracy problems of their compositions can be partly overcome, based on the fact that all three planets are extremely close to their host stars. By analyzing the numerical results, we conclude: 1) the iron core of CoRoT-7b is not more than 27% of its total mass within 1σ mass-radius error bars, so an Earth-like composition is less likely, but its carbon rich model can be compatible with an Earth-like core/mantle mass fraction; 2) Kepler-10b is more likely to have a Mercury-like composition, with its old age implying that its high iron content may be a result of strong solar wind or giant impact; 3) the transiting-only super-Earth Kepler-9d is also discussed. Combining its possible composition with the formation theory, we can place some constraints on its mass and bulk composition.

  18. Characteristics of BDE dependent on 10B concentration for accelerator-based BNCT using near-threshold 7Li(p,n)7Be direct neutrons.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Kobayashi, T; Bengua, G; Nakagawa, Y; Endo, S; Hoshi, M

    2004-11-01

    The characteristics boron-dose enhancer (BDE) was evaluated as to the dependence on the (10)B concentration for BNCT using near-threshold (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be direct neutrons. The treatable protocol depth (TPD) was utilized as an evaluation index. MCNP-4B calculations were performed for near-threshold (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be at a proton energy of 1.900MeV and for a polyethylene BDE. Consequently, the TPD was increased by increasing T/N ratio, i.e., the ratio of the (10)B concentration in the tumor ((10)B(Tumor)) to that in the normal tissue ((10)B(Normal)), and by increasing (10)B(Tumor) and (10)B(Normal) for constant T/N ratio. It has been found that the BDE becomes unnecessary from the viewpoint of increasing the TPD, when (10)B(Tumor) is over a certain level. PMID:15308161

  19. FUNCTION GENERATOR FOR ANALOGUE COMPUTERS

    DOEpatents

    Skramstad, H.K.; Wright, J.H.; Taback, L.

    1961-12-12

    An improved analogue computer is designed which can be used to determine the final ground position of radioactive fallout particles in an atomic cloud. The computer determines the fallout pattern on the basis of known wind velocity and direction at various altitudes, and intensity of radioactivity in the mushroom cloud as a function of particle size and initial height in the cloud. The output is then displayed on a cathode-ray tube so that the average or total luminance of the tube screen at any point represents the intensity of radioactive fallout at the geographical location represented by that point. (AEC)

  20. Ecstasy analogues found in cacti.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Jan G; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Stephanson, Nikolai; Beck, Olof; Shulgin, Alexander T

    2008-06-01

    Human interest in psychoactive phenethylamines is known from the use of mescaline-containing cacti and designer drugs such as Ecstasy. From the alkaloid composition of cacti we hypothesized that substances resembling Ecstasy might occur naturally. In this article we show that lophophine, homopiperonylamine and lobivine are new minor constituents of two cactus species, Lophophora williamsii (peyote) and Trichocereus pachanoi (San Pedro). This is the first report of putatively psychoactive phenethylamines besides mescaline in these cacti. A search for further biosynthetic analogues may provide new insights into the structure-activity relationships of mescaline. An intriguing question is whether the new natural compounds can be called "designer drugs." PMID:18720674

  1. q-bosons and the q-analogue quantized field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    The q-analogue coherent states are used to identify physical signatures for the presence of a 1-analogue quantized radiation field in the q-CS classical limits where the absolute value of z is large. In this quantum-optics-like limit, the fractional uncertainties of most physical quantities (momentum, position, amplitude, phase) which characterize the quantum field are O(1). They only vanish as O(1/absolute value of z) when q = 1. However, for the number operator, N, and the N-Hamiltonian for a free q-boson gas, H(sub N) = h(omega)(N + 1/2), the fractional uncertainties do still approach zero. A signature for q-boson counting statistics is that (Delta N)(exp 2)/ (N) approaches 0 as the absolute value of z approaches infinity. Except for its O(1) fractional uncertainty, the q-generalization of the Hermitian phase operator of Pegg and Barnett, phi(sub q), still exhibits normal classical behavior. The standard number-phase uncertainty-relation, Delta(N) Delta phi(sub q) = 1/2, and the approximate commutation relation, (N, phi(sub q)) = i, still hold for the single-mode q-analogue quantized field. So, N and phi(sub q) are almost canonically conjugate operators in the q-CS classical limit. The q-analogue CS's minimize this uncertainty relation for moderate (absolute value of z)(exp 2).

  2. Particle Leaking, Cross-Section Ratio 10B(n,{alpha})/238U(n,fission), and Excitation Function of the Reaction 10B(n,{alpha})7Li at MeV Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Giorginis, Georgios; Khryachkov, Vitali

    2005-05-24

    The 10B(n,{alpha})7Li reaction was studied in the energy range between 1.5 MeV and 5.6 MeV at the 7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator of IRMM by using a gridded ionisation chamber, signal digitisation, and an intrinsic 238U neutron monitor. The aim was to obtain accurate data for the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the improvement of standard cross sections for light elements. The effect of particle leaking was discovered and its implications investigated. The determination of the cross section {sigma}({alpha}0+{alpha}1) strongly benefits from it but measurements of angular distributions, individual cross sections {sigma}({alpha}0) and {sigma}({alpha}1), and the branching ratio {alpha}0/{alpha}1 are negatively affected. The correct number of reaction events was obtained by identification of unknown particle signatures in the energy spectra as 10B(n,{alpha})7Li events in the form of quasi 7Li+{alpha} particles created by particle leaking. The cross-section ratio 10B(n,{alpha})7Li/238U(n,fission) was measured and the excitation function of 10B(n,{alpha})7Li determined by simultaneously detecting the charged particles from the boron disintegration in the forward hemisphere and the 238U fission fragments in the backward hemisphere. The IRMM cross sections are compared to experimental data of other groups and to predictions of the ENDF/B-VI.8, JENDL-3.3, and JEF-2.2 evaluations.

  3. Extreme projection of a proton into the pi-cloud of an aromatic ring: record shielding of an aromatic proton in trans-10b-methyl-10c-(1-naphthyl)-10b,10c-dihydropyrene.

    PubMed

    Ting, Yuhua; Lai, Yee-Hing

    2004-01-28

    A synthetic sequence involving dithiametacyclophane --> metacyclophanediene --> dihydropyrene was employed to prepare trans-10b-methyl-10c-(2-naphthyl)- and trans-10b-methyl-10c-(1-naphthyl)-10b,10c-dihydropyrene 5 and 6, respectively. Both exhibit a strong diamagnetic ring current despite the introduction of an internal bulky substituent within the pi-electron cloud. Their electronic spectra suggest interaction between the two near-perpendicular naphthyl and dihydropyrenyl pi systems, resulting in red shift and band broadening. All naphthyl protons are well resolved in their 1H NMR spectra due to a strong shielding effect of the dihydropyrene ring. The most shielded protons in 5 and 6 are H1' and H2' at delta 2.47 and 1.42, respectively, being 5.25 and 5.95 ppm shifted from those of reference protons. There is evidence for free rotation on the NMR time scale of the 2-naphthyl ring in 5 with a preference for a particular conformer, whereas the 1-naphthyl ring in 6 is conformationally rigid with its H2' projecting deeply into the pi-cloud, thus accounting for the most shielded aromatic proton (H2' in 6) reported to date. PMID:14733567

  4. The Valles natural analogue project

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C.; McConnell, V.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and {sup 39}Ar/{sup 4O} isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks.

  5. Current european regulatory perspectives on insulin analogues.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Harald G; Weise, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Insulin analogues are increasingly considered as an alternative to human insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Insulin analogues (IAs) are chemically different from human insulin and may have different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. The significance of the modifications of the insulin molecule for the safety profile of IAs must be considered. This review describes the regulatory procedure and the expectations for the scientific content of European marketing authorization applications for innovative IAs submitted to the European Medicines Agency. Particular consideration is given to a potential cancer hazard. Specific regulatory guidance on how to address a possible carcinogenic or tumor promoting effect of innovative IAs in non-clinical studies is available. After marketing authorization, the factual access of patients to the new product will be determined to great extent by health technology assessment bodies, reimbursement decisions and the price. Whereas the marketing authorization is a European decision, pricing and reimbursement are national or regional responsibilities. The assessment of benefit and risk by the European Medicines Agency is expected to influence future decisions on price and reimbursement on a national or regional level. Collaborations between regulatory agencies and health technology assessment bodies have been initiated on European and national level to facilitate the use of the European Medicines Agency's benefit risk assessment as basis on which to build the subsequent health technology assessment. The option for combined or joint scientific advice procedures with regulators and health technology assessment bodies on European level or on a national level in several European Member States may help applicants to optimize their development program and dossier preparation in regard of both European marketing authorization application and reimbursement decisions. PMID:21736748

  6. New measurement of the 10B(n,α)7 Li through the Trojan Horse Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spartá, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    B(n,α) Li reaction cross section has been measured using the Trojan Horse method, with the specific aim to separate the α1 contribution (coming from the first Li excited level) by the αo (related to the Li ground state), using a very thin target. Preliminary results are shown of the three-body B(d,α7 Li)H cross section.

  7. Study of the {sup 10}B(p,α){sup 7}Be reaction through the indirect Trojan Horse method

    SciTech Connect

    Puglia, S. M. R.; Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Sergi, M. L.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Hons, Z.; Mrazek, J.; Carlin, N.; Del Santo, M. G.; Munhoz, M. G.; Souza, F.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Chengbo, L.; Qungang, W.; Shu-Hua, Z.; and others

    2015-02-24

    Boron abundances in stellar atmospheres, as well as berillium and lithium ones, can give useful hints for non-standard transport processes discrimination in stars. They can also be relevant for understanding several astrophysical processes (e.g. primordial nucleosynthesis and spallation reactions in ISM). A comprehensive study of Li Be B abundances can therefore confirm or not the presence of non-standard mixing processes in stellar envelopes. For this reason nuclear processes producing or depleting boron isotope abundance need to be studied at astrophysical energies. The {sup 10}B(p,α){sup 7}Be reaction has been studied by means of the Trojan Horse Method. The Trojan Horse Method was thus applied to the {sup 10}B(d,α{sup 7}Be)n reaction, studied at 24 MeV. The obtained results will be discussed.

  8. Microstructural evolution of HFIR-irradiated low activation F82H and F82H-{sup 10}B steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wakai, E.; Shiba, K.; Sawai, T.; Hashimoto, N.; Robertson, J.P.; Klueh, R.L.

    1998-03-01

    Microstructures of reduced-activation F82H (8Cr-2W-0.2V-0.04Ta) and the F82H steels doped with {sup 10}B, irradiated at 250 and 300 C to 3 and 57 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), were examined by TEM. In the F82H irradiated at 250 C to 3 dpa, dislocation loops, small unidentified defect clusters with a high number density, and a few MC precipitates were observed in the matrix. The defect microstructure after 300 C irradiation to 57 dpa is dominated by the loops, and the number density of loops was lower than that of the F82H-{sup 10}B steel. Cavities were observed in the F82H-{sup 10}B steels, but the swelling value is insignificant. Small particles of M{sub 6}C formed on the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides that were present in both steels before the irradiation at 300 C to 57 dpa. A low number density of MC precipitate particles formed in the matrix during irradiation at 300 C to 57 dpa.

  9. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  10. An analogue study of intrusions.

    PubMed

    Laposa, Judith M; Alden, Lynn E

    2006-07-01

    According to cognitive theorists, intrusive trauma memories have their origin in how information during the event is processed. Two studies investigated functional cognitive strategies during medical crises that might protect against intrusions. In Study 1, interviews with health-care professionals were used to identify cognitive strategies judged to be effective in controlling emotions and dealing with medical crises. Study 2 systematically manipulated the use of those strategies in a trauma analogue film paradigm. Experimental participants reported fewer intrusions, and less fear and avoidance of film-related stimuli during the subsequent week than controls. The manipulation did not affect anxiety during the film or memory disorganization. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusion development are discussed. PMID:16125135

  11. Laboratory study of cometary analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, L.; Brucato, J.; Mennella, V.; Palumbo, P.

    In situ exploration (e.g., GIOTTO mission) and astronomical observations (e.g., ISO) of comets have provided fundamental information about the structure, chemistry and physical properties of materials present in such primordial bodies of the Solar System. Moreover, it is known that cosmic materials evolve, depending on the efficiency of active processes (e.g., thermal annealing, UV irradiation, ion bombardment, gassolid interactions) in different space environments. Thus, the properties of cometary constituents must be considered in a wider perspective, including cosmic dust formation around cold stars and evolution in the interstellar medium until the formation of proto-planetary nebulae. In this scenario, laboratory experiments provide important hints to clarify the status of cometary compounds. The laboratory work is aimed at both reproducing material properties and at simulating their evolution based on the most effective mechanisms active in space. Several techniques are used to synthesise "analogues" of cometary compounds with controlled chemical and physical characteristics. The study of optical properties, complemented by other analytical techniques, is applied to investigate the products of synthesis in the experiments. The monitoring of the effects produced by processing methods, similar to those active in space, provides information both on the reactivity of materials and on the efficiency of treatments. Such an approach is able to provide quantitative information on chemical and structural modifications produced on organic and refractory materials. The comparison of laboratory results with data coming from space observations and in situ measurements provides a powerful tool to understand the real nature of comets and to place constraints on formation and evolution pathways. The laboratory experiments on analogues gain even more relevance as a sort of training in the future perspective of analysing cometary samples returned to Earth by space missions (e

  12. Numerical simulation of an experimental analogue of a planetary magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Andy Sha; Li, Shule; Hartigan, Patrick; Graham, Peter; Fiksel, Gennady; Frank, Adam; Foster, John; Kuranz, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    Recent improvements to the Omega Laser Facility's magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system (MIFEDS) have made it possible to generate strong enough magnetic fields in the laboratory to begin to address the physics of magnetized astrophysical flows. Here, we adapt the MHD code AstroBEAR to create 2D numerical models of an experimental analogue of a planetary magnetosphere. We track the secular evolution of the magnetosphere analogue and we show that the magnetospheric components such as the magnetopause, magnetosheath, and bow shock, should all be observable in experimental optical band thermal bremsstrahlung emissivity maps, assuming equilibrium charge state distributions of the plasma. When the magnetosphere analogue nears the steady state, the mid-plane altitude of the magnetopause from the wire surface scales as the one-half power of the ratio of the magnetic pressure at the surface of the free wire to the ram pressure of an unobstructed wind; the mid-plane thickness of the magnetosheath is directly related to the radius of the magnetopause. This behavior conforms to Chapman and Ferraro's theory of planetary magnetospheres. Although the radial dependence of the magnetic field strength differs between the case of a current-carrying wire and a typical planetary object, the major morphological features that develop when a supersonic flow passes either system are identical. Hence, this experimental concept is an attractive one for studying the dynamics of planetary magnetospheres in a controlled environment.

  13. Plant volatile analogues strengthen attractiveness to insect.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of β-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of β-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than β-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than β-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

  14. Plant Volatile Analogues Strengthen Attractiveness to Insect

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A.; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of β-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of β-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than β-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than β-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

  15. Could CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b be remnants of evaporated gas or ice giants?

    PubMed Central

    Leitzinger, M.; Odert, P.; Kulikov, Yu.N.; Lammer, H.; Wuchterl, G.; Penz, T.; Guarcello, M.G.; Micela, G.; Khodachenko, M.L.; Weingrill, J.; Hanslmeier, A.; Biernat, H.K.; Schneider, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present thermal mass loss calculations over evolutionary time scales for the investigation if the smallest transiting rocky exoplanets CoRoT-7b (∼1.68REarth) and Kepler-10b (∼1.416REarth) could be remnants of an initially more massive hydrogen-rich gas giant or a hot Neptune-class exoplanet. We apply a thermal mass loss formula which yields results that are comparable to hydrodynamic loss models. Our approach considers the effect of the Roche lobe, realistic heating efficiencies and a radius scaling law derived from observations of hot Jupiters. We study the influence of the mean planetary density on the thermal mass loss by placing hypothetical exoplanets with the characteristics of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus to the orbital location of CoRoT-7b at 0.017 AU and Kepler-10b at 0.01684 AU and assuming that these planets orbit a K- or G-type host star. Our findings indicate that hydrogen-rich gas giants within the mass domain of Saturn or Jupiter cannot thermally lose such an amount of mass that CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b would result in a rocky residue. Moreover, our calculations show that the present time mass of both rocky exoplanets can be neither a result of evaporation of a hydrogen envelope of a “Hot Neptune” nor a “Hot Uranus”-class object. Depending on the initial density and mass, these planets most likely were always rocky planets which could lose a thin hydrogen envelope, but not cores of thermally evaporated initially much more massive and larger objects. PMID:21969736

  16. Could CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b be remnants of evaporated gas or ice giants?

    PubMed

    Leitzinger, M; Odert, P; Kulikov, Yu N; Lammer, H; Wuchterl, G; Penz, T; Guarcello, M G; Micela, G; Khodachenko, M L; Weingrill, J; Hanslmeier, A; Biernat, H K; Schneider, J

    2011-10-01

    We present thermal mass loss calculations over evolutionary time scales for the investigation if the smallest transiting rocky exoplanets CoRoT-7b (∼1.68REarth) and Kepler-10b (∼1.416REarth) could be remnants of an initially more massive hydrogen-rich gas giant or a hot Neptune-class exoplanet. We apply a thermal mass loss formula which yields results that are comparable to hydrodynamic loss models. Our approach considers the effect of the Roche lobe, realistic heating efficiencies and a radius scaling law derived from observations of hot Jupiters. We study the influence of the mean planetary density on the thermal mass loss by placing hypothetical exoplanets with the characteristics of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus to the orbital location of CoRoT-7b at 0.017 AU and Kepler-10b at 0.01684 AU and assuming that these planets orbit a K- or G-type host star. Our findings indicate that hydrogen-rich gas giants within the mass domain of Saturn or Jupiter cannot thermally lose such an amount of mass that CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b would result in a rocky residue. Moreover, our calculations show that the present time mass of both rocky exoplanets can be neither a result of evaporation of a hydrogen envelope of a "Hot Neptune" nor a "Hot Uranus"-class object. Depending on the initial density and mass, these planets most likely were always rocky planets which could lose a thin hydrogen envelope, but not cores of thermally evaporated initially much more massive and larger objects. PMID:21969736

  17. Sensitivity of groundwater recharge using climatic analogues and HYDRUS-1D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leterme, B.; Mallants, D.; Jacques, D.

    2012-08-01

    The sensitivity of groundwater recharge to different climate conditions was simulated using the approach of climatic analogue stations, i.e. stations presently experiencing climatic conditions corresponding to a possible future climate state. The study was conducted in the context of a safety assessment of a future near-surface disposal facility for low and intermediate level short-lived radioactive waste in Belgium; this includes estimation of groundwater recharge for the next millennia. Groundwater recharge was simulated using the Richards based soil water balance model HYDRUS-1D and meteorological time series from analogue stations. This study used four analogue stations for a warmer subtropical climate with changes of average annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration from -42% to +5% and from +8% to +82%, respectively, compared to the present-day climate. Resulting water balance calculations yielded a change in groundwater recharge ranging from a decrease of 72% to an increase of 3% for the four different analogue stations. The Gijon analogue station (Northern Spain), considered as the most representative for the near future climate state in the study area, shows an increase of 3% of groundwater recharge for a 5% increase of annual precipitation. Calculations for a colder (tundra) climate showed a change in groundwater recharge ranging from a decrease of 97% to an increase of 32% for four different analogue stations, with an annual precipitation change from -69% to -14% compared to the present-day climate.

  18. MicroRNA-10b promotes nucleus pulposus cell proliferation through RhoC-Akt pathway by targeting HOXD10 in intervetebral disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin; Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Wu, William K K; Liang, Jinqian; Weng, Xisheng; Qiu, Guixing

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant proliferation of nucleus pulposus cell is implicated in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration. Recent findings revealed that microRNAs, a class of small noncoding RNAs, could regulate cell proliferation in many pathological conditions. Here, we showed that miR-10b was dramatically upregulated in degenerative nucleus pulposus tissues when compared with nucleus pulposus tissues isolated from patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Moreover, miR-10b levels were associated with disc degeneration grade and downregulation of HOXD10. In cultured nucleus pulposus cells, miR-10b overexpression stimulated cell proliferation with concomitant translational inhibition of HOXD10 whereas restored expression of HOXD10 reversed the mitogenic effect of miR-10b. MiR-10b-mediated downregulation of HOXD10 led to increased RhoC expression and Akt phosphorylation. Either knockdown of RhoC or inhibition of Akt abolished the effect of miR-10b on nucleus pulposus cell proliferation. Taken together, aberrant miR-10b upregulation in intervertebral disc degeneration could contribute to abnormal nucleus pulposus cell proliferation through derepressing the RhoC-Akt pathway by targeting HOXD10. Our study also underscores the potential of miR-10b and the RhoC-Akt pathway as novel therapeutic targets in intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:24376640

  19. MicroRNA-10b Promotes Nucleus Pulposus Cell Proliferation through RhoC-Akt Pathway by Targeting HOXD10 in Intervetebral Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jianxiong; Wu, William K. K.; Liang, Jinqian; Weng, Xisheng; Qiu, Guixing

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant proliferation of nucleus pulposus cell is implicated in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration. Recent findings revealed that microRNAs, a class of small noncoding RNAs, could regulate cell proliferation in many pathological conditions. Here, we showed that miR-10b was dramatically upregulated in degenerative nucleus pulposus tissues when compared with nucleus pulposus tissues isolated from patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Moreover, miR-10b levels were associated with disc degeneration grade and downregulation of HOXD10. In cultured nucleus pulposus cells, miR-10b overexpression stimulated cell proliferation with concomitant translational inhibition of HOXD10 whereas restored expression of HOXD10 reversed the mitogenic effect of miR-10b. MiR-10b-mediated downregulation of HOXD10 led to increased RhoC expression and Akt phosphorylation. Either knockdown of RhoC or inhibition of Akt abolished the effect of miR-10b on nucleus pulposus cell proliferation. Taken together, aberrant miR-10b upregulation in intervertebral disc degeneration could contribute to abnormal nucleus pulposus cell proliferation through derepressing the RhoC-Akt pathway by targeting HOXD10. Our study also underscores the potential of miR-10b and the RhoC-Akt pathway as novel therapeutic targets in intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:24376640

  20. An analogue conceptual rainfall-runoff model for educational purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrnegger, Mathew; Riedl, Michael; Schulz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Conceptual rainfall-runoff models, in which runoff processes are modelled with a series of connected linear and non-linear reservoirs, remain widely applied tools in science and practice. Additionally, the concept is appreciated in teaching due to its somewhat simplicity in explaining and exploring hydrological processes of catchments. However, when a series of reservoirs are used, the model system becomes highly parametrized and complex and the traceability of the model results becomes more difficult to explain to an audience not accustomed to numerical modelling. Since normally the simulations are performed with a not visible digital code, the results are also not easily comprehensible. This contribution therefore presents a liquid analogue model, in which a conceptual rainfall-runoff model is reproduced by a physical model. This consists of different acrylic glass containers representing different storage components within a catchment, e.g. soil water or groundwater storage. The containers are equipped and connected with pipes, in which water movement represents different flow processes, e.g. surface runoff, percolation or base flow. Water from a storage container is pumped to the upper part of the model and represents effective rainfall input. The water then flows by gravity through the different pipes and storages. Valves are used for controlling the flows within the analogue model, comparable to the parameterization procedure in numerical models. Additionally, an inexpensive microcontroller-based board and sensors are used to measure storage water levels, with online visualization of the states as time series data, building a bridge between the analogue and digital world. The ability to physically witness the different flows and water levels in the storages makes the analogue model attractive to the audience. Hands-on experiments can be performed with students, in which different scenarios or catchment types can be simulated, not only with the analogue but

  1. Antimicrobial activity of resveratrol analogues.

    PubMed

    Chalal, Malik; Klinguer, Agnès; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Meunier, Philippe; Vervandier-Fasseur, Dominique; Adrian, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew). Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold). The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups) and antimicrobial activity. PMID:24918540

  2. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  3. New thermal neutron capture therapy for malignant melanoma: melanogenesis-seeking 10B molecule-melanoma cell interaction from in vitro to first clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, Y.; Ichihashi, M.; Hatta, S.; Honda, C.; Yamamura, K.; Nakagawa, T. )

    1989-07-01

    Human melanoma regression by single thermal neutron capture therapy (NCT) using melanoma-seeking 10B compounds has been achieved. Since 1972, the aim of my team has been to synthesize tumor-seeking 10B-compounds possessing selective affinity for specific metabolic activity of the target cancer cells. Once the melanoma takes up these 10B compounds, thermal neutrons, which cause insignificant cell damage, are easily absorbed by nonradioactive 10B, inducing the 10B(n, alpha)7Li reaction and releasing the high LET particles to 14 mu melanoma cell diameter, destroying the tumor without damaging surrounding tissue. Radiobiological and preclinical studies culminated in the first successful human NCT treatment, with no recurrence of the treated melanoma since July, 1987.23 references.

  4. Central nervous system radiation syndrome in mice from preferential 10B(n, alpha)7Li irradiation of brain vasculature.

    PubMed Central

    Slatkin, D N; Stoner, R D; Rosander, K M; Kalef-Ezra, J A; Laissue, J A

    1988-01-01

    Ionizing radiations were directed at the heads of anesthetized mice in doses that evoked the acute central nervous system (CNS) radiation syndrome. Irradiations were done using either a predominantly thermal neutron field at a nuclear reactor after intraperitoneal injection of 10B-enriched boric acid or 250-kilovolt-peak x-rays with and without previous intraperitoneal injection of equivalent unenriched boric acid. Since 10B concentrations were approximately equal to 3-fold higher in blood than in cerebral parenchyma during the reactor irradiations, more radiation from alpha and 7Li particles was absorbed by brain endothelial cells than by brain parenchymal cells. Comparison of the LD50 dose for CNS radiation lethality from the reactor experiments with the LD50 dose from the x-ray experiments gives results compatible with morphologic evidence that endothelial cell damage is a major determinant of acute lethality from the CNS radiation syndrome. It was also observed that boric acid is a low linear energy transfer radiation-enhancement agent in vivo. Images PMID:3375251

  5. Neutron reflectometry on highly absorbing films and its application to 10B4C-based neutron detectors

    PubMed Central

    Piscitelli, F.; Khaplanov, A.; Devishvili, A.; Schmidt, S.; Höglund, C.; Birch, J.; Dennison, A. J. C.; Gutfreund, P.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Van Esch, P.

    2016-01-01

    Neutron reflectometry is a powerful tool used for studies of surfaces and interfaces. The absorption in the typical studied materials is neglected and this technique is limited only to the reflectivity measurement. For strongly absorbing nuclei, the absorption can be directly measured by using the neutron-induced fluorescence technique which exploits the prompt particle emission of absorbing isotopes. This technique is emerging from soft matter and biology where highly absorbing nuclei, in very small quantities, are used as a label for buried layers. Nowadays, the importance of absorbing layers is rapidly increasing, partially because of their application in neutron detection; a field that has become more active also due to the 3He-shortage. We extend the neutron-induced fluorescence technique to the study of layers of highly absorbing materials, in particular 10B4C. The theory of neutron reflectometry is a commonly studied topic; however, when a strong absorption is present the subtle relationship between the reflection and the absorption of neutrons is not widely known. The theory for a general stack of absorbing layers has been developed and compared to measurements. We also report on the requirements that a 10B4C layer must fulfil in order to be employed as a converter in neutron detection. PMID:26997902

  6. Secondary Eclipse Observations of the Low-Mass Hot-Jupiter WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, M. Oliver; Harrington, J.; Blecic, J.; Foster, A.; Stevenson, K. B.; Cubillos, P.; Collier Cameron, A.; UCF Exoplanets Group

    2013-10-01

    WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b is a hot-Jupiter planet that orbits a K3 dwarf every 3.722 days at a distance of 0.0439 AU. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2009 (Harrington, P.I.) and 2010 (Knutson, P.I), we observed five secondary eclipses of WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b: two in the 3.6-micron channel, two in the 4.5-micron channel, and one in the 8-micron channel. We present eclipse-depth measurements, estimates of infrared brightness temperatures, and the first constraints on the atmospheric pressure and temperature profile and chemical compositions. We also refine its orbit using our own secondary-eclipse measurements in combination with external radial-velocity and transit observations from both professional and amateur observers. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX13AF38G.

  7. Central nervous system radiation syndrome in mice from preferential 10B(n, alpha)7Li irradiation of brain vasculature.

    PubMed

    Slatkin, D N; Stoner, R D; Rosander, K M; Kalef-Ezra, J A; Laissue, J A

    1988-06-01

    Ionizing radiations were directed at the heads of anesthetized mice in doses that evoked the acute central nervous system (CNS) radiation syndrome. Irradiations were done using either a predominantly thermal neutron field at a nuclear reactor after intraperitoneal injection of 10B-enriched boric acid or 250-kilovolt-peak x-rays with and without previous intraperitoneal injection of equivalent unenriched boric acid. Since 10B concentrations were approximately equal to 3-fold higher in blood than in cerebral parenchyma during the reactor irradiations, more radiation from alpha and 7Li particles was absorbed by brain endothelial cells than by brain parenchymal cells. Comparison of the LD50 dose for CNS radiation lethality from the reactor experiments with the LD50 dose from the x-ray experiments gives results compatible with morphologic evidence that endothelial cell damage is a major determinant of acute lethality from the CNS radiation syndrome. It was also observed that boric acid is a low linear energy transfer radiation-enhancement agent in vivo. PMID:3375251

  8. Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Glinsky, Gennadi V.

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression. Independently of its specific receptor (CX3CR1), fractalkine binds to αvβ3 at a site proximal to the thyroid hormone-tetrac receptor and changes the physical state of the integrin. Tetrac also affects expression of the genes for other CNS-relevant chemokines, including CCL20, CCL26, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL10. The chemokine products of these genes are important to vascularity of the brain, particularly of the choroid plexus, to inflammatory processes in the CNS and, in certain cases, to neuroprotection. Thyroid hormones are known to contribute to regulation of each of these CNS functions. We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. PMID:27493972

  9. Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Chemokines.

    PubMed

    Davis, Paul J; Glinsky, Gennadi V; Lin, Hung-Yun; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression. Independently of its specific receptor (CX3CR1), fractalkine binds to αvβ3 at a site proximal to the thyroid hormone-tetrac receptor and changes the physical state of the integrin. Tetrac also affects expression of the genes for other CNS-relevant chemokines, including CCL20, CCL26, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL10. The chemokine products of these genes are important to vascularity of the brain, particularly of the choroid plexus, to inflammatory processes in the CNS and, in certain cases, to neuroprotection. Thyroid hormones are known to contribute to regulation of each of these CNS functions. We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. PMID:27493972

  10. Heterocyclic chalcone analogues as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Kumar, Vipin; Kumar, Pradeep

    2013-03-01

    Chalcones, aromatic ketones and enones acting as the precursor for flavonoids such as Quercetin, are known for their anticancer effects. Although, parent chalcones consist of two aromatic rings joined by a three-carbon α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system, various synthetic compounds possessing heterocyclic rings like pyrazole, indole etc. are well known and proved to be effective anticancer agents. In addition to their use as anticancer agents in cancer cell lines, heterocyclic analogues are reported to be effective even against resistant cell lines. In this connection, we hereby highlight the potential of various heterocyclic chalcone analogues as anticancer agents with a brief summary about therapeutic potential of chalcones, mechanism of anticancer action of various chalcone analogues, and current and future prospects related to the chalcones-derived anticancer research. Furthermore, some key points regarding chalcone analogues have been reviewed by analyzing their medicinal properties. PMID:22721390

  11. Synthesis and SAR of vinca alkaloid analogues.

    PubMed

    Voss, Matthew E; Ralph, Jeffery M; Xie, Dejian; Manning, David D; Chen, Xinchao; Frank, Anthony J; Leyhane, Andrew J; Liu, Lei; Stevens, Jason M; Budde, Cheryl; Surman, Matthew D; Friedrich, Thomas; Peace, Denise; Scott, Ian L; Wolf, Mark; Johnson, Randall

    2009-02-15

    Versatile intermediates 12'-iodovinblastine, 12'-iodovincristine and 11'-iodovinorelbine were utilized as substrates for transition metal based chemistry which led to the preparation of novel analogues of the vinca alkaloids. The synthesis of key iodo intermediates, their transformation into final products, and the SAR based upon HeLa and MCF-7 cell toxicity assays is presented. Selected analogues 27 and 36 show promising anticancer activity in the P388 murine leukemia model. PMID:19147348

  12. Planetary habitability: lessons learned from terrestrial analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Louisa J.; Dartnell, Lewis R.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial analogue studies underpin almost all planetary missions and their use is essential in the exploration of our Solar system and in assessing the habitability of other worlds. Their value relies on the similarity of the analogue to its target, either in terms of their mineralogical or geochemical context, or current physical or chemical environmental conditions. Such analogue sites offer critical ground-truthing for astrobiological studies on the habitability of different environmental parameter sets, the biological mechanisms for survival in extreme environments and the preservation potential and detectability of biosignatures. The 33 analogue sites discussed in this review have been selected on the basis of their congruence to particular extraterrestrial locations. Terrestrial field sites that have been used most often in the literature, as well as some lesser known ones which require greater study, are incorporated to inform on the astrobiological potential of Venus, Mars, Europa, Enceladus and Titan. For example, the possibility of an aerial habitable zone on Venus has been hypothesized based on studies of life at high-altitudes in the terrestrial atmosphere. We also demonstrate why many different terrestrial analogue sites are required to satisfactorily assess the habitability of the changing environmental conditions throughout Martian history, and recommend particular sites for different epochs or potential niches. Finally, habitable zones within the aqueous environments of the icy moons of Europa and Enceladus and potentially in the hydrocarbon lakes of Titan are discussed and suitable analogue sites proposed. It is clear from this review that a number of terrestrial analogue sites can be applied to multiple planetary bodies, thereby increasing their value for astrobiological exploration. For each analogue site considered here, we summarize the pertinent physiochemical environmental features they offer and critically assess the fidelity with which

  13. MicroRNA-10b regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition by modulating KLF4/Notch1/E-cadherin in cisplatin-resistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pei; Hong, Haiyu; Sun, Xiaojin; Jiang, Hao; Ma, Shiyin; Zhao, Surong; Zhang, Mengxiao; Wang, Zhiwei; Jiang, Chenchen; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an initiating event in tumor cell invasion and metastasis that contributes to therapeutic resistance to compounds including cisplatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been associated with EMT as well as resistance to standard therapies. However, the underlying mechanisms by which miRNAs control the development of resistance to cisplatin (DDP), and the accompanying EMT-like properties are required to elucidate. Here we show that microRNA-10b (miR-10b) is up-regulated in HNE1/DDP cells, and inhibition of miR-10b expression reversed the EMT phenotype. However, over-expression of miR-10b was able to promote the acquisition of an EMT phenotype in HNE1 cells. Additionally, we identified that miR-10b expression inversely correlates with KLF4, which then controls expression of Notch1. Knock-down of Notch1 inhibited cell migration, invasion, and reversed EMT in HNE1/DDP cells, which was dependent on miR-10b. In summary, our results reveal that miR-10b regulates EMT by modulating KLF4/Notch1/E-cadherin expression, which promotes invasion and migration of nasal pharyngeal carcinoma cells. PMID:27186392

  14. Bisphenol Analogues Other Than BPA: Environmental Occurrence, Human Exposure, and Toxicity-A Review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tan, Hongli; Zheng, Zhengui; Feng, Yong-Lai; Wu, Yan; Widelka, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the environmental occurrence, human exposure, and toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA). Following stringent regulations on the production and usage of BPA, several bisphenol analogues have been produced as a replacement for BPA in various applications. The present review outlines the current state of knowledge on the occurrence of bisphenol analogues (other than BPA) in the environment, consumer products and foodstuffs, human exposure and biomonitoring, and toxicity. Whereas BPA was still the major bisphenol analogue found in most environmental monitoring studies, BPF and BPS were also frequently detected. Elevated concentrations of BPAF, BPF, and BPS (i.e., similar to or greater than that of BPA) have been reported in the abiotic environment and human urine from some regions. Many analogues exhibit endocrine disrupting effects, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, dioxin-like effects, and neurotoxicity in laboratory studies. BPAF, BPB, BPF, and BPS have been shown to exhibit estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities similar to or even greater than that of BPA. Knowledge gaps and research needs have been identified, which include the elucidation of environmental occurrences, persistence, and fate of bisphenol analogues (other than BPA), sources and pathways for human exposure, effects on reproductive systems and the mammary gland, mechanisms of toxicity from coexposure to multiple analogues, metabolic pathways and products, and the impact of metabolic modification on toxicity. PMID:27143250

  15. miR-10b expression in breast cancer stem cells supports self-renewal through negative PTEN regulation and sustained AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Bahena-Ocampo, Ivan; Espinosa, Magali; Ceballos-Cancino, Gisela; Lizarraga, Floria; Campos-Arroyo, Denise; Schwarz, Angela; Maldonado, Vilma; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are linked to metastasis. Moreover, a discrete group of miRNAs (metastamiRs) has been shown to promote metastasis. Accordingly, we propose that miRNAs that function as metastatic promoters may influence the CSC phenotype. To study this issue, we compared the expression of 353 miRNAs in CSCs enriched from breast cancer cell lines using qRT-PCR analysis. One of the most altered miRNAs was miR-10b, which is a reported promoter of metastasis and migration. Stable overexpression of miR-10b in MCF-7 cells (miR-10b-OE cells) promoted higher self-renewal and expression of stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. In agreement with these results, inhibiting miR-10b expression using synthetic antisense RNAs resulted in a decrease in CSCs self-renewal. Bioinformatics analyses identified several potential miR-10b mRNA targets, including phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a key regulator of the PI3K/AKT pathway involved in metastasis, cell survival, and self-renewal. The targeting of PTEN by miR-10b was confirmed using a luciferase reporter, qRT-PCR, and Western blot analyses. Lower PTEN levels were observed in CSCs, and miR-10b depletion not only increased PTEN mRNA and protein expression but also decreased the activity of AKT, a downstream PTEN target kinase. Correspondingly, PTEN knockdown increased stem cell markers, whereas AKT inhibitors compromised the self-renewal ability of CSCs and breast cancer cell lines overexpressing miR-10b. In conclusion, miR-10b regulates the self-renewal of the breast CSC phenotype by inhibiting PTEN and maintaining AKT pathway activation. PMID:27113763

  16. Wnt6, Wnt10a and Wnt10b inhibit adipogenesis and stimulate osteoblastogenesis through a β-catenin-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cawthorn, William P; Bree, Adam J; Yao, Yao; Du, Baowen; Hemati, Nahid; Martinez-Santibañez, Gabriel; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2012-02-01

    Wnt10b is an established regulator of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) fate that inhibits adipogenesis and stimulates osteoblastogenesis, thereby impacting bone mass in vivo. However, downstream mechanisms through which Wnt10b exerts these effects are poorly understood. Moreover, whether other endogenous Wnt ligands also modulate MSC fate remains to be fully addressed. In this study, we identify Wnt6 and Wnt10a as additional Wnt family members that, like Wnt10b, are downregulated during development of white adipocytes in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that Wnt6 and/or Wnt10a may also inhibit adipogenesis. To assess the relative activities of Wnt6, Wnt10a and Wnt10b to regulate mesenchymal cell fate, we used gain- and loss-of function approaches in bipotential ST2 cells and in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Enforced expression of Wnt10a stabilizes β-catenin, suppresses adipogenesis and stimulates osteoblastogenesis to a similar extent as Wnt10b, whereas stable expression of Wnt6 has a weaker effect on these processes than Wnt10a or Wnt10b. In contrast, knockdown of endogenous Wnt6 is associated with greater preadipocyte differentiation and impaired osteoblastogenesis than knockdown of Wnt10a or Wnt10b, suggesting that, among these Wnt ligands, Wnt6 is the most potent endogenous regulator of MSC fate. Finally, we show that knockdown of β-catenin completely prevents the inhibition of adipogenesis and stimulation of osteoblast differentiation by Wnt6, Wnt10a or Wnt10b. Potential mechanisms whereby Wnts regulate fate of MSCs downstream of β-catenin are also investigated. In conclusion, this study identifies Wnt10a and Wnt6 as additional regulators of MSC fate and demonstrates that mechanisms downstream of β-catenin are required for Wnt6, Wnt10a and Wnt10b to influence differentiation of mesenchymal precursors. PMID:21872687

  17. MicroRNA-10b inhibition reduces E2F1-mediated transcription and miR-15/16 activity in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Teplyuk, Nadiya M.; Uhlmann, Erik J.; Wong, Andus Hon-Kit; Karmali, Priya; Basu, Meenakshi; Gabriely, Galina; Jain, Anant; Wang, Yang; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Stephens, Robert; Marcusson, Eric; Yi, Ming; Krichevsky, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-10b (miR-10b) is commonly elevated in glioblastoma (GBM), while not expressed in normal brain tissues. Targeted inhibition of miR-10b has pleiotropic effects on GBM derived cell lines, it reduces GBM growth in animal models, but does not affect normal neurons and astrocytes. This data raises the possibility of developing miR-10b-targeting GBM therapy. However, the mechanisms contributing to miR-10b-mediated glioma cell survival and proliferation are unexplored. We found that inhibition of miR-10b has distinct effects on specific glioma cell lines. In cells expressing high levels of tumor suppressor p21WAF1/Cip1, it represses E2F1-mediated transcription, leading to down-regulation of multiple E2F1 target genes encoding for S-phase specific proteins, epigenetic modulators, and miRNAs (e.g. miR-15/16), and thereby stalling progression through the S-phase of cell cycle. Subsequently, miR-15/16 activities are reduced and many of their direct targets are de-repressed, including ubiquitin ligase FBXW7 that destabilizes Cyclin E. Conversely, GBM cells expressing low p21 level, or after p21 knock-down, exhibit weaker or no E2F1 response to miR-10b inhibition. Comparative analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed a strong correlation between miR-10b and multiple E2F target genes in GBM and low-grade glioma. Taken together, these findings indicate that miR-10b regulates E2F1-mediated transcription in GBM, in a p21-dependent fashion. PMID:25738367

  18. Novel and efficient 10B lined tubelet detector as a replacement for 3He neutron proportional counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsorbatzoglou, Kyriakos; McKeag, Robert D.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a novel and robust proportional detector which addresses the well publicized shortage of 3He gas by using a 10B lining applied to a tubelet configuration. The advantage of the tubelet structure is that it yields a detector maintaining the form factor of a conventional 3He tube whilst achieving a sensitivity of up to 75% of a 3 atm 3He device. The design and fabrication of the tubelet detector is presented and discussed with test data comparing the new detector to existing 3He and BF 3 tubes. The application of the tubelet design to security and industrial applications including retro-fitting to existing portals and suitability for high integrity oil and gas installations is addressed.

  19. Nuclear structure with accurate chiral perturbation theory nucleon-nucleon potential: Application to 6Li and 10B

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, P; Caurier, E

    2003-10-14

    The authors calculate properties of A = 6 system using the accurate charge-dependent nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential at fourth order of chiral perturbation theory. By application of the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) and a variational calculation in the harmonic oscillator basis with basis size up to 16 {h_bar}{Omega} they obtain the {sup 6}Li binding energy of 28.5(5) MeV and a converged excitation spectrum. Also, they calculate properties of {sup 10}B using the same NN potential in a basis space of up to 8 {h_bar}{Omega}. The results are consistent with results obtained by standard accurate NN potentials and demonstrate a deficiency of Hamiltonians consisting of only two-body terms. At this order of chiral perturbation theory three-body terms appear. It is expected that inclusion of such terms in the Hamiltonian will improve agreement with experiment.

  20. Evaluating 10B-enriched Boric Acid, Bromide, and Heat as Tracers of Recycled Groundwater Flow near MAR Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, T.; Clark, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    County, CA, USA) has been in progress since September 6, 2011, following injection of boric acid enriched in boron-10 (10B) and bromide (Br-) tracers. Tracer concentrations are collected at 9 monitoring wells that have pre-experiment estimated travel times between 0.5 to 180 days. Results indicate that 10B-enriched boric acid is an effective deliberate tracer at MAR sites; however, the ion's movement is slightly retarded relative to bromide by the substrate. 10B/Br- travel time ratios range from 1 to 1.4. In addition to the two deliberate geochemical tracers, heat is being evaluated as a possible intrinsic tracer at MAR sites. At the time of the experiment (late summer), reclaimed water was significantly warmer (~20°F) than the native groundwater as it entered the system. Time series are developed from loggers outfitted at each monitoring well, with measurements recorded hourly accurate to one thousandth of a degree. Results are similar to 10B & Br- travel times and validate the potential of heat as an intrinsic tracer.

  1. Morphology and magnetic behavior of cobalt rich amorphous/nanocrystalline (Co-Ni)70Ti10B20 alloyed powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raanaei, Hossein; Mohammad-Hosseini, Vahid

    2016-09-01

    The effect of milling time on microstructural and magnetic behavior of mechanically alloyed Co49Ni21Ti10B20 is investigated by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and vibrating sample magnetometer. It is shown, with increasing milling time, the crystallite size decreases and finally reaches to a low value after 190 h of milling time. The increase in microstrain is also observed during the milling process. The results indicate the coexistence between amorphous and nanocrystalline phases after 190 h of milling time. Moreover, the lowest magnetic coercivity of about 39 Oe at the final milling stage is observed. The results of annealed sample reveal structural ordering of constituent elements.

  2. Set-up and calibration of a method to measure 10B concentration in biological samples by neutron autoradiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadan, M. A.; Bortolussi, S.; Postuma, I.; Ballarini, F.; Bruschi, P.; Protti, N.; Santoro, D.; Stella, S.; Cansolino, L.; Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Zonta, A.; Zonta, C.; Altieri, S.

    2012-03-01

    A selective uptake of boron in the tumor is the base of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, which can destroy the tumor substantially sparing the normal tissue. In order to deliver a lethal dose to the tumor, keeping the dose absorbed by normal tissues below the tolerance level, it is mandatory to know the 10B concentration present in each kind of tissue at the moment of irradiation. This work presents the calibration procedure adopted for a boron concentration measurement method based on neutron autoradiography, where biological samples are deposited on sensitive films and irradiated in the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor (University of Pavia). The latent tracks produced in the film by the charged particles coming from the neutron capture in 10B are made visible by a proper etching, allowing the measurement of the track density. A calibration procedure with standard samples provides curves of track density as a function of boron concentration, to be used in the measurement of biological samples. In this paper, the bulk etch rate parameter and the calibration curves obtained for both liquid samples and biological tissues with known boron concentration are presented. A bulk etch rate value of (1.64 ± 0.02) μm/h and a linear dependence with etching time were found. The plots representing the track density versus the boron concentration in a range between 5 and 50 μg/g (ppm) are linear, with an angular coefficient of (1.614 ± 0.169)·10-3 tracks/(μm2 ppm) for liquids and (1.598 ± 0.097)·10-2 tracks/(μm2 ppm) for tissues.

  3. Glucagonlike Peptide 2 Analogue Teduglutide

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Lakshmi S.; Basson, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Short bowel syndrome occurs when a shortened intestine cannot absorb sufficient nutrients or fluids. Teduglutide is a recombinant analogue of human glucagonlike peptide 2 that reduces dependence on parenteral nutrition in patients with short bowel syndrome by promoting enterocytic proliferation, increasing the absorptive surface area. However, enterocyte function depends not only on the number of cells that are present but also on differentiated features that facilitate nutrient absorption and digestion. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that teduglutide impairs human intestinal epithelial differentiation. DESIGN AND SETTING We investigated the effects of teduglutide in the modulation of proliferation and differentiation in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells at a basic science laboratory. This was an in vitro study using Caco-2 cells, a human-derived intestinal epithelial cell line commonly used to model enterocytic biology. EXPOSURE Cells were exposed to teduglutide or vehicle control. MAINOUTCOMESAND MEASURES We analyzed the cell cycle by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation or propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry and measured cell proliferation by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. We used quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to assay the expression of the enterocytic differentiation markers villin, sucrase-isomaltase, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), as well as that of the putative differentiation signals schlafen 12 (SLFN12) and caudal-related homeobox intestine-specific transcription factor (Cdx2). Villin promoter activity was measured by a luciferase-based assay. RESULTS The MTS assay demonstrated that teduglutide increased cell numbers by a mean (SD) of 10% (2%) over untreated controls at a maximal 500nM (n = 6, P < .05). Teduglutide increased bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells vs untreated controls by a mean (SD

  4. Analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect in neo-Newtonian theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anacleto, M. A.; Salako, I. G.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.

    2015-12-01

    We address the issues of the scattering of massless planar scalar waves by an acoustic black hole in neo-Newtonian hydrodynamics. We then compute the differential cross section through the use of the partial wave approach in the neo-Newtonian theory which is a modification of the usual Newtonian theory that correctly incorporates the effects of pressure. We mainly show that the scattering of planar waves leads to a modified analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect due to a nontrivial response of the parameters defining the equation of state.

  5. Convergent syntheses of LeX analogues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An; Hendel, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of three Lex derivatives from one common protected trisaccharide is reported. These analogues will be used respectively for competitive binding experiments, conjugation to carrier proteins and immobilization on gold. An N-acetylglucosamine monosaccharide acceptor was first glycosylated at O-4 with a galactosyl imidate. This coupling was performed at 40 °C under excess of BF3·OEt2 activation and proceeded best if the acceptor carried a 6-chlorohexyl rather than a 6-azidohexyl aglycon. The 6-chlorohexyl disaccharide was then converted to an acceptor and submitted to fucosylation yielding the corresponding protected 6-chlorohexyl Lex trisaccharide. This protected trisaccharide was used as a precursor to the 6-azidohexyl, 6-acetylthiohexyl and 6-benzylthiohexyl trisaccharide analogues which were obtained in excellent yields (70–95%). In turn, we describe the deprotection of these intermediates in one single step using dissolving metal conditions. Under these conditions, the 6-chlorohexyl and 6-azidohexyl intermediates led respectively to the n-hexyl and 6-aminohexyl trisaccharide targets. Unexpectedly, the 6-acetylthiohexyl analogue underwent desulfurization and gave the n-hexyl glycoside product, whereas the 6-benzylthiohexyl analogue gave the desired disulfide trisaccharide dimer. This study constitutes a particularly efficient and convergent preparation of these three Lex analogues. PMID:20485599

  6. Past and present of analogue modelling, and its future trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyi, Hemin

    2015-04-01

    Since Hull (1815) published his article on modelling, analogue modelling has expanded to simulate both a wider range of tectonic regimes and target more challenging set-ups, and has become an integrated part of the fields of tectonics and structural geology. Establishment of new laboratories testifies for the increased attention the technique receives. The ties between modellers and field geoscientists have become stronger with the focus being on understanding the parameters that govern the evolution of a tectonic regime and the processes that dominate it. Since the first sand castle was built with damp sand on a beach, sand has proven to be an appropriate material analogue. Even though granular materials is the most widely used analogue material, new materials are also (re)introduced as rock analogues. Emphasis has been on more precise measurements of the mechanical properties of the materials and on minimizing the preparation effects, which have a great impact on scaling, interpretations and benchmarking. The analytical technique used to quantify model results has also seen a great deal of improvement. In addition to X-ray tomography used to visualise internal structures of models, new techniques (e.g. PIV, high-resolution laser scanning, and interferometry) have enabled monitoring kinematics with a higher precision. Benchmarking exercises have given modelling an additional checking tool by outlining, in addition to the rheology of the modelling materials, the impact of different preparation approaches, the effect of boundary conditions, and the human factor on model results. However, despite the different approaches and deformation rigs, results of models of different tectonic laboratories have shown a great deal of similarities. Even with the introduction of more sophisticated numerical codes and usage of more powerful computers which enable the simulation of more challenging material properties and combinations of those, and 3D model set-up, analogue modelling

  7. High affinity ATP/ADP analogues as new tools for studying CFTR gating.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Min; Sohma, Yoshiro; Zou, Xiaoqin; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies using non-hydrolysable ATP analogues and hydrolysis-deficient cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutants have indicated that ATP hydrolysis precedes channel closing. Our recent data suggest that ATP binding is also important in modulating the closing rate. This latter hypothesis predicts that ATP analogues with higher binding affinities should stabilize the open state more than ATP. Here we explore the possibility of using N6-modified ATP/ADP analogues as high-affinity ligands for CFTR gating, since these analogues have been shown to be more potent than native ATP/ADP in other ATP-binding proteins. Among the three N6-modified ATP analogues tested, N6-(2-phenylethyl)-ATP (P-ATP) was the most potent, with a K(1/2) of 1.6 +/- 0.4 microm (>50-fold more potent than ATP). The maximal open probability (P(o)) in the presence of P-ATP was approximately 30% higher than that of ATP, indicating that P-ATP also has a higher efficacy than ATP. Single-channel kinetic analysis showed that as [P-ATP] was increased, the opening rate increased, whereas the closing rate decreased. The fact that these two kinetic parameters have different sensitivities to changes of [P-ATP] suggests an involvement of two different ATP-binding sites, a high-affinity site modulating channel closing and a low affinity site controlling channel opening. The effect of P-ATP on the stability of open states was more evident when ATP hydrolysis was abolished, either by mutating the nucleotide-binding domain 2 (NBD2) Walker B glutamate (i.e. E1371) or by using the non-hydrolysable ATP analogue AMP-PNP. Similar strategies to develop nucleotide analogues with a modified adenine ring could be valuable for future studies of CFTR gating. PMID:16223764

  8. High affinity ATP/ADP analogues as new tools for studying CFTR gating

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Min; Sohma, Yoshiro; Zou, Xiaoqin; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies using non-hydrolysable ATP analogues and hydrolysis-deficient cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutants have indicated that ATP hydrolysis precedes channel closing. Our recent data suggest that ATP binding is also important in modulating the closing rate. This latter hypothesis predicts that ATP analogues with higher binding affinities should stabilize the open state more than ATP. Here we explore the possibility of using N6-modified ATP/ADP analogues as high-affinity ligands for CFTR gating, since these analogues have been shown to be more potent than native ATP/ADP in other ATP-binding proteins. Among the three N6-modified ATP analogues tested, N6-(2-phenylethyl)-ATP (P-ATP) was the most potent, with a K½ of 1.6 ± 0.4 μm (>50-fold more potent than ATP). The maximal open probability (Po) in the presence of P-ATP was ∼30% higher than that of ATP, indicating that P-ATP also has a higher efficacy than ATP. Single-channel kinetic analysis showed that as [P-ATP] was increased, the opening rate increased, whereas the closing rate decreased. The fact that these two kinetic parameters have different sensitivities to changes of [P-ATP] suggests an involvement of two different ATP-binding sites, a high-affinity site modulating channel closing and a low affinity site controlling channel opening. The effect of P-ATP on the stability of open states was more evident when ATP hydrolysis was abolished, either by mutating the nucleotide-binding domain 2 (NBD2) Walker B glutamate (i.e. E1371) or by using the non-hydrolysable ATP analogue AMP-PNP. Similar strategies to develop nucleotide analogues with a modified adenine ring could be valuable for future studies of CFTR gating. PMID:16223764

  9. 18,18'-Dihexyl[9,9']biphenanthro[9,10-b]triphenylene: construction and consequences of a profoundly hindered aryl-aryl single bond.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Cameron L; Crowfoot, Jeremy M; Rempala, Pawel; King, Benjamin T

    2008-10-01

    The title compound, 1-Hex, was synthesized by the Zr-mediated biphenylation of 4,4'-dihexyloctabromobiphenyl using (Li(THF)4)2 x Zr(biphe)3, where biphe is the 2,2'-biphenyldiyl ligand, in 5% isolated yield. Two independent X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that arene 1-Hex possesses a highly strained and hindered aryl-aryl single bond. This bond causes the phenanthro[9,10-b]triphenylene (PTP) moieties to twist (anthracene subunit dihedral, 69 degrees); the interlocked, helical, homochiral PTP moieties give rise to effective D2 symmetry. The calculated adiabatic homolytic bond dissociation energy of this strained bond is only 67 kcal/mol, but nonetheless the bond exhibits a surprisingly normal length (1.49 A); the reason is elongation only slowly releases strain. Variable temperature NMR revealed two dynamic processes: hexyl rotation (12.0 +/- 0.4 kcal/mol) and inversion of chirality (15.2 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol). DFT calculations provide rate-determining transitions states, whose energies agree with measured values, and provide insight to the mechanism of these processes. Rotation about the central bond is not involved in either observed process. Calculations demonstrate that rotation does not involve a simple torsion of the equilibrium structure, but rather a complex movement with a barrier of 49 kcal/mol from a slipped-parallel, C(2h) intermediate. PMID:18781754

  10. 17 CFR 240.10b5-1 - Trading “on the basis of” material nonpublic information in insider trading cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trading âon the basis ofâ material nonpublic information in insider trading cases. 240.10b5-1 Section 240.10b5-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and...