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Sample records for 10cr-1mo-1w-vnbn steel forging

  1. Stainless-steel elbows formed by spin forging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Large seamless austenitic stainless steel elbows are fabricated by spin forging /rotary shear forming/. A specially designed spin forging tool for mounting on a hydrospin machine has been built for this purpose.

  2. Factors Affecting Scale Adhesion on Steel Forgings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitterman, J. A.; Bacco, R. P.; Boggs, W. E.

    1982-04-01

    Occasionally, undesirable "sticky" adherent scale forms on low-carbon steel during reheating for hot forging. The mechanical abrading or chemical pickling required to remove this scale adds appreciably to the fabrication cost. Characterization of the steel-scale system by metallographic examination, x-ray diffraction, and electron-probe microanalysis revealed that nickel, silicon, and/or sulfur might be involved in the mechanism of sticky-scale formation. Laboratory reheating tests were conducted on steels with varied concentrations of nickel and silicon in atmospheres simulating those resulting from burning natural gas or sulfur-bearing fuels. Subsequent characterization of the scale formed during the tests tends to confirm that the composition of the steel, especially increased nickel and silicon contents, and the presence of the sulfur in the furnace atmosphere cause the formation of this undesirable scale.

  3. 77 FR 14445 - Application for a License To Export Steel Forging

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... FR 49139 (Aug. 28, 2007). Information about filing electronically is available on the NRC's public... COMMISSION Application for a License To Export Steel Forging Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(b) ``Public Notice of... Spain. December 15, 2011 head steel head steel February 7, 2012 forging. forging will be XR175...

  4. The effect of deformation rate on JBK-75 stainless steel forgings

    SciTech Connect

    Odegard, B.C.

    1987-10-01

    A parametric study was conducted to evaluate the effect of forging rate and forging temperature on the strength and microstructure of a precipitation-hardened, austenitic stainless steel forging. High and low forging rates were achieved using a high energy rate forging (HERF) process and a low velocity mechanical press (MP) respectively. The forging geometry required a two-stage forging sequence. The first stage or preform was identical for both forging processes. The final stage used similar die geometries with minor modifications to accommodate the attachment to the respective hammers. The resulting microstructure and mechanical properties were significantly different. These differences are attributed to the effects of strain rate and temperature. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Friction and wear in hot forging of steels

    SciTech Connect

    Daouben, E.; Dubar, L.; Dubar, M.; Deltombe, R.; Dubois, A.; Truong-Dinh, N.; Lazzarotto, L.

    2007-04-07

    In the field of hot forging of steels, the mastering of wear phenomena enables to save cost production, especially concerning tools. Surfaces of tools are protected thanks to graphite. The existing lubrication processes are not very well known: amount and quality of lubricant, lubrication techniques have to be strongly optimized to delay wear phenomena occurrence. This optimization is linked with hot forging processes, the lubricant layers must be tested according to representative friction conditions. This paper presents the first part of a global study focused on wear phenomena encountered in hot forging of steels. The goal is the identification of reliable parameters, in order to bring knowledge and models of wear. A prototype testing stand developed in the authors' laboratory is involved in this experimental analysis. This test is called Warm and Hot Upsetting Sliding Test (WHUST). The stand is composed of a heating induction system and a servo-hydraulic system. Workpieces taken from production can be heated until 1200 deg. C. A nitrided contactor representing the tool is heated at 200 deg. C. The contactor is then coated with graphite and rubs against the workpiece, leaving a residual track on it. Friction coefficient and surface parameters on the contactor and the workpiece are the most representative test results. The surface parameters are mainly the sliding length before defects occurrence, and the amplitude of surface profile of the contactor. The developed methodology will be first presented followed by the different parts of the experimental prototype. The results of experiment show clearly different levels of performance according to different lubricants.

  6. Anisotropie embrittlement in high-hardness ESR 4340 steel forgings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, G. B.; Anctil, A. A.; Desisto, T. S.; Kula, E. B.

    1983-08-01

    ESR 4340 steel forgings tempered to a hardness of HRC 55 exhibit a severe loss of tensile ductility in the short transverse direction which is strain-rate and humidity dependent. The anisotropy is also reflected in blunt-notch Charpy impact energy, but is absent in the sharp-crack fracture toughness. Brittle behavior is associated with regions of smooth intergranular fracture which are aligned with microstructural banding. Scanning Auger microprobe analysis indicates some intergranular segregation of phosphorus and sulfur in these regions. The anisotropic embrittlement is attributed to an interaction of nonequilibrium segregation on solidification with local equilibrium segregation at grain boundaries during austenitizing. This produces defective regions of enhanced intergranular impurity segregation which are oriented during forging. The regions are prone to brittle fracture under impact conditions and abnormal sensitivity to environmental attack during low strain-rate deformation. A relatively sparse distribution of these defects (˜10cm-3) accounts for the discrepancy between smooth bar and blunt-notch tests vs sharp-crack tests. Isotropie properties are restored by homogenization treatment. For application of these steels at extreme hardness levels, homogenization treatment is essential.

  7. HYDROGEN-ASSISTED FRACTURE IN FORGED TYPE 304L AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Switzner, Nathan; Neidt, Ted; Hollenbeck, John; Knutson, J.; Everhart, Wes; Hanlin, R.; Bergen, R.; Balch, D. K.

    2012-09-06

    Austenitic stainless steels generally have good resistance to hydrogen-assisted fracture; however, structural designs for high-pressure gaseous hydrogen are constrained by the low strength of this class of material. Forging is used to increase the low strength of austenitic stainless steels, thus improving the efficiency of structural designs. Hydrogen-assisted racture, however, depends on microstructural details associated with manufacturing. In this study, hydrogen-assisted fracture of forged type 304L austenitic stainless steel is investigated. Microstructural variation in multi-step forged 304L was achieved by forging at different rates and temperatures, and by process annealing. High internal hydrogen content in forged type 304L austenitic stainless steel is achieved by thermal precharging in gaseous hydrogen and results in as much as 50% reduction of tensile ductility.

  8. Parameter Optimization During Forging Process of a Novel High-Speed-Steel Cold Work Roll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jing; Liu, Ligang; Sun, Yanliang; Li, Qiang; Ren, Xuejun; Yang, Qingxiang

    2016-01-01

    The forging of high-speed-steel (HSS) roll has always been a technical problem in manufacturing industry. In this study, the forging process of a novel HSS cold work roll was simulated by deform-3D on the basis of rigid-viscoplastic finite element model. The effect of heating temperature and forging speed on temperature and stress fields during forging process was simulated too. The results show that during forging process, the temperature of the contact region with anvils increases. The stress of the forging region increases and distributes un-uniformly, while that of the non-forging region is almost zero. With increasing forging time, Z load on anvil increases gradually. With increasing heating temperature or decreasing forging speed, the temperature of the whole billet increases, while the stress and Z load on anvil decrease. In order to ensure the high efficiency and safety of the forging process, the heating temperature and the forging speed are chosen as 1160 °C and 16.667 mm/s, respectively.

  9. Residual Stresses in 21-6-9 Stainless Steel Warm Forgings

    SciTech Connect

    Everhart, Wesley A.; Lee, Jordan D.; Broecker, Daniel J.; Bartow, John P.; McQueen, Jamie M.; Switzner, Nathan T.; Neidt, Tod M.; Sisneros, Thomas A.; Brown, Donald W.

    2012-11-14

    Forging residual stresses are detrimental to the production and performance of derived machined parts due to machining distortions, corrosion drivers and fatigue crack drivers. Residual strains in a 21-6-9 stainless steel warm High Energy Rate Forging (HERF) were measured via neutron diffraction. The finite element analysis (FEA) method was used to predict the residual stresses that occur during forging and water quenching. The experimentally measured residual strains were used to calibrate simulations of the three-dimensional residual stress state of the forging. ABAQUS simulation tools predicted residual strains that tend to match with experimental results when varying yield strength is considered.

  10. Nine percent nickel steel heavy forging weld repair study. [National Transonic Wind Tunnel fan components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, C. P., Jr.; Gerringer, A. H.; Brooks, T. G.; Berry, R. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of making weld repairs on heavy section 9% nickel steel forgings such as those being manufactured for the National Transonic Facility fan disk and fan drive shaft components was evaluated. Results indicate that 9% nickel steel in heavy forgings has very good weldability characteristics for the particular weld rod and weld procedures used. A comparison of data for known similar work is included.

  11. 76 FR 31585 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India: Notice of Rescission of... stainless steel flanges from India. The period of review is February 1, 2010, through January 22, 2011... stainless steel flanges from India. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or...

  12. Standard specification for forged carbon and alloy steel flanges for low-temperature service. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.22 on Steel Forgings and Wrought Fittings for Piping Applications and Bolting Materials for Piping and Special Purpose Applications. Current edition approved Mar. 10, 1998 and published October 1998.

  13. Standard specification for alloy steel forgings for nonmagnetic retaining rings for generators. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.06 on Steel Forgings and Billets. Current edition approved Nov. 10, 1997 and published August 1998. Originally published as A 289-46. Last previous edition was A 289-94.

  14. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Nitrogen Austenitic Steel after Ultrasonic Forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narkevich, N. A.; Tolmachev, A. I.; Vlasov, I. V.; Surikova, N. S.

    2016-03-01

    Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction have been used to investigate a nitrogen 07Kh17AG18 steel with an austenitic structure after the surface deformation treatment—ultrasonic forging. During ultrasonic forging, an austenitic structure transforms into a new structure with an elevated concentration of deformation-induced stacking faults, a lot of deformation microtwins, ɛ-martensite crystals. The austenite lattice parameter is found to be decreased in the surface layer. After ultrasonic forging, nitrided steel exhibits enhanced strength properties with retained high plasticity.

  15. The development and production of thermo-mechanically forged tool steel spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamberger, E. N.

    1973-01-01

    A development program to establish the feasibility and applicability of high energy rate forging procedures to tool steel spur gears was performed. Included in the study were relatively standard forging procedures as well as a thermo-mechanical process termed ausforming. The subject gear configuration utilized was essentially a standard spur gear having 28 teeth, a pitch diameter of 3.5 inches and a diametral pitch of 8. Initially it had been planned to use a high contact ratio gear design, however, a comprehensive evaluation indicated that severe forging problems would be encountered as a result of the extremely small teeth required by this type of design. The forging studies were successful in achieving gear blanks having integrally formed teeth using both standard and thermo-mechanical forging procedures.

  16. 76 FR 8773 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... reviews, * * *'' (76 FR 5331). Accordingly, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C... COMMISSION Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade... steel flanges from India and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  17. 75 FR 67110 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan (65 FR 49964). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce... duty orders on imports of forged stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan (71 FR 3457, January 23... part 201), and part 207, subparts A, D, E, and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 74...

  18. Study on Carbide in Forged and Annealed H13 Hot Work Die Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji; Li, Jing; Wang, Liangliang; Li, Longfei

    2015-10-01

    The present work studied the carbides in forged and annealed H13 hot work die steel. The carbides were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and analyzed with quantitative chemical analysis method. The carbide types, qualities and compositions in dependence on temperatures were thermodynamically calculated by Thermo-Calc software and compared with the experimental results. In the final, methods for carbide improvement were discussed. The results are as follows. The primary carbides and the carbide segregation are improved after the hot-forging operation. The carbides in the hot-forged and annealed H13 steel are M7C3, M6(C, N) and M(C, N) which is accordance with the calculated results. Trace Mg added to the H13 steel leads to an increase of primary carbide nucleation and a decrease of primary carbide size.

  19. 76 FR 5331 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan: Final Results of Sunset Reviews and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    .... See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 67082 (November 1, 2010). We did not receive a... Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India, 59 FR 5994 (February 9, 1994) and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From Taiwan, 59 FR 5995 (February 9, 1994). On January 23,...

  20. HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS PROPERTIES OF FORGED STAINLESS STEELS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M

    2008-03-28

    The effect of hydrogen on the fracture toughness properties of Types 304L, 316L and 21-6-9 forged stainless steels was investigated. Fracture toughness samples were fabricated from forward-extruded forgings. Samples were uniformly saturated with hydrogen after exposure to hydrogen gas at 34 MPa or 69 and 623 K prior to testing. The fracture toughness properties were characterized by measuring the J-R behavior at ambient temperature in air. The results show that the hydrogen-charged steels have fracture toughness values that were about 50-60% of the values measured for the unexposed steels. The reduction in fracture toughness was accompanied by a change in fracture appearance. Both uncharged and hydrogen-charged samples failed by microvoid nucleation and coalescence, but the fracture surfaces of the hydrogen-charged steels had smaller microvoids. Type 316L stainless steel had the highest fracture toughness properties and the greatest resistance to hydrogen degradation.

  1. Controlled Forging of a Nb Containing Microalloyed Steel for Automotive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhaie, Davood; Hosseini Benhangi, Pooya; Fazeli, Fateh; Mazinani, Mohammad; Zohourvahid Karimi, Ebrahim; Ghandehari Ferdowsi, Mahmoud Reza

    2012-12-01

    Controlled forging of microalloyed steels is a viable economical process for the manufacture of automotive parts. Ferrite grain refinement and precipitation hardening are the major microstructural parameters to enhance the mechanical properties of the forged components. In the current study, a modified thermomechanical treatment for additional ferrite grain refinement is developed by exploiting the effect of Nb in increasing the T NR (no recrystallization temperature) and via phase transformation from a pancaked austenite. This is accomplished by performing the final passes of forging below the T NR temperature followed by a controlled cooling stage to produce a mixture of fine grained ferrite, small scaled acicular ferrite as well as a limited amount of martensite. The effect of processing parameters in terms of forging strain, cooling rate and aging condition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a medium carbon, Nb containing microalloyed steel is investigated. An attempt is made to identify a suitable microstructure that provides a proper combination of high strength and good impact toughness. The processing-microstructure relationships for the proposed novel forging procedure are discussed, and directions for further improvements are outlined.

  2. TRITIUM AGING EFFECTS ON THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS PROPERTIES OF FORGED STAINLESS STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M

    2008-04-14

    The fracture toughness properties of Type 21-6-9 stainless steel were measured for forgings in the unexposed, hydrogen-exposed, and tritium-exposed-and-aged conditions. Fracture toughness samples were cut from conventionally-forged and high-energy-rate-forged forward-extruded cylinders and mechanically tested at room temperature using ASTM fracture-toughness testing procedures. Some of the samples were exposed to either hydrogen or tritium gas (340 MPa, 623 K) prior to testing. Tritium-exposed samples were aged for up to seven years and tested periodically in order to measure the effect on fracture toughness of {sup 3}He from radioactive tritium decay. The results show that hydrogen-exposed and tritium-exposed samples had lower fracture- toughness values than unexposed samples and that fracture toughness decreased with increasing decay {sup 3}He content. Forged steels were more resistant to the embrittling effects of tritium and decay {sup 3}He than annealed steels, although their fracture-toughness properties depended on the degree of sensitization that occurred during processing. The fracture process was dominated by microvoid nucleation, growth and coalescence; however, the size and spacing of microvoids on the fracture surfaces were affected by hydrogen and tritium with the lowest-toughness samples having the smallest microvoids and finest spacing.

  3. Standard specification for continuous grain flow forged carbon and alloy steel crankshafts for medium speed diesel engines. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.06 on Steel Forgings and Billets. Current edition approved Jan. 10, 1998 and published August 1998.

  4. Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steels: Part 1, medium-sulfur forging steel

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.; Poskie, T.J.; Auten, T.A; Cullen, W.H.

    1996-04-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a medium- sulfur ASTM A508-2 forging steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 30.3--38.3 mm, and depths of 13.1--16.8 mm. The experiments were conducted in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O{sub 2} < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243{degrees}C, under loading conditions ({Delta}K, R, and cyclic frequency) conductive to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) in higher-sulfur steels under quasi-stagnant conditions. Earlier experiments on unclad compact tension specimens of this heat of steel did not exhibit EAC, and the present experiments on semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating cladding also did not exhibit EAC.

  5. Influence of the microstructure on the fracture toughness and fracture mechanisms of forging steels microalloyed with titanium with ferrite-perlite structures

    SciTech Connect

    Linaza, M.A.; Romero, J.L.; Rodriguez-Ibabe, J.M.; Urcola, J.J. )

    1993-08-15

    Titanium addition to vanadium microalloyed forging steels is one of the ways proposed to improve fracture toughness. Fine TiN particles inhibit austenite grain growth after recrystallization at the high temperatures used to forge these steels. TiN particles, however, can be formed in the liquid, and as their sizes exceed one micron, they could act as cleavage nucleation sites, impairing the fracture toughness. The present work reports fracture toughness results obtained in Ti treated microalloyed forging steels, showing that in coarse microstructures cleavage is nucleated in coarse TiN particles, but that after refining the microstructure, voids originate at the same particles, resulting in ductile rupture.

  6. Effects of Low Temperature on Hydrogen-Assisted Crack Growth in Forged 304L Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Heather; San Marchi, Chris; Balch, Dorian; Somerday, Brian; Michael, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of low temperature on hydrogen-assisted crack propagation in forged 304L austenitic stainless steel. Fracture initiation toughness and crack-growth resistance curves were measured using fracture mechanics specimens that were thermally precharged with 140 wppm hydrogen and tested at 293 K or 223 K (20 °C or -50 °C). Fracture initiation toughness for hydrogen-precharged forgings decreased by at least 50 to 80 pct relative to non-charged forgings. With hydrogen, low-temperature fracture initiation toughness decreased by 35 to 50 pct relative to room-temperature toughness. Crack growth without hydrogen at both temperatures was microstructure-independent and indistinguishable from blunting, while with hydrogen microcracks formed by growth and coalescence of microvoids. Initiation of microvoids in the presence of hydrogen occurred where localized deformation bands intersected grain boundaries and other deformation bands. Low temperature additionally promoted fracture initiation at annealing twin boundaries in the presence of hydrogen, which competed with deformation band intersections and grain boundaries as sites of microvoid formation and fracture initiation. A common ingredient for fracture initiation was stress concentration that arose from the intersection of deformation bands with these microstructural obstacles. The localized deformation responsible for producing stress concentrations at obstacles was intensified by low temperature and hydrogen. Crack orientation and forging strength were found to have a minor effect on fracture initiation toughness of hydrogen-supersaturated 304L forgings.

  7. Effects of Low Temperature on Hydrogen-Assisted Crack Growth in Forged 304L Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Heather; San Marchi, Chris; Balch, Dorian; Somerday, Brian; Michael, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of low temperature on hydrogen-assisted crack propagation in forged 304L austenitic stainless steel. Fracture initiation toughness and crack-growth resistance curves were measured using fracture mechanics specimens that were thermally precharged with 140 wppm hydrogen and tested at 293 K or 223 K (20 °C or -50 °C). Fracture initiation toughness for hydrogen-precharged forgings decreased by at least 50 to 80 pct relative to non-charged forgings. With hydrogen, low-temperature fracture initiation toughness decreased by 35 to 50 pct relative to room-temperature toughness. Crack growth without hydrogen at both temperatures was microstructure-independent and indistinguishable from blunting, while with hydrogen microcracks formed by growth and coalescence of microvoids. Initiation of microvoids in the presence of hydrogen occurred where localized deformation bands intersected grain boundaries and other deformation bands. Low temperature additionally promoted fracture initiation at annealing twin boundaries in the presence of hydrogen, which competed with deformation band intersections and grain boundaries as sites of microvoid formation and fracture initiation. A common ingredient for fracture initiation was stress concentration that arose from the intersection of deformation bands with these microstructural obstacles. The localized deformation responsible for producing stress concentrations at obstacles was intensified by low temperature and hydrogen. Crack orientation and forging strength were found to have a minor effect on fracture initiation toughness of hydrogen-supersaturated 304L forgings.

  8. Tensile behavior of an austenitic stainless steel subjected to multidirectional forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonova, M.; Sorokopudova, J.; Bondareva, E.; Belyakov, A.; Kaibyshev, R.

    2014-08-01

    The mechanical behavior of a chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steel with submicrocrystalline structures produced by multidirectional forging (MDF) to a total strain of ~ 4 at temperatures of 700 and 600°C was studied. This processing resulted in the formation of uniform ultrafine grained structure with an average crystallite size of 360 and 300 nm, respectively, and high dislocation density. The tensile tests were carried out in a wide temperature range 20-650°C. At ambient temperature, the yield stress (YS) comprised 900 MPa and 730 MPa in the samples subjected to MDF at 600 and 700°C, respectively. It should be noted that this strength was achieved along with elongations of 16% and 22% in the samples subjected to MDF at 600 and 700°C. The YS decreased and elongation-to-failure tends to increase with increasing test temperature and approaching 235 MPa and 51%, respectively, at 650°C. Effect of temperature on mechanical behavior of stainless steel with submicrocrystalline structure is discussed.

  9. Evaluation of test methods for dynamic toughness characterization of duplex stainless steel forgings

    SciTech Connect

    Natishan, M.E.; Tregoning, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    Ferralium is a dual-phase stainless steel which consists of roughly equal amounts of ferrite and austenite. Conventional Charpy V-notch impact tests were performed on specimens taken from several locations in three orientations from a forged Ferralium plate to quantify the materials dynamic fracture performance. The Charpy tests were compared with 2.54 cm thick (1T) single edge bend (SE(B)) specimens that were tested in a drop tower to measure dynamic fracture initiation toughness (K{sub Id}). SE(B) specimens were removed from three plate locations and tested in a single orientation. Charpy and K{sub Id} tests were performed over the entire fracture mode transition temperature range, but the bulk of testing was concentrated at a single temperature {minus}2 C to provide a statistically significant number of tests at a representative point in the ferritic fracture mode transition region. Charpy impact energy varied consistently with both orientation and location within the forged plate even though large scatter was present in the results. This large scatter precluded an accurate assessment of the materials fracture performance within the transition region. The scatter in the drop tower (SE(B)) results was much less and indicated that plate location had a minimal affect on performance. The reduced scatter in the SE(B) specimens is attributed to two factors. First, the microstructure of Ferralium, while macroscopically homogeneous, contains ferritic and austenitic phase sizes that approach the dimensions of the standard Charpy specimen. Second, the Charpy testing technique causes more variation than the standard SE(B) K{sub Id} tests within the transition region.

  10. Rapid heating tensile tests of hydrogen-charged high-energy-rate-forged 316L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley, W.C.

    1989-05-19

    316L stainless steel is a candidate material for construction of equipment that will be exposed to tritium. Proper design of the equipment will require an understanding of how tritium and its decay product helium affect mechanical properties. This memorandum describes results of rapid heating tensile testing of hydrogen-charged specimens of high-energy-rate-forged (HERF) 316L stainless steel. These results provide a data base for comparison with uncharged and tritium-charged-and-aged specimens to distinguish the effects of hydrogen and helium. Details of the experimental equipment and procedures and results for uncharged specimens were reported previously. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Characteristics comparison of weld metal zones welded to cast and forged steels for piston crown material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Kyung-Man; Kim, Yun-Hae; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Baek, Tae-Sil

    2015-03-01

    An optimum repair welding for the piston crown which is one of the engine parts exposed to the combustion chamber is considered to be very important to prolong the engine lifetime from an economical point of view. In this study, two types of filler metals such as 1.25Cr-0.5Mo, 0.5Mo were welded with SMAW method and the other two types of filler metals such as Inconel 625 and 718 were welded with GTAW method, respectively, and the used base metals were the cast and forged steels of the piston crown material. The weld metal zones welded with Inconel 625 and 718 filler metals exhibited higher corrosion resistance compared to 1.25Cr-0.5Mo and 0.5Mo filler metals. In particular, the weld metal zone welded with Inconel 718 and 0.5Mo, filler metals indicated the best and worst corrosion resistance, respectively. Consequently, it is suggested that the corrosion resistance of the weld metal zone surely depends on the chemical components of each filler metal and welding method irrespective of the types of piston crown material.

  12. The Influence of Temperature on the Frictional Behavior of Duplex-Coated Die Steel Rubbing Against Forging Brass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimzadeh, I.; Ashrafizadeh, F.

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of die life under hot forging of brass alloys is considered vital from both economical and technical points of view. One of the best methods for improving die life is duplex coatings. In this research, the influence of temperature on the tribological behavior of duplex-coated die steel rubbing against forging brass was investigated. The wear tests were performed on a pin-on-disk machine from room temperature to 700 °C; the pins were made in H13 hot work tool steel treated by plasma nitriding and by PVD coatings of TiN-TiAlN-CrAlN. The disks were machined from a two-phase brass alloy too. The results revealed that the friction coefficient of this tribosystem went through a maximum at 550 °C and decreased largely at 700 °C. Furthermore, the formation of Cr2O3 caused the reduction of friction coefficient at 700 °C. PVD coatings proved their wear resistance up to 550 °C, well above the working temperature of the brass forging dies.

  13. Surface fatigue and failure characteristics of hot forged powder metal AISI 4620, AISI 4640, and machined AISI 4340 steel spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.

    1986-01-01

    Spur gear surface fatigue endurance tests were conducted to investigate hot forged powder metal AISI 4620 and 4640 steel for use as a gear material, to determine endurance characteristics and to compare the results with machined AISI 4340 and 9310 steel gear materials. The as-forged and unground SISI 4620 gear exhibited a 10 percent fatigue life that was approximately one-fourth of that for AISI 9310 and less than one-half that for the AISI 4340 gears. The forged and finish ground AISI 4620 gears exhibited a 10 percent life, approximately 70 percent that of AISI 9310 and slightly better than that of AISI 4340. The AISI 4640 hot forged gears had less fracture toughness and slightly less fatigue life than the AISI 4620 test gears.

  14. Surface fatigue and failure characteristics of hot-forged powder metal AISI 4620, AISI 4640, and machined AISI 4340 steel spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.

    1987-01-01

    Spur gear surface fatigue endurance tests were conducted to investigate hot forged powder metal AISI 4620 and 4640 steel for use as a gear material, to determine endurance characteristics and to compare the results with machined AISI 4340 and 9310 steel gear materials. The as-forged and unground AISI 4620 gear exhibited a 10 percent fatigue life that was approximately one-fourth of that for AISI 9310 and less than one-half that for the AISI 4340 gears. The forged and finish ground AISI 4620 gears exhibited a 10 percent life, approximately 70 percent that of AISI 9310 and slightly better than that of AISI 4340. The AISI 4640 hot forged gears had less fracture toughness and slightly less fatigue life than the AISI 4620 test gears.

  15. Microstructure and Texture Evolution in Cold Rotary Forging of Spur Bevel Gears of 20CrMnTi Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xinghui; Dong, Liying; Hua, Lin; Zhuang, Wuhao

    2016-03-01

    The microstructure of cold rotary forged gears greatly affects their working life. Therefore, the aim of this study is to reveal the evolution of microstructure and texture that occurs during the cold rotary forging of spur bevel gears of 20CrMnTi alloy steel. The evolution of grains of the gear tooth is investigated through optical microscopy. By employing scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction, the evolution of the cementite particles and the texture of the gear tooth is also revealed. The results indicate that the grain size distribution is non-uniform from the tooth profile to its center. The cementite particles in the tooth profile are finer and more uniformly distributed than those in the tooth center. After cold rotary forging, the tooth center has a combination of α- and γ-fibers, and the γ-fibers are more developed than the α-fibers, while most of the components in the tooth profile are assembled along the α-fibers.

  16. Manufacturing of Precision Forgings by Radial Forging

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, S.; Harrer, O.; Buchmayr, B.; Hofer, F.

    2011-01-17

    Radial forging is a multi purpose incremental forging process using four tools on the same plane. It is widely used for the forming of tool steels, super alloys as well as titanium- and refractory metals. The range of application goes from reducing the diameters of shafts, tubes, stepped shafts and axels, as well as for creating internal profiles for tubes in Near-Net-Shape and Net-Shape quality. Based on actual development of a weight optimized transmission input shaft, the specific features of radial forging technology is demonstrated. Also a Finite Element Model for the simulation of the process is shown which leads to reduced pre-processing effort and reduced computing time compared to other published simulation methods for radial forging. The finite element model can be applied to quantify the effects of different forging strategies.

  17. Advanced rotor forgings for high-temperature steam turbines. Volume 2. Mechanical property evaluation. Final report. [CrMoV steels

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, V.P.; Landes, J.D.

    1986-05-01

    Three advanced steel-melting processes - low-sulfur vacuum silicon deoxidation, electroslag remelting, and vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD) - were applied to produce three CrMoV (ASTM A470, Class 8) steel forgings for steam turbine application. Ingots weighing about 100 t each were produced using these three processes, and rotors were forged with final weights of about 30 t each. Compared to the conventionally produced forgings, the advanced technology forgings show better tensile ductility and better uniformity along the radial and longitudinal directions. Charpy upper-shelf energy shows about 40% improvement, and no temper embrittlement was found using step-cooled and isothermal-aging treatments. Significant improvement in fracture toughness (K/sub IC/ and J/sub IC/) is realized for these forgings. Low-cycle fatigue life is better at high temperatures because of the absence of nonmetallic inclusions. Creep strength shows slight improvement. However, creep ductility is improved, probably because of low residual elements. The VCD forgings show excellent creep ductility, even with long lives. Both the toughness and creep properties are equal to or better than those of oil-quenched rotors produced by European practices. These improvements are attributed to cleaner steel, better control of ingot solidification, low residual elements (especially very low sulfur content), and the associated reduction of nonmetallic inclusions. These three rotors have been placed in service in three operating power plants in units rated at 520 MW each. Volume 1 of this report covers ingot and forging production, and volume 2 covers mechanical property evaluation. 40 refs., 84 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Effect of Austenitizing Temperature on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Semi-High-Speed Steel Cold-Forged Rolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiong; Sun, Da-Le; Liu, Chang-Sheng

    2009-10-01

    The effect of austenitizing temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of semi-high-speed steel (S-HSS) cold-forged rolls was investigated. Low-temperature austenitizing below 1313 K induced carbide coarsening during subsequent tempering at 973 K due to the nucleation effect of undissolved M7C3. On the other hand, the heavy dissolution of M7C3 above 1353 K caused the fine carbide formation on lath and plate boundaries, which retarded the subgrain growth during tempering. The increase in strength with increasing austenitizing temperature was attributed to the fine carbide distribution and the high dislocation density. Furthermore, as the austenitizing temperature increased, the impact energy markedly reduced, due to the large prior austenite grain size and the high strength. Finally, based on the microstructure and mechanical properties, an optimal austenitizing temperature range between 1313 and 1333 K was determined.

  19. A Microstructural Study on the Observed Differences in Charpy Impact Behavior Between Hot Isostatically Pressed and Forged 304L and 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Adam J.; Cooper, Norman I.; Bell, Andrew; Dhers, Jean; Sherry, Andrew H.

    2015-11-01

    With near-net shape technology becoming a more desirable route toward component manufacture due to its ability to reduce machining time and associated costs, it is important to demonstrate that components fabricated via Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) are able to perform to similar standards as those set by equivalent forged materials. This paper describes the results of a series of Charpy tests from HIP'd and forged 304L and 316L austenitic stainless steel, and assesses the differences in toughness values observed. The pre-test and post-test microstructures were examined to develop an understanding of the underlying reasons for the differences observed. The as-received microstructure of HIP'd material was found to contain micro-pores, which was not observed in the forged material. In tested specimens, martensite was detectable within close proximity to the fracture surface of Charpy specimens tested at 77 K (-196 °C), and not detected in locations remote from the fracture surface, nor was martensite observed in specimens tested at ambient temperatures. The results suggest that the observed changes in the Charpy toughness are most likely to arise due to differences in as-received microstructures of HIP'd vs forged stainless steel.

  20. Σ3 CSL boundary distributions in an austenitic stainless steel subjected to multidirectional forging followed by annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonova, Marina; Kuzminova, Yuliya; Fang, Xiaoying; Wang, Weiguo; Kaibyshev, Rustam; Belyakov, Andrey

    2014-12-01

    The effect of processing and annealing temperatures on the grain boundary characters in the ultrafine-grained structure of a 304-type austenitic stainless steel was studied. An S304H steel was subjected to multidirectional forging (MDF) at 500-800°C to total strains of ~4, followed by annealing at 800-1,000°C for 30 min. The MDF resulted in the formation of ultrafine-grained microstructures with mean grain sizes of 0.28-0.85 μm depending on the processing temperature. The annealing behaviour of the ultrafine-grained steel was characterized by the development of continuous post-dynamic recrystallization including a rapid recovery followed by a gradual grain growth. The post-dynamically recrystallized grain size depended on both the deformation temperature and the annealing temperature. The recrystallization kinetics was reduced with an increase in the temperature of the preceding deformation. The grain growth during post-dynamic recrystallization was accompanied by an increase in the fraction of Σ3n CSL boundaries, which was defined by a relative change in the grain size, i.e. a ratio of the annealed grain size to that evolved by preceding warm working (D/D0). The fraction of Σ3n CSL boundaries sharply rose to approximately 0.5 in the range of D/D0 from 1 to 5, which can be considered as early stage of continuous post-dynamic recrystallization. Then, the rate of increase in the fraction of Σ3n CSL boundaries slowed down significantly in the range of D/D0 > 5. A fivefold increase in the grain size by annealing is a necessary condition to obtain approximately 50% Σ3n CSL boundaries in the recrystallized microstructure.

  1. Energy audit of three energy-conserving devices in a steel-industry demonstration program. Task I. Hague forge furnaces. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lownie, H.W.; Holden, F.C.

    1982-06-01

    A program to demonstrate to industry the benefits of installing particular types of energy-conserving devices and equipment was carried out. One of these types of equipment and the results obtained under production conditions in commercial plants are described. The equipment under consideration includes improved forge furnaces and associated heat-recovery components. They are used to heat steel to about 2300 F prior to hot forging. The energy-conserving devices include improved insulation, automatic air-fuel ratio control, and a ceramic recuperator that recovers heat from hot combustion gases and delivers preheated air to high-temperature recirculating burners. Twelve Hague furnaces and retrofit packages were purchased and installed by eleven host forge shops that agree to furnish performance data for the purpose of demonstrating the energy and economic savings that can be achieved in comparison with existing equipment. Fuel savings were reported by comparing the specific energy consumption (Btu's per pound of steel heated) for each Hague furnace with that of a comparison furnace. Economic comparisons were made using payback period based on annual after-tax cash flow. Payback periods for the Hague equipment varied from less than two years to five years or more. In several cases, payback times were high only because the units were operated at a small fraction of their available capacity.

  2. Effect of Various Heat Treatment Processes on Fatigue Behavior of Tool Steel for Cold Forging Die

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S. U.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, Y. S.; Kwon, Y. N.; Lee, J. H.

    Effects of various heat treatment processes, including "Q/T (quenching and tempering)", "Q/CT/T (Quenching, cryogenic treatment and tempering)", "Q/T (quenching and tempering) + Ti-nitriding" and "Q/CT/T (Cryogenic treatment and tempering) + Ti-nitriding", on S-N fatigue behavior of AISI D2 tool steel were investigated. The optical micrographs and Vicker's hardness values at near surface and core area were examined for each specimen. Uniaxial fatigue tests were performed by using an electro-magnetic resonance fatigue testing machine at a frequency of 80 Hz and an R ratio of -1. The overall resistance to fatigue tends to decrease significantly with Ti-nitriding treatment compared to those for the general Q/T and Q/CT/T specimens. The reduced resistance to fatigue with Ti-nitriding is discussed based on the microstructural and fractographic analyses.

  3. Rapid heating tensile tests of high-energy-rate-forged 316L stainless steel containing internal helium from radioactive decay of absorbed tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    316L stainless steel is a candidate material for construction of equipment that will be exposed to tritium. This austenitic stainless steel is frequently used in the high-energy-rate-forged (HERF) metallurgical condition to take advantage of increased strength produced by cold work introduced by this process. Proper design of tritium-handling equipment will require an understanding of how helium-3, the product of radioactive decay of tritium, affects mechanical properties. This report describes results of elevated-temperature tensile testing of HERF 316L stainless steel specimens containing helium concentrations of 171 (calculated) atomic parts per million (appm). Results are compared with those reported previously for specimens containing 0 and 94 (measured) appm helium.

  4. Rapid heating tensile tests of high-energy-rate-forged 316L stainless steel containing internal helium from radioactive decay of absorbed tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley, W.C.

    1990-12-31

    316L stainless steel is a candidate material for construction of equipment that will be exposed to tritium. This austenitic stainless steel is frequently used in the high-energy-rate-forged (HERF) metallurgical condition to take advantage of increased strength produced by cold work introduced by this process. Proper design of tritium-handling equipment will require an understanding of how helium-3, the product of radioactive decay of tritium, affects mechanical properties. This report describes results of elevated-temperature tensile testing of HERF 316L stainless steel specimens containing helium concentrations of 171 (calculated) atomic parts per million (appm). Results are compared with those reported previously for specimens containing 0 and 94 (measured) appm helium.

  5. Forging Advisor

    SciTech Connect

    Kerry Barnett

    2003-03-01

    Many mechanical designs demand components produced to a near net shape condition to minimize subsequent process steps. Rough machining from slab or bar stock can quickly and economically produce simple prismatic or cylindrical shapes. More complex shapes can be produced by laser engineered net shaping (LENS), casting , or forging. But for components that require great strength in mission critical applications, forging may be the best or even the only option. However, designers of these parts may and often do lack the detailed forging process knowledge necessary to understand the impact of process details such as grain flow or parting line placement on both the forging process and the characteristics of the forged part. Economics and scheduling requirements must also be considered. Sometimes the only viable answer to a difficult problem is to re-design the assembly to reduce loading and enable use of other alternatives.

  6. Weldability Characteristics of Sintered Hot-Forged AISI 4135 Steel Produced through P/M Route by Using Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Joby; Muthukumaran, S.; Pandey, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Present investigation is an attempt to study the weldability characteristics of sintered hot-forged plates of AISI 4135 steel produced through powder metallurgy (P/M) route using matching filler materials of ER80S B2. Compacts of homogeneously blended elemental powders corresponding to the above steel were prepared on a universal testing machine (UTM) by taking pre-weighed powder blend with a suitable die, punch and bottom insert assembly. Indigenously developed ceramic coating was applied on the entire surface of the compacts in order to protect them from oxidation during sintering. Sintered preforms were hot forged to flat, approximately rectangular plates, welded by pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) processes with aforementioned filler materials. Microstructural, tensile and hardness evaluations revealed that PCGTAW process with low heat input could produce weldments of good quality with almost nil defects. It was established that PCGTAW joints possess improved tensile properties compared to the base metal and it was mainly attributed to lower heat input, resulting in finer fusion zone grains and higher fusion zone hardness. Thus, the present investigation opens a new and demanding field in research.

  7. New Trends in Forging Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Hagen, T.; Knigge, J.; Elgaly, I.; Hadifi, T.; Bouguecha, A.

    2011-05-01

    Limited natural resources increase the demand on highly efficient machinery and transportation means. New energy-saving mobility concepts call for design optimisation through downsizing of components and choice of corrosion resistant materials possessing high strength to density ratios. Component downsizing can be performed either by constructive structural optimisation or by substituting heavy materials with lighter high-strength ones. In this context, forging plays an important role in manufacturing load-optimised structural components. At the Institute of Metal Forming and Metal-Forming Machines (IFUM) various innovative forging technologies have been developed. With regard to structural optimisation, different strategies for localised reinforcement of components were investigated. Locally induced strain hardening by means of cold forging under a superimposed hydrostatic pressure could be realised. In addition, controlled martensitic zones could be created through forming induced phase conversion in metastable austenitic steels. Other research focused on the replacement of heavy steel parts with high-strength nonferrous alloys or hybrid material compounds. Several forging processes of magnesium, aluminium and titanium alloys for different aeronautical and automotive applications were developed. The whole process chain from material characterisation via simulation-based process design to the production of the parts has been considered. The feasibility of forging complex shaped geometries using these alloys was confirmed. In spite of the difficulties encountered due to machine noise and high temperature, acoustic emission (AE) technique has been successfully applied for online monitoring of forging defects. New AE analysis algorithm has been developed, so that different signal patterns due to various events such as product/die cracking or die wear could be detected and classified. Further, the feasibility of the mentioned forging technologies was proven by means

  8. High-energy rate forgings of wedges :

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Thomas Bither; Everhart, Wesley; Switzner, Nathan T; Balch, Dorian K.; San Marchi, Christopher W.

    2014-05-01

    The wedge geometry is a simple geometry for establishing a relatively constant gradient of strain in a forged part. The geometry is used to establish gradients in microstructure and strength as a function of strain, forging temperature, and quenching time after forging. This geometry has previously been used to benchmark predictions of strength and recrystallization using Sandias materials model for type 304L austenitic stainless steel. In this report, the processing conditions, in particular the times to forge and quench the forged parts, are summarized based on information recorded during forging on June 18, 2013 of the so-called wedge geometry from type 316L and 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn austenitic stainless steels.

  9. Steel bars and forgings, 0.50Cr 0.55Ni 0.25Mo (0.38 0.43C) (SAE 8740), heat treated, 125,000 psi (862 MPa) tensile strength (reaffirmed, Apr 1994). (SAE standard)

    SciTech Connect

    1988-10-01

    This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of bars and forgings. Primarily for parts, such as nuts, bolts, and screws, 1.50 inch (38.1 mm) and under in section thickness, requiring a minimum tensile strength of 125,000 (862 MPa). Alloy: 8740 UNS Number: G8740.

  10. Co-Operative Training in the Sheffield Forging Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give details of an operation carried out in Sheffield to increase the recruitment of young men into the steel forging industry. Design/methodology/approach: The Sheffield Forges Co-operative Training Scheme was designed to encourage boys to enter the forging industry and to provide them with training and…

  11. Impact of Temperature on Cooling Structural Variation of Forging Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piesova, Marianna; Czan, Andrej

    2014-12-01

    The article is focused on the issue of die forging in the automotive industry. The cooling effect of temperature on the structure of forged die are under review. In the article, there is elaborated the analysis of theoretical knowledge in the field, focusing on die forging and experimentally proven effect of the cooling rate on the final structure of forged dies made of hypoeutectic carbon steel C56E2.

  12. Microstructural Aspects of Irradiation Damage in A508 Gr 4N Forging Steel: Composition and Flux Effects

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. Burke; R.J. Stofanak; J.M. Hyde; C.A. English; W.L. Server

    2002-10-09

    Neutron irradiation can promote significant changes in the microstructure and associated mechanical properties of low alloy steels. In particular, irradiation can induce the formation of non-equilibrium phases and segregation, which may lead to a degradation in toughness. In this study, the microstructural changes caused by neutron irradiation have been characterized in A508 Grade (Gr) 4N-type steels ({approx}3.5% Ni) using a variety of state-of-the-art analytical techniques including 3D-Atom Probe Field-Ion Microscopy and Small Angle Neutron Scattering, along with post-irradiation annealing studies combining Positron Annihilation Lineshape Analysis and hardness measurements. Important differences between conventional and ''superclean'' A508 Gr 4N steel have been identified in this investigation. The data indicate that Ni is not the controlling factor in the irradiation damage behavior of these materials; rather, the Mn content of the steel is a dominant factor in the irradiation-induced microstructural development of solute-related hardening features.

  13. Looking west inside of the machine/forge shop at chargin door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking west inside of the machine/forge shop at chargin door of the forging furnace. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  14. Steel, bars, forgings, and tubing 0.80Cr 1.8Ni 0.25Mo (0.38-0.43C) special aircraft quality cleanliness, normalized and tempered. (SAE standard)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This specification covers a low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, mechanical tubing, and forging stock. These products have been used typically for parts required to meet stringent magnetic particle inspection criteria, having sections 3.5 inches (89 mm) and under in nominal thickness at time of heat treatment, and requiring a through-hardening steel capable of developing a minimum hardness of 30 HRC when properly hardened and tempered and also for parts of greater thickness but requiring proportionately lower hardness, but usage is not limited to such applications. Certain design and processing procedures may cause these products to become susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking after heat treatment; ARP 1110 recommends practices to minimize such conditions. These products are not recommended for use in parts heat treated to a tensile strength range having a maximum over 220 ksi (1517 MPa) or where the high transverse properties of vacuum-arc-remelted or electroslag remelted steel are required. Alloy: 4340 UNS Number: G4340.

  15. Modeling and simulation of austenite grain evolution for heavy forging steel 30Cr2Ni4MoV undergoing hot deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhenshan; Li, Cuidong; Chen, Fei; Sui, Dashan

    2013-05-01

    30Cr2Ni4MoV is widely used as heavy forging materials for low pressure rotors which equips the ultra-supercritical power generations. The final properties of the heavy forging products relies apparently on the grain size of the material, so that the grain should be refined and homogenized during forming process through controlling the working parameters during forming process. For this purpose, the research on the modeling and simulation of austenite grain evolution is conducted for different forming stages: the grain growth during heating, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) during hitting, and meta-dynamic (MDRX) and static recrystallization (SRX) during hitting intervals. Experiment-based phenomenological models, as easy ways to characterize the grain evolution, are established for the process of heating and single-hit, while the Cellular Automaton simulations are applied for tracing more complex recrystallization process during multi-hit deformations. The research shows that, for heavy forgings, the long-time heating process can cause very coarse grains which are harmful to the final properties. Therefore, in order to refine and homogenize the grain size for the heavy forgings, the working parameters for forging should be determined to ensure the recrystallization can be completed and the deformation can be uniformly distributed. Some applications of the models and simulation method in multi-hit process are also demonstrated.

  16. Forging Long Shafts On Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilghman, Chris; Askey, William; Hopkins, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Isothermal-forging apparatus produces long shafts integral with disks. Equipment based on modification of conventional isothermal-forging equipment, required stroke cut by more than half. Enables forging of shafts as long as 48 in. (122 cm) on typical modified conventional forging press, otherwise limited to making shafts no longer than 18 in. (46cm). Removable punch, in which forged material cools after plastic deformation, essential novel feature of forging apparatus. Technology used to improve such products as components of gas turbines and turbopumps and of other shaft/disk parts for powerplants, drive trains, or static structures.

  17. 31. FORGE, ANVIL, POWER FORGE HAMMER (FRONT TO BACK), AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. FORGE, ANVIL, POWER FORGE HAMMER (FRONT TO BACK), AND DOORWAY INTO MAIN SHOP-LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  18. Prediction of Microstructure in High-Strength Ductile Forging Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, M.; Back, A.; Hirt, G.; Keul, C.; Bleck, W.

    2010-06-15

    Governmental, environmental and economic demands call for lighter, stiffer and at the same time cheaper products in the vehicle industry. Especially safety relevant parts have to be stiff and at the same time ductile. The strategy of this project was to improve the mechanical properties of forging steel alloys by employing a high-strength and ductile bainitic microstructure in the parts while maintaining cost effective process chains to reach these goals for high stressed forged parts. Therefore, a new steel alloy combined with an optimized process chain has been developed. To optimize the process chain with a minimum of expensive experiments, a numerical approach was developed to predict the microstructure of the steel alloy after the process chain based on FEM simulations of the forging and cooling combined with deformation-time-temperature-transformation-diagrams.

  19. Deformation processes in forging ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. M.; Rhodes, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    The deformation processes involved in the forging of refractory ceramic oxides were investigated. A combination of mechanical testing and forging are utilized to investigate both the flow and fracture processes involved. An additional hemisphere forging was done which failed prematurely. Analysis and comparison with available fracture data for AL2O3 indicated possible causes of the failure. Examination of previous forgings indicated an increase in grain boundary cavitation with increasing strain.

  20. Modeling of Closed-Die Forging for Estimating Forging Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Debashish; Das, Santanu; Chatterjee, Avik; Bhattacharya, Anirban

    2016-05-01

    Closed die forging is one common metal forming process used for making a range of products. Enough load is to exert on the billet for deforming the material. This forging load is dependent on work material property and frictional characteristics of the work material with the punch and die. Several researchers worked on estimation of forging load for specific products under different process variables. Experimental data on deformation resistance and friction were used to calculate the load. In this work, theoretical estimation of forging load is made to compare this value with that obtained through LS-DYNA model facilitating the finite element analysis. Theoretical work uses slab method to assess forging load for an axi-symmetric upsetting job made of lead. Theoretical forging load estimate shows slightly higher value than the experimental one; however, simulation shows quite close matching with experimental forging load, indicating possibility of wide use of this simulation software.

  1. Fallon FORGE Well Lithologies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-03-01

    x,y,z text file of the downhole lithologic interpretations in the wells in and around the Fallon FORGE site. All the relevant information is in the file header (the spatial reference, the projection etc.) In addition all the fields in the data file are identified in the header.

  2. Advanced rotor forgings for high-temperature steam turbines. Volume 1. Ingot and forging production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, V.P.; Steiner, J.E.; Mitchell, A.

    1986-05-01

    Three advanced steel-melting processes - low-sulfur vacuum silicon deoxidation, electroslag remelting, and vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD) - were applied to produce three CrMoV (ASTM A470, Class 8) steel forgings for steam turbine application. Ingots weighing about 100 t each were produced using these three processes, and rotors were forged with final weights of about 30 t each. Compared to the conventionally produced forgings, the advanced technology forgings show better tensile ductility and better uniformity along the radial and longitudinal directions. Charpy upper-shelf energy shows about 40% improvement, and no temper embrittlement was found using step-cooled and isothermal-aging treatments. Significant improvement in fracture toughness (K/sub IC/ and J/sub IC/) is realized for these forgings. Low-cycle fatigue life is better at high temperatures because of the absence of nonmetallic inclusions. Creep strength shows slight improvement. However, creep ductility is improved, probably because of low residual elements. The VCD forgings show excellent creep ductility, even with long lives. Both the toughness and creep properties are equal to or better than those of oil-quenched rotors produced by European practices. These improvements are attributed to cleaner steel, better control of ingot solidification, low residual elements (especially very low sulfur content), and the associated reduction of nonmetallic inclusions. These three rotors have been placed in service in three operating power plants in units rated at 520 MW each. Volume 1 of this report covers ingot and forging production, and volume 2 covers mechanical property evaluation.

  3. Superplastic forging nitride ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Panda, Prakash C.; Seydel, Edgar R.; Raj, Rishi

    1988-03-22

    The invention relates to producing relatively flaw free silicon nitride ceramic shapes requiring little or no machining by superplastic forging This invention herein was made in part under Department of Energy Grant DE-AC01-84ER80167, creating certain rights in the United States Government. The invention was also made in part under New York State Science and Technology Grant SB1R 1985-10.

  4. Forging Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.; Glasgow, T. K.; Moracz, D. J.; Austin, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Cladding of mild steel prevents surface cracking when alloy contacts die. Continual need for improvements in properties of alloys capable of withstanding elevated temperatures. Accomplished by using oxide-dispersion-strengthed superalloys such as Inconel Alloy MA 6000. Elevated tensile properties of forged alloy equal those of hot-rolled MA 6000 bar. Stress-rupture properties somewhat lower than those of bar stock but, at 1,100 degrees C, exceed those of strongest commercial single crystal, directionally solidified and conventionally cast superalloys.

  5. Proposal to study stem forgings

    SciTech Connect

    Odegard, B.C.

    1982-06-25

    Reservoir designs consist of two primary features including the stem(s) and the body segment. The stem is either an integral part of the reservoir or is joined at some point in the fabrication sequence. The current interest is in high strength stems for advanced reservoir designs. The processing necessary to achieve these strength levels may result in heavily cold worked microstructures which may not interface well with the stem requirements. For instance, cold worked 316 plate stock has shown decreased hydrogen compatibility when contrasted to the annealed version in laboratory tests. More recently, Precision Forge produced a 100 ksi yield strength, 304L stem forging with a heavily deformed microstructure which also may show decreased compatibility in hydrogen. The proposed forging contract will evaluate the influence of forging parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 304L and 316 stem forgings. A summary of the data available on 304L stem forgings is shown graphically. The yield strength values are shown for each set of forging parameters. Tensile tests and microstructural examination will be conducted to complete the information for 304L and create a similar graph for 316 stem forgings.

  6. Superplastic forging nitride ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Panda, P.C.; Seydel, E.R.; Raj, R.

    1988-03-22

    A process is disclosed for preparing silicon nitride ceramic parts which are relatively flaw free and which need little or no machining, said process comprising the steps of: (a) preparing a starting powder by wet or dry mixing ingredients comprising by weight from about 70% to about 99% silicon nitride, from about 1% to about 30% of liquid phase forming additive and from 1% to about 7% free silicon; (b) cold pressing to obtain a preform of green density ranging from about 30% to about 75% of theoretical density; (c) sintering at atmospheric pressure in a nitrogen atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 1,400 C to about 2,200 C to obtain a density which ranges from about 50% to about 100% of theoretical density and which is higher than said preform green density, and (d) press forging workpiece resulting from step (c) by isothermally uniaxially pressing said workpiece in an open die without initial contact between said workpiece and die wall perpendicular to the direction of pressing and so that pressed workpiece does not contact die wall perpendicular to the direction of pressing, to substantially final shape in a nitrogen atmosphere utilizing a temperature within the range of from about 1,400 C to essentially 1,750 C and strain rate within the range of about 10[sup [minus]7] to about 10[sup [minus]1] seconds[sup [minus]1], the temperature and strain rate being such that surface cracks do not occur, said pressing being carried out to obtain a shear deformation greater than 30% whereby superplastic forging is effected.

  7. Interior of shop, detail of 8,000 pound forging hammer (this ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of shop, detail of 8,000 pound forging hammer (this hammer was probably manufactured the Chambersburg Engineering Company of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania), looking east - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  8. Interior of shop, detail of 8,000 pound forging hammer, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of shop, detail of 8,000 pound forging hammer, looking west - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  9. Comparison of pitting fatigue life of ausforged and standard forged AISI M-50 and AISI 9310 spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Bamberger, E. N.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1975-01-01

    Standard forged and ausforged spur gears made of vacuum-induction-melted, consumable-electrode, vacuum-arc-remelted AISI M-50 steel were tested under conditions that produced fatigue pitting. The gears were 8.89 cm (3.5 in.) in pitch diameter and had tip relief. The M-50 standard forged and ausforged test results were compared with each other. They were then compared with results for machined vacuum-arc-remelted AISI 9310 gears tested under identical conditions. Both types of M-50 gears had lives approximately five times that of the 9310 gears. The life at which 10 percent of the M-50 ausforged gears failed was slightly less than that at which the M-50 standard forged gears failed. The ausforged gears had a slightly greater tendency to fail by tooth fracture than did the standard forged gears, most likely because of the better forging and grain flow pattern of standard forged gears.

  10. Investigations on Forging Dies with Ceramic Inserts by means of Finite-Element-Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, B.-A.; Schaefer, F.; Bistron, M.

    2007-05-17

    The tools in hot forging processes are exposed to high thermal and mechanical loadings. Tempering of the tool edge layer occurs as a result of thermal loadings. This leads to a gradual hardness loss of the tool material and increase of wear over forging cycles. Hence, the tool life in hot forging is mainly limited by wear. An extension of the die service life can be achieved by the use of ceramic inserts. The integration of ceramics into the die base plate made of hot-work steel is realised by active brazing, whereby it possible to apply ceramic in region with high wear. It has to be ensured in the design process of ceramic inserts for forging dies that no critical tensile stresses occur in the ceramics. A reliable design of the ceramic inserts is possible only through consideration of brazing and forming process. The development of a Finite-Element-model for the design of forging dies with ceramic inserts is the intention of the work presented in this paper. At first the forging process with a conventional die is analyzed concerning abrasive die wear to identify regions with high wear risk applying a modified Archard model. Based on the results of wear calculation, a forging die with ceramic inserts is investigated in terms of joint stresses at the end of the active brazing process. Subsequently, the forging process considering the residual stresses caused by joining is simulated in order to obtain the die stress in use.

  11. Large forging manufacturing process

    DOEpatents

    Thamboo, Samuel V.; Yang, Ling

    2002-01-01

    A process for forging large components of Alloy 718 material so that the components do not exhibit abnormal grain growth includes the steps of: a) providing a billet with an average grain size between ASTM 0 and ASTM 3; b) heating the billet to a temperature of between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; c) upsetting the billet to obtain a component part with a minimum strain of 0.125 in at least selected areas of the part; d) reheating the component part to a temperature between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; e) upsetting the component part to a final configuration such that said selected areas receive no strains between 0.01 and 0.125; f) solution treating the component part at a temperature of between 1725.degree. F. and 1750.degree. F.; and g) aging the component part over predetermined times at different temperatures. A modified process achieves abnormal grain growth in selected areas of a component where desirable.

  12. 48 CFR 225.7102 - Forgings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Forgings. 225.7102 Section 225.7102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Forgings....

  13. 48 CFR 225.7102 - Forgings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Forgings. 225.7102 Section 225.7102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Forgings....

  14. 48 CFR 225.7102 - Forgings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Forgings. 225.7102 Section 225.7102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Forgings....

  15. 48 CFR 225.7102 - Forgings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forgings. 225.7102 Section 225.7102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Forgings....

  16. 48 CFR 225.7102 - Forgings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Forgings. 225.7102 Section 225.7102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Forgings....

  17. Effect of Die Strength and Work Piece Strength on the Wear of Hot Forging Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, B. S.; Van Tyne, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the strength ratio extracted from an Archard model for wear is used to describe the wear rates expected in hot forging dies. In the current study, the strength ratio is the strength of the hot forging die to the strength of the work piece. Three hot forging die steels are evaluated. The three die steels are FX, 2714, and WF. To determine the strength of the forging die, a continuous function has been developed that describes the yield strength of three die steels for temperatures from 600 to 700 °C and for times up to 20 h (i.e., tempering times of up to 20 h). The work piece material is assumed to be AISI 1045. Based on the analysis, the wear resistance of WF should be superior and FX should be slightly better than 2714. Decreasing the forging temperature increases the strength ratio, because the strength of the die surface increases faster than the flow strength of AISI 1045. The increase in the strength ratio indicates a decrease in the expected wear rate.

  18. Process modelings and simulations of heavy castings and forgings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dianzhong; Sun, Mingyue; Wang, Pei; Kang, Xiuhong; Fu, Paixian; Li, Yiyi

    2013-05-01

    The Materials Process Modeling Division, IMR, CAS has been promoting for more than 10 years research activities on modeling and experimental studies on heavy castings and forgings. In this report, we highlight some selected achievements and impacts in this area: To satisfy domestic strategic requirements, such as nuclear and hydraulic power, marine projects and high speed rail, we have developed a number of casting and forging technologies, which combine advanced computing simulations, X-ray real time observation techniques and industrial-scaled trial experiments. These technologies have been successfully applied in various industrial areas and yielded a series of scientific and technological breakthroughs and innovation. Important examples of this strategic research include the hot-processing technologies of the Three Gorge water turbine runner, marine crankshaft manufacturers, backup rolls for hot rolling mills and the production of hundreds-ton steel ingot.

  19. Analysis of the thermo-mechanical deformations in a hot forging tool by numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L-Cancelos, R.; Varas, F.; Martín, E.; Viéitez, I.

    2016-03-01

    Although programs have been developed for the design of tools for hot forging, its design is still largely based on the experience of the tool maker. This obliges to build some test matrices and correct their errors to minimize distortions in the forged piece. This phase prior to mass production consumes time and material resources, which makes the final product more expensive. The forging tools are usually constituted by various parts made of different grades of steel, which in turn have different mechanical properties and therefore suffer different degrees of strain. Furthermore, the tools used in the hot forging are exposed to a thermal field that also induces strain or stress based on the degree of confinement of the piece. Therefore, the mechanical behaviour of the assembly is determined by the contact between the different pieces. The numerical simulation allows to analyse different configurations and anticipate possible defects before tool making, thus, reducing the costs of this preliminary phase. In order to improve the dimensional quality of the manufactured parts, the work presented here focuses on the application of a numerical model to a hot forging manufacturing process in order to predict the areas of the forging die subjected to large deformations. The thermo-mechanical model developed and implemented with free software (Code-Aster) includes the strains of thermal origin, strains during forge impact and contact effects. The numerical results are validated with experimental measurements in a tooling set that produces forged crankshafts for the automotive industry. The numerical results show good agreement with the experimental tests. Thereby, a very useful tool for the design of tooling sets for hot forging is achieved.

  20. Deformation processes in forging ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. M.; Rhodes, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    The deformation processes involved in the forging of refractory ceramic oxides were investigated. A combination of mechanical testing and forging was utilized to investigate both the flow and fracture processes involved. Deformation studies of very fine grain Al203 revealed an apparent transition in behavior, characterized by a shift in the strain rate sensitivity from 0.5 at low stresses to near unity at higher stresses. The behavior is indicative of a shift in control between two dependent mechanisms, one of which is indicated to be cation limited diffusional creep with significant boundary enhancement. The possible contributions of slip, indicated by crystallographic texture, interface control of the diffusional creep and inhomogeneous boundary sliding are also discussed. Additional experiments indicated an independence of deformation behavior on MgO doping and retained hot pressing impurities, at least for ultrafine grained material, and also an independence of test atmosphere.

  1. Fallon FORGE Well Temp data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-03-01

    x,y,z downhole temperature data for wells in and around the Fallon FORGE site. Data for the following wells are included: 82-36, 82-19, 84.31, 61-36, 88-24, FOH-3D, FDU-1, and FDU-2. Data are formatted in txt format and in columns for importing into Earthvision Software. Column headers and coordinate system information is stored in the file header.

  2. Forgings meet the challenges of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Mochnal, G.

    1996-04-01

    To meet and exceed the requirements of the customer of the future, the forging industry is entering a new era of increased productivity and technical advancements. The tools for this task have been developed as a result of a partnership among industry, government, and academia. As another consequence of this partnership, the Forging Industry Association and the Forging Industry Educational and Research Foundation are in the process of creating a Vision of the Future. This article will discuss advances in metal-forming simulation, billet heating systems, advanced die materials, and advanced forging presses.

  3. Reactor pressure vessel with forged nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Desai, Dilip R.

    1993-01-01

    Inlet nozzles for a gravity-driven cooling system (GDCS) are forged with a cylindrical reactor pressure vessel (RPV) section to which a support skirt for the RPV is attached. The forging provides enhanced RPV integrity around the nozzle and substantial reduction of in-service inspection costs by eliminating GDCS nozzle-to-RPV welds.

  4. 29 CFR 1910.218 - Forging machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forging machines. 1910.218 Section 1910.218 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.218 Forging machines. (a) General requirements—(1) Use of lead....

  5. Impedance analysis of forging process and strategy study on compliance for forging manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pu; Yao, Zhenqiang; Du, Zhengchun

    2013-07-01

    In the field of heavy forging, there are numerous researches on deformation rule in forging process by FEM simulation, however, not many scholars take the equipment constraint and the mutual reaction load between the forging manipulator clamp and the forging blank into account, which will impact on safety of manipulator body and quality of forging blank. This paper presents an impedance model to describe the load and formulates compliance strategies correspondingly to reduce the mutual reaction load for forging manipulator. Firstly, an FEM model of forging process is built. Meanwhile, the clamp of forging manipulator is added to the model as movement constraint and interaction part between the manipulator and the forming process. Secondly, a typical forging process is simulated by changing the movement constraint, and then an impedance model is established to describe the relationship between the load and movement constraint. Finally, two kinds of compliance strategies are formulated according to the impedance model, one is called free compliance, and the other is initiative/passive compliance. The simulation results show that compliance strategies reduce the load amounting to 5 000 kN in z direction between the manipulator clamp and the forging blank obviously, which may lead to serious accidents, such as the capsizing of forging manipulator, the fracture of manipulator clamp, and so on. The proposed research simulates the more real forging process, gets the initiative/passive compliance strategy which is more simple and suitable to the real producing and better for forming a forging process planning and control system in the modern production, and improves the quality and efficiency of heavy forging.

  6. Forging of Advanced Disk Alloy LSHR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Gayda, John; Falsey, John

    2005-01-01

    The powder metallurgy disk alloy LSHR was designed with a relatively low gamma precipitate solvus temperature and high refractory element content to allow versatile heat treatment processing combined with high tensile, creep and fatigue properties. Grain size can be chiefly controlled through proper selection of solution heat treatment temperatures relative to the gamma precipitate solvus temperature. However, forging process conditions can also significantly influence solution heat treatment-grain size response. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the relationships between forging process conditions and the eventual grain size of solution heat treated material. A series of forging experiments were performed with subsequent subsolvus and supersolvus heat treatments, in search of suitable forging conditions for producing uniform fine grain and coarse grain microstructures. Subsolvus, supersolvus, and combined subsolvus plus supersolvus heat treatments were then applied. Forging and subsequent heat treatment conditions were identified allowing uniform fine and coarse grain microstructures.

  7. Development of forging and heat treating practices for AMS 5737 for use at liquid helium temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Dalder, E.N.C.; Greenlee, M.

    1981-08-10

    To achieve a combination of high yield-strength (sigma y), plane-strain fracture-toughness (K/sub IC/) and resistance to galling when turned against austenitic stainless steels in highly-loaded threaded turnbuckles in the M.F.T.F.-B (Mirror Fusion Test Facility), AMS 5737 (Fe-15Cr-25Ni-1Mo-V-Ti-Al-B), a heat-treatable Fe-base superalloy that is slightly-ferromagnetic under high magnetic fields at 4K, was chosen for large (approx. 340 kg) forged turn buckles. This report describes the forging and heat-treatment optimization program that resulted in good sigma y and K/sub IC/ over the 4 to 300K range of service-temperatures and the verification tests run on a pre-production forging and actual production parts.

  8. Analysis Of Potentiometric Methods Used For Crack Detection In Forging Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilc, Jozef; Drbúl, Mário; Stančeková, Dana; Varga, Daniel; Martinček, Juraj; Kuždák, Viktor

    2015-12-01

    Increased use of forging tools in mass production causes their increased wear and creates pressure to design more efficient renovation process. Renovation is complicated because of the identification of cracks expanding from the surface to the core material. Given that the production of forging tools is expensive, caused by the cost of tool steels and the thermo-chemical treatment, it is important to design forging tool with its easy renovation in mind. It is important to choose the right renovation technology, which will be able to restore the instrument to its original state while maintaining financial rentability. Choosing the right technology is difficult because of nitrided and heat-treated surface for high hardness and wear resistance. Article discusses the use of non-destructive method of detecting cracks taking into account the size of the cracks formed during working process.

  9. Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Titanium Forgings

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, P.; Klaassen, R.; Kurkcu, N.; Barshinger, J.; Chalek, C.; Nieters, E.; Sun, Zongqi; Fromont, F. de

    2007-03-21

    Aerospace forging inspections typically use multiple, subsurface-focused sound beams in combination with digital C-scan image acquisition and display. Traditionally, forging inspections have been implemented using multiple single element, fixed focused transducers. Recent advances in phased array technology have made it possible to perform an equivalent inspection using a single phased array transducer. General Electric has developed a system to perform titanium forging inspection based on medical phased array technology and advanced image processing techniques. The components of that system and system performance for titanium inspection will be discussed.

  10. Forging process design for risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yongning

    In this dissertation, forging process design has been investigated with the primary concern on risk reduction. Different forged components have been studied, especially those ones that could cause catastrophic loss if failure occurs. As an effective modeling methodology, finite element analysis is applied extensively in this work. Three examples, titanium compressor disk, superalloy turbine disk, and titanium hip prosthesis, have been discussed to demonstrate this approach. Discrete defects such as hard alpha anomalies are known to cause disastrous failure if they are present in those stress critical components. In this research, hard-alpha inclusion movement during forging of titanium compressor disk is studied by finite element analysis. By combining the results from Finite Element Method (FEM), regression modeling and Monte Carlo simulation, it is shown that changing the forging path is able to mitigate the failure risk of the components during the service. The second example goes with a turbine disk made of superalloy IN 718. The effect of forging on microstructure is the main consideration in this study. Microstructure defines the as-forged disk properties. Considering specific forging conditions, preform has its own effect on the microstructure. Through a sensitivity study it is found that forging temperature and speed have significant influence on the microstructure. In order to choose the processing parameters to optimize the microstructure, the dependence of microstructure on die speed and temperature is thoroughly studied using design of numerical experiments. For various desired goals, optimal solutions are determined. The narrow processing window of titanium alloy makes the isothermal forging a preferred way to produce forged parts without forging defects. However, the cost of isothermal forging (dies at the same temperature as the workpiece) limits its wide application. In this research, it has been demonstrated that with proper process design, the die

  11. A Life Study of Ausforged, Standard Forged and Standard Machined AISI M-50 Spur Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Bamberger, E. N.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were conducted at 350 K (170 F) with three groups of 8.9 cm (3.5 in.) pitch diameter spur gears made of vacuum induction melted (VIM) consumable-electrode vacuum-arc melted (VAR), AISI M-50 steel and one group of vacuum-arc remelted (VAR) AISI 9310 steel. The pitting fatigue life of the standard forged and ausforged gears was approximately five times that of the VAR AISI 9310 gears and ten times that of the bending fatigue life of the standard machined VIM-VAR AISI M-50 gears run under identical conditions. There was a slight decrease in the 10-percent life of the ausforged gears from that for the standard forged gears, but the difference is not statistically significant. The standard machined gears failed primarily by gear tooth fracture while the forged and ausforged VIM-VAR AISI M-50 and the VAR AISI 9310 gears failed primarily by surface pitting fatigue. The ausforged gears had a slightly greater tendency to fail by tooth fracture than the standard forged gears.

  12. A life study of ausforged, standard forged, and standard machined AISI M-50 spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Bamberger, E. N.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were conducted at 350 K with three groups of 8.9 cm pitch diameter spur gears made of vacuum-induction melted (VIM), vacuum-arc remelted (VAR), AISI M-50 steel and one group of vacuum-arc remelted (VAR) AISI 9310 steel. The pitting fatigue life of the standard forged and ausforged gears was approximately five times that of the VAR AISI 9310 gears and ten times that of the bending fatigue life of the standard machined VIM-VAR AISI M-50 gears run under identical conditions. There was a slight decrease in the 10-percent life of the ausforged gears from that for the standard forged gears. However, the difference is not statistically significant. The standard machined gears failed primarily by gear tooth fracture while the forged and ausforged VIM-VAR AISI M-50 and the VAR AISI 9310 gears failed primarily by surface pitting fatigue. The ausforged gears had a slightly greater tendency to fail by tooth fracture than the standard forged gears.

  13. Microstructural Evaluation of Forging Parameters for Superalloy Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falsey, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Forgings of nickel base superalloy were formed under several different strain rates and forging temperatures. Samples were taken from each forging condition to find the ASTM grain size, and the as large as grain (ALA). The specimens were mounted in bakelite, polished, etched and then optical microscopy was used to determine grain size. The specimens ASTM grain sizes from each forging condition were plotted against strain rate, forging temperature, and presoak time. Grain sizes increased with increasing forging temperature. Grain sizes also increased with decreasing strain rates and increasing forging presoak time. The ALA had been determined from each forging condition using the ASTM standard method. Each ALA was compared with the ASTM grain size of each forging condition to determine if the grain sizes were uniform or not. The forging condition of a strain rate of .03/sec and supersolvus heat treatment produced non uniform grains indicated by critical grain growth. Other anomalies are noted as well.

  14. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.

    1997-04-01

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Mechanical Testing Development for Reservoir Forgings

    SciTech Connect

    Wenski, E.G.

    2000-05-22

    The goal of this project was to determine the machining techniques and testing capabilities required for mechanical property evaluation of commercially procured reservoir forgings. Due to the small size of these specific forgings, specialized methods are required to adequately machine and test these sub-miniature samples in accordance with the requirements of ASTM-E8 and ASTM-E9. At the time of project initiation, no capability existed at Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) to verify the physical properties of these reservoirs as required on the drawing specifications. The project determined the sample definitions, machining processes, and testing procedures to verify the physical properties of the reservoir forgings; specifically, tensile strength, yield strength, reduction of area, and elongation. In addition, a compression test method was also developed to minimize sample preparation time and provide a more easily machined test sample while maintaining the physical validation of the forging.

  16. Forging of FeAl intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, O.; Juarez, J.; Campillo, B.; Martinez, L.; Schneibel, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    Much activity has been concentrated on the development of intermetallic compounds with the aim of improving tensile ductility, fracture toughness and high notch sensitivity in order to develop an attractive combination of properties for high and low temperature applications. This paper reports experience in processing and forging of FeAl intermetallic of B2 type. During the experiments two different temperatures were employed, and the specimens were forged after annealing in air, 10{sup {minus}2} torr vacuum and argon. From the results it was learned that annealing FeAl in argon atmosphere prior to forging resulted in better deformation behavior than for the other two environments. For the higher forging temperature used in the experiments (700C), the as-cast microstructure becomes partially recrystallized.

  17. Selecting forged aluminum for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, M.A.; Davis, J.; Crawford, D.

    1984-01-01

    With the current and future efforts to downsize automobiles and reduce their weight, strong lightweight materials, in various product forms, are being substituted for many traditionally ferrous components. One of the substitute materials is aluminum, which although itself is not new to automobiles is finding novel applications as forgings in critical chassis and suspension areas. The 1984 Corvette provides an excellent example of how the use of forged aluminum can reduce unsprung and overall weight as well as improve performance without compromising the integrity of the vehicle. Using aluminum as forgings permits taking maximum advantage of its high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent ductility and toughness, and good corrosion resistance. This paper discusses the various considerations to be entertained when looking at aluminum forgings for automotive applications and the benefits of planning for these lightweight parts early in the design phase.

  18. A marvel of medieval Indian metallurgy: Thanjavur's forge-welded iron cannon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Saxena, A.; Anantharaman, Tanjore R.; Reguer, S.; Dillmann, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, metallurgical aspects of a 17th century forge-welded iron cannon at Thanjavur are addressed, including an analysis of manufacturing methodology based on careful observation of its constructional details. Microstructural examination of iron from the cannon reveals that the iron was extracted from ore by the direct process. Thus, the cannon was fabricated by forge welding and not by casting. Electrochemical polarization studies indicate that the corrosion rate of the cannon iron can be compared to that of 0.05% carbon mild steel under complete immersion conditions. However, the atmospheric corrosion resistance of the cannon is far superior to that of modern steel and can be attributed to the formation of an adherent protective passive film. It is concluded that this cannon constitutes a marvel of medieval Indian metallurgical skill.

  19. Compressed Air System Optimization Project Improves Production at a Metal Forging Plant (Modern Forge, TN, Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    In 1995, Modern Forge of Tennessee implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Piney Flats, Tennessee, forging plant. Due to the project’s implementation, the plant was able to operate with fewer compressors and improve its product quality, thus allowing it to increase productivity. The project also resulted in considerable energy and maintenance savings.

  20. Oblique interior view of main space showing the singlecasting steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique interior view of main space showing the single-casting steel press. View facing west-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Forge Shop & Galvanizing Shop, Sixth Street between Avenues D & E, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. A material based approach to creating wear resistant surfaces for hot forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, Sailesh

    . Dissertation outlines development of a new cyclic contact test design to recreate intermittent tempering seen in hot forging. This test has been used to validate the use of tempering parameters in modeling of in-service softening of tool steel surfaces. The dissertation also outlines an industrial case study, conducted at a forging company, to validate the wear model. This dissertation also outlines efforts at Ohio State University, to deposit Nickel Aluminide on AISI H13 substrate, using Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS). Dissertation reports results from an array of experiments conducted using LENS 750 machine, at various power levels, table speeds and hatch spacing. Results pertaining to bond quality, surface finish, compositional gradients and hardness are provided. Also, a thermal-based finite element numerical model that was used to simulate the LENS process is presented, along with some demonstrated results.

  2. Hot Cutting of Real-Time Cast-Forged GS Ductile Iron for Automotive Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouilland, Laurence; Mansori, Mohamed El

    2011-01-01

    In the global economy context, automotive industry suppliers have to keep a constant advance on products design and manufacturing process. Concerning automotive rods, the substitution of forged steel by spherical graphite iron (SG iron) with high mechanical properties constitutes a valid economic alternative. Such rods are produced using a complex coupled process: casting and forging followed by an austempered heat treatment. The forging operation is capable to shape the cast rod which introduces hot deformation to increase mechanical properties of net-shape SG iron rod. However, the intermediate re-heating between casting and forging must be avoided to keep competitive manufacturing costs. A major concern of this new process development is the cracks produced in rod's surface which are consecutive to hot spruing involved after casting operations. This issue is addressed in this paper which discusses the physical mechanisms involved in the hot ductile damage of SG iron. Hot cutting tests were performed to simulate the spruing operation which shows the close interactions between microstructure, machining parameters and resulting damages. The damage mechanisms in terms of crack initiation and its growth have been studied with respect to the constituent phases (austenite+graphite nodules), the cut surface morphology and the hot cutting performance.

  3. 4. FORGE, ANVIL, PEDESTAL GRINDER, AND BELT DRIVES. NOTE WATERWHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FORGE, ANVIL, PEDESTAL GRINDER, AND BELT DRIVES. NOTE WATERWHEEL NEEDLE VALVE CASTING HANGING ON THE WALL ABOVE THE FORGE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Machine Shop, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. 1. MIDDLE FORGE DISPLAY, ACROSS FROM BUILDING NO. 114 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. MIDDLE FORGE DISPLAY, ACROSS FROM BUILDING NO. 114 on FARLEY AVE. MARKER ON DISPLAY ITSELF READS: FORGE AND TOOLS, USED AT MIDDLE FORGE LOCATED AT PICATINNY LAKE OUTLETS 1749 TO 1880. NEARBY MARKER READS: THE MIDDLE FORGE. THE MT. HOPE IRONWORKS INCLUDING A TRACT CALLED THE MIDDLE FORGE, SUPPLIED ORDNANCE MATERIAL TO THE CONTINENTAL ARMY IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. GENERAL WASHINGTON INSPECTED THE FACILITY. THE WAR DEPARTMENT PURCHASED THE MIDDLE FORGE PORPERTY FOR AN ARMY POWDER DEPOT IN 1879-80. THE FORGE AND TOOLS WERE RECOVERED AT THE ACTUAL SITE NEAR PICATINNY PEAK. THROUGH THE YEARS, THE MIDDLE FORGE DISPLAY CAME TO BE THE UNOFFICIAL SYMBOL OF PICATINNY ARSENAL. -- HISTORICAL OFFICE NO DATE - Picatinny Arsenal, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  5. Near-Net Forging Technology Demonstration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, I. Keith

    1996-01-01

    Significant advantages in specific mechanical properties, when compared to conventional aluminum (Al) alloys, make aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys attractive candidate materials for use in cryogenic propellant tanks and dry bay structures. However, the cost of Al-Li alloys is typically five times that of 2219 aluminum. If conventional fabrication processes are employed to fabricate launch vehicle structure, the material costs will restrict their utilization. In order to fully exploit the potential cost and performance benefits of Al-Li alloys, it is necessary that near-net manufacturing methods be developed to off-set or reduce raw material costs. Near-net forging is an advanced manufacturing method that uses elevated temperature metal movement (forging) to fabricate a single piece, near-net shape, structure. This process is termed 'near-net' because only a minimal amount of post-forge machining is required. The near-net forging process was developed to reduce the material scrap rate (buy-to-fly ratio) and fabrication costs associated with conventional manufacturing methods. The goal for the near-net forging process, when mature, is to achieve an overall cost reduction of approximately 50 percent compared with conventional manufacturing options for producing structures fabricated from Al-Li alloys. This NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) sponsored program has been a part of a unique government / industry partnership, coordinated to develop and demonstrate near-net forging technology. The objective of this program was to demonstrate scale-up of the near-net forging process. This objective was successfully achieved by fabricating four integrally stiffened, 170- inch diameter by 20-inch tall, Al-Li alloy 2195, Y-ring adapters. Initially, two 2195 Al-Li ingots were converted and back extruded to produce four cylindrical blockers. Conventional ring rolling of the blockers was performed to produce ring preforms, which were then contour ring rolled to produce

  6. 22 CFR 121.10 - Forgings, castings, and machined bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Forgings, castings, and machined bodies. 121.10... STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.10 Forgings, castings, and machined bodies. The U.S. Munitions List controls as defense articles those forgings, castings, and other unfinished products, such...

  7. The Results Of The Investigation Of Thermomechanical Processing Of PM Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Szczepanik, Stefan; Wisniewski, Bartosz; Krawiarz, Jerzy

    2007-04-07

    Hot die forging of PM steel is used to obtain products with high densities. The combination of this process with heat treatment of forgings directly after their forming is researched in order to reduce energy consumption in the manufacture of PM steel products. This work determined the influence of the cooling ratio directly after hot forging of PM steel samples on their structure and mechanical properties. The properties of the PM preforms were examined after sintering and after sintering, quenching into water and tempering for 1 h at 250, 350 and 550 deg. C, respectively, as well as after forging at given temperatures and cooling in water and air, respectively. Forged steel after quenching was tempered at the same temperature as the sintered samples. Good mechanical properties were obtained by hot forging at 1100 deg. C. Sintered steel with 0.6 % Cgraphite is characterized by good hardenability and is susceptible to plastic forming at 1100 - 940 deg. C. During its cooling in air a bainitic-martensitic structure is obtained, whereas after cooling in water the structure is martensitic. The properties of the forged steel are strongly dependent on deformation temperature and cooling conditions. The tensile strength of the forged PM steel with 0.6 Cgraphite after forming at 1100 deg. C is much higher than that of the same heat-treated as-sintered steel. Traditional heat treatment applied to materials after deformation at 1100 deg. C slightly increases properties in comparison to the material directly quenched into water. The best strength was 1585 {+-} 193 MPa, bending strength 3364 {+-} 142 MPa and hardness 588 {+-} 43 HB. Application of controlled cooling of sintered PM steel directly after close-die forging diminishes the energy consumption during product manufacture.

  8. Forging Inclusive Solutions: Experiential Earth Charter Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Linda D.

    2010-01-01

    Forging Inclusive Solutions describes the aims, methodology and outcomes of Inclusive Leadership Adventures, an experiential education curriculum for exploring the Earth Charter. Experiential education builds meaningful relationships, skills, awareness and an inclusive community based on the Earth Charter principles. When we meet people where they…

  9. Analysis of forging limit for sintered porous metals

    SciTech Connect

    Han, H.N.; Oh, K.H.; Lee, D.N.

    1995-06-15

    Forging of sintered porous metals has been developed as a method for producing machine parts with good mechanical properties. To extend this manufacturing method to a wide range of applications, it will be helpful to have an understanding of the deformation, density change and fracture of sintered porous metals during forging. Especially, in order to avoid the possibility of surface fracture in forging of porous metals, it is necessary to know the forging limits of sintered porous metals. The purpose of this work is to calculate the forging limit curves of sintered porous metals using the various yield functions for porous metals.

  10. Computer-Aided Design of Manufacturing Chain Based on Closed Die Forging for Hardly Deformable Cu-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzyk, Maciej; Kuziak, Roman; Pidvysots'kyy, Valeriy; Nowak, Jarosław; Węglarczyk, Stanisław; Drozdowski, Krzysztof

    2013-07-01

    Two copper-based alloys were considered, Cu-1 pct Cr and Cu-0.7 pct Cr-1 pct Si-2 pct Ni. The thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties of these alloys are given in the paper and compared to pure copper and steel. The role of aging and precipitation kinetics in hardening of the alloys is discussed based upon the developed model. Results of plastometric tests performed at various temperatures and various strain rates are presented. The effect of the initial microstructure on the flow stress was investigated. Rheologic models for the alloys were developed. A finite element (FE) model based on the Norton-Hoff visco-plastic flow rule was applied to the simulation of forging of the alloys. Analysis of the die wear for various processes of hot and cold forging is presented as well. A microstructure evolution model was implemented into the FE code, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of final products were predicted. Various variants of the manufacturing cycles were considered. These include different preheating schedules, hot forging, cold forging, and aging. All variants were simulated using the FE method and loads, die filling, tool wear, and mechanical properties of products were predicted. Three variants giving the best combination of forging parameters were selected and industrial trials were performed. The best manufacturing technology for the copper-based alloys is proposed.

  11. Improvements in the process of boss bar upset forging into a horizontal forging machine with the aim of joint knuckle forging quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Nizamov, R. S.; Kharisov, I. Zh

    2016-06-01

    A new technique for tapered composing transition shaping has been put forward in the process of upset forging with the use of an experimental tool. The results of the upset forging process with the use of a new composing transition has been computer simulated.

  12. Enhancement of Aluminum Alloy Forgings through Rapid Billet Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kervick, R.; Blue, C. A.; Kadolkar, P. B.; Ando, T.; Lu, H.; Nakazawa, K.; Mayer, H.; Mochnal, G.

    2006-06-01

    Forging is a manufacturing process in which metal is pressed, pounded or squeezed under great pressure and, often, under high strain rates into high-strength parts known as forgings. The process is typically performed hot by preheating the metal to a desired temperature before it is worked. The forging process can create parts that are stronger than those manufactured by any other metal working process. Forgings are almost always used where reliability and human safety are critical. Forgings are normally component parts contained inside assembled items such airplanes, automobiles, tractors, ships, oil drilling equipment, engines missiles, and all kinds of capital equipment Forgings are stronger than castings and surpass them in predictable strength properties, producing superior strength that is assured, part to part.

  13. A Method for Measuring the Hardness of the Surface Layer on Hot Forging Dies Using a Nanoindenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, P.; van Tyne, C. J.; Levy, B. S.

    2009-11-01

    The properties and characteristics of the surface layer of forging dies are critical for understanding and controlling wear. However, the surface layer is very thin, and appropriate property measurements are difficult to obtain. The objective of the present study is to determine if nanoindenter testing provides a reliable method, which could be used to measure the surface hardness in forging die steels. To test the reliability of nanoindenter testing, nanoindenter values for two quenched and tempered steels (FX and H13) are compared to microhardness and macrohardness values. These steels were heat treated for various times to produce specimens with different values of hardness. The heat-treated specimens were tested using three different instruments—a Rockwell hardness tester for macrohardness, a Vickers hardness tester for microhardness, and a nanoindenter tester for fine scale evaluation of hardness. The results of this study indicate that nanoindenter values obtained using a Nanoindenter XP Machine with a Berkovich indenter reliably correlate with Rockwell C macrohardness values, and with Vickers HV microhardness values. Consequently, nanoindenter testing can provide reliable results for analyzing the surface layer of hot forging dies.

  14. FEA Based Tool Life Quantity Estimation of Hot Forging Dies Under Cyclic Thermo-Mechanical Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bouguecha, A.; Schäfer, F.; Hadifi, T.

    2011-01-01

    Hot forging dies are exposed during service to a combination of cyclic thermo-mechanical, tribological and chemical loads. Besides abrasive and adhesive wear on the die surface, fatigue crack initiation with subsequent fracture is one of the most frequent causes of failure. In order to extend the tool life, the finite element analysis (FEA) may serve as a means for process design and process optimisation. So far the FEA based estimation of the production cycles until initial cracking is limited as tool material behaviour due to repeated loading is not captured with the required accuracy. Material models which are able to account for cyclic effects are not verified for the fatigue life predictions of forging dies. Furthermore fatigue properties from strain controlled fatigue tests of relevant hot work steels are to date not available to allow for a close-to-reality fatigue life prediction. Two industrial forging processes, where clear fatigue crack initiation has been observed are considered for a fatigue analysis. For this purpose the relevant tool components are modelled with elasto-plastic material behaviour. The predicted sites, where crack initiation occurs, agree with the ones observed on the real die component.

  15. 27 CFR 447.22 - Forgings, castings, and machined bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., castings, extrusions, and machined bodies) which have reached a stage in manufacture where they are clearly... components, accessories, attachments and parts) then the particular forging, casting, extrusion,...

  16. 77 FR 23496 - Boundary Revision of Valley Forge National Historical Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Boundary Revision of Valley Forge National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park... to the boundary of Valley Forge National Historical Park, pursuant to the authority specified below... ``Valley Forge National Historical Park Proposed Boundary Expansion, Montgomery County,...

  17. Evolution of the Ultrasonic Inspection of Heavy Rotor Forgings Over the Last Decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, A.; Vrana, J.; Meiser, J.; Maximini, W.; Blaes, N.

    2010-02-01

    All types of heavy forgings that are used in energy machine industry, rotor shafts as well as discs, retaining rings or tie bolts are subject to extensive nondestructive inspections before they are delivered to the customer. Due to the availability of the parts in simple shapes, these forgings are very well suited for full volmetric inspections using ultrasound. In the beginning, these inspections were carried out manually, using straight beam probes and analogue equipment. Higher requirements in reliability, efficiency, safety and power output in the machines have lead to higher requirements for the ultrasonic inspection in the form of more scanning directions, higher sensitivity demands and improved documentation means. This and the increasing use of high alloy materials for ever growing parts, increase the need for more and more sophisticated methods for testing the forgings. Angle scans and sizing technologies like DGS have been implemented, and for more than 15 years now, mechanized and automated inspections have gained importance since they allow better documentation as well as easier evaluation of the recorded data using different views (B- C- or D-Scans), projections or tomography views. The latest major development has been the availability of phased array probes to increase the flexibility of the inspection systems. Many results of the ongoing research in ultrasonic's have not been implemented yet. Today's availability of fast computers, large and fast data storages allows saving RF inspection data and applying sophisticated signal processing methods. For example linear diffraction tomography methods like SAFT offer tools for 3D reconstruction of inspection data, simplifying sizing and locating of defects as well as for improving signal to noise ratios. While such methods are already applied in medical ultrasonic's, they are still to be implemented in the steel industry. This paper describes the development of the ultrasonic inspection of heavy forgings

  18. 49 CFR 178.59 - Specification 8 steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 8 steel cylinders with porous...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.59 Specification 8 steel cylinders with porous... service pressure of 250 psig. The following steel is authorized: (1) A longitudinal seam if forge...

  19. 49 CFR 178.59 - Specification 8 steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 8 steel cylinders with porous...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.59 Specification 8 steel cylinders with porous... service pressure of 250 psig. The following steel is authorized: (1) A longitudinal seam if forge...

  20. 49 CFR 178.59 - Specification 8 steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 8 steel cylinders with porous...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.59 Specification 8 steel cylinders with porous... service pressure of 250 psig. The following steel is authorized: (1) A longitudinal seam if forge...

  1. Standard specification for alloy/steel bolting materials for low-temperature service. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.22 on Steel Forgings and Wrought Fittings for Piping Applications and Bolting Materials for Piping and Special Purpose Applications. Current edition approved Sep. 10, 1997 and published September 1998.

  2. Standard specification for alloy-steel bolting materials for special applications. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.22 on Steel Forgings and Wrought Fittings for Piping Applications and Bolting Materials for Piping and Special Purpose Applications. Current edition approved Mar. 10, 1998 and published September 1998.

  3. Fallon FORGE 3D Geologic Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-03-01

    An x,y,z scattered data file for the 3D geologic model of the Fallon FORGE site. Model created in Earthvision by Dynamic Graphic Inc. The model was constructed with a grid spacing of 100 m. Geologic surfaces were extrapolated from the input data using a minimum tension gridding algorithm. The data file is tabular data in a text file, with lithology data associated with X,Y,Z grid points. All the relevant information is in the file header (the spatial reference, the projection etc.) In addition all the fields in the data file are identified in the header.

  4. West Flank Coso, CA FORGE Seismic Reflection

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-05-16

    PDFs of seismic reflection profiles 101,110, 111 local to the West Flank FORGE site. 45 line kilometers of seismic reflection data are processed data collected in 2001 through the use of vibroseis trucks. The initial analysis and interpretation of these data was performed by Unruh et al. (2001). Optim processed these data by inverting the P-wave first arrivals to create a 2-D velocity structure. Kirchhoff images were then created for each line using velocity tomograms (Unruh et al., 2001).

  5. 22 CFR 121.10 - Forgings, castings and machined bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Forgings, castings and machined bodies. 121.10... STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.10 Forgings, castings and machined bodies. Articles..., castings, extrusions and machined bodies) which have reached a stage in manufacture where they are...

  6. 22 CFR 121.10 - Forgings, castings and machined bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Forgings, castings and machined bodies. 121.10... STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.10 Forgings, castings and machined bodies. Articles on the U.S. Munitions List include articles in a partially completed state (such as...

  7. 22 CFR 121.10 - Forgings, castings and machined bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Forgings, castings and machined bodies. 121.10... STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.10 Forgings, castings and machined bodies. Articles on the U.S. Munitions List include articles in a partially completed state (such as...

  8. 27 CFR 447.22 - Forgings, castings, and machined bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Forgings, castings, and... IMPLEMENTS OF WAR The U.S. Munitions Import List § 447.22 Forgings, castings, and machined bodies. Articles on the U.S. Munitions Import List include articles in a partially completed state (such as...

  9. 27 CFR 447.22 - Forgings, castings, and machined bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Forgings, castings, and... IMPLEMENTS OF WAR The U.S. Munitions Import List § 447.22 Forgings, castings, and machined bodies. Articles on the U.S. Munitions Import List include articles in a partially completed state (such as...

  10. 27 CFR 447.22 - Forgings, castings, and machined bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Forgings, castings, and... IMPLEMENTS OF WAR The U.S. Munitions Import List § 447.22 Forgings, castings, and machined bodies. Articles on the U.S. Munitions Import List include articles in a partially completed state (such as...

  11. 17. Forge building, fuel storage shed, and foundry, 1906 Photocopied ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Forge building, fuel storage shed, and foundry, 1906 Photocopied from a photograph by Thomas S. Bronson, 'Group at Whitney Factory, 5 November 1906,' NHCHSL. The most reliable view of the fuel storage sheds and foundry, together with a view of the forge building. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  12. View west of small tooling and forging dies in Blacksmith ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of small tooling and forging dies in Blacksmith Shop, Boilermakers Department, east side of building 57; during World War II approximately forty women were employed as blacksmith's forging a variety of small tools; these may be the tools they used. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 18. INTERIOR VIEW OF ROUGH FORGED TOOLS (FOREGROUND) WHICH ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR VIEW OF ROUGH FORGED TOOLS (FOREGROUND) WHICH ARE PRE-HEATED IN THE FURNACE (REAR RIGHT) AND THEN FORGED WITH THE BRADLEY HAMMER (LEFT) AS SHOWN BY JAMES GLASPELL - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  14. Influence of vanadium on static recrystallization in warm worked microalloyed steels

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Mateo, C.; Lopez, B.; Rodriguez-Ibabe, J.M.

    1999-12-31

    Warm forging of steels, in the range from 600 to 900 C, offers some important advantages over traditional forging procedures, with a better dimensional accuracy as well as surface quality in comparison with hot forging, and lower flow stress and therefore lower press loads in comparison with cold forging. It is well established that in hot working of V microalloyed steels, the vanadium in solid solution has a little effect on the static recrystallization kinetics between passes. In contrast, if strain induced precipitation takes place the static recrystallization is notably modified. The objective of this work is to study the effects that the application of warm working can have on the austenite static recrystallization process of vanadium microalloyed steels, considering a range of temperatures in which different precipitate volume fractions can remain undissolved in the austenite prior to deformation. The static recrystallization kinetics were determined by stress relaxation tests following the deformation by plain strain compression.

  15. Stainless Steel Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Buchenauer, Dean A.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in materials is critical to predicting tritium transport in structural metals (at high pressure), estimating tritium losses during production (fission environment), and predicting in-vessel inventory for future fusion devices (plasma driven permeation). Current models often assume equilibrium diffusivity and solubility for a class of materials (e.g. stainless steels or aluminum alloys), neglecting trapping effects or, at best, considering a single population of trapping sites. Permeation and trapping studies of the particular castings and forgings enable greater confidence and reduced margins in the models. For FY15, we have continued our investigation of the role of ferrite in permeation for steels of interest to GTS, through measurements of the duplex steel 2507. We also initiated an investigation of the permeability in work hardened materials, to follow up on earlier observations of unusual permeability in a particular region of 304L forgings. Samples were prepared and characterized for ferrite content and coated with palladium to prevent oxidation. Issues with the poor reproducibility of measurements at low permeability were overcome, although the techniques in use are tedious. Funding through TPBAR and GTS were secured for a research grade quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and replacement turbo pumps, which should improve the fidelity and throughput of measurements in FY16.

  16. Forging of compressor blades: Temperature and ram velocity effects

    SciTech Connect

    Saigal, A.; Zhen, K.; Chan, T.S.

    1995-07-01

    Forging is one of the most widely used manufacturing process for making high-strength, structurally integrated, impact and creep-resistant Ti-6Al-4V compressor blades for jet engines. In addition, in modern metal forming technology, finite element analysis method and computer modeling are being extensively employed for initial evaluation and optimization of various processes, including forging. In this study, DEFORM, a rigid viscoplastic two-dimensional finite element code was used to study the effects of initial die temperature and initial ram velocity on the forging process. For a given billet, die temperature and ram velocity influence the strain rate, temperature distribution,and thus the flow stress of the material. The die temperature and the ram velocity were varied over the range 300 to 700 F and 15--25 in./sec, respectively, to estimate the maximum forging load and the total energy required to forge compressor blades. The ram velocity was assumed to vary linearly as a function of stroke. Based on the analysis,it was found the increasing the die temperature from 300 to 700 F decreases the forging loads by 19.9 percent and increases the average temperature of the workpiece by 43 F. Similarly, increasing the initial ram velocity from 15 to 25 in./sec decreases the forging loads by 25.2 percent and increases the average temperature of the workpiece by 36 F. The nodal temperature distribution is bimodal in each case. The forging energy required to forge the blades is approximately 18 kips *in./in.

  17. Standard specification for hot isostatically-pressed alloy steel flanges, fittings, valves, and parts for high temperature service. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.22 on Steel Forgings and Wrought Fittings for Piping Applications and Bolting Materials for Piping and Special Purpose Applications. Current edition approved Mar. 10, 1998 and published September 1998.

  18. Grain size modeling and optimization of rotary forged Alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Domblesky, J.P.; Shivpuri, R.

    1997-04-01

    The study presented describes the simulation procedure and methodology used to develop two models for predicting recrystallized grain size in Alloy 718 billet. To simulate multiple pass forging of billet, controlled, high temperature compression testing was used to apply alternate deformation and dwell cycles to Alloy 718 specimens. Grain size obtained by simulation was found to be in excellent agreement with grain size from forged billet when cooling rate was included. The study also revealed that strain per pass and forging temperature were the predominant factors in controlling the recrystallized grain size. Both models were found to accurately predict the recrystallized grain size obtained by compression tests performed at super-solvus temperatures.

  19. View facing east of top of quarry wall with forge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing east of top of quarry wall with forge site in foreground - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 4, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  20. View northeast of tooling for forging marine hardware in blacksmith ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast of tooling for forging marine hardware in blacksmith shop, east side of building 57. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Modeling microstructural development during the forging of Waspaloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Gangshu; Semiatin, S. L.; Shivpuri, Rajiv

    1995-07-01

    A model for predicting the evolution of microstructure in Waspaloy during thermomechanical proc-essing was developed in terms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX), metadynamic recrystallization, and grain growth phenomena. Three sets of experiments were conducted to develop the model: (1) preheating tests to model grain growth prior to hot deformation; (2) compression tests in a Gleeble testing machine with different deformation and cooling conditions to model DRX, metadynamic recrystallization, and short time grain growth during the post deformation dwell period and cooling; and (3) pancake and closed die forging tests conducted in a manufacturing environment to verify and refine the model. The microstructural model was combined with finite element modeling (FEM) to predict microstructure development during forging of Waspaloy. Model predictions showed good agreement with microstructures obtained in actual isothermal and hammer forgings carried out at a forging shop.

  2. Modeling microstructural development during the forging of Waspaloy

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, G.; Shivpuri, R.; Semiatin, S.L.

    1995-07-01

    A model for predicting the evolution of microstructure in Waspaloy during thermomechanical processing was developed in terms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX), metadynamic recrystallization, and grain growth phenomena. Three sets of experiments were conducted to develop the model: (1) preheating tests to model grain growth prior to hot deformation; (2) compression tests in a Gleeble testing machine with different deformation and cooling conditions to model DRX, metadynamic recrystallization, and short time grain growth during the post deformation dwell period and cooling; and (3) pancake and closed die forging tests conducted in a manufacturing environment to verify and refine the model. The microstructural model was combined with finite element modeling (FEM) to predict microstructure development during forging of Waspaloy. Model predictions showed good agreement with microstructures obtained in actual isothermal and hammer forgings carried out at a forging shop.

  3. 6. NORTH END OF MACHINE SHOP. FORGE SHOP (HAER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. NORTH END OF MACHINE SHOP. FORGE SHOP (HAER No. CA-326-K) ON LEFT, FORD PLANT IN DISTANCE, NE BY 60. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Machine Shop, 1311 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  4. DETAIL VIEW OF BLACKSMITH'S FORGE AND WORK AREA ON WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BLACKSMITH'S FORGE AND WORK AREA ON WEST SIDE OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, LOOKING EAST. FORGE IS IN FOREGROUND, WITH THE ANVIL BLOCK JUST TO THE RIGHT AND BEHIND IT. A TRAM CAR IS UPSIDE DOWN TO THE LEFT OF THE FORGE. THE PIPE GOING INTO THE FORGE ON THE RIGHT CARRIED COMPRESSED AIR TO BLOW THE COALS. AT CENTER RIGHT ON THE TRAM TERMINAL ARE THE OPENING AND CLOSING MECHANISMS FOR THE ORE BUCKETS. AT CENTER LEFT IS A BRAKE WHEEL. THE ANCHOR POINTS FOR THE STATIONARY TRAM CABLES ARE JUST BELOW THIS WHEEL. THE FRONT END OF THE TERMINAL IS JUST OFF FRAME ON THE RIGHT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. FOUNDRY SHOP, FORGE SHOP, NORTH ARMORY, EAST ARMORY. Colt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FOUNDRY SHOP, FORGE SHOP, NORTH ARMORY, EAST ARMORY. - Colt Fire Arms Company, East Armory Building, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  6. A new steel for single cylinder steam turbine rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, M.; Tsuda, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Ikeda, Y.

    1996-12-31

    A new steel, 2.25%Cr1.7%NiMoVNbW steel has been developed for the high pressure (HP)-low pressure (LP) single cylinder steam turbine rotor in combined power plants and medium/small rating thermal power plants. This steel has good creep rupture strength equivalent to that of 1%CrMoV steel which has been used as HP rotor fogings and excellent toughness and proof stress considerably superior to the conventional HP-LP single cylinder rotor steels. This paper includes the following contents: The optimization of chemical composition and heat treatment condition; the production and evaluation of a 70 tons trial rotor forging by the application of VCD (Vacuum Carbon Deoxidation) process; the production and evaluation of a 43 tons trial ingot by the application of ESR (Electroslag Remelting) ingot process; and the production and evaluation of rotor forgings for the commercial power plant.

  7. Forging And Milling Contribution On Residual Stresses For A Textured Biphasic Titanium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Deleuze, C.; Fabre, A.; Barrallier, L.; Molinas, O.

    2011-01-17

    Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al is a biphasic titanium alloy ({alpha}+{beta}) used in aeronautical applications for its mechanical properties, such as its yield strength of 1200 MPa and it weighs 40% less than steel. This alloy is particularly useful for vital parts with complex geometry, because of its high forging capability. In order to predict the capability for fatigue lifetime, the designers need to know the residual stresses. X-Ray diffraction is the main experimental technique used to determine residual stresses on the surface. In this case, stress levels are primarily influenced by the complex forging and milling process. On this alloy in particular, it may be difficult to characterize stress due to modification of the microstructure close to the surface. Results obtained by x-ray analysis depend on the correct definition of the shape of the diffraction peaks. The more precisely defined the position of the peak, the more accurately the stresses are evaluated. This paper presents a method to detect if residual stresses can be characterized by x-ray diffraction. The characterization of hardness seems to be a relevant technique to quickly analyze the capability of x-ray diffraction to determine residual stresses.

  8. Snake River Plain FORGE Site Characterization Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    2016-04-18

    The site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. This collection includes data on seismic events, groundwater, geomechanical models, gravity surveys, magnetics, resistivity, magnetotellurics (MT), rock physics, stress, the geologic setting, and supporting documentation, including several papers. Also included are 3D models (Petrel and Jewelsuite) of the proposed site. Data for wells INEL-1, WO-2, and USGS-142 have been included as links to separate data collections. These data have been assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Other contributors include the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CEAS), the University of Idaho, Idaho State University, Boise State University, University of Wyoming, University of Oklahoma, Energy and Geoscience Institute-University of Utah, US Geothermal, Baker Hughes Campbell Scientific Inc., Chena Power, US Geological Survey (USGS), Idaho Department of Water Resources, Idaho Geological Survey, and Mink GeoHydro.

  9. West Flank Coso, CA FORGE Magnetotelluric Inversion

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-05-16

    The Coso Magnetotelluric (MT) dataset of which the West Flank FORGE MT data is a subset, was collected by Schlumberger / WesternGeco and initially processed by the WesternGeco GeoSolutions Integrated EM Center of Excellence in Milan, Italy. The 2011 data was based on 99 soundings that were centered on the West Flank geothermal prospect. The new soundings along with previous data from 2003 and 2006 were incorporated into a 3D inversion. Full impedance tensor data were inverted in the 1-3000 Hz range. The modelling report notes several noise sources, specifically the DC powerline that is 20,000 feet west of the survey area, and may have affected data in the 0.02 to 10 Hz range. Model cell dimensions of 450 x 450 x 65 feet were used to avoid computational instability in the 3D model. The fit between calculated and observed MT values for the final model run had an RMS value of 1.807. The included figure from the WesternGeco report shows the sounding locations from the 2011, 2006 and 2003 surveys.

  10. Forging the future: the public health imperative.

    PubMed Central

    Allukian, M

    1993-01-01

    During the 1980s, national policy promoted military expenditures and downsized domestic programs. These priorities, along with tax reform and deregulation, created a "domestic gulf crisis" with a new wave of vulnerable populations--poor children, the homeless, the elderly, and the uninsured. Our lack of a national health program compounds the problem. The 1990s will be a decade of change and challenge. To forge a healthier and stronger future for our nation, we must implement five public health imperatives: (1) We must have a national health program that is universal, comprehensive, and prevention-oriented, with built-in assurances for quality, efficiency, and a strong public health infrastructure. (2) We must have a comprehensive national health education and promotion program for all schoolchildren. (3) Women must have freedom of choice. (4) Prevention and public health must become one of our country's highest health priorities. (5) The federal government must increase its leadership, commitments, and resources to reach the goals set forth in Healthy Communities 2000 and Healthy People 2000. PMID:8484444

  11. Meso- and microstructural features of steel 12GBA produced by different methods of thermomechanical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevyagina, Lyudmila S.; Panin, Viktor E.; Korznikov, Aleksandr V.; Gordienko, Antonina I.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of uniform isothermal forging (UF) and warm rolling (WR) on the structure of low-carbon tube steel 12GBA has been studied. It is shown that the structures of the treated steel differ significantly by the effective grain size, density of all boundaries, percentage of density of high angle boundaries (HABs) and low angle boundaries (LABs), carbide phase morphology in the perlite zone and texture of the ferrite phase. After forging steel has the greatest degree of grain refinement, maximum boundary density, and overrepresentation of LABs. This structural state of steel is characterized by a double-component texture: (001) + (111), <001> + <101>, while after warm rolling steel has a mono-component texture (111) <101>. The evident differences in the steel structure treated by WR and UF may have dual effect on the strength and plasticity properties of steel and its fracture behavior.

  12. Correcting the Stress-Strain Curve in the Stroke-Rate Controlling Forging Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. P.; Matsumoto, H.; Chiba, A.

    2009-05-01

    In this article, a detailed description of the friction correction, adiabatic correction, and the correction from the stroke-rate controlling process into the strain-rate controlling process on the IHS38MSV hypoeutectoid steel is provided. By using compensated data, processing maps were plotted and used to predict the optimum hot forging process. The compressive tests were performed at stroke rates ranging from 0.12 to 120 mm/s and temperatures ranging from 800 °C to 1200 °C by using ThermecMaster-Z equipment. The results showed that the correction by instant friction coefficient, which was carried out on the basis of previous research, could be extended to wider experimental conditions. The corrected data from both stroke-rate controlling and strain-rate controlling processes were in good agreement with each other, indicating that the present correction from the stroke rate into the strain-rate correction is practical and appropriate.

  13. Standard specification for common requirements for steel fasteners or fastener materials, or both, intended for use at any temperature from cryogenic to the creep range. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.22 on Steel Forgings and Wrought Fittings for Piping Applications and Bolting Materials for Piping and Special Purpose Applications. Current edition approved Jul. 10, 1998 and published October 1998.

  14. Ultrasonic Defect Characterization in Heavy Rotor Forgings by Means of the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique and Optimization Methods.

    PubMed

    Fendt, Karl T; Mooshofer, Hubert; Rupitsch, Stefan J; Ermert, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonic nondestructive testing of steel forgings aims at the detection and classification of material inhomogeneities to ensure the components fitness for use. Due to the high price and safety critical nature of large forgings for turbomachinery, there is great interest in the application of imaging algorithms to inspection data. However, small flaw indications that cannot be sufficiently resolved have to be characterized using amplitude-based quantification. One such method is the distance gain size method, which converts the maximum echo amplitudes into the diameters of penny-shaped equivalent size reflectors. The approach presented in this contribution combines the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) with an iterative inversion scheme to locate and quantify small flaws in a more reliable way. Ultrasonic inspection data obtained in a pulse-echo configuration are reconstructed by means of an Synthetic Focusing Technique (SAFT). From the reconstructed data, the amount and approximate location of small flaws are extracted. These predetermined positions, along with the constrained defect model of a penny-shaped crack, provide the initial parametrization for an elastodynamic simulation based on the Kirchhoff approximation. The identification of the optimal parameter set is achieved through an iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton method. By testing the characterization method on a series of flat-bottom holes under laboratory conditions, we demonstrate that the procedure is applicable over a wide range of defect sizes. To show suitability for large forging inspection, we additionally evaluate the inspection data of a large generator shaft forging of 0.6-m diameter. PMID:27116736

  15. Survey of ultrasonic properties of aircraft Engine Titanium forgings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Linxiao; Margetan, F. J.; Thompson, R. B.; Degtyar, Andrei

    2002-05-01

    The Engine Titanium Consortium is surveying the ultrasonic properties of representative Ti-6-4 forgings used in rotating jet engine components. Velocity, attenuation and backscattered grain noise are being measured as function of position and inspection direction. The overall goal is to better understand and improve ultrasonic defect detection. This paper provides a summary of the work to date on this ongoing project. UT properties are generally found to vary systematically with position, and some properties, such as the grain noise anisotropy, appears to be well correlated to the local forging strain. We demonstrate how the UT properties from the highest noise region of a forging are being used to estimate defect detectability for improved inspection schemes.

  16. West Flank Coso FORGE Magnetotelluric 3D Data

    SciTech Connect

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-01-01

    This is the 3D version of the MT data for the West Flank FORGE area.The Coso geothermal field has had three Magnetotelluric (MT) datasets collected including surveys in 2003, 2006, and 2011. The final collection, in 2011, expanded the survey to the west and covers the West Flank of FORGE area.This most recent data set was collected by Schlumberger/WesternGeco and inverted by the WesternGeco GeoSolutions Integrated EM Center of Excellence in Milan, Italy; the 2003 and 2006 data were integrated for these inversions in the present study.

  17. Structure of three Zlatoust bulats (Damascus-steel blades)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gerasimov, V. Yu.; Rodionov, D. P.

    2008-08-01

    Chemical composition, structure, and hardness of samples of three Zlatoust bulats (Damascus steels), namely, an Anosov bulat blade (1841), Obukhov bulat blade (1859), and a Shvetsov forged bulat-steel blank (crucible steel) have been investigated. The Anosov bulat possesses all signs of the classical Damascus steel; this is a hypereutectoid carbon steel with a structure formed from chains of carbides against the background of fine pearlite (troostite). A banded pattern is revealed on the surface of the blade. The Obukhov blade cannot be referred to classical Damascus steel. The pattern on the surface of the blade is absent, despite the fact that the initial steel is hypereutectoid. The structure of the blade does not correspond to the structure of classical Damascus steel; this is bainite with numerous cementite particles. The Shvetsov sample cannot be regarded as Damascus steel since it is made from a hypereutectoid steel alloyed by managanese and tungsten. The pattern on the surface of the metal is a consequence of the dendritic structure of the ingot which is developed during forging. The structure of this pattern differs from classical damascene pattern, since the latter is formed due to a specific arrangement of a variety of carbide particles against the pearlitic or some other background obtained during heat treatment.

  18. 48 CFR 252.225-7025 - Restriction on acquisition of forgings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of forgings. 252.225-7025 Section 252.225-7025 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7025 Restriction on acquisition of forgings. As prescribed in 225.7102-4, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Forgings (DEC 2009)...

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7025 - Restriction on acquisition of forgings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of forgings. 252.225-7025 Section 252.225-7025 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7025 Restriction on acquisition of forgings. As prescribed in 225.7102-4, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Forgings (DEC 2009)...

  20. 40 CFR 467.40 - Applicability; description of the forging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... forging subcategory. 467.40 Section 467.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging Subcategory § 467.40 Applicability; description of the forging subcategory. This subpart applies to...

  1. 48 CFR 252.225-7025 - Restriction on acquisition of forgings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of forgings. 252.225-7025 Section 252.225-7025 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7025 Restriction on acquisition of forgings. As prescribed in 225.7102-4, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Forgings (DEC 2009)...

  2. 40 CFR 467.40 - Applicability; description of the forging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... forging subcategory. 467.40 Section 467.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging Subcategory § 467.40 Applicability; description of the forging subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges...

  3. 48 CFR 252.225-7025 - Restriction on acquisition of forgings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of forgings. 252.225-7025 Section 252.225-7025 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7025 Restriction on acquisition of forgings. As prescribed in 225.7102-4, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Forgings (DEC 2009)...

  4. 40 CFR 467.40 - Applicability; description of the forging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... forging subcategory. 467.40 Section 467.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging Subcategory § 467.40 Applicability; description of the forging subcategory. This subpart applies to...

  5. 40 CFR 467.40 - Applicability; description of the forging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... forging subcategory. 467.40 Section 467.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging Subcategory § 467.40 Applicability; description of the forging subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges...

  6. 48 CFR 252.225-7025 - Restriction on acquisition of forgings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of forgings. 252.225-7025 Section 252.225-7025 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7025 Restriction on acquisition of forgings. As prescribed in 225.7102-4, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Forgings (DEC 2009)...

  7. 40 CFR 467.40 - Applicability; description of the forging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... forging subcategory. 467.40 Section 467.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging Subcategory § 467.40 Applicability; description of the forging subcategory. This subpart applies to...

  8. Modelling of the radial forging process of a hollow billet with the mandrel on the lever radial forging machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamyshev, A. P.; Nekrasov, I. I.; Pugin, A. I.; Fedulov, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The finite-element method (FEM) has been used in scientific research of forming technological process modelling. Among the others, the process of the multistage radial forging of hollow billets has been modelled. The model includes both the thermal problem, concerning preliminary heating of the billet taking into account thermal expansion, and the deformation problem, when the billet is forged in a special machine. The latter part of the model describes such features of the process as die calibration, die movement, initial die temperature, friction conditions, etc. The results obtained can be used to define the necessary process parameters and die calibration.

  9. Structural aspect of the manifestation of thermal brittleness in a maraging steel of the EI-832 type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Tereshchenko, N. A.; Kruglov, A. A.

    2010-02-01

    The character of fracture, phase composition, and structure of a maraging steel of the EI-832 type in large forged pieces (90 mm and more in cross section) have been investigated. Structural factors responsible for the level of impact toughness of the steel subjected to aging in a forged state and after quenching have been revealed. It has been shown that for this steel the manifestation of thermal brittleness that is caused by precipitation of dispersed titanium carbonitrides at grain boundaries and is not eliminated upon subsequent conventional heat treatment is possible.

  10. Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi

    2011-01-27

    The work carried out under this project includes development and design of components, controls, and economic modeling tools that would enable the steel industry to reduce energy intensity through reduction of scale formation during the steel reheating process. Application of scale free reheating offers savings in energy used for production of steel that is lost as scale, and increase in product yield for the global steel industry. The technology can be applied to a new furnace application as well as retrofit design for conversion of existing steel reheating furnaces. The development work has resulted in the knowledge base that will enable the steel industry and steel forging industry us to reheat steel with 75% to 95% reduction in scale formation and associated energy savings during the reheating process. Scale reduction also results in additional energy savings associated with higher yield from reheat furnaces. Energy used for steel production ranges from 9 MM Btu/ton to 16.6 MM Btu/ton or the industry average of approximately 13 MM Btu/ton. Hence, reduction in scale at reheating stage would represent a substantial energy reduction for the steel industry. Potential energy savings for the US steel industry could be in excess of 25 Trillion Btu/year when the technology is applied to all reheating processes. The development work has resulted in new design of reheating process and the required burners and control systems that would allow use of this technology for steel reheating in steel as well as steel forging industries.

  11. 27 CFR 447.22 - Forgings, castings, and machined bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... machined bodies. 447.22 Section 447.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... IMPLEMENTS OF WAR The U.S. Munitions Import List § 447.22 Forgings, castings, and machined bodies. Articles..., castings, extrusions, and machined bodies) which have reached a stage in manufacture where they are...

  12. Family Health and Financial Literacy--Forging the Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Bonnie; Kim, Jinhee; Anderson, Elaine A.

    2009-01-01

    Families are at-risk of or experiencing a diminished quality of living and life in current economic times and difficult decisions are required. Health and financial literacy are the basis for wise personal and public decision making. Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals can forge connections between health and financial literacy to…

  13. Electronic Portfolios in Teacher Education: Forging a Middle Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strudler, Neal; Wetzel, Keith

    2012-01-01

    At a time when implementation of electronic portfolios (EPs) is expanding, the issues of clarifying their purposes continue to plague teacher education programs. Are student-centered uses of EPs compatible with program assessment and accreditation efforts? Is this an either/or situation, or can a productive middle ground be forged? This article…

  14. Forging Consensus for Implementing Youth Socialization Policy in Northwest China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Gregory P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine how the provincial education media in China play a role of forging consensus among local actors responsible for the implementation of new centrally-promulgated youth socialization policy. In doing so, it also explores the tension among three of the Chinese state's claims to legitimacy: economic development,…

  15. Forging an Identity over the Life-Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiteri, Damian

    2009-01-01

    Using a social constructionist approach, this study explores the self-perceptions of young men who, when at school, were classed as boys with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD). The aim is to understand how these perceptions were forged throughout the young men's life-courses resulting in changing self-identities. The study also…

  16. 16. Forge building and fuel storage shed from the southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Forge building and fuel storage shed from the southwest, c.1918 Photocopied from a photograph in the collection of William F. Applegate, 43 Grandview Avenue, Wallingford, Connecticut. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  17. 76 FR 168 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request..., (3) hammers and sledges, and (4) picks and mattocks (56 FR 6622). Following the first five-year... antidumping duty order on imports of heavy forged hand tools from China (65 FR 48962). Following second...

  18. 76 FR 50755 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... determined on April 8, 2011 that it would conduct expedited reviews (76 FR 31631, June 1, 2011). The... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Heavy Forged Hand Tools From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  19. The Valley Forge Encampment: Epic on the Schuylkill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussell, John B. B., Jr.

    Valley Forge, outside Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), has long been recognized as the site of a great victory of the human spirit. Eleven thousand men including Blacks and Indians resided there during the winter of 1777-78 and triumphed over cold, starvation, nakedness, disease, and uncertainty. The encampment site was unprepared for the tattered,…

  20. Consolidation and Forging Methods for a Cryomilled Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newbery, A. P.; Ahn, B.; Hayes, R. W.; Pao, P. S.; Nutt, S. R.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2008-09-01

    The method used to consolidate a cryogenically ball-milled powder is critical to the retention of superior strength along with acceptable tensile ductility in the bulk product. In this study, gas-atomized Al 5083 powder was cryomilled, hot vacuum degassed, and consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) or by quasi-isostatic (QI) forging to produce low-porosity billets. The billets were then forged, either at high strain rate (without a die) or quasi-isostatically, and subsequently hot rolled to produce three 6.5-mm-thick plates. Despite extended periods at elevated temperatures and differences between the consolidation/deformation methods, a similar predominantly ultrafine grain microstructure was obtained in all three plates. The plates possessed similar ultimate tensile strengths, about 50 pct greater than standard work-hardened Al 5083. However, in terms of fracture toughness, there were significant differences between the plates. Debonding at prior cryomilled powder particle surfaces was an important fracture mechanism for “HIPped” material, leading to low toughness for crack surfaces in the plane of the plate. This effect was minimized by the implementation of double QI forging, producing plate with good isotropic fracture toughness. The type of particle boundary deformation during forging and the influence of impurities appeared to be more important in determining fracture toughness than the presence of ˜10 vol pct coarser micron-sized grains.

  1. Processing and properties of superclean ASTM A508 Cl. 4 forgings

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, A.V.; Handerhan, K.J.; Manzo, G.J.; Simkins, G.P.

    1988-12-31

    Steels with improved resistance to temper embrittlement are now being produced using ``superclean`` steelmaking technology. This technology involves the use of scrap control, proper electric arc furnace and ladle refining furnace practices to produce steel with very low Mn, Si, P, S and other residual impurities such as Sn, As and Sb. This technology has been applied on a production basis to modified ASTM A508 Cl- 4 material intended for high temperature pressure vessel forgings. Processing and properties of this superclean material are reviewed. In addition, the cleanliness and mechanical properties are compared to conventionally melted A508 Cl. 4 material. The ``superclean`` A508 Cl. 4 mod. was found to meet all specification requirements. In addition, the superclean material was found to possess superior upper shelf CVN properties, a lower FATT{sub 50} and NDTT, along with superior microcleanliness compared to conventional material. Finally, the superclean material was found to be immune to temper embrittlement based on the short-term embrittlement treatments examined.

  2. Nonadherence to the isochrony principle in forged signatures.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, Michael P; Mohammed, Linton A; Found, Bryan; Rogers, Doug

    2012-11-30

    Highly programmed skilled movements are executed in such a way that their kinematic features adhere to certain rules referred to as minimization principles. One such principle is the isochrony principle, which states that the duration of voluntary movement remains approximately constant across a range of movement distances; that is, movement duration is independent of movement extent. The concept of isochrony suggests that some information stored in the motor program is constant, thus reducing the storage demands of the program. The aim of the present study was to examine whether forged signatures can be distinguished from genuine signatures on the basis of isochrony kinematics. Sixty writers were asked to write their own signatures and to forge model signatures representing three different writing styles: text-based, stylized, and mixed. All signatures were digitized to enable high precision dynamic analyses of stroke kinematics. Vertical stroke duration and absolute amplitude were measured for each pen stroke of the signatures using MovAlyzeR(®) software. Slope coefficients derived from simple regression models of the relationship between stroke duration and amplitude served as our measure of isochrony. The slope coefficient reflects the degree to which stroke duration increases in relation to stroke amplitude. Higher coefficients indicate greater increases in stroke duration for a given stroke amplitude and thus violate the isochrony principle. We hypothesized that the duration-amplitude coefficients for forged signatures would be significantly greater than for genuine signatures suggesting non-adherence to the isochrony principle. Results indicated that regardless of the style of the writer, genuine signatures were associated with low slope coefficients Pen strokes forming forged signatures had significantly greater duration-amplitude slope coefficients than genuine signatures. These findings suggest that when forging signatures, writers execute pen movements

  3. Nanoprecipitates in Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, Joachim H; Lu, Zhao Ping; Shim, Sang Hoon

    2007-01-01

    The creep strength of ferritic steels can be substantially improved by the incorporation of a high number density of nano-scale dispersoids. Examples for such alloys are the oxide dispersion strengthened steels MA956, MA957, and PM2000. The dispersoids in these steels contain Y and Ti, or Y and Al. They can be as small as a few nanometers in size. Processing is traditionally carried out by mechanical alloying of elemental or pre-alloyed powders mixed with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. The goal of the present research is to identify alternative ways of producing ultrafine dispersoids. One possible way is internal oxidation, in which reactive elements dissolved in a metallic matrix are selectively oxidized. Internal oxidation experiments were carried out with Fe-Y, Fe-Ti-Y, and Fe-Al-Y precursors. Microstructural analysis showed that dispersoid dimensions as small as 10 nm could be achieved. Atomized Fe-0.25 at% Y powder was internally oxidized and consolidated by hot forging. An increase in the high-temperature creep strength by {approx} 20% was observed. Since it is likely that the composition of the precursor alloys is crucial for maximizing the number density and thermal stability of the oxides, experiments allowing the rapid screening of different compositions have been initiated.

  4. Nanoprecipitates in Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, Joachim H; Kad, Bimal

    2008-01-01

    The creep strength of ferritic steels can be substantially improved by the incorporation of a high number density of nano-scale dispersoids. Examples for such alloys are the oxide dispersion strengthened steels MA956, MA957, and PM2000. The dispersoids in these steels contain Y and Ti, or Y and Al. They can be as small as a few nanometers in size. Processing is traditionally carried out by mechanical alloying of elemental or pre-alloyed powders mixed with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. The goal of the present research is to identify alternative ways of producing ultrafine dispersoids. One possible way is internal oxidation, in which reactive elements dissolved in a metallic matrix are selectively oxidized. Internal oxidation experiments were carried out with Fe-Y, Fe-Ti-Y, and Fe-Al-Y precursors. Microstructural analysis showed that dispersoid dimensions as small as 10 nm could be achieved. Atomized Fe-0.25 at% Y powder was internally oxidized and consolidated by hot forging. An increase in the high-temperature creep strength by {approx} 20% was observed. Since it is likely that the composition of the precursor alloys is crucial for maximizing the number density and thermal stability of the oxides, experiments allowing the rapid screening of different compositions have been initiated.

  5. TRITIUM AGING EFFECTS ON THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS STEEL BASE METAL AND WELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.

    2009-07-30

    Tritium reservoirs are constructed from welded stainless steel forgings. While these steels are highly resistant to the embrittling effects of hydrogen isotopes and helium from tritium decay; they are not immune. Tritium embrittlement is an enhanced form of hydrogen embrittlement because of the presence of helium-3 from tritium decay which nucleates as nanometer-sized bubbles on dislocations, grain boundaries, and other microstructural defects. Steels with decay helium bubble microstructures are hardened and less able to deform plastically and become more susceptible to embrittlement by hydrogen and its isotopes. Ductility, elongation-to-failure, and fracture toughness are reduced by exposures to tritium and the reductions increase with time as helium-3 builds into the material from tritium permeation and radioactive decay. Material and forging specifications have been developed for optimal material compatibility with tritium. These specifications cover composition, mechanical properties, and select microstructural characteristics like grain size, flow-line orientation, inclusion content, and ferrite distribution. For many years, the forming process of choice for reservoir manufacturing was high-energy-rate forging (HERF), principally because the DOE forging facility owned only HERF hammers. Today, some reservoir forgings are being made that use a conventional, more common process known as press forging (PF or CF). One of the chief differences between the two forging processes is strain rate: Conventional hydraulic or mechanical forging presses deform the metal at 4-8 ft/s, about ten-fold slower than the HERF process. The material specifications continue to provide successful stockpile performance by ensuring that the two forging processes produce similar reservoir microstructures. While long-term life storage tests have demonstrated the general tritium compatibility of tritium reservoirs, fracture-toughness properties of both conventionally forged and high

  6. 2015 Accomplishments-Tritium aging studies on stainless steel. Effects of hydrogen isotopes, crack orientation, and specimen geometry on fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of hydrogen isotopes, crack orientation, and specimen geometry on the fracture toughness of stainless steels. Fracture toughness variability was investigated for Type 21-6-9 stainless steel using the 7K0004 forging. Fracture toughness specimens were cut from the forging in two different geometric configurations: arc shape and disc shape. The fracture toughness properties were measured at ambient temperature before and after exposure to hydrogen gas and compared to prior studies. There are three main conclusions that can be drawn from the results. First, the fracture toughness properties of actual reservoir forgings and contemporary heats of steel are much higher than those measured in earlier studies that used heats of steel from the 1980s and 1990s and forward extruded forgings which were designed to simulate reservoir microstructures. This is true for as-forged heats as well as forged heats exposed to hydrogen gas. Secondly, the study confirms the well-known observation that cracks oriented parallel to the forging grain flow will propagate easier than those oriented perpendicular to the grain flow. However, what was not known, but is shown here, is that this effect is more pronounced, particularly after hydrogen exposures, when the forging is given a larger upset. In brick forgings, which have a relatively low amount of upset, the fracture toughness variation with specimen orientation is less than 5%; whereas, in cup forgings, the fracture toughness is about 20% lower than that forging to show how specimen geometry affects fracture toughness values. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) specifies minimum specimen section sizes for valid fracture toughness values. However, sub-size specimens have long been used to study tritium effects because of the physical limitation of diffusing hydrogen isotopes into stainless steel at mild temperatures so as to not disturb the underlying forged microstructure. This study shows

  7. Dissolution and redistribution of hydrogen in steel

    SciTech Connect

    Astaf`ev, A.A.

    1995-11-01

    The danger of flakes initiated by hydrogen dissolved in steel may arise in the production of forgings from alloyed steels. Hydrogen penetrates steel in melting, heat treatment, welding, galvanizing, and pickling and during operation in aggressive media, which reduces the ductility and increases the probability of brittle failure. It is of interest from the standpoint of practice and theory to investigate the possibility of evaluating the amount of hydrogen dissolved in steel and capable of diffusion and to analyze the redistribution and penetration of hydrogen into pores and collectors. In this case atomic hydrogen recombines and transforms into molecular hydrogen, which does not cause flakes or hydrogen embrittlement. This problem is considered in the present work.

  8. Microstructure development during conventional and isothermal hot forging of a near-gamma titanium aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    Semiatin, S.L. ); Seetharaman, V. ); Jain, V.K. . Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Dept.)

    1994-12-01

    The breakdown of the lamellar preform microstructure in the ingot metallurgy near-gamma titanium aluminide, Ti-45.5Al-2Cr-2Nb (atomic percent), was investigated. Microstructures developed during canned, conventional hot forging were compared to those from isothermal hot forging. The higher rate of deformation in conventional forging led to considerably finer and almost completely broken-down structures in the as-forged condition. Several nontraditional approaches, including the isothermal forming of a metastable microstructure (so-called alpha forging'') and the inclusion of a short static recrystallization anneal during forging, were found to produce a more fully broken-down structure in as-isothermally forged conditions. Despite the noticeable microstructure differences after forging, a conventionally and isothermally forged material responded similarly during heat treatment. In both cases, almost totally recrystallized structures of either equiaxed gamma or transformed alpha grains surrounded by fine gamma grains were produced depending on the heat-treatment temperature. Metallography on forged and heat-treated pancake macroslices was useful in delineating small differences in composition not easily detected by analytical methods.

  9. First Results of Energy Saving at Process Redesign of Die Forging Al-Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Pepelnjak, Tomaz; Kuzman, Karl; Kokol, Anton

    2011-05-04

    The contribution deals with eco-friendly solutions for shortened production chains of forging light alloys. During the die forging operations a remarkable amount of material goes into the flash and later on into chips during finish machining. These low value side products are rich with embedded energy therefore recycling or reprocessing could be very energy saving procedure.In cooperation with a die forging company a shortened reprocessing cycle has been studied starting from re-melting the forging flash and without additional heating to cast preforms for subsequent die forging. As such preforms have not as good formability characteristics as those done from extruded billets the isothermal forging process has been adopted. First results showed that without cracks and other defects the formability is sufficient for a broad spectrum of forgings.To improve the formability a homogenization process of cast preforms has been implemented. As the process started immediately after casting, amount of additional energy for heating was minimized. To reduce voids forging process was redesigned in a way to assure greater hydrostatic pressures in parts during forging. First results were promising therefore research is going towards improving processes without adding significantly more energy as it is needed for casting with homogenization and die forging.

  10. West Flank Coso, CA FORGE ArcGIS data 2

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-03-01

    archive of ArcGIS data from the West Flank FORGE site located in Coso, California. Archive contains: 8 shapefiles polygon of the 3D geologic model polylines of the traces 3D modeled faults polylines of the fault traces from Duffield and Bacon, 1980 polygon of the West Flank FORGE site polylines of the traces of the geologic cross-sections (cross-sections in a separate archive in the GDR) polylines of the traces of the seismic reflection profiles through and adjacent to the West Flank site (seismic reflection profiles in a separate archive in the GDR) points of the well collars in and around the West Flank site polylines of the surface expression of the West Flank well paths

  11. Performance Assessment Method for a Forged Fingerprint Detection Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong Nyuo; Jun, In-Kyung; Kim, Hyun; Shin, Woochang

    The threat of invasion of privacy and of the illegal appropriation of information both increase with the expansion of the biometrics service environment to open systems. However, while certificates or smart cards can easily be cancelled and reissued if found to be missing, there is no way to recover the unique biometric information of an individual following a security breach. With the recognition that this threat factor may disrupt the large-scale civil service operations approaching implementation, such as electronic ID cards and e-Government systems, many agencies and vendors around the world continue to develop forged fingerprint detection technology, but no objective performance assessment method has, to date, been reported. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a methodology designed to evaluate the objective performance of the forged fingerprint detection technology that is currently attracting a great deal of attention.

  12. Crack toughness evaluation of hot pressed and forged beryllium.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. H.; Bubsey, R. T.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Fracture toughness tests at room temperature were made on three-point loaded beryllium bend specimens cut from hot pressed block and a forged disk. These specimens had plane proportions conforming to ASTM E 399 and covered a thickness range of from 1/32 to 1/2 in. Two sets of bend specimens were tested, one having fatigue cracks and the other 0.5 mil radius notches. One objective of the investigation was the development of techniques to produce fatigue cracks in accordance with the procedures specified in ASTM E 399. This objective was achieved for the hot pressed material. In plane cracks were not consistently produced in the specimens cut from forged stock.

  13. Studies of Damascus steel blades: Part I. Experiments on reconstructed blades

    SciTech Connect

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Pendray, A.H. )

    1993-04-01

    In a recent article the authors demonstrated that the striking pattern on genuine Damascus blades can be reproduced by forging small crucible solidified steel ingots, but the origin of the cementite particles that form the pattern was not discussed. Experiments are presented here that examine the evolution of the cementite particle formation during the forging process. In addition, a comparison study was done on blades formed from vacuum induction-melted chill cast steels of similar compositions to investigate the role of reduced dendrite spacings. The experiments provide evidence that the cementite particles that produce the bands are formed in the forging process by precipitation from the austenite in planar sheets of clustered particles, with the sheets spaced at a distance corresponding to the primary dendrite spacing inherited from the ingot. The experiments are shown to support the hypothesis that the cluster sheet formation in Damascus steel is a type of carbide banding: the segregated impurity elements of the small ingots are deformed into planar arrays on forging and somehow cause the cementite to nucleate along the planar arrays during the cyclic thermomechanical forging process.

  14. Sinter-forging of nanocrystalline zirconia. 1: Experimental

    SciTech Connect

    Hague, D.C.; Mayo, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Nanocrystalline (15 nm) yttria (3 mol%)-stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) was sinter-forged under conditions of varying temperature (1,050--1,200 C), plastic strain rate (5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} to 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1}), and green density (33--48%), using constant-crosshead-speed tests, constant-load (i.e., load-and-hold) tests, and constant-loading-rate tests. The densification and pore size evolution results indicate that plastic strain is largely responsible for elimination of large pores, while diffusional mechanisms control the elimination of small pores. Grain growth during sinter-forging is observed to be dependent solely on porosity during intermediate-stage sintering. Once the powder compact enters final-stage sintering, however, both static (time- and temperature-dependent) and dynamic (plastic-strain-dependent) grain growth take place, greatly accelerating the overall rate of grain growth. The use of fast strain rates to impose plastic strain before the onset of dynamic grain growth is proposed as a method of preserving small grain sizes during sinter-forging.

  15. Open-die forging of structurally porous sandwich panels

    SciTech Connect

    Elzey, D.M.; Wadley, H.N.G.

    1999-10-01

    Structurally porous metal sandwich panels consisting of dense face sheets and porous cores of controlled relative density can be manufactured by trapping inert gas during hot isostatic pressing and modifying its distribution via subsequent thermomechanical forming. A plane-strain solution for analyzing the open-die forging of such a plastically compressible sandwich panel is developed. An effective yield potential for the face sheet/core sandwich is constructed from the Mises yield criterion for the rigid-plastic face sheet and Doraivelu et al's density-dependent yield function for the compressible core. This effective constitutive response is used in a classical slab analysis of open-die forging. The analysis predicts the upsetting force and the distributions of pressure, core relative density, and average stresses within both the face sheet and the core. During upsetting, a zone of fully constrained material (i.e., with zero lateral strain) is predicted to occur at the center of the workpiece, and this densifies first. A densification front then advances laterally from the panel center toward the outer edges. The nonuniform densification complicates the use of forging for the production of components requiring a uniform density core.

  16. The Flow Behavior and Microstructural Evolution of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr during Subtransus Isothermal Forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, N. G.; Dashwood, R. J.; Dye, D.; Jackson, M.

    2009-08-01

    High-strength metastable β alloys, for example, Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr, have replaced steel as the material of choice for large components, such as the main truck beam on the latest generation of airframes. The production of these components is carried out by hot near-net-shape forging, during which process variable control is essential to achieve the desired microstructural condition and subsequent mechanical properties. The flow behavior and microstructural evolution during subtransus isothermal forging of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr has been investigated for two different starting microstructures and analysis has incorporated previously published results. The flow behavior, irrespective of initial microstructural condition, is found to be very similar at strains ≥0.35. It is thought that this is due to a common microstructural state being reached, where dynamic recovery of the β phase is the dominating deformation mechanism. At strains <0.35, the flow behavior is believed to be dominated by the morphology and volume fraction of the α phase. Small globular α particles are thought to have little effect on the flow behavior, while the observed flow softening is directly linked to the fragmentation of acicular α precipitates.

  17. Influence of Processing Parameters on Grain Size Evolution of a Forged Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, L. A.; Páramo, P.; Salas Zamarripa, A.; de la Garza, M.; Guerrero-Mata, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure evolution of nickel-based superalloys has a great influence on the mechanical behavior during service conditions. Microstructure modification and the effect of process variables such as forging temperature, die-speed, and tool heating were evaluated after hot die forging of a heat-resistant nickel-based alloy. Forging sequences in a temperature range from 1253 to 1323 K were considered through experimental trials. An Avrami model was applied using finite element data to evaluate the average grain size and recrystallization at different evolution zones. It was observed that sequential forging at final temperatures below 1273 K provided greater grain refinement through time-dependent recrystallization phenomena. This investigation was aim to explore the influence of forging parameters on grain size evolution in order to design a fully homogenous and refined microstructure after hot die forging.

  18. Net-Shape Forging of Aerofoil Blade based on Flash Trimming and Compensation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, B.; Ou, H.; Armstrong, C. G.

    2011-05-04

    In this research, an automatic blade forging die shape optimisation system was developed by using direct compensation and flash trimming algorithms and integrating with the DEFORM 3D software package. To validate the developed system, a 3D blade forging case problem was simulated and optimised with and without the consideration of trimming simulation. The results were compared with actual measurement data of the forged aerofoil blade with excellent results obtained with the fast trimming simulation procedure used.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF HYDROGEN, TRITIUM, AND HEAT TREATMENT ON THE DEFORMATION AND FRACTURE TOUGHNESS PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.; Tosten, M.; Chapman, G.

    2013-09-06

    The deformation and fracture toughness properties of forged stainless steels pre-charged with tritium were compared to the deformation and fracture toughness properties of the same steels heat treated at 773 K or 873 K and precharged with hydrogen. Forged stainless steels pre-charged with tritium exhibit an aging effect: Fracture toughness values decrease with aging time after precharging because of the increase in concentration of helium from tritium decay. This study shows that forged stainless steels given a prior heat treatment and then pre-charged with hydrogen also exhibit an aging effect: Fracture toughness values decrease with increasing time at temperature. A microstructural analysis showed that the fracture toughness reduction in the heat-treated steels was due to patches of recrystallized grains that form within the forged matrix during the heat treatment. The combination of hydrogen and the patches of recrystallized grains resulted in more deformation twinning. Heavy deformation twinning on multiple slip planes was typical for the hydrogen-charged samples; whereas, in the non-charged samples, less twinning was observed and was generally limited to one slip plane. Similar effects occur in tritium pre-charged steels, but the deformation twinning is brought on by the hardening associated with decay helium bubbles in the microstructure.

  20. Closed Die Deformation Behavior of Cylindrical Iron-Alumina Metal Matrix Composites During Cold Sinter Forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna Kumar, Undeti Jacob; Gupta, Pallav; Jha, Arun Kant; Kumar, Devendra

    2015-09-01

    The present paper aims to study the closed die deformation behavior of cylindrical Fe-Al2O3 metal matrix composites (MMCs). Closed die was manufactured by machining the high carbon steel block followed by oil quenching and then finishing. Samples sintered at a temperature of 1100 °C for 1 h were characterized with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, which showed the formation of Fe, Al2O3 and nano size FeAl2O4 phases respectively. Density and hardness of the composite samples were determined after sintering. Closed die deformation studies of the prepared composite samples were carried under three different interfacial frictional conditions i.e. dry, solid lubricating and liquid lubricating. Hardness, density and metallographic characterizations were also done for the deformed samples. On comparing the micrographs of the samples before and after deformation it was revealed that in deformed specimens recrystallization has taken place due to the difference in the energy between the strained iron matrix and unstrained alumina reinforcement during closed die forging process. Experimental density of the samples was also verified with the theoretical density using the standard equations. It is expected that the results of the present investigations will be helpful in developing quality MMC components for wide industrial applications.

  1. Microstructural, mechanical, corrosion and cytotoxicity characterization of the hot forged FeMn30(wt.%) alloy.

    PubMed

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Kubásek, Jiří; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Jablonská, Eva; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    An interest in biodegradable metallic materials has been increasing in the last two decades. Besides magnesium based materials, iron-manganese alloys have been considered as possible candidates for fabrication of biodegradable stents and orthopedic implants. In this study, we prepared a hot forged FeMn30 (wt.%) alloy and investigated its microstructural, mechanical and corrosion characteristics as well as cytotoxicity towards mouse L 929 fibroblasts. The obtained results were compared with those of iron. The FeMn30 alloy was composed of antiferromagnetic γ-austenite and ε-martensite phases and possessed better mechanical properties than iron and even that of 316 L steel. The potentiodynamic measurements in simulated body fluids showed that alloying with manganese lowered the free corrosion potential and enhanced the corrosion rate, compared to iron. On the other hand, the corrosion rate of FeMn30 obtained by a semi-static immersion test was significantly lower than that of iron, most likely due to a higher degree of alkalization in sample surrounding. The presence of manganese in the alloy slightly enhanced toxicity towards the L 929 cells; however, the toxicity did not exceed the allowed limit and FeMn30 alloy fulfilled the requirements of the ISO 10993-5 standard. PMID:26478385

  2. Effect of Variants of Thermomechanical Working and Annealing Treatment on Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V Closed Die Forgings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.; Kumar, V. Anil; Kumar, P. Ram

    2016-06-01

    Performance of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V pressure vessels made of closed die forged domes of route `B' (multiple step forged and mill annealed) is reported to be better than route `A' (single/two step forged and mill annealed). Analysis revealed that forgings processed through route `B' have uniformity in microstructure and yield strength at various locations within the forging, as compared to that of route `A.' It is attributed to in-process recrystallization (dynamic as well as static) of route `B' forgings as compared to limited recrystallization of route `A' forgings. Further, post-forging recrystallization annealing (RA) effect is found to be more significant for route `A' forgings in achieving uniform microstructure and mechanical properties, since route `B' forgings have already undergone similar phenomenon during the thermomechanical working process itself. Considering prime importance of yield strength, statistical scatter in yield strength values within the forgings have been evaluated for forgings of both the routes. Standard deviation in the yield strength of route `B' forgings was lower (<10 MPa) as compared to route `A' (>15 MPa), which later became lower (~10 MPa) after RA with a minor decrease in yield strength. The present work discusses these variants of thermomechanical processing along with annealing to achieve better uniformity in properties and microstructure.

  3. Sinter-forging characteristics of fine-grained zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, P.C.; Wang, J.; Raj, R.

    1988-12-01

    Powder preforms of zirconia, containing 2.85 mol% yttria, were sinter-forged in simple uniaxial compression at 1400/sup 0/C by applying constant displacement rates to the specimens. Shear and densification strains and the uniaxial stress were measured as a function of time. In contrast with alumina and silicon nitride, zirconia appears to densify by a dislocation mechanism. As a consequence, the densification rate is linked to the applied strain rather than to the applied hydrostatic pressure: the powder compact requires a critical amount of compressive strain to consolidate to full density, irrespective of the strain rate or the stress at which that strain is applied.

  4. West Flank Coso, CA FORGE 3D geologic model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-03-01

    This is an x,y,z file of the West Flank FORGE 3D geologic model. Model created in Earthvision by Dynamic Graphic Inc. The model was constructed with a grid spacing of 100 m. Geologic surfaces were extrapolated from the input data using a minimum tension gridding algorithm. The data file is tabular data in a text file, with lithology data associated with X,Y,Z grid points. All the relevant information is in the file header (the spatial reference, the projection etc.) In addition all the fields in the data file are identified in the header.

  5. Snake River Plain FORGE Well Data for USGS-142

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    2015-11-23

    Well data for the USGS-142 well located in eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. This data collection includes lithology reports, borehole logs, and photos of rhyolite core samples. This collection of data has been assembled as part of the site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. They were assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  6. Winter Weather at Valley Forge 1777-1778: A Lesson in Climatic Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansley, Mary Jane; Pritchard, Sandra F.

    1987-01-01

    Notes that the story of George Washington's encampment at Valley Forge is seldom told without reference to the bitter cold winter Washington and his troops endured. Shows how to use historical reports of weather information to allow students to judge for themselves whether the winter at Valley Forge then was harsher than winters in the same area…

  7. A New Method for Controlling Billet Temperature During Isothermal Die Forging of a Complex Superalloy Casing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. C.; Wu, Xian-Yang

    2015-09-01

    Isothermal die forging is one of near net-shape metal-forming technologies. Strict control of billet temperature during isothermal die forging is a guarantee for the excellent properties of final product. In this study, a new method is proposed to accurately control the billet temperature of complex superalloy casing, based on the finite element simulation and response surface methodology (RSM). The proposed method is accomplished by the following two steps. Firstly, the thermal compensation process is designed and optimized to overcome the inevitable heat loss of dies during hot forging. i.e., the layout and opening time of heaters assembled on die sleeves are optimized. Then, the effects of forging speed (the pressing velocity of hydraulic machine) and its changing time on the maximum billet temperature are discussed. Furthermore, the optimized forging speed and its changing time are obtained by RSM. Comparisons between the optimized and conventional die forging processes indicate that the proposed method can effectively control the billet temperature within the optimal forming temperature range. So, the optimized die forging processes can guarantee the high volume fraction of dynamic recrystallization, and restrict the rapid growth of grains in the forged superalloy casing.

  8. Forging; Heat Treating and Testing; Technically Oriented Industrial Materials and Process 1: 5898.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course provides students with advanced and exploratory experience in the area of plastic deformation of metals and in the changing of the physical characteristics of metals by the controlled application and timed removal of heat. Course content includes goals, specific objectives, safety in forge work, forging tools and equipment, industrial…

  9. 76 FR 30200 - Forging Machines; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Order No. 5-2010 (72 FR 55355). Signed at Washington, DC, on May 19, 2011. David Michaels, Assistant... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Forging Machines; Extension of the Office of Management and... contained in the Forging Machines Standard (29 CFR 1910.218). The paperwork provisions of the...

  10. Microstructure Modeling of a Ni-Fe-Based Superalloy During the Rotary Forging Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyda, A.; Hernández-Muñoz, G. M.; Reyes, L. A.; Zambrano-Robledo, P.

    2016-06-01

    The microstructure evolution of Ni-Fe superalloys has a great influence on the mechanical behavior during service conditions. The rotary forging process offers an alternative to conventional bulk forming processes where the parts can be rotary forged with a fraction of the force commonly needed by conventional forging techniques. In this investigation, a numerical modeling of microstructure evolution for design and optimization of the hot forging operations has been used to manufacture a heat-resistant nickel-based superalloy. An Avrami model was implemented into finite element commercial platform DEFORM 3D to evaluate the average grain size and recrystallization during the rotary forging process. The simulations were carried out considering three initial temperatures, 980, 1000, and 1050 °C, to obtain the microstructure behavior after rotary forging. The final average grain size of one case was validated by comparing with results of previous experimental work of disk forging operation. This investigation was aimed to explore the influence of the rotary forging process on microstructure evolution in order to obtain a homogenous and refined grain size in the final component.

  11. Final Technical Report: Intensive Quenching Technology for Heat Treating and Forging Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Aronov, Michael A.

    2005-12-21

    Intensive quenching (IQ) process is an alternative way of hardening (quenching) steel parts through the use of highly agitated water and then still air. It was developed by IQ Technologies, Inc. (IQT) of Akron, Ohio. While conventional quenching is usually performed in environmentally unfriendly oil or water/polymer solutions, the IQ process uses highly agitated environmentally friendly water or low concentration water/mineral salt solutions. The IQ method is characterized by extremely high cooling rates of steel parts. In contrast to conventional quenching, where parts cool down to the quenchant temperature and usually have tensile or neutral residual surface stresses at the end of quenching. The IQ process is interrupted when the part core is still hot and when there are maximum compressive stresses deep into the parts, thereby providing hard, ductile, better wear resistant parts. The project goal was to advance the patented IQ process from feasibility to commercialization in the heat-treating and forging industries to reduce significantly energy consumption and environmental impact, to increase productivity and to enhance economic competitiveness of these industries as well as Steel, Metal Casting and Mining industries. To introduce successfully the IQ technology in the U.S. metal working industry, the project team has completed the following work over the course of this project: A total of 33 manufacturers of steel products provided steel parts for IQ trails. IQT conducted IQ demonstrations for 34 different steel parts. Our customers tested intensively quenched parts in actual field conditions to evaluate the product service life and performance improvement. The data obtained from the field showed the following: Service life (number of holes punched) of cold-work punches (provided by EHT customer and made of S5 shock-resisting steel) was improved by two to eight times. Aluminum extrusion dies provided by GAM and made of hot work H-13 steel outperformed the

  12. Tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabruri, Efendi; Anwar, Moch. Syaiful; Prifiharni, Siska; Romijarso, Toni B.; Adjiantoro, Bintang

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports the influence of Mo and Ni on the tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels in tempered condition. Four steels with different content of Mo and Ni were prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging, quenching and tempering. The experimental results showed that the addition of about 1% and 3% Mo has a beneficial effect to increase both the tensile strength and the elongation of the steels. On the contrary, the addition of about 3% Ni into the martensitic stainless steel results in decreasing of both the tensile strength and the elongation. Among the alloys investigated the 13Cr3Mo type steel exhibited largest tensile strength of 1348 MPa and largest elongation of 12%. The observation on the tensile fractured surfaces by using scanning electron microscope supported these findings.

  13. Research into Oil-based Colloidal-Graphite Lubricants for Forging of Al-based Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, A.; Petrov, P.; Petrov, M.

    2011-05-04

    The presented paper describes the topical problem in metal forging production. It deals with the choice of an optimal lubricant for forging of Al-based alloys. Within the scope of the paper, the properties of several oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricants were investigated. The physicochemical and technological properties of these lubricants are presented. It was found that physicochemical properties of lubricant compositions have an influence on friction coefficient value and quality of forgings.The ring compression method was used to estimate the friction coefficient value. Hydraulic press was used for the test. The comparative analysis of the investigated lubricants was carried out. The forging quality was estimated on the basis of production test. The practical recommendations were given to choose an optimal oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricant for isothermal forging of Al-based alloy.

  14. A novel process for breakdown forging of coarse-grain intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Semiatin, S.L. . Materials Directorate); McQuay, P.A. . Asian Office of Aerospace R and D); Seetharaman, V. )

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop a novel hot forging process for breakdown of high-temperature intermetallic alloys which exhibit dynamic recrystallization during hot working. During typical forging processes in hydraulic processes, be they based on isothermal or conventional approaches, the ram speed (or sometimes the effective strain rate) is held constant during the forging stroke. In the method introduced here, the ram speed is increased substantially during the forging stroke as the material recrystallizes to a finer-grained structure and its hot workability increases. By this means, fracture is avoided, grain size is reduced, and processing time is decreased, thus improving material quality and reducing cost. The material used to develop and demonstrate the novel forging process was the single phase gamma titanium aluminide, Ti-51Al-2Mn.

  15. The magnetic properties of seamless steel pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willcock, S. N. M.; Tanner, B. K.; Mundell, P. A.

    1987-03-01

    The magnetic and metallurgical properties of seamless pipe steel have been investigated as a function of position around the pipe circumference. No changes in magnetic properties were found to be associated with the four cycle spiral variations in pipe wall thickness introduced during forging. A weaker single cycle thickness variation was accompanied by a change both in magnetic properties and pearlite fraction. The coercive field predicted from an empirical relationship between grain size and ferrite and pearlite fractions was found to be in excellent agreement with that measured experimentally.

  16. Pillars of Power: Silver and Steel of the Ottoman Empire.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerantzis, N.

    The Ottoman Empire was forged over disintegrating Byzantium, stretching across Anatolia and the Balkans and ruled for almost five centuries. One crucial parameter that allowed for its quick expansion has been a combination of economic wealth and superiority of armed forces. The Ottomans succeeded in both sectors by promoting innovative technology in the field of silver and steel production for supplying their monetary system and weapons industry. Rich mines and smelting workshops provided increased output in metals, allowing for quick expansion and economic growth. Some of the major centres for silver and steel production are being discussed in this paper in conjunction with analytical data from smelting residues.

  17. 3D Finite Element Analysis of Spider Non-isothermal Forging Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Ling; Wei, Wei; Wei, Kun Xia; Alexandrov, Igor V.; Hu, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The differences of effective stress, effective strain, velocity field, and the load-time curves between the spider isothermal and non-isothermal forging processes are investigated by making full use of 3D FEA, and verified by the production experiment of spider forging. Effective stress is mainly concentrated on the pin, and becomes lower closer to the front of the pin. The maximum effective strain in the non-isothermal forging is lower than that in the isothermal. The great majority of strain in the non-isothermal forging process is 1.76, which is larger than the strain of 1.31 in the isothermal forging. The maximum load required in the isothermal forging is higher than that in the non-isothermal. The maximum experimental load and deformation temperature in the spider production are in good agreement with those in the non-isothermal FEA. The results indicate that the non-isothermal 3D FEA results can guide the design of the spider forging process.

  18. 3D Finite Element Analysis of Spider Non-isothermal Forging Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Ling; Wei, Wei; Wei, Kun Xia; Alexandrov, Igor V.; Hu, Jing

    2016-05-01

    The differences of effective stress, effective strain, velocity field, and the load-time curves between the spider isothermal and non-isothermal forging processes are investigated by making full use of 3D FEA, and verified by the production experiment of spider forging. Effective stress is mainly concentrated on the pin, and becomes lower closer to the front of the pin. The maximum effective strain in the non-isothermal forging is lower than that in the isothermal. The great majority of strain in the non-isothermal forging process is 1.76, which is larger than the strain of 1.31 in the isothermal forging. The maximum load required in the isothermal forging is higher than that in the non-isothermal. The maximum experimental load and deformation temperature in the spider production are in good agreement with those in the non-isothermal FEA. The results indicate that the non-isothermal 3D FEA results can guide the design of the spider forging process.

  19. Process Modelling of IN718 for Free Forging

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Hiroaki; Hatta, Takeshi; Hironaka, Tomohisa; Isogawa, Sachihiro; Sekiguchi, Hideaki

    2007-05-17

    Ni based alloy IN718 is important material used for engine shafts, turbine disks of gas turbine engines. The grain refining of the IN718 becomes important because of the improvement of reliability. We have developed newly advanced {delta} process to obtain the grain of less than 22.5 {mu} m (ASTM No.8.0) even after solution treatment. Furthermore we have developed the microstructural prediction system of IN718 for the process modelling. In this paper, the advanced {delta} process and it's process modelling in the turbine disk forging were reported. As the result, we could obtain successful fine microstructure less than 22.5 {mu} m after solution treatment in turbine disk.

  20. Automatic feature extraction from micrographs of forged superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhuber, E.; Rinnhofer, A.; Stockinger, M.; Benesova, W.; Jakob, G.

    2008-07-01

    The manual determination of metallurgical parameters of forged superalloys can be dramatically improved by automatic, image-processing-based feature extraction. With the proposed methods, the typical errors during grain size estimation for Inconel 718 and Allvac 718Plus ™ , caused by twins and other artifacts like scratches, can be eliminated. Different processing strategies for grain size estimation allow the application of a wide range of ASTM grain size numbers from G3 to G12 with the typical variations in the manifestation of metallurgical details and the magnification-related limitations of image quality. Intercept counting strategies show advantages for samples with pronounced anisotropy and can produce detailed statistics on grain orientation. In addition to a single grain size number, grain size histograms offer a more precise description of the material properties.

  1. Optimizing noise control strategy in a forging workshop.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Hamideh; Ramazanifar, Ehsan; Bagherzadeh, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a computer program based on a genetic algorithm is developed to find an economic solution for noise control in a forging workshop. Initially, input data, including characteristics of sound sources, human exposure, abatement techniques, and production plans are inserted into the model. Using sound pressure levels at working locations, the operators who are at higher risk are identified and picked out for the next step. The program is devised in MATLAB such that the parameters can be easily defined and changed for comparison. The final results are structured into 4 sections that specify an appropriate abatement method for each operator and machine, minimum allowance time for high-risk operators, required damping material for enclosures, and minimum total cost of these treatments. The validity of input data in addition to proper settings in the optimization model ensures the final solution is practical and economically reasonable. PMID:24934422

  2. Snake River Plain FORGE Well Data for WO-2

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    1991-07-29

    Well data for the WO-2 well located in eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. This data collection includes lithology reports, borehole logs, temperature at depth data, neutron density and gamma data, and rock strength parameters for the WO-2 well. This collection of data has been assembled as part of the site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. They were assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  3. Snake River Plain FORGE Well Data for INEL-1

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    1979-03-01

    Well data for the INEL-1 well located in eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. This data collection includes caliper logs, lithology reports, borehole logs, temperature at depth data, neutron density and gamma data, full color logs, fracture analysis, photos, and rock strength parameters for the INEL-1 well. This collection of data has been assembled as part of the site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. They were assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  4. Crack toughness evaluation of hot pressed and forged beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. H.; Bubsey, R. T.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Beryllium fracture toughness test specimens were fatigue cracked using reversed cycling with a compression load two to three times the tension load. In worked beryllium, textures may be produced which result in fatigue cracks that are out of plane with the starter notch. Specimens of hot pressed stock exhibited load displacement records which were nonlinear throughout their course. Fracture specimens of both hot pressed and forged stock showed essentially no reduction of thickness and the fracture surfaces were flat and normal to the load axis. However, the stress intensity factor at maximum load increased with decreasing thickness. Load-displacement and electric potential records for the hot pressed beryllium specimens exhibited several anomalies such as negative residual crack mouth displacements and a decrease in electrical potential with increasing load.

  5. Physics and Technological Training in Bulgarian Forge Craft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkova, Petya N.; Velcheva, Keranka G.

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary world regenerates and preserves the traditions of decorative—applied art and the national crafts. This brings up young generation and helps them to uncover the sources of national culture. In the commonly educational system the technological training realizes succession of new methods for national and applied art. The aim is examination of the national crafts as technological processes for cultivation of different metal constructions. There are enforced physical laws here. Seven basic groups of forging methods consider in Bulgarian tradition craft as heat treatment, plastic deformation and applying of different tensions. This gives information about morphology of construction after applying of stress, enlarging or decreasing of the linear sizes, structure change and the change of physical and mechanical properties.

  6. Approximate-model based estimation method for dynamic response of forging processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jie; Lu, Xinjiang; Li, Yibo; Huang, Minghui; Zou, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Many high-quality forging productions require the large-sized hydraulic press machine (HPM) to have a desirable dynamic response. Since the forging process is complex under the low velocity, its response is difficult to estimate. And this often causes the desirable low-velocity forging condition difficult to obtain. So far little work has been found to estimate the dynamic response of the forging process under low velocity. In this paper, an approximate-model based estimation method is proposed to estimate the dynamic response of the forging process under low velocity. First, an approximate model is developed to represent the forging process of this complex HPM around the low-velocity working point. Under guaranteeing the modeling performance, the model may greatly ease the complexity of the subsequent estimation of the dynamic response because it has a good linear structure. On this basis, the dynamic response is estimated and the conditions for stability, vibration, and creep are derived according to the solution of the velocity. All these analytical results are further verified by both simulations and experiment. In the simulation verification for modeling, the original movement model and the derived approximate model always have the same dynamic responses with very small approximate error. The simulations and experiment finally demonstrate and test the effectiveness of the derived conditions for stability, vibration, and creep, and these conditions will benefit both the prediction of the dynamic response of the forging process and the design of the controller for the high-quality forging. The proposed method is an effective solution to achieve the desirable low-velocity forging condition.

  7. [Research on the temperature field detection method of large cylinder forgings during heat treatment process based on infrared spectra].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Cun; Fu, Xian-Bin; Liu, Bin; Qi, Yan-De; Zhou, Shan

    2013-01-01

    In order to grasp the changes of the forging's temperature field during heat treatment, a temperature field detection method based on infrared spectra for large cylinder forgings is proposed in the present paper. On the basis of heat transfer a temperature field model of large barrel forgings was established by the method of separating variables. Using infrared spectroscopy the large forgings temperature measurement system was built based on the three-level interference filter. The temperature field detection of forging was realized in its heat treatment by combining the temperature data and the forgings temperature field detection model. Finally, this method is feasible according to the simulation experiment. The heating forging temperature detection method can provide the theoretical basis for the correct implementation of the heat treatment process. PMID:23586224

  8. Engine Performance of Precision-forged, Electropolished and Machined Blades of Nimonic 80 and 80A Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikora, Paul F; Johnston, James R

    1955-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of electropolishing precision-forged blades and of machining blades from oversize forgings on the engine performance of Nimonic 80 and Nimonic 80A turbine blades. These blades, along with precision-forged blades, were run in a J33-9 turbojet engine. The tests resulted in the following conclusions: (1) Electropolishing of precision-forged blades did not improve engine life relative to the life of nonelectropolished blades. (2) Machining blades from oversize forgings did not improve the engine life of precision-forged blades. (3) The precision-forging and heat-treating practice used in fabricating the blades investigated was such that the surface roughness and oxide penetration was so slight, approximately 0.0005 inch in depth, as to preclude any benefits derived from surface removal by electropolishing or machining.

  9. Hot Superplastic Powder Forging for Transparent nanocrystalline Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, W. Roger

    2006-05-22

    The program explored a completely new, economical method of manufacturing nanocrystalline ceramics, Hot Superplastic Powder Forging (HSPF). The goal of the work was the development of nanocrystalline/low porosity optically transparent zirconia/alumina. The high optical transparency should result from lack of grain boundary scattering since grains will be smaller than one tenth the wavelength of light and from elimination of porosity. An important technological potential for this process is manufacturing of envelopes for high-pressure sodium vapor lamps. The technique for fabricating monolithic nanocrystalline material does not begin with powder whose particle diameter is <100 nm as is commonly done. Instead it begins with powder whose particle diameter is on the order of 10-100 microns but contains nanocrystalline crystallites <<100 nm. Spherical particles are quenched from a melt and heat treated to achieve the desired microstructure. Under a moderate pressure within a die or a mold at temperatures of 1100C to 1300C densification is by plastic flow of superplastic particles. A nanocrystalline microstructure results, though some features are greater than 100nm. It was found, for instance, that in the fully dense Al2O3-ZrO2 eutectic specimens that a bicontinuous microstructure exists containing <100 nm ZrO2 particles in a matrix of Al2O3 grains extending over 1-2 microns. Crystallization, growth, phase development and creep during hot pressing and forging were studied for several compositions and so provided some details on development of polycrystalline microstructure from heating quenched ceramics.

  10. Fatigue experience from tests carried out with forged beam and frame structures in the development of the Saab aircraft Viggen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, S. E.

    1972-01-01

    A part of the lower side of the main wing at the joint of the main spar with the fuselage frame was investigated. This wing beam area was simulated by a test specimen consisting of a spar boom of AZ 74 forging (7075 aluminum alloy modified with 0.3 percent Ag) and a portion of a honeycomb sandwich panel attached to the boom flange with steel bolts. The cross section was reduced to half scale. However, the flange thickness, the panel height, and the bolt size were full scale. Further, left and right portions of the fuselage frame intended to carry over the bending moment of the main wing were tested. Each of these frame halves consisted of a forward and a rear forging (7079 aluminum alloy, overaged) connected by an outer and inner skin (Alclad 7075) creating a box beam. These test specimens were full scale and were constructed principally of ordinary aircraft components. The test load spectrum was common to both types of specimens with regard to percentage levels. It consisted of maneuver and gust loads, touchdown loads, and loads due to ground roughness. A load history of 200 hours of flight with 15,000 load cycles was punched on a tape. The loads were randomized in groups according to the flight-by-flight principle. The highest positive load level was 90 percent of limit load and the largest negative load was -27 percent. A total of 20 load levels were used. Both types of specimens were provided with strain gages and had a nominal stress of about 300 MN/sq m in some local areas. As a result of the tests, steps were taken to reduce the risk of fatigue damage in aircraft. Thus stress levels were lowered, radii were increased, and demands on surface finish were sharpened.

  11. Corrosion behavior of a welded stainless-steel orthopedic implant.

    PubMed

    Reclaru, L; Lerf, R; Eschler, P Y; Meyer, J M

    2001-02-01

    The corrosion behavior of combinations of materials used in an orthopedic implant: the spherical part (forged or forged and annealed) constituting the head, the weld (tungsten inert gas (TIG) or electron beam (EB) techniques), and the cylindrical part (annealed) constituting the shaft of a femoral prosthesis - has been investigated. Open-circuit potentials, potentiodynamic curves, Tafel slope, mixed potential theory and susceptibility to intergranular attack are electrochemical and chemical procedures selected for this work. Electrochemical measurements using a microelectrode have been made in the following zones: spherical part, cylindrical part, weld, and weld/sphere, and weld/shaft interfaces. To detect intergranular attack, the Strauss test has been used. At the interfaces, corrosion currents, measured (Icorr) and predicted (Icouple) are low, in the order of the pico- to nanoampere. The electrochemical behavior of the electron beam (EB) weld is better than that of the tungsten inert gas (TIG). Welds at interfaces can behave either anodically or cathodically. It is better if welds, which are sensitive parts of the femoral prosthesis, behave cathodically. In this way, the risk of starting localized corrosion (pitting, crevice or intergranular corrosion) from a galvanic couple, remains low. From this point of view, the sample with the EB weld offers the best behavior. All the other samples containing a TIG type of weld exhibit a less favorable behavior. The mechanical treatments (forged, and forged and annealed) of the steel sphere did not show any difference in the corrosion behavior. No intergranular corrosion has been observed at the weld/steel interface for unsensitized samples. With sensitized samples, however, a TIG sample has exhibited some localized intergranular corrosion at a distance of 500 microm along the weld/stainless steel (sphere) interface. PMID:11197502

  12. Deformation Mechanisms in Tube Billets from Zr-1%Nb Alloy under Radial Forging

    SciTech Connect

    Perlovich, Yuriy; Isaenkova, Margarita; Fesenko, Vladimir; Krymskaya, Olga; Zavodchikov, Alexander

    2011-05-04

    Features of the deformation process by cold radial forging of tube billets from Zr-1%Nb alloy were reconstructed on the basis of X-ray data concerning their structure and texture. The cold radial forging intensifies grain fragmentation in the bulk of billet and increases significantly the latent hardening of potentially active slip systems, so that operation only of the single slip system becomes possible. As a result, in radially-forged billets unusual deformation and recrystallization textures arise. These textures differ from usual textures of {alpha}-Zr by the mutual inversion of crystallographic axes, aligned along the axis of tube.

  13. Assessment of NASA Dual Microstructure Heat Treatment Method for Multiple Forging Batch Heat Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John (Technical Monitor); Lemsky, Joe

    2004-01-01

    NASA dual microstructure heat treatment technology previously demonstrated on single forging heat treat batches of a generic disk shape was successfully demonstrated on a multiple disk batch of a production shape component. A group of four Rolls-Royce Corporation 3rd Stage AE2100 forgings produced from alloy ME209 were successfully dual microstructure heat treated as a single heat treat batch. The forgings responded uniformly as evidenced by part-to-part consistent thermocouple recordings and resultant macrostructures, and from ultrasonic examination. Multiple disk DMHT processing offers a low cost alternative to other published dual microstructure processing techniques.

  14. Characterization of large 2219 aluminum alloy hand forgings for the space shuttle solid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennecke, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanical properties, including fracture toughness, and stress corrosion properties of four types of 2219-T852 aluminum alloy hand forgings are presented. Weight of the forgings varied between 450 and 3500 lb at the time of heat treatment and dimensions exceeded the maximum covered in existing specifications. The forgings were destructively tested to develop reliable mechanical property data to replace estimates employed in the design of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) and to establish minimum guaranteed properties for structural refinement and for entry into specification revisions. The report summarizes data required from the forgers and from the SRB Structures contractor.

  15. Laser-dispersing of forging tools using AlN-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noelke, C.; Luecke, M.; Kaierle, S.; Wesling, V.; Overmeyer, L.

    2014-02-01

    Forging tools for aluminum work pieces show an increased adhesive wear due to cold welding during the forging process. Laser dispersing offers at this point a great potential to fabricate protective layers or tracks with tailored properties that reduce abrasive or adhesive wear at the surface of highly stressed components. Using different process strategies, four metal ceramic compounds applied on two substrate geometries were investigated regarding their structural and mechanical properties and their performance level. The subsequent forging tests have pointed out a positive effect and less adhesive residuals on the laser dispersed tool surface.

  16. Mechanical and Microstructural Characterization of an Aluminum Bearing Trip Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsalve, Alberto; Guzmán, Alexis; De Barbieri, Flavio; Artigas, Alfredo; Carvajal, Linton; Bustos, Oscar; Garza-Montes-de Oca, Nelson F.; Colás, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of a steel able to sustain the TRIP-effect were studied. The material was prepared by taking in mind the partial substitution of silicon by aluminum following a processing route that included hot forging, hot and cold rolling, intercritical annealing, and a final bainitic isothermal treatment. The mechanical properties that were obtained resulted to be above those of commercial a 780 TRIP steel. The TRIP phenomenon was confirmed by the change in retained austenite before and after deforming the steel; X-ray diffraction was used to evaluate the volume content of retained austenite. Formability of the steel under study can be rationalized in terms of the texture developed in the material.

  17. VIEW OF SMITH FORGING METAL SPECIMEN USING 3,000POUND DROP HAMMER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SMITH FORGING METAL SPECIMEN USING 3,000-POUND DROP HAMMER NO. 1, MAN TO RIGHT IS OPERATING HAMMER WHILE OTHER SHAPES SPECIMEN. - Cambria Iron Company, Blacksmith Shop, Lower Works, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  18. Research on the Influence of Technological Forging Parameters on the Quality of Biphasic Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashekov, S. A.; Smaylova, N. T.; Alshynova, A. M.; Mashekova, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The deflected mode (DM) during the preparation of the broach in the flat and combined baizes and also on radial forging machine (RFM) was investigated for creating the rational technology of a broach and determining the optimum size of the angles of rotation and single squeeze reduction. The quantitative data was obtained by the method of final elements and the MSC.Super Forge program; the main consistent patterns of stress-strain state (SSS) distribution and temperature while modeling forging in flat and combined baizes, also on RFM with various angles of rotation and sizes of squeeze reduction were determined. The rational trial technology of forging of biphasic titanium alloys was developed and tested.

  19. 75 FR 20859 - Notice of Realty Action, Independence National Historical Park, Pennsylvania and Valley Forge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Realty Action, Independence National Historical Park, Pennsylvania and Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania AGENCY: National Park Service, Department of the... is located within the boundary of Independence National Historical Park (INDE). The privately...

  20. 5. VIEW OF 20TON STEAMPOWERED FORGE HAMMER Manufactured by Chambersburg ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF 20-TON STEAM-POWERED FORGE HAMMER Manufactured by Chambersburg Engineering Company, Chambersburg, Pennsylvania - Juniata Shops, Blacksmith Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Second Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  1. Deformation, recrystallization, strength, and fracture of press-forged ceramic crystals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Sapphire and ruby were very difficult to press-forge because they deformed without cracking only in a limited temperature range before they melted. Spinel crystals were somewhat easier and MgO, CaO, and TiC crystals much easier to forge. The degree of recrystallization that occurred during forging (which was related to the ease and type of slip intersections) varied from essentially zero in Al2O3 to complete (i.e., random polycrystalline bodies were produced) in CaO. Forging of bi- and polycrystalline bodies produced incoherent bodies as a result of grain-boundary sliding. Strengths of the forged crystals were comparable to those of dense polycrystalline bodies of similar grain size. However, forged and recrystallized CaO crystals were ductile at lower temperatures than dense hot-pressed CaO. This behavior is attributed to reduced grain-boundary impurities and porosity. Fracture origins could be located, indicating that fracture in the CaO occurs internally as a result of surface work hardening caused by machining.-

  2. Computer simulation of the forging of fine grain IN-718 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Ramnarayan, V.; Deshpande, U.; Jain, V.; Weiss, I.

    1993-09-01

    In recent years, there has been great emphasis on the use of computer-aided tools in process design. The key to the success of any computer modeling is the accurate knowledge of the mechanical and thermal properties of the various components of a manufacturing system. In order to develop a data base of forging properties of the nickel-base alloy IN-718, isothermal constant strain-rate compression tests were conducted on the annealed fine-grain material over the temperature range 871 °C to 1149 °C (1600 °F to 2100 °F) and strain-rate range 0. 001 to 10 s-1. Empirical relationships among flow stress, strain rate, and temperature developed based on these tests, along with experimentally measured heat-transfer and friction coefficients, were used in the program ALPID to simulate nonisothermal forging of “double-cone” specimens. The simulation results were compared with actual forging in an industrial forge press. The good agreement between simulation and forging results indicates that when a complete data base of materials properties is available, computer modeling can be used effectively to study the forging process.

  3. Computer simulation of the forging of fine grain IN-718 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, R.; Deshpande, U.; Weiss, I. . Mechanical and Materials Engineering Dept.); Ramnarayan, V. ); Jain, V. . Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Dept.)

    1993-09-01

    In recent years, there has been great emphasis on the use of computer-aided tools in process design. The key to the success of any computer modeling is the accurate knowledge of the mechanical and thermal properties of the various components of a manufacturing system. In order to develop a data base of forging properties of the nickel-base alloy IN-718, isothermal constant strain-rate compression tests were conducted on the annealed fine-grain material over the temperature range 871 C to 1,149 C (1,600 F to 2,100 F) and strain-rate range 0.001 to 10 s[sup [minus]1]. Empirical relationships among flow stress, strain rate, and temperature developed based on these tests, along with experimentally measured heat-transfer and friction coefficients, were used in the program ALPID to simulate nonisothermal forging of double-cone specimens. The simulation results were compared with actual forging in an industrial forge press. The good agreement between simulation and forging results indicates that when a complete data base of materials properties is available, computer modeling can be used effectively to study the forging process.

  4. FEM Analysis and Experimental Verification of the Integral Forging Process for AP1000 Primary Coolant Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shenglong; Yu, Xiaoyi; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Mingxian; Wu, Huanchun

    2016-08-01

    AP1000 primary coolant pipes must be manufactured by integral forging technology according to the designer—Westinghouse Electric Co. The characteristics of these large, special-shaped pipes create nonuniform temperatures, effective stress, and effective strain during shaping of the pipes. This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element simulation (3D FEM) of the integral forging process, and qualitatively evaluates the likelihood of forging defects. By analyzing the evolution histories of the three field variables, we concluded that the initial forging temperature should be strictly controlled within the interval 1123 K to 1423 K (850 °C to 1150 °C) to avoid second-phase precipitation. In the hard deformation zones, small strains do not contribute to recrystallization resulting in coarse grains. Conversely, in the free deformation zone, the large strains can contribute to the dynamic recrystallization, favoring grain refinement and closure of voids. Cracks are likely to appear, however, on the workpiece surface when forging leads to large deformations. Based on the simulation results, an eligible workpiece with good mechanical properties, few macroscopic defects, and favorable grain size has been successfully forged by experiments at an industrial scale, which validates the FEM simulation.

  5. West Flank Coso, CA FORGE 3D temperature model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-03-01

    x,y,z data of the 3D temperature model for the West Flank Coso FORGE site. Model grid spacing is 250m. The temperature model for the Coso geothermal field used over 100 geothermal production sized wells and intermediate-depth temperature holes. At the near surface of this model, two boundary temperatures were assumed: (1) areas with surface manifestations, including fumaroles along the northeast striking normal faults and northwest striking dextral faults with the hydrothermal field, a temperature of ~104˚C was applied to datum at +1066 meters above sea level elevation, and (2) a near-surface temperature at about 10 meters depth, of 20˚C was applied below the diurnal and annual conductive temperature perturbations. These assumptions were based on heat flow studies conducted at the CVF and for the Mojave Desert. On the edges of the hydrothermal system, a 73˚C/km (4˚F/100’) temperature gradient contour was established using conductive gradient data from shallow and intermediate-depth temperature holes. This contour was continued to all elevation datums between the 20˚C surface and -1520 meters below mean sea level. Because the West Flank is outside of the geothermal field footprint, during Phase 1, the three wells inside the FORGE site were incorporated into the preexisting temperature model. To ensure a complete model was built based on all the available data sets, measured bottom-hole temperature gradients in certain wells were downward extrapolated to the next deepest elevation datum (or a maximum of about 25% of the well depth where conductive gradients are evident in the lower portions of the wells). After assuring that the margins of the geothermal field were going to be adequately modelled, the data was contoured using the Kriging method algorithm. Although the extrapolated temperatures and boundary conditions are not rigorous, the calculated temperatures are anticipated to be within ~6˚C (20˚F), or one contour interval, of the

  6. Superplastic forging of aluminum 6061-silicon carbide(P) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memongkol, Napisporn

    This work describes the processing and characterization of mechanically alloyed Al6061-SiCP composites. The SiC dispersion strengthened Al6061 was synthesized by mechanical alloying of SiC powder and Al6061 powder in an argon atmosphere followed by hot pressing or cold compaction and sinter forging in air. The microstructure of the Al-SiC composites showed a fine grain size of Al matrix with SiC particles and dispersoids distributed homogeneously in the Al matrix. The microstructure of unreinforced MA6061 showed a fine grain size with small dispersoids. The preferred orientation in these composites was measured using the neutron diffraction technique. The hot pressed material had a random texture while a <111> preferred texture was developed in the sinter forged samples. The amount of texture developed depends on the applied load but not on the sintering temperature. The compressive strengths of these composites (4%SiC and 8%SiC) were characterized in the temperatures range from 723 to 833K and at strain rates of 10-4 to 10-1 s-1 . The true compressive stress strain curves exhibit strain softening behavior. The results showed significantly higher strength than the base material. The strain rate sensitivity, m, from the compression test is much lower than required for superplastic behavior. Tensile tests on the MA Al-8%SiC composite and MA6061 monolithic material were performed at temperatures of 673, 723, and 773K and strain rates from 10-2 to 10 s-1 . The true tensile stress strain curves show the strain hardening behavior. The relationship between microstructure, texture, densification and mechanical properties was studied and the strengthening mechanisms were identified. Uniaxial consolidation experiments have been conducted at room temperature and elevated temperature for three different powders, Al6061, MA6061 and MA6061-8%SiC. The experiments illustrated that the densification mechanisms of the three different powders at room temperature are similar but they

  7. Nonmetallic inclusions in a chromium steel intended for the power engineering industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpishon, E. Yu.; Mal'Ginov, A. N.; Romashkin, A. N.; Durynin, V. A.; Afanas'ev, S. Yu.; Shitov, E. V.; Afanas'eva, L. T.; Batov, Yu. M.

    2010-06-01

    The behavior of oxygen in the course of manufacturing large steel ingots containing 1.5-20% Cr, the formation of oxides depending on the contents of deoxidizing agents and oxygen, and the composition of the oxide phase in ingots and forgings made of the steel are considered. The steel is manufactured using an arc steel-melting furnace and unit for complex treatment of steel (ASF-ACSPU technology) and the ASF-ACSPU technology and electroslag remelting (ESR). It is shown that the oxide phase composition depends on the contents of strong deoxidizing agents and oxygen and the development of secondary oxidation. Chromium- and manganese-containing spinels are characteristic species of the secondary and tertiary oxides in the chromium steel in the case of deficient aluminum and silicon.

  8. Refurbishment of fatigue-cracked generator rotor forgings

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, B.W.; Zielke, W.; Puri, A.

    1996-12-31

    In a paper presented at the 1994 IJPGC in Phoenix, AZ, TVA discussed the management of a fleet of fourteen generator rotors which had developed cracks in the axial cooling holes under the retaining rings and in the radial cooling holes in the rotor body. The management consisted of establishing the root cause of the crack initiation and propagation, initially establishing the flaw size distribution by eddy-current testing (ECT), performing reinspection at appropriate intervals, preheating the rotor prior to startup, lowering overspeed trip settings to 105%, confirming overspeed trip response by simulation rather than actual overspeed, and maintaining a spare generator rotor. Since the 1994 paper, one of the rotors developed an electrical liability, forcing its removal from service. While a replacement rotor which was on hand resolved the immediate crisis, the long term options were: (1) operate without a spare, (b) procure a new rotor with substantially improved mechanical properties and slightly improved electrical performance, or (c) refurbish the existing forging. After an exhaustive economic analysis, option C was identified as the most cost effective solution. This paper addresses the 43-inch rotor rehabilitation and rewind that has been successfully executed for less than half the cost of a new replacement rotor, without loss in operating flexibility.

  9. Movement Synchrony Forges Social Bonds across Group Divides

    PubMed Central

    Tunçgenç, Bahar; Cohen, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Group dynamics play an important role in the social interactions of both children and adults. A large amount of research has shown that merely being allocated to arbitrarily defined groups can evoke disproportionately positive attitudes toward one's in-group and negative attitudes toward out-groups, and that these biases emerge in early childhood. This prompts important empirical questions with far-reaching theoretical and applied significance. How robust are these inter-group biases? Can biases be mitigated by behaviors known to bond individuals and groups together? How can bonds be forged across existing group divides? To explore these questions, we examined the bonding effects of interpersonal synchrony on minimally constructed groups in a controlled experiment. In-group and out-group bonding were assessed using questionnaires administered before and after a task in which groups performed movements either synchronously or non-synchronously in a between-participants design. We also developed an implicit behavioral measure, the Island Game, in which physical proximity was used as an indirect measure of interpersonal closeness. Self-report and behavioral measures showed increased bonding between groups after synchronous movement. Bonding with the out-group was significantly higher in the condition in which movements were performed synchronously than when movements were performed non-synchronously between groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their importance for the developmental social psychology of group dynamics as well as their implications for applied intervention programs. PMID:27303341

  10. Implementation of state-of-the-art rotor forging evaluation to manage the oldest rotor fleet in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Puri, A.; Steakley, M.; McCann, D.

    1995-12-31

    The average age of the Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) fossil fleet is almost 40 years with a large population of ``C`` grade rotors manufactured in the 1950`s. Until 1991, TVA relied upon the OEM`s to support the rotor forging assessment and establish the reinspection intervals. Based on the OEM`s recommendations most turbine/generator overhauls were governed by the forging reinspection interval. In the spring of 1992, TVA initiated an engineered forging evaluation process that involved state-of-the-art amplitude independent, target-motion based Ultrasonic And Data Processing System (UDRPS) forging inspection, forging material sampling, and fracture mechanics analysis. This paper outlines TVA`s state-of-art rotor forging evaluation program, results achieved since its introduction and the long range benefits to TVA.