Science.gov

Sample records for 10th type iii

  1. Migration Type III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artymowicz, Pawel

    2004-03-01

    Migration type IIIMigration of objects embedded in disks (and the accompanying eccentricity evolution) is becoming a major theme in planetary system formation.The underlying physics can be distilled into the notion of disk-planet coupling via Lindblad resonances, which launch waves, sometimes spectacular spiral shock waves in gas disks. The wave pattern exchanges angular momentum with the planet. That causes (i) migration, (ii) eccentricity evolution, and (iii) gap opening by sufficiently massive planets.A competing source of disk-planet interaction, the corotationaltorques, are much less conspicuous (corotation does not produce easilydetectable waves, as galaxy observers can attest) and have often been missed in the analysis of planet migration. If spiral waves are like waves at Goleta beach, then the corotation acts more like a stealthy riptide. Corotationalflows lie at the basis of a new, surprisingly rapid, mode of migration (type III),superseding the standard type II migration (with a gap), and revising the speed of type I migration (without a gap). The talk will contain results obtained at KITP, e.g., an analytical derivation of da/dt in type III motion. It will be illustrated by videos of high-resolution numerical simulations obtained with different implementations of the Piecewise Parabolic Method hydrodynamics.

  2. Fueling type III secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pei-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Type III secretion systems are complex nanomachines that export proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm across the cell envelope in a single step. They are at the core of the machinery used to assemble the bacterial flagellum, and the needle complex many Gram-negative pathogens use to inject effector proteins into host cells and cause disease. Several models have been put forward to explain how this export is energized, and the mechanism has been the subject of considerable debate. Here we present an overview of these models and discuss their relative merits. Recent evidence suggests that the proton motive force is the primary energy source for type III secretion, although contribution from refolding of secreted proteins has not been ruled out. The mechanism, by which the proton motive force is converted to protein export, remains enigmatic. PMID:25701111

  3. HLA typing with monoclonal antibodies: evaluation of 356 HLA monoclonal antibodies including 181 studied during the 10th International Histocompatibility Workshop.

    PubMed

    Colombani, J; Lepage, V; Raffoux, C; Colombani, M

    1989-08-01

    During the 10th International Histocompatibility Workshop (10th WS), 181 HLA MoAbs were studied using lymphocytotoxicity micro-technique (LCT) and/or enzyme immuno-assay (EIA), and their capacity to serve as typing reagents was evaluated. 129 MoAbs were tested by both techniques. Results obtained with 92 class I and 86 class II polymorphic MoAbs (10th WS) were compared to published data concerning 180 class I and 176 class II polymorphic MoAbs, listed in an HLA-MoAbs Register maintained in our laboratory. The following conclusions can be proposed: 1/HLA-A, B typing by LCT with MoAbs is possible for about 14 specificities. Some specificities are clearly recognized (HLA-A3, B8, B13, Bw4, Bw6), others are recognized as cross-reacting groups (B7+27+w22+40), others are not currently recognized by any MoAb with restricted specificity (B5, B15). Several MoAbs confirmed the existence of shared epitopes between products from a single locus (A2-A28, A25-A32), or from A and B loci (A2-B17, Bw4-A9-A32). A single HLA-Cw MoAb has been described. 2/HLA class II typing by LCT with MoAbs is more difficult than class I typing. DR2, DR3, DR4, DR5 and DR7 as well as DRw52 and DRw53 are well defined; other DR specificities are poorly or not at all defined. Particular associations (DR1+DR4, DR3+DRw6, all DR except DR7) are recognized by several MoAbs. All DQw specificities are well recognized, including new specificities defined only by MoAbs: WA (DQw4), TA10 (DQw7), 2B3 (DQw6+w8+w9). Only two HLA-DP MoAbs have been described. 3/Satisfactory results, similar to those of LCT, were obtained with EIA using lymphoid cell lines as targets. 4/Human MoAbs (12 in the Register) are satisfactory typing reagents. They could represent in the future a significant contribution to HLA typing with MoAbs. PMID:2609328

  4. Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/000692.htm Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cranial mononeuropathy III -- diabetic type -- is usually a complication of diabetes that causes ...

  5. Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic third nerve palsy; Pupil-sparing third cranial nerve palsy ... Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type -- is a mononeuropathy . This means that only one nerve is damaged. The condition affects the third cranial (oculomotor) ...

  6. Effective Identification of Bacterial Type III Secretion Signals Using Joint Element Features

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yejun; Sun, Ming’an; Bao, Hongxia; Zhang, Qing; Guo, Dianjing

    2013-01-01

    Type III secretion system (T3SS) plays important roles in bacteria and host cell interactions by specifically translocating type III effectors into the cytoplasm of the host cells. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the bacterial type III effectors determine their specific secretion via type III secretion conduits. It is still unclear as to how the N-terminal sequences guide this specificity. In this work, the amino acid composition, secondary structure, and solvent accessibility in the N-termini of type III and non-type III secreted proteins were compared and contrasted. A high-efficacy mathematical model based on these joint features was developed to distinguish the type III proteins from the non-type III ones. The results indicate that secondary structure and solvent accessibility may make important contribution to the specific recognition of type III secretion signals. Analysis also showed that the joint feature of the N-terminal 6th–10th amino acids are especially important for guiding specific type III secretion. Furthermore, a genome-wide screening was performed to predict Salmonella type III secreted proteins, and 8 new candidates were experimentally validated. Interestingly, type III secretion signals were also predicted in gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. Experimental validation showed that two candidates from yeast can indeed be secreted through Salmonella type III secretion conduit. This research provides the first line of direct evidence that secondary structure and solvent accessibility contain important features for guiding specific type III secretion. The new software based on these joint features ensures a high accuracy (general cross-validation sensitivity of ∼96% at a specificity of ∼98%) in silico identification of new type III secreted proteins, which may facilitate our understanding about the specificity of type III secretion and the evolution of type III secreted proteins. PMID:23593149

  7. Glycosaminoglycans and mucopolysaccharidosis type III.

    PubMed

    Jakobkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Gabig-Ciminska, Magdalena; Kloska, Anna; Malinowska, Marcelina; Piotrowska, Ewa; Banecka-Majkutewicz, Zyta; Banecki, Bogdan; Wegrzyn, Alicja; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), or Sanfilippo syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disease in which heparan sulfate is accumulated in lysosomes, as well as outside of cells, as the primary storage material. This disease is a complex of four conditions caused by dysfunctions of one of genes coding for lysosomal enzymes involved in degradation of heparan sulfate: SGSH (coding for heparan N-sulfatase) - causing MPS IIIA, NAGLU (coding for alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase) - causing MPS IIIB, HGSNAT (coding for acetyl CoA alpha-glucosaminide acetyltransferase) - causing MPS IIIC), and GNS (coding for N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase) - causing MPS IIID. The primary storage is responsible for some disease symptoms, but other arise as a result of secondary storage, including glycosphingolipids, and subsequent processes, like oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Central nervous system is predominantly affected in all subtypes of MPS III. Heparan sulfate and its derivatives are the most commonly used biomarkers for diagnosis and prediction procedures. Currently, there is no therapy for Sanfilippo syndrome, however, clinical trials are ongoing for enzyme replacement therapy, gene therapy and substrate reduction therapy (particularly gene expression-targeted isoflavone therapy). PMID:27100513

  8. Dens invaginatus (Type III B)

    PubMed Central

    Kallianpur, Shreenivas; Sudheendra, US; Kasetty, Sowmya; Joshi, Prathamesh

    2012-01-01

    Dens invaginatus or ‘dens in dente’ is a developmental malformation of the tooth resulting from infolding of the dental papilla before calcification. This article presents a case of dens invaginatus occurring in maxillary right lateral incisor of a 45-year-old male patient. The patient presented with pain and clinically missing maxillary right canine. The tooth was found to be non-vital. Radiographic examination revealed the tooth-in-tooth appearance of lateral incisor with a dilated pulp chamber. The crown of impacted canine was found within the pulp chamber of lateral incisor. Owing to this unique clinical presentation, both the lateral incisor and the impacted canine were extracted. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of Dens invaginatus Type III B. A brief review on etiopathogenesis, radiographic features and treatment of dens invaginatus has also been included. PMID:22923901

  9. Columbines 10th Anniversary Finds Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    When school administrators hear that the 10th anniversary of the Columbine High School attack is approaching, most shake their heads in disbelief. They are amazed that 10 years have passed since this watershed event, which changed the landscape of K-12 school safety. In this article, the author reflects on the lessons learned from the Columbine…

  10. Type III functional response in Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Sarnelle, Orlando; Wilson, Alan E

    2008-06-01

    The functional response of Daphnia, a common pelagic herbivore in lakes, was assessed with a combination of secondary and meta-analyses of published data and new data from an experiment conducted using very low food levels. Secondary analyses of literature data (28 studies, n = 239-393) revealed a significant positive influence of food concentration on Daphnia clearance rate at low food levels, i.e., evidence of an overall Type III functional response. This result was not an artifact of including data from Daphnia that were exhausted from prolonged food deprivation (more than three hours at very low food). Meta-analysis of Daphnia clearance rate vs. food concentration across a range of low food concentrations (eight studies) showed a significantly positive slope across studies, which also supports the presence of a Type III response. Congruent with these analyses of published data, the feeding experiment showed clear evidence of a Type III functional response for D. pulicaria feeding on Ankistrodesmus falcatus. Food levels at which Daphnia clearance rate declined with decreasing food were near the minimum resource requirement for Daphnia population maintenance at steady state (R*). We suggest that Type III responses are more common than previously believed, perhaps because of the relative paucity of observations at low food levels, and that reduced prey mortality at low phytoplankton densities could be a stabilizing mechanism for Daphnia-phytoplankton systems under resource scarcity. PMID:18589536

  11. Mucolipidosis Type III α/β

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Darcy A.; Memoli, Vincent A.; Cathey, Sara S.; Harris, Brent T.

    2014-01-01

    We report findings from an autopsy of a 45-year-old woman with the rare lysosomal storage disease mucolipidosis type III α/β. Her disease manifested most notably as multiple bone and cartilage problems with tracheal and bronchial malacia. Principal autopsy findings included gross abnormalities in bone and cartilage with corresponding microscopic cytoplasmic lysosomal granules. These cytoplasmic granules were also seen in histologic preparations of the brain, myocardium, heart valves, and fibroblasts of the liver and skin by light and electron microscopy. By electron microscopy there were scattered, diffuse vesicular cytoplasmic granules in neurons and glia and an increase in lysosomal structures with fine electron lucent granularity in the above tissue types. Our findings help elaborate current understanding of this disease and differentiate it from the mucopolysaccharidoses and related disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first report to document pathologic findings in a patient with mucolipidosis type III α/β by autopsy. PMID:21466370

  12. Energy source of flagellar type III secretion.

    PubMed

    Paul, Koushik; Erhardt, Marc; Hirano, Takanori; Blair, David F; Hughes, Kelly T

    2008-01-24

    Bacterial flagella contain a specialized secretion apparatus that functions to deliver the protein subunits that form the filament and other structures to outside the membrane. This apparatus is related to the injectisome used by many gram-negative pathogens and symbionts to transfer effector proteins into host cells; in both systems this export mechanism is termed 'type III' secretion. The flagellar secretion apparatus comprises a membrane-embedded complex of about five proteins, and soluble factors, which include export-dedicated chaperones and an ATPase, FliI, that was thought to provide the energy for export. Here we show that flagellar secretion in Salmonella enterica requires the proton motive force (PMF) and does not require ATP hydrolysis by FliI. The export of several flagellar export substrates was prevented by treatment with the protonophore CCCP, with no accompanying decrease in cellular ATP levels. Weak swarming motility and rare flagella were observed in a mutant deleted for FliI and for the non-flagellar type-III secretion ATPases InvJ and SsaN. These findings show that the flagellar secretion apparatus functions as a proton-driven protein exporter and that ATP hydrolysis is not essential for type III secretion. PMID:18216859

  13. PREFACE: 10th Joint Conference on Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    The 10th Joint Conference on Chemistry is an international conference organized by 4 chemistry departments of 4 universities in central Java, Indonesia. The universities are Sebelas Maret University, Diponegoro University, Semarang State University and Soedirman University. The venue was at Solo, Indonesia, at September 8-9, 2015. The total conference participants are 133 including the invited speakers. The conference emphasized the multidisciplinary chemical issue and impact of today's sustainable chemistry which covering the following topics: • Material innovation for sustainable goals • Development of renewable and sustainable energy based on chemistry • New drug design, experimental and theoretical methods • Green synthesis and characterization of material (from molecule to functionalized materials) • Catalysis as core technology in industry • Natural product isolation and optimization

  14. Arthroscopic fixation of type III acromioclavicular dislocations.

    PubMed

    Somers, Jan F A; Van der Linden, Dietert

    2007-10-01

    Type III Acromio-Clavicular Joint dislocations can be treated successfully by surgical stabilisation in situ, with or without reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments. The authors describe a simple and reliable mode of fixation, performed arthroscopically. The technique can be used for in situ fixation, or as part of an arthroscopically assisted Weaver and Dunn procedure. Using a metallic anchor loaded with a braided polyfilament suture, a strong and reliable fixation of the clavicle to the coracoid process is obtained. No hardware removal is necessary. Concomitant glenohumeral pathology can be treated simultaneously. PMID:18019910

  15. Sources of type III solar microwave bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Dmitriy; Lesovoi, Sergey; Tokhchukova, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Microwave fine structures allow us to study plasma evolution in an energy release region. The Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT) is a unique instrument designed to examine fine structures at 5.7 GHz. A complex analysis of data from RATAN-600, 4-8 GHz spectropolarimeter, and SSRT, simultaneously with extreme UV data, made it possible to localize sources of III type microwave drift bursts in August 10, 2011 event within the entire frequency band of burst occurrences, as well as to determine the most probable region of primary energy release. To localize sources of III type bursts from RATAN-600 data, an original method for data processing has been worked out. At 5.7 GHz, the source of bursts was determined along two coordinates whereas at 4.5, 4.7, 4.9, 5.1, 5.3, 5.5 and 6.0 GHz, their locations were identified along one coordinate. The size of the burst source at 5.1 GHz was found to be maximum as compared to source sizes at other frequencies.

  16. 10th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 10th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Sixty-eight teams, representing high schools and colleges from all over the United States, and Puerto Rico, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team. In this photograph, racers from C-1 High School in Lafayette County, Missouri, get ready to tackle the course. The team pedaled its way to victory over 29 other teams to take first place honors. It was the second year in a row a team from the school has placed first in the high school division. (NASA/MSFC)

  17. 10th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 10th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Sixty-eight teams, representing high schools and colleges from all over the United States, and Puerto Rico, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team. In this photograph, Team No. 1 from North Dakota State University in Fargo conquers one of several obstacles on their way to victory. The team captured first place honors in the college level competition.

  18. DECIMETRIC TYPE III BURSTS: GENERATION AND PROPAGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.; Yan, Y. H.

    2011-09-01

    Simulations are presented for decimetric type III radio bursts at 2f{sub p} , where f{sub p} is the local electron plasma frequency. The simulations show that 2f{sub p} radiation can be observed at Earth in two scenarios for the radiation's generation and propagation. In Scenario A, radiation is produced and propagates in warm plasmas in the lower corona that are caused by previous magnetic reconnection outflows and/or chromospheric evaporation. In Scenario B radiation is generated in normal plasmas, then due to its natural directivity pattern and refraction, radiation partly propagates into nearby regions, which are hot because of previous reconnection/evaporation. The profiles of plasma density n{sub e} (r) and electron temperature T{sub e} (r) in the lower corona (r - R{sub sun} {approx}< 100 Mm) are found to be crucial to whether radiation can be produced and escape at observable levels against the effects of free-free absorption, where r is the heliocentric distance. Significantly, the observed wide ranges of radiation properties (e.g., drift rates) require n{sub e} (r) with a large range of scale heights h{sub s} , consistent nonetheless for Scenario B with short observed EUV loops. This is relevant to problems with large h{sub s} inferred from tall EUV loops. The simulations suggest: (1) n{sub e} (r) with small h{sub s} , such as n{sub e} (r){proportional_to}(r - R{sub sun}){sup -2.38} for flaring regions, are unexpectedly common deep in the corona. This result is consistent with recent work on n{sub e} (r) for r {approx} (1.05-2)R{sub sun} extracted from observed metric type IIIs. (2) The dominance of reverse-slope bursts over normal bursts sometimes observed may originate from asymmetric reconnection/acceleration, which favors downgoing beams.

  19. PREFACE: 10th International LISA Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciani, Giacomo; Conklin, John W.; Mueller, Guido

    2015-05-01

    large mission in Europe, and a potential comprehensive technology development program followed by a number one selection in the 2020 Decadal Survey in the U.S. The selection of L2 was combined with the selection of L3 and the newly formed eLISA consortium submitted an updated NGO concept under the name eLISA, or Evolved LISA, to the competition. It was widely believed that the launch date of 2028 for L2, would be seen by the selection committee as providing sufficient time to retire any remaining technological risks for LISA. However, the committee selected the 'Hot and Energetic Universe', an X-ray mission, as the science theme for L2 and the 'Gravitational Universe', the eLISA science theme, for L3. Although very disappointed, it was not a surprising decision. LPF did experience further delays just prior to and during the selection process, which may have influenced the decision. The strong technology program in the U.S. never materialized because WFIRST, the highest priority large mission in the 2010 Decadal following JWST, not only moved ahead but was also up-scoped significantly. The L3 selection, the WFIRST schedule, and the missing comprehensive technology development in the U.S. will make a launch of a GW mission in the 2020s very difficult. Although many in the LISA community, including ourselves, did not want to accept this harsh reality, this was the situation just prior to the 10th LISA symposium. However, despite all of this, the LISA team is now hopeful! In May of 2014 the LISA community gathered at the University of Florida in Gainesville to discuss progress in both the science and technology of LISA. The most notable plenary and contributed sessions included updates on the progress of LISA Pathfinder, which remains on track for launch in the second half of 2015(!), the science of LISA which ranges from super-massive black hole mergers and cosmology to the study of compact binaries within our own galaxy, and updates from other programs that share some of

  20. Type III Radio Bursts and Microflares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, S.; Krucker, S.; Arzner, K.; Lin, R. P.

    2003-05-01

    We present recent observations of microflares observed simultaneously in EUV (TRACE), radio (Nancay, Phoenix-2), and X-rays (RHESSI). During a period of 15 min on 19 July 2002 14:23-14:35 UT, RHESSI observed microflares approximately every 2 minutes. Each microflare was accompagnied by a radio Type III burst. The largest flare (14:29:25 UT) was also accompagnied by a cluster of decimetric radio spikes in the frequency range 1 to 2 GHz. In addition, FeXII (195 Å) images provided by TRACE show two jets-like emissions originating from a complex double arche structure. The centroid of the jets were found to travel at apparent speeds of ˜ 100 km s-1, consistent with observations by Shimojo et al. (1996). X-ray images show non-thermal emission (9-30 keV) from the footpoints of the TRACE arches. Strong correlation in flux amplitude is found between emissions in the radio ( ˜1340 MHz) and non-thermal X-ray (9-30 keV integrated). The event is interpreted as an anemone-jet in the model by Shibata et al. (1994). This research is supported by NASA contract NAS 5-98033.

  1. PREFACE: 10th International LISA Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciani, Giacomo; Conklin, John W.; Mueller, Guido

    2015-05-01

    large mission in Europe, and a potential comprehensive technology development program followed by a number one selection in the 2020 Decadal Survey in the U.S. The selection of L2 was combined with the selection of L3 and the newly formed eLISA consortium submitted an updated NGO concept under the name eLISA, or Evolved LISA, to the competition. It was widely believed that the launch date of 2028 for L2, would be seen by the selection committee as providing sufficient time to retire any remaining technological risks for LISA. However, the committee selected the 'Hot and Energetic Universe', an X-ray mission, as the science theme for L2 and the 'Gravitational Universe', the eLISA science theme, for L3. Although very disappointed, it was not a surprising decision. LPF did experience further delays just prior to and during the selection process, which may have influenced the decision. The strong technology program in the U.S. never materialized because WFIRST, the highest priority large mission in the 2010 Decadal following JWST, not only moved ahead but was also up-scoped significantly. The L3 selection, the WFIRST schedule, and the missing comprehensive technology development in the U.S. will make a launch of a GW mission in the 2020s very difficult. Although many in the LISA community, including ourselves, did not want to accept this harsh reality, this was the situation just prior to the 10th LISA symposium. However, despite all of this, the LISA team is now hopeful! In May of 2014 the LISA community gathered at the University of Florida in Gainesville to discuss progress in both the science and technology of LISA. The most notable plenary and contributed sessions included updates on the progress of LISA Pathfinder, which remains on track for launch in the second half of 2015(!), the science of LISA which ranges from super-massive black hole mergers and cosmology to the study of compact binaries within our own galaxy, and updates from other programs that share some of

  2. Extrapyramidal Symptoms and Medication Use in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchan, Michel C.; Sillence, David

    2009-01-01

    Background: We report the case of a 16-year-old male with Mucopolysaccharidosis III type A (Sanfilippo syndrome) who was commenced on risperidone for behaviour management. He rapidly developed extrapyramidal symptoms that have not resolved. Method: The medication histories of 20 patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis III seen at a Lysosomal Storage…

  3. Decametric and hectometric Solar Type III bursts at Saturn's orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Sawas, Sami; Galopeau, Patrick H. M.; Maksimovic, Milan

    2015-04-01

    We report on solar radio bursts observed by RPWS experiment onboard Cassini spacecraft. We consider Type III solar bursts observed in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 16 MHz. Those bursts are probably generated in the solar corona and the interplanetary medium. We show that the Type III burst occurrence is depending on the solar activity. We attempt to localize the regions where the Type III burst is probably emitted. We consider that the electrons at the origin of the Solar Type III bursts follow the interplanetary magnetic field. The trajectory is an Archimedean spiral contained in the ecliptic plane. We discuss our results taking into consideration on the one hand the spacecraft positions with regards to the source location, and on the other hand the temporal and spectral radio beam variation when combining Cassini and Wind observations.

  4. EDITORIAL: 10th anniversary of attosecond pulses 10th anniversary of attosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienberger, Reinhard; Chang, Zenghu; Nam, Chang Hee

    2012-04-01

    times in atoms and molecules, such as Auger decay time and autoionization lifetime, have been measured directly as compared to indirect spectroscopic measurements normally done using synchrotron light sources. The reconstruction of molecular orbital wave functions has been demonstrated by developing the molecular tomography method. Ultrafast phenomena in condensed matter and in nanostructures have been tackled also. The successful development of attosecond light sources has thus opened up a variety of new research activities in ultrafast optical science; it will be continued and accelerated further in coming years with intensive research investments by more groups joining the field of attosecond science. In this special issue celebrating the 10th year of attosecond pulse generation 6 review articles and 16 regular articles are included. Although it does not cover all active research areas, we sincerely hope it gives a glimpse of active research activities in attosecond science throughout the world.

  5. EDITORIAL: STAM celebrates its 10th anniversary STAM celebrates its 10th anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushioda, Sukekatsu

    2010-02-01

    I would like to extend my warmest greetings to the readers and staff of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials (STAM), on the occasion of its 10th anniversary. Launched in 2000, STAM marks this year an important milestone in its history. This is a great occasion to celebrate. STAM was founded by Tsuyoshi Masumoto in collaboration with Teruo Kishi and Toyonobu Yoshida as a world-class resource for the materials science community. It was initially supported by several materials research societies and was published as a regular peer-reviewed journal. Significant changes occurred in 2008, when the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) became solely responsible for all the costs of maintaining the journal. STAM was transformed into an open-access journal published by NIMS in partnership with IOP Publishing. As a result, the publication charges were waived and the entire STAM content, including all back issues, became freely accessible through the IOP Publishing website. The transition has made STAM more competitive and successful in global publication communities, with innovative ideas and approaches. The journal has also changed its publication strategy, aiming to publish a limited number of high-quality articles covering the frontiers of materials science. Special emphasis has been placed on reviews and focus issues, providing recent summaries of hot materials science topics. Publication has become electronic only; however, selected issues are printed and freely distributed at major international scientific events. The Editorial Board has been expanded to include leading experts from all over the world and, together with the Editorial Office, the board members are doing their best to transform STAM into a leading materials science journal. These efforts are paying off, as shown by the rapidly increasing number of article downloads and citations in 2009. I believe that the STAM audience can not only deepen their knowledge in their own specialties but

  6. Heterogeneity of collagens in rabbit cornea: type III collagen

    SciTech Connect

    Cintron, C.; Hong, B.S.; Covington, H.I.; Macarak, E.J.

    1988-05-01

    Whole neonate rabbit corneas and adult corneas containing 2-week-old scars were incubated in the presence of (/sup 14/C) glycine. Radiolabeled collagen extracted from the corneas and scar tissue were analyzed by sodium dodecylsulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography to determine the types and relative quantity of collagen polypeptides present and synthesized by these tissues. In addition to other collagen types, type III was found in both neonate cornea and scar tissue from adult cornea, albeit in relatively small quantities. Type III collagen in normal cornea was associated with the residue after pepsin digestion and formic acid extraction of the tissue, and the same type of collagen was extracted from scar tissue after similar treatment. Type III collagen-specific monoclonal antibody bound to developing normal corneas and healing adult tissue sections, as determined by immunofluorescence. Antibody binding was localized to the endothelium and growing Descemet's membrane in fetal and neonate corneas, and restricted to the most posterior region of the corneal scar tissue. Although monoclonal antibody to keratan sulfate, used as a marker for stromal fibroblasts, bound to most of the scar tissue, the antibody failed to bind to the posterior scar tissue positive for type III collagen. We conclude that endothelial cells from fetal and neonate rabbit cornea and endothelium-derived fibroblasts from healing wounds of adult cornea synthesize and deposit type III collagen. Moreover, this collagen appears to be incorporated into the growing Descemet's membrane of normal corneas and narrow posterior portion of the scar tissue.

  7. Nineth Rib Syndrome after 10th Rib Resection

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hyun Jeong; Jeong, Yu Sub; Lee, Dong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The 12th rib syndrome is a disease that causes pain between the upper abdomen and the lower chest. It is assumed that the impinging on the nerves between the ribs causes pain in the lower chest, upper abdomen, and flank. A 74-year-old female patient visited a pain clinic complaining of pain in her back, and left chest wall at a 7 on the 0-10 Numeric Rating scale (NRS). She had a lateral fixation at T12-L2, 6 years earlier. After the operation, she had multiple osteoporotic compression fractures. When the spine was bent, the patient complained about a sharp pain in the left mid-axillary line and radiating pain toward the abdomen. On physical examination, the 10th rib was not felt, and an image of the rib-cage confirmed that the left 10th rib was severed. When applying pressure from the legs to the 9th rib of the patient, pain was reproduced. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with 9th rib syndrome, and ultrasound-guided 9th and 10th intercostal nerve blocks were performed around the tips of the severed 10th rib. In addition, local anesthetics with triamcinolone were administered into the muscles beneath the 9th rib at the point of the greatest tenderness. The patient's pain was reduced to NRS 2 point. In this case, it is suspected that the patient had a partial resection of the left 10th rib in the past, and subsequent compression fractures at T8 and T9 led to the deformation of the rib cage, causing the tip of the remaining 10th rib to impinge on the 9th intercostal nerves, causing pain. PMID:27413484

  8. Auroral Kilometric Radiation and Type III Solar Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romantsova, T. V.; Mogilevsky, M. M.; Skalsky, A. A.; Hanasz, J.

    2009-04-01

    Simultaneous wave observations onboard the ISEE-1 and ISEE-3 spacecraft show that onsets of the Auroral Kilometric Radiation frequently coincide with an arrival of type III solar burst (Calvert, 1981). It was supposed that solar burst stimulates maser instability in auroral region and AKR consequently . We present statistical and case studies of events when both type III solar radio bursts and Auroral Kilometric Radiation are recorded simultaneously. AKR was observed onboard the INTERBALL-2 spacecraft orbiting around the Earth by the POLRAD experiment. Wave measurements carried out onboard the Wind, INTEBALL-TAIL and Geotail spacecraft are used to identify unambiguously the type III solar radio bursts. The origin of close relation between onsets of both solar radiation and AKR is discussed and interpreted. Acknowledgements. This work is supported by grant RFBR 06-02-72560.

  9. Assessment of Sleep in Children with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type III

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Louise Victoria; Lomax, Michelle; Grant, Sheena; Cross, Elaine; Hare, Dougal Julian; Wraith, James Ed; Jones, Simon; Bigger, Brian; Langford-Smith, Kia; Canal, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are prevalent in mucopolysaccharidosis Type III (MPS III), yet there is a lack of objective, ecologically valid evidence detailing sleep quantity, quality or circadian system. Eight children with MPS III and eight age-matched typically developing children wore an actigraph for 7–10 days/nights. Saliva samples were collected at three time-points on two separate days, to permit analysis of endogenous melatonin levels. Parents completed a sleep questionnaire and a daily sleep diary. Actigraphic data revealed that children with MPS III had significantly longer sleep onset latencies and greater daytime sleep compared to controls, but night-time sleep duration did not differ between groups. In the MPS III group, sleep efficiency declined, and sleep onset latency increased, with age. Questionnaire responses showed that MPS III patients had significantly more sleep difficulties in all domains compared to controls. Melatonin concentrations showed an alteration in the circadian system in MPS III, which suggests that treatment for sleep problems should attempt to synchronise the sleep-wake cycle to a more regular pattern. Actigraphy was tolerated by children and this monitoring device can be recommended as a measure of treatment success in research and clinical practice. PMID:24504123

  10. NADEOSA 10th Anniversary Conference Formal Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South African Journal of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    NADEOSA held its 10th anniversary conference during August 2006 on the theme "Celebrating 10 years of NADEOSA. Exploring the role of ICTs in addressing educational needs: Identifying the myths and miracles." The conference evaluation strategy consisted of a number of consciously planned processes, a dialogical and reflective account which had been…

  11. Beyond Discipline: From Compliance to Community. 10th Anniversary Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie

    2006-01-01

    In this 10th anniversary edition of an Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) best seller, the author reflects on his revolutionary ideas in the context of today's emphasis on school accountability and high-stakes testing. The author relates how his innovative approach--where teachers learn to work with students, rather than…

  12. The general solution of Bianchi type III vacuum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulakis, T.; Terzis, Petros A.

    2007-02-01

    The second-order ordinary differential equation which describes the unknown part of the solution space of some vacuum Bianchi cosmologies is completely integrated for type III, thus obtaining the general solution to Einstein's field equations for this case, with the aid of the sixth Painlevé transcendent PVI. For particular representations of PVI we obtain the known Kinnersley two-parameter spacetime and a solution of Euclidean signature. The imposition of the spacetime generalization of a 'hidden' symmetry of the generic type III spatial slice enables us to retrieve the two-parameter subfamily without considering the Painlevé transcendent.

  13. Exploiting the Biosynthetic Potential of Type III Polyketide Synthases.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yan Ping; Go, Maybelle K; Yew, Wen Shan

    2016-01-01

    Polyketides are structurally and functionally diverse secondary metabolites that are biosynthesized by polyketide synthases (PKSs) using acyl-CoA precursors. Recent studies in the engineering and structural characterization of PKSs have facilitated the use of target enzymes as biocatalysts to produce novel functionally optimized polyketides. These compounds may serve as potential drug leads. This review summarizes the insights gained from research on type III PKSs, from the discovery of chalcone synthase in plants to novel PKSs in bacteria and fungi. To date, at least 15 families of type III PKSs have been characterized, highlighting the utility of PKSs in the development of natural product libraries for therapeutic development. PMID:27338328

  14. Type III restriction-modification enzymes: a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Desirazu N.; Dryden, David T. F.; Bheemanaik, Shivakumara

    2014-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases interact with DNA at specific sites leading to cleavage of DNA. Bacterial DNA is protected from restriction endonuclease cleavage by modifying the DNA using a DNA methyltransferase. Based on their molecular structure, sequence recognition, cleavage position and cofactor requirements, restriction–modification (R–M) systems are classified into four groups. Type III R–M enzymes need to interact with two separate unmethylated DNA sequences in inversely repeated head-to-head orientations for efficient cleavage to occur at a defined location (25–27 bp downstream of one of the recognition sites). Like the Type I R–M enzymes, Type III R–M enzymes possess a sequence-specific ATPase activity for DNA cleavage. ATP hydrolysis is required for the long-distance communication between the sites before cleavage. Different models, based on 1D diffusion and/or 3D-DNA looping, exist to explain how the long-distance interaction between the two recognition sites takes place. Type III R–M systems are found in most sequenced bacteria. Genome sequencing of many pathogenic bacteria also shows the presence of a number of phase-variable Type III R–M systems, which play a role in virulence. A growing number of these enzymes are being subjected to biochemical and genetic studies, which, when combined with ongoing structural analyses, promise to provide details for mechanisms of DNA recognition and catalysis. PMID:23863841

  15. Microwave Type III Pair Bursts in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Baolin; Mészárosová, Hana; Karlický, Marian; Huang, Guangli; Tan, Chengming

    2016-03-01

    A solar microwave type III pair burst is composed of normal and reverse-sloped (RS) burst branches with oppositely fast frequency drifts. It is the most sensitive signature of the primary energy release and electron accelerations in flares. This work reports 11 microwave type III pair events in 9 flares observed by radio spectrometers in China and the Czech Republic at a frequency of 0.80-7.60 GHz during 1994-2014. These type III pairs occurred in flare impulsive and postflare phases with separate frequencies in the range of 1.08-3.42 GHz and a frequency gap of 10-1700 MHz. The frequency drift increases with the separate frequency (fx), the lifetime of each burst is anti-correlated to fx, while the frequency gap is independent of fx. In most events, the normal branches are drifting obviously faster than the RS branches. The type III pairs occurring in flare impulsive phase have lower separate frequencies, longer lifetimes, wider frequency gaps, and slower frequency drifts than that occurring in postflare phase. Also, the latter always has strong circular polarization. Further analysis indicates that near the flare energy release sites the plasma density is about {10}10{--}{10}11 cm-3 and the temperature is higher than 107 K. These results provide new constraints to the acceleration mechanism in solar flares.

  16. Interplanetary density models as inferred from solar Type III bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppeneiger, Lucas; Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Lammer, Helmut; Lichtenegger, Herbert

    2016-04-01

    We report on the density models derived from spectral features of solar Type III bursts. They are generated by beams of electrons travelling outward from the Sun along open magnetic field lines. Electrons generate Langmuir waves at the plasma frequency along their ray paths through the corona and the interplanetary medium. A large frequency band is covered by the Type III bursts from several MHz down to few kHz. In this analysis, we consider the previous empirical density models proposed to describe the electron density in the interplanetary medium. We show that those models are mainly based on the analysis of Type III bursts generated in the interplanetary medium and observed by satellites (e.g. RAE, HELIOS, VOYAGER, ULYSSES,WIND). Those models are confronted to stereoscopic observations of Type III bursts recorded by WIND, ULYSSES and CASSINI spacecraft. We discuss the spatial evolution of the electron beam along the interplanetary medium where the trajectory is an Archimedean spiral. We show that the electron beams and the source locations are depending on the choose of the empirical density models.

  17. The position and polarization of Type III solar bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, G. A.; Suzuki, S.

    1980-01-01

    The position and polarization of Type III solar bursts in the range of 24-220 MHz are studied, with emphasis on the bursts continuing to frequencies lower than 24 MHz. Consideration is given to the statistics of burst polarization, the relation between polarization and source position, and brightness temperature, flux densities, and source sizes.

  18. A tiny event producing an interplanetary type III burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alissandrakis, C. E.; Nindos, A.; Patsourakos, S.; Kontogeorgos, A.; Tsitsipis, P.

    2015-10-01

    Aims: We investigate the conditions under which small-scale energy release events in the low corona gave rise to strong interplanetary (IP) type III bursts. Methods: We analyzed observations of three tiny events, detected by the Nançay Radio Heliograph (NRH), two of which produced IP type III bursts. We took advantage of the NRH positioning information and of the high cadence of AIA/SDO data to identify the associated extreme-UV (EUV) emissions. We measured positions and time profiles of the metric and EUV sources. Results: We found that the EUV events that produced IP type III bursts were located near a coronal hole boundary, while the one that did not was located in a closed magnetic field region. In all three cases tiny flaring loops were involved, without any associated mass eruption. In the best observed case, the radio emission at the highest frequency (435 MHz) was displaced by ~55'' with respect to the small flaring loop. The metric type III emission shows a complex structure in space and in time, indicative of multiple electron beams, despite the low intensity of the events. From the combined analysis of dynamic spectra and NRH images, we derived the electron beam velocity as well as the height, ambient plasma temperature, and density at the level of formation of the 160 MHz emission. From the analysis of the differential emission measure derived from the AIA images, we found that the first evidence of energy release was at the footpoints, and this was followed by the development of flaring loops and subsequent cooling. Conclusions: Even small energy release events can accelerate enough electrons to give rise to powerful IP type III bursts. The proximity of the electron acceleration site to open magnetic field lines facilitates the escape of the electrons into the interplanetary space. The offset between the site of energy release and the metric type III location warrants further investigation. The movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Type II and Type III Radio Bursts and their Correlation with Solar Energetic Proton Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, L. M.; Ledbetter, K.

    2015-08-01

    Using the Wind/WAVES radio observations from 2010 to 2013, we present an analysis of the 123 decametric–hectometric (DH) type II solar radio bursts during this period, the associated type III burst properties, and their correlation with solar energetic proton (SEP) properties determined from analysis of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations. We present a useful catalog of the type II burst, type III burst, Langmuir wave, and proton flux properties for these 123 events, which we employ to develop a statistical relationship between the radio properties and peak proton flux that can be used to forecast SEP events. We find that all SEP events with a peak \\gt 10 MeV flux above 15 protons cm‑2 s‑1 sr‑1 are associated with a type II burst and virtually all SEP events, 92%, are also associated with a type III radio burst. Based on a principal component analysis, the radio burst properties that are most highly correlated with the occurrence of gradual SEP events and account for the most variance in the radio properties are the type III burst intensity and duration. Further, a logistic regression analysis with the radio-derived principal component (dominated by the type III and type II radio burst intensity and type III duration) obtains SEP predictions approaching the human forecaster rates, with a false alarm rate of 22%, a probability of detection of 62%, and with 85% of the classifications correct. Therefore, type III radio bursts that occur along with a DH type II burst are shown to be an important diagnostic that can be used to forecast SEP events.

  20. TYPE III EXCITABILITY, SLOPE SENSITIVITY AND COINCIDENCE DETECTION.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangying; Huguet, Gemma; Rinzel, John

    2012-08-01

    Some neurons in the nervous system do not show repetitive firing for steady currents. For time-varying inputs, they fire once if the input rise is fast enough. This property of phasic firing is known as Type III excitability. Type III excitability has been observed in neurons in the auditory brainstem (MSO), which show strong phase-locking and accurate coincidence detection. In this paper, we consider a Hodgkin-Huxley type model (RM03) that is widely-used for phasic MSO neurons and we compare it with a modification of it, showing tonic behavior. We provide insight into the temporal processing of these neuron models by means of developing and analyzing two reduced models that reproduce qualitatively the properties of the exemplar ones. The geometric and mathematical analysis of the reduced models allows us to detect and quantify relevant features for the temporal computation such as nearness to threshold and a temporal integration window. Our results underscore the importance of Type III excitability for precise coincidence detection. PMID:23667306

  1. Identification of type II and type III pyoverdine receptors from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    de Chial, Magaly; Ghysels, Bart; Beatson, Scott A; Geoffroy, Valérie; Meyer, Jean Marie; Pattery, Theresa; Baysse, Christine; Chablain, Patrice; Parsons, Yasmin N; Winstanley, Craig; Cordwell, Stuart J; Cornelis, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces, under conditions of iron limitation, a high-affinity siderophore, pyoverdine (PVD), which is recognized at the level of the outer membrane by a specific TonB-dependent receptor, FpvA. So far, for P. aeruginosa, three different PVDs, differing in their peptide chain, have been described (types I-III), but only the FpvA receptor for type I is known. Two PVD-producing P. aeruginosa strains, one type II and one type III, were mutagenized by a mini-TnphoA3 transposon. In each case, one mutant unable to grow in the presence of the strong iron chelator ethylenediaminedihydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHA) and the cognate PVD was selected. The first mutant, which had an insertion in the pvdE gene, upstream of fpvA, was unable to take up type II PVD and showed resistance to pyocin S3, which is known to use type II FpvA as receptor. The second mutant was unable to take up type III PVD and had the transposon insertion in fpvA. Cosmid libraries of the respective type II and type III PVD wild-type strains were constructed and screened for clones restoring the capacity to grow in the presence of PVD. From the respective complementing genomic fragments, type II and type III fpvA sequences were determined. When in trans, type II and type III fpvA restored PVD production, uptake, growth in the presence of EDDHA and, in the case of type II fpvA, pyocin S3 sensitivity. Complementation of fpvA mutants obtained by allelic exchange was achieved by the presence of cognate fpvA in trans. All three receptors posses an N-terminal extension of about 70 amino acids, similar to FecA of Escherichia coli, but only FpvAI has a TAT export sequence at its N-terminal end. PMID:12686625

  2. Spatial trends in Pearson Type III statistical parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichty, R.W.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Spatial trends in the statistical parameters (mean, standard deviation, and skewness coefficient) of a Pearson Type III distribution of the logarithms of annual flood peaks for small rural basins (less than 90 km2) are delineated using a climate factor CT, (T=2-, 25-, and 100-yr recurrence intervals), which quantifies the effects of long-term climatic data (rainfall and pan evaporation) on observed T-yr floods. Maps showing trends in average parameter values demonstrate the geographically varying influence of climate on the magnitude of Pearson Type III statistical parameters. The spatial trends in variability of the parameter values characterize the sensitivity of statistical parameters to the interaction of basin-runoff characteristics (hydrology) and climate. -from Authors

  3. EMISSION PATTERNS OF SOLAR TYPE III RADIO BURSTS: STEREOSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Thejappa, G.; Bergamo, M.; MacDowall, R. J. E-mail: mbergamo@umd.edu

    2012-02-01

    Simultaneous observations of solar type III radio bursts obtained by the STEREO A, B, and WIND spacecraft at low frequencies from different vantage points in the ecliptic plane are used to determine their directivity. The heliolongitudes of the sources of these bursts, estimated at different frequencies by assuming that they are located on the Parker spiral magnetic field lines emerging from the associated active regions into the spherically symmetric solar atmosphere, and the heliolongitudes of the spacecraft are used to estimate the viewing angle, which is the angle between the direction of the magnetic field at the source and the line connecting the source to the spacecraft. The normalized peak intensities at each spacecraft R{sub j} = I{sub j} /{Sigma}I{sub j} (the subscript j corresponds to the spacecraft STEREO A, B, and WIND), which are defined as the directivity factors are determined using the time profiles of the type III bursts. It is shown that the distribution of the viewing angles divides the type III bursts into: (1) bursts emitting into a very narrow cone centered around the tangent to the magnetic field with angular width of {approx}2 Degree-Sign and (2) bursts emitting into a wider cone with angular width spanning from {approx} - 100 Degree-Sign to {approx}100 Degree-Sign . The plots of the directivity factors versus the viewing angles of the sources from all three spacecraft indicate that the type III emissions are very intense along the tangent to the spiral magnetic field lines at the source, and steadily fall as the viewing angles increase to higher values. The comparison of these emission patterns with the computed distributions of the ray trajectories indicate that the intense bursts visible in a narrow range of angles around the magnetic field directions probably are emitted in the fundamental mode, whereas the relatively weaker bursts visible to a wide range of angles are probably emitted in the harmonic mode.

  4. Assembly and function of type III secretory systems.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, G R; Van Gijsegem, F

    2000-01-01

    Type III secretion systems allow Yersinia spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Bordetella spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli adhering at the surface of a eukaryotic cell to inject bacterial proteins across the two bacterial membranes and the eukaryotic cell membrane to destroy or subvert the target cell. These systems consist of a secretion apparatus, made of approximately 25 proteins, and an array of proteins released by this apparatus. Some of these released proteins are "effectors," which are delivered into the cytosol of the target cell, whereas the others are "translocators," which help the effectors to cross the membrane of the eukaryotic cell. Most of the effectors act on the cytoskeleton or on intracellular-signaling cascades. A protein injected by the enteropathogenic E. coli serves as a membrane receptor for the docking of the bacterium itself at the surface of the cell. Type III secretion systems also occur in plant pathogens where they are involved both in causing disease in susceptible hosts and in eliciting the so-called hypersensitive response in resistant or nonhost plants. They consist of 15-20 Hrp proteins building a secretion apparatus and two groups of effectors: harpins and avirulence proteins. Harpins are presumably secreted in the extracellular compartment, whereas avirulence proteins are thought to be targeted into plant cells. Although a coherent picture is clearly emerging, basic questions remain to be answered. In particular, little is known about how the type III apparatus fits together to deliver proteins in animal cells. It is even more mysterious for plant cells where a thick wall has to be crossed. In spite of these haunting questions, type III secretion appears as a fascinating trans-kingdom communication device. PMID:11018143

  5. Arthroscopic-Assisted Fixation of Ideberg Type III Glenoid Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Matthew A.; Garrigues, Grant E.

    2015-01-01

    Operative treatment of scapular fractures with extension into the glenoid can be a challenging clinical scenario. Though traditionally addressed in an open fashion, the morbidity of this approach, complemented by advancements in arthroscopic technique and instrumentation, has led to increasing use of arthroscopic-assisted fixation. We describe our technique, including pearls and pitfalls, for minimally invasive fixation of Ideberg type III glenoid fractures. This approach minimizes morbidity, allows optimal visualization and reduction, and provides good functional results. PMID:26052487

  6. Murine gammaherpesvirus targets type I IFN receptor but not type III IFN receptor early in infection.

    PubMed

    Lopušná, Katarína; Benkóczka, Tímea; Lupták, Jakub; Matúšková, Radka; Lukáčiková, Ľubomíra; Ovečková, Ingrid; Režuchová, Ingeborg

    2016-07-01

    The innate immune response represents a primary line of defense against invading viral pathogens. Since epithelial cells are the primary site of gammaherpesvirus replication during infection in vivo and there are no information on activity of IFN-III signaling against gammaherpesviruses in this cell type, in present study, we evaluated the expression profile and virus-host interactions in mouse mammary epithelial cell (NMuMG) infected with three strains of murine gammaherpesvirus, MHV-68, MHV-72 and MHV-4556. Studying three strains of murine gammaherpesvirus, which differ in nucleotide sequence of some structural and non-structural genes, allowed us to compare the strain-dependent interactions with host organism. Our results clearly demonstrate that: (i) MHV-68, MHV-72 and MHV-4556 differentially interact with intracellular signaling and dysregulate IFN signal transduction; (ii) MHV-68, MHV-72 and MHV-4556 degrade type I IFN receptor in very early stages of infection (2-4hpi), but not type III IFN receptor; (iii) type III IFN signaling might play a key role in antiviral defense of epithelial cells in early stages of murine gammaherpesvirus replication; (iv) NMuMG cells are an appropriate model for study of not only type I IFN signaling, but also type III IFN signaling pathway. These findings are important for better understanding of individual virus-host interactions in lytic as well as in persistent gammaherpesvirus replication and help us to elucidate IFN-III function in early events of virus infection. PMID:27152708

  7. [Treat Princes in Cordoue (9th-10th centuries)].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2016-03-01

    It is proposed, through biographic notes and historical reports, to observe the physicians/power relationships in one hand, and power/medical institutions relationships on the other, in Cordoue, during omeyades' emirate and caliphate, between the 9th and 10th centuries. The gathered information allows to describe the social position of physicians who received marks of favor from princes, but also served the power in place for various responsabilities. These documents are also able to make an evaluation of the role of princes for the development of medico-pharmaceutical subjects and give indications on the health of great figures, on their diseases and the conditions of their death. PMID:27281934

  8. A Qualitative Study of Recovery from Type III-B and III-C Tibial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Shauver, Melissa S.; Aravind, Maya S.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    The literature has shown that long-term outcomes for both below-knee amputation and reconstruction following type III-B and III-C tibial fracture are poor. Yet, patients often report satisfaction with their treatment and/or outcomes. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between patient outcomes and satisfaction after open tibial fractures via qualitative methodology. Twenty patients who were treated for open tibial fractures at one institution were selected using purposeful sampling and interviewed in-person in a semi-structured manner. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Despite reporting marked physical and psychosocial deficits, participants relayed high satisfaction. We hypothesize that the use adaptive coping techniques successfully reduces stress, which leads to an increase in coping self-efficacy that results in the further use of adaptive coping strategies, culminating in personal growth. This stress reduction and personal growth leads to satisfaction despite poor functional and emotional outcomes. PMID:20948418

  9. Insight into the flagella type III export revealed by the complex structure of the type III ATPase and its regulator.

    PubMed

    Imada, Katsumi; Minamino, Tohru; Uchida, Yumiko; Kinoshita, Miki; Namba, Keiichi

    2016-03-29

    FliI and FliJ form the FliI6FliJ ATPase complex of the bacterial flagellar export apparatus, a member of the type III secretion system. The FliI6FliJ complex is structurally similar to the α3β3γ complex of F1-ATPase. The FliH homodimer binds to FliI to connect the ATPase complex to the flagellar base, but the details are unknown. Here we report the structure of the homodimer of a C-terminal fragment of FliH (FliHC2) in complex with FliI. FliHC2 shows an unusually asymmetric homodimeric structure that markedly resembles the peripheral stalk of the A/V-type ATPases. The FliHC2-FliI hexamer model reveals that the C-terminal domains of the FliI ATPase face the cell membrane in a way similar to the F/A/V-type ATPases. We discuss the mechanism of flagellar ATPase complex formation and a common origin shared by the type III secretion system and the F/A/V-type ATPases. PMID:26984495

  10. A clinical study of canine collagen type III glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Collagen type III glomerulopathy (Col3GP), also known as collagenofibrotic glomerulonephropathy, is a rare renal disease with unknown pathogenesis that occurs in animals and humans. We recently described a naturally occurring canine autosomal recessive model of Col3GP, and the aim of the present work was to study the clinical features of canine Col3GP and compare with the human phenotype. In humans two different clinical syndromes with different age at onset (child- or adulthood) have been observed. In children a more aggressive course with familial occurrence is described, characterized by progressively increasing proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, hypertension and chronic renal failure. A markedly increased serum level of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) is considered a useful marker for the disease. Since Col3GP and concurrent hypocomplementemia have been observed in humans, we also aimed to investigate if hypocomplementemia was present in Col3GP affected dogs. A litter consisting of seven puppies, four Col3GP affected and three healthy unaffected, was observed from the day of birth until the affected puppies developed a mild or moderate renal azotemia. Results During the period of observation growth retardation, increasing blood pressure, progressive proteinuria, azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia and increased serum PIIINP were observed in all the affected dogs. Hypocomplementemia was not detected. Affected dogs were euthanized between 109 and 144 days of age, and pathological examinations revealed ascites and massive glomerular accumulations of collagen type III, consistent with Col3GP. Conclusions Dogs with Col3GP develop juvenile chronic renal failure, preceded by nephrotic syndrome, elevated serum PIIINP and hypertension, thus have similar clinical features as the juvenile Col3GP in humans. Further studies of this naturally occurring canine phenotype may provide more information on the pathogenesis and

  11. Modified Radical Mastoidectomy with Type III Tympanoplasty: Revisited.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Rashmi; Mourya, Ashish; Qureshi, Sadat; Sharma, Sandeep

    2016-03-01

    Chronic suppurative otitis media with cholesteatoma is a fairly common condition presenting in any ENT clinic and its surgery remains one of the most challenging surgeries in otology. The primary goal of cholesteatoma surgery is to clear the disease and produce a safe and stable ear but there is still debate on whether these goals are best achieved by canal wall down or canal wall up procedures. A retrospective study was done to access benefits of modified radical mastoidectomy (MRM) with type III tympanoplasty in terms of eradication of disease and hearing improvement. It consisted of 140 patients of chronic otitis media (attico-antral) who underwent MRM with type III tympanoplasty in 156 ears in a tertiary care centre. Temporalis fascia graft was used for tympanoplasty. Results were analyzed in terms of condition of cavity, condition of graft and gain in hearing. The study showed significant improvement in gain in air conduction (21.24 dB) and closure of AB gap (15.62 dB). In the Indian population with low socio-economic status and poor follow up, single stage canal wall down procedure (MRM) provides maximum benefit to patients in terms of eradication of disease and hearing improvement. PMID:27066411

  12. Wave-wave interactions in solar type III radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2014-02-11

    The high time resolution observations from the STEREO/WAVES experiment show that in type III radio bursts, the Langmuir waves often occur as localized magnetic field aligned coherent wave packets with durations of a few ms and with peak intensities well exceeding the strong turbulence thresholds. Some of these wave packets show spectral signatures of beam-resonant Langmuir waves, down- and up-shifted sidebands, and ion sound waves, with frequencies, wave numbers, and tricoherences satisfying the resonance conditions of the oscillating two stream instability (four wave interaction). The spectra of a few of these wave packets also contain peaks at f{sub pe}, 2f{sub pe} and 3 f{sub pe} (f{sub pe} is the electron plasma frequency), with frequencies, wave numbers and bicoherences (computed using the wavelet based bispectral analysis techniques) satisfying the resonance conditions of three wave interactions: (1) excitation of second harmonic electromagnetic waves as a result of coalescence of two oppositely propagating Langmuir waves, and (2) excitation of third harmonic electromagnetic waves as a result of coalescence of Langmuir waves with second harmonic electromagnetic waves. The implication of these findings is that the strong turbulence processes play major roles in beam stabilization as well as conversion of Langmuir waves into escaping radiation in type III radio bursts.

  13. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception) and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating). Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III), which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive. PMID:17915006

  14. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception) and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating). Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III), which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive. PMID:17915006

  15. Inhibition of Type III Interferon Activity by Orthopoxvirus Immunomodulatory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The type III interferon (IFN) family elicits an antiviral response that is nearly identical to that evoked by IFN-α/β. However, these cytokines (known as IFN-λ1, 2, and 3) signal through a distinct receptor, and thus may be resistant to the evasion strategies used by some viruses to avoid the IFN-α/β response. Orthopoxviruses are highly resistant to IFN-α/β because they encode well-characterized immunomodulatory proteins that inhibit IFN activity. These include a secreted receptor (B18R) that neutralizes IFN-α/β, and a cytoplasmic protein (E3L) that blocks IFN-α/β effector functions in infected cells. We therefore determined the ability of these immunomodulators to abrogate the IFN-λ–induced antiviral response. We found that (i) vaccinia virus (VACV) replication is resistant to IFN-λ antiviral activity; (ii) neither VACV B18R nor the variola virus homolog B20R neutralizes IFN-λ; (iii) VACV E3L inhibits the IFN-λ–mediated antiviral response through a PKR-dependent pathway; (iv) VACV infection inhibits IFN-λR–mediated signal transduction and gene expression. These results demonstrate differential sensitivity of IFN-λ to multiple distinct evasion mechanisms employed by a single virus. PMID:20038204

  16. Noncanonical Effects of IRF9 in Intestinal Inflammation: More than Type I and Type III Interferons

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Isabella; Rosebrock, Felix; Hainzl, Eva; Heider, Susanne; Majoros, Andrea; Wienerroither, Sebastian; Strobl, Birgit; Stockinger, Silvia; Kenner, Lukas; Müller, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) transcription factor with its Stat1, Stat2, and interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) subunits is employed for transcriptional responses downstream of receptors for type I interferons (IFN-I) that include IFN-α and IFN-β and type III interferons (IFN-III), also called IFN-λ. Here, we show in a murine model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis that IRF9 deficiency protects animals, whereas the combined loss of IFN-I and IFN-III receptors worsens their condition. We explain the different phenotypes by demonstrating a function of IRF9 in a noncanonical transcriptional complex with Stat1, apart from IFN-I and IFN-III signaling. Together, Stat1 and IRF9 produce a proinflammatory activity that overrides the benefits of the IFN-III response on intestinal epithelial cells. Our results further suggest that the CXCL10 chemokine gene is an important mediator of this proinflammatory activity. We thus establish IFN-λ as a potentially anticolitogenic cytokine and propose an important role for IRF9 as a component of noncanonical Stat complexes in the development of colitis. PMID:25918247

  17. Clark Lake microbursts - On a lower limit to type III burst brightness temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. M.; Kundu, M. R.; Szabo, A.

    1987-01-01

    Further observations of solar microbursts by the Clark Lake radioheliograph are reported. The microbursts have properties consistent with weak type III bursts, with the implication that type III's can have brightness temperatures as low as 1 million K. The importance of this result is explored. A single model to explain the stronger type III bursts and the weaker microbursts is sought. It is shown that none of the models for stabilizing the strongest type III electron streams can explain the observed microbursts: these models have threshold levels of Langmuir waves which imply emission (due to spontaneous scattering off ions) with brightness temperatures in excess of those observed. It appears that either some vital physics is still missing from models for type III bursts, or that microbursts should have properties significantly different from those of type III bursts. In the latter case further observations should allow important tests of type III models.

  18. The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database's 10th year anniversary: update 2015

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Allan Peter; Grondin, Cynthia J.; Lennon-Hopkins, Kelley; Saraceni-Richards, Cynthia; Sciaky, Daniela; King, Benjamin L.; Wiegers, Thomas C.; Mattingly, Carolyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Ten years ago, the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org/) was developed out of a need to formalize, harmonize and centralize the information on numerous genes and proteins responding to environmental toxic agents across diverse species. CTD's initial approach was to facilitate comparisons of nucleotide and protein sequences of toxicologically significant genes by curating these sequences and electronically annotating them with chemical terms from their associated references. Since then, however, CTD has vastly expanded its scope to robustly represent a triad of chemical–gene, chemical–disease and gene–disease interactions that are manually curated from the scientific literature by professional biocurators using controlled vocabularies, ontologies and structured notation. Today, CTD includes 24 million toxicogenomic connections relating chemicals/drugs, genes/proteins, diseases, taxa, phenotypes, Gene Ontology annotations, pathways and interaction modules. In this 10th year anniversary update, we outline the evolution of CTD, including our increased data content, new ‘Pathway View’ visualization tool, enhanced curation practices, pilot chemical–phenotype results and impending exposure data set. The prototype database originally described in our first report has transformed into a sophisticated resource used actively today to help scientists develop and test hypotheses about the etiologies of environmentally influenced diseases. PMID:25326323

  19. The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database's 10th year anniversary: update 2015.

    PubMed

    Davis, Allan Peter; Grondin, Cynthia J; Lennon-Hopkins, Kelley; Saraceni-Richards, Cynthia; Sciaky, Daniela; King, Benjamin L; Wiegers, Thomas C; Mattingly, Carolyn J

    2015-01-01

    Ten years ago, the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org/) was developed out of a need to formalize, harmonize and centralize the information on numerous genes and proteins responding to environmental toxic agents across diverse species. CTD's initial approach was to facilitate comparisons of nucleotide and protein sequences of toxicologically significant genes by curating these sequences and electronically annotating them with chemical terms from their associated references. Since then, however, CTD has vastly expanded its scope to robustly represent a triad of chemical-gene, chemical-disease and gene-disease interactions that are manually curated from the scientific literature by professional biocurators using controlled vocabularies, ontologies and structured notation. Today, CTD includes 24 million toxicogenomic connections relating chemicals/drugs, genes/proteins, diseases, taxa, phenotypes, Gene Ontology annotations, pathways and interaction modules. In this 10th year anniversary update, we outline the evolution of CTD, including our increased data content, new 'Pathway View' visualization tool, enhanced curation practices, pilot chemical-phenotype results and impending exposure data set. The prototype database originally described in our first report has transformed into a sophisticated resource used actively today to help scientists develop and test hypotheses about the etiologies of environmentally influenced diseases. PMID:25326323

  20. High-Frequency Cutoff in Type III Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislavsky, A. A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Volvach, Ya. S.; Koval, A. A.

    In this article we report about a group of solar bursts with high-frequency cutoff, observed on 19 August of 2012 near 8:23 UT, simultaneously by three different radio telescopes: the Ukrainian decameter radio telescope (8-33 MHz), the French Nancay Decametric Array (10-70 MHz) and the Italian San Vito Solar Observatory of RSTN (25-180 MHz). Morphologically the bursts are very similar to the type III bursts. The solar activity is connected with the emergency of a new group of solar spots on the far side of the Sun with respect to observers on Earth. The solar bursts accompany many moderate flares over eastern limb. The refraction of the behind-limb radio bursts towards the Earth is favorable, if CMEs generate low-density cavities in solar corona.

  1. Yersinia Type III Secretion System Master Regulator LcrF

    PubMed Central

    Schwiesow, Leah; Lam, Hanh

    2015-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens express a type III secretion (T3SS) system to enable growth and survival within a host. The three human-pathogenic Yersinia species, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica, encode the Ysc T3SS, whose expression is controlled by an AraC-like master regulator called LcrF. In this review, we discuss LcrF structure and function as well as the environmental cues and pathways known to regulate LcrF expression. Similarities and differences in binding motifs and modes of action between LcrF and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa homolog ExsA are summarized. In addition, we present a new bioinformatics analysis that identifies putative LcrF binding sites within Yersinia target gene promoters. PMID:26644429

  2. Type III radio source located by Ulysses/Wind triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Kaiser, M. L.; Stone, R. G.

    1998-02-01

    Radio triangulation from the widely separated Ulysses and Wind spacecraft is used to reconstruct the trajectory of a type III radio burst in the 3D heliosphere. The derived radio trajectory follows a (Parker) spiral path corresponding to a solar wind speed of about 200 km/s and progresses to the south of the ecliptic plane. These remote radio observations also measure the interplanetary plasma density along the path of the radio source. The derived average density-distance scale is very similar to the previously derived RAE density scale, which was determined in a different way. The results of the radio triangulation, combined with a drift rate analysis, give an average electron exciter speed of about 0.3 c. The radio source size and the brightness temperature as viewed from Ulysses and Wind are determined and compared as a function of observing frequency.

  3. Surgical management of Mason type III radial head fractures

    PubMed Central

    Miller, George; Humadi, Ali; Unni, Raghavan; Hau, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    The evidence for optimal management of Mason type III fracture of radial head is unclear hence a systematic review of the published literature was performed in April 2012. This review includes 5 prospective studies (including 2 randomized trials), 4 retrospective studies and 9 case series. No study can be interpreted as level 1 evidence. Level 2 and 3 evidence provides some insight into the success of each modality through subjective and objective measurements of function and complication rates. Radial head replacement, open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) and radial head resection all provide satisfactory outcomes for patients in most cases. One treatment modality cannot be recommended over any other due to the small number of clinical trials and cases included in each study. Further randomized control trials are needed to evaluate the full benefits and shortcomings of each of the different surgical treatment modalities. PMID:23960274

  4. Yersinia Type III Secretion System Master Regulator LcrF.

    PubMed

    Schwiesow, Leah; Lam, Hanh; Dersch, Petra; Auerbuch, Victoria

    2016-02-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens express a type III secretion (T3SS) system to enable growth and survival within a host. The three human-pathogenic Yersinia species, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica, encode the Ysc T3SS, whose expression is controlled by an AraC-like master regulator called LcrF. In this review, we discuss LcrF structure and function as well as the environmental cues and pathways known to regulate LcrF expression. Similarities and differences in binding motifs and modes of action between LcrF and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa homolog ExsA are summarized. In addition, we present a new bioinformatics analysis that identifies putative LcrF binding sites within Yersinia target gene promoters. PMID:26644429

  5. Near-Relativistic Solar Electrons and Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    Recently it has been found that the inferred injection times of greater than 25 keV electrons are up to 30 minutes later than the start times of the associated type III radio bursts at the Sun. Thus it has been suggested that the electrons that produce type III bursts do not belong to the same population as those observed above 25 keV. This paper examines the characteristics and circumstances of 79 solar electron beam events measured on the ACE spacecraft. Particular attention is paid to the very low frequency emissions of the associated radio bursts and the ambient conditions at the arrival times of the electrons at the spacecraft. It is found that the inferred greater than 25 keV electron injection delays are correlated with the times required for the associated radio bursts to drift to the lowest frequencies. This suggests that the electrons responsible for the radio emission and those observed above 25 keV are part of a single population, and that the electrons both above and below 25 keV are delayed in the interplanetary medium. Further evidence for a single population is the general correspondence between electron and local radio intensities and temporal profiles. It is found that the delays increase with the ambient solar wind density consistent with the propagation times of the electrons being determined by the characteristics of the interplanetary medium. However it is known that particle arrival times at 1 AU are a linear function of inverse particle speed. Conventionally such a relationship is taken to indicate scatter-free propagation when inferred path lengths lie close to 1.2 AU, as they do for the electron events studied here. These conflicting interpretations require further investigation.

  6. Response of a Type III waste tank to hydrogen deflagration

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Chung; Jerrell, J.W.; Pelfrey, J.R.; Yau, W.W.F.

    1992-01-01

    The type III waste tank is built with ASTM A516 Grade 70 steel shells in the shape of a torus with a central concrete core. The tank is buried underground and covered with a four foot thick reinforced concrete slab. The tank is enriched by 2.5 foot thick reinforced concrete wall. Between the tank surface and the wall there is a 2.5 foot annular space. The tank itself is called the primary liner.'' The interior surface of the concrete wall is line with steel plates, called the secondary liner.'' The base of the tank rests on a concrete mat. Underneath the mat the secondary liner extends from the wall to the central column surfaces. The bottom liner is attached to the reinforced concrete foundation. Based on the conditions that the tank is filled with liquid wastes to 50% of the design capacity, and that the accumulation of hydrogen becomes 20% inside its free board, the resulting deflagration would cause an overpressure of 100 psig in the tank (Wallace and Yau, 1986). The task of this analysis is to simulate the hydrogen deflagration'' scenario in the Type III Waste Tank complex. During the deflagration, the stresses in the steel tank would be expected to exceed the elastic limit of the steel and the tank would then undergo large deformation. The concrete roof slab could be fractured by the expansion of the tank. The central concrete column would start to exhibit large deformation first. All the structural members in the system are expected to interact drastically during the deflagration.

  7. Response of a Type III waste tank to hydrogen deflagration

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Chung; Jerrell, J.W.; Pelfrey, J.R.; Yau, W.W.F.

    1992-05-01

    The type III waste tank is built with ASTM A516 Grade 70 steel shells in the shape of a torus with a central concrete core. The tank is buried underground and covered with a four foot thick reinforced concrete slab. The tank is enriched by 2.5 foot thick reinforced concrete wall. Between the tank surface and the wall there is a 2.5 foot annular space. The tank itself is called the ``primary liner.`` The interior surface of the concrete wall is line with steel plates, called the ``secondary liner.`` The base of the tank rests on a concrete mat. Underneath the mat the secondary liner extends from the wall to the central column surfaces. The bottom liner is attached to the reinforced concrete foundation. Based on the conditions that the tank is filled with liquid wastes to 50% of the design capacity, and that the accumulation of hydrogen becomes 20% inside its free board, the resulting deflagration would cause an overpressure of 100 psig in the tank [Wallace and Yau, 1986]. The task of this analysis is to simulate the ``hydrogen deflagration`` scenario in the Type III Waste Tank complex. During the deflagration, the stresses in the steel tank would be expected to exceed the elastic limit of the steel and the tank would then undergo large deformation. The concrete roof slab could be fractured by the expansion of the tank. The central concrete column would start to exhibit large deformation first. All the structural members in the system are expected to interact drastically during the deflagration.

  8. Hereditary angioedema with normal C1-INH (HAE type III).

    PubMed

    Riedl, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with normal C1 inhibitor (C1-INH), also known as HAE type III, is a familial condition only clinically recognized within the past three decades. Similar to HAE from C1-INH deficiency (HAE types I and II), affected individuals experience unpredictable angioedema episodes of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and airway. Unique clinical features of HAE with normal C1-INH include the predominance of affected women, frequent exacerbation by estrogen, and a prominence of angioedema that involves the face and oropharynx. The underlying pathophysiology of HAE with normal C1-INH is poorly understood, but indirect evidence points to contact pathway dysregulation with bradykinin-mediated angioedema. Currently, evaluation is complicated by a lack of confirmatory laboratory testing such that clinical criteria must often be used to make the diagnosis of HAE with normal C1-INH. Factor XII mutations have been identified in only a minority of persons affected by HAE with normal C1-INH, limiting the utility of such analysis. To date, no controlled clinical studies have examined the efficacy of therapeutic agents for HAE with normal C1-INH, although published evidence supports frequent clinical benefit with medications shown effective in HAE due to C1-INH deficiency. PMID:24565612

  9. Antiviral Type I and Type III Interferon Responses in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Sorgeloos, Frédéric; Kreit, Marguerite; Hermant, Pascale; Lardinois, Cécile; Michiels, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) harbors highly differentiated cells, such as neurons that are essential to coordinate the functions of complex organisms. This organ is partly protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) from toxic substances and pathogens carried in the bloodstream. Yet, neurotropic viruses can reach the CNS either by crossing the BBB after viremia, or by exploiting motile infected cells as Trojan horses, or by using axonal transport. Type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that are critical to control early steps of viral infections. Deficiencies in the IFN pathway have been associated with fatal viral encephalitis both in humans and mice. Therefore, the IFN system provides an essential protection of the CNS against viral infections. Yet, basal activity of the IFN system appears to be low within the CNS, likely owing to the toxicity of IFN to this organ. Moreover, after viral infection, neurons and oligodendrocytes were reported to be relatively poor IFN producers and appear to keep some susceptibility to neurotropic viruses, even in the presence of IFN. This review addresses some trends and recent developments concerning the role of type I and type III IFNs in: i) preventing neuroinvasion and infection of CNS cells; ii) the identity of IFN-producing cells in the CNS; iii) the antiviral activity of ISGs; and iv) the activity of viral proteins of neurotropic viruses that target the IFN pathway. PMID:23503326

  10. Thermal stability of type I and type III procollagens from normal human fibroblasts and from a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, L; Palotie, A; Hayashi, T; Prockop, D J

    1980-01-01

    Type I and type III procollagens were isolated from the medium of human fibroblast cultures in amounts adequate for examination by circular dichroism. Type I procollagen had a spectrum similar to that of type I procollagen and collagen from chicken embryos. The human type III procollagen showed a red shift not seen in type III collagen from calf skin. The midpoint (tm) for the helix-to-coil transition for both human procollagens was 40 degrees C. the same tm values were obtained with type I and type III procollagens synthesized by fibroblasts from a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta. Type I procollagen synthesized by the patient's fibroblasts, however, tended to aggregate more readily than type I procollagen from normal human fibroblasts, apparently because of a structural alteration of the protein. PMID:6928611

  11. Adsorptive separation of rhodium(III) using Fe(III)-templated oxine type of chemically modified chitosan

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, M.S.; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu; Ishibashi, Hideaki

    1998-03-01

    The oxine type of chemically modified chitosan was prepared by the template crosslinking method using Fe(III) as a template ion. Batchwise adsorption of rhodium(III) on this chemically modified chitosan was examined from chloride media in the absence and presence of a large amount of tin(II). It was observed that the Fe(III)-templated oxine type of chemically modified chitosan shows better performance for rhodium adsorption than that of the original chitosan. When Sn(II) is absent from the solution, Rh(III) is hardly adsorbed on the modified chitosan and the order of selectivity of the adsorption of Rh(III), Pt(IV), and Cu(II) was found to be Pt(IV) > Cu(II) {approx} Rh(III). On the other hand, adsorption of rhodium is significantly increased in the presence of Sn(II) and the selectivity order of the adsorption was drastically changed to Rh(III) > Pt(IV) {much_gt} Cu(II), which ensures selective separation of Rh(III) from their mixture. Adsorption of Rh(III) increases with an increase in the concentration of Sn(II) in the aqueous solution, and maximum adsorption is achieved at a molar ratio, [Sn]/[Rh], of >6. The adsorption of Rh(III) decreases at a high concentration of hydrochloric acid. The maximum adsorption capacity was evaluated to be 0.92 mol/kg-dry adsorbent. Stripping tests of rhodium from the loaded chemically modified chitosan were carried out using different kinds of stripping agents containing some oxidizing agent. The maximum stripping of rhodium under these experimental conditions was found to be 72.5% by a single contact with 0.5 M HCl + 8 M HNO{sub 3}.

  12. Solar Flares, Type III Radio Bursts, CMEs, and Energetic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the fact that it has been well known since the earliest observations that solar energetic particle events are well associated with solar flares it is often considered that the association is not physically significant. Instead, in large events, the particles are considered to be only accelerated at a shock driven by the coronal mass ejection (CME) that is also always present. If particles are accelerated in the associated flare, it is claimed that such particles do not find access to open field lines and therefore do not escape from the low corona. However recent work has established that long lasting type III radio bursts extending to low frequencies are associated with all prompt solar particle events. Such bursts establish the presence of open field lines. Furthermore, tracing the radio bursts to the lowest frequencies, generated near the observer, shows that the radio producing electrons gain access to a region of large angular extent. It is likely that the electrons undergo cross field transport and it seems reasonable that ions do also. Such observations indicate that particle propagation in the inner heliosphere is not yet fully understood. They also imply that the contribution of flare particles in major particle events needs to be properly addressed.

  13. The Structure and Function of Type III Secretion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Notti, Ryan Q.; Stebbins, C. Erec

    2015-01-01

    ARTICLE SUMMARY Type III secretion systems (T3SS) afford gram-negative bacteria a most intimate means of altering the biology of their eukaryotic hosts — the direct delivery of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to that of the eukaryote. This incredible biophysical feat is accomplished by nanosyringe “injectisomes,” which form a conduit across the three plasma membranes, peptidoglycan layer and extracellular space that form a barrier to the direct delivery of proteins from bacterium to host. The focus of this chapter is T3SS function at the structural level; we will summarize the core findings that have shaped our understanding of the structure and function of these systems and highlight recent developments in the field. In turn, we describe the T3SS secretory apparatus, consider its engagement with secretion substrates, and discuss the post-translational regulation of secretory function. Lastly, we close with a discussion of the future prospects for the interrogation of structure-function relationships in the T3SS. PMID:26999392

  14. Functional Activation of the Flagellar Type III Secretion Export Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Andrew M.; Calvo, Rebecca A.; Kearns, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Flagella are assembled sequentially from the inside-out with morphogenetic checkpoints that enforce the temporal order of subunit addition. Here we show that flagellar basal bodies fail to proceed to hook assembly at high frequency in the absence of the monotopic protein SwrB of Bacillus subtilis. Genetic suppressor analysis indicates that SwrB activates the flagellar type III secretion export apparatus by the membrane protein FliP. Furthermore, mutants defective in the flagellar C-ring phenocopy the absence of SwrB for reduced hook frequency and C-ring defects may be bypassed either by SwrB overexpression or by a gain-of-function allele in the polymerization domain of FliG. We conclude that SwrB enhances the probability that the flagellar basal body adopts a conformation proficient for secretion to ensure that rod and hook subunits are not secreted in the absence of a suitable platform on which to polymerize. PMID:26244495

  15. The Type III Secretion Translocation Pore Senses Host Cell Contact

    PubMed Central

    Armentrout, Erin I.; Rietsch, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are nano-syringes used by a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens to promote infection by directly injecting effector proteins into targeted host cells. Translocation of effectors is triggered by host-cell contact and requires assembly of a pore in the host-cell plasma membrane, which consists of two translocator proteins. Our understanding of the translocation pore, how it is assembled in the host cell membrane and its precise role in effector translocation, is extremely limited. Here we use a genetic technique to identify protein-protein contacts between pore-forming translocator proteins, as well as the T3SS needle-tip, that are critical for translocon function. The data help establish the orientation of the translocator proteins in the host cell membrane. Analysis of translocon function in mutants that break these contacts demonstrates that an interaction between the pore-forming translocator PopD and the needle-tip is required for sensing host cell contact. Moreover, tethering PopD at a dimer interface also specifically prevents host-cell sensing, arguing that the translocation pore is actively involved in detecting host cell contact. The work presented here therefore establishes a signal transduction pathway for sensing host cell contact that is initiated by a conformational change in the translocation pore, and is subsequently transmitted to the base of the apparatus via a specific contact between the pore and the T3SS needle-tip. PMID:27022930

  16. Transgenic silkworms produce recombinant human type III procollagen in cocoons.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Masahiro; Munetsuna, Hiroto; Sato, Tsutomu; Adachi, Takahiro; Hino, Rika; Hayashi, Masahiro; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Namiko; Tamura, Toshiki; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

    2003-01-01

    We describe the generation of transgenic silkworms that produce cocoons containing recombinant human collagen. A fusion cDNA was constructed encoding a protein that incorporated a human type III procollagen mini-chain with C-propeptide deleted, a fibroin light chain (L-chain), and an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). This cDNA was ligated downstream of the fibroin L-chain promoter and inserted into a piggyBac vector. Silkworm eggs were injected with the vectors, producing worms displaying EGFP fluorescence in their silk glands. The cocoons emitted EGFP fluorescence, indicating that the promoter and fibroin L-chain cDNAs directed the synthesized products to be secreted into cocoons. The presence of fusion proteins in cocoons was demonstrated by immunoblotting, collagenase-sensitivity tests, and amino acid sequencing. The fusion proteins from cocoons were purified to a single electrophoretic band. This study demonstrates the viability of transgenic silkworms as a tool for producing useful proteins in bulk. PMID:12483223

  17. GOES Type III Loop Heat Pipe Life Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenstein, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The GOES Type III Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was built as a life test unit for the loop heat pipes on the GOES N-Q series satellites. This propylene LHP was built by Dynatherm Corporation in 2000 and tested continuously for approximately 14 months. It was then put into storage for 3 years. Following the storage period, the LHP was tested at Swales Aerospace to verify that the loop performance hadn t changed. Most test results were consistent with earlier results. At the conclusion of testing at Swales, the LHP was transferred to NASA/GSFC for continued periodic testing. The LHP has been set up for testing in the Thermal Lab at GSFC since 2006. A group of tests consisting of start-ups, power cycles, and a heat transport limit test have been performed every six to nine months since March 2006. Tests results have shown no change in the loop performance over the five years of testing. This presentation will discuss the test hardware, test set-up, and tests performed. Test results to be presented include sample plots from individual tests, along with conductance measurements for all tests performed.

  18. Polarization and position measurements of Type III bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, S.; Sheridan, K. V.; Dulk, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    The positional and polarization characteristics of Type III bursts in the range 24-220 MHz as measured by the Culgoora radioheliograph, spectrograph and spectropolarimeter are reported. The study includes 997 bursts which are of two classes: fundamental-harmonic (F-H) pairs and 'structureless' bursts with no visible F-H structure, and concentrates on the polarization of the bursts and the variation of polarization from centre to limb. The observed centre-to-limb decrease in polarization approximately follows a cosine law. This decrease is not as predicted by simple theory but is consistent with other observations which imply that open field lines from an active region diverge strongly. The observed o-mode polarization of harmonic radiation implies that the wave vectors of Langmuir waves are always parallel, within about 20 deg, to the magnetic field, while the constancy of H polarization with frequency implies that the ratio of gyromagnetic to plasma frequency, the Alfven speed and the plasma beta are constant with height on the open field lines above an active region. Finally, it is inferred that some factor, in addition to the magnetic field strength, controls the polarization of F radiation.

  19. RIEGER-TYPE PERIODICITY IN THE OCCURRENCE OF SOLAR TYPE III RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lobzin, V. V.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    2012-08-01

    This Letter presents the first observations of a Rieger-type periodicity with the period of 156{sub -9}{sup +19} days in the occurrence rate of solar coronal type III radio bursts. The periodicity was detected during the time interval from 2000 June 22 to 2003 December 31. This interval partially contains the maximum and the declining phase of solar cycle 23. The radio spectra were provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory in Western Australia, part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network.

  20. Rieger-type Periodicity in the Occurrence of Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, V. V.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    2012-08-01

    This Letter presents the first observations of a Rieger-type periodicity with the period of 156{+19\\atop -9} days in the occurrence rate of solar coronal type III radio bursts. The periodicity was detected during the time interval from 2000 June 22 to 2003 December 31. This interval partially contains the maximum and the declining phase of solar cycle 23. The radio spectra were provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory in Western Australia, part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network.

  1. A statistical study of solar type III bursts and auroral kilometric radiation onsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1985-10-01

    Simultaneous occurrences of type III solar radio bursts and auroral kilometric radiation were observed by Calvert (1981) using ISEE 1 spectrograms. Calvert presented evidence suggesting that the incoming type III burst stimulates the onset of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR). This paper presents a statistical study of the correlation between type III bursts and auroral kilometric radiation. A superposed epoch analysis was performed on as many as 186 type III events. The type III bursts were detected by the ISEE 3 spacecraft on the sunward side of the earth. At the same time the IMP 8 spacecraft was used to detect onsets of kilometric radiation on the nightside of the earth. For each event the intensities measured by ISEE 3 (type III intensities) were subtracted from the intensities measured by IMP 8 (type III and possible AKR intensities). The resulting intensities for each event were then added to determine if kilometric radiation was preferentially observed following a type III burst. This analysis was performed at frequencies of 100, 178, and 500 kHz. The results of this study show that a statistically significant correlation exists between incoming type III bursts from the sun and kilometric radiation from the earth.

  2. Yersinia type III effectors perturb host innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Pha, Khavong; Navarro, Lorena

    2016-02-26

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells recognize molecular patterns from the pathogen and mount a response to resolve the infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, phagocytosis, and induced programmed cell death are processes initiated by innate immune cells in order to combat invading pathogens. However, pathogens have evolved various virulence mechanisms to subvert these responses. One strategy utilized by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the deployment of a complex machine termed the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is composed of a syringe-like needle structure and the effector proteins that are injected directly into a target host cell to disrupt a cellular response. The three human pathogenic Yersinia spp. (Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis) are Gram-negative bacteria that share in common a 70 kb virulence plasmid which encodes the T3SS. Translocation of the Yersinia effector proteins (YopE, YopH, YopT, YopM, YpkA/YopO, and YopP/J) into the target host cell results in disruption of the actin cytoskeleton to inhibit phagocytosis, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and induction of cellular apoptosis of the target cell. Over the past 25 years, studies on the Yersinia effector proteins have unveiled tremendous knowledge of how the effectors enhance Yersinia virulence. Recently, the long awaited crystal structure of YpkA has been solved providing further insights into the activation of the YpkA kinase domain. Multisite autophosphorylation by YpkA to activate its kinase domain was also shown and postulated to serve as a mechanism to bypass regulation by host phosphatases. In addition, novel Yersinia effector protein targets, such as caspase-1, and signaling pathways including activation of the inflammasome were identified. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries made on Yersinia

  3. Protein export through the bacterial flagellar type III export pathway.

    PubMed

    Minamino, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. PMID:24064315

  4. Yersinia type III effectors perturb host innate immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Pha, Khavong; Navarro, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells recognize molecular patterns from the pathogen and mount a response to resolve the infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, phagocytosis, and induced programmed cell death are processes initiated by innate immune cells in order to combat invading pathogens. However, pathogens have evolved various virulence mechanisms to subvert these responses. One strategy utilized by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the deployment of a complex machine termed the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is composed of a syringe-like needle structure and the effector proteins that are injected directly into a target host cell to disrupt a cellular response. The three human pathogenic Yersinia spp. (Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis) are Gram-negative bacteria that share in common a 70 kb virulence plasmid which encodes the T3SS. Translocation of the Yersinia effector proteins (YopE, YopH, YopT, YopM, YpkA/YopO, and YopP/J) into the target host cell results in disruption of the actin cytoskeleton to inhibit phagocytosis, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and induction of cellular apoptosis of the target cell. Over the past 25 years, studies on the Yersinia effector proteins have unveiled tremendous knowledge of how the effectors enhance Yersinia virulence. Recently, the long awaited crystal structure of YpkA has been solved providing further insights into the activation of the YpkA kinase domain. Multisite autophosphorylation by YpkA to activate its kinase domain was also shown and postulated to serve as a mechanism to bypass regulation by host phosphatases. In addition, novel Yersinia effector protein targets, such as caspase-1, and signaling pathways including activation of the inflammasome were identified. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries made on Yersinia

  5. Cerebrolysin Ameloriates Cognitive Deficits in Type III Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Georgy, Gehan S; Nassar, Noha N; Mansour, Hanaa A; Abdallah, Dalaal M

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrolysin (CBL), a mixture of several active peptide fragments and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is currently used in the management of cognitive alterations in patients with dementia. Since Cognitive decline as well as increased dementia are strongly associated with diabetes and previous studies addressed the protective effect of BDNF in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes; hence this work aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of CBL in modulating the complications of hyperglycaemia experimentally induced by streptozotocin (STZ) on the rat brain hippocampus. To this end, male adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into (i) vehicle- (ii) CBL- and (iii) STZ diabetic-control as well as (iv) STZ+CBL groups. Diabetes was confirmed by hyperglycemia and elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c%), which were associated by weight loss, elevated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and decreased insulin growth factor (IGF)-1β in the serum. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia caused learning and memory impairments that corroborated degenerative changes, neuronal loss and expression of caspase (Casp)-3 in the hippocampal area of STZ-diabetic rats. Behavioral deficits were associated by decreased hippocampal glutamate (GLU), glycine, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine. Moreover, diabetic rats showed an increase in hippocampal nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances versus decreased non-protein sulfhydryls. Though CBL did not affect STZ-induced hyperglycemia, it partly improved body weight as well as HbA1c%. Such effects were associated by enhancement in both learning and memory as well as apparent normal cellularity in CA1and CA3 areas and reduced Casp-3 expression. CBL improved serum TNF-α and IGF-1β, GLU and 5-HT as well as hampering oxidative biomarkers. In conclusion, CBL possesses neuroprotection against diabetes-associated cerebral neurodegeneration and cognitive decline via anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and

  6. A note on tilted Bianchi type VIh models: the type III bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, A. A.; Hervik, S.

    2008-10-01

    In this note we complete the analysis of Hervik, van den Hoogen, Lim and Coley (2007 Class. Quantum Grav. 24 3859) of the late-time behaviour of tilted perfect fluid Bianchi type III models. We consider models with dust, and perfect fluids stiffer than dust, and eludicate the late-time behaviour by studying the centre manifold which dominates the behaviour of the model at late times. In the dust case, this centre manifold is three-dimensional and can be considered a double bifurcation as the two parameters (h and γ) of the type VIh model are varied. We therefore complete the analysis of the late-time behaviour of tilted ever-expanding Bianchi models of types I VIII.

  7. Immunomodulation by the Pseudomonas syringae HopZ Type III Effector Family in Aribidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae employs a type III secretion system to inject 20-30 different type III effector (T3SE) proteins into plant host cells. A major role of T3SEs is to suppress plant immune responses and promote bacterial infection. The YopJ/HopZ acetyltransferases are a superfamily of T3SEs found i...

  8. 77 FR 76382 - Payout Requirements for Type III Supporting Organizations That Are Not Functionally Integrated

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...This document contains both final regulations and temporary regulations regarding the requirements to qualify as a Type III supporting organization that is operated in connection with one or more supported organizations. The regulations reflect changes to the law made by the Pension Protection Act of 2006. The regulations will affect Type III supporting organizations and their supported......

  9. ROLE OF TYPE III PROTEIN SECRETION SYSTEM IN SINORHIZOBIUM FREDII USDA257 AND SOYBEAN INTERACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant and animal pathogenic bacteria have evolved a specialized protein secretion system called type III to directly inject proteins into their host cells. The Type III secretion system (TTSS) plays an important role in plant-microbe interactions since mutation in TTSS causes a loss of bacterial pa...

  10. Antiviral activity of bovine type III interferon against foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interferons (IFN) are the first line of defense against viral infections. Recently a new family of IFNs, type III, has been identified in humans, mice, swine and chickens. Here we report the identification and characterization of a member of the bovine type III IFN family, boIFN-lambda3, also known...

  11. 46 CFR 171.082 - Damage stability standards for vessels with Type III subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Damage stability standards for vessels with Type III...) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Large Vessels § 171.082 Damage stability standards for vessels with Type III subdivision. (a) Each vessel must be shown by...

  12. HCV infection selectively impairs type I but not type III IFN signaling.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Partha K; Bao, Lili; Song, Kyoungsub; Aboulnasr, Fatma M; Baker, Darren P; Shores, Nathan; Wimley, William C; Liu, Shuanghu; Hagedorn, Curt H; Fuchs, Serge Y; Wu, Tong; Balart, Luis A; Dash, Srikanta

    2014-01-01

    A stable and persistent Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication cell culture model was developed to examine clearance of viral replication during long-term treatment using interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-λ, and ribavirin (RBV). Persistently HCV-infected cell culture exhibited an impaired antiviral response to IFN-α+RBV combination treatment, whereas IFN-λ treatment produced a strong and sustained antiviral response that cleared HCV replication. HCV replication in persistently infected cells induced chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and an autophagy response that selectively down-regulated the functional IFN-α receptor-1 chain of type I, but not type II (IFN-γ) or type III (IFN-λ) IFN receptors. Down-regulation of IFN-α receptor-1 resulted in defective JAK-STAT signaling, impaired STAT phosphorylation, and impaired nuclear translocation of STAT. Furthermore, HCV replication impaired RBV uptake, because of reduced expression of the nucleoside transporters ENT1 and CNT1. Silencing ER stress and the autophagy response using chemical inhibitors or siRNA additively inhibited HCV replication and induced viral clearance by the IFN-α+RBV combination treatment. These results indicate that HCV induces ER stress and that the autophagy response selectively impairs type I (but not type III) IFN signaling, which explains why IFN-λ (but not IFN-α) produced a sustained antiviral response against HCV. The results also indicate that inhibition of ER stress and of the autophagy response overcomes IFN-α+RBV resistance mechanisms associated with HCV infection. PMID:24215913

  13. HCV Infection Selectively Impairs Type I but Not Type III IFN Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Partha K.; Bao, Lili; Song, Kyoungsub; Aboulnasr, Fatma M.; Baker, Darren P.; Shores, Nathan; Wimley, William C.; Liu, Shuanghu; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Fuchs, Serge Y.; Wu, Tong; Balart, Luis A.; Dash, Srikanta

    2015-01-01

    A stable and persistent Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication cell culture model was developed to examine clearance of viral replication during long-term treatment using interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-λ, and ribavirin (RBV). Persistently HCV-infected cell culture exhibited an impaired antiviral response to IFN-α+RBV combination treatment, whereas IFN-λ treatment produced a strong and sustained antiviral response that cleared HCV replication. HCV replication in persistently infected cells induced chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and an autophagy response that selectively down-regulated the functional IFN-α receptor-1 chain of type I, but not type II (IFN-γ) or type III (IFN-λ) IFN receptors. Down-regulation of IFN-α receptor-1 resulted in defective JAK–STAT signaling, impaired STAT phosphorylation, and impaired nuclear translocation of STAT. Furthermore, HCV replication impaired RBV uptake, because of reduced expression of the nucleoside transporters ENT1 and CNT1. Silencing ER stress and the autophagy response using chemical inhibitors or siRNA additively inhibited HCV replication and induced viral clearance by the IFN-α+RBV combination treatment. These results indicate that HCV induces ER stress and that the autophagy response selectively impairs type I (but not type III) IFN signaling, which explains why IFN-λ (but not IFN-α) produced a sustained antiviral response against HCV. The results also indicate that inhibition of ER stress and of the autophagy response overcomes IFN-α+RBV resistance mechanisms associated with HCV infection. PMID:24215913

  14. 76 FR 33639 - Safety Zone; New York Water Taxi 10th Anniversary Fireworks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; New York Water Taxi 10th Anniversary... to celebrate the 10th Anniversary of New York Water Taxi. The fireworks will commence at 9 p.m. on... CFR Part 165 Harbors, Marine safety, Navigation (water), Reporting and recordkeeping...

  15. Type III Protein Secretion Systems in Bacterial Pathogens of Animals and Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hueck, Christoph J.

    1998-01-01

    Various gram-negative animal and plant pathogens use a novel, sec-independent protein secretion system as a basic virulence mechanism. It is becoming increasingly clear that these so-called type III secretion systems inject (translocate) proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells, where the translocated proteins facilitate bacterial pathogenesis by specifically interfering with host cell signal transduction and other cellular processes. Accordingly, some type III secretion systems are activated by bacterial contact with host cell surfaces. Individual type III secretion systems direct the secretion and translocation of a variety of unrelated proteins, which account for species-specific pathogenesis phenotypes. In contrast to the secreted virulence factors, most of the 15 to 20 membrane-associated proteins which constitute the type III secretion apparatus are conserved among different pathogens. Most of the inner membrane components of the type III secretion apparatus show additional homologies to flagellar biosynthetic proteins, while a conserved outer membrane factor is similar to secretins from type II and other secretion pathways. Structurally conserved chaperones which specifically bind to individual secreted proteins play an important role in type III protein secretion, apparently by preventing premature interactions of the secreted factors with other proteins. The genes encoding type III secretion systems are clustered, and various pieces of evidence suggest that these systems have been acquired by horizontal genetic transfer during evolution. Expression of type III secretion systems is coordinately regulated in response to host environmental stimuli by networks of transcription factors. This review comprises a comparison of the structure, function, regulation, and impact on host cells of the type III secretion systems in the animal pathogens Yersinia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

  16. Low-Frequency Type III Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Makela, Pertti

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and type 11 radio bursts associated with a set of six low frequency (<14 MHz) extended type III bursts from active region 10588. The durations were measured at 1 and 14 MHz using high resolution data from Wind/WAVES and were within the range (>15 min) normally used to define these bursts. All but one of the type III bursts was not associated with a type 11 burst in the metric or longer wavelength domains. The burst without type 11 burst also lacked a solar energetic particle (SEP) event at energies >25 MeV. The 1-MHz duration of the type III burst (28 min) is near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Yet, there was no sign of SEP events. On the other hand, two other type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but accompanied by WAVES type 11 bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. The CMEs were of similar speeds and the flares are also of similar size and duration. This study suggests that the type III burst duration may not be a good indicator of an SEP event.

  17. Statistical analysies of the type III bursts and CMEs during the 23rd solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuan; Wang, De-Yu; Yan, Yi-Hua

    2006-12-01

    The statistics analyses of the microwave type III bursts, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), Hα flares and relevant events observed with 5200-7600MHz spectrograph at the National Astronomical Observatory during the 23rd solar cycle are carried out in this article. It is found that the relation between the microwave type III bursts and CMEs is not closer than that between the type II radio bursts and CMEs; the Hα flares corresponding to the CMEs are all gradual flares.

  18. Thioaptamers Targeting Dengue Virus Type-2 Envelope Protein Domain III

    PubMed Central

    Gandham, Sai Hari A.; Volk, David E.; Rao, Lokesh G. L.; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Gorenstein, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Thioaptamers targeting the dengue-2 virus (DENV-2) envelope protein domain III (EDIII) were developed. EDIII, which contains epitopes for binding neutralizing antibodies, is the putative host-receptor binding domain and is thus an attractive target for development of vaccines, anti-viral therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Thioaptamer DENTA-1 bound to DENV-2 EDIII adjacent to a known neutralizing antibody binding site with a dissociation constant of 154 nM. PMID:25261724

  19. LONG-DURATION LOW-FREQUENCY TYPE III BURSTS AND SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Maekelae, Pertti

    2010-09-20

    We analyzed the coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and type II radio bursts associated with a set of three complex, long-duration, low-frequency (<14 MHz) type III bursts from active region 10588 in 2004 April. The durations were measured at 1 and 14 MHz using data from Wind/WAVES and were well above the threshold value (>15 minutes) normally used to define these bursts. One of the three type III bursts was not associated with a type II burst, which also lacked a solar energetic particle (SEP) event at energies >25 MeV. The 1 MHz duration of the type III burst (28 minutes) for this event was near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement events. Yet, there was no sign of an SEP event. On the other hand, the other two type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but were accompanied by WAVES type II bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. The CMEs for the three events had similar speeds, and the flares also had similar size and duration. This study suggests that the occurrence of a complex, long-duration, low-frequency type III burst is not a good indicator of an SEP event.

  20. Laparoscopic treatment of type III and IV hiatal hernia – authors’ experience

    PubMed Central

    Grzesiak-Kuik, Agata; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Budzyński, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There are four types of hiatal hernias, and diagnosis is established on the basis of gastroscopy in the majority of cases. Type III represents a mixed type in which the abdominal esophagus as well as the gastric cardia and fundus protrude into the thorax through the pathologically widened esophageal hiatus. Type IV, the so-called upside down stomach, can be considered an evolutionary form of type III, and refers to herniation of nearly the whole stomach (except for the cardia and pylorus) into the thorax. Types III and IV of hiatal hernias represent a group of rare diaphragmatic defects; thus, most centers do not possess considerable experience in their treatment. Frequently, laparoscopic treatment is implemented, although, according to some authors, conversion to laparotomy, thoracotomy, or thoracolaparotomy is necessary in selected cases. Aim To analyze the outcomes of laparoscopic treatment of the largest hiatal hernias, i.e. type III and IV hernias. Material and methods A total of 25 patients diagnosed with type III and IV hiatal hernia were included in further analysis. Results As many as 19 out of 25 patients (76%) assessed the outcome of the surgery as evidently positive and reported marked improvement in the quality of life. Conclusions The laparoscopic technique constitutes an excellent and safe method of repair of even the most complex defects in the esophageal hiatus. Therefore, the minimally invasive technique combined with an anti-reflux procedure should be the method of choice in patients with type III and IV hernia. PMID:25097681

  1. [Prophylactic use of icatibant before tracheal intubation of a patient with hereditary angioedema type III. (A literature review of perioperative management of patients with hereditary angioedema type III)].

    PubMed

    Iturri Clavero, F; González Uriarte, A; Tamayo Medel, G; Gamboa Setién, P M

    2014-01-01

    Type III hereditary angioedema is a rare familial disorder that has recently been described as a separate condition. Triggers for episodes of angioedema include surgery, dental procedures, and tracheal intubation maneuvers. Since episodes affecting the upper airway are potentially life-threatening, prophylactic treatment is recommended in these situations. The use of icatibant (Firazyr(®)), for prevention of angioedema prior to tracheal intubation, is reported in a patient with type iii hereditary angioedema. A literature review on the anesthetic management of this condition was conducted. PMID:24931134

  2. Research and Education: The Foundations for Rehabilitation Service Delivery--10th Annual National Rehabilitation Educators Conference April 6th-10th, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih Chin

    2010-01-01

    The theme of the 10th annual National Rehabilitation Educators conference emphasized research and teaching ideals in the areas of clinical supervision, evidence-based practice in rehabilitation, rehabilitation counseling process, effective rehabilitation counseling training strategies, accreditation and licensure, rehabilitation ethics, and…

  3. Infection of monocyte/macrophages by human T lymphotropic virus type III.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, D D; Rota, T R; Hirsch, M S

    1986-01-01

    Normal blood-derived monocyte/macrophages were found to be susceptible to infection in vitro by human T lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In addition, HTLV-III was recovered from monocyte/macrophages of patients infected with this virus. The above findings raise the possibility that HTLV-III-infected monocyte/macrophages may serve as a vehicle for the dissemination of virus to target organs and as a reservoir for viral persistence, as has been shown for other lentiviruses including visna virus and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. PMID:2422213

  4. Second harmonic generation microscopy differentiates collagen type I and type III in COPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masaru; Kayra, Damian; Elliott, W. Mark; Hogg, James C.; Abraham, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    The structural remodeling of extracellular matrix proteins in peripheral lung region is an important feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Multiphoton microscopy is capable of inducing specific second harmonic generation (SHG) signal from non-centrosymmetric structural proteins such as fibrillar collagens. In this study, SHG microscopy was used to examine structural remodeling of the fibrillar collagens in human lungs undergoing emphysematous destruction (n=2). The SHG signals originating from these diseased lung thin sections from base to apex (n=16) were captured simultaneously in both forward and backward directions. We found that the SHG images detected in the forward direction showed well-developed and well-structured thick collagen fibers while the SHG images detected in the backward direction showed striking different morphological features which included the diffused pattern of forward detected structures plus other forms of collagen structures. Comparison of these images with the wellestablished immunohistochemical staining indicated that the structures detected in the forward direction are primarily the thick collagen type I fibers and the structures identified in the backward direction are diffusive structures of forward detected collagen type I plus collagen type III. In conclusion, we here demonstrate the feasibility of SHG microscopy in differentiating fibrillar collagen subtypes and understanding their remodeling in diseased lung tissues.

  5. The stimulation of auroral kilometric radiation by type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1981-01-01

    It has been found that the onset of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) frequently coincides with the arrival of type III solar radio bursts. Although the AKR onsets are usually abrupt and appear to be spontaneous, they sometimes develop from a discrete frequency near the leading edge of a type III burst or sometimes occur at progressively lower frequencies following that edge. From this, and the absence of the related solar electrons in specific cases, it was concluded that the incoming type III waves were sometimes responsible for stimulating auroral kilometric radiation. It was estimated that intense, isolated type III bursts were capable of stimulating AKR roughly one third of the time, and that at least ten percent of the observed AKR onsets could be attributed to these and weaker bursts, including some barely detectable by the ISEE plasma wave receivers.

  6. A New Look at Type-III Bursts and Their Use as Coronal Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tun Beltran, Samuel D.; Cutchin, S.; White, S.

    2015-09-01

    We present meter-wave solar radio spectra of the highest spectro-temporal resolution achieved to date. The observations, obtained with the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1), show unprecedented detail of solar emissions across a wide bandwidth during a Type-III/IIIb storm. Our flux calibration demonstrates that the LWA1 can detect Type-III bursts much weaker than 1 SFU, much lower than previous observations, and that the distribution of fluxes in these bursts varies with frequency. The high sensitivity and low noise in the data provide strong constraints to models of this type of plasma emission, providing evidence against the idea that Type-IIIb striae are generated from electrons trapped in Langmuir-wave sidebands. The continuous generation of electron beams in the corona revealed by the high density Type-III storm is evidence for ubiquitous magnetic reconnection in the lower corona. Such an abundance of reconnection events not only contributes to the total coronal energy budget, but also provides an engine by which to form the populations of seed particles responsible for proton-rich solar energetic-particle events. An active region (AR) with such levels of reconnection and the accompanying Type-III/IIIb storms is proposed here to be associated with an increase of SEP production if a CME erupts. The data's constraints on existing theories of Type-IIIb production are used to make an association of the observed Type-IIIb storm to specific electron-beam paths with increased inhomogeneities in density, temperature, and/or turbulence. This scenario ties in the observed timing of Type-III and -IIIb storms, constrained theories of Type-III and -IIIb emission, and the ability of the emitting AR to produce a strong SEP event. The result requires but a single observable to cement these ideas, the statistical correlation of Type-III/IIIb activity with SEP-productive AR.

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 10th, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 10th, 1936 (Copied from small photo taken by survey members) OLD APARTMENT HOUSE - Jansonist Colony, Old Apartment House, Main Street, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  8. 16. NORTHEAST CORNER VIEW OF 10TH AND 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. NORTHEAST CORNER VIEW OF 10TH AND 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. CORNER SHOWS THE DIAGONALLY FLUTED SPIRAL DESIGN OF THE RELIEF COLUMN. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. Structural Basis for Substrate Binding and the Catalytic Mechanism of Type III Pantothenate Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Kun; Strauss, Erick; Huerta, Carlos; Zhang, Hong

    2008-07-15

    Pantothenate kinase (PanK) catalyzes the first step of the universal five-step coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthetic pathway. The recently characterized type III PanK (PanK-III, encoded by the coaX gene) is distinct in sequence, structure and enzymatic properties from both the long-known bacterial type I PanK (PanK-I, exemplified by the Escherichia coli CoaA protein) and the predominantly eukaryotic type II PanK (PanK-II). PanK-III enzymes have an unusually high K{sub m} for ATP, are resistant to feedback inhibition by CoA, and are unable to utilize the N-alkylpantothenamide family of pantothenate analogues as alternative substrates, thus making type III PanK ineffective in generating CoA analogues as antimetabolites in vivo. Previously, we reported the crystal structure of the PanK-III from Thermotoga maritima and identified it as a member of the 'acetate and sugar kinase/heat shock protein 70/actin' (ASKHA) superfamily. Here we report the crystal structures of the same PanK-III in complex with one of its substrates (pantothenate), its product (phosphopantothenate) as well as a ternary complex structure of PanK-III with pantothenate and ADP. These results are combined with isothermal titration calorimetry experiments to present a detailed structural and thermodynamic characterization of the interactions between PanK-III and its substrates ATP and pantothenate. Comparison of substrate binding and catalytic sites of PanK-III with that of eukaryotic PanK-II revealed drastic differences in the binding modes for both ATP and pantothenate substrates, and suggests that these differences may be exploited in the development of new inhibitors specifically targeting PanK-III.

  10. Solar Micro-Type III Burst Storms and Long Dipolar Magnetic Field in the Outer Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Iwai, K.; Kasaba, Y.; Masuda, S.; Misawa, H.; Obara, T.

    2015-08-01

    Solar micro-type III radio bursts are elements of the so-called type III storms and are characterized by short-lived, continuous, and weak emissions. Their frequency of occurrence with respect to radiation power is quite different from that of ordinary type III bursts, suggesting that the generation process is not flare-related, but due to some recurrent acceleration processes around the active region. We examine the relationship of micro-type III radio bursts with coronal streamers. We also explore the propagation channel of bursts in the outer corona, the acceleration process, and the escape route of electron beams. It is observationally confirmed that micro-type III bursts occur near the edge of coronal streamers. The magnetic field line of the escaping electron beams is tracked on the basis of the frequency drift rate of micro-type III bursts and the electron density distribution model. The results demonstrate that electron beams are trapped along closed dipolar field lines in the outer coronal region, which arise from the interface region between the active region and the coronal hole. A 22 year statistical study reveals that the apex altitude of the magnetic loop ranges from 15 to 50 RS. The distribution of the apex altitude has a sharp upper limit around 50 RS suggesting that an unknown but universal condition regulates the upper boundary of the streamer dipolar field.

  11. Expression pattern of neuregulin-1 type III during the development of the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liang-Liang; Liu, Zhong-Yang; Huang, Jing-Hui; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Neuregulin-1 type III is a key regulator in Schwann cell proliferation, committing to a myelinating fate and regulating myelin sheath thickness. However, the expression pattern of neuregulin-1 type III in the peripheral nervous system during developmental periods (such as the premyelinating stage, myelinating stage and postmyelinating stage) has rarely been studied. In this study, dorsal root ganglia were isolated from rats between postnatal day 1 and postnatal day 56. The expression pattern of neuregulin-1 type III in dorsal root ganglia neurons at various developmental stages were compared by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot assay and immunofluorescent staining. The expression of neuregulin-1 type III mRNA reached its peak at postnatal day 3 and then stabilized at a relative high expression level from postnatal day 3 to postnatal day 56. The expression of neuregulin-1 type III protein increased gradually from postnatal day 1, reached a peak at postnatal day 28, and then decreased at postnatal day 56. Immunofluorescent staining results showed a similar tendency to western blot assay results. Experimental findings indicate that the expression of neuregulin-1 type III in rat dorsal root ganglion was increased during the premyelinating (from postnatal day 2 to postnatal day 5) and myelinating stage (from postnatal day 5 to postnatal day 10), but remained at a high level in the postmyelinating stage (after postnatal day 10). PMID:25788922

  12. Solar Flares, Type III Radio Bursts, Coronal Mass Ejections, and Energetic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, Hilary V.; Erickson, W. C.; Prestage, N. P.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this correlative study between greater than 20 MeV solar proton events, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and radio bursts it is found that essentially all of the proton events are preceded by groups of type III bursts and all are preceded by CMEs. These type III bursts (that are a flare phenomenon) usually are long-lasting, intense bursts seen in the low-frequency observations made from space. They are caused by streams of electrons traveling from close to the solar surface out to 1 AU. In most events the type III emissions extend into, or originate at, the time when type II and type IV bursts are reported (some 5 to 10 minutes after the start of the associated soft X-ray flare) and have starting frequencies in the 500 to approximately 100 MHz range that often get lower as a function of time. These later type III emissions are often not reported by ground-based observers, probably because of undue attention to type II bursts. It is suggested to call them type III-1. Type III-1 bursts have previously been called shock accelerated (SA) events, but an examination of radio dynamic spectra over an extended frequency range shows that the type III-1 bursts usually start at frequencies above any type II burst that may be present. The bursts sometimes continue beyond the time when type II emission is seen and, furthermore, sometimes occur in the absence of any type II emission. Thus the causative electrons are unlikely to be shock accelerated and probably originate in the reconnection regions below fast CMEs. A search did not find any type III-1 bursts that were not associated with CMEs. The existence of low-frequency type III bursts proves that open field lines extend from within 0.5 radius of the Sun into the interplanetary medium (the bursts start above 100 MHz, and such emission originates within 0.5 solar radius of the solar surface). Thus it is not valid to assume that only closed field lines exist in the flaring regions associated with CMEs and some

  13. Diversity in ABC transporters: Type I, II and III importers

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Austin J.; Park, Aekyung

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporters are multi-subunit membrane pumps that transport substrates across membranes. While significant in the transport process, transporter architecture exhibits a range of diversity that we are only beginning to recognize. This divergence may provide insight into the mechanisms of substrate transport and homeostasis. Until recently, ABC importers have been classified into two types, but with the emergence of energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters there are potentially three types of ABC importers. In this review, we summarize an expansive body of research on the three types of importers with an emphasis on the basics that underlie ABC importers, such as structure, subunit composition and mechanism. PMID:25155087

  14. Increased activity of coagulation factor XII (Hageman factor) causes hereditary angioedema type III.

    PubMed

    Cichon, Sven; Martin, Ludovic; Hennies, Hans Christian; Müller, Felicitas; Van Driessche, Karen; Karpushova, Anna; Stevens, Wim; Colombo, Roberto; Renné, Thomas; Drouet, Christian; Bork, Konrad; Nöthen, Markus M

    2006-12-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is characterized clinically by recurrent acute skin swelling, abdominal pain, and potentially life-threatening laryngeal edema. Three forms of HAE have been described. The classic forms, HAE types I and II, occur as a consequence of mutations in the C1-inhibitor gene. In contrast to HAE types I and II, HAE type III has been observed exclusively in women, where it appears to be correlated with conditions of high estrogen levels--for example, pregnancy or the use of oral contraceptives. A recent report proposed two missense mutations (c.1032C-->A and c.1032C-->G) in F12, the gene encoding human coagulation factor XII (FXII, or Hageman factor) as a possible cause of HAE type III. Here, we report the occurrence of the c.1032C-->A (p.Thr328Lys) mutation in an HAE type III-affected family of French origin. Investigation of the F12 gene in a large German family did not reveal a coding mutation. Haplotype analysis with use of microsatellite markers is compatible with locus heterogeneity in HAE type III. To shed more light on the pathogenic relevance of the HAE type III-associated p.Thr328Lys mutation, we compared FXII activity and plasma levels in patients carrying the mutation with that of healthy control individuals. Our data strongly suggest that p.Thr328Lys is a gain-of-function mutation that markedly increases FXII amidolytic activity but that does not alter FXII plasma levels. We conclude that enhanced FXII enzymatic plasma activity in female mutation carriers leads to enhanced kinin production, which results in angioedema. Transcription of F12 is positively regulated by estrogens, which may explain why only women are affected with HAE type III. The results of our study represent an important step toward an understanding of the molecular processes involved in HAE type III and provide diagnostic and possibly new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:17186468

  15. Avoiding type III, IV, and V errors through collaborative research.

    PubMed

    Yamatani, Hide; Mann, Aaron; Feit, Marvin

    2013-01-01

    Major types of empirical errors reviewed by a number of leading research textbooks include discussions of Type I and Type II errors. However, applied human service researchers can commit other types of errors that should be avoided. The potential benefits of the applied, collaborative research (in contrast to traditional participatory research) include an assurance that the study begins with the "right" questions that are important for community residents. Such research practice also helps generate useful research findings for decisions regarding redistribution of resources and resolving community issues. The aim of collaborative research is not merely to advance scientific understanding, but also to produce empirical findings that are usable for addressing priority needs and problems of distressed communities. A review of a case example (Garfield Community Assessment Study) illustrates the principles and practices of collaborative research. PMID:23879359

  16. Distinct Roles of Type I and Type III Interferons in Intestinal Immunity to Homologous and Heterologous Rotavirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Balan, Murugabaskar; Tseng, Hsiang-Chi; McElrath, Constance; Smirnov, Sergey V.; Peng, Jianya; Yasukawa, Linda L.; Durbin, Russell K.; Durbin, Joan E.; Greenberg, Harry B.; Kotenko, Sergei V.

    2016-01-01

    Type I (IFN-α/β) and type III (IFN-λ) interferons (IFNs) exert shared antiviral activities through distinct receptors. However, their relative importance for antiviral protection of different organ systems against specific viruses remains to be fully explored. We used mouse strains deficient in type-specific IFN signaling, STAT1 and Rag2 to dissect distinct and overlapping contributions of type I and type III IFNs to protection against homologous murine (EW-RV strain) and heterologous (non-murine) simian (RRV strain) rotavirus infections in suckling mice. Experiments demonstrated that murine EW-RV is insensitive to the action of both types of IFNs, and that timely viral clearance depends upon adaptive immune responses. In contrast, both type I and type III IFNs can control replication of the heterologous simian RRV in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and they cooperate to limit extra-intestinal simian RRV replication. Surprisingly, intestinal epithelial cells were sensitive to both IFN types in neonatal mice, although their responsiveness to type I, but not type III IFNs, diminished in adult mice, revealing an unexpected age-dependent change in specific contribution of type I versus type III IFNs to antiviral defenses in the GI tract. Transcriptional analysis revealed that intestinal antiviral responses to RV are triggered through either type of IFN receptor, and are greatly diminished when receptors for both IFN types are lacking. These results also demonstrate a murine host-specific resistance to IFN-mediated antiviral effects by murine EW-RV, but the retention of host efficacy through the cooperative action by type I and type III IFNs in restricting heterologous simian RRV growth and systemic replication in suckling mice. Collectively, our findings revealed a well-orchestrated spatial and temporal tuning of innate antiviral responses in the intestinal tract where two types of IFNs through distinct patterns of their expression and distinct but overlapping sets

  17. Type I and III interferon production in response to RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Reid, Elizabeth; Charleston, Bryan

    2014-09-01

    The biology of RNA viruses is closely linked to the type I and type III interferon (IFN) response of the host. These viruses display a range of molecular patterns that may be detected by host cells resulting in the induction of IFNs. Consequently, there are many examples of mechanisms employed by RNA viruses to block or delay IFN induction and reduce the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), a necessary step in the virus lifecycle because of the capacity of IFNs to block virus replication. Efficient transmission of viruses depends, in part, on maintaining a balance between virus replication and host survival; specialized host cells, such as plasmacytoid dendritic cells, can sense viral molecular patterns and produce IFNs to help maintain this balance. There are now many examples of RNA viruses inducing type I and type III IFNs, and although these IFNs act through different receptors, in many systems studied, they induce a similar spectrum of genes. However, there may be a difference in the temporal expression pattern, with more prolonged expression of ISGs in response to type III IFN compared with type I IFN. There are also examples of synergy between type I and type III IFNs to induce antiviral responses. Clearly, it is important to understand the different roles of these IFNs in the antiviral response in vivo. One of the most striking differences between these 2 IFN systems is the distribution of the receptors: type I IFN receptors are expressed on most cells, yet type III receptor expression is restricted primarily to epithelial cells but has also been demonstrated on other cells, including dendritic cells. There is increasing evidence that type III IFNs are a key control mechanism against RNA viruses that infect respiratory and enteric epithelia. PMID:24956361

  18. Solar noise storms - The polarization of storm Type III and related bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, G. A.; Suzuki, S.; Sheridan, K. V.

    1984-01-01

    The spectral and polarization characteristics of 19 noise storms that occurred during 1976-1982 are reported. All components of the storms - Type I bursts and continuum, storm Type III bursts, and fine structures such as reverse drift pairs - are found to have the same sense of circular polarization. While the degree of polarization p of Type I bursts and continuum is generally greater than or approximately equal to 0.5, that of storm Type III bursts is almost always less than 0.5. Two set of storm Type III bursts stand out: one with less than or approximately equal to 0.2 and another with greater than or approximately equal to 0.3. Because these sets respectively have degrees of polarization so similar to those of fundamental (F) the harmonic (H) components of non-storm F - H pairs, it is deduced that storm Type III bursts are due sometimes to fundamental plasma radiation and sometimes to harmonic. However, F - H pairs are extremely rare among storm Type III bursts.

  19. Identification and characterization of a type III Trichomonas vaginalis virus in the protozoan pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Bessarab, Irina N; Nakajima, Rui; Liu, Hsing-Wei; Tai, Jung-Hsiang

    2011-02-01

    A type III Trichomonas vaginalis virus, which may be involved in transcriptional regulation of the major surface protein gene P270 of the protozoan pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, was purified and characterized in the present study. The complete 4844-base-pair complementary DNA sequence of the viral genome reveals overlapping cap and pol genes with a putative ribosomal frame-shifting signal within the overlap region. The type III virus is related more closely to the type II virus than to the type I virus in the sequence of its ribosomal frameshift signal and in its capsid protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses could be grouped in the same clade as a genus distantly related to other genera in the family Totiviridae. Virus-induced P270 gene expression was only evident in Trichomonas vaginalis cells infected with either a type II or type III virus, but not with a type I virus. These findings suggest that transcription of the P270 gene is likely regulated by viral factors common to type II and type III viruses and thus provides important information for future investigation of virus-host interactions. PMID:21110050

  20. Arthroscopy Assisted Percutaneous Fixation of Ideberg Type Iii Glenoid Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Prashant; Arora, Bakul; Pinto, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intra-articular glenoid fractures are extremely rare and may be associated with other injuries. Traditionally open reduction and internal fixation has been recommended in displaced intra-articular glenoid fractures. However open reduction is difficult and it may not be possible to address the associated intra-articular soft tissue injuries. A few reports of arthroscopic assisted fixation of these fractures have been recently published. We are reporting a case of Ideberg type 3 glenoid fracture and its treatment. Case Report: We are presenting our case where a 52 year old man presented with Type 3 intra-articular glenoid fracture. The fracture was fixed percutaneously under simultaneous arthroscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. Conclusion: Intra-articular glenoid fractures are uncommon and difficult to treat. Arthroscopy assisted percutaneous fixation technique can be a valuable adjunct for the surgeon in dealing with not only the fracture but also the associated soft-tissue injuries. PMID:27299041

  1. In vitro growth characteristics of simian T-lymphotropic virus type III.

    PubMed Central

    Kannagi, M; Yetz, J M; Letvin, N L

    1985-01-01

    The type C retrovirus simian T-lymphotropic virus type III (STLV-III) has been isolated recently from immunodeficient macaque monkeys at the New England Regional Primate Research Center. The present studies were done to define the in vitro growth characteristics of this agent. STLV-III replicates efficiently in interleukin 2-dependent T-cell cultures of macaque peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), less efficiently in such cultures of human and gibbon PBL, and inefficiently in baboon PBL. No replication, as assessed by measuring reverse transcriptase activity in these culture supernatants, could be detected in similarly maintained cultures of chimpanzee, squirrel monkey, and cotton-top tamarin PBL. Like the human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV), STLV-III replicates in T4+ but not T8+ lymphocytes and its infection of macaque and human lymphocytes can be blocked with monoclonal anti-T4 antibodies. STLV-III differs from the human AIDS virus, however, in its apparent inability to grow in the Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes tested, the differing range of nonhuman primate T-cell populations that support its growth, and its less striking toxicity for T lymphocytes. These studies provide further characterization of an agent that will be extremely important in facilitating the development of vaccines and antiviral therapy for AIDS. PMID:2996002

  2. Solar type III radio bursts modulated by homochromous Alfvén waves

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, G. Q.; Chen, L.; Wu, D. J.

    2013-12-10

    Solar type III radio bursts and their production mechanisms have been intensively studied in both theory and observation and are believed to be the most important signatures of electron acceleration in active regions. Recently, Wu et al. proposed that the electron-cyclotron maser emission (ECME) driven by an energetic electron beam could be responsible for producing type III bursts and pointed out that turbulent Alfvén waves can greatly influence the basic process of ECME via the oscillation of these electrons in the wave fields. This paper investigates effects of homochromous Alfvén waves (HAWs) on ECME driven by electron beams. Our results show that the growth rate of the O-mode wave will be significantly modulated by HAWs. We also discuss possible application to the formation of fine structures in type III bursts, such as so-called solar type IIIb radio bursts.

  3. III-V-on-silicon anti-colliding pulse-type mode-locked laser.

    PubMed

    Keyvaninia, S; Uvin, S; Tassaert, M; Wang, Z; Fu, X; Latkowski, S; Marien, J; Thomassen, L; Lelarge, F; Duan, G; Lepage, G; Verheyen, P; Van Campenhout, J; Bente, E; Roelkens, G

    2015-07-01

    An anti-colliding pulse-type III-V-on-silicon passively mode-locked laser is presented for the first time based on a III-V-on-silicon distributed Bragg reflector as outcoupling mirror implemented partially underneath the III-V saturable absorber. Passive mode-locking at 4.83 GHz repetition rate generating 3 ps pulses is demonstrated. The generated fundamental RF tone shows a 1.7 kHz 3 dB linewidth. Over 9 mW waveguide coupled output power is demonstrated. PMID:26125366

  4. The [Fe(III)[Fe(III)(L1)2]3] star-type single-molecule magnet.

    PubMed

    Saalfrank, Rolf W; Scheurer, Andreas; Bernt, Ingo; Heinemann, Frank W; Postnikov, Andrei V; Schünemann, Volker; Trautwein, Alfred X; Alam, Mohammad S; Rupp, Holger; Müller, Paul

    2006-06-21

    Star-shaped complex [Fe(III)[Fe(III)(L1)2]3] (3) was synthesized starting from N-methyldiethanolamine H2L1 (1) and ferric chloride in the presence of sodium hydride. For 3, two different high-spin iron(III) ion sites were confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy at 77 K. Single-crystal X-ray structure determination revealed that 3 crystallizes with four molecules of chloroform, but, with only three molecules of dichloromethane. The unit cell of 3.4CHCl3 contains the enantiomers (delta)-[(S,S)(R,R)(R,R)] and (lambda)-[(R,R)(S,S)(S,S)], whereas in case of 3.3CH2Cl2 four independent molecules, forming pairs of the enantiomers [lambda-(R,R)(R,R)(R,R)]-3 and [lambda-(S,S)(S,S)(S,S)]-3, were observed in the unit cell. According to SQUID measurements, the antiferromagnetic intramolecular coupling of the iron(III) ions in 3 results in a S = 10/2 ground state multiplet. The anisotropy is of the easy-axis type. EPR measurements enabled an accurate determination of the ligand-field splitting parameters. The ferric star 3 is a single-molecule magnet (SMM) and shows hysteretic magnetization characteristics below a blocking temperature of about 1.2 K. However, weak intermolecular couplings, mediated in a chainlike fashion via solvent molecules, have a strong influence on the magnetic properties. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) were used to determine the structural and electronic properties of star-type tetranuclear iron(III) complex 3. The molecules were deposited onto highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Small, regular molecule clusters, two-dimensional monolayers as well as separated single molecules were observed. In our STS measurements we found a rather large contrast at the expected locations of the metal centers of the molecules. This direct addressing of the metal centers was confirmed by DFT calculations. PMID:16751895

  5. Production of fine structures in type III solar radio bursts due to turbulent density profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Cairns, Iver H.; Li, Bo

    2014-07-20

    Magnetic reconnection events in the corona release energetic electron beams along open field lines, and the beams generate radio emission at multiples of the electron plasma frequency f{sub p} to produce type III solar radio bursts. Type III bursts often exhibit irregularities in the form of flux modulations with frequency and/or local temporal advances and delays, and a type IIIb burst represents the extreme case where a type III burst is fragmented into a chain of narrowband features called striae. Remote and in situ spacecraft measurements have shown that density turbulence is ubiquitous in the corona and solar wind, and often exhibits a Kolmogorov power spectrum. In this work, we numerically investigate the effects of one-dimensional macroscopic density turbulence (along the beam direction) on the behavior of type III bursts, and find that this turbulence produces stria-like fine structures in the dynamic spectra of both f{sub p} and 2 f{sub p} radiation. Spectral and temporal fine structures in the predicted type III emission are produced by variations in the scattering path lengths and group speeds of radio emission, and in the locations and sizes of emitting volumes. Moderate turbulence levels yield flux enhancements with much broader half-power bandwidths in f{sub p} than 2 f{sub p} emission, possibly explaining the often observed type IIIb-III harmonic pairs as being where intensifications in 2 f{sub p} radiation are not resolved observationally. Larger turbulence levels producing trough-peak regions in the plasma density profile may lead to broader, resolvable intensifications in 2 f{sub p} radiation, which may account for the type IIIb-IIIb pairs that are sometimes observed.

  6. Are type III radio aurorae directly excited by electrostatic ion cyclotron waves

    SciTech Connect

    McDiarmid, D.R.; Watermann, J.; McNamara, A.G. ); Koehler, J.A.; Sofko, G.J. )

    1989-10-01

    In 1981, a network of three 50-MHz radar transmitters and two receivers were operated in the CW mode on the Canadian prairies. The echoes obtained from coherent ionospheric backscatter were divided into segments of 205 ms such that their FFT spectra yielded frequency resolution of 4.9 Hz. The spectra were subsequently averaged over 10 s. Type III spectra (narrow spectra with sub ion-acoustic Doppler shifts) were observed (often simultaneously) on radar links whose wave vector components perpendicular to the geomagnetic field were almost identical while their components parallel to the field were significantly different. From a statistical analysis of more than 300 type III spectra it is inferred that these are in general unlikely to arise from electrostatic ion cyclotron waves directly excited by an essentially linear process. Doppler shifts around 55 Hz were much more frequently observed than around 30 Hz, the occurrence of type III spectra increased with increasing magnetic aspect angle (deviation of the scatter wave vector from perpendicular to the geomagnetic field), and the mean Doppler shifts of type III spectra simultaneously on different radar links went through a minimum for aspect angles between 4{degree} and 7{degree} (depending on the assumed backscatter height). These three results disagree with theoretical expectations. The spectral width the type III echoes decreased linearly with magnetic aspect by about 2 Hz/deg.

  7. Cryptic activity within the Type III1 domain of fibronectin regulates tissue inflammation and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Christina; Kelsh-Lasher, Rhiannon; Ambesi, Anthony; McKeown-Longo, Paula J.

    2016-01-01

    The fibronectin matrix provides mechanical and biochemical information to regulate homeostatic and pathological processes within tissues. Fibronectin consists of independently-folded modules termed Types I, II and III. In response to cellular contractile force, Type III domains unfold to initiate a series of homophilic binding events which result in the assembly of a complex network of intertwining fibrils. The unfolding of Type III modules provides elasticity to the assembled fibronectin matrix allowing it to function as a dynamic scaffold which provides binding sites for cellular receptors, growth factors and other matrix molecules. Access to bioactive sites within the fibronectin matrix is under complex regulation and controlled through a combination of mechanical and proteolytic activity. Mechanical unfolding of Type III modules and limited proteolysis can alter the topographical display of bioactive sites within the fibronectin fibrils by exposing previously cryptic sites and disrupting functional sites. In this review we will discuss cryptic activity found within the first Type III module of fibronectin and its impact on tissue angiogenesis and inflammation.

  8. Flare fragmentation and type III productivity in the 1980 June 27 flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, M. J.; Schwartz, R. A.; Benz, A. O.; Lin, R. P.; Pelling, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the solar flare on June 27, 1980 were presented, 16:14-16:33 UT, which was observed by a balloon-borne 300 sq cm phoswich hard X-ray detector and by the IKARUS radio spectrometer. This flare shows intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission and an extreme productivity of (at least 754) type III bursts at 200-400 MHz. A linear correlation was found between the type III burst rate and the HXR fluence. The occurrence of about 10 type III bursts/second, and also the even higher rate of millisecond spikes, suggests a high degree of fragmentation in the acceleration region. This high quantization of injected beams, assuming the thick-target model, shows up in a linear relationship between hard X-ray fluence and the type III rate, but not as fine structures in the HXR time profile. The generation of a superhot isothermal HXR component in the decay phase of the flare coincides with the fade-out of type III production.

  9. Type III polyketide synthase repertoire in Zingiberaceae: computational insights into the sequence, structure and evolution.

    PubMed

    Mallika, Vijayanathan; Aiswarya, Girija; Gincy, Paily Thottathil; Remakanthan, Appukuttan; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

    2016-07-01

    Zingiberaceae or 'ginger family' is the largest family in the order 'Zingiberales' with more than 1300 species in 52 genera, which are mostly distributed throughout Asia, tropical Africa and the native regions of America with their maximum diversity in Southeast Asia. Many of the members are important spice, medicinal or ornamental plants including ginger, turmeric, cardamom and kaempferia. These plants are distinguished for the highly valuable metabolic products, which are synthesised through phenylpropanoid pathway, where type III polyketide synthase is the key enzyme. In our present study, we used sequence, structural and evolutionary approaches to scrutinise the type III polyketide synthase (PKS) repertoire encoded in the Zingiberaceae family. Highly conserved amino acid residues in the sequence alignment and phylogram suggested strong relationships between the type III PKS members of Zingiberaceae. Sequence and structural level investigation of type III PKSs showed a small number of variations in the substrate binding pocket, leading to functional divergence among these PKS members. Molecular evolutionary studies indicate that type III PKSs within Zingiberaceae evolved under strong purifying selection pressure, and positive selections were rarely detected in the family. Structural modelling and protein-small molecule interaction studies on Zingiber officinale PKS 'a representative from Zingiberaceae' suggested that the protein is comparatively stable without much disorder and exhibited wide substrate acceptance. PMID:27138283

  10. 10th annual meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society: an overview.

    PubMed

    Cavero, Icilio

    2011-03-01

    The 10th annual meeting of the Safety Pharmacology (SP) Society covered numerous topics of educational and practical research interest. Biopolymers - the theme of the keynote address - were presented as essential components of medical devices, diagnostic tools, biosensors, human tissue engineering and pharmaceutical formulations for optimized drug delivery. Toxicology and SP investigators - the topic of the Distinguished Service Award Lecture - were encouraged to collaborate in the development of SP technologies and protocols applicable to toxicology studies. Pharmaceutical companies, originally organizations bearing all risks for developing their portfolios, are increasingly moving towards fully integrated networks which outsource core activities (including SP studies) to large contract research organizations. Future nonclinical data are now expected to be of such high quality and predictability power that they may obviate the need for certain expensive and time-consuming clinical investigations. In this context, SP is called upon to extend its risk assessment purview to areas which currently are not systematically covered, such as drug-induced QRS interval prolongation, negative emotions and feelings (e.g., depression), and minor chronic cardiovascular and metabolic changes (e.g., as produced by drugs for type 2 diabetes) which can be responsible for delayed morbidity and mortality. The recently approved ICH S9 guidance relaxes the traditional regulatory SP package in order to accelerate the clinical access to anticancer drugs for patients with advanced malignancies. The novel FDA 'Animal Rule' guidance proposes that for clinical candidates with well-understood toxicities, marketing approval may be granted exclusively on efficacy data generated in animal studies as human clinical investigations for these types of drugs are either unfeasible or unethical. In conclusion, the core messages of this meeting are that SP should consistently operate according to the 'fit

  11. Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type III: a review of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Sundal, Christina; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Cerebellar Ataxia (ADCA) Type III is a type of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) classically characterized by pure cerebellar ataxia and occasionally by non-cerebellar signs such as pyramidal signs, ophthalmoplegia, and tremor. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in adulthood; however, a minority of patients develop clinical features in adolescence. The incidence of ADCA Type III is unknown. ADCA Type III consists of six subtypes, SCA5, SCA6, SCA11, SCA26, SCA30, and SCA31. The subtype SCA6 is the most common. These subtypes are associated with four causative genes and two loci. The severity of symptoms and age of onset can vary between each SCA subtype and even between families with the same subtype. SCA5 and SCA11 are caused by specific gene mutations such as missense, inframe deletions, and frameshift insertions or deletions. SCA6 is caused by trinucleotide CAG repeat expansions encoding large uninterrupted glutamine tracts. SCA31 is caused by repeat expansions that fall outside of the protein-coding region of the disease gene. Currently, there are no specific gene mutations associated with SCA26 or SCA30, though there is a confirmed locus for each subtype. This disease is mainly diagnosed via genetic testing; however, differential diagnoses include pure cerebellar ataxia and non-cerebellar features in addition to ataxia. Although not fatal, ADCA Type III may cause dysphagia and falls, which reduce the quality of life of the patients and may in turn shorten the lifespan. The therapy for ADCA Type III is supportive and includes occupational and speech modalities. There is no cure for ADCA Type III, but a number of recent studies have highlighted novel therapies, which bring hope for future curative treatments. PMID:23331413

  12. Ulysses-Wind stereoscopic study of type III radiation pattern over a large latitude range.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnin, X.; Maksimovic, M.; Hoang, S.

    2006-12-01

    Type III radio bursts are generated by suprathermal electrons, accelerated from solar active region and travelling outwards along open magnetic field lines to lower densities in the interplanetary medium (IPM). Along their path in the IPM, these electrons trigger radio emission at the fundamental (F) and/or harmonic (H) of the local plasma frequency fp. We have selected 278 type III bursts observed simultaneously by Wind and Ulysses spacecraft (s/c) during all the year 2001. Deriving radio sources trajectory by diffrent ways, we have deduced some type III characteristics and derived apparent radiation pattern at low frequencies over a large latitude range. First results confirm that radiation pattern shifts east when frequency decreases (Hoang et al. 1997). It brings new evidence of strong refraction effects in local density gradients.

  13. Laparoscopic Treatment of Type III Mirizzi Syndrome by T-Tube Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Yetışır, Fahri; Şarer, Akgün Ebru; Acar, H. Zafer; Polat, Yılmaz; Osmanoglu, Gokhan; Aygar, Muhittin; Ciftciler, A. Erdinc; Parlak, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Mirizzi syndrome (MS) is an impacted stone in the cystic duct or Hartmann's pouch that mechanically obstructs the common bile duct. We would like to report laparoscopic treatment of type III MS. A 75-year-old man was admitted with the complaint of abdominal pain and jaundice. The patient was accepted as MS type III according to radiological imaging and intraoperative view. Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy, extraction of impacted stone by opening anterior surface of dilated cystic duct and choledochus, and repair of this opening by using the remaining part of gallbladder over the T-tube drainage were performed in a patient with type III MS. Application of reinforcement suture over stump was done in light of the checking with oliclinomel N4 injection trough the T-tube. At the 18-month follow-up, he was symptom-free with normal liver function tests. PMID:27293947

  14. Characterization of an ExoS Type III Translocation-Resistant Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Rucks, Elizabeth A.; Olson, Joan C.

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoS is a type III-secreted type III-secreted, bifunctional protein that causes diverse effects on eukaryotic cell function. The coculture of P. aeruginosa strains expressing ExoS with HL-60 myeloid cells revealed the cell line to be resistant to the toxic effects of ExoS. Differentiation of HL-60 cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA) rendered the cell line sensitive to ExoS. To understand the cellular basis for the alteration in sensitivity, undifferentiated and TPA-differentiated HL-60 cells were compared for differences in bacterial adherence, type III secretion induction, and ExoS translocation. These comparisons found that ExoS was translocated more efficiently in TPA-differentiated HL-60 cells than in undifferentiated cells. The studies support the ability of eukaryotic cells to influence P. aeruginosa TTS at the level of membrane translocation. PMID:15618208

  15. Real-time imaging of type III secretion: Salmonella SipA injection into host cells.

    PubMed

    Schlumberger, Markus C; Müller, Andreas J; Ehrbar, Kristin; Winnen, Brit; Duss, Iwan; Stecher, Bärbel; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2005-08-30

    Many pathogenic and symbiotic Gram-negative bacteria employ type III secretion systems to inject "effector" proteins into eukaryotic host cells. These effectors manipulate signaling pathways to initiate symbiosis or disease. By using time-lapse microscopy, we have imaged delivery of the Salmonella type III effector protein SipA/SspA into animal cells in real time. SipA delivery mostly began 10-90 sec after docking and proceeded for 100-600 sec until the bacterial SipA pool (6 +/- 3 x 10(3) molecules) was exhausted. Similar observations were made for the effector protein SopE. This visualization of type III secretion in real time explains the efficiency of host cell manipulation by means of this virulence system. PMID:16107539

  16. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in a patient with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type III.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Bipul Kumar; Saiki, Uma Kaimal; Sarm, Dipti; Choudhury, Bikash Narayan; Choudhury, Sarojini Dutta; Saharia, Dhiren; Saikia, Mihir

    2011-11-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APS) comprise a wide clinical spectrum of autoimmune disorders. APS is divided into Type I, Type II, Type I and Type IV depending upon the pattern of disease combination. Ghronic diarrhoea is one of the many manifestations of APS and many aetiological factors have been suggested for it. Apart from the established aetiological factors, intestinal lymphangiectasia may be responsible for chronic diarrhea in some cases.Intestinal lymphangiectasia has been reported in Type I APS. We report a case of Type III APS with hypocalcaemia and hypothyroidism who had chronic diarrhea of long duration and was finally diagnosed to have intestinal lymphangiectasia. PMID:22616341

  17. Class III β-Tubulin Is a Component of the Mitotic Spindle in Multiple Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    Jouhilahti, Eeva-Mari; Peltonen, Sirkku; Peltonen, Juha

    2008-01-01

    The findings of this study show that Class III β-tubulin is a component of the mitotic spindle in multiple cell types. Class III β-tubulin has been widely used as a neuron-specific marker, but it has been detected also in association with breast and pancreatic cancers. In this study, we describe a novel finding of Class III β-tubulin in a subpopulation of cells in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. The findings of this study also show that Class III β-tubulin is expressed by normal mesenchymal and epithelial cells (fibroblasts and keratinocytes), two transitional cell carcinoma cell lines, and neurofibroma Schwann cells, as shown by immunolabeling and Western transfer analysis using two different Tuj-1 antibodies that are specific for Class III β-tubulin. The corresponding mRNA was detected using RT-PCR and whole human genome microarrays. Both antibodies localized Class III β-tubulin to the mitotic spindle and showed a colocalization with α-tubulin. The immunoreaction became visible in early prophase, and the most intense immunoreaction was detected during metaphase and anaphase when microtubules were connected to the kinetochores on chromosomes. Class III β-tubulin–specific immunoreaction lasted to the point when the midbody of cytokinesis became detectable. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:1113–1119, 2008) PMID:18796406

  18. Electron Exciter Speeds Associated with Interplanetary Type III Solar Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, M. J.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2015-10-01

    This article provides a comprehensive quantitative investigation of the kinematics of the electron exciters associated with interplanetary type III solar radio bursts. Detailed multispacecraft analyses of the radio and plasma wave data from the widely separated Wind and STEREO spacecraft are provided for five interplanetary type III bursts that illustrate different aspects of the problems involved in establishing the electron exciter speeds. The exciter kinematics are determined from the observed frequency drift and in-situ radiation characteristics for each type III burst. The analysis assumes propagation of the electron exciters along a Parker spiral, with origin at the associated solar active region, and curvature determined by the measured solar wind speed. The analyses take fully into account the appropriate light-propagation-time corrections from the radio source to the observing spacecraft as the exciters propagate along the Parker spiral path. For the five in-situ type III bursts analyzed in detail here, we found that their initial exciter speeds, near the Sun, ranged from 0.2c to 0.38c, where c is the speed of light. This is significantly higher than the exciter speeds derived from other recent analyses. The results presented here further suggest that the type III electron exciters normally decelerate as they propagate through the interplanetary medium. We argue based on the observations by the widely separated spacecraft that the initial part of the type III radiation usually occurs at the fundamental of the plasma frequency. Finally, we compare the results for the exciter speeds to all previous determinations and provide quantitative arguments to explain the differences.

  19. Proteolytic Processing of Neuregulin 1 Type III by Three Intramembrane-cleaving Proteases.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Daniel; Voss, Matthias; Brankatschk, Ben; Giudici, Camilla; Hampel, Heike; Schwenk, Benjamin; Edbauer, Dieter; Fukumori, Akio; Steiner, Harald; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Haug-Kröper, Martina; Rossner, Moritz J; Fluhrer, Regina; Willem, Michael; Haass, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Numerous membrane-bound proteins undergo regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Regulated intramembrane proteolysis is initiated by shedding, and the remaining stubs are further processed by intramembrane-cleaving proteases (I-CLiPs). Neuregulin 1 type III (NRG1 type III) is a major physiological substrate of β-secretase (β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1)). BACE1-mediated cleavage is required to allow signaling of NRG1 type III. Because of the hairpin nature of NRG1 type III, two membrane-bound stubs with a type 1 and a type 2 orientation are generated by proteolytic processing. We demonstrate that these stubs are substrates for three I-CLiPs. The type 1-oriented stub is further cleaved by γ-secretase at an ϵ-like site five amino acids N-terminal to the C-terminal membrane anchor and at a γ-like site in the middle of the transmembrane domain. The ϵ-cleavage site is only one amino acid N-terminal to a Val/Leu substitution associated with schizophrenia. The mutation reduces generation of the NRG1 type III β-peptide as well as reverses signaling. Moreover, it affects the cleavage precision of γ-secretase at the γ-site similar to certain Alzheimer disease-associated mutations within the amyloid precursor protein. The type 2-oriented membrane-retained stub of NRG1 type III is further processed by signal peptide peptidase-like proteases SPPL2a and SPPL2b. Expression of catalytically inactive aspartate mutations as well as treatment with 2,2'-(2-oxo-1,3-propanediyl)bis[(phenylmethoxy)carbonyl]-l-leucyl-l-leucinamide ketone inhibits formation of N-terminal intracellular domains and the corresponding secreted C-peptide. Thus, NRG1 type III is the first protein substrate that is not only cleaved by multiple sheddases but is also processed by three different I-CLiPs. PMID:26574544

  20. Solar longitude dependence of some characteristics of type III radio bursts from metric to hectometric wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.

    1974-01-01

    Using the observed data for metric and hectometric type III radio bursts, the dependence of burst characteristics on the solar longitude has been examined over a wide frequency range. It is found that there exists and east-west asymmetry for the extension of metric type III bursts into the hectometric wavelength range. In particular, hectometric bursts are rarely observed for solar flares associated with metric bursts east of 60 E solar longitude. Furthermore, for east longitudes, the low-frequency radio observations show a large dispersion in drift time interval.

  1. Vitamin A-containing lipocytes and formation of type III collagen in liver injury.

    PubMed

    Kent, G; Gay, S; Inouye, T; Bahu, R; Minick, O T; Popper, H

    1976-10-01

    Hepatocellular necrosis in carbon tetracholride-induced injury of rats is associated with an accumulation of lipocytes (perisinusoidal cells or Ito cells) containing fat droplets and giving vitamin A fluorescence. In the subsequent formation of connective tissue septa, transitional cells having morphologic characteristics of lipocytes and fibroblasts are abundant and are associated with the appearance of type III collage-. The features suggest that the lipocyte is the precursor of the fibroblasts responsible for parenchymal fibrillogenesis and under these conditions forms type III collagen. The process is a postulated link between hepatocellular necrosis and fibrosis. PMID:1068482

  2. Crystal structure of the Yersinia type III secretion protein YscE

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, Jason; Austin, Brian P.; Waugh, David S.

    2010-12-06

    The plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis utilizes a contact-dependent (type III) secretion system (T3SS) to transport virulence factors from the bacterial cytosol directly into the interior of mammalian cells where they interfere with signal transduction pathways that mediate phagocytosis and the inflammatory response. The type III secretion apparatus is composed of 20-25 different Yersinia secretion (Ysc) proteins. We report here the structure of YscE, the smallest Ysc protein, which is a dimer in solution. The probable mode of oligomerization is discussed.

  3. Solar wind density model from km-wave type III bursts.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, H.; Haddock, F. T.

    1973-01-01

    The analysis of type III bursts observed from the OGO-5 satellite between 3.5 MHz and 50 kHz gives an empirical expression for the frequency drift rate as a function of frequency that is valid from 75 kHz to 550 MHz. Using this expression and some simplifying assumptions we obtain indirectly an empirical formula for the electron density distribution of the solar wind to 1 AU which is consistent with published values of electron density and with observed type III burst drift rates.

  4. Three cross leg flaps for lower leg reconstruction of Gustilo type III C open fracture

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Kazufumi; Ozeki, Satoru; Sugimoto, Ichiro; Ogawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    A 60 year old male had Gustilo type III C open fracture of the right lower leg. After radical debridement, the large open defect including certain loss of the bone tissue was successfully augmented and covered, by consecutive three cross-leg flaps, which consisted of the free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, the fibula osteocutaneous flap and the conventional sural flap. Although indication for amputation or preservation is decided with multiple factors in each case, a strategic combination of cross-leg flap, free flap, external fixation and vascular delay could increase the potential of preservation of the lower leg with even disastrous Gustilo type III C. PMID:27293297

  5. Conventional Treatment of Maxillary Incisor Type III Dens Invaginatus with Periapical Lesion: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Semenoff Segundo, Alex; Nadalin, Michele Regina; Pedro, Fábio Luís Miranda; da Cruz Filho, Antônio Miranda; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2011-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental dental anomaly clinically characterized by a palatine furrow that can be limited to the coronal pulp or may extend to the radicular apex. The purpose of this paper was to present a clinical case of type III dens invaginatus, identified on the maxillary right central incisor in anterior periapical radiographs, in which the tooth was submitted to conventional endodontic treatment. The results obtained after five years of clinical and radiographic followup demonstrated that conventional endodontic treatment is a clinically viable alternative in cases of type III dens invaginatus. PMID:21991460

  6. Inactivation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type III by heat, chemicals, and irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinnan, G.V. Jr.; Wells, M.A.; Wittek, A.E.; Phelan, M.A.; Mayner, R.E.; Feinstone, S.; Purcell, R.H.; Epstein, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    Infectivity of human T-cell lymphotropic virus, Type III (HTLV-III) was inactivated by heat more rapidly if in liquid medium than if lyophilized and more rapidly at 60 than 56/sup 0/C. When HTLV-III was added to factor VIII suspension, then lyophilized and heated at 60/sup 0/C for 2 hours or longer there was elimination of 1 X 10(6) in vitro infectious units (IVIU) of virus. Much of the viral inactivation appeared to result from lyophilization. The application of water-saturated chloroform to the lyophilized material containing virus also resulted in elimination of infectivity. HTLV-III was efficiently inactivated by formalin, beta-propiolactone, ethyl ether, detergent, and ultraviolet light plus psoralen. The results are reassuring regarding the potential safety of various biological products.

  7. Coxsackievirus counters the host innate immune response by blocking type III interferon expression.

    PubMed

    Lind, Katharina; Svedin, Emma; Domsgen, Erna; Kapell, Sebastian; Laitinen, Olli; Moll, Markus; Flodström-Tullberg, Malin

    2016-06-01

    Type I IFNs play an important role in the immune response to enterovirus infections. Their importance is underscored by observations showing that many enteroviruses including coxsackie B viruses (CVBs) have developed strategies to block type I IFN production. Recent studies have highlighted a role for the type III IFNs (also called IFNλs) in reducing permissiveness to infections with enteric viruses including coxsackievirus. However, whether or not CVBs have measures to evade the effects of type III IFNs remains unknown. By combining virus infection studies and different modes of administrating the dsRNA mimic poly I : C, we discovered that CVBs target both TLR3- and MDA5/RIG-I-mediated type III IFN expression. Consistent with this, the cellular protein expression levels of the signal transduction proteins TRIF and IPS1 were reduced and no hyperphosphorylation of IRF-3 was observed following infection with the virus. Notably, decreased expression of full-length TRIF and IPS1 and the appearance of cleavage products was observed upon both CVB3 infection and in cellular protein extracts incubated with recombinant 2Apro, indicating an important role for the viral protease in subverting the cellular immune system. Collectively, our study reveals that CVBs block the expression of type III IFNs, and that this is achieved by a similar mechanism as the virus uses to block type I IFN production. We also demonstrate that the virus blocks several intracellular viral recognition pathways of importance for both type I and III IFN production. The simultaneous targeting of numerous arms of the host immune response may be required for successful viral replication and dissemination. PMID:26935471

  8. Novel findings in patients with primary hyperoxaluria type III and implications for advanced molecular testing strategies.

    PubMed

    Beck, Bodo B; Baasner, Anne; Buescher, Anja; Habbig, Sandra; Reintjes, Nadine; Kemper, Markus J; Sikora, Przemyslaw; Mache, Christoph; Pohl, Martin; Stahl, Mirjam; Toenshoff, Burkhard; Pape, Lars; Fehrenbach, Henry; Jacob, Dorrit E; Grohe, Bernd; Wolf, Matthias T; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Yigit, Gökhan; Salido, Eduardo C; Hoppe, Bernd

    2013-02-01

    Identification of mutations in the HOGA1 gene as the cause of autosomal recessive primary hyperoxaluria (PH) type III has revitalized research in the field of PH and related stone disease. In contrast to the well-characterized entities of PH type I and type II, the pathophysiology and prevalence of type III is largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed a large cohort of subjects previously tested negative for type I/II by complete HOGA1 sequencing. Seven distinct mutations, among them four novel, were found in 15 patients. In patients of non-consanguineous European descent the previously reported c.700+5G>T splice-site mutation was predominant and represents a potential founder mutation, while in consanguineous families private homozygous mutations were identified throughout the gene. Furthermore, we identified a family where a homozygous mutation in HOGA1 (p.P190L) segregated in two siblings with an additional AGXT mutation (p.D201E). The two girls exhibiting triallelic inheritance presented a more severe phenotype than their only mildly affected p.P190L homozygous father. In silico analysis of five mutations reveals that HOGA1 deficiency is causing type III, yet reduced HOGA1 expression or aberrant subcellular protein targeting is unlikely to be the responsible pathomechanism. Our results strongly suggest HOGA1 as a major cause of PH, indicate a greater genetic heterogeneity of hyperoxaluria, and point to a favorable outcome of type III in the context of PH despite incomplete or absent biochemical remission. Multiallelic inheritance could have implications for genetic testing strategies and might represent an unrecognized mechanism for phenotype variability in PH. PMID:22781098

  9. Self-Perception and Achievement of Black Urban 10th Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reglin, Gary

    Explores the following five dimensions of self-perception held by black urban male 10th-grade students in North Carolina: (1) scholastic competence; (2) athletic competence; (3) physical appearance; (4) behavioral conduct; and (5) job competence. Investigates differences in these aspects of self-concept for 30 students scoring above and 30 scoring…

  10. Changes in Educational Expectations between 10th and 12th Grades across Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sueuk; Wells, Ryan; Bills, David

    2015-01-01

    The mean levels of educational expectations of American high school students have increased over the past generation; individual educational expectations change as students mature. Using the National Education Longitudinal Study and the Education Longitudinal Study, we examined simultaneously the changes in individuals' expectations from 10th to…

  11. Changes in Math Proficiency between 8th and 10th Grades. Statistics in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Don; And Others

    Between 8th and 10th grades, many students are asked to make curriculum-related decisions that may ultimately influence their achievement in core academic subjects such as mathematics. While past achievement often limits the level of courses available to a student, aspirations for postsecondary education ultimately determine the level of…

  12. A Chemistry Course for High Ability 8th, 9th, and 10th Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilker, Richard, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a chemistry course designed, in cooperation with local public school districts, to intellectually challenge a group of 8th, 9th, and 10th grade students. Organic chemistry and biochemistry are integrated into the course (titled Chemistry and Everyday Life) to emphasize practical applications of chemistry. The course syllabus is included.…

  13. The School Compositional Effect of Single Parenthood on 10th-Grade Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Suet-ling

    1998-01-01

    Uses data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) to reveal a detrimental contextual effect on 10th-grade mathematics and reading achievement associated with attending a school with a high concentration of children from single-parent homes. Maintains this effect is evident even when individual demographic characteristics and family…

  14. Classroom Achievement Goal Structure, School Engagement, and Substance Use among 10th Grade Students in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Åge; Samdal, Oddrun

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the relationships between students' perceived classroom achievement goals, school engagement and substance use in terms of smoking and drinking, and at investigating gender differences regarding these issues in a sample of 1,239 Norwegian 10th grade students. A multivariate analysis showed that…

  15. MedlinePlus en español marks its 10th anniversary

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/spanishanniversary.html MedlinePlus en español Marks its 10 th Anniversary To use the sharing features ... Spanish greatly expands NIH's ability to carry out its mission to communicate with the public.” MedlinePlus en ...

  16. Mental Retardation: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports. 10th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckasson, Ruth; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon; Buntinx, Wil H. E.; Coulter, David L.; Craig, Ellis M.; Reeve, Alya; Schalock, Robert L.; Snell, Martha E.; Spitalnik, Deborah M.; Spreat, Scott; Tasse, Marc J.

    This manual, the 10th edition of a regularly published definition and classification work on mental retardation, presents five key assumptions upon which the definition of mental retardation is based and a theoretical model of five essential dimensions that explain mental retardation and how to use the companion system. These dimensions include…

  17. County Data Book, 2000: Kentucky Kids Count. 10th Annual Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Danielle; Hall, Douglas; Mellick, Donna; Miller, Debra; Town, Jackie

    This 10th annual Kids Count data book reports on trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of well being, child risk factors, and demography. The indicators are as follows: (1) healthy births, including birth weights and prenatal care; (2) maternal risk characteristics, including…

  18. Plasma ApoC-III Levels, Triglycerides, and Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 2 Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Arman; Khetarpal, Sumeet A.; Khera, Amit V.; Qasim, Atif; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) have emerged as causal risk factors for developing coronary heart disease (CHD) independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) modulates TRL metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic uptake of TRL. Mutations causing loss-of-function of ApoC-III lower TG and reduce CHD risk, suggestive of a causal role for ApoC-III. Little data exist regarding the relationship of ApoC-III, TG, and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Here, we examined the relationships between plasma ApoC-III, TG and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in T2DM patients. Approach & Results Plasma ApoC-III levels were measured in a cross-sectional study of 1422 subjects with T2DM but without clinically manifest CHD. ApoC-III levels were positively associated with total cholesterol (Spearman r=0.36), TG (r=0.59), LDL-C (r=0.16), fasting glucose (r=0.16) and glycosylated hemoglobin (r=0.12) (P < 0.0001 for all). In age, gender, and race-adjusted analysis, ApoC-III levels were positively associated with CAC (Tobit regression ratio (TRR) 1.78, 95% CI 1.27–2.50 per SD-increase in ApoC-III, P <0.001). As expected for an intermediate mediator, these findings were attenuated when adjusted for both TG (TRR 1.43, 95% CI 0.94–2.18, P=0.086) and separately for VLDL-C (TRR 1.14, 95% ci 0.75–1.71, P=0.53). Conclusions In persons with T2DM, increased plasma ApoC-III is associated with higher TG, less favorable cardiometabolic phenotypes, and higher CAC, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Therapeutic inhibition of ApoC-III may thus be a novel strategy for reducing plasma TRLs and cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:26069232

  19. Type III interferon gene expression in response to influenza virus infection in chicken and duck embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhijie; Zou, Tingting; Hu, Xiaotong; Jin, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Type III interferons (IFN-λs) comprise a group of newly identified antiviral cytokines that are functionally similar to type I IFNs and elicit first-line antiviral responses. Recently, type III IFNs were identified in several species; however, little information is available about type III IFNs in ducks. We compared the expression of type III IFNs and their receptor in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEFs) and duck embryonic fibroblasts (DEFs) in response to influenza virus infection. The results showed that the expression of type III IFNs was upregulated in both DEFs and CEFs following infection with H1N1 influenza virus or treatment with poly (I:C), and expression levels were significantly higher in CEFs than in DEFs at each time point. The expression of the receptor for type III IFNs (IL-28Rα) was also upregulated following infection with H1N1 virus or treatment with poly (I:C) and was significantly higher in CEFs than in DEFs at each time point. The expression of the receptor for type III IFNs occurred from 8 hpi and remained at similar levels until 36 hpi in CEFs, but the expression level was elevated from 36 hpi in DEFs. These findings revealed the existence of distinct expression patterns for type III IFNs in chickens and ducks in response to influenza virus infection. The provided data are fundamentally useful in furthering our understanding of type III IFNs and innate antiviral responses in different species. PMID:26598110

  20. Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor by a hybrid type I fatty acid-type III polyketide synthase.

    PubMed

    Austin, Michael B; Saito, Tamao; Bowman, Marianne E; Haydock, Stephen; Kato, Atsushi; Moore, Bradley S; Kay, Robert R; Noel, Joseph P

    2006-09-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are well known to modulate formation of distinct communal cell types from identical Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas, but DIF biosynthesis remains obscure. We report complimentary in vivo and in vitro experiments identifying one of two approximately 3,000-residue D. discoideum proteins, termed 'steely', as responsible for biosynthesis of the DIF acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Steely proteins possess six catalytic domains homologous to metazoan type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) but feature an iterative type III polyketide synthase (PKS) in place of the expected FAS C-terminal thioesterase used to off load fatty acid products. This new domain arrangement likely facilitates covalent transfer of steely N-terminal acyl products directly to the C-terminal type III PKS active sites, which catalyze both iterative polyketide extension and cyclization. The crystal structure of a steely C-terminal domain confirms conservation of the homodimeric type III PKS fold. These findings suggest new bioengineering strategies for expanding the scope of fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis. PMID:16906151

  1. Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor by a hybrid type I fatty acid–type III polyketide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Michael B; Saito, Tamao; Bowman, Marianne E; Haydock, Stephen; Kato, Atsushi; Moore, Bradley S; Kay, Robert R; Noel, Joseph P

    2010-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are well known to modulate formation of distinct communal cell types from identical Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas, but DIF biosynthesis remains obscure. We report complimentary in vivo and in vitro experiments identifying one of two ~3,000-residue D. discoideum proteins, termed ‘steely’, as responsible for biosynthesis of the DIF acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Steely proteins possess six catalytic domains homologous to metazoan type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) but feature an iterative type III polyketide synthase (PKS) in place of the expected FAS C-terminal thioesterase used to off load fatty acid products. This new domain arrangement likely facilitates covalent transfer of steely N-terminal acyl products directly to the C-terminal type III PKS active sites, which catalyze both iterative polyketide extension and cyclization. The crystal structure of a steely C-terminal domain confirms conservation of the homodimeric type III PKS fold. These findings suggest new bioengineering strategies for expanding the scope of fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis. PMID:16906151

  2. Direct transfer of starter substrates from type I fatty acid synthase to type III polyketide synthases in phenolic lipid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Miyanaga, Akimasa; Funa, Nobutaka; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2008-01-22

    Alkylresorcinols and alkylpyrones, which have a polar aromatic ring and a hydrophobic alkyl chain, are phenolic lipids found in plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the Gram-negative bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, phenolic lipids in the membrane of dormant cysts are essential for encystment. The aromatic moieties of the phenolic lipids in A. vinelandii are synthesized by two type III polyketide synthases (PKSs), ArsB and ArsC, which are encoded by the ars operon. However, details of the synthesis of hydrophobic acyl chains, which might serve as starter substrates for the type III polyketide synthases (PKSs), were unknown. Here, we show that two type I fatty acid synthases (FASs), ArsA and ArsD, which are members of the ars operon, are responsible for the biosynthesis of C(22)-C(26) fatty acids from malonyl-CoA. In vivo and in vitro reconstitution of phenolic lipid synthesis systems with the Ars enzymes suggested that the C(22)-C(26) fatty acids produced by ArsA and ArsD remained attached to the ACP domain of ArsA and were transferred hand-to-hand to the active-site cysteine residues of ArsB and ArsC. The type III PKSs then used the fatty acids as starter substrates and carried out two or three extensions with malonyl-CoA to yield the phenolic lipids. The phenolic lipids in A. vinelandii were thus found to be synthesized solely from malonyl-CoA by the four members of the ars operon. This is the first demonstration that a type I FAS interacts directly with a type III PKS through substrate transfer. PMID:18199837

  3. 33 CFR 159.12a - Certification of certain Type III devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification of certain Type III devices. 159.12a Section 159.12a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.12a...

  4. Evolutionary Implications and Physicochemical Analyses of Selected Proteins of Type III Polyketide Synthase Family

    PubMed Central

    Mallika, V.; Sivakumar, K.C.; Soniya, E.V.

    2011-01-01

    Type III polyketide synthases have a substantial role in the biosynthesis of various polyketides in plants and microorganisms. Comparative proteomic analysis of type III polyketide synthases showed evolutionarily and structurally related positions in a compilation of amino acid sequences from different families. Bacterial and fungal type III polyketide synthase proteins showed <50% similarity but in higher plants, it exhibited >80% among chalcone synthases and >70% in the case of non-chalcone synthases. In a consensus phylogenetic tree based on 1000 replicates; bacterial, fungal and plant proteins were clustered in separate groups. Proteins from bryophytes and pteridophytes grouped immediately near to the fungal cluster, demonstrated how evolutionary lineage has occurred among type III polyketide synthase proteins. Upon physicochemical analysis, it was observed that the proteins localized in the cytoplasm and were hydrophobic in nature. Molecular structural analysis revealed comparatively stable structure comprising of alpha helices and random coils as major structural components. It was found that there was a decline in the structural stability with active site mutation as prophesied by the in silico mutation studies. PMID:21697991

  5. The Chlamydial Type III Secretion Mechanism: Revealing Cracks in a Tough Nut

    PubMed Central

    Betts-Hampikian, Helen Jennifer; Fields, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Present-day members of the Chlamydiaceae contain parasitic bacteria that have been co-evolving with their eukaryotic hosts over hundreds of millions of years. Likewise, a type III secretion system encoded within all genomes has been refined to complement the unique obligate intracellular niche colonized so successfully by Chlamydia spp. All this adaptation has occurred in the apparent absence of the horizontal gene transfer responsible for creating the wide range of diversity in other Gram-negative, type III-expressing bacteria. The result is a system that is, in many ways, uniquely chlamydial. A critical mass of information has been amassed that sheds significant light on how the chlamydial secretion system functions and contributes to an obligate intracellular lifestyle. Although the overall mechanism is certainly similar to homologous systems, an image has emerged where the chlamydial secretion system is essential for both survival and virulence. Numerous apparent differences, some subtle and some profound, differentiate chlamydial type III secretion from others. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge regarding the Chlamydia type III secretion mechanism. We focus on the aspects that are distinctly chlamydial and comment on how this important system influences chlamydial pathogenesis. Gaining a grasp on this fascinating system has been challenging in the absence of a tractable genetic system. However, the surface of this tough nut has been scored and the future promises to be fruitful and revealing. PMID:21738522

  6. A Bacterial Pathogen uses Distinct Type III Secretion Systems to Alternate between Host Kingdom

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of eukaryotes often secrete proteins directly into host cells via a needle-like protein channel called a ‘type III secretion system’ (T3SS). Bacteria that are adapted to either animal or plant hosts use phylogenetically distinct T3SSs for secreting proteins. Here, ...

  7. Preliminary Analysis of Soybean Gene Expression Response to a Bradyrhizobium japonicum Type III Secretion System Mutant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathogens deliver proteinaceous effector molecules into their host via complex secretion systems, such as the type III secretion system (T3SS). Some of these T3SS effectors have been shown to function as suppressors of host defense responses. The role of the T3SS during plant interactions wit...

  8. A bacterial pathogen uses distinct type III secretion systems to alternate between host kingdoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant and animal-pathogenic bacteria utilize phylogenetically distinct type III secretion systems (T3SS) that produce needle-like injectisomes or pili for the delivery of effector proteins into host cells. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss), the causative agent of Stewart’s bacterial wilt and...

  9. Aquatic Therapy for a Child with Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Yasser; Gropack, Stacy Jaffee

    2010-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by degeneration of alpha motor neurons. This case report describes an aquatic therapy program and the outcomes for a 3-year-old girl with type III SMA. Motor skills were examined using the 88-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales…

  10. Contribution of Bordetella bronchiseptica Type III secretion system to respiratory disease in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The type III secretion system (TTSS) of gram negative bacteria allows injection of effector proteins directly into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that the B. bronchiseptica TTSS plays a role in the persistent bacterial colonization of the trachea of m...

  11. Propolis Modifies Collagen Types I and III Accumulation in the Matrix of Burnt Tissue.

    PubMed

    Olczyk, Pawel; Wisowski, Grzegorz; Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Stojko, Jerzy; Klimek, Katarzyna; Olczyk, Monika; Kozma, Ewa M

    2013-01-01

    Wound healing represents an interactive process which requires highly organized activity of various cells, synthesizing cytokines, growth factors, and collagen. Collagen types I and III, serving as structural and regulatory molecules, play pivotal roles during wound healing. The aim of this study was to compare the propolis and silver sulfadiazine therapeutic efficacy throughout the quantitative and qualitative assessment of collagen types I and III accumulation in the matrix of burnt tissues. Burn wounds were inflicted on pigs, chosen for the evaluation of wound repair because of many similarities between pig and human skin. Isolated collagen types I and III were estimated by the surface plasmon resonance method with a subsequent collagenous quantification using electrophoretic and densitometric analyses. Propolis burn treatment led to enhanced collagens and its components expression, especially during the initial stage of the study. Less expressed changes were observed after silver sulfadiazine (AgSD) application. AgSD and, with a smaller intensity, propolis stimulated accumulation of collagenous degradation products. The assessed propolis therapeutic efficacy, throughout quantitatively and qualitatively analyses of collagen types I and III expression and degradation in wounds matrix, may indicate that apitherapeutic agent can generate favorable biochemical environment supporting reepithelization. PMID:23781260

  12. Mutualistic Co-evolution of Type III Effector Genes in Sinorhizobium fredii and Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan; Creason, Allison L.; Thireault, Caitlin A.; Sachs, Joel L.; Chang, Jeff H.

    2013-01-01

    Two diametric paradigms have been proposed to model the molecular co-evolution of microbial mutualists and their eukaryotic hosts. In one, mutualist and host exhibit an antagonistic arms race and each partner evolves rapidly to maximize their own fitness from the interaction at potential expense of the other. In the opposing model, conflicts between mutualist and host are largely resolved and the interaction is characterized by evolutionary stasis. We tested these opposing frameworks in two lineages of mutualistic rhizobia, Sinorhizobium fredii and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. To examine genes demonstrably important for host-interactions we coupled the mining of genome sequences to a comprehensive functional screen for type III effector genes, which are necessary for many Gram-negative pathogens to infect their hosts. We demonstrate that the rhizobial type III effector genes exhibit a surprisingly high degree of conservation in content and sequence that is in contrast to those of a well characterized plant pathogenic species. This type III effector gene conservation is particularly striking in the context of the relatively high genome-wide diversity of rhizobia. The evolution of rhizobial type III effectors is inconsistent with the molecular arms race paradigm. Instead, our results reveal that these loci are relatively static in rhizobial lineages and suggest that fitness conflicts between rhizobia mutualists and their host plants have been largely resolved. PMID:23468637

  13. Decameter Type III Bursts with Changing Frequency Drift-Rate Signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V. N.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Briand, C.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Zarka, P.; Frantsuzenko, A. V.; Rucker, H. O.; Rutkevych, B. P.; Panchenko, M.; Denis, L.; Zaqarashvili, T.; Shergelashvili, B.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss properties of type III bursts that change the sign of their drift rate from negative to positive and vice versa. Moreover, these bursts may change the sign of their drift rates more than once. These particular type III bursts were observed simultaneously by the radio telescopes UTR-2 ( Ukrainian T-shaped Radio telescope, Kharkov, Ukraine), URAN-2 ( Ukrainian Radio telescope of the Academy of Sciences, Poltava, Ukraine), and by the NDA ( Nançay Decametric Array, Nancay, France) in the frequency range 8 - 41 MHz. The negative drift rates of these bursts are similar to those of previously reported decameter type III bursts and vary from -0.7 MHz s-1 to -1.7 MHz s-1, but their positive drift rates vary in a wider range from 0.44 MHz s-1 to 6 MHz s-1. Unlike inverted U-bursts, the tracks of these type III bursts have C- or inverted C-shapes.

  14. Synthesis and immunological properties of conjugates composed of group B streptococcus type III capsular polysaccharide covalently bound to tetanus toxoid.

    PubMed

    Lagergard, T; Shiloach, J; Robbins, J B; Schneerson, R

    1990-03-01

    A synthetic scheme for covalently binding group B streptococcus type III to tetanus toxoid (TT), using adipic acid dihydrazide as a spacer, is described. Type III alone or as a conjugate with TT was injected subcutaneously into laboratory mice, and the type-specific and TT antibody responses elicited by these immunogens were assayed. Type III-TT elicited significantly higher levels of type-specific antibodies after each immunization than did the type III alone. These levels were related to the dosage of the conjugate, enhanced by Freund adjuvant, and exhibited booster responses. Type III alone elicited only immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in Swiss albino mice and mostly IgM and low levels of IgG antibodies of the IgG3 subclass in BALB/c mice. Type III-TT conjugates, in contrast, elicited mostly IgG antibodies in both strains of mice. IgA type III antibodies were not detected. The first two immunizations with the conjugates elicited type III antibodies in the IgG1 and in the IgG3 subclasses. Low levels of IgG2a type III antibodies were detected after a third injection of type III-TT. Conjugate-induced antibodies facilitated opsonization of group B streptococcus type III organisms and did not react with the structurally related pneumococcus type 14. TT alone or as a component of type III-TT induced mostly antibodies of the IgG class: IgG1 levels were the highest of the four subclasses. No IgA TT antibodies were detected. The conjugation procedure, therefore, enhanced the immunogenicity of and conferred T-cell dependent properties to the type III while preserving the immunogenicity of the TT component. The T-cell dependent properties of the conjugates were responsible for stimulating IgG type III antibodies which could be boosted. Evaluation of type III-TT conjugates in antibody-negative women of child-bearing age is planned. PMID:2407652

  15. Structural characterization of CFA/III and Longus type IVb pili from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kolappan, Subramaniapillai; Roos, Justin; Yuen, Alex S W; Pierce, Owen M; Craig, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    The type IV pili are helical filaments found on many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, with multiple diverse roles in pathogenesis, including microcolony formation, adhesion, and twitching motility. Many pathogenic enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates express one of two type IV pili belonging to the type IVb subclass: CFA/III or Longus. Here we show a direct correlation between CFA/III expression and ETEC aggregation, suggesting that these pili, like the Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), mediate microcolony formation. We report a 1.26-Å resolution crystal structure of CofA, the major pilin subunit from CFA/III. CofA is very similar in structure to V. cholerae TcpA but possesses a 10-amino-acid insertion that replaces part of the α2-helix with an irregular loop containing a 3(10)-helix. Homology modeling suggests a very similar structure for the Longus LngA pilin. A model for the CFA/III pilus filament was generated using the TCP electron microscopy reconstruction as a template. The unique 3(10)-helix insert fits perfectly within the gap between CofA globular domains. This insert, together with differences in surface-exposed residues, produces a filament that is smoother and more negatively charged than TCP. To explore the specificity of the type IV pilus assembly apparatus, CofA was expressed heterologously in V. cholerae by replacing the tcpA gene with that of cofA within the tcp operon. Although CofA was synthesized and processed by V. cholerae, no CFA/III filaments were detected, suggesting that the components of the type IVb pilus assembly system are highly specific to their pilin substrates. PMID:22447901

  16. Disturbances in affective touch in hereditary sensory & autonomic neuropathy type III.

    PubMed

    Macefield, Vaughan G; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Löken, Line; Axelrod, Felicia B; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2014-07-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (HSAN III, Riley-Day syndrome, Familial Dysautomia) is characterised by elevated thermal thresholds and an indifference to pain. Using microelectrode recordings we recently showed that these patients possess no functional stretch-sensitive mechanoreceptors in their muscles (muscle spindles), a feature that may explain their lack of stretch reflexes and ataxic gait, yet patients have apparently normal low-threshold cutaneous mechanoreceptors. The density of C-fibres in the skin is markedly reduced in patients with HSAN III, but it is not known whether the C-tactile afferents, a distinct type of low-threshold C fibre present in hairy skin that is sensitive to gentle stroking and has been implicated in the coding of pleasant touch are specifically affected in HSAN III patients. We addressed the relationship between C-tactile afferent function and pleasant touch perception in 15 patients with HSAN III and 15 age-matched control subjects. A soft make-up brush was used to apply stroking stimuli to the forearm and lateral aspect of the leg at five velocities: 0.3, 1, 3, 10 and 30 cm/s. As demonstrated previously, the control subjects rated the slowest and highest velocities as less pleasant than those applied at 1-10 cm/s, which fits with the optimal velocities for exciting C-tactile afferents. Conversely, for the patients, ratings of pleasantness did not fit the profile for C-tactile afferents. Patients either rated the higher velocities as more pleasant than the slow velocities, with the slowest velocities being rated unpleasant, or rated all velocities equally pleasant. We interpret this to reflect absent or reduced C-tactile afferent density in the skin of patients with HSAN III, who are likely using tactile cues (i.e. myelinated afferents) to rate pleasantness of stroking or are attributing pleasantness to this type of stimulus irrespective of velocity. PMID:24726998

  17. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome mutations in type III collagen differently stall the triple helical folding.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kazunori; Boudko, Sergei; Engel, Jürgen; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2013-06-28

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV is the most severe form of EDS. In many cases the disease is caused by a point mutation of Gly in type III collagen. A slower folding of the collagen helix is a potential cause for over-modifications. However, little is known about the rate of folding of type III collagen in patients with EDS. To understand the molecular mechanism of the effect of mutations, a system was developed for bacterial production of homotrimeric model polypeptides. The C-terminal quarter, 252 residues, of the natural human type III collagen was attached to (GPP)7 with the type XIX collagen trimerization domain (NC2). The natural collagen domain forms a triple helical structure without 4-hydroxylation of proline at a low temperature. At 33 °C, the natural collagenous part is denatured, but the C-terminal (GPP)7-NC2 remains intact. Switching to a low temperature triggers the folding of the type III collagen domain in a zipper-like fashion that resembles the natural process. We used this system for the two known EDS mutations (Gly-to-Val) in the middle at Gly-910 and at the C terminus at Gly-1018. In addition, wild-type and Gly-to-Ala mutants were made. The mutations significantly slow down the overall rate of triple helix formation. The effect of the Gly-to-Val mutation is much more severe compared with Gly-to-Ala. This is the first report on the folding of collagen with EDS mutations, which demonstrates local delays in the triple helix propagation around the mutated residue. PMID:23645670

  18. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Mutations in Type III Collagen Differently Stall the Triple Helical Folding*

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Kazunori; Boudko, Sergei; Engel, Jürgen; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2013-01-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV is the most severe form of EDS. In many cases the disease is caused by a point mutation of Gly in type III collagen. A slower folding of the collagen helix is a potential cause for over-modifications. However, little is known about the rate of folding of type III collagen in patients with EDS. To understand the molecular mechanism of the effect of mutations, a system was developed for bacterial production of homotrimeric model polypeptides. The C-terminal quarter, 252 residues, of the natural human type III collagen was attached to (GPP)7 with the type XIX collagen trimerization domain (NC2). The natural collagen domain forms a triple helical structure without 4-hydroxylation of proline at a low temperature. At 33 °C, the natural collagenous part is denatured, but the C-terminal (GPP)7-NC2 remains intact. Switching to a low temperature triggers the folding of the type III collagen domain in a zipper-like fashion that resembles the natural process. We used this system for the two known EDS mutations (Gly-to-Val) in the middle at Gly-910 and at the C terminus at Gly-1018. In addition, wild-type and Gly-to-Ala mutants were made. The mutations significantly slow down the overall rate of triple helix formation. The effect of the Gly-to-Val mutation is much more severe compared with Gly-to-Ala. This is the first report on the folding of collagen with EDS mutations, which demonstrates local delays in the triple helix propagation around the mutated residue. PMID:23645670

  19. Osteogenesis imperfecta type III in South Africa: Psychosocial challenges.

    PubMed

    Stephen, L X G; Roberts, T; Van Hayden, E; Chetty, M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta type III (OI III) are severely physically disabled due to frequent fracturing. Their disability poses numerous barriers that challenge their social development. Despite these limitations, several affected persons are able to rise above these problems and achieve success in their personal and professional life. This outcome is directly relevant to their psychosocial development.The achievements of five individuals with OI III living in Cape Town are highlighted in this article, as well as the challenges that they have experienced and continue to experience in their daily lives. The authors intend to promulgate understanding of the psychosocial circumstances of affected persons, thereby facilitating the deployment of appropriate efforts and resources to address these challenges. PMID:27245537

  20. Dietary management in glycogen storage disease type III: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Derks, Terry G J; Smit, G Peter A

    2015-05-01

    In childhood, GSD type III causes relatively severe fasting intolerance, classically associated with ketotic hypoglycaemia. During follow up, history of (documented) hypoglycaemia, clinical parameters (growth, liver size, motor development, neuromuscular parameters), laboratory parameters (glucose, lactate, ALAT, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatine kinase and ketones) and cardiac parameters all need to be integrated in order to titrate dietary management, for which age-dependent requirements need to be taken into account. Evidence from case studies and small cohort studies in both children and adults with GSD III demonstrate that prevention of hypoglycaemia and maintenance of euglycemia is not sufficient to prevent complications. Moreover, over-treatment with carbohydrates may even be harmful. The ageing cohort of GSD III patients, including the non-traditional clinical presentations in adulthood, raises ‬‬‬new questions. PMID:25164784

  1. Dentin phosphoprotein gene locus is not associated with dentinogenesis imperfecta types II and III

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, M.; Zeichner-David, M.; Davis, A.; Slavkin, H. ); Murray, J. ); Crall, M. )

    1992-01-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) is an autosomal dominant inherited dental disease which affects dentin production and mineralization. Genetic linkage studies have been performed on several multigeneration informative kindreds. These studies determined linkage between DGI types II and III and group-specific component (vitamin D-binding protein). This gene locus has been localized to the long arm of human chromosome 4 in the region 4q11-q21. Although this disease has been mapped to chromosome 4, the defective gene product is yet to be determined. Biochemical studies have suggested abnormal levels of dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) associated with DGI type II. This highly acidic protein is the major noncollagenous component of dentin, being solely expressed by the ectomesenchymal derived odontoblast cells of the tooth. The purpose of the present study was to establish whether DPP is associated with DGI types II and III, by using molecular biology techniques. The results indicated that DPP is not localized to any region of human chromosome 4, thus suggesting that the DPP gene is not directly associated with DGI type II or DGI type III. The data do not exclude the possibility that other proteins associated with DPP posttranslational modifications might be responsible for this genetic disease.

  2. Economic Impacts of Treatment for Type II or III Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Vaislic, Mickael; Vaislic, Claude; Alsac, Jean-Marc; Benjelloun, Amira; Chocron, Sidney; Unterseeh, Thierry; Fabiani, Jean-Noel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Current treatment for extensive thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) involves high-risk surgical and endovascular repairs, with a hospital mortality exceeding 20%, and a postoperative paraplegia rate beyond 10.5%. Objectives: The aim of this study was to present an estimation of the economic impacts of surgical and endovascular treatments of types II and III TAAAs in the US as well as the economic consequences of the elimination of spinal cord injury and mortality via an endovascular repair of extensive TAAAs (1). Materials and Methods: We compared the current hospital charges of endovascular and surgical repair of extensive TAAAs, also provided a cost analysis of health care charges resulting from paraplegia in the United States, and determined the prevalence of extensive TAAAs found yearly during autopsies in the U.S. Based on the figures gathered and the frequency of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms per year, we were able to calculate the nationwide inpatient hospital charges, the total average expenses affected by paraplegia during the first 12 months after the repair, the total average expenses after paraplegia for each subsequent year, mortality rate at 30 days and one year, and the number of extensive TAAAs ruptures. Results: The current nationwide inpatient hospital charges for type II or III TAAA repair cost $12484324 and $37612665 for endovascular repair and surgical repair respectively, and the total average expenses for patients affected by paraplegia during the first 12-month were $4882291 and $23179110 after endovascular repair and surgical repair respectively. The nationwide average expense after 10 years for patients undergoing surgical repair and affected by paraplegia is $33421910 and $6,316,183 for patients undergoing endovascular repair. Moreover, 55 patients with a type II or type III TAAA died after 30 days, and 100 after 1 year. The potential risk of type II or III TAAA ruptures is totally 1637 in a year. Conclusions: Major economic

  3. Bianchi type-I, type-III and Kantowski-Sachs solutions in f( T) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M. E.; Kpadonou, A. V.; Rahaman, F.; Oliveira, P. J.; Houndjo, M. J. S.

    2015-06-01

    In the context of modified tele-parallel theory of gravity, we undertake cosmological anisotropic models and search for their solutions. Within a suitable choice of non-diagonal tetrads, the decoupled equations of motion are obtained for Bianchi-I, Bianchi-III and Kantowski-Sachs models, from which we obtain the correspondent solutions. By the way, energy density and pressures are also obtained, showing, as an important result, that our universe may live a quintessence like universe even while anisotropic models are considered.

  4. 14. CLOSEUP VIEW OF THE 10TH AND 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF THE 10TH AND 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. WINDOWS HAVE WHITE TERRA COTTA SILLS, HEADS AND MULLIONS. ARCHES ARE OF TERRA COTTA INCLUDING ORNAMENTATION ABOVE THE 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. CIRCULAR ORNAMENTATIONS BETWEEN ARCHES ARE TERRA COTTA PAINTED IN BRONZE COLOR. LOUVERS ON THE WINDOWS ARE NOT PART OF THE ORIGINAL DESIGN. THIS IS THE FRONT ELEVATION. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. From the corner of N. 10th St. and W. O'Neill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    From the corner of N. 10th St. and W. O'Neill Ave. Looking west. Housing # 157-162 are on the right, building 156 is straight ahead, and buildings 153, 152, 116, and 115 are to the left. The golf course is directly west of these buildings. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. Optical and microphysical properties of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosol observed over Warsaw on 10th July 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicka, Lucja; Stachlewska, Iwona; Veselovskii, Igor; Baars, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning aerosol originating from Canadian forest fires was widely observed over Europe in July 2013. Favorable weather conditions caused long-term westward flow of smoke from Canada to Western and Central Europe. During this period, PollyXT lidar of the University of Warsaw took wavelength dependent measurements in Warsaw. On July 10th short event of simultaneous advection of Canadian smoke and Saharan dust was observed at different altitudes over Warsaw. Different origination of both air masses was indicated by backward trajectories from HYSPLIT model. Lidar measurements performed with various wavelength (1064, 532, 355 nm), using also Raman and depolarization channels for VIS and UV allowed for distinguishing physical differences of this two types of aerosols. Optical properties acted as input for retrieval of microphysical properties. Comparisons of microphysical and optical properties of biomass burning aerosols and mineral dust observed will be presented.

  7. Type III acromioclavicular separation: results of a recent survey on its management.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Carl W; Chatterjee, Abhishek

    2007-02-01

    The issue of managing type III acromioclavicular (AC) separations remains controversial, and decisions about using operative versus conservative management have undergone many distinct changes over the years. To review current management preferences within the orthopedic community, we sent a mail-in survey to all members of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) and approved Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) orthopedic program residency directors. Of the 664 respondents (577 AOSSM members, 87 directors), 81% (71/87 AOSSM members) to 86% (502/577 directors) continue to treat uncomplicated type III AC separations conservatively. Providing a sling for comfort remains the preferred type of conservative management (AOSSM members, 91% [456/502]; directors, 89% [63/71]). For surgical management, respondents recommended resection of the distal clavicle slightly more often than not (AOSSM members, 57% [42/74]; directors, 59% [319/538]) and rigid stabilization of the AC joint during early postoperative rehabilitation (AOSSM members, 80% [444/555]; directors, 82% [61/74]). Finally, most recommended reconstructing either the coracoclavicular ligaments (69% [330/476] and 61% [33/54], respectively) or both the coracoclavicular ligaments and the AC ligaments (27% 130/476] and 33% [18/54]) when addressing this problem. Since the early 1990s, there has been little change in initial conservative management of type III AC separations. Furthermore, the surgical approach to reconstruction, when necessary, has also undergone relatively few changes, with the exception of an increased preference for primary distal clavicle excision. PMID:17405638

  8. Phenotype of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 Ser351Cys mutation: Pfeiffer syndrome type III.

    PubMed

    Gripp, K W; Stolle, C A; McDonald-McGinn, D M; Markowitz, R I; Bartlett, S P; Katowitz, J A; Muenke, M; Zackai, E H

    1998-07-24

    We present a patient with pansynostosis, hydrocephalus, seizures, extreme proptosis with luxation of the eyes out of the lids, apnea and airway obstruction, intestinal non-rotation, and severe developmental delay. His skeletal abnormalities include bilateral elbow ankylosis, radial head dislocation, and unilateral broad and deviated first toe. The phenotype of this patient is consistent with that previously reported in Pfeiffer syndrome type III, but is unusual for the lack of broad thumbs. Our patient most closely resembles the case described by Kerr et al. [1996: Am J Med Genet 66:138-143] as Pfeiffer syndrome type III with normal thumbs. Mutations in the genes for fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) 1 and 2 have previously been seen in patients with Pfeiffer syndrome type I. The mutation identified in our patient, Ser351Cys in FGFR2, represents the first reported cause of Pfeiffer syndrome type III. An identical mutation was described once previously by Pulleyn et al., in a patient whose brief clinical description included cloverleaf skull, significant developmental delay, and normal hands and feet [Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 4: 283-291, 1996]. In our patient, previously performed single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis failed to detect a band shift; the mutation was identified only after independent sequence analysis. PMID:9714439

  9. Tibial spine fractures: an analysis of outcome in surgically treated type III injuries.

    PubMed

    Mulhall, K J; Dowdall, J; Grannell, M; McCabe, J P

    1999-05-01

    We analysed the outcome of open reduction and internal fixation of type III tibial spine fractures, assessing treatment and determining a treatment protocol. A total of 10 patients presented over 3 years to our institution with a mean age of 15 years (range 10-21), a male-to-female ratio of 8:2. left to right 6:4 and anterior to posterior spine fracture 9:1. Only one patient had associated meniscal injury noted at arthroscopy (no treatment required). The mode of injury was road traffic accidents four, sports injuries three and falls three. The mean follow-up was 9 months. There were seven excellent results and three good results. Those patients with good results exhibited either minimal quadriceps weakness, extensor lag (< 10 degrees) or antero-posterior laxity. This reflects the experience of other authors in dealing with these injuries in younger patients. There is widespread agreement that types I and II should be treated by plaster cast alone and that is also the policy at our institution. We recommend a routine treatment protocol in type III injuries of (1) examination under anaesthesia, (2) arthroscopy (evaluating the fracture, cruciate integrity and other associated injuries), (3) open reduction and screw fixation and (4) vigorous physiotherapy/rehabilitation of all type III fractures, as we feel this provides the best possible outcome in these injuries. PMID:10476299

  10. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Translocon Is Required for Biofilm Formation at the Epithelial Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cindy S.; Rangel, Stephanie M.; Almblad, Henrik; Kierbel, Arlinet; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Hauser, Alan R.; Engel, Joanne N.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a deadly Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, often involve the formation of antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Although biofilm formation has been extensively studied in vitro on glass or plastic surfaces, much less is known about biofilm formation at the epithelial barrier. We have previously shown that when added to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells, P. aeruginosa rapidly forms cell-associated aggregates within 60 minutes of infection. By confocal microscopy we now show that cell-associated aggregates exhibit key characteristics of biofilms, including the presence of extracellular matrix and increased resistance to antibiotics compared to planktonic bacteria. Using isogenic mutants in the type III secretion system, we found that the translocon, but not the effectors themselves, were required for cell-associated aggregation on the surface of polarized epithelial cells and at early time points in a murine model of acute pneumonia. In contrast, the translocon was not required for aggregation on abiotic surfaces, suggesting a novel function for the type III secretion system during cell-associated aggregation. Supernatants from epithelial cells infected with wild-type bacteria or from cells treated with the pore-forming toxin streptolysin O could rescue aggregate formation in a type III secretion mutant, indicating that cell-associated aggregation requires one or more host cell factors. Our results suggest a previously unappreciated function for the type III translocon in the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms at the epithelial barrier and demonstrate that biofilms may form at early time points of infection. PMID:25375398

  11. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III translocon is required for biofilm formation at the epithelial barrier.

    PubMed

    Tran, Cindy S; Rangel, Stephanie M; Almblad, Henrik; Kierbel, Arlinet; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Hauser, Alan R; Engel, Joanne N

    2014-11-01

    Clinical infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a deadly Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, often involve the formation of antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Although biofilm formation has been extensively studied in vitro on glass or plastic surfaces, much less is known about biofilm formation at the epithelial barrier. We have previously shown that when added to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells, P. aeruginosa rapidly forms cell-associated aggregates within 60 minutes of infection. By confocal microscopy we now show that cell-associated aggregates exhibit key characteristics of biofilms, including the presence of extracellular matrix and increased resistance to antibiotics compared to planktonic bacteria. Using isogenic mutants in the type III secretion system, we found that the translocon, but not the effectors themselves, were required for cell-associated aggregation on the surface of polarized epithelial cells and at early time points in a murine model of acute pneumonia. In contrast, the translocon was not required for aggregation on abiotic surfaces, suggesting a novel function for the type III secretion system during cell-associated aggregation. Supernatants from epithelial cells infected with wild-type bacteria or from cells treated with the pore-forming toxin streptolysin O could rescue aggregate formation in a type III secretion mutant, indicating that cell-associated aggregation requires one or more host cell factors. Our results suggest a previously unappreciated function for the type III translocon in the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms at the epithelial barrier and demonstrate that biofilms may form at early time points of infection. PMID:25375398

  12. In Situ Detection of Strong Langmuir Turbulence Processes in Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golla, Thejappa; Macdowall, Robert J.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-01-01

    The high time resolution observations obtained by the WAVES experiment of the STEREO spacecraft in solar type III radio bursts show that Langmuir waves often occur as intense localized wave packets. These wave packets are characterized by short durations of only a few ms and peak intensities, which well exceed the supersonic modulational instability (MI) thresholds. These timescales and peak intensities satisfy the criterion of the solitons collapsed to spatial scales of a few hundred Debye lengths. The spectra of these wave packets consist of primary spectral peaks corresponding to beam-resonant Langmuir waves, two or more sidebands corresponding to down-shifted and up-shifted daughter Langmuir waves, and low frequency enhancements below a few hundred Hz corresponding to daughter ion sound waves. The frequencies and wave numbers of these spectral components satisfy the resonance conditions of the modulational instability (MI). Moreover, the tricoherences, computed using trispectral analysis techniques show that these spectral components are coupled to each other with a high degree of coherency as expected of the MI type of four wave interactions. The high intensities, short scale lengths, sideband spectral structures and low frequency spectral enhancements and, high levels of tricoherences amongst the spectral components of these wave packets provide unambiguous evidence for the supersonic MI and related strong turbulence processes in type III radio bursts. The implication of these observations include: (1) the MI and related strong turbulence processes often occur in type III source regions, (2) the strong turbulence processes probably play very important roles in beam stabilization as well as conversion of Langmuir waves into escaping radiation at the fundamental and second harmonic of the electron plasma frequency, fpe, and (3) the Langmuir collapse probably follows the route of MI in type III radio bursts.

  13. A COL2A1 mutation in achondrogenesis type II results in the replacement of type II collagen by type I and III collagens in cartilage.

    PubMed

    Chan, D; Cole, W G; Chow, C W; Mundlos, S; Bateman, J F

    1995-01-27

    An autosomal dominant mutation in the COL2A1 gene was identified in a fetus with achondrogenesis type II. A transition of G2853 to A in exon 41 produced a substitution of Gly769 by Ser within the triple helical domain of the alpha 1(II) chain of type II collagen, interrupting the mandatory Gly-X-Y triplet sequence required for the normal formation of stable triple helical type II collagen molecules, resulting in the complete absence of type II collagen in the cartilage, which had a gelatinous composition. Type I and III collagens were the major species found in cartilage tissue and synthesized by cultured chondrocytes along with cartilage type XI collagen. However, cultured chondrocytes produced a trace amount of type II collagen, which was retained within the cells and not secreted. In situ hybridization of cartilage sections showed that the chondrocytes produced both type II and type I collagen mRNA. As a result, it is likely that the chondrocytes produced type II collagen molecules, which were then degraded. The close proximity of the Gly769 substitution by Ser to the mammalian collagenase cleavage site at Gly775-Leu776 may have produced an unstable domain that was highly susceptible to proteolysis. The type I and III collagens that replaced type II collagen were unable to maintain the normal structure of the hyaline cartilage but did support chondrocyte maturation, evidenced by the expression of type X collagen in the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate cartilage. PMID:7829510

  14. Evidence for nonlinear wave-wave interactions in solar type III radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.; Levedahl, W. K.; Lotko, W.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence is presented that nonlinear wave-wave interactions occur in type III solar radio bursts. Intense, spiky Langmuir waves are observed to be driven by electron beams associated with type III solar radio bursts in the interplanetary medium. Bursts of 30-300 Hz (in the spacecraft frame) waves are often observed coincident in time with the most intense spikes of the Langmuir waves. These low-frequency waves appear to be long-wavelength ion acoustic waves, with wavenumber approximately equal to the beam resonant Langmuir wavenumber. Three possible interpretations of these observations are considered: modulational instability, parametric decay of the parent Langmuir waves to daughter ion acoustic and Langmuir waves, and decay to daughter electromagnetic waves and ion acoustic waves.

  15. RNA-activated DNA cleavage by the Type III-B CRISPR-Cas effector complex.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Michael A; Kuo, Fang-Ting; Bailey, Scott

    2016-02-15

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) system is an RNA-guided immune system that protects prokaryotes from invading genetic elements. This system represents an inheritable and adaptable immune system that is mediated by multisubunit effector complexes. In the Type III-B system, the Cmr effector complex has been found to cleave ssRNA in vitro. However, in vivo, it has been implicated in transcription-dependent DNA targeting. We show here that the Cmr complex from Thermotoga maritima can cleave an ssRNA target that is complementary to the CRISPR RNA. We also show that binding of a complementary ssRNA target activates an ssDNA-specific nuclease activity in the histidine-aspartate (HD) domain of the Cmr2 subunit of the complex. These data suggest a mechanism for transcription-coupled DNA targeting by the Cmr complex and provide a unifying mechanism for all Type III systems. PMID:26848046

  16. Structural and functional characterization of a novel type-III dockerin from Ruminococcus flavefaciens.

    PubMed

    Karpol, Alon; Jobby, Maroor K; Slutzki, Michal; Noach, Ilit; Chitayat, Seth; Smith, Steven P; Bayer, Edward A

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of known dockerins in Ruminococcus flavefaciens revealed a novel subtype, type-III, in the scaffoldin proteins, ScaA, ScaB, ScaC and ScaE. In this study, we explored the Ca²⁺-binding properties of the type-III dockerin from the ScaA scaffoldin (ScaADoc) using a battery of structural and biophysical approaches including circular dichroism spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Despite the lack of a second canonical Ca²⁺-binding loop, the behaviour of ScaADoc is similar with respect to other dockerin protein modules in terms of its responsiveness to Ca²⁺ and affinity for the cohesin from the ScaB scaffoldin. Our results highlight the robustness of dockerin modules and how their Ca²⁺-binding properties can be exploited in the construction of designer cellulosomes. PMID:23195689

  17. Association of flaring X-ray bright points with type III bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; Gergely, T. E.; Golub, L.

    1980-01-01

    Using the swept-frequency radio observations obtained at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory and the X-ray photographs taken by the S-054 experiment aboard Skylab, a search has been made for type III bursts associated with X-ray bright point (XBP) flares. Using temporal as well as spatial criteria for the association, four such events are found over a period of 43 days. The time period was selected in such a way that the level of flare and radio activity was low in order to minimize the chance coincidences. The detection of type III bursts from the flaring XBPs is of great interest, since it identifies them with the flare process, of which XBP flares are thought to be the simplest form.

  18. Type III Dyson Sphere of Highly Advanced Civilisations around a Super Massive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, M.; Yokoo, H.

    We describe a new system for a society of highly advanced civilizations around a super massive black hole (SMBH), as an advanced Type III “Dyson Sphere,” pointing out an efficient usage of energy for the advanced civilizations. SMBH also works as a sink for waste materials. Here we assume that Type III civilisations of Kardashev classification [1] form a galactic club [2] in a galaxy, and the energy from the SMBH will be delivered to the club members, forming an energy control system similar to power grids in our present society. The energy is probably transmitted by a sharp beam with coherent electro-magnetic waves, which provide a new concept for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) via detection of such energy transmission signals. This expands the search window for other intelligences within the Universe.

  19. Disialylated apolipoprotein C-III proteoform is associated with improved lipids in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Koska, Juraj; Yassine, Hussein; Trenchevska, Olgica; Sinari, Shripad; Schwenke, Dawn C; Yen, Frances T; Billheimer, Dean; Nelson, Randall W; Nedelkov, Dobrin; Reaven, Peter D

    2016-05-01

    The apoC-III proteoform containing two sialic acid residues (apoC-III2) has different in vitro effects on lipid metabolism compared with asialylated (apoC-III0) or the most abundant monosialylated (apoC-III1) proteoforms. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between plasma apoC-III proteoforms (by mass spectrometric immunoassay) and plasma lipids were tested in two randomized clinical trials: ACT NOW, a study of pioglitazone in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (n = 531), and RACED (n = 296), a study of intensive glycemic control and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes patients. At baseline, higher relative apoC-III2 and apoC-III2/apoC-III1 ratios were associated with lower triglycerides and total cholesterol in both cohorts, and with lower small dense LDL in the RACED. Longitudinally, changes in apoC-III2/apoC-III1 were inversely associated with changes in triglycerides in both cohorts, and with total and small dense LDL in the RACED. apoC-III2/apoC-III1 was also higher in patients treated with PPAR-γ agonists and was associated with reduced cardiovascular events in the RACED control group. Ex vivo studies of apoC-III complexes with higher apoC-III2/apoC-III1 showed attenuated inhibition of VLDL uptake by HepG2 cells and LPL-mediated lipolysis, providing possible functional explanations for the inverse association between a higher apoC-III2/apoC-III1 and hypertriglyceridemia, proatherogenic plasma lipid profiles, and cardiovascular risk. PMID:26945091

  20. Overactive bladder after female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) type III

    PubMed Central

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Dällenbach, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A 27-year-old Somali woman with type III a–b female genital mutilation/cutting, consulted because of slow micturition, voiding efforts, urgency and urge incontinence (overactive bladder). She also referred primary dysmenorrhoea and superficial dyspareunia making complete sexual intercourses impossible. We treated her by defibulation and biofeedback re-educative therapy. We also offered a multidisciplinary counselling. At 5 months follow-up, urgency and urge incontinence had resolved and she became pregnant. PMID:24096069

  1. Overactive bladder after female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) type III.

    PubMed

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Dällenbach, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A 27-year-old Somali woman with type III a-b female genital mutilation/cutting, consulted because of slow micturition, voiding efforts, urgency and urge incontinence (overactive bladder). She also referred primary dysmenorrhoea and superficial dyspareunia making complete sexual intercourses impossible. We treated her by defibulation and biofeedback re-educative therapy. We also offered a multidisciplinary counselling. At 5 months follow-up, urgency and urge incontinence had resolved and she became pregnant. PMID:24096069

  2. Increased nitric oxide release by neutrophils of a patient with tyrosinemia type III.

    PubMed

    D'Eufemia, Patrizia; Finocchiaro, Roberto; Celli, Mauro; Raccio, Ivana; Properzi, Enrico; Zicari, Alessandra

    2009-06-01

    Tyrosinemia type III (OMIM 276710) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPD). Few cases have been described with mental retardation or neurological symptoms. Recently it has been demonstrated that 4-HPD participates to nitric oxide (NO) intracellular sequestration in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 4-HPD is an ubiquitous enzyme with a prominent expression in neutrophils and neurons. In the nervous system NO has been perceived to be a potential neuromodulator although prolonged excessive generation is detrimental. We analyzed NO release by neutrophils of a patient with tyrosinemia type III in order to evaluate a possible influence of 4-HPD deficiency on this process. Our patient, previously described, is a 30-year-old women with persistent tyrosinemia (450-680 micromol/l) and deficient activity of 4-HPD. At 17 months of age she experienced an acute ataxia and drowsiness lasting for 10 days, but further clinical course showed persistent tyrosinemia with normal growth and psychomotor development. Neutrophils isolated from our patient exhibited a NO release greatly higher in respect to the controls (mean+/-SEM 23.2+/-1.8 micromol/10(6) cells vs 3.5+/-0.5 micromol/10(6) cells). Clinical findings of tyrosinemia type III include neurological symptoms and mental retardation but no consistent phenotype has emerged. Therefore the pathogenesis of neurological involvement is yet not well understood. Our results suggest that an excessive neutrophils of NO release could reflect the lack of scavenging action of 4-HPD. Considering the prominent expression of this enzyme in neurons, we hypothesize that excessive NO release could participate in neuronal damage explaining the neurological involvement described in patients with tyrosinemia type III. PMID:18657947

  3. Evidence for Type III Restriction and Modification Systems in Mycoplasma pulmonis▿

    PubMed Central

    Dybvig, Kevin; Cao, Z.; French, C. Todd; Yu, Huilan

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma pulmonis possesses a cassette of genes that are predicted to code for type III restriction and modification (R-M) enzymes. Transposon disruption of a gene predicted to code for the endonuclease subunit of the enzyme resulted in loss of R-M activity. Genomic data indicate that the cassette was acquired by horizontal gene transfer and possibly located on a mobile element. PMID:17209015

  4. Pyopneumothorax with Stocker type III congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation in a 5-month-old infant

    PubMed Central

    Chilkar, Sujeet M; Leelakumar, Venkat; Ranjani, Chakravarthy P; Musthyala, Bharati; Narayana, Kotte VS

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) is a rare, developmental, hamartomatous abnormality of the lung characterized by a cessation of normal bronchiolar maturation, resulting in cystic overgrowth of the terminal bronchioles. We report one such case of CCAM in a 5-month-old female infant who was in perfect health until she suffered from spontaneous pyopneumothorax with type III CCAM of the lung and recovered after lobectomy. PMID:27051113

  5. A comparison of type III solar radio burst theories using satellite radio observations and particle measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, L. G.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    The required electron density to excite a type III solar burst can be predicted from different theories, using the low frequency radio observations of the RAE-1 satellite. Electron flux measurements by satellite in the vicinity of 1 AU then give an independent means of comparing these predicted exciter electron densities to the measured density. On this basis, one theory predicts the electron density in closest agreement with the measured values.

  6. Anesthetic challenges in managing a case of type III laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft

    PubMed Central

    Rajmohan, Nisha; Prakasam, Hassy; Francis, Johny V

    2012-01-01

    Laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft (LTEC) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by failure of fusion of the cricoid cartilage posteriorly and incomplete development of the tracheo-esophageal septum. Securing the airway during anesthesia in patients with LTEC, especially in the severe forms is a challenge. We describe the anesthetic management and the airway challenges in a neonate with type III LTEC who underwent bronchoscopy and repair of LTEC. PMID:23225937

  7. Anesthetic challenges in managing a case of type III laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft.

    PubMed

    Rajmohan, Nisha; Prakasam, Hassy; Francis, Johny V

    2012-10-01

    Laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft (LTEC) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by failure of fusion of the cricoid cartilage posteriorly and incomplete development of the tracheo-esophageal septum. Securing the airway during anesthesia in patients with LTEC, especially in the severe forms is a challenge. We describe the anesthetic management and the airway challenges in a neonate with type III LTEC who underwent bronchoscopy and repair of LTEC. PMID:23225937

  8. Estimation of Group B Streptococcus Type III Polysaccharide-Specific Antibody Concentrations in Human Sera Is Antigen Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, Reva; Anthony, Bascom F.; Frasch, Carl E.

    1998-01-01

    The presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against group B streptococcus (GBS) type III polysaccharide (PS) has been correlated with protection against GBS disease. The GBS type III PS is structurally similar to the pneumococcal type 14 PS, differing only in the presence of sialic acid residues. Four different preparations of GBS type III PS were evaluated for their specificity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): free PS, free PS mixed with methylated human serum albumin (mHSA), PS conjugated to biotin and PS conjugated to human serum albumin. Three groups of human sera were used to evaluate these PS preparations: sera from recipients of a GBS PS vaccine, sera from women receiving a GBS type III PS-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine, and sera from nonimmunized healthy women of childbearing age. Estimated antibody concentrations were different depending on the PS preparation used. Using any of the four preparations, we were able to measure ≤0.05 μg of IgG antibody to the GBS type III PS per ml. The specificity of the assay was determined by competitive inhibition with homologous and heterologous PS. The pneumococcal type 14 PS did not inhibit binding of antibody to the native GBS type III PS in sera from adults receiving the GBS PS vaccine or in sera from nonimmunized adults (except serum G9). The pneumococcal type 14 PS inhibited 50% in sera from recipients of GBS type III conjugate vaccine and in serum G9 when GBS type III PS conjugated to biotin or to HSA was used as antigen in ELISA. These data show that free GBS type III PS or PS mixed with mHSA is a sensitive and specific antigen for ELISA and that conjugation can alter the antigenic specificity of a PS. PMID:9826364

  9. Evidence for Langmuir Envelope Solitons in Solar Type III Burst Source Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thejappa, G.; Goldstein, M. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Papadopoulos, K.; Stone, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    We present observational evidence for the generation of Langmuir envelope solitons in the source regions of solar type III radio bursts. The solitons appear to be formed by electron beams which excite either the modulational instability or oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI). Millisecond data from the Ulysses Unified Radio and Plasma Wave Experiment (URAP) show that Langmuir waves associated with type III bursts occur as broad intense peaks with time scales ranging from 15 to 90 milliseconds (6 - 27 km). These broad field structures have the properties expected of Langmuir envelope solitons, viz.: the normalized peak energy densities, W(sub L)/n(sub e)T(sub e) approximately 10(exp -5), are well above the modulational instability threshold; the spatial scales, L, which range from 1 - 5 Langmuir wavelengths, show a high degree of inverse correlation with (W(sub L)/n(sub e)T(sub e))(sup 1/2); and the observed widths of these broad peaks agree well with the predicted widths of envelope solitons. We show that the orientation of the Langmuir field structures is random with respect to the ambient magnetic field, indicating that they are probably isotropic structures that have evolved from initially pancake-like solitons. These observations suggest that strong turbulence processes, such as the modulational instability or the OTSI, stabilize the electron beams that produce type III bursts.

  10. Direction-finding measurements of type III radio bursts out of the ecliptic plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumback, M. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    A series of two-dimensional direction-finding measurements for three type III solar radio bursts is presented which is based on spin-modulation measurements from two satellites (IMP 8 and Hawkeye I) whose spin axes were nearly perpendicular to each other. The two-dimensional direction-finding technique is combined with a model of the solar-wind plasma density in order to provide determinations of type III source locations out of the ecliptic plane as well as information on the three-dimensional structure of the solar magnetic field at radial distances of 0.2 to 1.0 AU from the sun. The direction-finding technique is described in detail, characteristics of the bursts observed by the two satellites are summarized, and the solar-wind model is outlined. The results show that the source locations follow an Archimedean spiral when projected onto the ecliptic plane but usually follow a constant heliocentric latitude perpendicular to that plane. It is also found that measured source sizes are a factor of two larger than the angular sizes of previously reported solar-flare electron emissions, that the spin-modulation factor tends to be largest near the beginning of a type III event, and that the arrival direction of the radiation varies systematically during an event.

  11. Neuroinflammation, mitochondrial defects and neurodegeneration in mucopolysaccharidosis III type C mouse model.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carla; Hůlková, Helena; Dridi, Larbi; Dormoy-Raclet, Virginie; Grigoryeva, Lubov; Choi, Yoo; Langford-Smith, Alexander; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Ohmi, Kazuhiro; DiCristo, Graziella; Hamel, Edith; Ausseil, Jerôme; Cheillan, David; Moreau, Alain; Svobodová, Eva; Hájková, Zuzana; Tesařová, Markéta; Hansíková, Hana; Bigger, Brian W; Hrebícek, Martin; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V

    2015-02-01

    Severe progressive neurological paediatric disease mucopolysaccharidosis III type C is caused by mutations in the HGSNAT gene leading to deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase involved in the lysosomal catabolism of heparan sulphate. To understand the pathophysiology of the disease we generated a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis III type C by germline inactivation of the Hgsnat gene. At 6-8 months mice showed hyperactivity, and reduced anxiety. Cognitive memory decline was detected at 10 months and at 12-13 months mice showed signs of unbalanced hesitant walk and urinary retention. Lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate was observed in hepatocytes, splenic sinus endothelium, cerebral microglia, liver Kupffer cells, fibroblasts and pericytes. Starting from 5 months, brain neurons showed enlarged, structurally abnormal mitochondria, impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism, and storage of densely packed autofluorescent material, gangliosides, lysozyme, phosphorylated tau, and amyloid-β. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase causes lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate in microglial cells followed by their activation and cytokine release. They also show mitochondrial dysfunction in the neurons and neuronal loss explaining why mucopolysaccharidosis III type C manifests primarily as a neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25567323

  12. Identification, Characterization, and Developmental Expression Pattern of Type III Interferon Receptor Gene in the Chinese Goose

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qin; Chen, Shun; Qi, Yulin; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Chen, Xiaoyue; Zhou, Xue; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-01-01

    Interferons, as the first line of defense against the viral infection, play an important role in innate immune responses. Type III interferon (IFN-λ) was a newly identified member of IFN family, which plays IFN-like antiviral activity. Towards a better understanding of the type III interferon system in birds, type III interferon lambda receptor (IFNLR1) was first identified in the Chinese goose. In this paper, we had cloned 1952 bp for goose IFNLR1 (goIFNLR1), including an ORF of 1539 bp, encoding a 512-amino acid protein with a 20 aa predict signal peptide at its N terminal and a 23 aa transmembrane region. The predicted amino acid sequence of goIFNLR1 has 90%, 73%, and 34% identity with duck IFNLR1 (predicted sequence), chicken IFNLR1, and human IFNLR1, respectively. And the age-related tissue distribution of goIFNLR1 was identified by Real Time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), we found that the goIFNLR1 has a mainly expression in epithelium-rich tissues similar to other species', such as small intestinal, lung, liver, and stomach. Moreover, a relatively high expression of goIFNLR1 was also observed in the secondary immune tissues (harderian gland and cecal tonsil). The identification and tissue distribution of goIFNLR1 will facilitate further study of the role of IFN-λ in goose antiviral defense. PMID:26064884

  13. Neuroinflammation, mitochondrial defects and neurodegeneration in mucopolysaccharidosis III type C mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carla; Hůlková, Helena; Dridi, Larbi; Dormoy-Raclet, Virginie; Grigoryeva, Lubov; Choi, Yoo; Langford-Smith, Alexander; Wilkinson, Fiona L.; Ohmi, Kazuhiro; DiCristo, Graziella; Hamel, Edith; Ausseil, Jerôme; Cheillan, David; Moreau, Alain; Svobodová, Eva; Hájková, Zuzana; Tesařová, Markéta; Hansíková, Hana; Bigger, Brian W.; Hrebícek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Severe progressive neurological paediatric disease mucopolysaccharidosis III type C is caused by mutations in the HGSNAT gene leading to deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase involved in the lysosomal catabolism of heparan sulphate. To understand the pathophysiology of the disease we generated a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis III type C by germline inactivation of the Hgsnat gene. At 6–8 months mice showed hyperactivity, and reduced anxiety. Cognitive memory decline was detected at 10 months and at 12–13 months mice showed signs of unbalanced hesitant walk and urinary retention. Lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate was observed in hepatocytes, splenic sinus endothelium, cerebral microglia, liver Kupffer cells, fibroblasts and pericytes. Starting from 5 months, brain neurons showed enlarged, structurally abnormal mitochondria, impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism, and storage of densely packed autofluorescent material, gangliosides, lysozyme, phosphorylated tau, and amyloid-β. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase causes lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate in microglial cells followed by their activation and cytokine release. They also show mitochondrial dysfunction in the neurons and neuronal loss explaining why mucopolysaccharidosis III type C manifests primarily as a neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25567323

  14. Novel Low Fluence Combination Laser Treatment of Solar Lentigines in Type III Asian Skin

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Brian Wei Cheng Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate a novel low fluence combination laser technique [Erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Erb:YAG) and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG)] to effectively treat solar lentigines in type III Asian skin in a single session. Design: A prospective study. Setting: A Singapore-based clinic. Participants: Five patients (all females) were enrolled into the study. The ages ranged 35-60 years; all patients had Fitzpatrick skin type III. Measurements: Photographs were taken at baseline and at 1-month follow-up. These were reviewed by two independent physicians who were blinded to the study. Changes in pigment severity were assessed by a 5-point scale (1: Aggravation of pigment, 2: No change, 3: 25-50% improvement, 4: 51-75% improvement, and 5: 76-100% improvement). Results: All patients received a single treatment session. At 1-month follow-up, a reduction in pigment was observed in all patients. Both physicians’ reports were independently agreeable. All patients scored 5, having >90% improvement in pigment severity. No hypopigmentation, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), or recurrence was seen. Conclusion: Low fluence combination laser is effective and safe for clearance of solar lentigines in type III Asian skin. PMID:26865789

  15. Use of proline mutants to help solve the NMR solution structure of type III antifreeze protein.

    PubMed Central

    Chao, H.; Davies, P. L.; Sykes, B. D.; Sönnichsen, F. D.

    1993-01-01

    To help understand the structure/function relationships in antifreeze proteins (AFP), and to define the motifs required for ice binding, a Type III AFP suitable for two-dimensional (2D) NMR studies was produced in Escherichia coli. A synthetic gene for one of the Type III AFP isoforms was assembled in a T7 polymerase-directed expression vector. The 67-amino acid-long gene product differed from the natural AFP by inclusion of an N-terminal methionine but was indistinguishable in activity. The NMR spectra of this AFP were complicated by cis-trans proline isomerization from the C-terminal sequence YPPA. Substitution of this sequence by YAA eliminated isomer signals without altering the activity or structure of the mutant AFP. This variant (rQAE m1.1) was selected for sequential assignment and the secondary structure determination using 2D 1H NMR spectroscopy. Nine beta-strands are paired to form two triple-stranded antiparallel sheets and one double-stranded antiparallel sheet. Two further proline replacements, P29A and P33A, were made to delineate the role of conserved prolines in Type III AFP. These mutants were valuable in clarifying ambiguous NMR spectral assignments amongst the remaining six prolines of rQAE m1.1. In contrast to the replacement of the C-terminal prolyl residues, the exchange of P29 and P33 caused some structural changes and significantly decreased protein solubility and antifreeze activity. PMID:8401227

  16. Multiple nucleic acid cleavage modes in divergent type III CRISPR systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Graham, Shirley; Tello, Agnes; Liu, Huanting; White, Malcolm F.

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas is an RNA-guided adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea from invading nucleic acids. Type III systems (Cmr, Csm) have been shown to cleave RNA targets in vitro and some are capable of transcription-dependent DNA targeting. The crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has two divergent subtypes of the type III system (Sso-IIID and a Cmr7-containing variant of Sso-IIIB). Here, we report that both the Sso-IIID and Sso-IIIB complexes cleave cognate RNA targets with a ruler mechanism and 6 or 12 nt spacing that relates to the organization of the Cas7 backbone. This backbone-mediated cleavage activity thus appears universal for the type III systems. The Sso-IIIB complex is also known to possess a distinct ‘UA’ cleavage mode. The predominant activity observed in vitro depends on the relative molar concentration of protein and target RNA. The Sso-IIID complex can cleave plasmid DNA targets in vitro, generating linear DNA products with an activity that is dependent on both the cyclase and HD nuclease domains of the Cas10 subunit, suggesting a role for both nuclease active sites in the degradation of double-stranded DNA targets. PMID:26801642

  17. Multiplex real-time PCR SYBR Green for detection and typing of group III Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Delibato, Elisabetta; Antonacci, Monia; De Medici, Dario; Fenicia, Lucia

    2012-01-27

    Clostridium botulinum type C and type D belonging to the group III organisms, are mainly responsible for animal botulism outbreaks. Clinical signs alone are often insufficient to make a diagnosis of botulism and a laboratory confirmation is required. Laboratory confirmation can be performed by demonstrating the presence of botulinum neurotoxins in serum, gastrointestinal contents, liver, wound of sick or dead animals, or by demonstrating the presence of C. botulinum in gastrointestinal contents, liver, and wound. Demonstration of spores in gastrointestinal contents or tissue of animals with clinical signs indicative of botulism reinforces the clinical diagnosis. With the aim of detecting and typing C. botulinum group III organisms, a multiplex real-time PCR SYBR Green was developed and in-house validated. Selectivity, limit of detection, relative accuracy, relative specificity, relative sensitivity, and repeatability of the method were investigated. The multiplex real-time PCR SYBR green used showed a 100% selectivity, 100% relative accuracy, 100% relative specificity, 100% relative sensitivity and a limit of detection of 277 and 580 DNA copies for C. botulinum type C and C. botulinum type D, respectively. The method reported here represents a suitable tool for laboratory diagnosis of type C and D botulism and for testing a large number of samples collected during the animal botulism surveillance and prevention activities. PMID:21890285

  18. The Implementation of Effective Teaching Practices in English Classroom for Grades 8th, 9th, and 10th.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; And Others

    This study explored teachers' behavior as related to effective teaching practices in 8th, 9th, and 10th grade English classrooms in Jordan. The study also examined some variables that could predict teachers' implementation of effective teaching practices and aimed at finding an estimate of the percentage of students in 8th, 9th, and 10th grades…

  19. Comparing comfort and wearability between Type III single-layered and double-layered EVA mouthguards.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Brian J; Loos, Larry G

    2005-01-01

    This study compared two Type III ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) mouthguards for wearability, comfort, fit, and patient preference. Twenty-two athletes each received two custom-fabricated athletic mouthguards, a single-layered vacuum-formed EVA mouthguard and a double-layered heat- and pressure-laminated EVA type. Athletes wore each type of mouthguard for a two-week period while playing basketball. At the end of each two-week period, the athletes completed questionnaires that evaluated 17 characteristics of each mouthguard type. Data were analyzed using the binomial test for small numbers. The double-layered heat- and pressure-laminated EVA mouthguard performed as well as or better than the single-layered vacuum-formed type in 14 of the 17 categories. There was a statistically significant patient preference for the double-layered heat- and pressure-laminated mouthguard. PMID:16158793

  20. Dynamical structure of solar radio burst type III as evidence of energy of solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, Zety Sharizat Binti

    2013-11-01

    Observations of low frequency solar type III radio bursts associated with the ejection of plasma oscillations localized disturbance is due to excitation atoms in the plasma frequency incoherent radiations play a dominant role at the meter and decimeter wavelengths. Here, we report the results of the dynamical structure of solar flare type III that occurred on 9th March 2012 at National Space Centre, Sg Lang, Selangor, Malaysia by using the CALLISTO system. These bursts are associated with solar flare type M6 which suddenly ejected in the active region AR 1429 starting at 03:32 UT and ending at 05:00 UT with the peak at 04:12 UT. The observation showed an initial strong burst occurred due to strong signal at the beginning of the phase. We also found that both solar burst and flares tend to be a numerous on the same day and probability of chance coincidence is high. It is clearly seen that an impulsive lace burst was detected at 4:24 UT and it is more plausible that the energies are confined to the top of the loop when we compared with X-ray results. Associated with this event was type II with velocities 1285 km/s and type IV radio sweeps along with a full halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) first seen in SOHO/LASCO C2 imagery at 09/0426 Z. We concluded that the significance of study solar burst type III lies in the fact that the emission at decimetric wavelength comes from the role of magnetic field in active region that may provide the key to the energy release mechanism in a flare.

  1. Appurtenance Influence on Type III Hanford Single-Shell Tank Structural Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Sanborn, Scott E.; Larsen, Brian M.; Julyk, Larry J.; Johnson, Kenneth I.

    2012-02-26

    The interim stabilized Hanford Single Shell Tanks (SSTs) are currently undergoing a state of the art analysis to assess the structural integrity of the waste storage tanks, for cleanup and closure operations, considering their adverse thermal histories and an updated seismic hazard for the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The SSTs contain a variety of ancillary pits, piping, piping supports, risers, equipment, and penetrations known as appurtenances. These appurtenances may alter the structural response and ultimately could affect the structural integrity of the SSTs. An important challenge to the structural analysis of the SSTs is determining the impact of these appurtenances on structural integrity. To achieve this, the various appurtenances were reviewed and bounding appurtenance configurations for SST Types II and III tank designs were analyzed using finite element software. The bounding configurations for the Type II tanks considered four heavy offset pits with a central pit with and without a 36-inch diameter central post-construction penetration and four 42-inch diameter offset penetrations. The bounding configuration for the Type III tanks is a tank with two heavy offset pits and one heavy central pit. For each bounding configuration two finite element models are developed: a seismic analysis model and a thermal and operating loads analysis (TOLA) model. The TOLA models include a Type II or III thermal history, concrete cracking and thermal degradation, reinforcement yielding, and soil plasticity. Additionally, operating loads such as internal waste pressure and concentrated and distributed soil surface loads are applied to the TOLA model. The seismic model treats the tank concrete as linear elastic based on the present day degraded concrete properties. Also, in the seismic model the soil is treated as linear elastic while special techniques are used in the soil above the tank dome and along the tank wall to avoid soil arching and achieve the proper

  2. Results of Operative and Nonoperative Treatment of Rockwood Types III and V Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Joukainen, Antti; Kröger, Heikki; Niemitukia, Lea; Mäkelä, E. Antero; Väätäinen, Urho

    2014-01-01

    Background: The optimal treatment of acute, complete dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) is still unresolved. Purpose: To determine the difference between operative and nonoperative treatment in acute Rockwood types III and V ACJ dislocation. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: In the operative treatment group, the ACJ was reduced and fixed with 2 transarticular Kirschner wires and ACJ ligament suturing. The Kirschner wires were extracted after 6 weeks. Nonoperatively treated patients received a reduction splint for 4 weeks. At the 18- to 20-year follow-up, the Constant, University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale (UCLA), Larsen, and Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores were obtained, and clinical and radiographic examinations of both shoulders were performed. Results: Twenty-five of 35 potential patients were examined at the 18- to 20-year follow-up. There were 11 patients with Rockwood type III and 14 with type V dislocations. Delayed surgical treatment for ACJ was used in 2 patients during follow-up: 1 in the operatively treated group and 1 in the nonoperatively treated group. Clinically, ACJs were statistically significantly less prominent or unstable in the operative group than in the nonoperative group (normal/prominent/unstable: 9/4/3 and 0/6/3, respectively; P = .02) and in the operative type III (P = .03) but not type V dislocation groups. In operatively and nonoperatively treated patients, the mean Constant scores were 83 and 85, UCLA scores 25 and 27, Larsen scores 11 and 11, and SST scores 11 and 12 at follow-up, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in type III and type V dislocations. In the radiographic analysis, the ACJ was wider in the nonoperative than the operative group (8.3 vs 3.4 mm; P = .004), and in the type V dislocations (nonoperative vs operative: 8.5 vs 2.4 mm; P = .007). There was no statistically significant difference between study groups in

  3. Hybrid H-mode scenario with nitrogen seeding and type III ELMs in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corre, Y.; Joffrin, E.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Andrew, Y.; Arnoux, G.; Beurskens, M.; Brezinsek, S.; Brix, M.; Buttery, R.; Coffey, I.; Crombe, K.; de La Luna, E.; Felton, R.; Giroud, C.; Hacquin, S.; Hobirk, J.; Huber, A.; Imbeaux, F.; Jachmich, S.; Kempenaars, M.; Litaudon, X.; Leggate, H.; Loarer, T.; Maddison, G.; Rachlew, E.; Rapp, J.; Sauter, O.; Savchkov, A.; Telesca, G.; Widdowson, A.; Zastrow, K. D.; Zimmermann, O.; collaborators, JET-EFDA

    2008-11-01

    The performance of the 'hybrid' H-mode regime (long pulse operation with high neutron fluency) has been extensively investigated in JET during the 2005-2007 experimental campaign up to normalized pressure βN = 3, toroidal magnetic field Bt = 1.7 T, with type I ELMs plasma edge conditions. The optimized external current drive sources, self-generated non-inductive bootstrap current and plasma core stability properties provide a good prospect of achieving a high fusion gain at reduced plasma current for long durations in ITER. One of the remaining issues is the erosion of the divertor target plates associated with the type I ELM regime. A possible solution could be to operate with a plasma edge in the type III ELM regime (reduced transient and stationary heat loads) obtained with impurity seeding. An integrated hybrid type III ELM regime with a normalized pressure βN = 2.6 (PNBI ~ 20-22 MW) and a thermal confinement factor of H_{98}^\\ast (y,2)\\sim 0.83 has been recently successfully developed on JET with nitrogen seeding. This scenario shows good plasma edge condition (compatible with the future ITER-like wall on JET) and moderate MHD activity. In this paper, we report on the experimental development of the scenario (with plasma current Ip = 1.7 MA and magnetic field Bt = 1.7 T) and the trade-off between heat load reduction at the target plates and global confinement due to nitrogen seeding and type III ELM working conditions.

  4. Towards a better understanding of magnetic exchange mediated by hydrogen bonds in Mn(III)/Fe(III) salen-type supramolecular dimers.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Ivan; Herchel, Radovan; Šilha, Tomáš; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2014-11-01

    A thorough study of structural and magnetic properties was performed on a series of trinuclear and dinuclear Mn(III)/Fe(III) complexes consisting of [M(L4)(Solv)](+) and [Fe(CN)5(NO)](2-) moieties (M = Fe(III) or Mn(III), Solv = H2O or CH3OH, L4 = tetradentate salen-type ligands), in which dominant magnetic exchange is mediated by O(S)-H···O(Ph) hydrogen bonds in [M(L4)(Solv)](+)···[M(L4)(Solv)](+) supramolecular dimers. As deduced from magnetic analysis involving the determination of zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters for Mn(III) and Fe(III) ions, as well as from comprehensive DFT calculations and modelling, it may be concluded that the strength of the magnetic exchange is correlated with the number of hydrogen bonds and with the O(Ph)···O(S) distance between the phenolic oxygen atom of the salen-type ligand (O(Ph)) and the oxygen atom of the solvent molecule coordinated to the adjacent metal atom (O(S)). PMID:25208575

  5. Expression and Quorum Sensing Regulation of Type III Secretion System Genes of Vibrio harveyi during Infection of Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Ruwandeepika, H. A. Darshanee; Karunasagar, Indrani; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Type III secretion systems enable pathogens to inject their virulence factors directly into the cytoplasm of the host cells. The type III secretion system of Vibrio harveyi, a major pathogen of aquatic organisms and a model species in quorum sensing studies, is repressed by the quorum sensing master regulator LuxR. In this study, we found that during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae, the expression levels of three type III secretion operons in V. harveyi increased within the first 12h after challenge and decreased again thereafter. The in vivo expression levels were highest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in low cell density configuration (minimal LuxR levels) and lowest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in the high cell density configuration (maximal LuxR levels), which is consistent with repression of type III secretion by LuxR. Remarkably, in vivo expression levels of the type III secretion system genes were much (> 1000 fold) higher than the in vitro expression levels, indicating that (currently unknown) host factors significantly induce the type III secretion system. Given the fact that type III secretion is energy-consuming, repression by the quorum sensing master regulators might be a mechanism to save energy under conditions where it does not provide an advantage to the cells. PMID:26636765

  6. Expression and Quorum Sensing Regulation of Type III Secretion System Genes of Vibrio harveyi during Infection of Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Ruwandeepika, H A Darshanee; Karunasagar, Indrani; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Type III secretion systems enable pathogens to inject their virulence factors directly into the cytoplasm of the host cells. The type III secretion system of Vibrio harveyi, a major pathogen of aquatic organisms and a model species in quorum sensing studies, is repressed by the quorum sensing master regulator LuxR. In this study, we found that during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae, the expression levels of three type III secretion operons in V. harveyi increased within the first 12h after challenge and decreased again thereafter. The in vivo expression levels were highest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in low cell density configuration (minimal LuxR levels) and lowest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in the high cell density configuration (maximal LuxR levels), which is consistent with repression of type III secretion by LuxR. Remarkably, in vivo expression levels of the type III secretion system genes were much (> 1000 fold) higher than the in vitro expression levels, indicating that (currently unknown) host factors significantly induce the type III secretion system. Given the fact that type III secretion is energy-consuming, repression by the quorum sensing master regulators might be a mechanism to save energy under conditions where it does not provide an advantage to the cells. PMID:26636765

  7. Characterisation of decorations on Iranian (10th-13th century) lustreware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgia, I.; Brunetti, B.; Giulivi, A.; Sgamellotti, A.; Shokouhi, F.; Oliaiy, P.; Rahighi, J.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Mellini, M.; Viti, C.

    It has been recently shown that lustre decoration of Medieval and Renaissance pottery consists of silver and copper nanoparticles, dispersed within the glassy matrix of the ceramic glaze. Lustre surfaces show peculiar optical effects, such as metallic reflection and iridescence. Here we report the findings of a study on lustred glazes of several shards belonging to Iranian pottery of the 10th and 13th centuries, decorated on both sides. Two different glazes, depending on the side of the sample, have been identified. Different lustre chromatic effects are characterised by the relative presence of silver- and copper-metal nanoparticles dispersed in the glassy matrix.

  8. 'Global avionics in the future' report from the 10th annual battery conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Henry

    1995-04-01

    In the 10th Annual Battery Conference on Applications and Advances, over 300 came to witness 13 technical sessions on subjects ranging from 'green' batteries to spacecraft batteries, and from batteries for notebook computers to batteries for supplying Alaskan villages with peak power. The utilities will use batteries for energy storage, resource conservation, power-quality involvement, and a substitute for spinning reserve. Those who have attended were electrical engineers who wanted to learn about batteries and electrochemist who wanted to learn how a battery is used and controlled.

  9. Final Report 10th Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Marshak, Marvin L.

    2013-11-03

    The 10th Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics was held in LaJolla, California on May 26 to May 31, 2009. The Conference Proceedings are published by the American Institute of Physics in Volume 1182 of the AIP Conference Proceedings (ISBN: 978-0-7354-0723-7). The Proceedings include papers from each of the Conference Presenters and a detailed schedule of talks at the Conference. The Table of Contents of the Conference Proceedings is available at http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/proceeding/aipcp/1182. Support by the U.S. Department of Energy and by DOE Laboratories was essential to the success of the Conference.

  10. From the corner of E. Mccloskey Ave. and N. 10th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    From the corner of E. Mccloskey Ave. and N. 10th St., looking west with building 135 (gas station) on the left. Beyond it is building 119 and to the right of 119 is the gable end of the north side of 120. Beyond and perpendicular to building 120 are 118 and 117. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  11. A neurodystrophic syndrome resembling carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type III.

    PubMed

    Stibler, H; Gylje, H; Uller, A

    1999-04-01

    A 10-month old girl is described with a serum transferrin isoform abnormality of the same kind as in two previously reported girls with carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type III. This patient presented with joint abnormalities and rapidly developing hypsarrhythmia, hypotonia, psychomotor delay and growth retardation. Fingers, toes, nails and local skin were dysmorphic. She had pale optic discs, thoracic syringomyelia and frontal lobe atrophy at three months. The CDT value in serum was greatly elevated. Several carbohydrate-deficient isoforms were found in transferrin (four), alpha1-antitrypsin (three), antithrombin (two) and thyroxine-binding globulin (four). Mutations in the CDGS 1-gene were excluded. The CDGS III glycoprotein abnormality most probably represents a distinct disorder of glycoprotein metabolism, and needs to be considered in unclear hypsarrhythmia with developmental delay. Dysmorphic features may be added to this syndrome. PMID:10401691

  12. Induction of Type I and Type III Interferons by Borrelia burgdorferi Correlates with Pathogenesis and Requires Linear Plasmid 36

    PubMed Central

    Krupna-Gaylord, Michelle A.; Liveris, Dionysios; Love, Andrea C.; Wormser, Gary P.; Schwartz, Ira; Petzke, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity for Borrelia burgdorferi to cause disseminated infection in humans or mice is associated with the genotype of the infecting strain. The cytokine profiles elicited by B. burgdorferi clinical isolates of different genotype (ribosomal spacer type) groups were assessed in a human PBMC co-incubation model. RST1 isolates, which are more frequently associated with disseminated Lyme disease in humans and mice, induced significantly higher levels of IFN-α and IFN-λ1/IL29 relative to RST3 isolates, which are less frequently associated with disseminated infection. No differences in the protein concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 or TNF-α were observed between isolates of differing genotype. The ability of B. burgdorferi to induce type I and type III IFNs was completely dependent on the presence of linear plasmid (lp) 36. An lp36-deficient B. burgdorferi mutant adhered to, and was internalized by, PBMCs and specific dendritic cell (DC) subsets less efficiently than its isogenic B31 parent strain. The association defect with mDC1s and pDCs could be restored by complementation of the mutant with the complete lp36. The RST1 clinical isolates studied were found to contain a 2.5-kB region, located in the distal one-third of lp36, which was not present in any of the RST3 isolates tested. This divergent region of lp36 may encode one or more factors required for optimal spirochetal recognition and the production of type I and type III IFNs by human DCs, thus suggesting a potential role for DCs in the pathogenesis of B. burgdorferi infection. PMID:24945497

  13. EDITORIAL: The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011) The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Woo

    2012-05-01

    Measurement and instrumentation have long played an important role in production engineering, through supporting both the traditional field of manufacturing and the new field of micro/nanotechnology. Papers published in this special feature were selected and updated from those presented at The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011) held at KAIST, Daejeon, South Korea, on 29 June-2 July 2011. ISMTII 2011 was organized by ICMI (The International Committee on Measurements and Instrumentation), Korean Society for Precision Engineering (KSPE), Japan Society for Precision Engineering (JSPE), Chinese Society for Measurement (CSM) and KAIST. The Symposium was also supported by the Korea BK21 Valufacture Institute of Mechanical Engineering at KAIST. A total of 225 papers, including four keynote papers, were presented at ISMTII 2011, covering a wide range of topics, including micro/nanometrology, precision measurement, online & in-process measurement, surface metrology, optical metrology & image processing, biomeasurement, sensor technology, intelligent measurement & instrumentation, uncertainty, traceability & calibration, and signal processing algorithms. The organizing members recommended publication of updated versions of some of the best ISMTII 2011 papers in this special feature of Measurement Science and Technology. As guest editor, I believe that this special feature presents the newest information on advances in measurement technology and intelligent instruments from basic research to applied systems for production engineering. I would like to thank all the authors for their great contributions to this special feature and the referees for their careful reviews of the papers. I would also like to express our thanks and appreciation to the publishing staff of MST for their dedicated efforts that have made this special feature possible.

  14. Glucose and glycogen metabolism in erythrocytes from normal and glycogen storage disease type III subjects

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Shimon W.; Chayoth, Reuben; Levin, Stanley; Lazarovitz, Ela; Rubinstein, David

    1968-01-01

    Active glycogen metabolism has been demonstrated in both normal and glycogen-rich erythrocytes taken from patients with type III glycogen storage disease. Activity of all enzymes catalyzing the reactions required for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen have been demonstrated in the mature erythrocytes. Uniformly labeled glucose-14C is incorporated into glycogen in intact cells of both types during incubation. Replacement of the glucose-14C by unlabeled glucose in the medium resulted in a significant loss of radioactivity from cellular glycogen. In the absence of the substrate a progressive shortening of outer branches occurred during incubation of intact glucogen-rich cells. Using cells from patients with type III glycogen storage disease, which have sufficient glycogen content to be analyzed by β-amylolysis, we demonstrated that the glucosyl units are first incorporated in the outer tiers, then transferred to the core where they tend to accumulate due to the absence of amylo-1,6-glucosidase. The glycogen-rich cells have a more rapid rate of glucose utilization upon incubation which is not reflected by a higher lactate production. The increased rate of glucose utilization did not result from an increased rate of glucose incorporation into glycogen in affected cells. The rate of 14CO2 production from glucose-1-14C during incubation was not significantly different in the two types of cells unless methylene blue was added as an electron acceptor, in which case the glycogen-rich cells oxidized glucose to CO2 more rapidly. PMID:5240360

  15. G-rich, a Drosophila selenoprotein, is a Golgi-resident type III membrane protein

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chang Lan; Shim, Myoung Sup; Chung, Jiyeol; Yoo, Hyun-Seung; Ha, Ji Min; Kim, Jin Young; Choi, Jinmi; Zang, Shu Liang; Hou, Xiao; Carlson, Bradley A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Lee, Byeong Jae . E-mail: imbglmg@plaza.snu.ac.kr

    2006-10-06

    G-rich is a Drosophila melanogaster selenoprotein, which is a homologue of human and mouse SelK. Subcellular localization analysis using GFP-tagged G-rich showed that G-rich was localized in the Golgi apparatus. The fusion protein was co-localized with the Golgi marker proteins but not with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker protein in Drosophila SL2 cells. Bioinformatic analysis of G-rich suggests that this protein is either type II or type III transmembrane protein. To determine the type of transmembrane protein experimentally, GFP-G-rich in which GFP was tagged at the N-terminus of G-rich, or G-rich-GFP in which GFP was tagged at the C-terminus of G-rich, were expressed in SL2 cells. The tagged proteins were then digested with trypsin, and analyzed by Western blot analysis. The results showed that the C-terminus of the G-rich protein was exposed to the cytoplasm indicating it is a type III microsomal membrane protein. G-rich is First selenoprotein identified in the Golgi apparatus.

  16. Management of Oehler's Type III Dens Invaginatus Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Jaya; Rangarajan Sundaresan, Mohan Kumar; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Dens Invaginatus is a dental malformation that poses diagnostic difficulties in the clinical context. This anomaly may increase the risk of pulp disease and can potentially complicate endodontic procedure due to the aberrant root canal anatomy. Compared to conventional radiographs, three-dimensional images obtained with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) are invaluable in the diagnosis of the extent of this anomaly and in the appropriate treatment planning. Oehler's classification (1957) for Dens Invaginatus (DI) into three types depending on the depth of the invagination has been used for treatment planning. Of the three types Type III DI is characterized by infolding of the enamel into the tooth up to the root apex and is considered as the most severe variant of DI and hence the most challenging to treat endodontically, due to the morphological complexities. This report describes a case of Oehler's Type III DI in a necrotic permanent maxillary lateral incisor in which CBCT images played a key role in diagnosis and treatment planning. The case was managed successfully by a combination of nonsurgical and surgical endodontic therapy with orthograde and retrograde thermoplastic gutta percha obturation. PMID:27069697

  17. Type III interferon (IFN-lambda) antagonizes the antiviral activity of interferon-alpha in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bordi, L; Lalle, E; Lapa, D; Caglioti, C; Quartu, S; Capobianchi, M R; Castilletti, C

    2013-01-01

    Type III interferons (IFN-lambda) are the most recently discovered members of IFN family. Synergism between different IFN types is well established, but for type I and type III IFNs no conclusive evidence has been reported so far. Possible synergism/antagonism between IFN-alpha and IFN-lambda in the inhibition of virus replication (EMCV, WNV lineage 1 and 2, CHIKV and HSV-1), and in the activation of intracellular pathways of IFN response (MxA and 2'-5' OAS) was evaluated in different cell lines (Vero E6, A549 and Wish cells). The antiviral potency of IFN-lambda1 and -l2 was lower than that of IFN-alpha. When IFN-alpha and -lambda were used together, the Combination Index (CI) for virus inhibition was greater than 1 virtually for all virus/host cell systems, indicating antagonistic effect. Antagonism between IFN-alpha and -l was also observed for the induction of mRNA for both MxA and 2'-5'OAS. Elucidating the interplay between IFN-alpha and -lambda may help to better understand innate defence mechanisms against viral infections, including the molecular mechanisms underlying the influence of IL-28B polymorphisms in the response to HCV and other viral infections. PMID:24382181

  18. Management of Oehler's Type III Dens Invaginatus Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Jaya; Rangarajan Sundaresan, Mohan Kumar; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Dens Invaginatus is a dental malformation that poses diagnostic difficulties in the clinical context. This anomaly may increase the risk of pulp disease and can potentially complicate endodontic procedure due to the aberrant root canal anatomy. Compared to conventional radiographs, three-dimensional images obtained with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) are invaluable in the diagnosis of the extent of this anomaly and in the appropriate treatment planning. Oehler's classification (1957) for Dens Invaginatus (DI) into three types depending on the depth of the invagination has been used for treatment planning. Of the three types Type III DI is characterized by infolding of the enamel into the tooth up to the root apex and is considered as the most severe variant of DI and hence the most challenging to treat endodontically, due to the morphological complexities. This report describes a case of Oehler's Type III DI in a necrotic permanent maxillary lateral incisor in which CBCT images played a key role in diagnosis and treatment planning. The case was managed successfully by a combination of nonsurgical and surgical endodontic therapy with orthograde and retrograde thermoplastic gutta percha obturation. PMID:27069697

  19. Drp1 Mediates Caspase-Independent Type III Cell Death in Normal and Leukemic Cells▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Bras, Marlène; Yuste, Victor J.; Roué, Gaël; Barbier, Sandrine; Sancho, Patricia; Virely, Clémence; Rubio, Manuel; Baudet, Sylvie; Esquerda, Josep E.; Merle-Béral, Hélène; Sarfati, Marika; Susin, Santos A.

    2007-01-01

    Ligation of CD47 triggers caspase-independent programmed cell death (PCD) in normal and leukemic cells. Here, we characterize the morphological and biochemical features of this type of death and show that it displays the hallmarks of type III PCD. A molecular and biochemical approach has led us to identify a key mediator of this type of death, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). CD47 ligation induces Drp1 translocation from cytosol to mitochondria, a process controlled by chymotrypsin-like serine proteases. Once in mitochondria, Drp1 provokes an impairment of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which results in dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, reactive oxygen species generation, and a drop in ATP levels. Surprisingly, neither the activation of the most representative proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, such as Bax or Bak, nor the release of apoptogenic proteins AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor), cytochrome c, endonuclease G (EndoG), Omi/HtrA2, or Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria to cytosol is observed. Responsiveness of cells to CD47 ligation increases following Drp1 overexpression, while Drp1 downregulation confers resistance to CD47-mediated death. Importantly, in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, mRNA levels of Drp1 strongly correlate with death sensitivity. Thus, this previously unknown mechanism controlling caspase-independent type III PCD may provide the basis for novel therapeutic approaches to overcome apoptotic avoidance in malignant cells. PMID:17682056

  20. Supersymmetric type-III seesaw mechanism: Lepton flavor violating decays and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Esteves, J. N.; Romao, J. C.; Hirsch, M.

    2011-01-01

    We study a supersymmetric version of the seesaw mechanism type III. The model consists of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model particle content plus three copies of 24 superfields. The fermionic part of the SU(2) triplet contained in the 24 is responsible for the type-III seesaw, which is used to explain the observed neutrino masses and mixings. Complete copies of 24 are introduced to maintain gauge coupling unification. These additional states change the beta functions of the gauge couplings above the seesaw scale. Using minimal Supergravity boundary conditions, we calculate the resulting supersymmetric mass spectra at the electroweak scale using full 2-loop renormalization group equations. We show that the resulting spectrum can be quite different compared to the usual minimal Supergravity spectrum. We discuss how this might be used to obtain information on the seesaw scale from mass measurements. Constraints on the model space due to limits on lepton flavour violating decays are discussed. The main constraints come from the bounds on {mu}{yields}e{gamma} but there are also regions where the decay {tau}{yields}{mu}{gamma} gives stronger constraints. We also calculate the regions allowed by the dark matter constraint. For the sake of completeness, we compare our results with those for the supersymmetric seesaw type II and, to some extent, with type I.

  1. Axonal neuregulin 1 type III activates NF-kappaB in Schwann cells during myelin formation.

    PubMed

    Limpert, Allison S; Carter, Bruce D

    2010-05-28

    The formation of myelin requires a series of complex signaling events initiated by the axon to surrounding glial cells, which ultimately respond by tightly wrapping the axon with layers of specialized plasma membrane thereby allowing for saltatory conduction. Activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB in Schwann cells has been suggested to be critical for these cells to differentiate into a myelinating phenotype; however, the mechanisms by which it is activated have yet to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that axonal membranes are sufficient to promote NF-kappaB activation in cultured Schwann cells and identify neuregulin 1 (NRG1), specifically the membrane-bound type III isoform, as the signal responsible for activating this transcription factor. Surprisingly, neither membrane-bound type I nor the soluble NRG1 EGF domain could activate NF-kappaB, indicating that type III induces a qualitatively unique signal. The transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB was significantly enhanced by treatment with forskolin, indicating these two signals converge for maximal activation. Both ErbB2 and -3 receptors were required for transducing the NRG1 signal, because gene deletion of ErbB3 in Schwann cells or treatment with the ErbB2 selective inhibitor, PKI-166, prevented the stimulation of NF-kappaB by axonal membranes. Finally, PKI-166 blocked the activation of the transcription factor in myelinating neuron/Schwann cell co-cultures and in vivo, in developing sciatic nerves. Taken together, these data establish NRG1 type III as the activator of NF-kappaB during myelin formation. PMID:20360002

  2. Solution structure of monomeric BsaL, the type III secretion needle protein of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Yu; Picking, Wendy L; Picking, William D; De Guzman, Roberto N

    2006-06-01

    Many gram-negative bacteria that are important human pathogens possess type III secretion systems as part of their required virulence factor repertoire. During the establishment of infection, these pathogens coordinately assemble greater than 20 different proteins into a macromolecular structure that spans the bacterial inner and outer membranes and, in many respects, resembles and functions like a syringe. This type III secretion apparatus (TTSA) is used to inject proteins into a host cell's membrane and cytoplasm to subvert normal cellular processes. The external portion of the TTSA is a needle that is composed of a single type of protein that is polymerized in a helical fashion to form an elongated tube with a central channel of 2-3 nm in diameter. TTSA needle proteins from a variety of bacterial pathogens share sequence conservation; however, no atomic structure for any TTSA needle protein is yet available. Here, we report the structure of a TTSA needle protein called BsaL from Burkholderia pseudomallei determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The central part of the protein assumes a helix-turn-helix core domain with two well-defined alpha-helices that are joined by an ordered, four-residue linker. This forms a two-helix bundle that is stabilized by interhelix hydrophobic contacts. Residues that flank this presumably exposed core region are not completely disordered, but adopt a partial helical conformation. The atomic structure of BsaL and its sequence homology with other TTSA needle proteins suggest potentially unique structural dynamics that could be linked with a universal mechanism for control of type III secretion in diverse gram-negative bacterial pathogens. PMID:16631790

  3. Alterations in biosynthetic accumulation of collagen types I and III during growth and morphogenesis of embryonic mouse salivary glands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the biosynthetic patterns of interstitial collagens in mouse embryonic submandibular and sublingual glands cultured in vitro. Rudiments explanted on day 13 of gestation and cultured for 24, 48, and 72 h all synthesized collagen types I, III, and V. However, while the total incorporation of label into collagenous proteins did not change over the three-day culture period, the rate of accumulation of newly synthesized types I and III did change. At 24 h, the ratio of newly synthesized collagen types I:III was approximately 2, whereas at 72 h, the ratio was approximately 5. These data suggest that collagen types I and III may be important in initiation of branching in this organ, but that type I may become dominant in the later stages of development and in maintenance of the adult organ.

  4. The Type III Radio Burst Occurrence Rate as a New Solar Activity Index: Rieger-Type periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, V. V.; Cairns, I. H.

    2012-12-01

    The type III radio burst occurrence rate (T3BOR) strongly correlates with solar activity and was recently proposed as a new index of solar activity. This index can provide complementary information and may be useful in different studies including solar cycle predictions and searches for different periodicities in solar activity. The first observations of a Rieger-type periodicity with the period of 156 days in the daily T3BOR are presented. This periodicity was detected during the time interval from 22 June 2000 to 31 December 2003. This interval partially contains maximum and the declining phase of solar cycle 23. The radio spectra were provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory in Western Australia, part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN).

  5. Beat-type Langmuir wave emissions associated with a type III solar radio burst: Evidence of parametric decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Recent measurements from the plasma wave instrument on the Galileo spacecraft have shown that Langmuir waves observed in conjunction with a type III solar radio burst contain many beat-type waveforms, with beat frequencies ranging from about 150 to 650 Hz. Strong evidence exists that the beat pattern is produced by two closely spaced narrowband components. The most likely candidates for these two waves are a beam-generated Langmuir wave and an oppositely propagating Langmuir wave produced by parametric decay. In the parametric decay process, nonlinear interactions cause the beam-driven Langmuir wave to decay into a Langmuir wave and a low-frequency ion sound wave. Comparisons of the observed beat frequency are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for a three-wave parametric decay process. Weak low-frequency emissions are also sometimes observed at the predicted frequency of the ion sound wave.

  6. Binding of heparin by type III domains and peptides from the carboxy terminal hep-2 region of fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Ingham, K C; Brew, S A; Migliorini, M M; Busby, T F

    1993-11-23

    The major sites of heparin binding by fibronectin are located in fragments of 30 or 40 kDa that contain type III modules 12 through 14 or 15. Various proteolytic or recombinant subfragments and several synthetic peptides derived from this region have been compared with respect to their binding to fluorescein-labeled heparin in solution. Binding was monitored by the change in fluorescence anisotropy at 25 degrees C and pH 7.4 in 0.02 M Tris buffer, alone (TB) or with 0.15M NaCl (TBS). A 23-kDa fragment containing III13 and III14 but lacking III12 had Kd values of 0.3 and 1.8 microM in TB, and TBS, respectively, indistinguishable from the 30-kDa parent. Fragments containing only module III13 bound 2-3-fold weaker than the parent while those containing only III14 bound 6-50-fold weaker depending on the ionic strength. Fragments containing only III12 or III15 failed to bind at all in TBS. A cationic peptide derived from the amino terminus of III13 and containing the Arg-Arg-Ala-Arg consensus sequence, whose integrity was shown by Barkalow and Schwarzbauer [Barkalow, F. J., & Schwarzbauer, J. E. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 7812-7818] to be critical, failed to bind in TBS but bound weakly in TB. Two additional cationic peptides derived from the middle and C-terminal regions of III14 showed similar behavior. Thus while the major determinant(s) of heparin binding are located in III13, those determinants are only active when part of a properly folded structure. Furthermore, module III13 when isolated had a slightly lower affinity than fragments containing both III13 and III14.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8241146

  7. Complete Type III Secretion System of a Mesophilic Aeromonas hydrophila Strain

    PubMed Central

    Vilches, Silvia; Urgell, Cecilia; Merino, Susana; Chacón, Matilde R.; Soler, Lara; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela; Figueras, Maria Jose; Tomás, Juan M.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the existence and genetic organization of a functional type III secretion system (TTSS) in a mesophilic Aeromonas strain by initially using the Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-3. We report for the first time the complete TTSS DNA sequence of an Aeromonas strain that comprises 35 genes organized in a similar disposition as that in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using several gene probes, we also determined the presence of a TTSS in clinical or environmental strains of different Aeromonas species: A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae. By using one of the TTSS genes (ascV), we were able to obtain a defined insertion mutant in strain AH-3 (AH-3AscV), which showed reduced toxicity and virulence in comparison with the wild-type strain. Complementation of the mutant strain with a plasmid vector carrying ascV was fully able to restore the wild-type toxicity and virulence. PMID:15528564

  8. Complexation behavior of Eu(III), Tb(III), Tm(III), and Am(III) with three 1,10-phenanthroline-type ligands: insights from density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanqiu; Fang, Yu; Liu, Jun; Hu, Shiyuan; Hu, Sheng; Yang, Liang; Wang, Dawei; Zhang, Huabei; Luo, Shunzhong

    2015-07-01

    Extraction complexes of Eu(III), Tb(III), Tm(III), and Am(III) with three 1,10-phenanthroline-type ligands have been studied, primarily using density functional theory (DFT). The same accuracies and optimized structural geometries were obtained whether optimization of the [ML2(NO3)](2+) complexes was performed at the B3LYP/6-31G(d)/RECP or the MP2/6-31G(d)/RECP level of theory. Calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311G(d, p)/RECP level of theory indicated that solvation does not favor the formation of these complexes. Moreover, the ΔGg and ΔGsolv values for the reactions leading to the formation of [LnL2(NO3)](2+) complexes were seen to decrease with increasing atomic number of the lanthanide (from Eu to Tb to Tm). In addition, when a strongly hydrophobic benzo[e][1,2,4]triazine group was created in each ligand, ligand selectivity for actinides/lanthanides in acidic media improved. Even greater ligand selectivity for actinides/lanthanides in acidic media was obtained when a 5,6-diphenyl-1,2,4-triazine group was created in each ligand instead of a benzo[e][1,2,4]triazine group. Vibrational analysis and NMR spectroscopic analysis were also performed on all of the studied ligands and the metal complexes that included them. Further in-depth investigations should be undertaken in this field. PMID:26141789

  9. The type III secretion system apparatus determines the intracellular niche of bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Reeves, Analise Z; Klein, Jessica A; Twedt, Donna J; Knodler, Leigh A; Lesser, Cammie F

    2016-04-26

    Upon entry into host cells, intracellular bacterial pathogens establish a variety of replicative niches. Although some remodel phagosomes, others rapidly escape into the cytosol of infected cells. Little is currently known regarding how professional intracytoplasmic pathogens, including Shigella, mediate phagosomal escape. Shigella, like many other Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, uses a type III secretion system to deliver multiple proteins, referred to as effectors, into host cells. Here, using an innovative reductionist-based approach, we demonstrate that the introduction of a functional Shigella type III secretion system, but none of its effectors, into a laboratory strain of Escherichia coli is sufficient to promote the efficient vacuole lysis and escape of the modified bacteria into the cytosol of epithelial cells. This establishes for the first time, to our knowledge, a direct physiologic role for the Shigella type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) in mediating phagosomal escape. Furthermore, although protein components of the T3SA share a moderate degree of structural and functional conservation across bacterial species, we show that vacuole lysis is not a common feature of T3SA, as an effectorless strain of Yersinia remains confined to phagosomes. Additionally, by exploiting the functional interchangeability of the translocator components of the T3SA of Shigella, Salmonella, and Chromobacterium, we demonstrate that a single protein component of the T3SA translocon-Shigella IpaC, Salmonella SipC, or Chromobacterium CipC-determines the fate of intracellular pathogens within both epithelial cells and macrophages. Thus, these findings have identified a likely paradigm by which the replicative niche of many intracellular bacterial pathogens is established. PMID:27078095

  10. LOFAR tied-array imaging of Type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morosan, D. E.; Gallagher, P. T.; Zucca, P.; Fallows, R.; Carley, E. P.; Mann, G.; Bisi, M. M.; Kerdraon, A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; MacKinnon, A. L.; Rucker, H. O.; Thidé, B.; Magdalenić, J.; Vocks, C.; Reid, H.; Anderson, J.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, I. M.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Bregman, J.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; Conway, J. E.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Deller, A.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hassall, T. E.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Maat, P.; Markoff, S.; McKean, J. P.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Norden, M. J.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pietka, G.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schwarz, D.; Serylak, M.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B. W.; Stewart, A.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, C.; Vermeulen, R.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The Sun is an active source of radio emission which is often associated with energetic phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), the Sun has not been imaged extensively because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio telescopes. Aims: Here, the combined high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) was used to study solar Type III radio bursts at 30-90 MHz and their association with CMEs. Methods: The Sun was imaged with 126 simultaneous tied-array beams within ≤5 R⊙ of the solar centre. This method offers benefits over standard interferometric imaging since each beam produces high temporal (~83 ms) and spectral resolution (12.5 kHz) dynamic spectra at an array of spatial locations centred on the Sun. LOFAR's standard interferometric output is currently limited to one image per second. Results: Over a period of 30 min, multiple Type III radio bursts were observed, a number of which were found to be located at high altitudes (~4 R⊙ from the solar center at 30 MHz) and to have non-radial trajectories. These bursts occurred at altitudes in excess of values predicted by 1D radial electron density models. The non-radial high altitude Type III bursts were found to be associated with the expanding flank of a CME. Conclusions: The CME may have compressed neighbouring streamer plasma producing larger electron densities at high altitudes, while the non-radial burst trajectories can be explained by the deflection of radial magnetic fields as the CME expanded in the low corona. Movie associated to Fig. 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org